Sample records for video-rate laser-addressed liquid-crystal

  1. Liquid Crystals (United States)


    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  2. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals


    Sabine Laschat; Axenov, Kirill V


    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  3. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display (United States)


    with the drive capability of the present state-of-the- art microm.ziiaturized integi ated circuits. The impact of microminiaturizing the drive circuits...7 Advantages /Disadvantages of Prior Art .........- 8 Performance of the Liquid Crystal Matrix Display . . .. 8 Liquid Crystal...Holographic HUD Light Source ...................... .... 99 Design of a Special Purpose Mercury Art - Plo.?hcr La np . 104 V LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION FOR DISPLAY

  4. Liquid crystals fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shri


    Liquid crystals are partially ordered systems without a rigid, long-range structure. The study of these materials covers a wide area: chemical structure, physical properties and technical applications. Due to their dual nature - anisotropic physical properties of solids and rheological behavior of liquids - and easy response to externally applied electric, magnetic, optical and surface fields liquid crystals are of greatest potential for scientific and technological applications. The subject has come of age and has achieved the status of being a very exciting interdisciplinary field of scienti

  5. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu


    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  6. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor


    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  7. Liquid crystals in tribology. (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores


    Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  8. Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquid Crystals


    Goossens, Karel; Lava, Kathleen; Nockemann, Peter; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Driesen, Kris; Görller-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen; Cardinaels, Thomas


    N-Alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium cations have been used for the design of ionic liquid crystals, including a new type of uranium-containing metallomesogen. Pyrrolidinium salts with bromide, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide, tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, thiocyanate, tetrakis(2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonato)europate(III) and tetrabromouranyl] counteranions were prepared. For the bromide salts and tetrabromouranyl compounds, the chain length of the alkyl group CnH2n+1 was varied from eight...

  9. Instabilities in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, G J


    and we examine the differences which occur for differing dielectric anisotropies. Finally, in Chapter 7 we study how a sample of smectic C liquid crystal behaves when it is subjected to a uniform shear flow within the smectic plane. We find travelling wave solutions for the behaviour of the c-director and adapt these solutions to incorporate the effects of an applied field. This thesis contains theoretical work dealing with the effects of magnetic and electric fields on samples of nematic, smectic A and smectic C liquid crystals. Some background material along with the continuum theory is introduced in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we consider the effect on the director within an infinite sample of nematic liquid crystal which is subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In particular we examine the stability of the travelling waves which describe the director motion by considering the behaviour of the stable perturbations as time increases. The work of Chapter 4 examines a bounded sample of smectic A liqu...

  10. Novel addressing scheme for passive antiferroelectric liquid crystal displays (United States)

    Quintana, Xabier; Castillo, P. L.; Oton, Jose; Bennis, N.; Lara, A.; Urruchi, V.; Dabrowski, Roman S.


    In this work, the use of antiferroelectric liquid crystals for high-end passive displays has been explored. Antiferroelectric gray levels arise from a double symmetric hysteresis loop that can be stabilized by a constant holding voltage. This driving scheme is passive multiplexing compatible, but limitations appear when the multiplexing rate increases. We have developed new waveforms and driving schemes for high multiplexing level at video rate. The problem of accumulated voltage on bias level arising from data voltages is tackled as well.

  11. Nanoparticles Doped, Photorefractive Liquid Crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaczmarek, Malgosia


    ...: The main objectives of this exploratory, short project will concern the study of the quality of liquid crystal cells with diluted suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles and their photorefractive properties...

  12. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr


    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  13. [Are liquid crystals living organisms?]. (United States)

    Snelders, H A


    In 1888 the Austrian botanist F. Reinitzer made the observation that the solid compound cholesteryl-benzoate changes - when melting at 145.5 oC - into a cloudy liquid, that however, turns into a clear liquid at 178.5 oC and higher temperatures. The cloudy liquid seemed to be doubly refracting. Soon a number of these so-called 'liquid crystals' were discovered; in 1908 D. Vorländer, professor of organic chemistry at Halle, described more than 250 of these substances. It was O. Lehmann, professor of physics at Aachen (1885), Dresden (1888) and Karlsruhe (1889), who immediately after Reinitzer's observation began a systematic study of these liquid crystals. In The Netherlands the Amsterdam professor of physican chemistry H. W. Bakhuis Roozeboom was interested in liquid crystals, in particular because of their place in his phase system. F.M. Jaeger, at that time teaching chemistry in a secondary school in Zaandam (near Amsterdam) and working as an unpaid university lecturer at the Amsterdam university (by recommendation of Bakhuis Roozeboom), investigated liquid crystals (1906), as did a number of doctoral students (A.C. de Kock, 1903; A. Prins, 1907). At the university of Utrecht L.S. Ornstein, professor of physics, gave the study of liquid crystals a prominent place in his research programme. The discovery of liquid crystals, which seemed to be able to grow, move, divide, copulate, and so on, led to a discussion on the nature of these substances. Time and again Lehmann called them 'apparently living crystals', although without considering them as 'real living beings'. In his book Flüssige Kristalle und die Theorien des Lebens (1906), Lehmann proved to be an obvious adherent of the monistic views of the biologist E. Haeckel. Haeckel considered the existence of liquid crystals as proof of the unity between the inorganic and the organic world that he believed in so strongly. In his last book, Kristallseelen. Studien über das Anorganische Leben (1917), he considered

  14. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke


    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  15. Thermotropic liquid crystals recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy


    This book covers developments in the field of thermotropic liquid crystals and their functional importance. It also presents advances related to different sub-areas pertinent to this interdisciplinary area of research. This text brings together research from synthetic scientists and spectroscopists and attempts to bridge the gaps between these areas. New physical techniques that are powerful in characterizing these materials are discussed.

  16. Liquid Crystals for Laser Applications (United States)


    Structures, Leonard Hill, Philadelphia, PA, 1984. 5. Gray, G. W., Ed., Thermotropic Liquid Crystals, Series (Critical Reports on Applied Chemistry, Vol. 22...crystal, Phys. Rev. A, 29, 297-307, 1984. 331. Khyzhniak, A., Odoulov, S., Reznikov, Yu., and Soskin , M., Dynamic hologram recording and phase conjugation

  17. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron


    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  18. Statistical theory of solid and liquid crystals (United States)

    Bazarov, I. P.; Gevorkian, E. V.

    The statistical theory of solid and liquid crystals is presented with allowance for many-particle interactions. Statistical variational principles and various representations of Bogoliubov's equations are examined, and the thermodynamic properties of anharmonic solid crystals and microscopic models of liquid crystals are then discussed. Attention is given to the application of the theory developed here to the description of phase transitions in solid and liquid crystals. The stability of the far-range orientational and translational orders in solid and liquid crystals is discussed using a continuum model of liquid crystals and rigorous methods of statistical mechanics based on Bogoliubov's inequality.

  19. Novel types of ionic thermotropic liquid crystals (United States)

    Bruce, Duncan W.; Dunmur, David A.; Lalinde, Elena; Maitlis, Peter M.; Styring, Peter


    Liquid crystals are usually categorized as either lyotropic mesophases in which fluid anisotropy results from polar headgroup packing of amphiphilic molecules, or as thermotropic mesophases where the orientational order arises from interactions between partially rigid anisotropic molecules. The phase types exhibited by lyotropic and thermotropic liquid crystals have distinctive structures, optical textures and physical properties. Inclusion of a rigid anisotropic moiety into a lyotropic liquid crystal gives an additional source of orientational ordering, and can lead to phase behaviour encompassing both thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals. We have prepared a series of silver-containing thermotropic liquid crystals based on the bis(stilbazole) silver (I) cation. Some members of this series, in association with the amphiphilic counter-ion lauryl sulphate, form liquid crystal mesophases characteristic of both lyotropic and thermotropic liquid crystals.

  20. Electro-optics of ferro- and antiferroelectric liquid crystals in asymmetric cells (United States)

    Bennis, Noureddine; Dabrowski, Roman; Spadło, Anna; Otón, Eva; Quintana, Xabier; Otón, José Manuel


    Ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) and antiferroelectric liquid crystals (AFLCs) have several interesting properties; such as low switching times, high contrast, and wide viewing angle. Such properties suggest that those materials can be appropriate for high end electro-optical applications. Upon manufacturing, the alignment conditioning of the cell plates where the liquid crystal is placed has a strong influence on the eventual electro-optical behavior of the device. If the alignment conditioning of either cell surface is different, asymmetric electro-optical responses can be obtained. Asymmetric devices having fluorinated block copolymers on one side and a conventional alignment layer on the other side seem to be promising for developing grayscale in FLCs and improving dynamic switching of AFLCs. This work explores the performance of FLC and AFLC materials in asymmetric cells showing some interesting effects such as video rate multiplexed analog grayscale.

  1. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  2. Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber. (United States)

    Shrekenhamer, David; Chen, Wen-Chen; Padilla, Willie J


    We present an experimental demonstration of electronically tunable metamaterial absorbers in the terahertz regime. By incorporation of active liquid crystal into strategic locations within the metamaterial unit cell, we are able to modify the absorption by 30% at 2.62 THz, as well as tune the resonant absorption over 4% in bandwidth. Numerical full-wave simulations match well to experiments and clarify the underlying mechanism, i.e., a simultaneous tuning of both the electric and magnetic response that allows for the preservation of the resonant absorption. These results show that fundamental light interactions of surfaces can be dynamically controlled by all-electronic means and provide a path forward for realization of novel applications.

  3. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer...

  4. Liquid Crystals - The 'Fourth' Phase of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    most well-known application is the liquid crystal-display (LCD), used in watches, calculators, flat panel displays used recently even in TV sets, and so on. The anisotropic properties of liquid crystals in refractive index and dielectric constant can be exploited for the purposes of creating flat-panel displays. Usually what is done ...

  5. Liquid crystal infiltration of complex dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardo, Stefano; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Vos, W.L


    Liquid crystal infiltration is becoming an important tool to control the optical properties of complex dielectric systems like photonic crystals and disordered dielectrics. We discuss the technical aspects of liquid crystal infiltration in meso-porous structures, give some details of the sample preparation process, and discuss possibilities for tuning the optical properties of both ordered and disordered systems.

  6. Liquid crystals in biotribology synovial joint treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakov, Sergey; Eismont, Oleg; Nikolaev, Vladimir


    This book summarizes the theoretical and experimental studies confirming the concept of the liquid-crystalline nature of boundary lubrication in synovial joints. It is shown that cholesteric liquid crystals in the synovial liquid play a significant role in the mechanism of intra-articular friction reduction. The results of structural, rheological and tribological research of the creation of artificial synovial liquids - containing cholesteric liquid crystals in natural synovial liquids - are described. These liquid crystals reproduce the lubrication properties of natural synovia and provide a high chondroprotective efficiency. They were tested in osteoarthritis models and in clinical practice.

  7. NMR spectroscopy using liquid crystal solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Emsley, JW


    NMR Spectroscopy using Liquid Crystal Solvents covers the importance of using a liquid crystal solvent in NMR to derive nuclear dipolar spin-spin coupling constants. This book is composed of ten chapters, and begins with a brief description of the features and benefits of liquid crystal in NMR spectroscopic analysis. The succeeding chapters deal with the mode of operation of nuclear spin Hamiltonian for partially oriented molecules and the analysis of NMR spectra of partially oriented molecules, as well as the determination of rigid molecule structure. These topics are followed by discussions

  8. Phototropic liquid crystals comprising one component (United States)

    Sobolewska, Anna; Zawada, Joanna; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Galewski, Zbigniew


    Phototropic liquid crystals (PtLC), in which the phase transition can be controlled by the light, are a new class of liquid crystal materials possessing number of potential applications, especially in photonic devices. So far a significant majority of PtLC materials has been realized by the doping a classical liquid crystal with a photochromic dye. Here we report PtLCs comprising a single compound. Liquid-crystalline and photochromic properties have been accomplished in alkylo-alkoxy derivatives of azobenzene. Such compounds show a rich polymorphism which can be controlled by the light. The phenomenon of the photochemical phase transition has been investigated by means of holographic grating recording.

  9. Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Scolari, Lara


    partial differential equations. From the liquid crystal alignment the full tensorial dielectric permittivity in the capillaries is derived. The transmission spectrum for the photonic crystal fiber is obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem deriving from Maxwell’s equations using a vector......A simulation scheme for the transmission spectrum of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal and subject to an external bias is presented. The alignment of the biased liquid crystal is simulated using the finite element method to solve the relevant system of coupled...

  10. Nanoparticles in discotic liquid crystals (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    The self-assembly of disc-shaped molecules creates discotic liquid crystals (DLCs). These nanomaterials of the sizes ranging from 2-6 nm are emerging as a new class of organic semiconducting materials. The unique geometry of columnar mesophases formed by discotic molecules is of great importance to study the one-dimensional charge and energy migration in organized systems. A number of applications of DLCs, such as, one-dimensional conductor, photoconductor, photovoltaic solar cells, light emitting diodes and gas sensors have been reported. The conductivity along the columns in columnar mesophases has been observed to be several orders of magnitude greater than in perpendicular direction and, therefore, DLCs are described as molecular wires. On the other hand, the fields of nanostructured materials, such as gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and graphene, have received tremendous development in the past decade due to their technological and fundamental interest. Recently the hybridization of DLCs with various metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles has been realized to alter and improve their properties. These nanocomposites are not only of basic science interest but also lead to novel materials for many device applications. This article provides an overview on the development in the field of newly immersed discotic nanoscience. After a brief introduction of DLCs, the article will cover the inclusion of various zero-, one- and two-dimensional nanoparticles in DLCs. Finally, an outlook into the future of this newly emerging intriguing field of discotic nanoscience research will be provided.

  11. Octupolar tensors for liquid crystals (United States)

    Chen, Yannan; Qi, Liqun; Virga, Epifanio G.


    A third-rank three-dimensional symmetric traceless tensor, called the octupolar tensor, has been introduced to study tetrahedratic nematic phases in liquid crystals. The octupolar potential, a scalar-valued function generated on the unit sphere by that tensor, should ideally have four maxima (on the vertices of a tetrahedron), but it was recently found to possess an equally generic variant with three maxima instead of four. It was also shown that the irreducible admissible region for the octupolar tensor in a three-dimensional parameter space is bounded by a dome-shaped surface, beneath which is a separatrix surface connecting the two generic octupolar states. The latter surface, which was obtained through numerical continuation, may be physically interpreted as marking a possible intra-octupolar transition. In this paper, by using the resultant theory of algebraic geometry and the E-characteristic polynomial of spectral theory of tensors, we give a closed-form, algebraic expression for both the dome-shaped surface and the separatrix surface. This turns the envisaged intra-octupolar transition into a quantitative, possibly observable prediction.

  12. Nanotube networks in liquid crystals (United States)

    Urbanski, Martin; Lagerwall, Jan Peter F.; Scalia, Giusy


    Liquid crystals (LCs) are very attractive hosts for the organization of anisotropic nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) because of the macroscopic organization resulting in properties of nanoparticles manifest at a macroscopic scale. Different types of LCs have demonstrated the ability to organize nanotubes, showing the generality of the approach, i.e., that the liquid crystallinity per se is the driving factor for the organization. Compared to standard nanotube composites (e.g. with disordered polymer hosts) the introduction of carbon nanotubes into an LC allows not only the transfer of the outstanding CNT properties to the macroscopic phase, providing strength and conductivity, but these properties also become anisotropic, following the transfer of the orientational order from the LC to the CNTs. The LC molecular structure plays an important even if ancillary role since it enters in the surface interactions, fulfilling a mediating action between the particle and the bulk of the LC. Isolated nanotubes can be obtained by optimized dispersions at lower concentrations and this process requires the use or development of tailored strategies like using solvents or even another LC for pre-dispersing CNTs. Aggregates or networks can be observed in poor dispersions and at higher nanoparticle concentrations. In those, due to surface interactions, the LC behaviour can be strongly affected with changes in phase sequences or transition temperatures and the effect is expected to be more pronounced as the concentration of nanotubes increases. We present preliminary investigations and observations on nanotube - LC systems based on a smectic LC host.

  13. Stimuli-responsive photoluminescent liquid crystals. (United States)

    Yamane, Shogo; Tanabe, Kana; Sagara, Yoshimitsu; Kato, Takashi


    We describe mechanochromic and thermochromic photoluminescent liquid crystals. In particular, mechanochromic photoluminescent liquid crystals found recently, which are new stimuli-responsive materials are reported. For example, photoluminescent liquid crystals having bulky dendritic moieties with long alkyl chains change their photoluminescent colors by mechanical stimuli associated with isothermal phase transitions. The photoluminescent properties of molecular assemblies depend on their assembled structures. Therefore, controlling the structures of molecular assemblies with external stimuli leads to the development of stimuli-responsive luminescent materials. Mechanochromic photoluminescent properties are also observed for a photoluminescent metallomesogen and a liquid-crystalline polymer. We also show thermochromic photoluminescent liquid crystals based on origo-(p-phenylenevinylene) and anthracene moieties and a thermochromic photoluminescent metallocomplex.

  14. Photonics and lasing in liquid crystal materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Palffy-Muhoray; Wenyi Cao; Michele Moreira; Bahman Taheri; Antonio Munoz


    Owing to fundamental reasons of symmetry, liquid crystals are soft materials. This softness allows long length-scales, large susceptibilities and the existence of modulated phases, which respond readily to external fields...

  15. Liquid crystal on subwavelength metal gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P.; Barnik, M. I.; Artemov, V. V.; Shtykov, N. M.; Geivandov, A. R.; Yudin, S. G.; Gorkunov, M. V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Optical and electrooptical properties of a system consisting of subwavelength metal gratings and nematic liquid crystal layer are studied. Aluminium gratings that also act as interdigitated electrodes are produced by focused ion beam lithography. It is found that a liquid crystal layer strongly influences both the resonance and light polarization properties characteristic of the gratings. Enhanced transmittance is observed not only for the TM-polarized light in the near infrared spectral range but also for the TE-polarized light in the visible range. Although the electrodes are separated by nanosized slits, and the electric field is strongly localized near the surface, a pronounced electrooptical effect is registered. The effect is explained in terms of local reorientation of liquid crystal molecules at the grating surface and propagation of the orientational deformation from the surface into the bulk of the liquid crystal layer.

  16. Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Lev M


    This book by Lev M. Blinov is ideal to guide researchers from their very first encounter with liquid crystals to the level where they can perform independent experiments on liquid crystals with a thorough understanding of their behaviour also in relation to the theoretical framework. Liquid crystals can be found everywhere around us. They are used in virtually every display device, whether it is for domestic appliances of for specialized technological instruments. Their finely tunable optical properties make them suitable also for thermo-sensing and laser technologies. There are many monographs written by prominent scholars on the subject of liquid crystals. The majority of them presents the subject in great depth, sometimes focusing on a particular research aspect, and in general they require a significant level of prior knowledge. In contrast, this books aims at an audience of advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry and materials science. The book consists of three parts: the firs...

  17. Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.


    The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent

  18. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers


    Resetic, A; Milavec, J; B Zupancic; Domenici, V; Zalar, B.


    The need for mechanical manipulation during the curing of conventional liquid crystal elastomers diminishes their applicability in the field of shape-programmable soft materials and future applications in additive manufacturing. Here we report on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers, novel composite materials that eliminate this difficulty. Their thermal shape memory anisotropy is imprinted by curing in external magnetic field, providing for conventional moulding of macroscopically siz...

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of liquid crystal from scrap liquid crystal display panels. (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming


    Recycling of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels is an urgent task with the rapid expanding LCD market. However, as important composition of LCD panels, the treatment of liquid crystal is seldom concerned for its low concentration. In present study, a stripping product enriched liquid crystal and indium is gained by mechanical stripping process, in which liquid crystal is enriched from 0.3wt.% to 53wt.% and indium is enriched from 0.02wt.% to 7.95wt.%. For the stripping product, liquid crystal should be removed before indium recovery because (a) liquid crystal will hinder indium recycling; (b) liquid crystal is hazardous waste. Hence, an effective and green approach by vacuum pyrolysis is proposed to treat liquid crystal in the stripping product. The results are summarized as: (i) From the perspective of apparent activation energy, the advantages of vacuum pyrolysis is expounded according to kinetic analysis. (ii) 89.10wt.% of liquid crystal is converted and the content of indium in residue reaches 14.18wt.% under 773K, 15min and system pressure of 20Pa. This study provides reliable information for further industrial application and an essential pretreatment for the next step of indium recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Liquid crystals of carbon nanotubes and graphene. (United States)

    Zakri, Cécile; Blanc, Christophe; Grelet, Eric; Zamora-Ledezma, Camilo; Puech, Nicolas; Anglaret, Eric; Poulin, Philippe


    Liquid crystal ordering is an opportunity to develop novel materials and applications with spontaneously aligned nanotubes or graphene particles. Nevertheless, achieving high orientational order parameter and large monodomains remains a challenge. In addition, our restricted knowledge of the structure of the currently available materials is a limitation for fundamental studies and future applications. This paper presents recent methodologies that have been developed to achieve large monodomains of nematic liquid crystals. These allow quantification and increase of their order parameters. Nematic ordering provides an efficient way to prepare conductive films that exhibit anisotropic properties. In particular, it is shown how the electrical conductivity anisotropy increases with the order parameter of the nematic liquid crystal. The order parameter can be tuned by controlling the length and entanglement of the nanotubes. In the second part of the paper, recent results on graphene liquid crystals are reported. The possibility to obtain water-based liquid crystals stabilized by surfactant molecules is demonstrated. Structural and thermodynamic characterizations provide indirect but statistical information on the dimensions of the graphene flakes. From a general point of view, this work presents experimental approaches to optimize the use of nanocarbons as liquid crystals and provides new methodologies for the still challenging characterization of such materials.

  1. Molecular Models of Liquid Crystal Elastomers (United States)


    Liquid crystal elastomers combine the elastic properties of conventional rubbers with the optical properties of liquid crystals. This dual nature gives rise to unusual physical properties, including the stress induced transition from a polydomain state, consisting of multiple nematic regions with independent orientations, to a monodomain state consisting of a single nematic region with a uniform director. We propose several molecular-scale coarse-grained models of liquid crystal elastomers with varying degrees of resolution. The models employ the Gay-Berne soft potential, and exhibit the chain connectivity of a diamond network. Simulation results show that these models are able to capture the polydomain state exhibited by liquid crystal elastomers in the absence of any external stress. When subjected to uniaxial stress, our models exhibit a polydomain to monodomain transition. We explain that the polydomain state occurs through the aggregation of liquid crystal molecules assisted by crosslinking sites, and conclude that the transition mechanism to the monodomain state is based on the reorientation of nematic domains along the direction of applied stress. Our modeling efforts are primarily focused on three models. The first two models consider the effects of rigid and flexible crosslinkers in liquid crystal elastomers with a diamond topology for chain connectivity. The third model deviates from the diamond network topology and adopts a random network topology.

  2. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking


    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  3. Liquid crystal interfaces: Experiments, simulations and biosensors (United States)

    Popov, Piotr

    Interfacial phenomena are ubiquitous and extremely important in various aspects of biological and industrial processes. For example, many liquid crystal applications start by alignment with a surface. The underlying mechanisms of the molecular organization of liquid crystals at an interface are still under intensive study and continue to be important to the display industry in order to develop better and/or new display technology. My dissertation research has been devoted to studying how complex liquid crystals can be guided to organize at an interface, and to using my findings to develop practical applications. Specifically, I have been working on developing biosensors using liquid-crystal/surfactant/lipid/protein interactions as well as the alignment of low-symmetry liquid crystals for potential new display and optomechanical applications. The biotechnology industry needs better ways of sensing biomaterials and identifying various nanoscale events at biological interfaces and in aqueous solutions. Sensors in which the recognition material is a liquid crystal naturally connects the existing knowledge and experience of the display and biotechnology industries together with surface and soft matter sciences. This dissertation thus mainly focuses on the delicate phenomena that happen at liquid interfaces. In the introduction, I start by defining the interface and discuss its structure and the relevant interfacial forces. I then introduce the general characteristics of biosensors and, in particular, describe the design of biosensors that employ liquid crystal/aqueous solution interfaces. I further describe the basic properties of liquid crystal materials that are relevant for liquid crystal-based biosensing applications. In CHAPTER 2, I describe the simulation methods and experimental techniques used in this dissertation. In CHAPTER 3 and CHAPTER 4, I present my computer simulation work. CHAPTER 3 presents insight of how liquid crystal molecules are aligned by

  4. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry


    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  5. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Alvarez Fernandez


    Full Text Available Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  6. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers (United States)

    Rešetič, Andraž; Milavec, Jerneja; Zupančič, Blaž; Domenici, Valentina; Zalar, Boštjan


    The need for mechanical manipulation during the curing of conventional liquid crystal elastomers diminishes their applicability in the field of shape-programmable soft materials and future applications in additive manufacturing. Here we report on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers, novel composite materials that eliminate this difficulty. Their thermal shape memory anisotropy is imprinted by curing in external magnetic field, providing for conventional moulding of macroscopically sized soft, thermomechanically active elastic objects of general shapes. The binary soft-soft composition of isotropic elastomer matrix, filled with freeze-fracture-fabricated, oriented liquid crystal elastomer microparticles as colloidal inclusions, allows for fine-tuning of thermal morphing behaviour. This is accomplished by adjusting the concentration, spatial distribution and orientation of microparticles or using blends of microparticles with different thermomechanical characteristics. We demonstrate that any Gaussian thermomechanical deformation mode (bend, cup, saddle, left and right twist) of a planar sample, as well as beat-like actuation, is attainable with bilayer microparticle configurations.

  7. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew


    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  8. Full color waveguide liquid crystal display. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaochen; Qin, Guangkui; Wang, Long; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Xiaoguang; Dong, Youmei; Moheghi, Alireza; Yang, Deng-Ke


    We developed a waveguide liquid crystal display from a liquid crystal (LC)/polymer composite. It does not need polarizers or color filters. It is illuminated by color LEDs installed on its edge. The light produced by the edge LEDs is coupled into the display and then waveguided through the display. When the LC is in the transparent state, the incident light is waveguided through and no light comes out of the viewing side of the display. When the LC is in the scattering state, the incident light is scattered and comes out of the display. It can be used either for transparent display or for direct view display. The composite has a submillisecond response time, and a field sequential scheme can be used to display full color images. Because the display does not need polarizers or color filters, its energy efficiency is much higher than current liquid crystal displays.

  9. Microfluidic Flow of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wiese, Oliver; Henrich, Oliver


    We explore the rheology and flow-induced morphological changes of cholesteric liquid crystal patterns subject to Poiseuille flow within a slab geometry, and under different anchoring conditions at the wall. Our focus is particularly on the behaviour of Cholesteric Fingers of the first kind and of Blue Phase II. Depending on the applied pressure gradient, we observe a number of dynamic regimes with different rheological properties. Our results provide the first insight into the flow response of cholesteric phases with fully two- or three-dimensional director field patterns and normal and planar degenerate anchoring conditions as commonly realised in experiments. They are also of high relevance for a fundamental understanding of complex liquid crystals in confinement and an important step towards future microfluidic applications that are based on cholesteric liquid crystals.

  10. Electro-osmosis in nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Tovkach, O. M.; Calderer, M. Carme; Golovaty, Dmitry; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Walkington, Noel J.


    We derive a mathematical model of a nematic electrolyte based on a variational formulation of nematodynamics. We verify the model by comparing its predictions to the results of the experiments on the substrate-controlled liquid-crystal-enabled electrokinetics. In the experiments, a nematic liquid crystal confined to a thin planar cell with surface-patterned anchoring conditions exhibits electro-osmotic flows along the "guiding rails" imposed by the spatially varying director. Extending our previous work, we consider a general setup which incorporates dielectric anisotropy of the liquid-crystalline matrix and the full set of nematic viscosities.

  11. A video rate laser scanning confocal microscope (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhou; Jiang, James; Ren, Hongwu; Cable, Alex E.


    A video-rate laser scanning microscope was developed as an imaging engine to integrate with other photonic building blocks to fulfill various microscopic imaging applications. The system is quipped with diode laser source, resonant scanner, galvo scanner, control electronic and computer loaded with data acquisition boards and imaging software. Based on an open frame design, the system can be combined with varies optics to perform the functions of fluorescence confocal microscopy, multi-photon microscopy and backscattering confocal microscopy. Mounted to the camera port, it allows a traditional microscope to obtain confocal images at video rate. In this paper, we will describe the design principle and demonstrate examples of applications.

  12. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus


    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and

  13. Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieweg, N.; Fischer, B. M.; Reuter, M.


    Liquid crystals (LCs) are becoming increasingly important for applications in the terahertz frequency range. A detailed understanding of the spectroscopic parameters of these materials over a broad frequency range is crucial in order to design customized LC mixtures for improved performance. We p...

  14. Goethite liquid crystals and magnetic field effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Pol, E


    In this thesis the liquid crystal phase behavior of colloidal, boardlike, goethite (alpha-FeOOH) particles is described. Apart from the nematic phase, a smectic A phase is formed in systems with a low and high polydispersity. Strong fractionation occurs which is able to reduce the local length

  15. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes corresponding to the C director fluctuations in the chiral smectic C phase and the behaviour of the Goldstone-mode near the chiral smectic C–smectic A phase transition. In cholesteric liquid ...

  16. Electric heating effects in nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Shiyanovskii, S. V.; Lavrentovich, O. D.


    Electric heating effects in the nematic liquid crystal change the liquid crystal physical properties and dynamics. We propose a model to quantitatively describe the heating effects caused by dielectric dispersion and ionic conductivity in the nematic liquid crystals upon the application of an ac electric field. The temperature increase of the liquid crystal cell is related to the properties of the liquid crystal such as the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity, thermal properties of the bounding plates, and the surrounding medium as well as frequency and amplitude of the electric field. To study the temperature dynamics experimentally, we use a small thermocouple inserted directly into the nematic bulk; we assure that the thermocouple does not alter the thermal behavior of the system by comparing the results to those obtained by a noncontact birefringent probing technique recently proposed by Wen and Wu [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231104 (2005)]. We determine how the temperature dynamics and the stationary value of the temperature increase depend on the parameters of the materials and the applied field. We used different surrounding media, from extremely good heat conductors such as aluminum cooling device to extremely poor conductor, Styrofoam; these two provide two limiting cases as compared to typical conditions of nematic cell exploitation in a laboratory or in commercial devices. The experiments confirm the theoretical predictions, namely, that the temperature rise is controlled not only by the heat transfer coefficient of the surrounding medium (as in the previous model) but also by the thickness and the thermal conductivity coefficient of the bounding plates enclosing the nematic layer. The temperature increase strongly depends on the director orientation and can change nonmonotonously with the frequency of the applied field.

  17. Temperature Dependence of Light Transmittance in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals


    Bloisi, F.; Ruocchio, C.; Vicari, L


    Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC) axe composite materials made of a dispersion of liquid crystal droplets in a polymeric matrix. When the liquid crystal is in the nematic phase, droplets appeax as optically anisotropic spheres and the material is opaque white. Sample transmittance is a function of the temperature. If the liquid crystal refractive index in the isotropic phase is equal to the one of the polymer, after the nematic-isotropic transition the material is transparent. We prese...

  18. Chem I Supplement: Liquid Crystals--The Chameleon Chemicals. (United States)

    Brown, Glenn H.


    Presents information relevant to everyday life so as to stimulate student interest in the properties of the two basic types of liquid crystals: thermotropic and lyotropic. Describes the applications of liquid crystals to electronics, biomedicine, and polymer science and appraises the future of liquid crystal research. (JM)

  19. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to indicate...

  20. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei


    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends...

  1. The sweet world of liquid crystals : The synthesis of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E


    The research in carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals was initiated by a review article by Jeffrey in 1986. This is rather late if one considers that the research on liquid crystals underwent a revival already in the 1960s after the discovery of the liquid crystal display (LCD). Carbohydrates were

  2. Topological defects in cholesteric liquid crystal shells. (United States)

    Darmon, Alexandre; Benzaquen, Michael; Čopar, Simon; Dauchot, Olivier; Lopez-Leon, Teresa


    We investigate experimentally and numerically the defect configurations emerging when a cholesteric liquid crystal is confined to a spherical shell. We uncover a rich scenario of defect configurations, some of them non-existent in nematic shells, where new types of defects are stabilized by the helical ordering of the liquid crystal. In contrast to nematic shells, here defects are not simple singular points or lines, but have a large structured core. Specifically, we observe five different types of cholesteric shells. We study the statistical distribution of the different types of shells as a function of the two relevant geometrical dimensionless parameters of the system. By playing with these parameters, we are able to induce transitions between different types of shells. These transitions involve interesting topological transformations in which the defects recombine to form new structures. Surprisingly, the defects do not approach each other by taking the shorter distance route (geodesic), but by following intricate paths.

  3. Design considerations for liquid crystal contact lenses (United States)

    Bailey, J.; Kaur, S.; Morgan, P. B.; Gleeson, H. F.; Clamp, J. H.; Jones, J. C.


    Switchable liquid crystal contact lenses with electrically controllable focal powers have previously been investigated as an alternative to bifocal contact lenses and spectacles for the correction of presbyopia. The simplest lens design uses a meniscus shaped cavity within the lens to contain the liquid crystal. The design of such a lens is considered in detail, including the nematic alignment and electrodes materials. The organic transparent conductor PEDOT:PSS was used as both electrode and planar alignment. Four different configurations are considered, using both planar and homeotropic orientations with either homogenous or axial alignment. Controllable switching of the focal power was demonstrated for each mode and focal power changes of up to ΔP  =  3.3  ±  0.2 D achieved. Such lens designs offer significant potential for a novel form of correction for this common visual problem.

  4. Carbon nanotubes dispersed in liquid crystal elastomers (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ji, Yan

    Liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs), as the name indicates, unite the anisotropic order of liquid crystals and rubber elasticity of elastomers into polymer networks. One of the most notable features of LCEs is that properly aligned LCEs exhibit dramatic and reversible shape deformation (e.g. elongation-contraction) in response to various stimuli. In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were introduced into LCEs. Besides enabling remote and spatial control of the actuation via light and electronic field, CNTs are also utilized to align mesogens as well as to improve the mechanical and electronic property of the composites. Some potential applications of CNT-LCE nanocomposites have been demonstrated. This chapter describes the preparation of CNT dispersed LCEs, new physical properties resulted from CNTs, their actuation and their proposed applications.

  5. Passive Sensor Materials Based on Liquid Crystals (United States)


    Seminar, Chemical Engineering,,Virginia Tech, October, 2008. Abbott, N.L. “Biomolecular Analysis based on Liquid Crystals”, Innovative Molecular Analysis ...of Liquid Crystals" Columbia University, February, 2010, "Novel Colloidal and Interfacial Phenomena in Liquid Crystalline Systems" CBD Conference...extended to other oils (silicone oil and paraffin oil droplets) and the size of capsule templates was also varied (0.7 to 10 μm, Figure 15) to

  6. Optical Power Limiting Liquid Crystal Composites (United States)


    Kent, Ohio 44242-0001 Ba. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING Bb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If aplicable ) Fy/gl...Results Tabulation 119 4 2 Introduction This research effort carried out a wide range of investigations of both linear and nonlinear optical phenomena in...due to self-defocusing of the beam by the liquid crystal sample. The damage is produced on the interior surface of the glass; there is no apparent

  7. Fast-Response Liquid Crystal Microlens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xu


    Full Text Available Electrically tunable liquid crystal microlenses have attracted strong research attention due to their advantages of tunable focusing, voltage actuation, low power consumption, simple fabrication, compact structure, and good stability. They are expected to be essential optical devices with widespread applications. However, the slow response time of nematic liquid crystal (LC microlenses has been a significant technical barrier to practical applications and commercialization. LC/polymer composites, consisting of LC and monomer, are an important extension of pure LC systems, which offer more flexibility and much richer functionality than LC alone. Due to the anchoring effect of a polymer network, microlenses, based on LC/polymer composites, have relatively fast response time in comparison with pure nematic LC microlenses. In addition, polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC based on Kerr effect is emerging as a promising candidate for new photonics application. The major attractions of PS-BPLC are submillisecond response time and no need for surface alignment layer. In this paper, we review two types of fast-response microlenses based on LC/polymer composites: polymer dispersed/stabilized nematic LC and polymer-stabilized blue phase LC. Their basic operating principles are introduced and recent progress is reviewed by examples from recent literature. Finally, the major challenges and future perspectives are discussed.

  8. Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators from Anisotropic Porous Polymer Template. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Li; Yu, Meina; Zhao, Dongyu; Song, Ping; Chi, Hun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Huai


    Controlling self-assembly behaviors of liquid crystals is a fundamental issue for designing them as intelligent actuators. Here, anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is utilized as a template to induce homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals. The mechanism of liquid crystal alignment induced by anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is illustrated based on the relationship between the alignment behavior of liquid crystals and surface microstructure of anisotropic polyvinylidene fluoride film. Liquid crystal elastomer actuators with fast responsiveness, large strain change, and reversible actuation behaviors are achieved by the photopolymerization of liquid crystal monomer in liquid crystal cells coated with anisotropic porous films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Particle tracking microrheology of lyotropic liquid crystals. (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Mezzenga, Raffaele


    We present comprehensive results on the microrheological study of lyotropic liquid crystalline phases of various space groups constituted by water-monoglyceride (Dimodan) mixtures. In order to explore the viscoelastic properties of these systems, we use particle tracking of probe colloidal particles suitably dispersed in the liquid crystals and monitored by diffusing wave spectroscopy. The identification of the various liquid crystalline phases was separately carried out by small-angle X-ray scattering. The restricted motion of the particles was monitored and identified by the decay time of intensity autocorrelation function and the corresponding time-dependent mean square displacement (MSD), which revealed space group-dependent behavior. The characteristic time extracted by the intersection of the slopes of the MSD at short and long time scales, provided a characteristic time which could be directly compared with the relaxation time obtained by microrheology. Further direct comparison of microrheology and bulk rheology measurements was gained via the Laplace transform of the generalized time-dependent MSD, yielding the microrheology storage and loss moduli, G'(ω) and G''(ω), in the frequency domain ω. The general picture emerging from the microrheology data is that all liquid crystals exhibit viscoelastic properties in line with results from bulk rheology and the transition regime (elastic to viscous) differs according to the specific liquid crystal considered. In the case of the lamellar phase, a plastic fluid is measured by bulk rheology, while microrheology indicates viscoelastic behavior. Although we generally find good qualitative agreement between the two techniques, all liquid crystalline systems are found to relax faster when studied with microrheology. The most plausible explanation for this difference is due to the different length scales probed by the two techniques: that is, microscopical relaxation on these structured fluids, is likely to occur at

  10. Successive Transitions in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (United States)

    Hirata, Shoji; Matsuzaki, Ichiro; Yanagita, Akihiro; Tako, Toshiharu


    Successive transitions in an AC electric field in cholesteric liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropy have been investigated systematically. According to the relations between the frequency of applied AC field and the threshold voltage Vth of successive transitions and between Vth and cell thickness divided by cholesteric pitch D/P0 several features are observed. The threshold voltage for the dielectric regime extends to a DC electric regime. Quenching of the conduction regime is observed in a thinner sample cell. Some curious behaviors of the domain corresponding to the dielectric regime are also observed. A new model which can explain the mechanism of successive transitions in conduction regime is proposed.

  11. Interference coloring by polymer dispersed liquid crystals (United States)

    Maksimyak, P. P.; Nehrych, A. L.


    We analyze the effects of coloring of a beam traversing a light-scattering medium. Spectral investigation of the effects of coloring has been carried out using a solution of liquid crystal in a polymer matrix (PDLC). It is shown that the result of coloring of the beam at the output of the medium depends on the magnitudes of the phase delays of the singly forward scattered partial signals. We consider the influence of interference coloring effect on the transmission scattering and spatial-frequency filtering of the radiation which has passed through the PDLC.

  12. Laser damage resistant nematic liquid crystal cell (United States)

    Raszewski, Z.; Piecek, W.; Jaroszewicz, L.; Soms, L.; Marczak, J.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Perkowski, P.; Kedzierski, J.; Miszczyk, E.; Olifierczuk, M.; Morawiak, P.; Mazur, R.


    There exists a problem in diagnostics of a dense plasma (so-called Thomson diagnostics). For this purpose, the plasma is illuminated by series of high energy laser pulses. Such pulses are generated by several independent lasers operating sequentially, and these pulses are to be directed along an exactly the same optical path. In this case, the energy of each separate pulse is as large as 3 J, so it is impossible to generate a burst of such pulses by a single laser. In this situation, several independent lasers have to be used. To form optical path with λ = 1.064 μm and absolute value of the energy of laser pulse through of 3 J, a special refractive index matched twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell (NLCC) of type LCNP2 with switching on time τON smaller than 5 μs might be applied. High laser damage resistance of NLCC and short τON can be fulfilled by preparation of liquid crystal cells with Liquid Crystal Mixture (LCM), well tuned to twisted nematic electro-optical effect, and well tuned all optical interfaces (Air - Antireflection - Quartz Plate - Electrode - Blocking Film - Aligning Layer - LCM - Aligning Layer - Blocking Film - Electrode - Quartz Plate - Antireflection - Air). In such LCNP2 cell, the transmission is higher than 97% at λ = 1.064 μm, as it is presented by Gooch and Tarry [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1575 (1975)]. The safe laser density energy is about 0.6 J/cm2 for a train of laser pulses (λ = 1.064 μm, pulse duration 10 ns FWHM, pulse repetition rate 100 pps, train duration 10 s), so the area of liquid crystal cell tolerating 3 J through it shall be as large as 5 cm2. Due to the presence of two blocking film layers between electrodes, LCNP2 can be driven by high voltages. Switching on time smaller than τON = 5 μs was obtained under 200 V switching voltage.

  13. Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar; Jeeva, S.; Ramanujam, P.S.


    A tutorial review is presented to inform and inspire the reader to develop and integrate strong scientific links between liquid crystals and holographic data storage, from a materials scientist's viewpoint. The principle of holographic data storage as a means of providing a solution...... to the information storage demands of the 21st century is detailed. Holography is a small subset of the much larger field of optical data storage and similarly, the diversity of materials used for optical data storage is enormous. The theory of polarisation holography which produces holograms of constant intensity...

  14. Nanoparticle-doped isotropic liquid crystals (United States)

    Parfenov, Alexander; Xia, Xiaowei; Shapoury, Alireza; DeHoog, Edward A.; Zhang, Fang; Pradhan, Shilpa; Aye, Tin M.; Shih, Min-Yi; Hall, Arlynn Z.; Cooper, Thomas M.


    We demonstrate a new material composed of isotropic liquid crystal (ILC) blended with semiconductor nanoparticles, which could result in a novel high-speed, multiple-notch broadband passive optical switch to selectively discriminate bands of electromagnetic radiation in intelligence, surveillance, or reconnaissance systems. The new material has been demonstrated high nonlinear 3rd order optical Kerr coefficients (light-induced refractive index change, n2) exceeding 100 times of classic nonlinear material CS2 with n2 = 1.2E-11 esu. Details of fabrication and experimental results are presented.

  15. Liquid crystal photoalignment: history and future (United States)

    Chigrinov, V. G.; Kwok, H. S.; Takada, Hirokazu; Takatsu, Haruyoshi


    In this original review we briefly consider the novel azo-dye photo-aligning technology: history and the perspectives for future applications in liquid crystal (LC) devices. The review describes the following items. The brief introduction to the history of photoalignment and the basic classes of the photoaligning materials: photosensitive polymers, azodyes and monolayers will follow with an introduction to the physical mechanisms of the photo-aligning and photo-patterning technology. The advantages and drawbacks of various photo-aligning materials are analyzed from the point of view of practical applications. The detail description of the diffusion photo-aligning in azo-dye materials is provided. The characteristics of azo-dye photoaligning LC layers are compared with those ones prepared by polyimide rubbing method. The characterization of LC-surface interaction, such as pretilt angle and azimuthal anchoring energy is discussed. The newly developed materials should have a controllable pretilt angle and anchoring energy, thus enabling to develop a new generation of the LC devices: with low voltage, fast response and wide viewing angles. The problem of image sticking can be considerably reduced due to the high anchoring energy of azo-dye materials. Promising results, obtained for voltage holding Ratio (VHR) and residual DC voltage (RDC) in azodye photo-aligning materials are also shown. This implies that the azo-dyes can be applied as aligning layers in active matrix liquid crystal displays (AM-LCDs). The possibility to use the photo-aligning layers for new types of liquid crystal displays such as FLCD, VAN-LCD, π-BTN LCD, optical rewritable memory, microdisplays, and TN-LCD on plastic substrates is demonstrated. The photoaligning of liquid crystal polymers (LCP) and the new classes of devices based on them (optical retarders and compensators) is discussed. Special types of 3D LC alignment, LC alignment inside thin micro tubes, and grating surface were concerned

  16. Temperature independent low voltage polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals (United States)

    Kemiklioglu, E.; Hwang, J. Y.; Chien, L.-C.


    Blue phases are types of liquid crystal phase which can appear in a narrow temperature range between a chiral nematic phase and isotropic liquid phase. Blue Phase (BP) liquid crystals have been known to exist in a small temperature range. Recently, broadening the temperature range of a BP liquid crystal has occurred by using a mixture of nematic bimesogenic liquid crystals or by polymerizing a small amount of monomer in a BP to stabilize the cubic lattice against temperature variation. In this study, we report a low switching voltage polymer stabilized blue phase (PSBP) liquid crystal device. We showed the stabilization of blue phases over a temperature range of 30.4 °C including room temperature. We observed the temperature independent of Bragg wavelength. Furthermore, the polymer effect on the electo-optic properties of a self assembled nanostructured blue phase liquid crystal composites have been investigated. As well as the ratio between two monomers, the overall monomers concentration is controlled.

  17. Liquid crystal parameter analysis for tunable photonic bandgap fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei


    We investigate the tunability of splay-aligned liquid crystals for the use in solid core photonic crystal fibers. Finite element simulations are used to obtain the alignment of the liquid crystals subject to an external electric field. By means of the liquid crystal director field the optical...... permittivity is calculated and used in finite element mode simulations. The suitability of liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber devices for filters, waveplates or sensors is highly dependent on the tunability of the transmission spectrum. In this contribution we investigate how the bandgap tunability...... is determined by the parameters of the liquid crystals. This enables us to identify suitable liquid crystals for tunable photonic bandgap fiber devices...

  18. Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations (United States)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.


    A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.

  19. Perdeuterated liquid crystals for near infrared applications (United States)

    Kula, P.; Bennis, N.; Marć, P.; Harmata, P.; Gacioch, K.; Morawiak, P.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.


    For majority of Liquid Crystalline compounds the absorption occurs at two spectral regions: ultraviolet UV (due to electronic excitations) and infrared IR (caused by molecular vibrations). Both cause the absorption which deteriorates electro-optical modulation abilities of LC. In the MWIR and LWIR regions, there are many fundamental molecular vibration bands. The most intense are the ones with high anharmonicity, which in the case of LCs corresponds to the Csbnd H bonds, especially present in the aliphatic chains. In the NIR region, overtone molecular vibration bands derived from IR region begin to appear. In the case of Csbnd H bond system, the first overtones are present at 1.6-1.7 μm. To reduce NIR absorptions, perdeuterated Liquid crystal has been proposed. In this paper, we report the physical and optical properties of liquid crystals based on polarimetry measurements method. We also provide a polar decomposition of experimentally measured Mueller matrix in order to determine polarization properties of the device such as depolarization and diattenuation which cannot be obtained from absorption spectra.

  20. Smectic phases in ionic liquid crystals. (United States)

    Bartsch, Hendrik; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S


    Ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) are anisotropic mesogenic molecules which carry charges and therefore combine properties of liquid crystals, e.g. the formation of mesophases, and of ionic liquids, such as low melting temperatures and tiny triple-point pressures. Previous density functional calculations have revealed that the phase behavior of ILCs is strongly affected by their molecular properties, i.e. their aspect ratio, the loci of the charges, and their interaction strengths. Here, we report new findings concerning the phase behavior of ILCs as obtained by density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The most important result is the occurrence of a novel, wide smectic-A phase [Formula: see text], at low temperature, the layer spacing of which is larger than that of the ordinary high-temperature smectic-A phase [Formula: see text]. Unlike the ordinary smectic S A phase, the structure of the [Formula: see text] phase consists of alternating layers of particles oriented parallel to the layer normal and oriented perpendicular to it.

  1. Strong flexoelectric behavior in bimesogenic liquid crystals (United States)

    Coles, H. J.; Clarke, M. J.; Morris, S. M.; Broughton, B. J.; Blatch, A. E.


    In this paper, we demonstrate strong flexoelectric coupling in bimesogenic liquid crystals. This strong coupling is determined via the flexoelectro-optic effect in chiral nematic liquid crystals based on bimesogenic mixtures that are doped with low concentrations of high twisting power chiral additive. Two mixtures were examined: one had a pitch length of p~300 nm, the other had a pitch length of p~600 nm. These mixtures exhibit enantiotropic chiral nematic phases close to room temperature. We found that full-intensity modulation, that is, a rotation of the optic axis of 45° between crossed polarizers, could be achieved at significantly lower applied electric fields (E<5 V μm-1) than previously reported. In fact, for the condition of full-intensity modulation, the lowest electric-field strength recorded was E=2 V μm-1. As a result of a combination of the strong flexoelectric coupling and a divergence in the pitch, tilt angles of the optic axis up to 87°, i.e., a rotation of the optic axis through 174°, were observed. Furthermore, the flexoelastic ratios, which may be considered as a figure-of-merit parameter, were calculated from the results and found to be large, ranging from 1.3 to 2 C/Nm for a temperature range of up to 40 °C.

  2. Phototropic liquid crystal materials containing naphthopyran dopants (United States)

    Rumi, Mariacristina; Cazzell, Seth; Kosa, Tamas; Sukhomlinova, Ludmila; Taheri, Bahman; Bunning, Timothy; White, Timothy


    Dopant molecules dispersed in a liquid crystalline material usually affects the order of the system and the transition temperature between various phases. If the dopants undergo photoisomerization between conformers with different shapes, the interactions with the liquid crystal molecules can be different for the material in the dark and during exposure to light of appropriate wavelength. This can be used to achieve isothermal photoinduced phase transitions (phototropism). With proper selection of materials components, both order-to-disorder and disorder-to-order photoinduced transition have been demonstrated. Isothermal order-increasing transitions have been observed recently using naphthopyran derivatives as dopants. We are investigating the changes in order parameter and transition temperature of liquid crystal mixtures containing naphthopyrans and how they are related to exposure conditions and to the concentration and molecular structure of the dopants. We are also studying the nature of the photoinduced phase transitions, and comparing the behavior with that of azobenzene-doped mixtures, in which exposure to light leads to a decrease, instead of an increase, in the order of the system.

  3. Beam steering by liquid crystal elastomer fibres. (United States)

    Nocentini, S; Martella, D; Wiersma, D S; Parmeggiani, C


    The problem of utilizing a laser beam as an information vehicle and dividing it into different channels is an open problem in the telecommunication field. The switching of a signal into different ports has been demonstrated, to date, by employing complex devices and mechanisms such as the electro optic effect, microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirrors, or liquid crystal-based spatial light modulators (SLMs). We present here a simple device, namely a mirror held by a liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) fibre, as an optically and remotely driven beam steerer. In fact, a considered signal (laser beam) can be addressed in every in-plane direction by controlling the fibre and mirror rotation, i.e., the deflected probe beam angle. Such movement is possible due to the preparation of LCE fibres able to rotate and contract under a selective light stimulus. By adjusting the irradiation stimulus power, elastic fibres are able to rotate with a specific angle, performing more than one complete revolution around their axis. The described movement is perfectly reversible as soon as the stimulus is removed.

  4. Multistability in planar liquid crystal wells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Chong


    A planar bistable liquid crystal device, reported in Tsakonas, is modeled within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals. This planar device consists of an array of square micrometer-sized wells. We obtain six different classes of equilibrium profiles and these profiles are classified as diagonal or rotated solutions. In the strong anchoring case, we propose a Dirichlet boundary condition that mimics the experimentally imposed tangent boundary conditions. In the weak anchoring case, we present a suitable surface energy and study the multiplicity of solutions as a function of the anchoring strength. We find that diagonal solutions exist for all values of the anchoring strength W≥0, while rotated solutions only exist for W≥W c>0, where W c is a critical anchoring strength that has been computed numerically. We propose a dynamic model for the switching mechanisms based on only dielectric effects. For sufficiently strong external electric fields, we numerically demonstrate diagonal-to-rotated and rotated-to-diagonal switching by allowing for variable anchoring strength across the domain boundary. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  5. Biaxial nematic liquid crystals theory, simulation and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Luckhurst, Geoffrey R


    Liquid Crystals are a state of matter that have properties between those of conventional liquid and those of a solid crystal. Thermotropic liquid crystals react to changes in temperature or, in some cases, pressure. The reaction of lyotropic liquid crystals, which are used in the manufacture of soaps and detergents, depends on the type of solvent they are mixed with. Since the accidental discovery of the chiral nematic (ordered) phase in 1888 many liquid crystal phases have been found, sometimes by chance and sometimes by design. The existence of one such phase was predicted by Freiser in 197

  6. Electrically Tuned Microwave Devices Using Liquid Crystal Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Yaghmaee


    Full Text Available An overview of liquid crystal technology for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies is presented. The potential of liquid crystals as reconfigurable materials arises from their ability for continuous tuning with low power consumption, transparency, and possible integration with printed and flexible circuit technologies. This paper describes physical theory and fundamental electrical properties arising from the anisotropy of liquid crystals and overviews selected realized liquid crystal devices, throughout four main categories: resonators and filters, phase shifters and delay lines, antennas, and, finally, frequency-selective surfaces and metamaterials.

  7. Tunable liquid crystal multifocal microlens array. (United States)

    Algorri, José Francisco; Bennis, Noureddine; Urruchi, Virginia; Morawiak, Przemek; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R


    A novel liquid crystal microlens array with tunable multifocal capability, high optical power and fill-factor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A specific hole pattern design produces a multifocal array with only one voltage control. Three operations modes are possible, "Off", "Tunable Multifocal" and "Unifocal". The design is patterned in both substrates. Then, the substrates are arranged in symmetrical configuration. The result is a high optical power in comparison with typical hole patterned structures. Besides, it is proposed a hexagonal pattern that produces a high fill factor, specially indicated for some applications as Integral Imaging. The array has several useful characteristics for this type of application: tunability for the loss of resolution; multifocal for extended DOF; high fill factor for increase the number of views; and low power consumption for integration in portable devices. Moreover, the optical characteristics of the proposed device could bring new applications in other fields.

  8. New triazolium based ionic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappert, Kathrin [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Unal, Derya [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Mallick, Bert [Ruhr Universitat Bochum; Mudring, Anja-Verena [Ames Laboratory


    A set of novel 1,2,3-triazolium based ionic liquid crystals was synthesized and their mesomorphic behaviour studied by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), POM (polarizing optical microscopy) and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering). Beside the variation of the chain length (C10, C12 and C14) at the 1,2,3-triazolium cation also the anion has been varied (Br-, I-, I3-, BF4-, SbF6-, N(CN)2-, Tf2N-) to study the influence of ion size, symmetry and H-bonding capability on the mesophase formation. Interestingly, for the 1,3-didodecyl-1,2,3-triazolium cation two totally different conformations were found in the crystal structure of the bromide (U-shaped) and the triiodide (rod shaped).

  9. Lipid decorated liquid crystal pressure sensors (United States)

    Lopatkina, Tetiana; Popov, Piotr; Honaker, Lawrence; Jakli, Antal; Mann, Elizabeth; Mann's Group Collaboration; Jakli's Group Collaboration

    Surfactants usually promote the alignment of liquid crystal (LC) director parallel to the surfactant chains, and thus on average normal to the substrate (homeotropic), whereas water promotes tangential (planar) alignment. A water-LC interface is therefore very sensitive to the presence of surfactants, such as lipids: this is the principle of LC-based chemical and biological sensing introduced by Abbott et al.Using a modified configuration, we found that at higher than 10 micro molar lipid concentration, the uniformly dark texture seen for homeotropic alignment between left-, and right-handed circular polarizers becomes unstable and slowly brightens again. This texture shows extreme sensitivity to external air pressure variations offering its use for sensitive pressure sensors. Our analysis indicates an osmotic pressure induced bending of the suspended films explaining both the birefringence and pressure sensitivity. In the talk we will discuss the experimental details of these effects. This work was financially supported by NSF DMR No. DMR-0907055.

  10. Liquid Crystals and Photonic Bandgap Fiber Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Wei, Lei; Scolari, Lara

    Liquid Crystal(LC)filled Photonic Crystal Fibers(PCFs) represent a promising platform for the design and the fabrication of tunable all-in fiber devices. Tunability is achieved by varying the refractive index of the LC thermally, optically or electrically. In this contribution we present important...... parts of the LC theory as well as an application of a LC infiltrated PCF subject to an external electrostatic field. The fiber is placed between two electrodes and the voltage is increased step by step leading to the reorientation of the LC in the fiber capillaries. This mechanism can be used to produce...... a swichable polarizer, and an on chip LC photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter is presented, which admits strong attenuation of one polarization direction while the other one is nearly unaffected....

  11. Tuning Fluidic Resistance via Liquid Crystal Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Sengupta


    Full Text Available Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling—typically absent in isotropic fluids—bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions—which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters—act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels.

  12. Highly anisotropic conductivity in organosiloxane liquid crystals (United States)

    Gardiner, D. J.; Coles, H. J.


    In this paper, we present the conductivity and dielectric characterization of three homologous series of smectic A siloxane containing liquid crystals. The materials studied include one monomesogenic series, which consists of a 4-(ω-alkyloxy)-4'-cyanobiphenyl unit terminated by pentamethyldisiloxane, and two bimesogenic series, which consist of twin 4-(ω-alkyloxy)-4'-cyanobiphenyls joined via tetramethyldisiloxane or decamethylpentasiloxane. All of the compounds exhibit wide temperature range enantiotropic smectic A phases; the effect of the siloxane moiety is to suppress nematic morphology even in the short chain homologs. We find that these compounds exhibit a highly anisotropic conductivity: the value perpendicular to the director is to up to 200 times that parallel to the director. For the nonsiloxane analog 4-(ω-octyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB), this value is approximately 2. It is also found that the dielectric anisotropy is reduced significantly; a typical value is ˜1 compared to 8.4 for 8CB. We propose that the origin of these unusual properties is in the smectic structure; the microphase separation of the bulky, globular siloxane moieties into liquidlike regions severely inhibits the mobility parallel to the director and across the smectic layers. Further, the inclusion of this unit acts to increase the antiparallel correlations of molecular dipoles in the aromatic and alkyloxy sublayers, reducing the dielectric anisotropy significantly compared to nonsiloxane analogs. The highly anisotropic conductivity suggests that these materials are particularly suitable for application in electro-optic effects which exploit this property, e.g., the bistable electro-optic effect in smectic A liquid crystals.

  13. Microwave modulation characteristics of twisted liquid crystals with chiral dopant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yuan


    Full Text Available Adding a chiral dopant in twisted nematic (TN liquid crystal cell can stabilize the orientation of liquid crystal molecules, particularly in high TN (HTN or super TN (STN liquid crystal cells. The difference in pitches in liquid crystal is induced by the chiral dopant, and these different pitches affect the orientation of liquid crystal director under an external applied voltage and influence the characteristics of microwave modulation. To illustrate this point, the microwave phase shift per unit length (MPSL versus voltage is calculated on the basis of the elastic theory of liquid crystal and the finite-difference iterative method. Enhancing the pitch induced by the chiral dopant in liquid crystal increases the MPSLs, but the stability of the twisted structures is decreased. Thus, appropriate pitches of 100d, 4d, and 2d can be applied in TN, HTN, and STN cells with cell gap d to enhance the characteristics of microwave modulation and stabilize the structures in twisted cell. This method can improve the characteristics of liquid crystal microwave modulators such that the operating voltage and the size of such phase shifters can be decreased.

  14. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment (United States)

    Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.


    A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

  15. Liquid-crystal intraocular adaptive lens with wireless control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonov, A.N.; Vdovine, G.V.; Loktev, M.


    We present a prototype of an adaptive intraocular lens based on a modal liquid-crystal spatial phase modulator with wireless control. The modal corrector consists of a nematic liquid-crystal layer sandwiched between two glass substrates with transparent low- and high-ohmic electrodes, respectively.

  16. Electrochromic blueshift in polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells. (United States)

    Ramsey, R A; Sharma, S C


    Electrochromic blueshift in the absorption band of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells is reported as a function of applied electric field. The changes in the peak absorption wavelength, absorption broadening, and their possible relationships with the nonlinear optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells are discussed.

  17. Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems (United States)

    Sun, Kai


    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…

  18. Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei


    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser by using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an all...

  19. Orientation control of dye molecules in a liquid crystal. (United States)

    Urisu, T; Kajiyama, K; Mizushima, Y


    Laser dye molecules (coumarin 6) were dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal MBBA + BBCA. Great changes in polarization and fluorescence vs applied voltage were found as well as a change in dielectric constant. Molecular orientation of the liquid crystal under the electric field and association of the dye molecules are identified as having the greatest effect on the fluorescence intensity.

  20. Liquid crystal nanocomposites produced by mixtures of hydrogen bonded achiral liquid crystals and functionalized carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Katranchev, B.; Petrov, M.; Keskinova, E.; Naradikian, H.; Rafailov, P. M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Spassov, T.


    The liquid crystalline (LC) nature of alkyloxybenzoic acids is preserved after adding of any mesogenic or non-mesogenic compound through hydrogen bonding. However, this noncovalent interaction provokes a sizable effect on the physical properties as, e. g. melting point and mesomorphic states. In the present work we investigate nanocomposites, prepared by mixture of the eighth homologue of p-n-alkyloxybenzoic acids (8OBA) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with the purpose to modify the optical properties of the liquid crystal. We exercise optical control on the LC system by inserting SWCNT specially functionalized by carboxylic groups. Since the liquid crystalline state combines order and mobility at the molecular (nanoscale) level, molecular modification can lead to different macroscopical nanocomposite symmetry. The thermal properties of the functionalized nanocomposite are confirmed by DSC analyses. The mechanism of the interaction between surface-treated nanoparticles (functionalized nanotubes) and the liquid crystal 8OBA bent- dimer molecules is briefly discussed.

  1. Plasmonic Photopatterning of Complex Molecular Orientations in Liquid Crystals (United States)

    Guo, Yubing; Jiang, Miao; Peng, Chenhui; Sun, Kai; Yaroshchuk, Oleg; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Wei, Qi-Huo

    Aligning liquid crystal (LC) molecules in spatially non-uniform patterns are highly demanded for applications such as programmable origami and liquid crystal enabled nonlinear electrokinetics. We developed a high resolution projection photoalignment technique for patterning arbitrary LC alignment fields. The photoalignment is based on carefully engineered metasurfaces, or dubbed as plasmonic metamasks (PMMs). When illuminated by light, the PMMs generate patterns of both light intensity and polarization. By projecting the light transmitted through the PMMs onto liquid crystal cells coated with photosensitive materials, alignment patterns predesigned in polarization patterns of the PMMs can be imposed in liquid crystals. This technique makes the liquid crystal alignment a repeatable and scalable process similar to conventional photolithography, promising various applications. National Science Foundation CMMI-1436565.

  2. Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao


    Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals. To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored. As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention. However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method. Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations. Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance. The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles.

  3. Simulation of liquid crystals. Disclinations and surface modification

    CERN Document Server

    Downton, M


    In this thesis we investigate the behaviour of molecular models liquid crystals in several different situations. Basic introductory material on liquid crystals and computer simulations is discussed in the first two chapters, we then discuss the research. The third chapter investigates the interaction between a liquid crystal and a modified surface. A confined system of hard spherocylinders in a slab geometry is examined. The surface consists of planar hard walls with elongated molecules grafted perpendicularly onto them. The concentration of grafted molecules is varied to give different surfaces. Several different behaviours are found including planar, homeotropic and tilted anchorings of the liquid crystal. Molecular dynamics simulations of a nematic liquid crystal in slab geometry with twisted boundary conditions are performed. By arranging the initial configuration suitably it is possible to create a simulation cell with two regions of opposite twist separated by a strength half disclination line. The prop...

  4. Insertion of liquid crystal molecules into hydrocarbon monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Piotr, E-mail:; Mann, Elizabeth K. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Lacks, Daniel J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Jákli, Antal [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242-0001 (United States)


    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of vertical surface alignment of liquid crystals. We study the insertion of nCB (4-Cyano-4{sup ′}-n-biphenyl) molecules with n = 0,…,6 into a bent-core liquid crystal monolayer that was recently found to provide good vertical alignment for liquid crystals. The results suggest a complex-free energy landscape for the liquid crystal within the layer. The preferred insertion direction of the nCB molecules (core or tail first) varies with n, which can be explained by entropic considerations. The role of the dipole moments was found to be negligible. As vertical alignment is the leading form of present day liquid crystal displays (LCD), these results will help guide improvement of the LCD technology, as well as lend insight into the more general problem of insertion of biological and other molecules into lipid and surfactant layers.

  5. Leica solution: CARS microscopy at video rates (United States)

    Lurquin, V.


    Confocal and multiphoton microscopy are powerful techniques to study morphology and dynamics in cells and tissue, if fluorescent labeling is possible or autofluorescence is strong. For non-fluorescent molecules, Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy provides chemical contrast based on intrinsic and highly specific vibrational properties of molecules eliminating the need for labeling. Just as other multiphoton techniques, CARS microscopy possesses three-dimensional sectioning capabilities. Leica Microsystems has combined the CARS imaging technology with its TCS SP5 confocal microscope to provide several advantages for CARS imaging. For CARS microscopy, two picosecond near-infrared lasers are overlapped spatially and temporally and sent into the scanhead of the confocal system. The software allows programmed, automatic switching between these light sources for multi-modal imaging. Furthermore the Leica TCS SP5 can be equipped with a non-descanned detector which will significantly enhance the signal. The Leica TCS SP5 scanhead combines two technologies in one system: a conventional scanner for maximum resolution and a resonant scanner for high time resolution. The fast scanner allows imaging speeds as high as 25 images/per second at a resolution of 512×512 pixel. This corresponds to true video-rate allowing to follow processes at these time-scales as well as the acquisition of three-dimensional stacks in a few seconds. This time resolution is critical to study live animals or human patients for which heart beat and muscle movements lead to a blurring of the image if the acquisition time is high. Furthermore with the resonant scanhead the sectioning is truly confocal and does not suffer from spatial leakage. In summary, CARS microscopy combined with the tandem scanner makes the Leica TCS SP5 a powerful tool for three-dimensional, label-free imaging of chemical and biological samples in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Liquid crystals in micron-scale droplets, shells and fibers (United States)

    Urbanski, Martin; Reyes, Catherine G.; Noh, JungHyun; Sharma, Anshul; Geng, Yong; Subba Rao Jampani, Venkata; Lagerwall, Jan P. F.


    The extraordinary responsiveness and large diversity of self-assembled structures of liquid crystals are well documented and they have been extensively used in devices like displays. For long, this application route strongly influenced academic research, which frequently focused on the performance of liquid crystals in display-like geometries, typically between flat, rigid substrates of glass or similar solids. Today a new trend is clearly visible, where liquid crystals confined within curved, often soft and flexible, interfaces are in focus. Innovation in microfluidic technology has opened for high-throughput production of liquid crystal droplets or shells with exquisite monodispersity, and modern characterization methods allow detailed analysis of complex director arrangements. The introduction of electrospinning in liquid crystal research has enabled encapsulation in optically transparent polymeric cylinders with very small radius, allowing studies of confinement effects that were not easily accessible before. It also opened the prospect of functionalizing textile fibers with liquid crystals in the core, triggering activities that target wearable devices with true textile form factor for seamless integration in clothing. Together, these developments have brought issues center stage that might previously have been considered esoteric, like the interaction of topological defects on spherical surfaces, saddle-splay curvature-induced spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, or the non-trivial shape changes of curved liquid crystal elastomers with non-uniform director fields that undergo a phase transition to an isotropic state. The new research thrusts are motivated equally by the intriguing soft matter physics showcased by liquid crystals in these unconventional geometries, and by the many novel application opportunities that arise when we can reproducibly manufacture these systems on a commercial scale. This review attempts to summarize the current understanding of

  7. Liquid crystals beyond displays chemistry, physics, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan


    The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science. Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, th

  8. Structural Transitions in Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ye; Bukusoglu, Emre; Martínez-González, José A.; Rahimi, Mohammad; Roberts, Tyler F.; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.


    Confinement of cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLC) into droplets leads to a delicate interplay between elasticity, chirality, and surface energy. In this work, we rely on a combination of theory and experiments to understand the rich morphological behavior that arises from that balance. More specifically, a systematic study of micrometer-sized ChLC droplets is presented as a function of chirality and surface energy (or anchoring). With increasing chirality, a continuous transition is observed from a twisted bipolar structure to a radial spherical structure, all within a narrow range of chirality. During such a transition, a bent structure is predicted by simulations and confirmed by experimental observations. Simulations are also able to capture the dynamics of the quenching process observed in experiments. Consistent with published work, it is found that nanoparticles are attracted to defect regions on the surface of the droplets. For weak anchoring conditions at the nanoparticle surface, ChLC droplets adopt a morphology similar to that of the equilibrium helical phase observed for ChLCs in the bulk. As the anchoring strength increases, a planar bipolar structure arises, followed by a morphological transition to a bent structure. The influence of chirality and surface interactions are discussed in the context of the potential use of ChLC droplets as stimuli-responsive materials for reporting molecular adsorbates.

  9. Graphene-based liquid crystal microlens arrays (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Yong; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng


    In this paper, we design and fabricate a kind of liquid crystal microlens arrays (LCMAs) with patterned electrodes made of monolayer graphene, which is grown on copper sheet by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene is the first two-dimensional atomic crystal. It uniquely combines extreme mechanical strength, high optically transmittance from visible light to infrared spectrum, and excellent electrical conductivity. These properties make it highly attractive for various applications in photonic devices that require conductive but transparent thin films. The graphene-based LCMAs have shown excellent optical performances in the tests. By adjusting the voltage signal loaded over the graphene-based LCMAs, the point spread functions (PSF) and focusing images of incident laser beams with different wavelengths, could be obtained. At the same time, we also get the focusing images of the common ITO-based LCMAs under the same experimental conditions to discuss the advantages and disadvantages between them. Further, the graphene-based LCMAs are also used in visible imaging. During the imaging tests, the graphene electrodes in the LCMAs work well.

  10. Artificial muscles based on liquid crystal elastomers. (United States)

    Li, Min-Hui; Keller, Patrick


    This paper presents our results on liquid crystal (LC) elastomers as artificial muscle, based on the ideas proposed by de Gennes. In the theoretical model, the material consists of a repeated series of main-chain nematic LC polymer blocks, N, and conventional rubber blocks, R, based on the lamellar phase of a triblock copolymer RNR. The motor for the contraction is the reversible macromolecular shape change of the chain, from stretched to spherical, that occurs at the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition in the main-chain nematic LC polymers. We first developed a new kind of muscle-like material based on a network of side-on nematic LC homopolymers. Side-on LC polymers were used instead of main-chain LC polymers for synthetic reasons. The first example of these materials was thermo-responsive, with a typical contraction of around 35-45% and a generated force of around 210 kPa. Subsequently, a photo-responsive material was developed, with a fast photochemically induced contraction of around 20%, triggered by UV light. We then succeeded in preparing a thermo-responsive artificial muscle, RNR, with lamellar structure, using a side-on nematic LC polymer as N block.Micrometre-sized artificial muscles were also prepared. This paper illustrates the bottom-up design of stimuli-responsive materials, in which the overall material response reflects the individual macromolecular response, using LC polymer as building block.

  11. Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals (United States)

    Urruchi Del Pozo, V.; Algorri Genaro, J. F.; Sánchez-Pena, J. M.; Geday, M. A.; Arregui, X. Q.; Bennis, N.


    Lenticular array products have experienced a growing interest in the last decade due to the very wide range of applications they can cover. Indeed, this kind of lenses can create different effects on a viewing image such as 3D, flips, zoom, etc. In this sense, lenticular based on liquid crystals (LC) technology is being developed with the aim of tuning the lens profiles simply by controlling the birefringence electrically. In this work, a LC lenticular lens array has been proposed to mimic a GRIN lenticular lens array but adding the capability of tuning their lens profiles. Comb control electrodes have been designed as pattern masks for the ITO on the upper substrate. Suitable high resistivity layers have been chosen to be deposited on the control electrode generating an electric field gradient between teeth of the same electrode. Test measurements have allowed us to demonstrate that values of phase retardations and focal lengths, for an optimal driving waveform, are fairly in agreement. In addition, results of focusing power of tuneable lenses were compared to those of conventional lenses. The behaviour of both kinds of lenses has revealed to be mutually similar for focusing collimated light and for refracting images.

  12. Alignment technology and applications of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takatoh, Kohki; Hasegawa, Ray; Koden, Mitsushiro; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Masaki


    Alignment phenomena are characteristic of liquid crystalline materials, and understanding them is critically important in understanding the essential features and behavior of liquid crystals and the performance of Liquid Crystal Devices (LCDs). Furthermore, in LCD production lines, the alignment process is of practical importance. Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices demonstrates both the fundamental and practical aspects of alignment phenomena in liquid crystals. The physical basis of alignment phenomena is first introduced in order to aid the understanding of the various physical phenomena observed in the interface between liquid crystalline materials and alignment layer surfaces. Methods for the characterization of surfaces, which induce the alignment phenomena, and of the alignment layer itself are introduced. These methods are useful for the research of liquid crystalline materials and devices in academic research as well as in industry. In the practical sections, the alignme...

  13. Field induced heliconical structure of cholesteric liquid crystal (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Shiyanovsii, Sergij V.; Xiang, Jie; Kim, Young-Ki


    A diffraction grating comprises a liquid crystal (LC) cell configured to apply an electric field through a cholesteric LC material that induces the cholesteric LC material into a heliconical state with an oblique helicoid director. The applied electric field produces diffracted light from the cholesteric LC material within the visible, infrared or ultraviolet. The axis of the heliconical state is in the plane of the liquid crystal cell or perpendicular to the plane, depending on the application. A color tuning device operates with a similar heliconical state liquid crystal material but with the heliconical director axis oriented perpendicular to the plane of the cell. A power generator varies the strength of the applied electric field to adjust the wavelength of light reflected from the cholesteric liquid crystal material within the visible, infrared or ultraviolet.

  14. Controlling chirality with helix inversion in cholesteric liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène; Lacaze, E.; Ferrarini, A.


    The helical organization of cholesteric liquid crystals is omnipresent in living matter. Achieving control over the structure of the cholesteric helix consequently holds great potential for developing stimuli-responsive materials matching the level of sophistication of biological systems. In

  15. Liquid crystal phase behaviour of colloidal platelets in external fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, David van der


    In this thesis, the liquid crystal phase behaviour of colloidal platelets in external fields is studied. We have specifically investigated the influence of morphological, gravitational, magnetic and centrifugal fields. Part I of this thesis involves sterically stabilised colloidal gibbsite

  16. Phase Change Enthalpies and Entropies of Liquid Crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acree, William E; Chickos, James S


    .... A group additivity approach used to estimate total phase change entropies of organic molecules applied to 627 of these liquid crystals is found to significantly overestimate their total phase change entropies...

  17. Dynamic self-stiffening in liquid crystal elastomers (United States)

    Agrawal, Aditya; Chipara, Alin C.; Shamoo, Yousif; Patra, Prabir K.; Carey, Brent J.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Chapman, Walter G.; Verduzco, Rafael


    Biological tissues have the remarkable ability to remodel and repair in response to disease, injury and mechanical stresses. Synthetic materials lack the complexity of biological tissues, and man-made materials that respond to external stresses through a permanent increase in stiffness are uncommon. Here we report that polydomain nematic liquid crystal elastomers increase in stiffness by up to 90% when subjected to a low-amplitude (5%), repetitive (dynamic) compression. Elastomer stiffening is influenced by liquid crystal content, the presence of a nematic liquid crystal phase and the use of a dynamic as opposed to static deformation. Through rheological and X-ray diffraction measurements, stiffening can be attributed to a mobile nematic director, which rotates in response to dynamic compression. Stiffening under dynamic compression has not been previously observed in liquid crystal elastomers and may be useful for the development of self-healing materials or for the development of biocompatible, adaptive materials for tissue replacement.

  18. Dynamic Photonic Materials Based on Liquid Crystals (Postprint) (United States)


    in liquid-crystalline side chain polymers. Liquid Crystals, 33, 1421–1427. Atkins , P.W. (1987). Physical chemistry . Oxford: Oxford University Press...Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114, 7496–7501. Kogelnik,H. (1969). Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings. Bell SystemTechnical Journal, 48... Physical Chemistry B, 103, 4212–4217. Lu, S.-Y. & Chien, L.-C. (2007). A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with

  19. Damping Effect of Lminated Beam Using Liquid Crystal


    谷, 順二; 高木, 敏行; 中庭, 博文; 大友, 規矩雄; 越河, 和男; 藤田, 豊; Junji, TANI; Toshiyuki, TAKAGI; Hirofumi, NAKANIWA; Kikuo, OHTOMO; Kazuo, KOSUGO; Yutaka, FUJITA; 東北大院; 東北大流体研; ロディック(株)


    This paper describes an experimental study on the vibration suppression of a laminated beam with a nematic liquid crystal under electric and magnetic fields. Firstly, a laminated beam is constructed of two thin outer aluminum beams with nematic liquid crystal layers and a thin inside aluminum beam. The results under an electric field show that the resonance point of the beam is shifted higher, and the response displacement amplitude decreases as electric field strength increases. This is beca...

  20. Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors (United States)

    McCamley, Maureen K.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Crawford, Gregory P.


    A liquid crystal based biosensor for the detection and diagnosis of sepsis is currently in development. Sepsis, a major clinical syndrome with a significant public health burden in the US due to a large elderly population, is the systemic response of the body to a localized infection and is defined as the combination of pathologic infection and physiological changes. Bacterial infections are responsible for 90% of cases of sepsis in the US. Currently there is no bedside diagnostic available to positively identify sepsis. The basic detection scheme employed in a liquid crystal biosensor contains attributes that would find value in a clinical setting, especially for the early detection of sepsis. Utilizing the unique properties of liquid crystals, such as birefringence, a bedside diagnostic is in development which will optically report the presence of biomolecules. In a septic patient, an endotoxin known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can be found in the blood stream. It is hypothesized that this long chained molecule will cause local disruptions to the open surface of a sensor containing aligned liquid crystal. The bulk liquid crystal these local changes at the surface due to the presence of the sepsis marker, providing an optical readout through polarizing microscopy images. Liquid crystal sensors consisting of both square and circular grids, 100-200 μm in size, have been fabricated and filled with a common liquid crystal material, 5CB. Homeotropic alignment was confirmed using polarizing microscopy. The grids were then contacted with either saline only (control), or saline with varying concentrations of LPS. Changes in the con.guration of the nematic director of the liquid crystal were observed through the range of concentrations tested (5mg/mL - 1pg/mL) which have been confirmed by a consulting physician as clinically relevant levels.

  1. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    We present a device based on a tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber that allows active all-in-fiber filtering. The resulting Photonic Bandgap Fiber device provides a Gaussian filter covering the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm......We present a device based on a tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber that allows active all-in-fiber filtering. The resulting Photonic Bandgap Fiber device provides a Gaussian filter covering the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm...

  2. Thermal and Optical Characterization of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals


    Shanks, Robert A.; Daniel Staszczyk


    Liquid crystals are compounds that display order in the liquid state above the melting temperature and below the mesogenic isotropic temperature. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) are composite materials in which liquid crystalline material is dispersed within a polymer matrix to form micron-sized droplets. The aim was to prepare several cholesteryl esters or alkoxybenzoic acid PDLCs and characterise thermal and optical properties. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optic...

  3. Twisting and tweezing liquid crystals with lasers (United States)

    Gleeson, Helen F.; Dickinson, Mark R.; Sanders, Jennifer E.; Yang, Yiming


    Exciting new directions for liquid crystals (LCs) are emerging on the length scale of the wavelength of light. Two complementary micron-sized systems are formed by LC droplets and by dispersions of colloidal particles in LCs. The dimensions of each of these systems are ideal for laser tweezer manipulation, allowing a new range of photon-addressed LC systems to be envisaged. Trapping and moving micron-sized particles in LCs is a beautiful approach that can build novel colloidal photonic materials. However, it is also a unique way of studying fundamental LC properties, particularly anisotropic viscosity coefficients in the low Ericksen regime, which can be accessed by laser trapping. Rather few nematic materials have been studied using laser traps; we describe two different approaches to deduce the viscosity coefficients of nematic mixtures. Micron-sized LC droplets are emerging as intriguing photonic systems in their own right. Angular momentum can be transferred from laser traps to droplets, with specific polarization properties and droplet geometries resulting in a variety of novel photon-driven effects. Fast optical switches, rotating at speeds >1kHz, can be produced from nematic droplets in circularly polarized beams. Both droplet geometry and beam polarization influence the droplet rotation, allowing control of the phenomenon. Surprisingly, a chiral nematic droplet can sometimes undergo continuous rotation in a linearly polarized trap, a phenomenon caused by optically-induced changes in chirality. We describe this remarkable effect which demonstrates how the control of chirality through polarization can result in an optically driven transducer.

  4. Defects in liquid crystal nematic shells (United States)

    Fernandez-Nieves, A.; Utada, A. S.; Vitelli, V.; Link, D. R.; Nelson, D. R.; Weitz, D. A.


    We generate water/liquid crystal (LC)/water double emulsions via recent micro-capillary fluidic devices [A. S. Utada, Science 308, 537 (2005)]. The resultant objects are stabilized against coalescence by using surfactants or adequate polymers; these also fix the boundary conditions for the director field n. We use 4-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and impose tangential boundary conditions at both water/LC interfaces by having polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) dispersed in the inner and outer water phases. We confirm recent predictions [D. R. Nelson, NanoLetters 2, 1125 (2002)] and find that four strength s=+1/2 defects are present; this is in contrast to the two s=+1 defect bipolar configuration observed for bulk spheres [A. Fernandez-Nieves, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 105503 (2004)]. However, these defects do not lie in the vertices of a tetrahedron but are pushed towards each other until certain equilibration distance is reached. In addition to the four defect shells, we observe shells with two s=+1 defects and even with three defects, a s=+1 and two s=+1/2. We argue these configurations arise from nematic bulk distortions that become important as the shell thickness increases. Finally, by adding a different surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), to the outer phase, we can change the director boundary conditions at the outermost interface from parallel to homeotropic, to induce coalescing of the two pair of defects in the four defect shell configuration to yield two defect bipolar shells.

  5. Flexoelectricity of a Calamitic Liquid Crystal Elastomer Swollen with a Bent-core Liquid Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, M.; Verduzco, R; Gleeson, J; Sprunt, S; Jakli, A


    We have measured the electric current induced by mechanical distortion of a calamitic liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) swollen with a low molecular weight bent-core nematic (BCN) liquid crystal, and have determined, for the first time, the bend flexoelectric coefficient e{sub 3} of such a BCN-LCE composite. In one method, we utilize air-pressure to induce a mechanical bend deformation and flexoelectric polarization in a BCN-LCE film, and then measure the polarization current as a function of time. An alternative technique uses a rotary-motor driven scotch yoke to periodically flex the BCN-LCE; in this case, the magnitude and phase of the induced current are recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The flexoelectric coefficient, e{sub 3}, was found to be {approx}20 nC/cm{sup 2}, and is stable in magnitude from room temperature to {approx}65 C. It is about one third the value measured in samples of the pure BCN; this fraction corresponds closely to the molar concentration of BCN in the LCE. The flexoelectric current increases linearly with the magnitude of the bend deformation and decays with frequency. These observations indicate a promising way forward towards producing very low-cost, self-standing, rugged electromechanical energy conversion devices.

  6. Ferroelectric Nanoparticles in Liquid Crystals: Recent Progress and Current Challenges. (United States)

    Garbovskiy, Yuriy; Glushchenko, Anatoliy


    The dispersion of ferroelectric nanomaterials in liquid crystals has recently emerged as a promising way for the design of advanced and tunable electro-optical materials. The goal of this paper is a broad overview of the current technology, basic physical properties, and applications of ferroelectric nanoparticle/liquid crystal colloids. By compiling a great variety of experimental data and discussing it in the framework of existing theoretical models, both scientific and technological challenges of this rapidly developing field of liquid crystal nanoscience are identified. They can be broadly categorized into the following groups: (i) the control of the size, shape, and the ferroelectricity of nanoparticles; (ii) the production of a stable and aggregate-free dispersion of relatively small (~10 nm) ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals; (iii) the selection of liquid crystal materials the most suitable for the dispersion of nanoparticles; (iv) the choice of appropriate experimental procedures and control measurements to characterize liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles; and (v) the development and/or modification of theoretical and computational models to account for the complexity of the system under study. Possible ways to overcome the identified challenges along with future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Ferroelectric Nanoparticles in Liquid Crystals: Recent Progress and Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Garbovskiy


    Full Text Available The dispersion of ferroelectric nanomaterials in liquid crystals has recently emerged as a promising way for the design of advanced and tunable electro-optical materials. The goal of this paper is a broad overview of the current technology, basic physical properties, and applications of ferroelectric nanoparticle/liquid crystal colloids. By compiling a great variety of experimental data and discussing it in the framework of existing theoretical models, both scientific and technological challenges of this rapidly developing field of liquid crystal nanoscience are identified. They can be broadly categorized into the following groups: (i the control of the size, shape, and the ferroelectricity of nanoparticles; (ii the production of a stable and aggregate-free dispersion of relatively small (~10 nm ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals; (iii the selection of liquid crystal materials the most suitable for the dispersion of nanoparticles; (iv the choice of appropriate experimental procedures and control measurements to characterize liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles; and (v the development and/or modification of theoretical and computational models to account for the complexity of the system under study. Possible ways to overcome the identified challenges along with future research directions are also discussed.

  8. Liquid crystals: a new topic in physics for undergraduates (United States)

    Pavlin, Jerneja; Vaupotič, Nataša; Čepič, Mojca


    This paper presents a teaching module about liquid crystals. Since liquid crystals are linked to everyday student experiences and are also a topic of current scientific research, they are an excellent candidate for a modern topic to be introduced into education. We show that liquid crystals can provide a pathway through several fields of physics such as thermodynamics, optics and electromagnetism. We discuss what students should learn about liquid crystals and what physical concepts they should know before considering them. In the presentation of the teaching module, which consists of a lecture and experimental work in a chemistry and physics laboratory, we focus on experiments on phase transitions, polarization of light, double refraction and colours. A pilot evaluation of the module was performed among pre-service primary school teachers who have no special preference for natural sciences. The evaluation shows that the module is very efficient in transferring knowledge. A prior study showed that the informally obtained pre-knowledge on liquid crystals of the first-year students from several different fields of study was negligible. Since social science students are the least interested in natural sciences, it can be expected that students in any study programme will on average achieve at least as good qualitative knowledge of phenomena related to liquid crystals as the group involved in the pilot study.

  9. Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals: Materials, Formation, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Liu


    Full Text Available By combining polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC and holography, holographic PDLC (H-PDLC has emerged as a new composite material for switchable or tunable optical devices. Generally, H-PDLC structures are created in a liquid crystal cell filled with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal materials by recording the interference pattern generated by two or more coherent laser beams which is a fast and single-step fabrication. With a relatively ideal phase separation between liquid crystals and polymers, periodic refractive index profile is formed in the cell and thus light can be diffracted. Under a suitable electric field, the light diffraction behavior disappears due to the index matching between liquid crystals and polymers. H-PDLCs show a fast switching time due to the small size of the liquid crystal droplets. So far, H-PDLCs have been applied in many promising applications in photonics, such as flat panel displays, switchable gratings, switchable lasers, switchable microlenses, and switchable photonic crystals. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art of H-PDLCs including the materials used to date, the grating formation dynamics and simulations, the optimization of electro-optical properties, the photonic applications, and the issues existed in H-PDLCs.

  10. Reflective liquid crystal light valve with hybrid field effect mode (United States)

    Boswell, Donald D. (Inventor); Grinberg, Jan (Inventor); Jacobson, Alexander D. (Inventor); Myer, Gary D. (Inventor)


    There is disclosed a high performance reflective mode liquid crystal light valve suitable for general image processing and projection and particularly suited for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. A preferred example of the device uses a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The non-coherent light image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the AC voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state (voltage off the liquid crystal) and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal thus modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out or projection light responsively to the non-coherent image. An analyzer is used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  11. Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals: From viscoelastic properties to living liquid crystals (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) represents a broad range of molecules, from organic dyes and drugs to DNA, that self-assemble into linear aggregates in water through face-to-face stacking. These linear aggregates of high aspect ratio are capable of orientational order, forming, for example nematic phase. Since the microscopic properties (such as length) of the chromonic aggregates are results of subtle balance between energy and entropy, the macroscopic viscoelastic properties of the nematic media are sensitive to change of external factors. In the first part of this thesis, by using dynamic light scattering and magnetic Frederiks transition techniques, we study the Frank elastic moduli and viscosity coefficients of LCLC disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and sunset yellow (SSY) as functions of concentration c , temperature T and ionic contents. The elastic moduli of splay (K1) and bend (K3) are in the order of 10pN, about 10 times larger than the twist modulus (K2). The splay modulus K1 and the ratio K1/K3 both increase substantially as T decreases or c increases, which we attribute to the elongation of linear aggregates at lower T or higher c . The bend viscosity is comparable to that of thermotropic liquid crystals, while the splay and twist viscosities are several orders of magnitude larger, changing exponentially with T . Additional ionic additives into the system influence the viscoelastic properties of these systems in a dramatic and versatile way. For example, monovalent salt NaCl decreases bend modulus K3 and increases twist viscosity, while an elevated pH decreases all the parameters. We attribute these features to the ion-induced changes in length and flexibility of building units of LCLC, the chromonic aggregates, a property not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals form by covalently bound units of fixed length. The second part of the thesis studies a new active bio-mechanical hybrid system called living liquid crystal

  12. Optical wave-mixing and photorefractivity in liquid crystals (United States)

    Ding, Jianwu

    Optical wave-mixing has a lot of applications such as optical amplification, adaptive optics, harmonic wave generation, and multi-photon microscopy. Photorefractivity has been utilized in many important applications including high density optical data storage, image processing, spatial light modulation, phase conjugation, and optical limiting. They have been investigated, theoretically and experimentally, in this thesis, in the contexts of stimulated orientational scattering and photorefractivity in liquid crystals. Stimulated orientational scattering is a unique optical wave-mixing phenomenon that a scattered noise beam, generated by liquid crystal director oscillation, gets amplified through its interaction with the transmitted beam and director reorientation grating under an intense laser illumination. In this research work, I developed the first steady-state SOS theory without the compromise of non-pump-depletion approximation. I successfully implemented polarization conversion in the infrared wavelength regime and the experimental observations agree well with our developed theory. The control of an external AC field to the stimulated orientational scattering was also experimentally investigated. Furthermore, I investigated the dynamics of this liquid crystal director reorientational process by analyzing the Fourier spectrum of the stimulated signal. The influence of a modulating AC field to the stimulated signal was also studied. The oscillating frequency of the liquid crystal director grating agreed with theoretically calculated characteristic frequency. In addition, I have theoretically and experimentally studied the photorefractivity in liquid crystals. Based on the transport band model, the generated space charge field was developed. With the help of an externally applied DC field, the space charge field is able to induce liquid crystal director reorientation and analytical solutions have been derived for both the director reorientational angle and the

  13. Liquid-crystal order during synthesis affects main-chain liquid-crystal elastomer behavior. (United States)

    Traugutt, N A; Volpe, R H; Bollinger, M S; Saed, M O; Torbati, A H; Yu, K; Dadivanyan, Natalia; Yakacki, C M


    This study presents the first direct comparison of the influence of liquid-crystal order during synthesis on the thermo-mechanical behaviors of main-chain liquid-crystal elastomers (LCEs) in thiol-acrylate networks. Six polydomain nematic elastomer (PNE) chemistries were compared directly by synthesizing with the mesogens in either an isotropic state (i-PNE) or a nematic state (n-PNE). The i-PNE networks were created in the presence of solvent, which disrupted any liquid-crystal order during network formation. Conversely, the n-PNE networks were created without the presence of solvent below the isotropic transition (TNI). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was first performed, and it showed that i-PNE networks experienced a clearly defined nematic-to-isotropic transition upon heating, whereas the transition in n-PNE networks was unable to be identified, which may be the result of a nematic-to-paranematic phase transition. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests revealed that while both networks maintained elevated loss tangent in the nematic region, only i-PNE networks prominently displayed dynamic soft elasticity behavior. The two-way shape switching behaviors of LCE networks were examined using actuation tests under a 100 kPa bias stress. It showed that the strain amplitude strongly depends on synthesis history; it ranges from 66% to 126% in i-PNE samples and 3% to 61% in n-PNE samples. To help interpret the different actuation strain behaviors between i-PNEs and n-PNEs, wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) was then performed where the LCE samples were strained to 40%. The results showed that order parameter (S) in n-PNE samples (ranging from 0.37 to 0.50) is lower than that in i-PNE samples (0.54 for all cases), and the parameter decreased as the cross-linking density increased. The stress-strain behaviors of the LCE networks measured from uniaxial tension tests revealed that all i-PNE samples had a lower soft-elasticity plateau during loading compared to the

  14. NMR studies of liquid crystals and molecules dissolved in liquid crystal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobny, Gary Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This thesis describes several studies in which nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy has been used to probe the structure, orientation and dynamics of liquid crystal mesogens and molecules dissolved in liquid crystalline phases. In addition, a modern high field nmr spectrometer is described which has been used to perform such nmr studies. Chapter 1 introduces the quantum mechanical formalisms used throughout this thesis and briefly reviews the fundamentals of nuclear spin physics and pulsed nmr spectroscopy. First the density operator is described and a specific form for the canonical ensemble is derived. Then Clebsch-Gordon coefficients, Wigner rotation matrices, and irreducible tensor operators are reviewed. An expression for the equilibrium (Curie) magnetization is obtained and the linear response of a spin system to a strong pulsed r.f. irradiation is described. Finally, the spin interaction Hamiltonians relevant to this work are reviewed together with their truncated forms. Chapter 2 is a deuterium magnetic resonance study of two 'nom' liquid crystals which possess several low temperature mesomorphic phases. Specifically, deuterium quadrupolar echo spectroscopy is used to determine the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules in smectic phases, the changes in molecular orientation and motion that occur at smectic-smectic phase transitions, and the order of the phase transitions. For both compounds, the phase sequence is determined to be isotropic, nematic, smectic A, smectic C, smectic BA, smectic BC, and crystalline. The structure of the smectic A phase is found to be consistent with the well-known model of a two dimensional liquid in which molecules are rapidly rotating about their long axes and oriented at right angles to the plane of the layers. Molecules in the smectic C phase are found to have their long axes tilted with respect to the layer normal, and the tilt angle is temperature dependent, increasing from

  15. Morphology Tuning of Electrospun Liquid Crystal/Polymer Fibers. (United States)

    Wang, Junren; Jákli, Antal; West, John L


    This paper elucidates the means to control precisely the morphology of electrospun liquid crystal/polymer fibers formed by phase separation. The relative humidity, solution parameters (concentration, solvent), and the process parameter (feed rate) were varied systematically. We show that the morphology of the phase-separated liquid crystal can be continuously tuned from capsules to uniform fibers with systematic formation of beads-on-a-string structured fibers in the intermediate ranges. In all cases, the polymer forms a sheath around a liquid-crystal (LC) core. The width of the polymer sheath and the diameter of the LC core increase with increasing feed rates. This is similar to the results obtained by coaxial electrospinning. Because these fibers retain the responsive properties of liquid crystals and because of their large surface area, they have potential applications as thermo-, chemo-, and biosensors. Because the size and shape of the liquid-crystal domains will have a profound effect on the performance of the fibers, our ability to precisely control morphology will be crucial in developing these applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Photonics of liquid-crystal structures: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail:; Blinov, L. M.; Barnik, M. I.; Lazarev, V. V.; Umanskii, B. A.; Shtykov, N. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)


    The original results of studies of the electro-optical and laser effects which have been performed at the Laboratory of Liquid Crystals of the Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, over the last few years are reviewed. Cholesteric liquid crystals as vivid representatives of photonic structures and their behavior in an electric field are considered in detail. The formation of higher harmonics in the periodic distribution of the director field in a helical liquid crystal structure and, correspondingly, the new (anharmonic) mode of electro-optical effects are discussed. Another group of studies is devoted to bistable light switching by an electric field in chiral nematics. Polarization diffraction gratings controlled by an electric field are also considered. The results of studies devoted to microlasers on various photonic structures with cholesteric and nematic liquid crystals are considered in detail. Particular attention is given to the new regime: leaky-mode lasing. Designs of liquid crystal light amplifiers and their polarization, field, and spectral characteristics are considered in the last section.

  17. Quantum Dot/Liquid Crystal Nanocomposites in Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Rodarte


    Full Text Available Quantum dot/liquid crystal nano-composites are promising new materials for a variety of applications in energy harvesting, displays and photonics including the liquid crystal laser. To realize many applications, however, we need to control and stabilize nano-particle dispersion in different liquid crystal host phases and understand how the particles behave in an anisotropic fluid. An ideal system will allow for the controlled assembly of either well-defined nano-particle clusters or a uniform particle distribution. In this paper, we investigate mesogen-functionalized quantum dots for dispersion in cholesteric liquid crystal. These nanoparticles are known to assemble into dense stable packings in the nematic phase, and such structures, when localized in the liquid crystal defects, can potentially enhance the coupling between particles and a cholesteric cavity. Controlling the dispersion and assembly of quantum dots using mesogenic surface ligands, we demonstrate how resonant fluid photonic cavities can result from the co-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles in the presence of cholesteric liquid crystalline ordering.

  18. Theory of polymer-dispersed cholesteric liquid crystals. (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko


    A mean field theory is presented to describe cholesteric phases in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal. Taking into account an anisotropic coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal, we examine the helical pitch, twist elastic constant, and phase separations. Analytical expressions of the helical pitch of a cholesteric phase and the twist elastic constant are derived as a function of the orientational order parameters of a polymer and a liquid crystal and two intermolecular interaction parameters. We also find isotropic-cholesteric, cholesteric-cholesteric phase separations, and polymer-induced cholesteric phase on the temperature-concentration plane. We demonstrate that an anisotropic coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal can stabilize a cholesteric phase in the mixtures. Our theory can also apply to mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant. We discuss the helical twisting power, which depends on temperature, concentration, and orientational order parameters. It is shown that our theory can qualitatively explain experimental observations.

  19. Novel Microstructures for Polymer-Liquid Crystal Composite Materials (United States)

    Magda, Jules J.


    There are a number of interface-dominated composite materials that contain a liquid crystalline (LC) phase in intimate contact with an isotropic phase. For example, polymer- dispersed liquid crystals, used in the fabrication of windows with switchable transparency, consist of micron size LC droplets dispersed in an isotropic polymer matrix. Many other types of liquid crystal composite materials can be envisioned that might have outstanding optical properties that could be exploited in novel chemical sensors, optical switches, and computer displays. This research project was based on the premise that many of these potentially useful LC composite materials can only be fabricated under microgravity conditions where gravity driven flows are absent. In the ground-based research described below, we have focused on a new class of LC composites that we call thermotropic- lyotropic liquid crystal systems (TLLCs). TLLCs consist of nanosize droplets of water dispersed in an LC matrix, with surfactants at the interface that stabilize the structure. By varying the type of surfactant one can access almost an infinite variety of unusual LC composite microstructures. Due to the importance of the interface in these types of systems, we have also developed molecular simulation models for liquid crystals at interfaces, and made some of the first measurements of the interfacial tension between liquid crystals and water.

  20. Liquid Crystal Foams Generated by Pressure-Driven Microfluidic Devices. (United States)

    Shi, Shuojia; Yokoyama, Hiroshi


    Thermotropic liquid crystals possess superior foaming capability without the aid of surfactants because of the anisotropic molecular structures. We developed a T-junction microfluidic device to inject gas bubbles of uniform size into a liquid crystal in the nematic and the smectic phases. The bubble size is primarily determined by the dimension of microfluidic channel regardless of the phase, and air bubbles of a few tens of micrometer diameter were stably injected at the rate up to 110 Hz to the close packing density with a polydispersity less than 4%. It is shown that an efficient path to fabricate stable liquid crystal foams is to inject bubbles in the nematic phase, where the highest injection rate is possible, and promptly cool it down to the smectic phase.

  1. Liquid crystals. Oligomeric and polymeric materials for soft photonic technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, M J


    The current pace of today's information technologies might lead the casual observer to believe that this is all new. However the reality is that, as with most things, this is really a long evolution of processes based on tried, tested and re-adapted techniques. This thesis represents 12 years of predominantly technology driven research and covers a whole range of characterising, evaluating and fabricating devices based on liquid crystalline systems. Firstly polymer liquid crystals are discussed with respect to the fabrication of a flexible substrate display based on standard printing techniques and this is shown to have improved display viewing properties over a standard polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device. Following on from this work is presented that involves the production of regular grid arrays in isotropic polymers that are used as control structures in nematic liquid crystal systems. This progresses onto a now patented device that allows the production of robust ferroelectric devices based on...

  2. Supercontinuum generation in fibers infiltrated with liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bang, Ole; Lægsgaard, Jesper


    Supercontinuum generation in a capillary tube infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal is investigated theoretically in the near infrared region. A liquid crystal with a high electronic nonlinearity is chosen, which makes it possible to generate 100 nm wide supercontinua using IO ps pulses...... with peak power 1.5 kW in a 10 cm long waveguide. The possibility of tuning the spectrum of the generated Supercontinuum by changing the dispersion of the waveguide is also considered. It is found that the broadening of the spectrum in both the normal and anomalous regime is mainly due to self phase...... modulation, and therefore the dispersion of the waveguide is only of minor importance. The tuning of the dispersion is achieved by varying the temperature of the liquid crystal inside the capillary...

  3. Scattering light interference from liquid crystal polymer dispersion films (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Yen; Tsai, Ming-Shann; Lin, Chi-Huang; Fuh, Andy Y.


    The Quetelet-type ring pattern is observed in liquid crystal polymer dispersion (LCPD) films. The clusters of the polymer network and liquid crystal (LC) domains with different director axes in the LCPD films serve as scatterers. Cells with unidirectional and multidirectional rubbins are fabricated. Experimental results show that the polarization of incident light, the applied voltage and the ambient temperature significantly affect the ring intensities. However, the contribution of the LC domains is not evident until the voltage is applied. Finally, rubbing the cells in multiple directions reveals that measurement of the Quetelet-type ring intensity can be used to readily identify the orientation of the liquid crystals. This finding also reveals that the LCs in an LCPD mixture are aligned closer to the final rubbing direction than are pure LCs in a multidirectional rubbed cell. A simple model was proposed to explain the observations.

  4. Fast response and transparent optically isotropic liquid crystal diffraction grating. (United States)

    Manda, Ramesh; Pagidi, Srinivas; Bhattacharyya, Surjya Sarathi; Park, Chul Ho; Lim, Young Jin; Gwag, Jin Seog; Lee, Seung Hee


    We have demonstrated an electrically tunable less polarization sensitive and fast response nanostructured polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) diffraction grating. Fabricated nano-PDLC is optically transparent in visible wavelength regime. The optical isotropic nature was increased by minimizing the liquid crystal droplet size below visible wavelength thereby eliminated scattering. Diffraction properties of in-plane switching (IPS) and fringe-field switching (FFS) cells were measured and compared with one another up to four orders. We have obtained a pore-type polymer network constructed by highly interlinked polymer beads at which the response time is improved by strong interaction of liquid crystal molecules with polymer beads at interface. The diffraction pattern obtained by transparent nano-PDLC film has several interesting properties such as less polarization dependence and fast response. This device can be used as transparent tunable diffractor along with other photonic application.

  5. Optimization of electrically tunable VCSEL with intracavity nematic liquid crystal. (United States)

    Belmonte, Carlos; Frasunkiewicz, Leszek; Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Thienpont, Hugo; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; Panajotov, Krassimir


    We optimize the wavelength tuning range of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with an intracavity layer of nematic Liquid Crystal (LC-VCSEL) lasing around 1.3 μm. The tunability is obtained by applying voltage to the liquid crystal layer, which esentially is to vary the refractive index from the extraordinary to the ordinary. We achieve 71.6 nm continuous tuning (without mode hopping) with liquid crystal thickness of about 3.2 μm. We investigate the impact of ambient temperature on the LC-VCSEL tuning range and show that mode-hop tuning can be achieved in the temperature range from -10°C to 50°C where the LC is in nematic phase.

  6. Ellipsometric study of vertically aligned nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Marino, A.; Santamato, E.; Bennis, N.; Quintana, X.; Otón, J. M.; Tkachenko, V.; Abbate, G.


    The director tilt angle distribution in vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays has been investigated by means of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Liquid crystal vertical alignment has been realized by thermal evaporation of SiOx. By changing the deposition angle, it is possible to control the pretilt angle. The director profile inside the sample was inferred by reflection and transmission ellipsometric measurements. The tilt angle distribution inside the cell versus the applied voltage is reported and eventually, comparing it with the simulations from the elastic theory, the anchoring energy has been obtained.

  7. Observations of dynamic stall phenomena using liquid crystal coatings (United States)

    Reda, Daniel C.


    Novel, shear stress-sensitive/temperature-insensitive liquid crystal coatings have been applied to the surface of an oscillating airfoil in order to ascertain the unsteady fluid physics associated with the dynamic-stall process. Surface microtufts and laser sheet/smoke-particle flow visualization were used to compare the liquid-crystal results. Boundary-layer transition and turbulent separation locations were measured as a function of geometric angle of attack. The results obtained are compared with Eppler (1980) aerodynamic design code predictions.

  8. A Microwave Tunable Bandpass Filter for Liquid Crystal Applications (United States)

    Cao, Weiping; Jiang, Di; Liu, Yupeng; Yang, Yuanwang; Gan, Baichuan


    In this paper, a novel microwave continuously tunable band-pass filter, based on nematic liquid crystals (LCs), is proposed. It uses liquid crystal (LC) as the electro-optic material to mainly realize frequency shift at microwave band by changing the dielectric anisotropy, when applying the bias voltage. According to simulation results, it achieves 840 MHz offset. Comparing to the existing tunable filter, it has many advantages, such as continuously tunable, miniaturization, low processing costs, low tuning voltage, etc. Thus, it has shown great potentials in frequency domain and practical applications in modern communication.

  9. Compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm.......An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm....

  10. A Review of Polymer-Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking


    Full Text Available The polymer stabilized state of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC is reviewed; and the effect of a dispersed polymer network in an FLC outlined and discussed. All fundamental material aspects are demonstrated; such as director tilt angle; spontaneous polarization; response time and viscosity; as well as the dielectric modes. It was found that the data can largely be explained by assuming an elastic interaction between the polymer network strands and the liquid crystal molecules. The elastic interaction parameter was determined; and increases linearly with increasing polymer concentration.

  11. A Review of Polymer-Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals. (United States)

    Dierking, Ingo


    The polymer stabilized state of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) is reviewed; and the effect of a dispersed polymer network in an FLC outlined and discussed. All fundamental material aspects are demonstrated; such as director tilt angle; spontaneous polarization; response time and viscosity; as well as the dielectric modes. It was found that the data can largely be explained by assuming an elastic interaction between the polymer network strands and the liquid crystal molecules. The elastic interaction parameter was determined; and increases linearly with increasing polymer concentration.

  12. A study on interfacial tension between flexible polymer and liquid crystal. (United States)

    Wu, Youjun; Yu, Wei; Zhou, Chixing


    The interfacial property in polymer-liquid crystal systems is quite different from flexible polymer-polymer mixtures due to the anisotropic properties of liquid crystals. The apparent interfacial tension between a liquid crystal and a flexible polymer was measured by deformed droplet retraction method. The deformation and recovery of a single liquid crystal droplet dispersed in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix were realized by a transient shear flow and observed by polarized optical microscope. The apparent interfacial tension of polymer-liquid crystal system was found to be greatly dependent on the temperature, initial droplet deformation and liquid crystal droplet size.

  13. Page 1 Hydrodynamics of cholesteric liquid crystals 337 which ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Also this has temperature and density fluctuations associated with it. 4.2 Permeation effects. (1) Plug flow: Cholesteric liquid crystals exhibit enormous viscosities in capillary flow. (Porter et al 1966). This may be interpreted to mean that the viscosity coefficients O's are large. However, as was first suggested by Helfrich (1969; ...

  14. Hydrothermal decomposition of liquid crystal in subcritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Xuning [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Cooperative Centre for WEEE Recycling, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, No. 2360 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); He, Wenzhi, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Lu, Shangming; Hou, Lianjiao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Highlights: • Hydrothermal technology can effectively decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl. • The decomposition rate reached 97.6% under the optimized condition. • Octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl was mainly decomposed into simple and innocuous products. • The mechanism analysis reveals the decomposition reaction process. - Abstract: Treatment of liquid crystal has important significance for the environment protection and human health. This study proposed a hydrothermal process to decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl. Experiments were conducted with a 5.7 mL stainless tube reactor and heated by a salt-bath. Factors affecting the decomposition rate of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl were evaluated with HPLC. The decomposed liquid products were characterized by GC-MS. Under optimized conditions i.e., 0.2 mL H{sub 2}O{sub 2} supply, pH value 6, temperature 275 °C and reaction time 5 min, 97.6% of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl was decomposed into simple and environment-friendly products. Based on the mechanism analysis and products characterization, a possible hydrothermal decomposition pathway was proposed. The results indicate that hydrothermal technology is a promising choice for liquid crystal treatment.

  15. Synthesis of liquid-crystal vanadyl complex with Schiff base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galyametdinov, Yu.G.; Ivanova, G.I.; Ovchinnikov, I.V. (AN SSSR, Kazan. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)


    The paramagnetic Schiff base vanadyl (4) complex (4-octiloxy-N-(2-hydroxy-4-heptyloxybenziliden aniline) possessing liquid-crystal properties is obtained. The complex is synthesized by heating Schiff base with vanadyl acetate in absolute ethanol with the 65% yield. The IR and EPR spectra are measured.

  16. Orientational bistability in ferronematic liquid crystals with negative diamagnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhlevnykh, A.N., E-mail:; Petrov, D.A.


    In the framework of continuum theory we study magnetic field induced orientational transitions in a ferronematic, i.e. suspension of single-domain magnetic particles in a nematic liquid crystal. We consider the case of negative diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy of a liquid crystal and soft planar coupling of impurity particles with a liquid crystal matrix. We found tricritical behavior of the threshold transition in a magnetic field from perturbed state into uniform planar state. This transition can be the first or second order, depending on the parameter of the magnetic phase segregation. We analytically derive the expression for the tricritical segregation parameter that determines the character of a transition. We show that ferronematic has a large magneto-optical non-linearity which is the result of the director reorientation under external field. Comparison of results of numerical calculations with experimental data has been carried out. - Highlights: • We study orientational and magnetooptical properties of ferronematics. • We obtain the phase diagram for soft coupling of nanoparticles and liquid crystal. • We examine the character of magnetic field induced orientational transitions. • We found tricritical behavior of the transition from perturbed to uniform state. • We study the optical phase lag and the capacity of ferronematic cell.

  17. Cholesteric carbohydrate liquid crystals incorporating an intact glucopyranose moiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Kellogg, R.M; van Doren, H.A.


    Recently, the first monosaccharide derivatives containing a fully intact monosaccharide and two vicinal OH-groups which display thermotropic chiral mesophases were synthesized. These liquid crystals have a rigid core, with a trans-decalin-like skeleton incorporating the D-glucopyranose ring,

  18. Pixel size and pitch measurements of liquid crystal spatial light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a simple technique for the determination of pixel size and pitch of liquid crystal (LC) based spatial light modulator (SLM). The proposed method is based on optical diffraction from pixelated LC panel that has been modeled as a two-dimensional array of rectangular apertures. A novel yet simple, two-plane ...

  19. Advances in chemical physics advances in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya; Vij, Jagdish K


    Prigogine and Rice's highly acclaimed series, Advances in Chemical Physics, provides a forum for critical, authoritative reviews of current topics in every area of chemical physics. Edited by J.K. Vij, this volume focuses on recent advances in liquid crystals with significant, up-to-date chapters authored by internationally recognized researchers in the field.

  20. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi


    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  1. Lasing from dye-doped planar cholesteric liquid crystal devices (United States)

    Wu, Ri-na; Dai, Qin; Yan, Bin; Liu, Yan-juan; Xu, Song-ning; Quan, Wei


    The lasing action of dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) cell was investigated in this work. A planar state was prepared by antiparallel rubbing process ITO glasses with polymide layer coating. The dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal mixture was used by mixing a laser dye DCM, a chiral agent CB15 and a nematic liquid crystal TEB30A. A second harmonic Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser (λ=532nm) was used as the pumping source. A sharp peak was measured at 611 nm in the cell-normal direction and cell-plane direction after reaching threshold pump energy. The least full width of half maximum (FWHM) were about 10 nm and 12 nm. The optical structure of the device was investigated upon applied voltage. The results show that planar state of the CLCs is a prerequisite for the generation of lasing emission. So laser emission attributed to the photonic band gap (Bragg mode) in the cell-normal direction in which the helical axis exists. Due to the waveguide structure formed by the liquid crystal sandwiched between glass substrates (ne=1.522, no=1.692>ng=1.50), quasi-in-plane leaky lasing modes exist in the cell-plane direction.

  2. H-Bond stabilized columnar discotic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraschiv, I.


    Since 1977, more than 2300 publications on discotic (disk-like) liquid crystalline materials have appeared. Discotic liquid crystals, which usually consist of polyaromatic molecules surrounded by long peripheral alkyl tails, can form liquid crystalline mesophases in a wide temperature range. Within

  3. Thermal and Optical Characterization of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Shanks


    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are compounds that display order in the liquid state above the melting temperature and below the mesogenic isotropic temperature. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs are composite materials in which liquid crystalline material is dispersed within a polymer matrix to form micron-sized droplets. The aim was to prepare several cholesteryl esters or alkoxybenzoic acid PDLCs and characterise thermal and optical properties. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy were employed. The matrix polymer was a one-component UV-curable epoxy-acrylate resin. PDLCs were formed through entropy controlled phase separation resulting from UV-initiated crosslinking. The liquid crystals, both as mesogenic moieties and as dispersed droplets, exhibited various textures according to their molecular order and orientation. These textures formed in constrained regions separated by phase boundaries that occurred at temperatures characteristic of each liquid crystal used. The PDLC phase transitions occurred at temperatures lower than those exhibited by the mesogenic components in the neat state.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid crystals at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Shield, M


    Molecular dynamics simulations of an atomistic model of 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) were performed for thin films of 8CB on solid substrates (a pseudopotential representation of the molecular topography of the (100) crystal surface of polyethylene (PE), a highly ordered atomistic model of a pseudo-crystalline PE surface and an atomistic model of a partially orientated film of PE), free standing thin films of 8CB and 8CB droplets in a hexagonal pit. The systems showed strong homeotropic anchoring at the free volume interface and planar anchoring at the solid interface whose strength was dependent upon the surface present. The free volume interface also demonstrated weak signs of smectic wetting of the bulk. Simulations of thin free standing films of liquid crystals showed the ordered nature of the liquid crystals at the two free volume interfaces can be adopted by the region of liquid crystal molecules between the homeotropic layer at each interface only if there is a certain number of liquid crystal mole...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2982 - Liquid crystal thermographic system. (United States)


    ... breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered liquid crystal... screening for detection of breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or an... for detection of breast cancer or other uses is a nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered device...

  6. Aggregation Properties of the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Benzopurpurin 4B (United States)

    McKitterick, Christopher; Collings, Peter


    Benzopurpurin 4B (BPP) is a textile dye very similar to the common indicator Congo Red. As is true for all chromonics, the absorption spectrum is concentration dependent at low concentrations. If this dependence is used to estimate a free energy change for aggregation, it is higher than has been determined for other systems. Unlike other recently investigated chromonic liquid crystals, BPP forms a liquid crystal phase at extremely low concentrations, about 0.5 wt%. Also unlike these other chromonic liquid crystals, the aggregation kinetics are exceedingly slow. X-ray diffraction and light scattering measurements indicate that the aggregates of BPP are much larger than for chromonic systems that form liquid crystals at higher concentrations. BPP aggregates can be imaged using confocal microscopy, revealing a length distribution centered at 3 μm for a solution forced through a 0.2 μm filter. Over days the aggregates lengthen to well over 10 μm. The diameter of the aggregate images is slightly greater than the diffraction limit of the microscope, placing an upper limit on the diameter of 0.14 μm. These dimensions are consistent with the light scattering results.


    This interactive CD was produced to present the science, research activities, and beneficial environmental and machining advantages for utilizing Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCPs) as a machine fluid in the manufacturing industry.In 1995, the USEPA funded a project to cut flu...

  8. Ordering in nematic liquid crystals from NMR cross-polarization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... The measurement of dipolar couplings between nuclei is a convenient way of obtatining directly liquid crystalline ordering through NMR since the coupling is dependent on the average orientation of the dipolar vector in the magnetic field which also aligns the liquid crystal. However, measurement of the ...

  9. Ordering in nematic liquid crystals from NMR cross-polarization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The measurement of dipolar couplings between nuclei is a convenient way of obtatining directly liquid crystalline ordering through NMR since the coupling is dependent on the average orientation of the dipolar vector in the magnetic field which also aligns the liquid crystal. However, measurement of the dipolar ...

  10. A linear polymerized photopolymer orienting a nematic liquid crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    formalism. OZHAN KAYACAN. Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, ..... To this end, we used De Jeu's expression for ∆n = n − n⊥ [15], which is used elsewhere [5]; this ... of the orientational degrees of freedom of the liquid crystal molecules to the entropy of the system. Therefore, the ...

  11. Bidimensional distortion in ferroelectric liquid crystals with strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... In the last decade, it has been experimentally found that in certain conditions a periodic domain pattern arises in ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) in bookshelf geometry. Such a periodic texture appears after switching-off an external electric field, even in strong anchoring conditions. It has a static character ...

  12. Nonlinear response studies and corrections for a liquid crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    portant in several optical processing and imaging applications, is suggested. Further, the necessity to compensate the SLM image nonlinearities in a volume holographic data storage and retrieval system is demonstrated. Keywords. Liquid crystal spatial light modulator; holographic data storage; optical image processing.

  13. Red blood cells aligning inside innovative liquid crystal cell (United States)

    Likhomanova, S. V.; Kamanin, A. A.; Kamanina, N. V.


    Investigation results of red blood cells (human erythrocytes) aligning and fixing inside the liquid crystal (LC) cell have been presented in the present paper. LC cells have been modified through the improved nanostructured relief and LC sensitized with intermolecular charge transfer complex COANP-C70.

  14. Nanoscience with liquid crystals from self-organized nanostructures to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan


    This book focuses on the exciting topic of nanoscience with liquid crystals: from self-organized nanostructures to applications. The elegant self-organized liquid crystalline nanostructures, the synergetic characteristics of liquid crystals and nanoparticles, liquid crystalline nanomaterials, synthesis of nanomaterials using liquid crystals as templates, nanoconfinement and nanoparticles of liquid crystals are covered and discussed, and the prospect of fabricating functional materials is highlighted. Contributions, collecting the scattered literature of the field from leading and active player

  15. Synthesis and mesomorphic properties of rigid-core ionic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwer, P.H.J.; Swager, T.M.


    Ionic liquid crystals combine the unique solvent properties of ionic liquids with self-organization found for liquid crystals. We report a detailed analysis of the structure-property relationship of a series of new imidazolium-based liquid crystals with an extended aromatic core. Investigated

  16. Colorimetric qualification of shear sensitive liquid crystal coatings (United States)

    Muratore, Joseph J., Jr.


    The work that has been done to date on the Shear Sensitive Liquid Crystal Project demonstrated that cholesteric liquid crystal coatings respond to both the direction and magnitude of a shearing force. The response of the coating is to selectively scatter incident white light into a spectrum of colors. Discernible color changes at a fixed angle of observation and illumination are the result of an applied shear stress. The intention was to be able to convert these observable color patterns from a flow visualization technique into a quantitative tool. One of the earlier intentions was to be able to use liquid crystals in dynamic flow fields. This was assumed possible because liquid crystals had made it possible to visualize transients in surface shear forces. Although the transients were visualized by color changes to an order one micro second, the time response of a coating to align to a shearing force is dependent on the magnitude of the change between its initial and final states. Unfortunately, the response is not instantaneous. It is for this reason any future attempt at quantifying the magnitude and directions of a shearing force are limited to surface shear stress vector fields in three dimensional steady state flows. This limitation does not significantly detract from the utility of liquid crystal coatings. The measurement of skin friction in the study of transition on wings, prediction of drag forces, performance assessment, and the investigation of boundary layer behavior is of great importance in aerodynamics. There exist numerous examples of techniques for the measurement of surface shear stress. Most techniques require arduous calibrations and necessitate extensive preparation of the receiving surfaces. However, the main draw back of instruments such as Preston tubes, hot films, buried wire gages, and floating element balances is that they only provide a point measurement. The advantages of capturing global shear data would be appreciable when compared

  17. Switching of liquid crystal devices between reflective and transmissive modes (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Chi; Wang, Chih-Hung

    Transflective liquid crystal displays (LCD) are commonly known that each pixel is divided into reflective (R) and transmissive (T) subpixels. The R mode uses ambient light, while the T mode utilizes a backlight to display images. However, the division of the pixel decreases the light efficiency and the resolution. This study demonstrates a gelator-doped liquid crystal (LC) devices, that is switchable between R and T modes, without sub-pixel division. The R and T modes are designed to have bend configurations with phase retardation of π/2 and π, respectively. The phase retardation of a LC device can be varied and fixed by the thermoreversible association and dissociation of the gelator molecules. It is believed that the proposed device is a potential candidate for portable information systems.

  18. High-speed imaging polarimetry using liquid crystal modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambs P.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with dynamic polarimetric imaging techniques. The basics of modern polarimetry have been known for one and a half century, but no practical high-speed implementation providing the full polarization information is currently available. Various methods are reviewed which prove to be a trade-off between the complexity of the optical set-up and the amount of polarimetric information they provide (ie the number of components of the Stokes vector. Techniques using liquid crystal devices, incepted in the late 1990's, are emphasized. Optical set-ups we implemented are presented. We particularly focus on high-speed techniques (i.e. faster than 200 Hz using ferroelectric liquid crystal devices.

  19. Subwavelength coupling strengthened optical amplification in nematic liquid crystal cells (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Xue, Tingyu; Su, Hang; Wang, Yingce; Zhang, Jingwen


    We observed strikingly different first reflection dynamics of two counter-propagating laser beams passing through a wedge-shaped C60-doped liquid crystal cell sandwiched between two ZnSe-coated ITO glass plates without applied electric field, suggesting a strong subwavelength energy coupling between light beams. Exponential gain coefficient as high as 10 574 cm-1 was obtained from the 1.1 μm-thick portion of the cell under applied voltage U0 = 3.0 V, consisting with the subwavelength coupling picture. Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) supporting layer is identified by considering dipolar properties of liquid crystal molecules that are well aligned. The specific features in energy coupling dynamics and 2D diffraction patterns perceived suggest that SPP mediated coupling is responsible for all the findings.

  20. Liquid crystal polymer substrate based wideband tapered step antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boddapati Taraka Phani MADHAV


    Full Text Available Performance study of wideband tapered step antenna on liquid crystal polymer substrate material is presented. Bandwidth enhancement is achieved by adding step serrated ground on the front side of the model along with the radiating patch. The radiating patch seems to be the intersection of two half circles connected back to back. The lower half circle radius is more than upper half circle radius. Wideband tapered step antenna is designed on the liquid crystal polymer substrate (Ultralam 3850, εr = 2.9 with dimensions of 20×20×0.5 mm. Coplanar waveguide feeding is used in this model with feed line width of 2.6 mm and gap between feed line to ground plane of 0.5 mm.

  1. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buis, E.J., E-mail: [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Berkhout, G.C.G. [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huygens Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Love, G.D.; Kirby, A.K.; Taylor, J.M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hannemann, S.; Collon, M.J. [cosine Research BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)


    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (10{sup 10}p/cm{sup 2}). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  2. Skin friction measurement with partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals (United States)

    Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.


    Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film (10-25 microns) deposited on a flat glass substrate has been used for the first time to measure skin friction. Utilizing the shear-stress-induced director reorientation in the partially exposed liquid-crystal droplets, optical transmission under crossed polarization has been measured as a function of the air flow differential pressure. Direct measurement of the skin friction with a skin friction drag balance, under the same aerodynamic conditions, lets us correlate the skin friction with optical transmission. This provides a unique technique for the direct measurement of skin friction from the transmitted light intensity. The results are in excellent agreement with the model suggested in this paper.

  3. Study of the properties of liquid crystals modified by nanoparticles (United States)

    Kalashnikov, S. V.; Romanov, N. A.; Nomoev, A. V.


    The dielectric anisotropy and the response time of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films mixed with various nanoparticles were measured. The different types of nanoparticles used included metallic, dielectric, and biphasic core-shell or Janus type nanoparticles. Two methods were used for the determination of the dielectric anisotropy: a bridge method and a current-voltage method. The dipole moments of the nanoparticles were measured by the method of diluted solutions (Debye method). It was shown that the dielectric anisotropy plays a crucial role in the electro-optical properties of modified liquid crystals which in turn depend on the dipole moment and thus on the physical nature of the introduced nanoparticles.

  4. Self-assembly of nematic liquid crystal elastomer filaments (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Shao; Xia, Yu; Yang, Shu; Yodh, A. G.

    In this work we investigate the self-assembly of nematic liquid crystal polymer (NLCP) filaments and their corresponding cross-linked elastomer structures. Specifically, by fine-tuning surfactant concentration, prepolymer chain length, and temperature within a background aqueous phase we can generate filaments composed of oligomerized LC monomers. Filaments with narrowly dispersed diameters ranging from one hundred nanometers to a few micrometers can be obtained. Using polarization optical microscopy, we show that the nematic LCs within the filaments have an escaped radial structure. After photo-cross-linking, nematic liquid crystal elastomer filaments are obtained with well-maintained directors and smooth surface structure. Since these materials are elastomers, the size and mechanical and optical response of the filaments can be ''tuned'' near the nematic to isotropic phase transition temperature. This work is supported by NSF DMR16-07378, PENN MRSEC Grant DMR11-20901, and NASA Grant NNX08AO0G.

  5. A liquid crystal biosensor for specific detection of antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Popov


    Full Text Available Following the principle of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA pathogen detection method, we demonstrate specific sensing of goat Immunoglobulin G (IgG by a nematic liquid crystal material. Sensing occurs via the visually-striking realignment of a pre-fabricated liquid crystal film, suspended in grids and coated with biotinylated lipids followed by biotinylated anti-goat IgG. Realignment occurs when the targeted goat IgG is added to the cell, but not when rat or rabbit serum IgG is added to the same surface. In principle, this method can be generalized to provide an inexpensive, fast and sensitive prefabricated sensor for any pathogen.

  6. Domain Structures in Nematic Liquid Crystals on a Polycarbonate Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily F. Shabanov


    Full Text Available Alignment of nematic liquid crystals on polycarbonate films obtained with the use of solvents with different solvations is studied. Domain structures occurring during the growth on the polymer surface against the background of the initial thread-like or schlieren texture are demonstrated. It is established by optical methods that the domains are stable formations visualizing the polymer surface structures. In nematic droplets, the temperature-induced transition from the domain structure with two extinction bands to the structure with four bands is observed. This transition is shown to be caused by reorientation of the nematic director in the liquid crystal volume from the planar alignment to the homeotropic state with the pronounced radial configuration of nematic molecules on the surface. The observed textures are compared with different combinations of the volume LC orientations and the radial distribution of the director field and the disclination lines at the polycarbonate surface.

  7. Infiltration liquid crystal in microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wei, Lei; Bang, Ole


    POF is butt-coupled to a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) with the broadband light from a supercontinuum source. It is clear to see the colour of the guided modes is red, since some wavelengths are attenuated by the material loss of PMMA in visible region. A positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal E......7 is then infiltrated into about 6 cm of the length of mPOF by using capillary forces with the duration of 45 minutes. The transmission spectrum is measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with 1 nm resolution, and normalized to that of the unfilled fiber as shown by the solid line. The difference......Here, we firstly demonstrate the photonic bandgap effect with PMMA mPOF by filling the air holes with liquid crystal, and subsequently change the light guidance mechanism from index guiding to bandgap guiding. The triangular structure PMMA mPOF used in the experiment is fabricated. A 60 cm length m...

  8. Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films For Light Control Applications (United States)

    Montgomery, G. P.


    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films, comprised of liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in polymer matrices, are attractive for a variety of indoor and outdoor light control applications since they can be switched electrically from a light-scattering off-state to a transparent on-state. This paper reviews the electro-optic properties of PDLC films which govern their performance in such diverse applications as electronic information displays, signs, room dividers, and solar energy control in buildings and automobiles. Factors governing the operating temperature range of PDLC films will be identified and temperature-dependent transmittance and response-time characteristics of these films will be presented. Spectral transmittance characteristics will be discussed and used to determine contrast ratios of PDLC films. Dual frequency addressing of PDLC films will be demonstrated and shown to be a viable technique for increasing contrast ratio of PDLC displays. Solar attenuation properties of PDLC films will be reviewed.

  9. Optical switching of near infrared light transmission in metamaterial-liquid crystal cell structure. (United States)

    Kang, Boyoung; Woo, J H; Choi, E; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Kim, E S; Kim, J; Hwang, Tae-Jong; Park, Young-Soon; Kim, D H; Wu, J W


    A metamaterial-liquid crystal cell structure is fabricated with the metamaterial as one of the liquid crystal alignment layers. Nano-sized double-split ring resonator in the metamaterial accommodates two distinct resonances in the near infrared regime. By adopting an azo-nematic liquid crystal in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell structure, a photo-isomerization process is utilized to achieve an optical switching of light transmissions between two resonances. A single device of the metamaterial-liquid crystal cell structure has a potential application in the photonic switching in optical fiber telecommunications.

  10. Polymerization in Liquid Crystal Medium: Preparation of Polythiophene Derivatives Bearing a Bulky Pyrimidine Substituent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Goto


    Full Text Available We carried out polycondensation of monomers bearing a bulky pyrimidine substituent in a liquid crystal solvent. The resultant polymers formed nematic liquid crystals. The polymers prepared in liquid crystals had higher coplanarity than the polymers prepared in toluene. This can be due to the fact that the ordered medium of the liquid crystal produces an aggregated structure with well-developed π-stacking between the main chains. The present results demonstrated that polymerization of bulky monomers is possible in liquid crystal solvents.

  11. Induced orientational behavior of liquid crystal polymer by carbon fibers (United States)

    Chung, T. S.; Gurion, Z.; Stamatoff, J. B.


    Experimental results are presented that show that the structure of carbon fibers induces molecular orientation of liquid crystal polymers. X-ray diffraction data are used to demonstrate final collinearity of the polymer molecular axis and carbon fiber axis independent of fabrication approaches or prefabrication orientation of the polymer relative to the carbon fiber direction. The final degree of polymer molecular orientation approximately equals the degree of carbon basal plane orientation within the carbon fiber.

  12. Single Molecule Studies on Dynamics in Liquid Crystals


    Daniela Täuber; Christian von Borczyskowski


    Single molecule (SM) methods are able to resolve structure related dynamics of guest molecules in liquid crystals (LC). Highly diluted small dye molecules on the one hand explore structure formation and LC dynamics, on the other hand they report about a distortion caused by the guest molecules. The anisotropic structure of LC materials is used to retrieve specific conformation related properties of larger guest molecules like conjugated polymers. This in particular sheds light on organization...

  13. Localized soft elasticity in liquid crystal elastomers (POSTPRINT) (United States)


    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0280 LOCALIZED SOFT ELASTICITY IN LIQUID CRYSTAL ELASTOMER (POSTPRINT) Taylor H. Ware, Andreas F. Shick, and...should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11 August 2015 Interim 31 January 2014 – 11 July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LOCALIZED SOFT

  14. Supercoiled DNA; plectonemic structure and liquid crystal formation

    CERN Document Server

    Maarel, J R C; Jesse, W; Backendorf, C; Egelhaaf, S U; Lapp, A


    We have investigated the phase behaviour of pUC18 plasmid solutions with phase separation experiments and polarized light microscopy. Furthermore, the configuration of the superhelix is monitored with small-angle neutron scattering. The phase diagram is interpreted with liquid crystal theory including the effects of charge, orientation entropy, excluded volume, as well as the elastic, entropic and electrostatic contributions to the molecular free energy.

  15. Liquid Crystals Viscous and Elastic Properties in Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Sergey V; Shmeliova, Dina V


    Covering numerous practical applications as yet not covered in any single source of information, this monograph discusses the importance of viscous and elastic properties for applications in both display and non-display technologies. The very well-known authors are major players in this field of research and pay special attention here to the use of liquid crystals in fiber optic devices as applied in telecommunication circuits.

  16. Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal voltage sensor. (United States)

    Scherschener, Elizabeth; Perciante, César D; Dalchiele, Enrique A; Frins, Erna M; Korn, Matthias; Ferrari, José A


    We present a novel electric-field and voltage sensor based on the electro-optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystals (PDLCs). In principle, the transmittance of PDLCs is a nonlinear function of the applied electrical field. To measure an AC field we superposed to it a known DC field. This allowed us to achieve linearization of the PDLC response and to measure transmittance changes independently of the light-intensity level variations. Validation experiments are presented.

  17. Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal enhanced by introducing urethane trimethacrylate. (United States)

    Nataj, Nahid Hosein; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jashnsaz, Hossein; Jannesari, Ali


    This work characterizes holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLC) composite material based on a new monomer, urethane trimethacrylate, by fabricating switchable diffraction grating. The highest diffraction efficiency achieved was 90.3%. Details of the fabrication and preliminary results of electro-optical switching of the HPDLC diffraction gratings are presented and discussed based on the functionality of the monomer. These experimental results are explained by means of morphological scanning electron microscopy analyses. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  18. Solitary wave propagation in surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells




    PUBLISHED Solitary wave propagation in surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells controlled by surface anchoring of the alignment layers is investigated for different conditions of alignment on the two opposite surfaces. We show that the critical field Ec, where the speed of the solitary wave becomes zero, is finite for asymmetric alignment on two surfaces. We also show that the polar anchoring energy difference (Deltawp) between the alignment layers can be calculated by measur...

  19. Low-Absorption Liquid Crystals for Infrared Beam Steering (United States)


    SEEOR) is its relatively long optical beam path. In the VIS and NIR spectral regions, most liquid crystals have negligible absorption so that the...absorption; v.=variable intensity) [B. D. Mistry, ^ Handbook of Spectroscopic Data: Chemistry-UV, IR, PMR, CNMR and Mass Spectroscopy , Oxford, 2009...director was oriented at 45° with respect to the polarizer transmission axis. A linearly polarized He-Ne laser (>^=633nm), a tunable Argon-ion laser

  20. Liquid Crystals for Organic Field-Effect Transistors (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary; Kelly, Stephen M.

    Columnar, smectic and lamellar polymeric liquid crystals are widely recognized as very promising charge-transporting organic semiconductors due to their ability to spontaneously self-assemble into highly ordered domains in uniform thin films over large areas. The transport properties of smectic and columnar liquid crystals are discussed in Chaps. 2 (10.1007/978-90-481-2873-0_2) and 3 (10.1007/978-90-481-2873-0_3). Here we examine their application to organic field-effect transistors (OFETs): after a short introduction in Sect. 9.1 we introduce the OFET configuration and show how the mobility is measured in Sect. 9.2. Section 9.3 discusses polymeric liquid crystalline semiconductors in OFETs. We review research that shows that annealing of polymers in a fluid mesophase gives a more ordered microcrystalline morphology on cooling than that kinetically determined by solution processing of the thin film. We also demonstrate the benefits of monodomain alignment and show the application of liquid crystals in light-emitting field-effect transistors. Some columnar and smectic phases are highly ordered with short intermolecular separation to give large π-π coupling. We discuss their use in OFETs in Sects. 9.4, and 9.5 respectively. Section 9.6 summarises the conclusions of the chapter.

  1. Polarization field effects at liquid-crystal-droplet-polymer interfaces. (United States)

    Boussoualem, Mourad; Ismaili, Mimoun; Lamonier, Jean-François; Buisine, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Frédérick


    The influence of confinement (droplet size) and liquid crystal orientational order (smectic-A and nematic) on the interfacial polarization field effects [Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) effect] existing in liquid-crystal-droplets-polymer systems is investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and a forward transmittance measurement technique. A relaxation process observed in the low frequency domain of the dielectric spectrum has been associated with a MWS effect for both micron-size and submicron-size droplets. Using electro-optical measurements and numerical simulations of the field inside droplets, it is shown that a depolarization field takes place in the same frequency range as that determined by dielectric spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements allowed to estimate the phase-separated liquid crystal [4,4'-octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB)] fraction, which was found in the range of 55% for both micron-size and submicron-size droplets. X-ray diffraction experiments showed that smectic 8CB confined to micron-size cavities adopt bulklike properties, i.e., a partial bilayer structure, whereas in submicron-size droplets the layer spacing of the smectic phase is increased due to the strong bending deformations induced by the high curvature of the cavity walls.

  2. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong In Han


    Full Text Available IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superior to those of glass liquid crystal lenses. Microcontroller unit and drivers were developed as part of a reception module with power supply for the IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses with the flexible liquid crystal lens prototypes. IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for 3D HDTV with flexible liquid crystal lenses produced excellent 3D images viewing characteristics.

  3. Video-rate optical coherence tomography imaging with smart pixels (United States)

    Beer, Stephan; Waldis, Severin; Seitz, Peter


    A novel concept for video-rate parallel acquisition of optical coherence tomography imaging is presented based on in-pixel demodulation. The main restrictions for parallel detection such as data rate, power consumption, circuit size and poor sensitivity are overcome with a smart pixel architecture incorporating an offset compensation circuit, a synchronous sampling stage, programmable time averaging and random pixel accessing, allowing envelope and phase detection in large 1D and 2D arrays.

  4. Video rate near-field scanning optical microscopy (United States)

    Bukofsky, S. J.; Grober, R. D.


    The enhanced transmission efficiency of chemically etched near-field optical fiber probes makes it possible to greatly increase the scanning speed of near-field optical microscopes. This increase in system bandwidth allows sub-diffraction limit imaging of samples at video rates. We demonstrate image acquisition at 10 frames/s, rate-limited by mechanical resonances in our scanner. It is demonstrated that the optical signal to noise ratio is large enough for megahertz single pixel acquisition rates.

  5. A study of waste liquid crystal display generation in mainland China. (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Zeying; Huang, Haihong; Li, Bingbing


    The generation of liquid crystal display waste is becoming a serious social problem. Predicting liquid crystal display waste status is the foundation for establishing a recycling network; however, the difficulty in predicting liquid crystal display waste quantity lies in data mining. In order to determine the quantity and the distribution of liquid crystal display waste in China, the four top-selling liquid crystal display products (liquid crystal display TVs, desktop PCs, notebook PCs, and mobile phones) were selected as study objects. Then, the extended logistic model and market supply A method was used to predict the quantity of liquid crystal display waste products. Moreover, the distribution of liquid crystal display waste products in different regions was evaluated by examining the consumption levels of household equipment. The results revealed that the quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would increase rapidly in the next decade. In particular, the predicted quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would rise to approximately 4.262 × 10(9) pieces in 2020, and the total display area (i.e. the surface area of liquid crystal display panels) of waste liquid crystal displays would reach 5.539 × 10(7) m(2). The prediction on the display area of waste liquid crystal display TVs showed that it would account for 71.5% of the total display area by 2020. Meanwhile, the quantity of waste mobile phones would significantly grow, increasing 5.8 times from 2012 to 2020. In terms of distribution, Guangdong is the top waste liquid crystal display-generating province in China, followed by Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Zhejiang, and Sichuan. Considering its regional characteristics, Guangdong has been proposed to be the most important location of the recycling network. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Liquid Crystals of Dendron-Like Pt Complexes Processable Into Nanofilms Dendrimers. Phase 2. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Glass Platinum Acetylides (United States)


    Std. Z39.18 Final Report Liquid Crystals of Dendron-Like Pt Complexes Processable Into Nanofilms. Dendrimers Eduardo pack and also the presence of a polar group. Figure 4. Summary of phase behavior. DENDRIMERS New Denrimers. The synthesis...purification and some spectral characteristics of the new dendrimers shown in Fig 5 were reported in AFOSR FA9550-11-1-0169, May, 2013. Further

  7. Nano-Objects and Ions in Liquid Crystals: Ion Trapping Effect and Related Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Garbovskiy


    Full Text Available The presence of ions in liquid crystals is one of the grand challenges that hinder the application of liquid crystals in various devices, which include advanced 3-D and flexible displays, tunable lenses, etc. Not only do they compromise the overall performance of liquid crystal devices, ions are also responsible for slow response, image sticking, and image flickering, as well as many other negative effects. Even highly purified liquid crystal materials can get contaminated during the manufacturing process. Moreover, liquid crystals can degrade over time and generate ions. All of these factors raise the bar for their quality control, and increase the manufacturing cost of liquid crystal products. A decade of dedicated research has paved the way to the solution of the issues mentioned above through merging liquid crystals and nanotechnology. Nano-objects (guests that are embedded in the liquid crystals (hosts can trap ions, which decreases the ion concentration and electrical conductivity, and improves the electro-optical response of the host. In this paper, we (i review recently published works reporting the effects of nanoscale dopants on the electrical properties of liquid crystals; and (ii identify the most promising inorganic and organic nanomaterials suitable to capture ions in liquid crystals.

  8. Local structural ordering in surface-confined liquid crystals (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Jeżewski, W.; Zakharov, A. V.


    The effect of the interplay between attractive nonlocal surface interactions and attractive pair long-range intermolecular couplings on molecular structures of liquid crystals confined in thin cells with flat solid surfaces has been studied. Extending the McMillan mean field theory to include finite systems, it has been shown that confining surfaces can induce complex orientational and translational ordering of molecules. Typically, local smectic A, nematic, and isotropic phases have been shown to coexist in certain temperature ranges, provided that confining cells are sufficiently thick, albeit finite. Due to the nonlocality of surface interactions, the spatial arrangement of these local phases can display, in general, an unexpected complexity along the surface normal direction. In particular, molecules located in the vicinity of surfaces can still be organized in smectic layers, even though nematic and/or isotropic order can simultaneously appear in the interior of cells. The resulting surface freezing of smectic layers has been confirmed to occur even for rather weak surface interactions. The surface interactions cannot, however, prevent smectic layers from melting relatively close to system boundaries, even when molecules are still arranged in layers within the central region of the system. The internal interfaces, separating individual liquid-crystal phases, are demonstrated here to form fronts of local finite-size transitions that move across cells under temperature changes. Although the complex molecular ordering in surface confined liquid-crystal systems can essentially be controlled by temperature variations, specific thermal properties of these systems, especially the nature of the local transitions, are argued to be strongly conditioned to the degree of molecular packing.

  9. Liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis and electro-osmosis (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    This work presents a comparative review of electrokinetic effects in isotropic and anisotropic (liquid crystalline) electrolytes. A special emphasis is placed on nonlinear electrokinetics with ow velocities growing as the square of the applied electric field. This phenomenon allows one to drive steady motion of particles and uids with an alternating-current electric field. In isotropic electrolytes, spatial separation of charges that leads to nonlinear electrokinetics is achieved through the properties of the solid component (typically a metal). If the electrolyte is a liquid crystal (LC), its anisotropic properties enable separation of charges in the presence of orientational distortions and under the action of an electric field. LC anisotropy leads to electrically-driven motion of colloidal particles (liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis, LCEP) and of the LC itself (liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis, LCEO). The induced charge is proportional to the applied field, director gradients, anisotropy of conductivity, and anisotropy of permittivity. The electric field acts on the space separated charges to drive the electro-osmotic ows. If the director deformations lack mirror symmetry, the LC enables electrophoresis of free particles and electro-osmotic pumping. The advantage of LCenabled electrokinetics (LCEK) is that its mechanism lifts many restrictions imposed on the properties of the solid counterpart. For example, LCEP can transport particles even if these particles are deprived of any surface charges; the particles can even be a uid immiscible with a LC or a gas bubble. In a similar fashion, LCEO can drive ows even if there are no oating electrodes. Ionic currents in LCs which have been traditionally considered an undesirable feature in displays offer a broad platform for versatile applications in electrokinetics of particles and uids, micropumping and mixing, and lab-on-a-chip analysis...

  10. Asymmetric electrooptic response in a nematic liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dascalu, Constanta [Politechnica University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)


    An asymmetric electrooptic response in nematic liquid crystal (LC) has been obtained. The liquid crystal hybrid cell was made by using a standard configuration. One of the ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) electrodes was covered with a surfactant, which induces a homeotropic alignment. The second of the indium tin oxide electrodes was covered by a thin layer of photopolymer, which was previously mixed with an acid, which favours a process of release of protons. Such cations are responsible of electrochemical process in the LC leading to an asymmetric electrooptic response, which depend on the polarity of the applied electric field. This fact is due to an internal field, which change the effective voltage thresholds for the reorientation of the liquid crystal. During the anodic polarization, the optical switching is inhibited because the effective field decreases below the threshold value. On contrary for the opposite polarization the effective field is enough to determine a homeotropic alignment. [Spanish] Se ha obtenido una respuesta electro-optica asimetrica en cristales liquidos neumaticos. La celula hibrida de cristal liquido fue construida utilizando una configuracion estandar. Uno de los electrodos ITO fue cubierto con una pelicula delgada de material organico para inducir una alineacion homeotropa. El otro electrodo ITO fue cubierto con una pelicula delgada de fotopolimero anteriormente mezclada con un acido para favorecer la emision de protones. Estos cationes son responsables del proceso electroquimico en LC, conduciendo a una respuesta electro-optica asimetrica que depende de la polaridad del campo electrico aplicado. Este efecto es originado por un campo interno que cambia el umbral efectivo del voltaje para la reorientacion del cristal liquido. Durante la polarizacion anodica, la conmutacion optica se inhibe debido a que el campo efectivo disminuye abajo del valor del umbral. Por el contrario, para la polarizacion opuesta el campo efectivo es suficiente para

  11. Colloid-in-Liquid Crystal Gels Formed via Spinodal Decomposition (United States)

    Pal, Santanu Kumar; de Pablo, Juan J.


    We report that colloid-in-liquid crystal (CLC) gels can be formed via a two-step process that involves spinodal decomposition of a dispersion of colloidal particles in an isotropic phase of mesogens followed by nucleation of nematic domains within the colloidal network defined by the spinodal process. This pathway contrasts to previously reported routes leading to the formation of CLC gels, which have involved entanglement of defects or exclusion of particles from growing nematic domains. The new route provides the basis of simple design rules that enable control of the microstructure and dynamic mechanical properties of the gels. PMID:24651134

  12. Single Molecule Studies on Dynamics in Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Täuber


    Full Text Available Single molecule (SM methods are able to resolve structure related dynamics of guest molecules in liquid crystals (LC. Highly diluted small dye molecules on the one hand explore structure formation and LC dynamics, on the other hand they report about a distortion caused by the guest molecules. The anisotropic structure of LC materials is used to retrieve specific conformation related properties of larger guest molecules like conjugated polymers. This in particular sheds light on organization mechanisms within biological cells, where large molecules are found in nematic LC surroundings. This review gives a short overview related to the application of highly sensitive SM detection schemes in LC.

  13. Demonstration of liquid crystal for barocaloric cooling application


    Xie, Zhongjian; Zhu, Yao


    Current vapor-compression technology is based on the gas-liquid transition of hazardous gas. The alternative cooling technology focuses on the solid caloric material. A new liquid barocaloric material, i.e. the liquid crystal, is proved to be potential for cooling application primarily (based on other literatures). Its phase transition needs a small stress (tens of MPa) and can be operated near room temperature. It has a large entropy change of ~200 (0.2 There is no br...

  14. Vector beams generated by tunable liquid crystal polarization holograms (United States)

    Ruiz, U.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.


    Two optically coupled nematic liquid crystal (NLC) polarization holograms (PHs) enable nearly 100% generation efficiency for vector beams (VBs) with spatially variant phase and polarization. Adopting a spatial light modulator assisted holographic approach, the PHs are recorded in the photoaligning substrates of the NLC cell and amplified by the NLC bulk. Owing to negligible NLC absorption at the visible and near infrared wavelengths and the ability to electrically adjust its optical birefringence, a single device allows us to generate VBs with the highest possible efficiency at any wavelength in the transparency range. In particular, we report the generation of VBs with an efficiency of 96% at a wavelength of 633 nm.

  15. Cholesteric liquid crystals as multi-purpose sensor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisetski, L. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine)


    New possibilities are discussed for Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (CLC) as sensor materials for detection of ionizing radiation, biologically active UV radiation, and the presence of hazardous vapors in atmosphere. A distinguishing property of CLC-based detectors is their 'bioequivalence', i.e., mechanisms of their response to external factors essentially imitate the corresponding mechanisms of biological tissues. Such detectors can ensure sufficiently high sensitivity to make feasible their use as alarm indicators or in biophysical studies. Specific examples are given of sensor compositions and their response characteristics.

  16. Graphene electrodes for adaptive liquid crystal contact lenses. (United States)

    Kaur, S; Kim, Y-J; Milton, H; Mistry, D; Syed, I M; Bailey, J; Novoselov, K S; Jones, J C; Morgan, P B; Clamp, J; Gleeson, H F


    The superlatives of graphene cover a whole range of properties: electrical, chemical, mechanical, thermal and others. These special properties earn graphene a place in current or future applications. Here we demonstrate one such application - adaptive contact lenses based on liquid crystals, where simultaneously the high electrical conductivity, transparency, flexibility and elasticity of graphene are being utilised. In our devices graphene is used as a transparent conductive coating on curved PMMA substrates. The adaptive lenses provide a + 0.7 D change in optical power with an applied voltage of 7.1 Vrms - perfect to correct presbyopia, the age-related condition that limits the near focus ability of the eye.

  17. Liquid Crystal Photonic bandgap Fibers: Modeling and Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes

    In this PhD thesis an experimental and numerical investigation of liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibers (LCPBGs) is presented. A simulation scheme for modeling LCPBG devices including electrical tunability is presented. New experimental techniques, boundary coating and the applications...... of monomer added LCs, are investigated. Waveplates based on LCPBGs and a tunable polarization maintaining filter are developed. An on-chip tunable notch filter based on long period gratings is presented. Furthermore, the application of a LCPBG device for the electrical control of a fiber laser...

  18. Laser Coherence Meter Based on Nanostructured Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anczykowska


    Full Text Available We present the method for coherence length measurement using coherence meter based on hybrid liquid crystal structures doped with gold nanoparticles. The results indicate that the method is able to determine the coherence length of coherent light sources with precision of 0.01 m at wavelength range from 200 to 800 nm for wide range of initial beam powers starting from 1 mW. Given the increasing use of laser technology in industry, military, or medicine, our research may open up a possible route for the development of improved techniques of coherent diagnostic light sources.

  19. Self-Assembled Supramolecular Architectures Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Garti, Nissim


    This book will describe fundamentals and recent developments in the area of Self-Assembled Supramolecular Architecture and their relevance to the  understanding of the functionality of  membranes  as delivery systems for active ingredients. As the heirarchial architectures determine their performance capabilities, attention will be paid to theoretical and design aspects related to the construction of lyotropic liquid crystals: mesophases such as lamellar, hexagonal, cubic, sponge phase micellosomes. The book will bring to the reader mechanistic aspects, compositional c

  20. Ultrashort silica liquid crystal photonic crystal fiber polarization rotator. (United States)

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O; Obayya, Salah S A


    In this Letter, an ultra-compact polarization rotator (PR) based on silica photonic crystal fiber with liquid crystal core is introduced and analyzed using full-vectorial finite difference approaches. The analyzed parameters of the suggested PR are the conversion length, modal hybridness, power conversion and crosstalk. In addition, the fabrication tolerance analysis of the reported design is investigated in detail. The proposed PR has an ultra-compact device length of 4.085 μm and an almost 100% polarization conversion ratio.

  1. Mathematical analysis of composite systems of liquid crystal and polymer (United States)

    Shen, Quan

    This thesis deals with mathematical modeling of the composite material consisting of liquid crystal and polymer. Such systems are important in the applications. The mathematical work consists in minimizing the total free energy of a system in a geometrically complex domain. The total energy consists of the bulk Oseen-Frank free energy of the liquid crystal plus the surface contribution. The latter arises as a result of the contact interaction between the liquid crystal and the polymeric component. The first part of the work presents a two-dimensional prototype model. The effective equations for the composite configurations are obtained by means of homogenization limits, and subsequently analyzed and computed by numerical methods. One of the main mathematical difficulties of such analyses is the presence of defects in the model. This becomes an important issue in the study of physically realistic three-dimensional configurations. In order to overcome such a difficulty, the original model is replaced by a relaxed one: while the unit vector constraint is omitted, a penalty term is included in the energy. The idea is borrowed from the Ginzburg-Landau modeling of superconductivity and the unit director condition will be satisfied approximately while allowing for defects (i.e., points or lines where the length of director is zero). The effective equations are studied, and the relaxation of the length of the directors is eventually removed through the limit of the penalty term. The external magnetic field is added and the effect on the composite system is discussed. The last part of the thesis deals with systems of liquid crystal droplets in a polymeric isotropic matrix. The droplet configurations are of bipolar type, i.e., spherical-type shapes with two defects as opposite poles. The dipole line provides a new tool to construct anisotropic systems. A mathematical model for bipolar droplet is constructed and analyzed for both fixed and free boundary problems. The thesis

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of epoxy- based polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J W


    In this work, polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) samples were prepared and studied by nuclear magnetic resonance. Proton NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxations of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl(5CB) and p-methoxybenzylidene-p-n-butylaniline (MBBA) liquid crystals confined in microdroplets were measured. The experimental results were compared with those of the liquid crystals in the pores of silica-gels and with those of the mixing components. The experimental results indicated that the nematic ordering in the microdroplets differed markedly from that observed in bulk nematic crystals. In addition, we examined spin-lattice relaxation mechanisms. The proton spin-lattice relaxation mechanisms in bulk nematic liquid crystals are well established. However, when nematic liquid crystals are confined in microdroplets, the relaxation mechanisms are expected to be affected. We examined possible relaxation mechanisms to explain the observed increase in the spin-lattice relaxation rate of liquid crystals confined in m...

  3. Soap, science, and flat-screen TVs a history of liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dunmur, David


    The terms 'liquid crystal' or 'liquid crystal display' (LCD) are well-known in the context of flat-screen televisions, but the properties and history of liquid crystals are little understood. This book tells the story of liquid crystals, from their controversial discovery at the end of the nineteenth century, to their eventual acceptance as another state of matter to rank alongside gases, liquids and solids. As their story unfolds, the scientists involved and their works are put into illuminating broader socio-political contexts. In recent years, liquid crystals have had a major impact on the display industry, culminating in the now widely available flat-screen televisions; this development is described in detail over three chapters, and the basic science behind it is explained in simple terms accessible to a general reader. New applications of liquid crystals in materials, bio-systems, medicine and technology are also explained.

  4. Confined Photovoltaic Fields in a Photo-Responsive Liquid Crystal Test Cell (Preprint) (United States)


    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0428 CONFINED PHOTOVOLTAIC FIELDS IN A PHOTO- RESPONSIVE LIQUID CRYSTAL TEST CELL (PREPRINT) Atefeh...TITLE AND SUBTITLE CONFINED PHOTOVOLTAIC FIELDS IN A PHOTO- RESPONSIVE LIQUID CRYSTAL TEST CELL (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-D...hybridized photo responsive liquid crystal test cells are reported, where iron doped lithium niobate substrates were used to photo generate electric

  5. Photoluminescence analysis of self induced planer alignment in azo dye dispersed nematic liquid crystal complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rishi, E-mail:; Sood, Srishti, E-mail:; Raina, K. K., E-mail: [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India)


    We have developed azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal complex for advanced photonic liquid crystal display technology aspects. Disperse orange azo dye self introduced planer alignment in the nematic liquid crystal without any surface anchoring treatment. Planer alignment was characterized by optical polarizing microscopy. The electro-optical switching response of dye disperse planer aligned nematic cell was investigated as a function of applied voltage with the help of photoluminescence spectrophotometer for the tuning of photoluminescence contrast.

  6. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaw, W.L. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Mamat, C.R., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Triwahyono, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Jalil, A.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Univerisiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bidin, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)


    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen.

  7. Security devices based on liquid crystals doped with a colour dye


    Carrasco Vela, Carlos; Quintana Arregui, Patxi Xabier; Otón, E.; Geday, Morten Andreas; Otón Sánchez, José Manuel


    Liquid crystal properties make them useful for the development of security devices in applications of authentication and detection of fakes. Induced orientation of liquid crystal molecules and birefringence are the two main properties used in security devices. Employing liquid crystal and dichroic colorants, we have developed devices that show, with the aid of a polarizer, multiple images on each side of the device. Rubbed polyimide is used as alignment layer on each substrate of the LC ce...

  8. Electrically controlled optical bandgap in a twisted photonic liquid crystal (United States)

    Molina, Ismael; Adrián Reyes, J.; Avendaño, Carlos G.


    We consider a one-dimensional twisted photonic liquid crystal, which consists of N nematic liquid crystal slabs in a twisted configuration alternated by N isotropic dielectric layers under the action of a dc electric field (Edc) aligned along the periodicity axis. We write and solve numerically the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations describing the nematic layer configuration. We express Maxwell's equations in a 4×4 matrix representation, and by using the transfer matrix formalism, we obtain the optical band structures at arbitrary incidence angles and different external electric fields. We have found that there exists a strong dependence of electric field on the transmission and reflection spectra in enhancing and extinguishing bandgaps. The analysis presented here allow us to propose an electrically shiftable universal rejection filter for incident waves of left- and right-circular polarization. It is observed that by increasing the electric field we can highly enhance the cross-polarized reflection bandgaps and suppress the co-polarized ones. We analyzed the optical spectra for different values of twist angle, different ratios between dielectric and nematic layer thicknesses and number of layers N. Also, we showed that the cross-polarized bandgaps are blue-shifted as the incidence angle gets larger.

  9. Liquid Crystal Mediated Nano-assembled Gold Micro-shells (United States)

    Quint, Makiko; Sarang, Som; Quint, David; Huang, Kerwyn; Gopinathan, Ajay; Hirst, Linda; Ghosh, Sayantani

    We have created 3D nano-assenbled micro-shell by using thermotropic liquid crystal (LC), 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), doped with mesogen-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The assembly process is driven by the isotropic-nematic phase transition dynamics. We uniformly disperse the functionalized AuNPs into isotropic liquid crystal matrix and the mixture is cooled from the isotropic to the nematic phase. During the phase transition, the separation of LC-AuNP rich isotropic and ordered 5CB rich domains cause the functionalized AuNPs to move into the shrinking isotropic regions. The mesogenic ligands are locally crystalized during this process, which leads to the formation of a spherical shell with a densely packed wall of AuNPs. These micro-shells are capable of encapsulating fluorescence dye without visible leakages for several months. Additionally, they demonstrate strong localized surface plasmon resonance, which leads to localized heating on optical excitation. This photothermal effect disrupts the structure, releasing contents within seconds. Our results exhibiting the capture and optically regulated release of encapsulated substances is a novel platform that combines drug-delivery and photothermal therapy in one versatile and multifunctional unit. This work is supported by the NSF Grants No. DMR-1056860, ECC-1227034, and a University of California Merced Faculty Mentor Fellowship.

  10. Stabilizing blue phase liquid crystals with linearly polarized UV light (United States)

    Xu, Daming; Yuan, Jiamin; Schadt, Martin; Yan, Jing; Wu, Shin-Tson


    Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, relatively low transmittance, and noticeable hysteresis and prolonged response time at high field region for IPS mode, still remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we demonstrate the stabilization a photopolymer-embedded blue phase liquid crystal precursor using a linearly polarized UV light for first time. When the UV polarization axis is perpendicular to the stripe electrodes of an IPS cell, anisotropic polymer networks are formed through the linear photo-polymerization process and the electrostriction effect is suppressed. As a result, the measured hysteresis is dramatically reduced from 6.95% to 0.36% and the response time shortened by ~2X compared to unpolarized UV exposure. To induce larger anisotropy in polymer networks for mitigating the electrostriction effect, high-intensity linearly polarized UV exposure is preferred. It is foreseeable this method will guide future BPLC device and material development as well as manufacturing process. The dawn of BPLCD is near.

  11. Q-tensor model for electrokinetics in nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Tovkach, O. M.; Conklin, Christopher; Calderer, M. Carme; Golovaty, Dmitry; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Viñals, Jorge; Walkington, Noel J.


    We use a variational principle to derive a mathematical model for a nematic electrolyte in which the liquid crystalline component is described in terms of a second-rank order parameter tensor. The model extends the previously developed director-based theory and accounts for the presence of disclinations and possible biaxiality. We verify the model by considering a simple but illustrative example of liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmotic flow around a stationary dielectric spherical particle placed at the center of a large cylindrical container filled with a nematic electrolyte. Assuming homeotropic anchoring of the nematic on the surface of the particle and uniform distribution of the director on the surface of the container, we consider two configurations with a disclination equatorial ring and with a hyperbolic hedgehog, respectively. The computed electro-osmotic flows show a strong dependence on the director configurations and on the anisotropies of dielectric permittivity and electric conductivity of the nematic, characteristic of liquid crystal-enabled electrokinetics. Further, the simulations demonstrate space charge separation around the dielectric sphere, even in the case of isotropic permittivity and conductivity. This is in agreement with the induced-charge electroosmotic effect that occurs in an isotropic electrolyte when an applied field acts on the ionic charge it induces near a polarizable surface.

  12. Surface dynamics and mechanics in liquid crystal polymer coatings (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Broer, Dirk J.


    Based on liquid crystal networks we developed `smart' coatings with responsive surface topographies. Either by prepatterning or by the formation of self-organized structures they can be switched on and off in a pre-designed manner. Here we provide an overview of our methods to generate coatings that form surface structures upon the actuation by light. The coating oscillates between a flat surface and a surface with pre-designed 3D micro-patterns by modulating a light source. With recent developments in solid state lighting, light is an attractive trigger medium as it can be integrated in a device for local control or can be used remotely for flood or localized exposure. The basic principle of formation of surface topographies is based on the change of molecular organization in ordered liquid crystal polymer networks. The change in order leads to anisotropic dimensional changes with contraction along the director and expansion to the two perpendicular directions and an increase in volume by the formation of free volume. These two effects work in concert to provide local expansion and contraction in the coating steered by the local direction of molecular orientation. The surface deformation, expressed as the height difference between the activated regions and the non-activated regions divided by the initial film thickness, is of the order of 20%. Switching occurs immediately when the light is switched `on' and `off' and takes several tens of seconds.

  13. Correlation measurements of light transmittance in polymer dispersed liquid crystals (United States)

    Maksimyak, P. P.; Nehrych, A. L.


    The methods of correlation optics are for the first time applied to study structure of liquid crystal (LC) - polymer (P) composites at various concentrations of LC and P. Their phase correlation function (PCF) was obtained considering LC-P composite as a random phase screen. The amplitude of PCF contains information about number of LC domains and structure of LC director inside of them, while a half-width of this function is connected with a size of these domains. We studied unpowered and powered composite layers with a thickness of 5 μm. As liquid crystal and polymer were used nematic LC E7 from Merck and photopolymer composition NOA65 from Norland. Concentration of polymer φP was varied in a range 10-55 vol. %. In good agreement with previous studies by SEM technique we detected monotone decrease of LC domains with concentration of polymer. With application of electric field, amplitude of PCF behaves differently for the samples with different polymer content. For the samples with φP>35 vol. % (samples having morphology of polymer dispersed LC), this dependence is monotonic. In turn, if φPpolymer network LC morphology), the amplitude of PCF non-monotonically depends on the applied voltage going through a maximum. The latter fact is explained by transformation of orientational defects of LC phase with the applied voltage.

  14. 3D quantum liquid crystals by condensation of dislocation worldsheets (United States)

    Beekman, Aron; Wu, Kai; Nissinen, Jaakko; Zaanen, Jan

    A solid can partially melt into a liquid crystal where rotational rigidity is maintained while translational symmetry is restored. The topological melting is caused by an unbinding of dislocations. We recently provided a comprehensive review of quantum dislocation-mediated melting in 2D (arXiv:1603.04254). Through a duality mapping, phonons turn into dual gauge fields mediating interactions between dislocations. Upon condensation of dislocations, the dual gauge fields undergo the Anderson-Higgs mechanism and become gapped, signaling the loss of shear rigidity. Here we extend this theory to three dimensions. Dislocations are now linelike objects, strings, tracing out worldsheets in spacetime, while the dual gauge-fields become two-form (Kalb-Ramond) fields. We obtain the Higgs phase of these two-form gauge fields. Translational symmetry can be restored in three, two or one directions leading to nematic, smectic or columnar quantum liquid crystals. We derive the spectrum of low-energy excitations and its linear response. Goldstone modes due to broken rotational symmetry as well as superconductivity emerge whenever translational symmetry is restored. The peculiar features of liquid-crystalline order can be probed by finite-momentum spectroscopy.

  15. Ultra-high-resolution time projection chambers with liquid crystal backplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, Benjamin


    We investigated the possibility of incorporating a liquid-crystal device into a gas ionization detector. After extensive R&D on several candidate liquid-crystal technologies, we developed some novel materials allowing twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers to be coupled directly to gas ionization counters. However, the resulting structures were unsuitable for large-scale or practical use. We tested several technologies known to result in mechanically-robust liquid crystal electrooptic layers, but found poor behavior in the detector context.

  16. Optical Study of Liquid Crystal Lens Doped with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LI


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new kind of electrically controlled liquid crystal lens, which respond in a relatively fast time, is presented. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes are doped into liquid crystal to fabricate the liquid crystal lens. As 0.02 % concentration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is uniformly distributed in the liquid crystal, the optical features of the liquid crystal lens are obviously improved. The liquid crystal lens with a diameter of 2.0 mm was fabricated with about 0.2 s response time and less than 5 Vrms applied voltage. The focal length can vary from 16 to 510 mm, and the operation voltage changes from 1.0 to 5.5 Vrms. This liquid crystal lens has the very attractive feature of submillisecond response time, which is a much faster response time in comparison with conventional liquid crystal lens. Thus, this kind of liquid crystal lens has high potential for implementation in many practical imaging applications and imaging commercialisation.DOI:

  17. Self-orientation effect of liquid crystals on holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and distributed feedback lasers (United States)

    Liu, Minghuan; Liu, Yonggang; Peng, Zenghui; Zhao, Haifeng; Cao, Zhaoliang; Xuan, Li


    The average orientation of a liquid crystal (LC) director to the grating formation, morphology, and switching properties of a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating was systematically investigated in this study. The grating possessed high diffraction efficiency and low scattering with the LC director being parallel to the grating vector. The scanning electron microscope confirmed the well-defined morphology with the LC director being parallel to the grating vector. The grating was easily switched when the LC director was perpendicular to the grating vector. Moreover, polarization excitation was performed to investigate the polarization dependence behavior of the HPDLC-distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The results confirmed that the HPDLC grating is suitable as a laser oscillation when the LC director is parallel to the grating vector. Finally, the tuning range was obtained for the HPDLC DFB laser by applying an external electric field. The tunability, ease of fabrication, and mass production make the HPDLC DFB lasers suitable as smart laser sources for spectroscopy and communication.

  18. Flat liquid crystal diffractive lenses with variable focus and magnification (United States)

    Valley, Pouria

    Non-mechanical variable lenses are important for creating compact imaging devices. Various methods employing dielectrically actuated lenses, membrane lenses, and liquid crystal lenses were previously proposed [1-4]. In This dissertation the design, fabrication, and characterization of innovative flat tunable-focus liquid crystal diffractive lenses (LCDL) are presented. LCDL employ binary Fresnel zone electrodes fabricated on Indium-Tin-Oxide using conventional micro-photolithography. The light phase can be adjusted by varying the effective refractive index of a nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between the electrodes and a reference substrate. Using a proper voltage distribution across various electrodes the focal length can be changed between several discrete values. Electrodes are shunted such that the correct phase retardation step sequence is achieved. If the number of 2pi zone boundaries is increased by a factor of m the focal length is changed from f to f/m based on the digitized Fresnel zone equation: f = rm2/2mlambda, where r m is mth zone radius, and lambda is the wavelength. The chromatic aberration of the diffractive lens is addressed and corrected by adding a variable fluidic lens. These LCDL operate at very low voltage levels (+/-2.5V ac input), exhibit fast switching times (20-150 ms), can have large apertures (>10 mm), and small form factor, and are robust and insensitive to vibrations, gravity, and capillary effects that limit membrane and dielectrically actuated lenses. Several tests were performed on the LCDL including diffraction efficiency measurement, switching dynamics, and hybrid imaging with a refractive lens. Negative focal lengths are achieved by adjusting the voltages across electrodes. Using these lenses in combination, magnification can be changed and zoom lenses can be formed. These characteristics make LCDL a good candidate for a variety of applications including auto-focus and zoom lenses in compact imaging devices such as camera

  19. Final Report: Biaxiality in Nematic and Smectic Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Satyendra; Quan, Li; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Agra-Kooijman, Dena; Rey, Alejandro


    During the award period, the project team explored several phenomena in a diverse group of soft condensed matter systems. These include understanding of the structure of the newly discovered twist-bend nematic phase, solving the mystery of de Vries smectic phases, probing of interesting associations and defect structures in chromonic liquid crystalline systems, dispersions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in smectic liquid crystals, investigations of newly synthesized light sensitive and energy harvesting materials with highly desirable transport properties. Our findings are summarized in the following report followed by a list of 36 publications and 37 conference presentations. We achieved this with the support of Basic Sciences Division of the US DOE for which we are thankful.

  20. Liquid Crystal Microlens Using Nanoparticle-Induced Vertical Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shug-June Hwang


    Full Text Available The nanoparticle-induced vertical alignment (NIVA of the nematic liquid crystals (LC is applied to achieve an adaptive flat LC microlens with hybrid-aligned nematic (HAN mode by dropping polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS nanoparticle solution on a homogeneous alignment layer. The vertical alignment induced by the POSS nanoparticles resulted in the formation of a hybrid-aligned LC layer with concentric nonuniform distribution of the refractive index in the planar LC cell, which subsequently played the role of the lens, even in the absence of any applied voltages. The dimensions of the concentric HAN structure significantly depend on the volume of the microdroplet and the POSS concentration. The focus effect of this flat microlens was observed while electrically controlling its focal length using the applied voltages from −50 mm to −90 mm.

  1. Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry (United States)

    Marino, A.; Tkachenko, V.; Santamato, E.; Bennis, N.; Quintana, X.; Otón, J. M.; Abbate, G.


    We describe an experimental procedure for accurate measurement of anchoring energy strength of liquid crystal cells. This technique is based on the possibility of gathering a large amount of very precise data about the linear optical response of the cell in different experimental conditions, using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Then, a careful data analysis exploiting data inversion method, supplemented by simulations from the elastic theory, is able to provide the searched information. The technique has been applied to vertical aligned nematic cells, chosen for its widespread use in the present display market. The results obtained in this particular case together with a thorough comparison with existing alternative techniques, suggest that our technique can be an optimum candidate for the industrial implementation of such measurement. A particular example is fully worked out, giving a result with a precision of 1.5% and an accuracy of 10%.

  2. Siloxane head groups and spacers in calamitic liquid crystals (United States)

    Kloess, Petra Sabine

    Organo-siloxanes are a compromise between a low molar mass liquid crystal and a liquid crystalline side chain polysiloxane polymer. Like polymers the compounds segregate in mesogen rich layers and siloxane rich layers, but like low molar mass compounds the viscosity is in the magnitude of classic LMM liquid crystals. The siloxane group can be used as a head group, a linear linking group and a cyclic linking group. Up to four mesogens can be connected. In the present work small siloxane groups were grafted onto a variety of mesogens in a variety of sizes and shapes. As a steroidal mesogen cholestanol derivatives, as aromatic cores laterally substituted biphenyl benzoates were synthesised and characterised. All liquid crystals investigated were synthesised via established procedures. Olefinic terminated precursor compounds were hydrosilylated with smaller siloxane groups. Structure and phase properties were determined via optical microscopy, differential scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. The helielectric compounds were also characterised electro-optically, i.e. tilt angle, spontaneous polarisation and optical response time. To investigate the role of the siloxane in steroidal liquid crystals three different series of cholestanol derivatives were synthesised and characterised. The mesophase behaviour depended strongly on the spacer length, the number of mesogens attached to the siloxane group and the siloxane length. Mono- and bimesogenic compounds exhibited an odd-even effect on the melting transition, whereas the clearing temperatures increased with an increase in spacer length. All LMM organo- siloxanes are liquid crystalline at ambient temperature. The analogous side chain polysiloxanes exhibited significantly higher transition temperatures and viscosity. A series of androstane derivatives revealed the importance of a short branched alkyl tail for the occurance of a broad mesophase. Biphenyl benzoates are known to exhibit ferroelectric

  3. Relaxation Dynamics of Spatiotemporal Chaos in the Nematic Liquid Crystal (United States)

    Nugroho, Fahrudin; Ueki, Tatsuhiro; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Kai, Shoichi


    We are working on the electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals, in which a kind of spatiotemporal chaos called as a soft-mode turbulence (SMT) is observed. The SMT is caused by the nonlinear interaction between the convective modes and the Nambu--Goldstone (NG) modes. By applying an external magnetic field H, the NG mode is suppressed and an ordered pattern can be observed. By removing the suppression effect the ordered state relax to its original SMT pattern. We revealed two types of instability govern the relaxation process: the zigzag instability and the free rotation of wavevector q(r). This work is partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 20111003, 21340110, and 21540391) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  4. Emerging Applications of Liquid Crystals Based on Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Inn Sohn


    Full Text Available Diverse functionalities of liquid crystals (LCs offer enormous opportunities for their potential use in advanced mobile and smart displays, as well as novel non-display applications. Here, we present snapshots of the research carried out on emerging applications of LCs ranging from electronics to holography and self-powered systems. In addition, we will show our recent results focused on the development of new LC applications, such as programmable transistors, a transparent and active-type two-dimensional optical array and self-powered display systems based on LCs, and will briefly discuss their novel concepts and basic operating principles. Our research will give insights not only into comprehensively understanding technical and scientific applications of LCs, but also developing new discoveries of other LC-based devices.

  5. Chiral power change upon photoisomerization in twisted nematic liquid crystals. (United States)

    Simoncelli, Sabrina; Aramendía, Pedro F


    In this work, we use the photoisomerization of azobenzenes, a phenanthrospirooxazine, and a fulgide in a twisted nematic liquid crystalline phase to change the chiral twisting power of the system. The changes are probed by the rotatory power of linearly polarized light. Time resolved and steady state experiments are carried out. The chiral change and the photoisomerization process have similar characteristic recovery times and activation energy, thus probing that the change is induced by the modification in the chemical composition of the photochromic dopant system. The amplitude of the light twisting power change correlates with the order change in the liquid crystal (LC) but not with the modification in the absorption characteristics of the system. This indicates that the driving force of the chiral change is the microscopic order modification in the LC phase that affects the helical pitch of the phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soft memory in a ferroelectric nanoparticle-doped liquid crystal (United States)

    Basu, Rajratan


    A small quantity of BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanoparticles (FNP) was doped in a liquid crystal (LC), and the LC + FNP hybrid was found to exhibit a nonvolatile electromechanical memory effect in the isotropic phase. The permanent dipole moment of the FNPs causes the LC molecule to form short-range pseudonematic domains surrounding the FNPs. The FNP-induced short-range orders become more prominent in the isotropic phase when the global nematic order is absent. These short-range domains, being anisotropic in nature, interact with an external electric field, exhibiting a Fréedericksz-type transition. When the field is turned off, these domains stay oriented, showing a hysteresis effect due to the absence of any long-range order and restoring forces in the isotropic phase. The hysteresis graph for this memory effect shows a significant pretransitional behavior on approaching the nematic phase from the isotropic phase.

  7. Control of nanoparticle self-assemblies using distorted liquid crystals (United States)

    Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Coursault, Delphine

    This chapter concerns the structure and the optical properties of nanoparticle (NP)/liquid crystal (LC) composites in the presence of LC distortion. After a first description of the general behaviour of NPs at the proximity of distorted LC areas, the first section of the chapter discusses the stabilization of the LC phases, characterized by the presence of topological defects in presence of NPs. The assemblies of NPs induced by distorted LC films is addressed in the second section. The last section then extensively develops the structure and optical properties of NP assemblies created within topological defects. Specific localisation and orientations of the NPs will be discussed, but also possible control of the size and shape of the NP assemblies, together with control of the distances between NPs in the assemblies, leading to original optical properties of the composites as far as uorescent or gold NPs are concerned.

  8. Electrothermo-optical effect in liquid crystals and its applications (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wei


    Electro-optical effects in liquid crystals (LCs) have been widely utilized in many optical components and photonic devices, thanks to the anisotropic media that can be easily manipulated by an electric field to modulate the light. In general, dielectric heating in LC applications is negligible because their orientational dielectric relaxations occur at high frequencies. Here we focus on a dual-frequency LC characterized by its much lower relaxation frequency. The fieldinduced heat strongly affects the LC ordering and optical properties. The electrothermo-optical effect reveals an unusual behavior compared with the well-known electro-optical effect in regular LCs. Based on the electrothermo-optical effect, some applications such as optical modulators or tunable optical shutters are demonstrated.

  9. Carbon nanotubes in thermotropic low molar mass liquid crystals (United States)

    Schymura, Stefan; Park, Ji Hyun; Dierking, Ingo; Scalia, Giusy

    Carbon nanotubes constitute a highly anisotropic form of carbon with outstanding mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Their dispersion and organization are important but challenging and this chapter describes the advantages of using thermotropic liquid crystals as host for nanotube dispersion and ordering. The self organization of LCs is an attractive way to manipulate nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes or graphene akes. Compared to standard carbon nanotube composites (e.g. with disordered polymer hosts) the introduction of the nanotubes into an LC allows not only the transfer of the outstanding nanotube properties to the oscopic phase, providing strength and conductivity, but these properties also become anisotropic, following the transfer of the orientational order from the LC to the CNTs...

  10. Fingerprint sensor using a polymer dispersed liquid crystal holographic lens. (United States)

    Jie, Ying; Jihong, Zheng


    We used a polymer dispersed liquid crystal material holographic lens in a fingerprint sensor, which reduced the total size of the sensor and improved image quality. The beam carrying fingerprint information was diffracted by the holographic lens and converged onto the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor directly, which omitted the traditional lens or fiber taper. The phenomenon that the image quality is poor when the finger is too dry or wet was explained based on the evanescent wave theory. The total size of the device was 50 mm x 25 mm x 30 mm. The fingerprint image had a contrast of 250:1 and a resolution of 800 dots/in.

  11. Flexible Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Module with Graphene Electrode. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Guoping; Pal, Kaushik; Zhan, Bihong; Liu, Sheng; Wen, Ding; Ye, Shuangli


    Flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) module based on graphene electrode was presented in this article. We also investigated electromechanical, as well as electro-optical properties of PDLC module with graphene electrodes. Compared to the ITO electrodes, graphene electrodes exhibits higher light transmittance and more stable electromechanical property of under bend test. Due to the excellent mechanical property of graphene electrodes, it is expected that the flexibility of PDLC module could be further enhanced. Meanwhile, with the integration of graphene as the driving electrodes, the threshold voltage V(th) and saturation voltage V(sat) of PDLC module have small change, while the on-state transmittance T(on) is increased by 5%, that may attribute to the high transmittance of the graphene.

  12. Transparent laser damage resistant nematic liquid crystal cell "LCNP3" (United States)

    Raszewski, Z.; Piecek, W.; Jaroszewicz, L.; Dąbrowski, R.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Soms, L.; Olifierczuk, M.; Kędzierski, J.; Morawiak, P.; Mazur, R.; Miszczyk, E.; Mrukiewicz, M.; Kowiorski, K.


    There exists the problem in diagnostics of dense plasma (so-called Thomson diagnostics). For this purpose the plasma is illuminated by series of high energy laser pulses. The energy of each separate pulse is as large as 3 J, so it is impossible to generate a burst of such pulses by a single laser. In this situation, the pulses are generated by several independent lasers operating sequentially, and these pulses are to be directed along the same optical path. To form an optical path with λ = 1.064 μm and absolute value of the laser pulse energy of 3 J, a special refractive index matched twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell of type LCNP3, with switching on time τON smaller than 3 μs was applied.

  13. Asymmetric flavone-based liquid crystals: synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Daren J. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Jordan, Abraham J. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Kirchon, Angelo A. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva [New Jersey Center for Biomaterials, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA; Siemers, Troy J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Harrison, Daniel P. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Slebodnick, Carla [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA


    A series of flavones (n-F) substituted at the 4', and 6 positions was prepared, characterised by NMR (1H,13C), HRMS, and studied for liquid crystal properties. The 4'-alkoxy,6-methoxyflavones (4-F–16-F) exhibit varying ranges of nematic and smectic A phases as evidenced by polarised optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As the tail length is increased, the smectic phase becomes more prevalent. Smectic phases for (8-F–16-F) were further analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the rate of structural transformations was explored by combined DSC/XRD studies. Flavonol 6-F–OH was also prepared but no mesogenic behaviour was observed. The molecular structures of 6-F and 6-F–OH were determined by single-crystal XRD and help to explain the differences in material properties. Additionally, fluorescence and electrochemical studies were conducted on solutions of n-F.

  14. Interaction between lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals and polymers (United States)

    Yao, Xuxia; Park, Jung; Srinivasarao, Mohan


    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) consist of various dyes, drugs, etc., so their importance is self-evident. The interaction of chromonic molecules and polymers is involved in their real applications, such as the dyeing process of fibers, textiles and food, and the functionalization of drugs in vivo. In our research, polymer dispersed LCLC droplets and polymer coated LCLC cells have been fabricated. Effect of interaction was observed by optical texture of LCLCs, as the different polymers induce different director configuration of LCLCs. A textile dye-Benzopurpurine 4B, food dye-Sunset Yellow FCF, and drug-Disodium Cromoglycate mixed with water soluble polymers, proteins and textile polymers have been all studied and compared.

  15. Some specificities of wetting by cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabre, U; Richard, C; Cazabat, A M, E-mail: cazabat@lps.ens.f [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    The present paper provides an up to date restatement of the wetting behaviour of the series of cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals (LCs) on usual substrates, i.e. oxidized silicon wafers, water and glycerol, at both the macroscopic and microscopic scale, in the nematic range of temperature. We show that on water the systems are close to a wetting transition, especially 5CB and 7CB. In that case, the wetting behaviour is controlled by the presence of impurities. On a mesoscopic scale, we observe for all our (thin LC film-substrate) systems an identical, complex, but well defined general scenario, not accounted for by the available models. In the last part, we present a study on line tension which results from the specific organization of LCs at the edge of the nematic film. We report preliminary results on two-dimensional film coalescence where this line tension plays a major role.

  16. Multiresponsive self-assembled liquid crystals with azobenzene groups. (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Chen, Liqin; Zhou, Yifeng; Yi, Tao; Li, Fuyou; Huang, Chunhui


    An optical and electric field-responsive self-assembled complex containing nitril azobenzene groups and 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine was obtained and characterized. Both the azobenzene precursor and the complex form a liquid-crystalline phase in a certain temperature range. The transition temperature from crystalline phase to liquid-crystalline mesophase was obviously decreased in the complex by the self-assembling. The self-assembled liquid crystals revealed good response to both stimuli of light irradiation and electric field, and the induced molecular orientation could be held even after the removal of the stimuli. The structural and mechanical investigation proved that the formation of hydrogen bonds and assembly-induced molecular dipolar change contributed to the multiresponding action. This kind of self-assembled complex thus has potential applications in imaging and data storage.

  17. Curling Liquid Crystal Microswimmers: A Cascade of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. (United States)

    Krüger, Carsten; Klös, Gunnar; Bahr, Christian; Maass, Corinna C


    We report curling self-propulsion in aqueous emulsions of common mesogenic compounds. Nematic liquid crystal droplets self-propel in a surfactant solution with concentrations above the critical micelle concentration while undergoing micellar solubilization [Herminghaus et al., Soft Matter 10, 7008 (2014)]. We analyzed trajectories both in a Hele-Shaw geometry and in a 3D setup at variable buoyancy. The coupling between the nematic director field and the convective flow inside the droplet leads to a second symmetry breaking which gives rise to curling motion in 2D. This is demonstrated through a reversible transition to nonhelical persistent swimming by heating to the isotropic phase. Furthermore, autochemotaxis can spontaneously break the inversion symmetry, leading to helical trajectories in 3D.

  18. Transitions through critical temperatures in nematic liquid crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala


    We obtain estimates for critical nematic liquid crystal (LC) temperatures under the action of a slowly varying temperature-dependent control variable. We show that biaxiality has a negligible effect within our model and that these delay estimates are well described by a purely uniaxial model. The static theory predicts two critical temperatures: the supercooling temperature below which the isotropic phase loses stability and the superheating temperature above which the ordered nematic states do not exist. In contrast to the static problem, the isotropic phase exhibits a memory effect below the supercooling temperature in the dynamic framework. This delayed loss of stability is independent of the rate of change of temperature and depends purely on the initial value of the temperature. We also show how our results can be used to improve estimates for LC material constants. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. Molecular engineering of chiral colloidal liquid crystals using DNA origami (United States)

    Siavashpouri, Mahsa; Wachauf, Christian H.; Zakhary, Mark J.; Praetorius, Florian; Dietz, Hendrik; Dogic, Zvonimir


    Establishing precise control over the shape and the interactions of the microscopic building blocks is essential for design of macroscopic soft materials with novel structural, optical and mechanical properties. Here, we demonstrate robust assembly of DNA origami filaments into cholesteric liquid crystals, one-dimensional supramolecular twisted ribbons and two-dimensional colloidal membranes. The exquisite control afforded by the DNA origami technology establishes a quantitative relationship between the microscopic filament structure and the macroscopic cholesteric pitch. Furthermore, it also enables robust assembly of one-dimensional twisted ribbons, which behave as effective supramolecular polymers whose structure and elastic properties can be precisely tuned by controlling the geometry of the elemental building blocks. Our results demonstrate the potential synergy between DNA origami technology and colloidal science, in which the former allows for rapid and robust synthesis of complex particles, and the latter can be used to assemble such particles into bulk materials.

  20. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Based Reflex Color Reflective Displays (United States)

    Khan, Asad


    Bistable color cholesteric liquid crystal displays are unique LCDs that exhibit high reflectivity, good contrast, extremely low power operation, and are amenable to versatile roll-to-roll manufacturing. The display technology, now branded as Reflex has been in commercialized products since 1996. It has been the subject of extensive research and development globally by a variety of parties in both academic and industrial settings. Today, the display technology is in volume production for applications such as dedicated eWriters (Boogie Board), full color electronic skins (eSkin), and displays for smart cards. The flexibility comes from polymerization induced phase separation using unique materials unparalleled in any other display technology. The blend of monomers, polymers, cross linkers, and other components along with nematic liquid crystals and chiral dopants is created and processed in such ways so as to enable highly efficient manufactrable displays using ultra thin plastic substrates -- often as thin as 50μm. Other significant aspects include full color by stacking or spatial separation, night vision capability, ultra high resolution, as well as active matrix capabilities. Of particular note is the stacking approach of Reflex based displays to show full color. This approach for reflective color displays is unique to this technology. Owing to high transparency in wavelength bands outside the selective reflection band, three primarily color layers can be stacked on top of each other and reflect without interfering with other layers. This highly surprising architecture enables the highest reflectivity of any other reflective electronic color display technology. The optics, architecture, electro-topics, and process techniques will be discussed. This presentation will focus on the physics of the core technology and color, it's evolution from rigid glass based displays to flexible displays, development of products from the paradigm shifting concepts to consumer

  1. Electro-optical switching of liquid crystals of graphene oxide (United States)

    Song, Jang-Kun

    Electric field effects on aqueous graphene-oxide (GO) dispersions are reviewed in this chapter. In isotropic and biphasic regimes of GO dispersions, in which the inter-particle friction is low, GO particles sensitively respond to the application of electric field, producing field-induced optical birefringence. The electro-optical sensitivity dramatically decreases as the phase transits to the nematic phase; the increasing inter-particle friction hinders the rotational switching of GO particles. The corresponding Kerr coefficient reaches the maximum near the isotropic to biphasic transition concentration, at which the Kerr coefficient is found be c.a. 1:8 · 10-5 mV-2, the highest value ever reported in all Kerr materials. The exceptionally large Kerr effect arises from the Maxwell- Wagner polarization of GO particles with an extremely large aspect ratio and a thick electrical double layer (EDL). The polarization sensitively depends on the ratio of surface and bulk conductivities in dispersions. As a result, low ion concentration in bulk solvent is highly required to achieve a quality electro-optical switching in GO dispersions. Spontaneous vinylogous carboxylic reaction in GO particles produces H+ ions, resulting in spontaneous degradation of electro-optical response with time, hence the removal of residual ions by using a centrifuge cleaning process significantly improves the electro-optical sensitivity. GO particle size is another important parameter for the Kerr coefficient and the response time. The best performance is observed in a GO dispersion with c.a. 0.5 μm mean size. Dielectrophoretic migration of GO particles can be also used to manipulate GO particles in solution. Using these unique features of GO dispersions, one can fabricate GO liquid crystal devices similar to conventional liquid crystal displays; the large Kerr effect allows fabricating a low power device working at extremely low electric fields.

  2. Active liquid-crystal deflector and lens with Fresnel structure (United States)

    Shibuya, Giichi; Yamano, Shohei; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Masanori


    A new type of tunable Fresnel deflector and lens composed of liquid crystal was developed. Combined structure of multiple interdigitated electrodes and the high-resistivity (HR) layer implements the saw-tooth distribution of electrical potential with only the planar surfaces of the transparent substrates. According to the numerical calculation and design, experimental devices were manufactured with the liquid crystal (LC) material sealed into the sandwiched flat glass plates of 0.7 mm thickness with rubbed alignment layers set to an anti-parallel configuration. Fabricated beam deflector with no moving parts shows the maximum tilt angle of +/-1.3 deg which can apply for optical image stabilizer (OIS) of micro camera. We also discussed and verified their lens characteristics to be extended more advanced applications. Transparent interdigitated electrodes were concentrically aligned on the lens aperture with the insulator gaps under their boundary area. The diameter of the lens aperture was 30 mm and the total number of Fresnel zone was 100. Phase retardation of the beam wavefront irradiated from the LC lens device can be evaluated by polarizing microscope images with a monochromatic filter. Radial positions of each observed fringe are plotted and fitted with 2nd degree polynomial approximation. The number of appeared fringes is over 600 in whole lens aperture area and the correlation coefficients of all approximations are over 0.993 that seems enough ideal optical wavefront. The obtained maximum lens powers from the approximations are about +/-4 m-1 which was satisfied both convex and concave lens characteristics; and their practical use for the tunable lens grade eyeglasses became more prospective.

  3. Electro-optical and dielectric properties of a high tilt antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture (W-193B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Kundu, Sudarshan; Roy, Subir Kr [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta-700032 (India); Majumder, Tapas Pal [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal (India); Bennis, Noureddine; Oton, Jose Manuel [Department of TecnologIa Fotonica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dabrowski, Roman, E-mail: spskr@iacs.res.i [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)


    The electro-optical properties and dielectric relaxation have been investigated for an antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture W-193B. The material exhibits smectic A*, smectic C* and a wide range of anticlinic smectic C{sub A}{sup *} phases. The high tilt and broad room temperature smectic C{sub A}{sup *} phase make it a good candidate for antiferroelectric display materials. Dielectric studies have been made in a planarly aligned cell in the frequency range 10 Hz-13 MHz. Dielectric spectroscopy reveals the existence of soft mode in the smectic A* phase and Goldstone mode in the smectic C* phase. In the smectic C{sub A}{sup *} phase the dielectric spectrum of the material exhibits two absorption peaks related to the rotational fluctuation around the short axis of the molecules and antiphase azimuthal angle fluctuation, respectively, and are separated by about two orders of frequency. Electro-optical response using a low frequency triangular wave showed a very high quasi-static contrast ratio of 132 : 1, threshold voltage of around 7 V and saturation of 17 V. Surface-stabilized, low thickness cells of this mixture showed a perfect double hysteresis loop with a 1 Hz triangular signal, reaching different transmission levels for different voltage amplitudes. These levels can be stabilized with a single holding voltage, making it possible for the material to be passively multiplexed at video rate.

  4. New liquid crystals in the series of 1, 3, 5-triazine compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New liquid crystals in the series of 1, 3, 5-triazine compounds containing azobenzene at the peripheral arms. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... Novel liquid crystal materials whose molecular structures consist of disc-like 1,3,5-triazine unit as a central core and three rod-like azobenzenes as the peripheral ...

  5. Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Scolari, Lara; Lægsgaard, Jesper


    We demonstrate electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings (LPGs) in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) filled with a highindex liquid crystal. The presence of the liquid crystal changes the guiding properties of the fiber from an index guiding fiber to a photonic bandgap guiding fiber...

  6. Dielectric relaxation studies in 5CB nematic liquid crystal at 9 GHz ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5CB nematic liquid crystal are measured using microwave cavity technique under the influence of an external magnetic field at 9 GHz ... Dielectric relaxation; phase transition; liquid crystals; microwaves. PACS Nos 64.70.-p; 65.40. ... liquids, are preferentially aligned along a common axis, called director. The dielectric prop-.

  7. Chromatic dispersion of liquid crystal infiltrated capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole


    We consider chromatic dispersion of capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquid crystals. A perturbative scheme for inclusion of material dispersion of both liquid crystal and the surrounding waveguide material is derived. The method is used to calculate the chromatic disp...

  8. Liquid Crystal Phases of Colloidal Platelets and their Use as Nanocomposite Templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, M.C.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837563


    This thesis explores the gelation and liquid crystal phase behavior of colloidal dispersions of platelike particles as well as the use of such dispersions for the generation of nanocomposites. We report on the sol-gel, sol-glass and liquid crystal phase transitions of positively charged colloidal

  9. Electrically tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei


    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate...

  10. Zigzag line defects and manipulation of colloids in a nematic liquid crystal in microwrinkle grooves. (United States)

    Ohzono, Takuya; Fukuda, Jun-ichi


    Spatially confined liquid crystals exhibit non-uniform alignment, often accompanied by self-organised topological defects of non-trivial shape in response to imposed boundary conditions and geometry. Here we show that a nematic liquid crystal, when confined in a sinusoidal microwrinkle groove, exhibits a new periodic arrangement of twist deformations and a zigzag line defect. This periodic ordering results from the inherent liquid crystal elastic anisotropy and the antagonistic boundary conditions at the flat liquid crystal-air and the curved liquid crystal-groove interfaces. The periodic structure can be tuned by controlling the groove geometry and the molecular chirality, which demonstrates the importance of boundary conditions and introduced asymmetry for the engineering of topological defects. Moreover, the kinks in the zigzag defects can trap small particles, which may afford a new method for manipulation of colloids. Our system, which uses easily fabricated microwrinkle grooves, provides a new microfabrication method based on the arrangement of controllable defects.

  11. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda García-García


    Full Text Available Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules.

  12. Scanning probe microscopes go video rate and beyond (United States)

    Rost, M. J.; Crama, L.; Schakel, P.; van Tol, E.; van Velzen-Williams, G. B. E. M.; Overgauw, C. F.; ter Horst, H.; Dekker, H.; Okhuijsen, B.; Seynen, M.; Vijftigschild, A.; Han, P.; Katan, A. J.; Schoots, K.; Schumm, R.; van Loo, W.; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Frenken, J. W. M.


    In this article we introduce a, video-rate, control system that can be used with any type of scanning probe microscope, and that allows frame rates up to 200images/s. These electronics are capable of measuring in a fast, completely analog mode as well as in the more conventional digital mode. The latter allows measurements at low speeds and options, such as, e.g., atom manipulation, current-voltage spectroscopy, or force-distance curves. For scanning tunneling microscope (STM) application we implemented a hybrid mode between the well-known constant-height and constant-current modes. This hybrid mode not only increases the maximum speed at which the surface can be imaged, but also improves the resolution at lower speeds. Acceptable image quality at high speeds could only be obtained by pushing the performance of each individual part of the electronics to its limit: we developed a preamplifier with a bandwidth of 600kHz, a feedback electronics with a bandwidth of 1MHz, a home-built bus structure for the fast data transfer, fast analog to digital converters, and low-noise drivers. Future improvements and extensions to the control electronics can be realized easily and quickly, because of its open architecture with its modular plug-in units. In the second part of this article we show our high-speed results. The ultrahigh vacuum application of these control electronics on our (UHV)-STM enabled imaging speeds up to 0.3mm/s, while still obtaining atomic step resolution. At high frame rates, the images suffered from noticeable distortions, which we have been able to analyze by virtue of the unique access to the error (dZ) signal. The distortions have all been associated with mechanical resonances in the scan head of the UHV-STM. In order to reduce such resonance effects, we have designed and built a scan head with high resonance frequencies (⩾64kHz), especially for the purpose of testing the fast electronics. Using this scanner we have reached video-rate imaging speeds

  13. Mechanism of the emergence of the photo-EMF upon silicon liquid crystal-single crystal contact (United States)

    Budagov, K. M.; Guseinov, A. G.; Pashaev, B. G.


    The effect light has on a silicon liquid crystal-single crystal contact at different temperatures of the surface doping of silicon, and when BaTiO3 nanoparticles are added to the composition of a liquid crystal, is studied. The mechanism of the emergence of the photo-EMF in the liquid crystal-silicon structure is explained.

  14. Dielectric properties and molecular motions of liquid crystal molecules in 4-(2-methylbytylphenyl 4-(4-octylphenylbenzoate liquid crystal having blue phase (CE8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otowski W.


    Full Text Available Blue phase liquid crystals exhibit unique properties which are used in the new type of display. A blue-phase liquid crystal display was first presented commercially by Samsung in 2007. The blue-phase-three-color pixel display eliminates the need for color filters. This type of display uses blue-phase multi-component liquid crystal. Considering the one-component systems, it turns out that they are stable only in a very narrow range of temperatures between the isotropic and the chiral nematic phase (about 1 K. In 2005, a wide temperature range BP multi-component system was reported by researchers from the University of Cambridge. There are still several unsolved problems left. One of them is chemical stability and reliability. Therefore, the knowledge of molecular dynamics of blue phase liquid crystal is a prerequisite for understanding of blue-phase multi-component system. Understanding the molecular dynamics of a single component liquid-crystalline blue phase system can facilitate the solution of these problems. We present the molecular dynamics investigation of 4-(2-methylbytylphenyl 4-(4-octylphenylbenzoate (CE8, which may be a good candidate to form materials suitable for blue-phase liquid crystal displays.

  15. Nonmechanical Infrared Beam Steering Using Blue Addressed Quantum Dot Doped Liquid Crystal Grating (United States)

    Wang, Xiangru; Huang, Xiaoping; Huang, Ziqiang; Wu, Liang; Shang, Jiyang; Qiu, Qi; Wu, Shuanghong


    We present a scheme of nonmechanical laser beam steering using ZnS/InP quantum dots doping nematic liquid crystal as the optical recording film. Because of its internal electric field generated by blue laser-induced charge carrier distribution, liquid crystal molecules are reoriented to form a phase grating which make the incident angle steer to the angle as we desire. Being a nonmechanical programmable laser beam steering, the anisotropy of the relative permittivity tensor and blue laser-induced electric carriers play a significant effect in determining the reorientable liquid crystal molecule and reconfigurable phase modulation of the gratings, that determines the steering angle and steering efficiency.

  16. Polarization properties of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film with small nematic droplets. (United States)

    Lisinetskaya, Polina G; Konkolovich, Alexander A; Loiko, Valery A


    The polarization state of light transmitted through a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film with small, spherical, nonabsorbing, partially oriented nematic droplets is theoretically investigated. The model used is based on the effective medium approach. Scattering properties of a single droplet are described by the Rayleigh-Gans approximation. Propagation of coherent light is described within the framework of the Twersky theory. To describe the orientation of liquid-crystal molecules inside droplets and liquid-crystal droplets in a sample, the concept of multilevel order parameters is employed. Conditions for circular and linear polarization of the transmitted light are determined and investigated.

  17. Long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals for display applications (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Huh, Jae-Won; Yu, Byeong-Hun


    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) have been used for a reflective display because of their reflective nature in the planar state. In a reflective display, the planar and the focal-conic states are used for the bright state and the dark state, respectively. In this paper we introduce a long-pitch CLC device, in which a selective wavelength of the reflected light is shifted to infrared (IR) wavelengths by controlling the pitch. The planar state of a long-pitch CLC device is transparent over the entire visible wavelengths in the field-off state. Omni-directional achromatic reflection through light scattering in the focal-conic state can be achieved without a polarizer. Compared to conventional CLC cells that reflect the visible light in the planar state, a long-pitch CLC device has a longer pitch, of which the operating voltage for switching between the two state is much lower so that achromatic reflective displays and light shutters with low power consumption can be realized using long-pitch CLC devices. By coupling with a reflector, the light efficiency of a longpitch CLC cell in the focal-conic state can be enhanced, by which higher brightness can be obtained for application to reflective displays. A dye-doped long-pitch CLC device can be placed behind a transparent organic light-emitting diode display for use as a light shutter to block the ambient light.

  18. Electro-optic bistability in organosiloxane bimesogenic liquid crystals (United States)

    Gardiner, D. J.; Davenport, C. J.; Newton, J.; Coles, H. J.


    In this paper we report the electro-optic characterization of two homologous series of low molar mass bimesogenic siloxane-containing liquid crystals. The materials used have two alkoxycyanobiphenyl mesogenic units with variable alkyl chain joined by a two- or five-siloxane moiety and all exhibit stable smectic A mesophases over wide temperature ranges (up to 100 °C wide). Due to their inherent ruggedness these materials have potential for use in polarizer-free, bistable, scattering display and storage devices. The bistable modes are at low and high frequencies. The low frequency mode (write) is a highly scattering focal conic texture resulting from electrohydrodynamic instabilities while the high frequency mode (erase) is a clear state due to dielectric reorientation of the material. Both modes are preserved upon removal of the applied electric field. We present threshold voltages as a function of temperature, frequency, and cell thickness and response times as a function of voltage for each of the bistable modes. We find reduced threshold voltages (5<=Vth<=12 V/μm) and response times that are strongly dependent on applied voltage (50 ms<=τ<=10 s). These operating conditions would suggest that these materials are particularly suitable for slow update, large area, low power information panels and displays.

  19. Micropatterning with a liquid crystal display (LCD) projector. (United States)

    Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo


    Photolithography has been applied to biological applications such as cell and protein micropatterning and the fabrication of microfluidic channels. However, the preparation of photomasks for projecting micropattern lighting images is often time consuming and costly. Therefore, we have developed maskless photolithography devices by modifying the optics of commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors from extended to reduced projection. The developed second and third devices produce practically a centimeter-scale micropattern by dividing an original large mask pattern into several patterns, which are individually and synchronously exposed to substrates with a motorized XY-stage, applying them to cell micropatterning and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device production. The first part of this chapter describes the developments of the maskless photolithography devices. The second part describes the exposure control system with a motorized XY-stage. The third part describes the applications of devices to cell micropatterning. The last part describes the application of the devices to the fabrication of the PDMS microfluidic channel. Maskless photolithography with an LCD projector has a large advantage with no requirement for a photomask. In particular, the maskless photolithography devices show a greater power by optimizing the conditions of pattern size and shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlled Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films Using Liquid Crystal Solvents (United States)

    Bufkin, Kevin; Ohlson, Brooks; Hillman, Ben; Johnson, Brad; Patrick, David


    Interest in using organic semiconductors in applications such as large area displays, photovoltaic devices, and RFID tags stems in part from their prospects for enabling significantly reduced manufacturing costs compared to traditional inorganic semiconductors. However many of the best performing prototype devices produced so far have involved expensive or time-consuming fabrication methods, such as the use of single crystals or thin films deposited under high vacuum conditions. We present a new approach for growing low molecular weight organic crystalline films at ambient conditions based on a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using thermotropic nematic liquid crystal (LC) solvents. Tetracene is deposited via atmospheric-pressure sublimation onto substrates coated by a LC layer oriented using rubbed polyimide, producing films that are highly crystalline, with large grain sizes, and possessing macroscopic uniaxial orientation. This poster will describe the growth mechanism, discuss the effects of processing conditions such as LC layer thickness, substrate temperature and flux rate, and compare the results to a model of deposition-diffusion aggregation accounting for the finite thickness of the solvent layer.

  1. History-Dependent Patterns in Randomly Perturbed Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ranjkesh


    Full Text Available We study the characteristics of nematic structures in a randomly perturbed nematic liquid crystal (LC phase. We focus on the impact of the samples history on the universal behavior. The obtained results are of interest for every randomly perturbed system exhibiting a continuous symmetry-breaking phase transition. A semimicroscopic lattice simulation is used where the LC molecules are treated as cylindrically symmetric, rod-like objects interacting via a Lebwohl-Lasher (LL interaction. Pure LC systems exhibit a first order phase transition into the orientationally ordered nematic phase at T=Tc on lowering the temperature T. The orientational ordering of LC molecules is perturbed by the quenched, randomly distributed rod-like impurities of concentration p. Their orientation is randomly distributed, and they are coupled with the LC molecules via an LL-type interaction. Only concentrations below the percolation threshold are considered. The key macroscopic characteristics of perturbed LC structures in the symmetry-broken nematic phase are analyzed for two qualitatively different histories at T≪Tc. We demonstrate that, for a weak enough interaction among the LC molecules and impurities, qualitatively different history-dependent states could be obtained. These states could exhibit either short-range, quasi-long-range, or even long-range order.

  2. On the critical behaviour of two-dimensional liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.l. Fariñas-Sánchez


    Full Text Available The Lebwohl-Lasher (LL model is the traditional model used to describe the nematic-isotropic transition of real liquid crystals. In this paper, we develop a numerical study of the temperature behaviour and of finite-size scaling of the two-dimensional (2D LL-model. We discuss two possible scenarios. In the first one, the 2D LL-model presents a phase transition similar to the topological transition appearing in the 2D XY-model. In the second one, the 2D LL-model does not exhibit any critical transition, but its low temperature behaviour is rather characterized by a crossover from a disordered phase to an ordered phase at zero temperature. We realize and discuss various comparisons with the 2D XY-model and the 2D Heisenberg model. Having added finite-size scaling behaviour of the order parameter and conformal mapping of order parameter profile to previous studies, we analyze the critical scaling of the probability distribution function, hyperscaling relations and stiffness order parameter and conclude that the second scenario (no critical transition is the most plausible.

  3. On the theory and simulation of confined liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Andrienko, D


    cylindrical symmetry of the core is broken and two defects of strength +1/2 may be resolved. We use molecular dynamics to study the ordering of a nematic liquid crystal around a spherical particle or droplet. We observe three defect structures for different particle sizes: a quadrupolar one with a ring defect surrounding the particle in the equatorial plane; a dipolar one with a satellite defect at the north or south pole; and a transitional, non-equatorial, ring defect. By studying density and order-parameter maps, we are able to examine behavior near the particle surface, and in the disclination core region, where the elastic theory is inapplicable. We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of the topological defects that appear around an elongated colloidal particle. We also study the force and the torque on the particle suspended in the bulk of the nematic mesophase and modification of this torque when the particle is close to the cell substrate. In this thesis, we investigate several aspec...

  4. Copper and liquid crystal polymer bonding towards lead sensing (United States)

    Redhwan, Taufique Z.; Alam, Arif U.; Haddara, Yaser M.; Howlader, Matiar M. R.


    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic heavy metal causing adverse impacts on environment and human health, thus requiring its careful monitoring. In this work, we demonstrate the integration of copper (Cu) film-based electrodes toward Pb sensing. For this, we developed a direct bonding method for Cu thin film and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment followed by contact and heat at 230 °C. The oxygen plasma activation forms hydroxyl groups (OH‑) on Cu and LCP. The activated surfaces further adsorb water molecules when exposed to clean room air during contact. After contact, hydrogen bonds are formed between the OH‑ groups. The interfacial water is removed when the contacted films are heated, leading to shrinkage of OH‑ chain. This results in an intermediate oxide layer linking the Cu and C sites of Cu and LCP respectively. A strong adhesion (670 N·m‑1) is obtained between Cu/LCP that may offer prolonged use of the electrode without delamination in wet sensing applications. Anodic stripping voltammetry of Pb using Cu thin film electrode shows a stronger current peak than sputtered Cu electrode, which implies the significance of the direct bonding approach to integrate thin films. We also studied the electrochemical impedance that will enable modeling of integrated environmental sensors for on-site monitoring of heavy metals.

  5. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies. (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando


    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  6. NMR studies of molecules in liquid crystals and graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, M.E.


    NMR experiments to measure proton dipole couplings were performed on a series of n-alkanes (n-hexane through n-decane) dissolved in nematic liquid crystals. Computer modeling of the experimental NMR-spectra was done using several different models for intermolecular interactions in these systems. The model of Photinos et al. was found to be best in describing the intermolecular interactions in these systems and can provide a statistical picture of the conformation and orientation of the alkane molecules in their partially-oriented environment. Order parameters and conformational distributions for the alkanes can be calculated from the modeling. The alkanes are found to have conformational distributions very much like those found in liquid alkanes. Proton NMR spectra of tetrahydrofuran (THF) intercalated in two graphite intercalation compounds were also measured. Computer simulations of these spectra provide a picture of THF in the constrained environment between the graphene layers where the THF is oriented at a particular angle, can translate and rotate freely, but does not appear to pseudorotate.

  7. Smart windows based on cholesteric liquid crystals (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albert P. H. J.


    With increase in global warming, use of active cooling and heating devices are continuously increasing to maintain interior temperature of built environment, greenhouses and cars. To reduce the consumption of tremendous amount of energy on cooling and heating devices we need an improved control of transparent features (i.e. windows). In this respect, smart window which is capable for reflecting solar infrared energy without interfering with the visible light would be very attractive. Most of the technologies developed so far are to control the visible light. These technologies block visual contact to the outside world which cause negative effects on human health. An appealing method to selectively control infrared transmission is via utilizing the reflection properties of cholesteric liquid crystals. In our research, we have fabricated a smart window which is capable of reflecting different amount of solar infrared energy depending on the specific climate conditions. The reflection bandwidth can be tuned from 120 nm to 1100 nm in the infrared region without interfering with the visible solar radiations. Calculations reveal that between 8% and 45% of incident solar infrared light can be reflected with a single cell. Simulation studies predicted that more than 12% of the energy spent on heating, cooling and lighting in the built environment can be saved by using the fabricated smart window compared to standard double glazing window.

  8. Ultrasound visualization using polymer dispersed liquid crystal sensors (United States)

    Edwards, R. S.; Trushkevych, O.; Eriksson, T. J. R.; Ramadas, S. N.; Dixon, S.


    The acousto-optic effect in liquid crystals (LCs) has previously been exploited to build large area acoustic sensors for visualising ultrasound fields, opening up the field of acoustography. There is an opportunity to simplify this technique and open new application areas by employing polymer dispersed LC (PDLC) thin films instead of aligned LC layers. In PDLCs, the normally opaque film becomes transparent under the influence of an acoustic field (e.g. when surface acoustic waves are propagating in the material under the film). This is called acoustic clearing and is visible by eye. There is potential for producing ultrasonic sensors which can be `painted on' to a component, giving direct visualisation of the ultrasonic field without requiring scanning. We demonstrate the effect by using PDLC films to characterise a resonant mode of a flexural air-coupled transducer. Visualisation was quick, with a switching time of a few seconds. The effect shows promise for ultrasound sensing applications for transducer characterisation and NDE.

  9. Nematic liquid crystal boojums with handles on colloidal handlebodies. (United States)

    Liu, Qingkun; Senyuk, Bohdan; Tasinkevych, Mykola; Smalyukh, Ivan I


    Topological defects that form on surfaces of ordered media, dubbed boojums, are ubiquitous in superfluids, liquid crystals (LCs), Langmuir monolayers, and Bose-Einstein condensates. They determine supercurrents in superfluids, impinge on electrooptical switching in polymer-dispersed LCs, and mediate chemical response at nematic-isotropic fluid interfaces, but the role of surface topology in the appearance, stability, and core structure of these defects remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate robust generation of boojums by controlling surface topology of colloidal particles that impose tangential boundary conditions for the alignment of LC molecules. To do this, we design handlebody-shaped polymer particles with different genus g. When introduced into a nematic LC, these particles distort the nematic molecular alignment field while obeying topological constraints and induce at least 2g - 2 boojums that allow for topological charge conservation. We characterize 3D textures of boojums using polarized nonlinear optical imaging of molecular alignment and explain our findings by invoking symmetry considerations and numerical modeling of experiment-matching director fields, order parameter variations, and nontrivial handle-shaped core structure of defects. Finally, we discuss how this interplay between the topologies of colloidal surfaces and boojums may lead to controlled self-assembly of colloidal particles in nematic and paranematic hosts, which, in turn, may enable reconfigurable topological composites.

  10. Spotlight on Biomimetic Systems Based on Lyotropic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana F. de Souza


    Full Text Available The behavior of lyotropic biomimetic systems in drug delivery was reviewed. These behaviors are influenced by drug properties, the initial water content, type of lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC, swell ability, drug loading rate, the presence of ions with higher or less kosmotropic or chaotropic force, and the electrostatic interaction between the drug and the lipid bilayers. The in vivo interaction between LCC—drugs, and the impact on the bioavailability of drugs, was reviewed. The LLC with a different architecture can be formed by the self-assembly of lipids in aqueous medium, and can be tuned by the structures and physical properties of the emulsion. These LLC lamellar phase, cubic phase, and hexagonal phase, possess fascinating viscoelastic properties, which make them useful as a dispersion technology, and a highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix for drug delivery. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates a minimum toxicity and thus, they are used for various routes of administration. This review is not intended to provide a comprehensive overview, but focuses on the advantages over non modified conventional materials and LLC biomimetic properties.

  11. Anomalous swimming behavior of bacteria in nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Aranson, Igor


    Flagellated bacteria stop swimming in isotropic media of viscosity higher than 0.06kgm-1s-1. However, Bacillus Subtilis slows down by only about 30% in a nematic chromonic liquid crystal (CLC, 14wt% DSCG in water), where the anisotropic viscosity can be as high as 6kgm-1s-1. The bacteria velocity (Vb) is linear with the flagella rotation frequency. The phase velocity of the flagella Vf ~ 2Vb in LC, as compared to Vf ~ 10Vb in water. The flow generated by the bacteria is localized along the bacterial body axis, decaying slowly over tens of micrometers along, but rapidly over a few micrometers across this axis. The concentrated flow grants the bacteria new ability to carry cargo particles in LC, ability not seen in their habitat isotropic media. We attribute these anomalous features to the anisotropy of viscosity of the CLC, namely, the viscosities of splay and twist is hundreds times higher than that of bend deformation, which provides extra boost of swimming efficiency and enables the bacteria swim at considerable speed in a viscous medium. Our findings can potentially lead to applications such as particle transportation in microfluidic devices. A.S and I.A are supported by the US DOE, Office of Science, BES, Materials Science and Engineering Division. S.Z. and O.D.L are supported by NSF DMR 1104850, DMS-1434185.

  12. Key-lock colloids in a nematic liquid crystal (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuno M.; Tasinkevych, M.


    The Landau-de Gennes free energy is used to study theoretically the effective interaction of spherical "key" and anisotropic "lock" colloidal particles. We assume identical anchoring properties of the surfaces of the key and of the lock particles, and we consider planar degenerate and perpendicular anchoring conditions separately. The lock particle is modeled as a spherical particle with a spherical dimple. When such a particle is introduced into a nematic liquid crystal, it orients its dimple at an oblique angle θeq with respect to the far field director n∞. This angle depends on the depth of the dimple. Minimization results show that the free energy of a pair of key and lock particles exhibits a global minimum for the configuration when the key particle is facing the dimple of the lock colloidal particle. The preferred orientation ϕeq of the key-lock composite doublet relative to n∞ is robust against thermal fluctuations. The preferred orientation θeq(2 ) of the dimple particle in the doublet is different from the isolated situation. This is related to the "direct" interaction of defects accompanying the key particle with the edge of the dimple. We propose that this nematic-amplified key-lock interaction can play an important role in self-organization and clustering of mixtures of colloidal particles with dimple colloids present.

  13. Molecular simulation of chevrons in confined smectic liquid crystals (United States)

    Webster, Richard E.; Mottram, Nigel J.; Cleaver, Douglas J.


    Chevron structures adopted by confined smectic liquid crystals are investigated via molecular dynamics simulations of the Gay-Berne model. The chevrons are formed by quenching nematic films confined between aligning planar substrates whose easy axes have opposing azimuthal components. When the substrates are perfectly smooth, the chevron formed migrates rapidly towards one of the confining walls to yield a tilted layer structure. However, when substrate roughness is included, by introducing a small-amplitude modulation to the particle-substrate interaction well depth, a symmetric chevron is formed which remains stable over sufficiently long run times for detailed structural information, such as the relevant order parameters and director orientation, to be determined. For both smooth and rough boundaries, the smectic order parameter remains nonzero across the entire chevron, implying that layer identity is maintained across the chevron tip. Also, when the surface-stabilized chevron does eventually revert to a tilted layer structure, it does so via surface slippage, such that layer integrity is maintained throughout the chevron to tilted layer relaxation process.

  14. Writing and representation in liquid crystal physics research (United States)

    Wickman, Chad; Haas, Christina; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter


    Public understanding of science is often shaped by semiotic systems---linguistic, mathematic, graphic, pictorial---deployed in the textual presentation of scientific findings. Nowhere is this more apparent, perhaps, than in recent debates over climate change where non-linguistic communication has played an integral role in shaping policy decisions. This is one example of many, but it speaks to the need for research that examines how working scientists disseminate knowledge to expert and non-expert alike. Based on the study of text production in liquid crystal physics research, I will discuss the way in which physicists utilize multiple semiotic systems in their research and publications. Findings suggest that shared meanings are often created through a variety of semiotic forms---from linguistic script to equations to graphs to diagrams---and that these forms offer specific meaning potentials for communicating knowledge to different audiences. Ultimately, I argue that an improved understanding of scientific literacy practices is key to the effective communication of science to various constituencies.

  15. Large scale structures in liquid crystal/clay colloids (United States)

    van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S.; Klein, Susanne; Leach, Edward; Pizzey, Claire; Richardson, Robert M.


    Suspensions of three different clays in K15, a thermotropic liquid crystal, have been studied by optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. The three clays were claytone AF, a surface treated natural montmorillonite, laponite RD, a synthetic hectorite, and mined sepiolite. The claytone and laponite were sterically stabilized whereas sepiolite formed a relatively stable suspension in K15 without any surface treatment. Micrographs of the different suspensions revealed that all three suspensions contained large scale structures. The nature of these aggregates was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering. For the clays with sheet-like particles, claytone and laponite, the flocs contain a mixture of stacked and single platelets. The basal spacing in the stacks was independent of particle concentration in the suspension and the phase of the solvent. The number of platelets in the stack and their percentage in the suspension varied with concentration and the aspect ratio of the platelets. The lath shaped sepiolite did not show any tendency to organize into ordered structures. Here the aggregates are networks of randomly oriented single rods.

  16. Antipolar ordering of topological defects in active liquid crystals (United States)

    Oza, Anand U.; Dunkel, Jörn


    ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can self-assemble into two-dimensional active liquid crystals (ALCs) that exhibit a rich creation and annihilation dynamics of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This recent discovery has sparked considerable interest but a quantitative theoretical description is still lacking. We present and validate a minimal continuum theory for this new class of active matter systems by generalizing the classical Landau-de Gennes free-energy to account for the experimentally observed spontaneous buckling of motor-driven extensile microtubule bundles. The resulting model agrees with recently published data and predicts a regime of antipolar order. Our analysis implies that ALCs are governed by the same generic ordering principles that determine the non-equilibrium dynamics of dense bacterial suspensions and elastic bilayer materials. Moreover, the theory manifests an energetic analogy with strongly interacting quantum gases. Generally, our results suggest that complex nonequilibrium pattern-formation phenomena might be predictable from a few fundamental symmetry-breaking and scale-selection principles.

  17. Cosmetic Potential of a Liotropic Liquid Crystal Emulsion Containing Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bonato Alves Oliveira


    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a natural substance that has been the target of many researchers over the years since it presents a variety of potential applications in the areas of cosmetics and medicine as a treatment for some diseases. Due to its high antioxidant capacity but low bioavailability, we evaluated the antiaging potential of resveratrol as a liotropic liquid crystal emulsion. Initially, we performed in vitro assays to quantify both the organoleptic characteristics and stability of the emulsion. Next, an in vivo trial was performed on the faces of 30 volunteers to determine the cream’s cosmetic potential and to measure porphyrins, skin barrier function, skin pigmentation, expression lines, and porosity. The emulsion maintained its characteristics during the in vitro assays and, in the in vivo trial, it had some effect only on pore size in forehead, without any significant effects on the other parameters. We had 6 dropouts throughout the study, then the final number of volunteers was 24. Most volunteers did not show any changes in skin pigmentation throughout the study. Similarly, there was not any noticeable improvement on any other parameters evaluated. However, volunteers related a high level of satisfaction with the product.

  18. Inorganic nanosheet liquid crystals and their applications (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi


    Liquid crystal (LC) phase of inorganic nanosheets is fascinating system in the field of condensed matter physics and for potential applications in many fields. In this lecture, I present my research on the LC nanosheet colloids derived from clay minerals, layered niobates, layered titnates, and layered perovskites. Structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals not only meso-scale lamellar or nematic structures in the LC phase but also fractal-like porous structures. In that structure, the nanosheets show translational and rotational Brownian motions as revealed by fast-scanning confocal microscopy. The structure is tunable by many factors such as nanosheet concentration, nanosheet lateral size, salt concentration, solvent, counter cations, and charge density of the nanosheets. Some optimized systems show variable structural colors which will be useful for color materials and sensor devices. Under ac-electric field, the orientation of the nanosheets and LC domain is easily controllable; the electric field response is applicable for fabrication of electro-optic devices and formation of anisotropic composite materials. Among many future applications, inorganic nanosheet/ polymer composites with precisely controllable hierarchical structure are fascinating. We synthesized a cm-scale mono-domain gel of exfoliated LC clay/polymer composite. The gel is printable with a dye and the colored part shows photo-induced anomalous deformation behavior, which will be applicable as chemical actuators.

  19. Characterization and Operation of Liquid Crystal Adaptive Optics Phoropter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A; Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Hardy, J L; Barnes, T; Werner, J S


    Adaptive optics (AO), a mature technology developed for astronomy to compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, can also be used to correct the aberrations of the eye. The classic phoropter is used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to estimate and correct the lower-order aberrations of the eye, defocus and astigmatism, in order to derive a vision correction prescription for their patients. An adaptive optics phoropter measures and corrects the aberrations in the human eye using adaptive optics techniques, which are capable of dealing with both the standard low-order aberrations and higher-order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberration. High-order aberrations have been shown to degrade visual performance for clinical subjects in initial investigations. An adaptive optics phoropter has been designed and constructed based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to compensate for them. This system should produce near diffraction-limited optical image quality at the retina, which will enable investigation of the psychophysical limits of human vision. This paper describes the characterization and operation of the AO phoropter with results from human subject testing.

  20. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Rocha-Filho


    Full Text Available The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  1. Pulsed zero field NMR of solids and liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, A.M.


    This work describes the development and applications to solids and liquid crystals of zero field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with pulsed dc magnetic fields. Zero field NMR experiments are one approach for obtaining high resolution spectra of amorphous and polycrystalline materials which normally (in high field) display broad featureless spectra. The behavior of the spin system can be coherently manipulated and probed in zero field with dc magnetic field pulses which are employed in a similar manner to radiofrequency pulses in high field NMR experiments. Nematic phases of liquid crystalline systems are studied in order to observe the effects of the removal of an applied magnetic field on sample alignment and molecular order parameters. In nematic phases with positive and negative magnetic susceptibility anisotropies, a comparison between the forms of the spin interactions in high and low fields is made. High resolution zero field NMR spectra of unaligned smectic samples are also obtained and reflect the symmetry of the liquid crystalline environment. These experiments are a sensitive measure of the motionally induced asymmetry in biaxial phases. Homonuclear and heteronuclear solute spin systems are compared in the nematic and smectic phases. Nonaxially symmetric dipolar couplings are reported for several systems. The effects of residual fields in the presence of a non-zero asymmetry parameter are discussed theoretically and presented experimentally. Computer programs for simulations of these and other experimental results are also reported. 179 refs., 75 figs.

  2. Exploratory development of foams from liquid crystal polymers (United States)

    Chung, T. S.


    Two types of liquid crystal polymer (LCP) compositions were studied and evaluated as structural foam materials. One is a copolymer of 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, terephthalic acid, and p-acetoxyacetanilide (designed HNA/TA/AAA), and the other is a copolymer of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (designated HBA/HNA). Experimental results showed that the extruded HNA/TA/AA foams have better mechanical quality and appearance than HBA/HNA foams. Heat treatment improved foam tensile strength and break elongation, but reduced their modulus. The injection molding results indicated that nitrogen foaming agents with a low-pressure process gave better void distribution in the injection molded LCP foams than those made by the conventional injection-molding machine and chemical blowing agents. However, in comparing LCP foams with other conventional plastic foams, HBA/HNA foams have better mechanical properties than foamed ABS and PS, but are comparable to PBT and inferior to polycarbonate foams, especially in heat-deflection temperature and impact resistance energy. These deficiencies are due to LCP molecules not having been fully oriented during the Union-Carbide low-pressure foaming process.

  3. Switchable Solar Window Devices Based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Ma, Dakang; Munday, Jeremy

    Windows are an interesting target for photovoltaics due to the potential for large area of deployment and because glass is already a ubiquitous component of solar cell devices. Many demonstrations of solar windows in recent years have used photovoltaic devices which are semitransparent in the visible region. Much research has focused on enhancing device absorption in the UV and IR ranges as a means to circumvent the basic tradeoff between efficiency and transparency to visible light. Use of switchable solar window is a less investigated alternative approach; these windows utilize the visible spectrum but can toggle between high transparency and high efficiency as needed. We present a novel switchable solar window device based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC). By applying an electric field to the PDLC layer, the device can be switched from an opaque, light diffusing, efficient photovoltaic cell to a clear, transparent window. In the off state (i.e. scattering state), these devices have the added benefits of increased reflectivity for reduced lighting and cooling costs and haze for privacy. Further, we demonstrate that these windows have the potential for self-powering due to the very low power required to maintain the on, or high transparency, state. Support From: University of Maryland and Maryland Nano-center and its Fablab.

  4. Liquid-crystal science from 1888 to 1922: building a revolution. (United States)

    Mitov, Michel


    The saga of liquid crystals started with their discovery in 1888 by the botanist Friedrich Reinitzer, who unexpectedly observed "two melting points" for crystals extracted from the root of a carrot. At the end of the nineteenth century, most scientists did not believe in the existence of "liquid crystals" as promoted by the crystallographer Otto Lehmann. The controversies were very vivid; to the point that the recognition of mesomorphic states of matter by the scientific community required more than two decades. In the end, liquid crystals have changed our vision of matter by shattering the three-state paradigm. Since the mid-1970s, liquid crystals have revolutionized the worldwide information-display industry and now play a host of key roles in various technologies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Generation of Perfect Optical Vortices by Using a Transmission Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson Anaya Carvajal; Cristian H. Acevedo; Yezid Torres Moreno


    ... liquid crystal spatial light modulator. We showed theoretically that the size of the annular vortex in the Fourier plane is independent of the spiral phase topological charge but it is dependent on the axicon...

  6. Carbon/Liquid Crystal Polymer Prepreg for Cryogenic and High-Temp Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KaZaK Composites proposes to develop a pultrusion process to produce carbon fiber / liquid crystal polymer (LCP) prepreg, a first for this category of materials and...

  7. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas


    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA-surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA-surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices.

  8. Liquid Crystal on Silicon Non-Mechanical Steering of a Laser Vibrometer System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuciapinski, Kevin S


    .... The coherent laser radar system used was a Laser Vibrometer System. The beam of the laser vibrometer was steered from 0 mrad to 3 mrad at 1 mrad increments using the liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) device...

  9. Color image recognition by use of a joint transform correlator of three liquid-crystal televisions. (United States)

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Hsu, Ken Y; Zhai, Hongchen


    We present a joint transform correlator for color image recognition by using three liquid-crystal spatial light modulators. A method for simultaneously obtaining the correlation peaks of red, green, and blue is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.

  10. Electric field generation of Skyrmion-like structures in a nematic liquid crystal. (United States)

    Cattaneo, Laura; Kos, Žiga; Savoini, Matteo; Kouwer, Paul; Rowan, Alan; Ravnik, Miha; Muševič, Igor; Rasing, Theo


    Skyrmions are particle-like topological objects that are increasingly drawing attention in condensed matter physics, where they are connected to inversion symmetry breaking and chirality. Here we report the generation of stable Skyrmion-like structures in a thin nematic liquid crystal film on chemically patterned patchy surfaces. Using the interplay of material elasticity and surface boundary conditions, we use a strong electric field to quench the nematic liquid crystal from a fully aligned phase to vortex-like nematic liquid crystal structures, centered on patterned patches, which carry two different sorts of topological defects. Numerical calculations reveal that these are Skyrmion-like structures, seeded from the surface boojum topological defects and swirling towards the second confining surface. These observations, supported by numerical methods, demonstrate the possibility to generate, manipulate and study Skyrmion-like objects in nematic liquid crystals on patterned surfaces.

  11. Photoinduced Micropattern Alignment of Semiconductor Nanorods with Polarized Emission in a Liquid Crystal Polymer Matrix. (United States)

    Schneider, Julian; Zhang, Wanlong; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Kwok, Hoi-Sing; Rogach, Andrey L


    Photoalignment technology provides high alignment quality with an exceptional control over the local director of liquid crystals. Because of the reorientation ability of sulfonic azo dye molecules, they offer high azimuthal and polar anchoring energy with a low pretilt angle for the orientation of liquid crystals and liquid crystal composites. In this work, we make use of this approach to align thin film composites of light-emitting semiconductor nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal polymer into both one-dimensional and two-dimensional microscale patterns. After unidirectional alignment, the patterns are fabricated by a second irradiation with different polarization azimuth and the employment of a photomask. Fluorescence micrographs reveal the nanorod pattern alignment in domain sizes down to 2 μm. Apart from demonstrating the possibility of controlling the orientation of anisotropic nanocrystals with strongly polarized emission on microscopic scale, our results are promising for the fabrication of complex nanostructures for photonic applications.

  12. Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission in a quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (United States)

    Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Che, Yongli; Zhang, Haiting; Yan, Chao; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan


    Quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (QD-PDLCs) were prepared by photoinitiated polymerization and sealed in capillary tubes. The concentration of QDs in the PDLC was 1 wt%. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals was observed with 532 nm wavelength laser excitation. The threshold for ASE was 6 mJ cm-2, which is much lower than that for homogeneous quantum dot-doped polymer (25 mJ cm-2). The threshold for ASE was dramatically enhanced when the working temperature exceeded the clearing point of the liquid crystal; this result demonstrates that multi-scattering caused by the liquid crystals effectively improved the path length or dwell time of light in the gain region, which played a key role in decreasing the threshold for ASE.

  13. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber. (United States)

    Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros


    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a prepolymer/liquid crystal solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG, are discussed. Experimental data presented here demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, and is discussed further.

  14. Small-angle light scattering by monolayer of liquid crystal droplets in polymer matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Konkolovich


    Full Text Available A method for modeling the angular distribution of light scattered by a monolayer of liquid crystal droplets dispersed in polymer matrix is developed. It is based on the anomalous diffraction and interference approximations.

  15. Polymers and Liquid Crystals Symposium held in Boston, Massachusetts on August 19-23, 2007 (Abstracts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gin, Douglas L


    This grant was used to provide partial travel assistance for 5 invited speakers for a POLY Division symposium titled "Polymers and Liquid Crystals" at the Fall 2007 ACS National Meeting in Boston, MA (Aug. 19-23, 2007...

  16. Photonic manipulation of topological defects in liquid-crystal emulsions doped with azobenzene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro [Nanotechnology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568, Ibaraki (Japan) and Liquid-Crystal Nano-System Project, ERATO/SORST, Japan Science and Technology, Agency, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba 300-2635, Ibaraki (Japan)]. E-mail:; Tabe, Yuka [Nanotechnology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568, Ibaraki (Japan); Liquid-Crystal Nano-System Project, ERATO/SORST, Japan Science and Technology, Agency, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba 300-2635, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjyuku, 169-8555, Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Hiroshi [Nanotechnology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568, Ibaraki (Japan); Liquid-Crystal Nano-System Project, ERATO/SORST, Japan Science and Technology, Agency, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba 300-2635, Ibaraki (Japan)


    By modulating liquid-crystal alignment on a colloidal sphere, we successfully manipulated topological defects in glycerol-droplet/liquid-crystal emulsions doped with amphiphilic azobenzene derivatives. At an initial state, a disclination loop (Saturn ring) could be observed around the droplet, in which the azobenzene molecules should adsorb onto the droplet and liquid crystal molecules align normally to the surface of the droplet. On irradiation with ultra-violet light ({lambda} = 365 nm), the disclination loop was unfastened and transformed into two point defects called boojums. This should be attributed to the alignment change of the liquid crystal molecules from normal to planar arrangement triggered by trans-to-cis photoisomerization of the adsorbed azo-dyes. On irradiation with visible light causing cis-to-trans photoisomerization ({lambda} = 435 nm), the boojums went back to the Saturn ring reversibly.

  17. On Regularity Criteria for the Two-Dimensional Generalized Liquid Crystal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Wang


    Full Text Available We establish the regularity criteria for the two-dimensional generalized liquid crystal model. It turns out that the global existence results satisfy our regularity criteria naturally.

  18. Resonant transport of light from planar polymer waveguide into liquid-crystal microcavity. (United States)

    Jampani, V S R; Humar, M; Muševič, I


    We demonstrate the resonant transfer of light from a planar waveguide to a nematic liquid-crystal microdroplet immersed in water. A wide spectrum of light from a supercontinuum laser source is coupled into a high-refractive-index polymer waveguide using a prism-film coupler. The waveguide is in contact with a water dispersion of droplets from the nematic liquid-crystal 5CB. The evanescent field of the light in the waveguide is resonantly coupled to the whispering-gallery mode resonances, sustained by 5 - 20 μm-sized nematic liquid-crystal droplets, which are in close proximity to the waveguide. The resonant transfer of light is tuned by the temperature-induced shifting of the WGM resonances due to the temperature dependence of the refractive index of the nematic liquid crystal. The measurements are compared to the calculations of the coupled-mode theory.

  19. Optical manipulation of self-aligned graphene flakes in liquid crystals. (United States)

    Twombly, Christopher W; Evans, Julian S; Smalyukh, Ivan I


    Graphene recently emerged as a new two-dimensional material platform with unique optical, thermal and electronic properties. Single- or few-atom-thick graphene flakes can potentially be utilized to form structured bulk composites that further enrich these properties and enable a broad range of new applications. Here we describe optical manipulation of self-aligned colloidal graphene flakes in thermotropic liquid crystals of nematic and cholesteric types. Three-dimensional rotational and translational manipulation of graphene flakes by means of holographic optical tweezers allows for non-contact spatial patterning of graphene, control of liquid crystal defects, and low-power optical realignment of the liquid crystal director using these flakes. Potential applications include optically- and electrically-controlled reconfigurable liquid crystalline dispersions of spontaneously aligning colloidal graphene flakes and new electro-optic devices with graphene-based interconnected transparent electrodes at surfaces and in the bulk of liquid crystals.

  20. Synthesis and Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Optical Purity of Naphthyl Propionate Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seng Kue; Shin, Myung Soo; Lee, Jong Gun; Kang, Kyung Tae [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Various types of optically pure naphthyl propionate liquid crystals were prepared from (S)-naproxen in a four step reaction sequence. We found that a commercial HPLC chiral column, (S,S)-Whelk-O1, successfully resolves the (S)-naproxen-based liquid crystals. This technique is very simple and effective in monitoring the enantiomeric excess of the intermediate and final products without any structural modification at all. Most ferro- and antiferroelectric liquid crystals are chiral and their mesomorphic phase structures and electro-optical properties are largely dependent on the optical purity. Thus, for the chiral liquid crystals the occurrence of chemical or thermal racemization has to be checked throughout the synthetic sequence and the investigation of the mesomorphic and electro-optical properties.

  1. Secondary and lyotropic liquid crystal membranes for improved aqueous separations (United States)

    Nemade, Parag Ramesh

    An effective membrane separation process should have high flux (i.e., volume filtered per unit membrane surface area per unit time) and selectivity (i.e., passage of the desired species and rejection of undesired species). This dissertation examined two approaches, secondary membranes and lyotropic liquid crystal membranes, for improving flux and selectivity in aqueous liquid separations. The first part of my work emphasizes the use of pre-deposited secondary membranes and backflushing for controlling membrane fouling in microfiltration and ultrafiltration of biological mixtures. Use of secondary membranes increased the permeate flux in microfiltration by several fold. Protein transmission is also enhanced due to the presence of the secondary membrane, and the amount of protein recovered is more than twice that obtained during filtration of protein-only solutions under otherwise identical conditions. In ultrafiltration, the flux enhancement due to secondary membranes is 50%, or less. For the second part of my research, I developed and evaluated polymerized lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) thin-film composite membranes. LLC assemblies provide an opportunity to make nanoporous polymer membranes with precise control over chemical and structural features on the nanometer scale, which is currently lacking in commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes available today. These LLC composite membranes are prepared by photopolymerization of solution-cast films of LLC monomer on an ultrafiltration support membrane. These LLC membranes appeared to exhibit almost linearly increasing ionic rejection based on ionic diameter. LLC monomer was modified to achieve a 15% reduction in channel diameter, through the use of a larger multivalent Eu3+ cation as the carboxylate counterion. However, the monomers synthesized required use of solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, which resulted in the dissolution and damage of the support membranes used. Therefore, this direction

  2. Thermal tunability of photonic bandgaps in liquid crystal infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard


    We demonstrate the photonic bandgap effect and the thermal tunability of bandgaps in microstructured polymer optical fibers infiltrated with liquid crystal. Two liquid crystals with opposite sign of the temperature gradient of the ordinary refractive index (E7 and MDA-00- 1444) are used...... to demonstrate that both signs of the thermal tunability of the bandgaps are possible. The useful bandgaps are ultimately bounded to the visible range by the transparency window of the polymer....

  3. Thermomechanical modeling of the thermo-order-mechanical coupling behaviors in liquid crystal elastomers (United States)

    Jin, Lihua; Zeng, Zhi; Huo, Yongzhong


    Liquid crystal elastomer is a kind of anisotropic polymeric material, with complicated micro-structures and thermo-order-mechanical coupling behaviors. In this paper, we propose a method to systematically model these coupling behaviors. We derive the constitutive model in full tensor structure according to the Clausius-Duhem inequality. Two of the constitutive equations represent the mechanical equilibrium and the other two represent the phase equilibrium. Choosing the total free energy as the combination of the neo-classical free energy and the Landau-de Gennes nematic free energy, we obtain the Cauchy stress-deformation gradient relation and the order-mechanical coupling equations. We find the analytical homogeneous solutions of the deformation for the typical mechanical loadings, such as uniaxial stretch, and simple shear in any directions. We also compare the compression behavior of prolate liquid crystal elastomers with the stretch behavior of oblate liquid crystal elastomers. As a result, the stress, strain, temperature, order parameter, biaxiality and the direction of the director of liquid crystal elastomers couple with each other. When the prolate liquid crystal elastomer sample is stretched in the direction parallel to its director, the deviatoric stress makes the mesogens more order and increase the transition temperature. When the sample is sheared or stretched in the direction non-parallel to the director, the director of the liquid crystal elastomer will rotate, and the biaxiality will be induced. Because of the order-mechanical coupling, under infinitesimal deformation, liquid crystal elastomer has anisotropic Young's modulus and zero shear modulus in the direction parallel or perpendicular to the director. While for the oblate liquid crystal elastomers, the stretch parallel to the director will cause the rotation of the director and induce the biaxiality.

  4. Sharp Morphological Transitions from Nanoscale Mixed-Anchoring Patterns in Confined Nematic Liquid Crystals. (United States)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C; Li, Xiao; Martínez-González, José A; Smith, Coleman; Hernández-Ortiz, J P; Nealey, Paul F; de Pablo, Juan J


    Liquid crystals are known to be particularly sensitive to orientational cues provided at surfaces or interfaces. In this work, we explore theoretically, computationally, and experimentally the behavior of liquid crystals on isolated nanoscale patterns with controlled anchoring characteristics at small length scales. The orientation of the liquid crystal is controlled through the use of chemically patterned polymer brushes that are tethered to a surface. This system can be engineered with remarkable precision, and the central question addressed here is whether a characteristic length scale exists at which information encoded on a surface is no longer registered by a liquid crystal. To do so, we adopt a tensorial description of the free energy of the hybrid liquid-crystal-surface system, and we investigate its morphology in a systematic manner. For long and narrow surface stripes, it is found that the liquid crystal follows the instructions provided by the pattern down to 100 nm widths. This is accomplished through the creation of line defects that travel along the sides of the stripes. We show that a "sharp" morphological transition occurs from a uniform undistorted alignment to a dual uniform/splay-bend morphology. The theoretical and numerical predictions advanced here are confirmed by experimental observations. Our combined analysis suggests that nanoscale patterns can be used to manipulate the orientation of liquid crystals at a fraction of the energetic cost that is involved in traditional liquid crystal-based devices. The insights presented in this work have the potential to provide a new fabrication platform to assemble low power bistable devices, which could be reconfigured upon application of small external fields.

  5. The cone phase of liquid crystals: Triangular lattice of double-tilt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the cut-off α =20 ˚A, double-tilt cylinders of radius R <200 ˚A are energetically favoured over a distortion-free smectic-C provided κG < -3 x10 6 dyne. We are not aware of any measurements of κG in thermotropic liquid crystals. However, some lyotropic liquid crystals have κG values of this sign and magnitude [14]. It is clear ...

  6. A Polarization Maintaining Filter based on a Liquid-Crystal-Photonic-Bandgap-Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Turchinovich, Dmitry


    A polarization maintaining filter based on a liquid-crystal-photonic-bandgap-fiber is demonstrated. Its polarization extinction ratio is 14 dB at 1550 nm. Its tunability is 150 nm.......A polarization maintaining filter based on a liquid-crystal-photonic-bandgap-fiber is demonstrated. Its polarization extinction ratio is 14 dB at 1550 nm. Its tunability is 150 nm....

  7. Poincaré-sphere representation of phase-mostly twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators


    Durán Bosch, Vicente Andrés; Clemente Pesudo, Pedro Javier; Martínez León, Lluís; Climent Jordà, Vicent; Lancis Sáez, Jesús


    We establish necessary conditions in order to design a phase-only wave front modulation system from a liquid crystal display. These conditions determine the dependence of the polarization state of the light emerging from the display on the addressing gray level. The analysis, which is carried out by means of the coherence-matrix formalism, includes the depolarization properties of the device. Two different types of polarization distributions at the output of the liquid crystal cel...

  8. Optomechanical Properties of Stretched Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films for Scattering Polarizer Applications


    Amimori, Ichiro; Priezjev, Nikolai V.; Pelcovits, Robert A.; Crawford, Gregory P.


    A scattering polarizer is created by subjecting a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) film to tensile strain. The optomechanical properties of the film are investigated by simultaneously measuring the stress-strain and polarization dependent optical transmission characteristics. The correlation between transmittances of two orthogonal polarizations and the stress-strain curve reveals that the polymer orientation as well as the droplet shape anisotropy influences the liquid crystal alignme...

  9. Impedance of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals with Carbon Nanofibers in Weak Electric Fields (United States)

    Zhdanov, K. R.; Romanenko, A. I.; Zharkova, G. M.; Podyacheva, O. Yu.


    Impedance of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals modified by carbon nanofibers is studied in fields lower than the threshold field of the director reorientation of a liquid crystal. It is shown that the real and imaginary parts of the impedance obey to the relationship (Zre - X0)2 + (Zim - Y0)2 = R 0 2 , where X0, Y0, and R0 are the fitting parameters depending on the frequency of the exciting electric field.

  10. Do shape invariant solitons in highly nonlocal nematic liquid crystals really exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovic, Milan S; Aleksic, Najdan B; Belic, Milivoj R


    We question physical existence of shape invariant solitons in three dimensional nematic liquid crystals. Using modified Petviashvili's method for finding eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, we determine shape invariant solitons in a realistic physical model that includes the highly nonlocal nature of the liquid crystal system. We check the stability of such solutions by propagating them for long distances. We establish that any noise added to the medium or to the fundamental solitons induces them to breathe, rendering them practically unobservable.

  11. Controllable light diffraction in woodpile photonic crystals filled with liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Chih-Hua; Zeng, Hao; Wiersma, Diederik S. [European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Maigyte, Lina; Trull, Jose; Cojocaru, Crina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Reserca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), passeig Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)


    An approach to switching between different patterns of light beams transmitted through the woodpile photonic crystals filled with liquid crystals is proposed. The phase transition between the nematic and isotropic liquid crystal states leads to an observable variation of the spatial pattern transmitted through the photonic structure. The transmission profiles in the nematic phase also show polarization sensibility due to refractive index dependence on the field polarization. The experimental results are consistent with a numerical calculation by Finite Difference Time Domain method.

  12. Electrically tunable bandpass filter using solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with multiple liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    An electrically tunable bandpass filter is designed and fabricated by integrating two solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with different liquid crystals in a double silicon v-groove assembly. By separately controlling the driving voltage of each liquid-crystal-filled section, both the short......-wavelength edge and the long-wavelength edge of the bandpass filter are tuned individually or simultaneously with the response time in the millisecond range....

  13. Analysis of thermoplastic polyimide + polymer liquid crystal blends (United States)

    Gopalanarayanan, Bhaskar

    Thermoplastic polyimides (TPIs) exhibit high glass transition temperatures (Tsbgs), which make them useful in high performance applications. Amorphous and semicrystalline TPIs show sub-Tsbg relaxations, which can aid in improving strength characteristics through energy absorption. The alpha relaxation of both types of TPIs indicates a cooperative nature. The semicrystalline TPI shows thermo-irreversible cold crystallization phenomenon. The polymer liquid crystal (PLC) used in the blends is thermotropic and with longitudinal molecular structure. The small heat capacity change (Delta Csb{p}) associated with the glass transition indicates the PLC to be rigid rod in nature. The PLC shows a small endotherm associated with the melting. The addition of PLC to the semicrystalline TPI does not significantly affect the Tsbg or the melting point (Tsbm). The cold crystallization temperature (Tsbc) increases with the addition of the PLC, indicating channeling phenomenon. The addition of PLC also causes a negative deviation of the Delta Csb{p}, which is another evidence for channeling. The TPI, PLC and their blends show high thermal stability. The semicrystalline TPI absorbs moisture; this effect decreases with the addition of the PLC. The absorbed moisture does not show any effect on the degradation. The addition of PLC beyond 30 wt.% does not result in an improvement of properties. The amorphous TPI + PLC blends also show the negative deviation of Delta Csb{p} from linearity with composition. The addition of PLC causes a decrease in the thermal conductivity in the transverse direction to the PLC orientation. The thermomechanical analysis indicates isotropic expansivity for the amorphous TPI and a small anisotropy for the semicrystalline TPI. The PLC shows large anisotropy in expansivity. Even 5 wt.% concentration of PLC in the blend induces considerable anisotropy in the expansivity. Thus, blends show controllable expansivity through PLC concentration. Amorphous TPI + PLC

  14. Active Janus Particles at Interfaces of Liquid Crystals. (United States)

    Mangal, Rahul; Nayani, Karthik; Kim, Young-Ki; Bukusoglu, Emre; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo M; Abbott, Nicholas L


    We report an investigation of the active motion of silica-palladium Janus particles (JPs) adsorbed at interfaces formed between nematic liquid crystals (LCs) and aqueous phases containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In comparison to isotropic oil-aqueous interfaces, we observe the elasticity and anisotropic viscosity of the nematic phase to change qualitatively the active motion of the JPs at the LC interfaces. Although contact line pinning on the surface of the JPs is observed to restrict out-of-plane rotational diffusion of the JPs at LC interfaces, orientational anchoring of nematic LCs on the silica (planar) and palladium (homeotropic) hemispheres biases JP in-plane orientations to generate active motion almost exclusively along the director of the LC at low concentrations of H2O2 (0.5 wt %). In contrast, displacements perpendicular to the director exhibit the characteristics of Brownian diffusion. At higher concentrations of H2O2 (1-3 wt %), we observe an increasing population of JPs propelled parallel and perpendicular to the LC director in a manner consistent with active motion. In addition, under these conditions, we also observe a subpopulation of JPs (approximately 10%) that exhibit active motion exclusively perpendicular to the LC director. These results are discussed in light of independent measurements of the distribution of azimuthal orientations of the JPs at the LC interfaces and calculations of the elastic energies that bias JP orientations. We also contrast our observations at LC interfaces to past studies of self-propulsion of particles within and at the interfaces of isotropic liquids.

  15. Shapes and singularities in triatic liquid-crystal vesicles (United States)

    Bowick, Mark J.; Manyuhina, O. V.; Serafin, F.


    Determining the equilibrium configuration and shape of curved two-dimensional films with (generalized) liquid-crystalline order is a difficult infinite-dimensional problem of direct relevance to the study of generalized polymersomes, soft matter and the fascinating problem of understanding the origin and formation of shape (morphogenesis). The symmetry of the free energy of the LC film being considered and the topology of the surface to be determined often requires that the equilibrium configuration possesses singular structures in the form of topological defects such as disclinations for nematic films. The precise number and type of defect plays a fundamental role in restricting the space of possible equilibrium shapes. Flexible closed vesicles with spherical topology and nematic or smectic order, for example, inevitably possess four elementary strength +1/2 disclination defects positioned at the four vertices of a tetrahedral shell. Here we address the problem of determining the equilibrium shape of flexible vesicles with generalized liquid-crystalline order. The order parameter in these cases is an element of S^1/Zp , for any positive integer p. We will focus on the case p =3 , known as triatic liquid crystals (LCs). We construct the appropriate order parameter for triatics and find the associated free energy. We then describe the structure of the elementary defects of strength +1/3 in flat space. Finally, we prove that sufficiently floppy triatic vesicles with the topology of the 2-sphere equilibrate to octahedral shells with strength +1/3 defects at each of the six vertices, independently of the scale.

  16. X-ray reflectivity reveals ionic structure at liquid crystal-aqueous interfaces. (United States)

    Hallett, James E; Hayward, Dominic W; Arnold, Thomas; Bartlett, Paul; Richardson, Robert M


    Here X-ray reflectivity has been used to determine the structure of liquid crystal monolayers for different cyanobiphenyl homologues supported on aqueous solutions of two different salt species. Sodium iodide induces homeotropic ordering for all of the monolayer forming liquid crystal homologues studied here, and forms a Stern layer of iodide ions at the liquid crystal cyano headgroup, similar to the case of lipids or surfactants supported on electrolyte solutions. The liquid crystal headgroups were also found to penetrate into the water surface when binding with iodide ions. Sodium bromide, however, does not form the same localisation of ions close to a liquid crystal monolayer, and instead appears to produce no noticeable change in the scattering length density of the liquid crystal monolayer compared to pure water. However, on further compression the X-ray reflectivity dramatically changes, revealing the emergence of the so-called "trilayer" structure for 5CB and 8CB. This transition occurs at a lower areal density for sodium bromide than for pure water, and unlike for the uncompressed film, a layer of bromide ions was found at the trilayer-water interface.

  17. Functional Smart Dispersed Liquid Crystals for Nano- and Biophotonic Applications: Nanoparticles-Assisted Optical Bioimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kamanina


    Full Text Available Functional nematic liquid crystal structures doped with nano- and bioobjects have been investigated. The self-assembling features and the photorefractive parameters of the structured liquid crystals have been comparatively studied via microscopy and laser techniques. Fullerene, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, DNA, and erythrocytes have been considered as the effective nano- and biosensitizers of the LC mesophase. The holographic recording technique based on four-wave mixing of the laser beams has been used to investigate the laser-induced change of the refractive index in the nano- and bioobjects-doped liquid crystal cells. The special accent has been given to novel nanostructured relief with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes at the interface: solid substrate-liquid crystal mesophase. It has been shown that this nanostructured relief influences the orienting ability of the liquid crystal molecules with good advantage. As a result, it provokes the orientation of the DNA. The modified functional liquid crystal materials have been proposed as the perspective systems for both the photonics and biology as well as the medical applications.

  18. Modulations and Fluctuations in Lyotropic Smectic Liquid Crystals. (United States)

    Wack, Daniel Christopher

    This dissertation is concerned with modulation and fluctuation phenomena in lyotropic smectic liquid crystals. The first Chapter provides a critical summary of the results and suggestions for further experimental investigation. In Chapter 2, the results of a high resolution, synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction study of lattice constants in the P_{beta^' } ("rippled") phase of lecithin-water multilamellar mixtures are given. The variation with water volume fraction phi_{omega} and hydrocarbon chain length N_{c} of the modulation wavevector suggests that membrane curvature and hydration interactions between membranes play a significant role in the modulation. The results are consistent with a Lifshitz phenomenological model for lamellar phases of interacting membranes proposed by Goldstein and Leibler. The phase behavior predicted by the model includes a multicritical point called the Lifshitz Point where the wavelength of the modulation diverges. The experimental results indicate that this multicritical point lies in the vicinity of N_{c} = 9 and phi_{omega} = 0.18. In Chapter 3, a high-resolution synchrotron x-ray study of oriented, supported, hydrated dilaurylphosphatidylcholine in the L_{alpha} (Smectic A or "fluid") phase shows that thermal fluctuations give rise to algebraic decay of positional order in stacking of the bimolecular lamellae, the so-called "Landau-Peierls" state. For planar monocrystalline samples of thickness 10-20 mum, the exponents derived from intensity profiles are in accord with harmonic theory, and indicate a bulk compressional elastic constant B = (1.9 +/- 1.0) x 10 ^8erg/cm^3. Samples of thickness ~ 1-2 mu m show anomalous behavior in the wings of the longitudinal intensity profiles, but are not in accord with harmonic theory, suggesting that surface effects partially quench the thermal fluctuations. In Chapter 4, investigation of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-cholesterol phase diagram by low and high resolution synchrotron x

  19. Spectroscopic and morphological investigation of conjugated photopolymerisable quinquethiophene liquid crystals

    KAUST Repository

    McGlashon, Andrew J.


    3′-methyl-(5,5′′-bis[3-ethyl-3-(6-phenyl-hexyloxymethyl) -oxetane])-2,2′:5′,2′′-terthiophene (5T(Me)Ox) is a solution processable small molecule semiconductor displaying smectic-C and nematic liquid crystal phases. The pendant oxetane group can be polymerized in situ in the presence of a suitable photoacid at concentrations ≥1% by weight. Spin-coated films of pure 5T(Me)Ox and 5T(Me)Ox doped with the soluble photoacid were characterized by absorption and photoluminescent spectroscopy. Thick pristine films showed absorption and emission from a crystalline phase. Thin monolayer (<5 nm) films, as well as thicker photoacid doped films, instead showed absorption from an H-aggregate phase and emission from an excimer. Optical microscopy showed a significant change in film structure upon addition of the photoacid; large and well-orientated crystals being replaced by much smaller domains which appear to vary in thickness. Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (GIWAXS) was used to characterize the packing and orientation of molecules in the crystalline and doped samples. The results are consistent with the photoacid doped samples forming layers of H-aggregate phase monolayer sheets parallel to the substrate where the photoacid inhibits the transition into the three-dimensionally ordered crystalline phase. Field-effect transistors and light emitting diodes were constructed incorporating 5T(Me)Ox as the active layer. Pure 5T(Me)Ox field-effect transistors showed good, p-type device characteristics, but the morphological changes upon doping result in a loss of transistor action. In the diodes, curing through melting and exposure to UV light followed by photoacid removal resulted in an increase in current density but a decrease in light emission. These results indicate that the presence of the photoacid (≥1% by weight) can have a dramatic effect on the structure, morphology and device performance of ordered, photopatternable materials for organic

  20. Dielectric Response of Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films. (United States)

    Seekola, Desmond Laurence

    The dielectric response of three types of PDLC films has been studied as a function of frequency of the applied field and temperature. Each type of film contains nematic liquid crystal E7 in a different polymer binder:epoxy (Epon 828), thermoplastic (PMMA) and UV curable adhesive (Norland 65). A model is developed using an effective medium technique in a self consistent field approximation that reasonably describes the dielectric response of PDLC films as a function of frequency. The electrical properties of the constituent phases are estimated. In the E7/PMMA and E7/Norland 65 films the conductivity of E7 is found to be much greater than PMMA or Norland 65 resulting in charge buildup close of 100 Hz at the droplet/polymer interface. For the E7/Epon film the conductivity of Epon is found to be close to E7 so that there is no charge buildup at the droplet/polymer interface. The effect of charge buildup is more clearly seen in the shielding of the applied field with frequency in the optical transmission measurements. For the PMMA and Norland 65 films the turn on voltage increases as the frequency is decreased below 100 Hz. The optical measurements correlate reasonably well with the dielectric response. The shielding of the droplet field in the PMMA film saturates below a certain frequency. By measuring the shielding as a function of droplet size it is shown that this is due to charge depletion in the droplet. In the Norland film, unlike the PMMA film, the shielding does not completely saturate, tending to increase at very low frequency. These results are compared to the model prediction of the field in the droplet. Using Debye-Huckel theory, the charge carrier concentration and electric field are shown to vary significantly over the volume of the droplet for different values of the applied field. From the temperature dependence of the dielectric response the activation energy associated with side group motion (beta transition) in pure PMMA is calculated. Also the

  1. Visual performance in medical imaging using liquid crystal displays (United States)

    Tchou, Philip Marcel


    This thesis examined the contrast performance of liquid crystal display (LCD) devices for use in medical imaging. Novel experimental methods were used to measure the ability of medical LCD devices to produce just noticeable contrast. It was demonstrated that medical LCD devices are capable of high performance in medical imaging and are suitable for conducting psychovisual research experiments. Novel methods for measuring and controlling the luminance response of an LCD were presented in Chapter 3 and used to develop a software tools to apply DICOM GSDF calibrations. Several medical LCD systems were calibrated, demonstrating that the methods can be used to reliably measure luminance and manipulate fine contrast. Chapter 4 reports on a novel method to generate low contrast bi-level bar patterns by using the full palette of available gray values. The method was used in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychovisual experiment to measure the contrast threshold of human observers. Using a z-score analysis method, the results were found to be consistent with the Barten model of contrast sensitivity. Chapter 5 examined error distortion associated with using z-scores. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method was presented as an alternative and was used to reevaluate the results from Chapter 4. The new results were consistent with the Barten model. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the statistical precision of the MLE method in relation to the number and distribution of trials. In Chapter 6, 2AFC tests were conducted examining contrast thresholds for complex sinusoid, white noise, and filtered noise patterns. The sinusoid test results were consistent with the Barten model while the noise patterns required more contrast for visibility. The effects of adaptation were also demonstrated. A noise visibility index (NVI) was introduced to describe noise power weighted by contrast sensitivity. Just noticeable white and filtered noise patterns exhibited similar NVI

  2. Properties and stability of a liquid crystal form of cyclosporine-the first reported naturally occurring peptide that exists as a thermotropic liquid crystal. (United States)

    Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad; Stevenson, Cynthia L; Bennett, David B


    A new solid-state form of cyclosporine produced by spray-drying exhibited characteristics consistent with a liquid crystal. No sharp diffraction peaks were observed by powder X-ray diffraction; however, analysis by both small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXR) and microscopic under polarized light (PLM) confirmed the existence of two-dimensional ordered liquid crystal. Hot stage microscopy revealed a solid-to-liquid transition, in the range of 118 to 125 degrees C. Moreover, the solid-to-liquid transition showed frequency dependence by dielectric analysis (DEA), and was coincidental with a stepwise heat capacity change measured by differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The two-dimensional order was maintained above the solid-to-liquid transition temperature indicated by low-angle diffraction by SAXR and birefringence by PLM. However, birefringence was lost at temperatures above 170 degrees C, indicating the conversion of the liquid crystal into an isotropic liquid. In situ annealing experiments, by DSC, revealed the presence of an endotherm, unexplained by either a phase transition or solvent loss, and it is believed to be the result of a structural rearrangement that has no impact on the macroscopic properties of the material. Spray-dried cyclosporine at room temperature is therefore a frozen thermotropic liquid crystal due to the presence of two-dimensional order and the lack of substantial residual solvent. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the existence of a thermotropic liquid crystal of a naturally occurring peptide. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 92:1821-1831, 2003

  3. Sharp Morphological Transitions from Nanoscale Mixed-Anchoring Patterns in Confined Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C. [Institute; División; Li, Xiao [Institute; Martínez-González, José A. [Institute; Smith, Coleman [Institute; Hernández-Ortiz, J. P. [Departamento; Nealey, Paul F. [Institute; Materials; de Pablo, Juan J. [Institute; Materials


    Liquid crystals are known to be particularly sensitive to orientational cues provided at surfaces or interfaces. In this work, we explore theoretically, computationally, and experimentally the behavior of liquid crystals on isolated nanoscale patterns with controlled anchoring characteristics at small length scales. The orientation of the liquid crystal is controlled through the use of chemically patterned polymer brushes that are tethered to a surface. This system can be engineered with remarkable precision, and the central question addressed here is whether a characteristic length scale exists at which information encoded on a surface is no longer registered by a liquid crystal. To do so, we adopt a tensorial description of the free energy of the hybrid liquidcrystal surface system, and we investigate its morphology in a systematic manner. For long and narrow surface stripes, it is found that the liquid crystal follows the instructions provided by the pattern down to 100 nm widths. This is accomplished through the creation of line defects that travel along the sides of the stripes. We show that a "sharp" morphological transition occurs from a uniform undistorted alignment to a dual uniform/splay-bend morphology. The theoretical and numerical predictions advanced here are confirmed by experimental observations. Our combined analysis suggests that nanoscale patterns can be used to manipulate the orientation of liquid crystals at a fraction of the energetic cost that is involved in traditional liquid crystal-based devices. The insights presented in this work have the potential to provide a new fabrication platform to assemble low power bistable devices, which could be reconfigured upon application of small external fields.

  4. A shear sensitive monomer-polymer liquid crystal system for wind tunnel applications (United States)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe


    Characteristics of a liquid crystal system, comprised of a shear-sensitive cholesteric-monomer liquid crystal thin-film coated on a liquid-crystal polymer substrate, are described. The system provides stable Grandjean texture, a desirable feature for shear-stress measurements using selective reflection from the monomer liquid-crystal helix structure. Impingement of gas or air flow on the monomer liquid-crystal free surface changes the wavelength of the selective reflection for an incident white light from red toward blue with increase in the rate of gas flow. The contrast of the selectively reflected light improves considerably by providing a thin black coating of about 5 microns at the monomer-polymer interface. The coating thickness is such that the steric interactions are still sufficiently strong to maintain Grandjean texture. For a small angle of incidence of a monochromatic light, the measurement of the reflected light intensity normal to the monomer-polymer liquid-crystal interface enables the determination of the wavelength for selective reflection as a function of the gas-flow differential pressure applied in the plane of the interface. The variation of the wavelength with the pressure is linear with a slope of about 2 nm/mmHg. Furthermore, the shear-stress effects are reversible unlike for monomer liquid crystal-metal systems used for flow visualization on wind-tunnel model surfaces. The present system offers a suitable method for direct on-line measurement of shear stress field from measurements of the wavelength for selective reflection for an incident white light.

  5. Random lasing in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal film (United States)

    Wu, Rina; Shi, Rui-xin; Wu, Xiaojiao; Wu, Jie; Dai, Qin


    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film was designed and fabricated, and random lasing action was studied. A mixture of laser dye, nematic liquid crystal, chiral dopant, and PVA was used to prepare the dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film by means of microcapsules. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that most liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix ranged from 30 μm to 40 μm, the size of the liquid crystal droplets was small. Under frequency doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical excitation, a plurality of discrete and sharp random laser radiation peaks could be measured in the range of 575-590 nm. The line-width of the lasing peak was 0.2 nm and the threshold of the random lasing was 9 mJ. Under heating, the emission peaks of random lasing disappeared. By detecting the emission light spot energy distribution, the mechanism of radiation was found to be random lasing. The random lasing radiation mechanism was then analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that the size of the liquid crystal droplets is the decisive factor that influences the lasing mechanism. The surface anchor role can be ignored when the size of the liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix is small, which is beneficial to form multiple scattering. The transmission path of photons is similar to that in a ring cavity, providing feedback to obtain random lasing output. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378042), the Colleges and Universities in Liaoning Province Outstanding Young Scholars Growth Plans, China (Grant No. LJQ2015093), and Shenyang Ligong University Laser and Optical Information of Liaoning Province Key Laboratory Open Funds, China.

  6. Computerized Liquid Crystal Phase Identification by Neural Networks Analysis of Polarizing Microscopy Textures (United States)

    Karaszi, Zoltan; Konya, Andrew; Dragan, Feodor; Jakli, Antal; CPIP/LCI; CS Dept. of Kent State University Collaboration

    Polarizing optical microscopy (POM) is traditionally the best-established method of studying liquid crystals, and using POM started already with Otto Lehman in 1890. An expert, who is familiar with the science of optics of anisotropic materials and typical textures of liquid crystals, can identify phases with relatively large confidence. However, for unambiguous identification usually other expensive and time-consuming experiments are needed. Replacement of the subjective and qualitative human eye-based liquid crystal texture analysis with quantitative computerized image analysis technique started only recently and were used to enhance the detection of smooth phase transitions, determine order parameter and birefringence of specific liquid crystal phases. We investigate if the computer can recognize and name the phase where the texture was taken. To judge the potential of reliable image recognition based on this procedure, we used 871 images of liquid crystal textures belonging to five main categories: Nematic, Smectic A, Smectic C, Cholesteric and Crystal, and used a Neural Network Clustering Technique included in the data mining software package in Java ``WEKA''. A neural network trained on a set of 827 LC textures classified the remaining 44 textures with 80% accuracy.

  7. An electro-optic experimental study of an unusual liquid crystal phase transition (United States)

    Staines, Daniel; Wicks, Derek; Havens, Austin; Fernsler, Jonathan


    Liquid crystal phases are highly sensitive to their surroundings and they interact with light in unusual ways: the index of refraction is different depending on the polarization of the incident light. This combination of properties makes them ideal for low-power liquid crystal displays (LCD's), ubiquitous in today's portable electronic devices. They are also beautiful: optical textures of liquid crystals show bright colors, with the color corresponding to the amount of retardation in the light polarized along different axes. These phases are fluid, but can nevertheless be highly ordered. We have developed a novel experimental analysis using a photometric calculation of microscopy images to perform a series of experiments on several liquid crystal materials, called ``de Vries'' smectics. Using this system, we examined how the structure of these phases changed under the influence of different boundary conditions, temperature, and applied electric fields. These unusual materials show the bizarre behavior of appearing to become less ordered with decreasing temperature. This phase, which is not fully understood, has advantageous optical properties that could lead to the next generation of liquid crystal displays.

  8. Activation volume of selected liquid crystals in the density scaling regime. (United States)

    Grzybowski, A; Urban, S; Mroz, S; Paluch, M


    In this paper, we demonstrate and thoroughly analyze the activation volumetric properties of selected liquid crystals in the nematic and crystalline E phases in comparison with those reported for glass-forming liquids. In the analysis, we have employed and evaluated two entropic models (based on either total or configurational entropies) to describe the longitudinal relaxation times of the liquid crystals in the density scaling regime. In this study, we have also exploited two equations of state: volumetric and activation volumetric ones. As a result, we have established that the activation volumetric properties of the selected liquid crystals are quite opposite to such typical properties of glass-forming materials, i.e., the activation volume decreases and the isothermal bulk modulus increases when a liquid crystal is isothermally compressed. Using the model based on the configurational entropy, we suggest that the increasing pressure dependences of the activation volume in isothermal conditions and the negative curvature of the pressure dependences of isothermal longitudinal relaxation times can be related to the formation of antiparallel doublets in the examined liquid crystals. A similar pressure effect on relaxation dynamics may be also observed for other material groups in case of systems, the molecules of which form some supramolecular structures.

  9. Changes in molecular dynamics upon formation of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal. (United States)

    Brás, Ana R E; Viciosa, M Teresa; Rodrigues, Carla M; Dias, C J; Dionísio, Madalena


    The molecular dynamics during the formation of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) was followed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy in the frequency range from 10(-1) to 2 x 10(6) Hz and over the temperature range from 158 to 273 K. The composite was produced by thermal polymerization induced phase separation of a mixture of triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate and the nematic liquid crystal, E7, in the proportion of 60:40 w/w. Both monomer and liquid crystal vitrify upon cooling having glass transition relaxation processes already characterized by some of us; yet E7 was previously studied in a narrower frequency range, so the present work updates its dielectric behavior. The starting mixture exhibits a rather complex dielectric spectrum due to the detection of multiple processes occurring simultaneously in the monomer and liquid crystal constituents. The PDLC formation occurs by mobility changes essentially in the liquid crystal tumbling motion, while the main relaxation of the monomer depletes upon polymerization. A low intense secondary process of E7 hardly detected in the bulk material is enhanced in both starting mixture and final composite allowing its characterization.

  10. Thermal Analysis, Mechanical and Rheological Behaviour of Melt Manufactured Polyethylene/Liquid Crystal Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Modification of properties of conventional thermoplastics with thermotropic liquid crystal polymers, from one hand, allows decrease their viscosities, substantially facilitating processing conditions, and, from another hand, allows increase their exploitation properties. Orientation of the labile structure of liquid crystal polymer in extrusion or injection moulding causes specific reinforcement (so-called self-reinforcement to occur in the blends containing liquid crystal polymer. Up to now the effect of self-reinforcement is mostly investigated in the blends, containing considerable amount of liquid crystal polymer. In this research the effect of minor amounts of liquid crystalline co-polyester modifier on the properties of polyethylene is investigated. Various compositions of laboratory synthesized hydroxybenzoic acid /polyethylene terephtalate copolymer containing polyethylene composites have been manufactured by thermoplastic blending. It has been observed that 1 modulus of elasticity, yield strength and ultimate strength increase with raising the content of liquid crystalline modifier; 2 void content in the investigated polyethylene/liquid crystal copolymer composites is not greater that 1 %; 3 addition of liquid crystalline co-polyester modifier improves arrangement of PE crystalline phase.

  11. Measurement of helical twisting power based on axially symmetrical photo-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal film. (United States)

    Ko, Shih-Wei; Huang, Shu-Hao; Fuh, Andy Y-G; Lin, Tsung-Hsien


    This investigation demonstrates a simple but accurate method for measuring the helical twisting power of chiral doped liquid crystals using axially symmetrical photo-alignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystal films. As reported in our previous paper, a reversed twist effect produces a disclination line in photo-aligned axially symmetrical liquid crystal films. The pitch and helical twisting power can be obtained by measuring the rotation angle of the disclination line in chrial doped liquid crystal. This method is independent of cell gap and provide an error below 0.5%.

  12. Design of a cholesteric liquid crystal cell for a high-transmittance light shutter (United States)

    Yu, Byeong-Hun; Huh, Jae-Won; Yoon, Tae-Hoon


    Recently, active studies on a transparent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) are in progress as a next generation display. However, since it is not possible to obtain a dark state using a transparent OLED, it exhibits poor visibility. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter behind a transparent OLED display. In this paper, we propose a light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals (LCs) whose Bragg reflection wavelength is chosen to be infrared by controlling the pitch of cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs). The proposed light shutter is switchable between the dark planar state and the transparent homeotropic state. The proposed light shutter has the advantages of the high transmittance, low operation voltage, and easy fabrication process compared with previous light shutter devices using liquid crystals. It is expected that the proposed light shutter can be applied to realize high visibility transparent OLEDs and emerging smart windows.

  13. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Gianluigi


    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a pre-polymer/LC solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG are discussed. Experimental data here presented, demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, while further discussed.

  14. Direct measurement of the propagation of the phase-transition region of liquid crystals (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Katayama, Kenji


    Many types of active matter, such as biological cells, have liquid-crystalline membranes, which are soft and flexible in their interactions with their surroundings and sometimes allow molecular-structural or -orientational changes to extend for long distances, owing to long-range molecular interactions. Despite the technological and fundamental importance of these long-range changes, there is no good physical property with which to express them for the liquid crystal. Here, we show direct measurements of the propagation of structural or orientational changes due to long-range molecular interactions in liquid crystals. We induced a patterned phase transition in a liquid crystal via illumination with a fringe pattern and observed the propagation of the phase-transition region. We determined that the propagation occurred in a ballistic manner with a velocity of 80-110 m/s and that two types of propagation—side-by-side and head-to-tail molecular interactions—were found.

  15. Self-assembled ordered structures in thin films of HAT5 discotic liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Morales


    Full Text Available Thin films of the discotic liquid crystal hexapentyloxytriphenylene (HAT5, prepared from solution via casting or spin-coating, were investigated by atomic force microscopy and polarizing optical microscopy, revealing large-scale ordered structures substantially different from those typically observed in standard samples of the same material. Thin and very long fibrils of planar-aligned liquid crystal were found, possibly formed as a result of an intermediate lyotropic nematic state arising during the solvent evaporation process. Moreover, in sufficiently thin films the crystallization seems to be suppressed, extending the uniform order of the liquid crystal phase down to room temperature. This should be compared to the bulk situation, where the same material crystallizes into a polymorphic structure at 68 °C.

  16. Increased lateral dipole moment in the core region of potential ferroelectric liquid crystal molecules (United States)

    Tiemann, Bruce G.


    Visual displays, unlike audio systems, fall far short of human limits: orders of magnitude in information content separate what can be seen from what can be displayed. One technology employed for next-generation high-performance displays uses ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs), whose switching speed depends in part on the ferroelectric polarization of the active material, which itself arises from the lateral dipole moment of the constituent molecules. Several series of molecules based on the 2,3-dinitrophenyl moiety, which has a high lateral dipole moment, was conceived and prepared. Most of the new molecules did not exhibit any liquid crystal phases, but those that did had high polarization as expected. One such molecule, 2,3-Dinitro-4-(R)-(2-octyloxy)phenyl 4'-decyloxy-4-biphenylcarboxylate, had a polarization density of over 500 nC/cm2. Compounds with other core geometries, including phenyls, phenyl benzoates, biphenyls, and terphenyls, were prepared but failed to exhibit liquid crystal phases.

  17. Phase diagrams of mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external field. (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko


    We present a mean field theory to describe phase behaviors in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external magnetic or electric field. Taking into account a chiral coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal under the external field, we examine twist-untwist phase transitions and phase separations in the mixtures. It is found that a cholesteric-nematic phase transition can be induced by not only the external field but also concentration and temperature. Depending on the strength of the external field, we predict cholesteric-paranematic (Ch+pN), nematic-paranematic (N+pN), cholesteric-nematic (Ch+N) phase separations, etc., on the temperature-concentration plane. We also discuss mixtures of a non-chiral nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant.

  18. Increasing the rewriting speed of optical rewritable e-paper by selecting proper liquid crystals (United States)

    Geng, Yu; Sun, Jiatong; Anatoli, Murauski; Vladimir, Chigrinov; Kwok Hoi, Sing


    The effect of interaction between liquid crystal (LC) and photoalignment material on the speed of optical rewriting process is investigated. The theoretical analysis shows that a smaller frank elastic constant K22 of liquid crystal corresponds to a larger twist angle, which gives rise to a larger rewriting speed. Six different LC cells with the same boundary conditions (one substrate is covered with rubbed polyimide (PI) and the other with photo sensitive rewritable sulfuric dye 1(SD1)) are tested experimentally under the same illumination intensity (450 nm, 80 mW/cm2). The results demonstrate that with a suitable liquid crystal, the LC optical rewriting speed for e-paper application can be obviously improved. For two well known LC materials E7 (K22 is larger) and 5CB (K22 is smaller), they require 11 s and 6 s corresponding to change alignment direction for generating image information.

  19. Electrically tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device. (United States)

    Olausson, Christina B; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei; Noordegraaf, Danny; Weirich, Johannes; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Hansen, Kim P; Bjarklev, Anders


    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an all-spliced laser cavity based on the liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through and an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. The laser cavity produces a single-mode output and is tuned in the range 1040-1065 nm by applying an electric field to the silicon assembly.

  20. Effect of dopant nanoparticles on reorientation process in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (United States)

    Zobov, K. V.; Zharkova, G. M.; Syzrantsev, V. V.


    The analysis of the experimental data of the nanoscale powders application for doping polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) was represented in this work. A model based on the separation of the liquid crystals reorientation process on the surface mode and the volume mode was proposed and tested. In the research the wide-spread model mixture PDLC were used. But alumina nanoparticles were the distinctive ones obtained by electron beam evaporation. The proposed model allowed to conclude that the nanoparticles localization at the surface of the droplets (as in the Pickering emulsion) lead to the variation of the connection force between the liquid crystals and the polymer. The effect of nanoparticles resulted in an acceleration of the reorientation process near the surface when the control field is turned on and in a deceleration when it is turned off. The effect for the different size particles was confirmed.

  1. Chitosan as matrix for bio-polymer dispersed liquid crystal systems. (United States)

    Marin, Luminita; Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Zabulica, Andrei; Uji-I, Hiroshi; Fron, Eduard


    The obtaining of bio-polymer dispersed liquid crystal (bio-PDLC) systems based on a chitosan polymer matrix is reported here for the first time. The new PDLC composites have been obtained by encapsulation of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) as low molecular weight liquid crystal into chitosan, and they have been characterized by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, electron and transmission scanning microscopy, Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Submicrometric liquid crystalline droplets with uniform size distribution and density have been obtained for low liquid crystal content into the PDLCs. The droplets have a radial configuration being anchored into chitosan matrix by an interface ordering coupling phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Review on polymer-stabilized short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal displays (United States)

    Tan, Guanjun; Lee, Yun-Han; Gou, Fangwang; Chen, Haiwei; Huang, Yuge; Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wu, Shin-Tson


    Submillisecond response times and low operation voltage are critical to next generation liquid crystal display and photonic devices. In this paper, we review the recent progress of three fast-response short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal modes: blue phase (BP), uniform standing helix (USH), and uniform lying helix (ULH). This review starts with a brief introduction of device structures and working principles, and then highlights two competing electro-optical effects: dielectric effect and flexoelectric effect. Next, we compare their electro-optical behaviors, response time, temperature dependence, and contrast ratio. Based on our established simulation model, we are able to optimize the phase compensation scheme for improving the viewing angle and gamma shift of USH and ULH modes. Finally, we analyze some major challenges, which remain to be overcome before the widespread applications of these liquid crystal devices can be realized.

  3. Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in three dimensions (United States)

    Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan


    The dislocation-mediated quantum melting of solids into quantum liquid crystals is extended from two to three spatial dimensions, using a generalization of boson-vortex or Abelian-Higgs duality. Dislocations are now Burgers-vector-valued strings that trace out worldsheets in space-time while the phonons of the solid dualize into two-form (Kalb-Ramond) gauge fields. We propose an effective dual Higgs potential that allows for restoring translational symmetry in either one, two, or three directions, leading to the quantum analogues of columnar, smectic, or nematic liquid crystals. In these phases, transverse phonons turn into gapped, propagating modes, while compressional stress remains massless. Rotational Goldstone modes emerge whenever translational symmetry is restored. We also consider the effective electromagnetic response of electrically charged quantum liquid crystals, and find among other things that as a hard principle only two out of the possible three rotational Goldstone modes are observable using propagating electromagnetic fields.

  4. Smectic and columnar liquid crystals concepts and physical properties illustrated by experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oswald, Patrick


    Liquid crystals allow us to perform experiments that provide insight into fundamental problems of modern physics, such as phase transitions, frustration, elasticity, hydrodynamics, defects, growth phenomena, and optics. Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments is a result of personal research and of the graduate lectures given by the authors at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon and the University of Paris VII, respectively. The book examines lamellar (smectic) and columnar liquid crystals, which, in addition to orientational order, possess 1D, 2D or 3D positional order. This volume illustrates original physical concepts using methodically numerous experiments, theoretical developments, and diagrams. Topics include rheology and plasticity, ferroelectricity, analogies with superconductors, hexatic order and 2D-melting, equilibrium shapes, facetting, and the Mullins-Sekerka instability, as well as phase transitions in free films and membrane vibration...

  5. Optofluidic-tunable color filters and spectroscopy based on liquid-crystal microflows. (United States)

    Cuennet, J G; Vasdekis, A E; Psaltis, D


    The integration of color filters with microfluidics has attracted substantial attention in recent years, for on-chip absorption, fluorescence, or Raman analysis. We describe such tunable filters based on the micro-flow of liquid crystals. The filter operation is based on the wavelength-dependent liquid crystal birefringence that can be tuned by modifying the flow velocity field in the microchannel. The latter is possible both temporally and spatially by varying the inlet pressure and the channel geometry, respectively. We explored the use of these optofluidic filters for on-chip absorption spectroscopy in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems; by integrating the distance-dependent color filter with a dye-filled micro-channel, the absorption spectrum of a dye could be measured. Liquid crystal microflows substantially simplify the optofluidic integration, actuation and tuning of color filters for lab-on-a-chip spectroscopic applications.

  6. Dual nature of the orientational effect of ultrasound on liquid crystals (United States)

    Kapustina, O. A.


    The new model of thresholdless distortion of the orientational structure in a homeotropic layer of nematic liquid crystal with free ends in ultrasonic field has been experimentally substantiated for the first time. The model is constructed within the concepts of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and statistical hydrodynamics of liquid crystals for the frequency range in which the elastic and viscous wavelengths are, respectively, longer and shorter than the layer thickness. The main regularities of the phenomenon, which relate the conditional effect threshold to the ultrasonic frequency and layer thickness, have been established based on the experimental data for (20-150)-μm-thick layers in the frequency range of 0.1-9 MHz. These data are compared with the results of numerical calculations, performed taking into account two mechanisms of liquid crystal structure distortion (convective and nonlinear relaxation ones).

  7. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of a Langmuir Monolayer of C-16 Fluorescent Dipyrrinone Liquid Crystal (United States)

    Struebing, Christian; Deluca, Giovanni; Prayaga, Chandra; Wade, Aaron; Huggins, Michael; Renaud, Amy; Chandler, Rebecca


    A C-16 Fluorescent Dipyrrinone Liquid Crystal synthesized by the Chemistry department, University of West Florida, has been prepared in a Langmuir monolayer using a Nima Langmuir-Blodgett Trough. DeLuca et al. studied how the length of the hydrocarbon tail influences the behavior of the pressure-area isotherm of the Langmuir film. The C-16 Fluorescent Dipyrrinone Liquid Crystal film produced a stable film at 20 mN/m and a stable, optical quality film at 40 mN/m. We present a study of the fluorescence properties of the C-16 fluorescent dipyrrinone liquid crystal film. Once the monolayer is compressed the sample is excited using a 410 nm wavelength laser and the fluorescence is measured using an Oriel MS260i 1/4 m Spectrograph. Undergraduate Student

  8. Enhanced contrast ratio and viewing angle of polymer-stabilized liquid crystal via refractive index matching between liquid crystal and polymer network. (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Jung Jin; Lim, Young Jin; Kundu, Sudarshan; Kang, Shin-Woong; Lee, Seung Hee


    Long standing electro-optic problems of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) such as low contrast ratio and transmittances decrease in oblique viewing angle have been challenged with a mixture of dual frequency liquid crystal (DFLC) and reactive mesogen (RM). The DFLC and RM molecules were vertically aligned and then photo-polymerized using a UV light. At scattering state under 50 kHz electric field, DFLC was switched to planar state, giving greater extraordinary refractive index than the normal PDLC cell. Consequently, the scattering intensity and the contrast ratio were increased compared to the conventional PDLC cell. At transparent state under 1 kHz electric field, the extraordinary refractive index of DFLC was simultaneously matched with the refractive index of vertically aligned RM so that the light scattering in oblique viewing angles was minimized, giving rise to high transmittance in all viewing angles.

  9. Polymer stabilized liquid crystals: Topology-mediated electro-optical behavior and applications (United States)

    Weng, Libo

    There has been a wide range of liquid crystal polymer composites that vary in polymer concentration from as little as 3 wt.% (polymer stabilized liquid crystal) to as high as 60 wt.% (polymer dispersed liquid crystals). In this dissertation, an approach of surface polymerization based on a low reactive monomer concentration about 1 wt.% is studied in various liquid crystal operation modes. The first part of dissertation describes the development of a vertical alignment (VA) mode with surface polymer stabilization, and the effects of structure-performance relationship of reactive monomers (RMs) and polymerization conditions on the electro-optical behaviors of the liquid crystal device has been explored. The polymer topography plays an important role in modifying and enhancing the electro-optical performance of stabilized liquid crystal alignment. The enabling surface-pinned polymer stabilized vertical alignment (PSVA) approach has led to the development of high-performance and fast-switching displays with controllable pretilt angle, increase in surface anchoring energy, high optical contrast and fast response time. The second part of the dissertation explores a PSVA mode with in-plane switching (IPS) and its application for high-efficiency and fast-switching phase gratings. The diffraction patterns and the electro-optical behaviors including diffraction efficiency and response time are characterized. The diffraction grating mechanism and performance have been validated by computer simulation. Finally, the advantages of surface polymerization approach such as good optical contrast and fast response time have been applied to the fringe-field switching (FFS) system. The concentration of reactive monomer on the electro-optical behavior of the FFS cells is optimized. The outstanding electro-optical results and mechanism of increase in surface anchoring strength are corroborated by the director field simulation. The density and topology of nanoscale polymer protrusions

  10. Nearly-analogue blazed phase grating using high birefringence liquid crystal (United States)

    Bennis, N.; Geday, M. A.; Quintana, X.; Cerrolaza, B.; Medialdea, D. P.; Spadło, A.; Dąbrowski, R.; Otón, J. M.


    Diffraction of liquid crystal gratings has been thoroughly studied for many applications such as diffraction optics, optical processing, and spectral analysis. In pure optical processing one varies the direction of propagation of light beam without any mechanical adjustment. In this work we propose a beam steering device using highly birefringent liquid crystal material. Using a highly birefringent material one can reduce the LC layer thickness needed to achieve 2π of phase modulation and thus reduce the fringing effect caused by deformation of the electric field at the edge of the pixel. Here, we present 1.5-µm thick, high-resolution diffraction grating with non-detectable fringing.

  11. Compact optically-fed microwave true-time delay using liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui


    Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz.......Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz....

  12. Speckle noise suppression using a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A L; Andreeva, T B; Kompanets, I N [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zalyapin, N V [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation)


    We have studied the method for suppressing speckle noise in patterns produced by a laser based on a fast-response electro-optical cell with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) in which helicoid is absent, i.e., compensated for. The character of smectic layer deformation in an electric field is considered along with the mechanism of spatially inhomogeneous phase modulation of a laser beam passing through the cell which is accompanied by the destruction of phase relations in the beam. Advantages of a helix-free FLC cell are pointed out as compared to helical crystal cells studied previously. (liquid crystal devices)

  13. An Apparatus of increased precision for the Measurement of Electro-Optical parameters of Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Singh Chandel


    Full Text Available The ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs are demanding high attention now a day, because of their potential applications in many electro-optical devices, particularly in displays. The suitable applications of FLCs in devices are decided by their electro-optical properties like tilt angle, birefringence and spontaneous polarization. In this paper  we are presenting a new apparatus for highly accurate measurement of electro-optical parameters of FLCs. The accuracy of the apparatus is the best among the currently available equipments in the market. The accuracy and performance of the apparatus has been confirmed by performing the experiments on standard ferroelectric liquid crystals.

  14. Semi-analytical approach to supermode spatial solitons formation in nematic liquid crystals. (United States)

    Jung, Pawel S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Laudyn, Urszula A; Karpierz, Miroslaw A; Trippenbach, Marek


    We study light propagation in nematic liquid crystals in the context of spatial optical solitons formation. We propose a simple analytical model with multiplicative nonlinearity, which represents (qualitatively) the liquid crystal response by comprising the competition between focusing (reorientational) and defocusing (thermal) nonlocal nonlinearities. We show that at sufficiently high input power the interplay between both nonlinearities leads to the formations of two-peak solitons, which represent supermodes of the self-induced extended waveguide structure. We explain the beam splitting mechanism, discuss threshold effects and conclude that similar phenomena might be present in other media with competing nonlocal nonlinearities.

  15. Structural deformations in liquid crystals with dispersed magnetic nano-colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shoarinejad


    Full Text Available  The stable colloidal dispersions of magnetic nano-particles in nematic liquid crystals are called ferronematics. Their behaviour in magnetic fields depends on various parameters such as anchoring energy, magnetic anisotropy, and shape and volume fraction of the particles. In the present paper, the threshold field is obtained for these colloidal nematics. Then, the influence of magnetic anisotropy, cell thickness, magnetic moment, and volume fraction of the particles are discussed . It is found that due to the influence of some effective parameters, the threshold field changes when compared to pure nematic liquid crystals. The obtained results are consistent with the reported experimental results.

  16. Geometric methods in the elastic theory of membranes in liquid crystal phases

    CERN Document Server

    Ji Xing Liu; Yu Zhang Xie


    This book contains a comprehensive description of the mechanical equilibrium and deformation of membranes as a surface problem in differential geometry. Following the pioneering work by W Helfrich, the fluid membrane is seen as a nematic or smectic - A liquid crystal film and its elastic energy form is deduced exactly from the curvature elastic theory of the liquid crystals. With surface variation the minimization of the energy at fixed osmotical pressure and surface tension gives a completely new surface equation in geometry that involves potential interest in mathematics. The investigations

  17. Amphiphilic dendritic peptides: Synthesis and behavior as an organogelator and liquid crystal. (United States)

    Gao, Baoxiang; Li, Hongxia; Xia, Defang; Sun, Sufang; Ba, Xinwu


    New amphiphilic dendritic peptides on dendritic polyaspartic acid were designed and synthesized. The organogel and liquid crystal properties of these amphiphilic dendritic peptides were fully studied by field-emission SEM, temperature dependent FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry, polarization optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments. Amphiphilic dendritic peptides G3 show good organogel properties with a minimum gelation concentration as low as 1 wt %. Furthermore, amphiphilic dendritic peptides G3 can form a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal assembly over a wide temperature range.

  18. Amphiphilic dendritic peptides: Synthesis and behavior as an organogelator and liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwu Ba


    Full Text Available New amphiphilic dendritic peptides on dendritic polyaspartic acid were designed and synthesized. The organogel and liquid crystal properties of these amphiphilic dendritic peptides were fully studied by field-emission SEM, temperature dependent FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry, polarization optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments. Amphiphilic dendritic peptides G3 show good organogel properties with a minimum gelation concentration as low as 1 wt %. Furthermore, amphiphilic dendritic peptides G3 can form a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal assembly over a wide temperature range.

  19. Electrically tunable Fabry-Péerot resonator based on microstructured Si containing liquid crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Tolmachev, Vladimir A.


    We have built Fabry-Perot resonators based on microstructured silicon and a liquid crystal. The devices exhibit tuning of the resonance peaks over a wide range, with relative spectral shifts of up to Delta lambda/lambda = 10%. In order to achieve this substantial spectral shift, cavity peaks of high order were used. Under applied voltages of up to 15 V, a variation in the refractive index of the nematic liquid crystal E7 from Delta n(LC) = 0.12 to Delta n(LC) = 0.17 was observed. These results may have practical applications in the near-, mid and far-infrared range.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bordyuh


    Full Text Available This work presents the results of nonlinear optical experiment run on the samples of lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC with viologen admixtures. During the experiment we obtained dynamic grating recording on bilayered LLC-viologen samples and determined main characteristics of recoded gratings. It was found out that the recording takes place in a thin near-cathode coloured viologen layer. The analysis of kinetics of thermal gratings erasing showed that contribution of a thermal nonlinearity into general diffraction efficiency is negligible small. The last fact is connected with a separation of LLC-viologen samples under the action of an electric field and heat sink into the liquid crystal layer

  1. Liquid crystal alignment on zinc oxide nanowire arrays for LCDs applications. (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Zhe; Chen, Wei-Sheng; Jeng, Shie-Chang; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Chung, Yueh-Feng


    The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays on the indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were fabricated by using the two-step hydrothermal method. A high transmittance ~92% of ZnO nanowire arrays on ITO substrate in the visible region was obtained. It was observed that the liquid crystal (LC) directors were aligned vertically to the (ZnO) nanowire arrays. The properties of ZnO nanowire arrays as vertical liquid crystal (LC) alignment layers and their applications for hybrid-aligned nematic LC modes were investigated in this work.

  2. The research on temperature sensing properties of photonic crystal fiber based on Liquid crystal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Xiangzhen


    Full Text Available Based on the photonic bandgap-photonic crystal fibers( PBG-PCF fiber core fills the namitic liquid crystal. By readjusting the temperature to change the refractive index, constitute new liquid fiber-optic temperature sensor. In this paper, we use finite element COMSOL software to simulate and analyze photonic crystal optical fiber sensitive properties. The research show that after the PBG – PCF filling the liquid crystal, its mode field distribution, effective refractive index, waveguide dispersion etc changing with temperature is so big. Therefore, the properties that the refractive index of PCF mode CF changing with temperature sensitive medium, provides the theoretical basis for designing optic fiber temperature sensors.

  3. Memory effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal by hybridization with nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The electro-optical performances of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC were investigated in the presence of organically modified clays. With the addition and increasing amount of modified clay, driving voltage and memory effect, viz. transparent state of the film after the electricity is off simultaneously increased due most likely to the increased viscosity. Among the two types of modifier, 4-(4-aminophenyl benzonitrile having greater chemical affinity with LC than hexylamine, gave finer dispersion of clay in liquid crystal, greater viscosity, larger driving voltage and response time, and greater memory effect.

  4. Holographically formed, acoustically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. (United States)

    Liu, Yan Jun; Lu, Mengqian; Ding, Xiaoyun; Leong, Eunice S P; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Shi, Jinjie; Teng, Jing Hua; Wang, Lin; Bunning, Timothy J; Huang, Tony Jun


    We report holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) gratings driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Our experiments show that upon applying SAWs, the H-PDLC grating exhibited switchable properties: The diffraction of the H-PDLC grating decreased, whereas the transmission increased. This acoustically switchable behavior is due to the acoustic streaming-induced realignment of liquid crystals as well as absorption-resulted thermal diffusion. Such SAW-driven H-PDLC gratings are potentially useful in many photonic applications, such as optical switches, spatial light modulators, and switchable add/drop filters.

  5. Shear-induced surface alignment of polymer dispersed liquid crystal microdroplets on the boundary layer (United States)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, J. J.


    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin films have been deposited on a glass substrate, utilizing the processes of polymerization and solvent evaporation induced phase separation. Liquid crystal microdroplets trapped on the upper surface of the thin film respond to the shear stress due to air or gas flow on the surface layer. Response to an applied step shear stress input on the surface layer has been measured by measuring the time response of the transmitted light intensity. Initial results on the measurements of the light transmission as a function of the air flow differential pressure indicate that these systems offer features suitable for boundary layer and gas flow sensors.

  6. Experimental study on the performance of a variable optical attenuator using polymer dispersed liquid crystal. (United States)

    Nabil, Ghada; Ho, Wing Fat; Chan, Hau Ping


    We applied polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) as the cladding material in a polymer-based variable optical attenuator. Three polymer inverted channel waveguides were fabricated, two with PDLC upper cladding (aligned PDLC and nonaligned PDLC) and one with aligned liquid crystal upper cladding. Upon operation, the waveguides with aligned upper claddings show relatively lower threshold and cutoff voltages compared to those with nonaligned PDLC cladding. But the waveguide with nonaligned PDLC upper cladding shows lower polarization dependence and a higher attenuation range of 39 and 41.37 dB for TM and TE modes, respectively, over a tuning field strength of 0.9 V/μm.

  7. Optical reconfiguration by anisotropic diffraction in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal memory. (United States)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru


    Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) memory is fabricated by a photoinduced phase separation comprised of polymer and liquid crystal (LC) phases using laser light interference exposures. The anisotropic diffraction induced by the alignment of LC in the periodic structure of the HPDLC memory is applied to reconstruct the configuration contexts for the optically reconfigurable gate arrays. Optical reconfiguration for various circuits under parallel programmability is implemented by switching the polarization state of incident light on the HPDLC memory using a spatial light modulator.

  8. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber


    Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros


    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a pre-polymer/LC solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG are discussed. Experimental data here presented, demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG...

  9. Analog distorted helix ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator (United States)

    McKnight, Douglas J.; Johnson, Kristina M.; Follett, Mark A.


    We report what are to our knowledge the first results from a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator that uses the distorted helix ferroelectric mode to perform analog light modulation. The spatial light modulator is an electronically addressed analog 128 \\times 128 pixel device with which we have demonstrated 16 gray levels and contrast ratios of 33:1 in the zeroth diffracted order and 6:1 when imaged. The liquid-crystal switching speed in this device is \\approximately 235 mu s, which when added to the data load time of 100 mu s gives a maximum frame rate of \\approximately 3 kHz.

  10. Optical switching of a metal-clad waveguide with a ferroelectric liquid crystal. (United States)

    Mitsuishi, M; Ito, S; Yamamoto, M; Fischer, T; Knoll, W


    Optical switching based on waveguide optics with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) is reported. The FLC cell was prepared as a prism coupler on which the liquid-crystal layer was sandwiched between two gold cladding layers. The role of the gold layer was examined, and the optimum thickness of the top gold layer for obtaining high contrast was determined by use of the Fresnel equation. Various optical modulations of reflectivity were predicted on the basis of theoretical calculation, taking into account the molecular reorientation of the FLC, and examined at an appropriate angle of incidence and rotational angle of the FLC cell with respect to the plane of incidence.

  11. Tunable waveguides based on liquid crystal-infiltrated silicon photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cos, Joaquin; Ferre-Borrull, Josep; Pallares, Josep; Marsal, Lluis F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Nano-electronic and Photonic Systems, Avda. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)


    A methodology for the study of the practical implementation of tunable waveguides based on Silicon Photonic Crystals with liquid crystal-infiltrated pores is presented. First, by using the FDTD method, the transmission properties of the waveguide depending on the liquid crystal optical axis orientation are studied. Then by means of the plane wave expansion method and taking into account the anisotropy of the photonic crystal components and considering adequate supercells, the transmission or rejection of the optical beam are explained. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. 76 FR 30968 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods for Using the Same; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the... importation of certain liquid crystal display (``LCD'') devices, products containing same, and methods for...

  13. 75 FR 14470 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and Methods for Making the Same; Notice of a Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination... importation of certain liquid crystal display modules, products containing the same, and methods for making...

  14. Polycaprolactone-templated reduced-graphene oxide liquid crystal nanofibers towards biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan; Hasan Mohamadzadeh Moghadam, Mohamad; Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein


    Here, we report a facile method to generate electrically conductive nanofibers by coating and subsequently chemically reducing graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystals on a polycaprolactone (PCL) mat. Ultra large GO sheets obtained are in favor of charge carrier mobility and oriented morphology...

  15. Photoimaging on an optically anisotropic film with a polymerizable smectic liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ji Young; Nam, Sang Woon; Hong, Chong Gi [Seoul National Univ. (Korea). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Seoul National Univ. (Korea). Hyperstructured Organic Materials Research Center; Im, Jung Hyuk; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Man Jung [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology


    The orientation under an electric field of a smectic A phase liquid crystal (LC) is unveiled in this communication. The authors have prepared a rod-like LC consisting of two photoreactive chalcone units and have carried out photopolymerization by UV irradiation. Applications of this technique may include microscopic patterning. (orig.)

  16. Searching for the preferred backlight intensity in liquid crystal displays with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino


    Local backlight dimming is one of the most promising techniques for reducing power consumption and improving contrast characteristics of liquid crystal displays (LCD). In practice, due to light diffusion and a smaller number of backlight sources than pixels, local backlight dimming must often trade...

  17. Photoaligning and Photopatterning — A New Challenge in Liquid Crystal Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Chigrinov


    Full Text Available Photoalignment possesses obvious advantages in comparison with the usually “rubbing” treatment of the substrates of liquid crystal display (LCD cells. The application of the photoalignment and photopatterning nanotechnology for the new generation of photonic and display devices will be reviewed.

  18. Theoretically informed Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals by sampling of alignment-tensor fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Guzmán, Orlando [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340, México (Mexico); Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P. [Departamento de Materiales y Minerales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Pablo, Juan J. de, E-mail: [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.

  19. Speed, optical power, and off-axis imaging improvement of refractive liquid crystal lenses. (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Bryant, Doug; Van Heugten, Tony; Bos, Philip J


    Two design approaches (multicell and addition of phase resets in single cell) are introduced to optimize the performances of tunable refractive liquid crystal lenses, including improvements on the switching speed, optical power, and the off-axis, wide-angle imaging performance. Key parameters and advantages for each method are discussed, and their effects on the performance are demonstrated in detail with numerical calculations.

  20. Optical tuning of photonic bandgaps in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Hermann, David Sparre


    An all-optical modulator is demonstrated, which utilizes a pulsed 532 nm laser to modulate the spectral position of the bandgaps in a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal. In order to investigate the time response of the LCPBG fiber device, a low-power CW probe...

  1. Photoinduced reorganization of motor-doped chiral liquid crystals: bridging molecular isomerization and texture rotation. (United States)

    Bosco, Alessandro; Jongejan, Mahthild G M; Eelkema, Rienk; Katsonis, Nathalie; Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Ferrarini, Alberta; Feringa, Ben L


    We recently reported that the photoisomerization of molecular motors used as chiral dopants in a cholesteric liquid crystal film induces a rotational reorganization which can be observed by optical microscopy and produces the motion of microscopic objects placed on top of the film (Feringa, B. L.; et al. Nature 2006, 440, 163; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14397). The mechanism underlying the mesoscopic manifestation of the molecular process was not fully understood, and here we present a joint theoretical and experimental investigation, which provides a detailed insight into the mechanism of texture rotation. This description allows us to identify the interplay between the chemical structure of the chiral dopant and the material properties of the liquid crystal host, and to quantify their role in the observed dynamic phenomenon. We have found that a crucial role is played by the hybrid anchoring of the liquid crystal, with the director parallel to the substrate and perpendicular to the interface with air; in this configuration an almost unperturbed cholesteric helix, with its axis normal to the substrate, is present in most of the film, with strong deformations only close to the free interface. The texture rotation observed in the experiment reflects the rotation of the director during the unwinding of the cholesteric helix, produced by the change in shape of the chiral dopant under photoisomerization. The rotational reorganization is controlled by the photochemical process, via the coupling between the chirality of the dopant and the elastic properties of the liquid crystal host.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Lee


    Full Text Available Nanocomposites comprising diol-vanilin and cadmium sulfide (CdS has been synthesized via chemical precipitation method in ethanol at refluxed temperature (160 oC for 12 hours. CdCl2. 2.5H2O and thiourea as cadmium and sulfide precursors respectively were employed. Diol vanilin is a thermotropic liquid crystal monomer which exhibits enantiotropic nematic metaphase texture when observed under polarizing microscope and confirmed by DSC thermal stability study. A series of different mass composition  of diol vanilin and CdS nanocomposites ranging from  0.1:1.0 till 1.0:1.0(w/w were prepared and characterized using XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, POM and DSC. The X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD showed broad peaks due to the formation of cubic CdS nanoparticles in diol vanilin matrix. The nanocomposites at low mass composition  of CdS still maintained their nematic phase. However, the liquid crystal property was affected when the mass  composition  of CdS in nanocomposite was increased and the liquid crystal characteristic vanished when the mass composition  was at 0.6:1.0. .    Keywords: CdS, diol vanilin, thermotropic liquid crystal, nanocomposite.

  3. Tunable and rotatable polarization controller using photonic crystal fiber filled with liquid crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    We design and fabricate a compact tunable and rotatable polarization controller using liquid crystal photonic band gap fibers. The electrically and thermally induced phase shift in the Poincaré sphere and corresponding birefringence change are measured. The direction of the electric field...

  4. Modeling of Cholesteric Liquid Crystal layers for a Luminescent SolaR Concentrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.; De Boer, D.K.G.


    This report is about an internship which was part of a project that aims to develop a Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) for commercial use. In the design of the LSC a wavelength selective mirror is used, in this case in the form of a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal (CLC) layer. The usage of this

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of the far-infrared properties of liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, M.; Vieweg, N.; Fischer, B. M.


    Liquid crystals are one of the most promising base materials for switchable devices at THz frequencies. Therefore, a precise understanding of the optical parameters is crucial. Here, we present the refractive indices and absorption coefficients for 5 CB and an isothiocyanate terminated liquid cry...

  6. Poincaré-sphere representation of phase-mostly twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators (United States)

    Durán, V.; Clemente, P.; Martínez-León, Ll; Climent, V.; Lancis, J.


    We establish necessary conditions in order to build a phase-only wavefront modulation system from a liquid crystal display. These conditions determine the dependence of the polarization state of the light emerging from the display on the addressing gray level. The analysis, which is carried out by means of the coherence-matrix formalism, includes the depolarization properties of the device. Two different types of polarization distributions at the output of the liquid crystal cells are found. This approach is applied to a twisted nematic liquid crystal display. In this case, an optimization algorithm must be designed in order to select the input polarization state that leads to the required distributions. We show that the Poincaré-sphere representation provides a convenient framework to design the optimization algorithm as it allows for a reduced number of degrees of freedom. This feature significantly decreases the computation time. Laboratory results are presented for a liquid crystal on silicon display showing a phase modulation depth greater than 2π rad with an intensity variation lower than 6%. In addition, a hybrid ternary modulation (HTM), an operation regime employed in holographic data storage, is achieved.

  7. Monotonicity of a Key Function Arised in Studies of Nematic Liquid Crystal Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Wang


    Full Text Available We revisit a key function arised in studies of nematic liquid crystal polymers. Previously, it was conjectured that the function is strictly decreasing and the conjecture was numerically confirmed. Here we prove the conjecture analytically. More specifically, we write the derivative of the function into two parts and prove that each part is strictly negative.

  8. Switchable liquid crystal contact lenses: dynamic vision for the ageing eye (United States)

    Milton, Harry E.; Gleeson, Helen F.; Morgan, Philip B.; Goodby, John W.; Cowling, Stephen; Clamp, John H.


    The inability of the eye to focus on nearby objects, presbyopia, is suffered by ~100% of people over the age of 50. Liquid crystal (LC) spectacle lenses have shown great potential for correcting presbyopia. However, correcting presbyopia in contact lens users has proven elusive and existing commercial options suffer significant compromises in vision and comfort. We describe a novel contact lens that includes a liquid crystal element that offers to correct presbyopia without the compromises associated with other technologies. We fabricated variable focus lenses using a balanced optical system, providing the additional optical power presbyopes require for near vision (typically +1.00 D to +2.00 D). The system uses positive optical power from the two substrates and variable negative optical power from the LC layer to form a balanced optical system which, when unpowered, corrects distance vision. Upon voltage application, the liquid crystal layer decreases in refractive index, resulting in additional optical power in the system, offering correction equivalent to reading glasses. Our new technology is based on a traditional contact lens material which could be placed directly on the eye. The liquid crystal lens employed is well suited to the small optical areas associated with contact lenses. We compare several different LC materials and geometries which are suitable for our application, and discuss the influence of material and geometry on switching times, optical quality and operating voltage. Our contact lenses typically switch +/-2.00D in response to < 10 Vrms with response times of the order of a second.

  9. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an

  10. Electrohydrodynamics-Induced Abnormal Electro-Optic Characteristics in a Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Film

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheng-Kuang Wu; Ting-Shan Mo; Jia-De Lin; Shuan-Yu Huang; Chia-Yi Huang; Hui-Chen Yeh; Lin-Jer Chen; Chia-Rong Lee


    ...) in a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) film in the presence of a low-frequency (1 kHz) AC voltage. Large LC droplets (20−40 µm) buried in the film can be obtained after the illumination of one UV light with a weak intensity...

  11. Deuteron NMR study of molecular ordering in a holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. (United States)

    Vilfan, Marija; Zalar, Bostjan; Fontecchio, Adam K; Vilfan, Mojca; Escuti, Michael J; Crawford, Gregory P; Zumer, Slobodan


    Using deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and dynamic light scattering, we study the orientational order and dynamics of a BL038-5CB liquid-crystal mixture in a holographic polymer dispersed liquid-crystal material (HPDLC) as used for switchable diffractive optical elements. At high temperatures, where the liquid crystal is predominantly in the isotropic phase, the HPDLC deuteron NMR linewidth and transverse spin-relaxation rate T-12 are two orders of magnitude larger than in the bulk. The analysis shows that the surface-induced order parameter in HPDLC is significantly larger than in similar confining systems and that translational diffusion of molecules in the surface layer is at least two orders of magnitude slower than in the rest of the cavity. The unusual temperature dependence of T-12 upon cooling suggests the possibility of a partial separation of the 5CB component in the liquid-crystal mixture. The onset of the nematic phase in HPDLC occurs at considerably lower temperature than in the bulk and takes place gradually due to different sizes and different content of non-liquid-crystalline ingredients in droplets. Parts of the droplets are found isotropic even at room temperature and the structure of the nematic director field in the droplets is only slightly anisotropic. We point out the capability of NMR to detect the actual state of liquid-crystalline order in HPDLCs and to contribute in this way to the improvement of the switching efficiency of diffraction gratings.

  12. Electro-optic Response of a Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Film


    KARAPINAR, Rıdvan


    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films are potentially useful in electro-optic devices since they can be used for vision products. In this work the PDLC thin films were prepared by a photopolymerization induced phase separation method and electro-optic properties of the films were investigated.

  13. Transverse wave propagation in photonic crystal based on holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. (United States)

    Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Li, Ming Shian; Wu, Shing Trong


    This study investigates the transversely propagating waves in a body-centered tetragonal photonic crystal based on a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film. Rotating the film reveals three different transverse propagating waves. Degeneracy of optical Bloch waves from reciprocal lattice vectors explains their symmetrical distribution.

  14. Temperature influence on electrically controlled liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    We experimentally investigate the temperature influence on electrically controlled liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fiber device. The phase shift in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm for realizing quarter and half wave plates at different temperatures by applying a certain voltage...

  15. Photolithography of thick photoresist coating for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Khomtchenko, Elena; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard


    Thick photoresist coating for electrode patterning in an anisotropically etched V-groove is investigated for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre devices. The photoresist step coverage at the convex corners is compared with and without soft baking after photoresist spin...

  16. A Scalable Fabrication Process for Liquid Crystal Based Uncooled Thermal Imagers (United States)


    the liquid crystals have filled the cavities entirely and the alignment looks good, since there are no Schlieren patterns, which would be caused...17] H. F. Winters, and J. F. Coburn, “The etching of silicon with XeF2 vapor ,” App. Phy. Letters, Vol. 34, No. 70, pp. 70-73, 1979. [18] O. Celik

  17. Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, E. F.; de Jeu, W. H.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage


    The X-ray reflectivity form the surface of a liquid crystal with terminally polar (cyano substituted) molecules has been studied using a high-resolution triple-axis X-ray spectrometer in combination with a synchrotron source. It is demonstrated that at the surface of the smectic Al phase a few...

  18. Morphology effect on the light scattering and dynamic response of polymer network liquid crystal phase modulator. (United States)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Cangli, Liu; Jiazhu, Duan; Jiancheng, Zeng; Dayong, Zhang; Yongquan, Luo


    Polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) was one of the most potential liquid crystal for submillisecond response phase modulation, which was possible to be applied in submillisecond response phase only spatial light modulator. But until now the light scattering when liquid crystal director was reoriented by external electric field limited its phase modulation application. Dynamic response of phase change when high voltage was applied was also not elucidated. The mechanism that determines the light scattering was studied by analyzing the polymer network morphology by SEM method. Samples were prepared by varying the polymerization temperature, UV curing intensity and polymerization time. The morphology effect on the dynamic response of phase change was studied, in which high voltage was usually applied and electro-striction effect was often induced. The experimental results indicate that the polymer network morphology was mainly characterized by cross linked single fibrils, cross linked fibril bundles or even both. Although the formation of fibril bundle usually induced large light scattering, such a polymer network could endure higher voltage. In contrast, although the formation of cross linked single fibrils induced small light scattering, such a polymer network cannot endure higher voltage. There is a tradeoff between the light scattering and high voltage endurance. The electro-optical properties such as threshold voltage and response time were taken to verify our conclusion. For future application, the monomer molecular structure, the liquid crystal solvent and the polymerization conditions should be optimized to generate optimal polymer network morphology.

  19. On-chip tunable long-period grating devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Weirich, Johannes; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard


    We design and fabricate an on-chip tunable long-period grating device by integrating a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber on silicon structures. The transmission axis of the device can be electrically rotated in steps of 45° as well as switched on and off with the response time...

  20. Advances in Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator technology (United States)

    Bleha, William P.; Lei, Lijuan Alice


    LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) is a reflective microdisplay technology based on a single crystal silicon pixel controller backplane which drives a liquid crystal layer. Using standard CMOS processes, microdisplays with extremely small pixels, high fill factor (pixel aperture ratio) and low fabrication costs are created. Recent advances in integrated circuit design and liquid crystal materials have increased the application of LCOS to displays and other optical functions. Pixel pitch below 3 μm, resolution of 8K x 4K, and sequential contrast ratios of 100K:1 have been achieved. These devices can modulate light spatially in amplitude or phase, so they act as an active dynamic optical element. Liquid crystal materials can be chosen to modulate illumination sources from the UV through far IR. The new LCOS designs have reduced power consumption to make portable displays and viewing elements more viable. Also innovative optical system elements including image and illumination waveguides and laser illuminators have been combined into LCOS based display systems for HMD, HUD, projector, and image analysis/surveillance direct view monitor applications. Dynamic displays utilizing the fine pixel pitch and phase mode operation of LCOS are advancing the development of true holographic displays. The paper will review these technology advances of LCOS and the display applications and related system implementation.

  1. Polarization Properties of Elliptical-Hole Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartarini, Giovanni; Pansera, Marco; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard


    The characteristics of triangular photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with elliptical holes filled with a nematic liquid crystal (LC) are investigated theoretically. The analysis that is carried out using the finite-element method, including material dispersion effects, shows that LC anisotropy and hole...

  2. Molecular composites based on high-performance polymers and an interpenetrating liquid crystal thermoset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, T.J.


    The invention is directed to a polymeric composition comprising a first polymer (in particular HPP) and a liquid crystal thermoset (LCT) network that interpenetrates said first polymer, which LCT network comprises LCT oligomers that are at least partly polymerized, as well as to a method for

  3. Video-rate two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging system with interleaved digitization. (United States)

    Dow, Ximeng Y; Sullivan, Shane Z; Muir, Ryan D; Simpson, Garth J


    A fast (up to video rate) two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging system based on interleaved digitization is demonstrated. The system is compatible with existing beam-scanning microscopes with minor electronics and software modification. Proof-of-concept demonstrations were performed using laser dyes and biological tissue.

  4. Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear. (United States)

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J; Fojt, Wojciech; Szkulmowska, Anna; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Andrzej


    To present the applicability of spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT) for video-rate and three-dimensional imaging of a contact lens on the eye surface. The SOCT prototype instrument constructed at Nicolaus Copernicus University (Torun, Poland) is based on Fourier domain detection, which enables high sensitivity (96 dB) and increases the speed of imaging 60 times compared with conventional optical coherence tomography techniques. Consequently, video-rate imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions can be achieved, preserving the high quality of the image. The instrument operates under clinical conditions in the Ophthalmology Department (Collegium Medicum Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland). A total of three eyes fitted with different contact lenses were examined with the aid of the instrument. Before SOCT measurements, slit lamp examinations were performed. Data, which are representative for each imaging mode, are presented. The instrument provided high-resolution (4 microm axial x 10 microm transverse) tomograms with an acquisition time of 40 micros per A-scan. Video-rate imaging allowed the simultaneous quantitative evaluation of the movement of the contact lens and assessment of the fitting relationship between the lens and the ocular surface. Three-dimensional scanning protocols further improved lens visualization and fit evaluation. SOCT allows video-rate and three-dimensional cross-sectional imaging of the eye fitted with a contact lens. The analysis of both imaging modes suggests the future applicability of this technology to the contact lens field.

  5. Elastic interactions and manipulation of wire-shaped inclusions in nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Lapointe, Clayton P.

    Anisotropic particles suspended in a nematic liquid crystal disturb the alignment of the liquid crystal molecules and experience small forces and torques mediated by the elasticity of the fluid. These elastic interactions depend upon the orientation of the particle relative to the alignment of the liquid crystal as well as the nature of the molecular-scale alignment at the surface of the particle. In this thesis, I present the results of video microscopy studies on elastic interactions on ferromagnetic nanowires suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). In the first part, I describe measurements that characterize the orientation-dependent elastic torque on a nanowire with longitudinal anchoring in uniformly aligned 5CB, its temperature dependence, as well as the elastic repulsion of a nanowire from a flat wall. These measurements were found to be quantitatively consistent with theoretical predictions based on the elastic properties of 5CB. In the second part of this thesis, I demonstrate that distorting the liquid crystal from a state of uniform alignment results in converting the elastic torque on a nanowire into an orientation-dependant translational force that can be utilized to reversibly manipulate the positions of isolated nanowires as well as to assemble suspensions of them into pre-designed arrays on a substrate. First, I describe measurements of an orientation-dependent levitating force on a nanowire in a twisted nematic cell. This force can be used to position nanowires to pre-determined heights above the bottom substrate by controlling their orientation with an external magnetic field. I then describe a series of experiments in which in a liquid crystal cell with a pattern of micron-scale stripe domains was used to drive nanowires held at a fixed orientation with external magnetic fields selectively into the middle of the stripe domains. In the last part of this thesis, I discuss video microscopy experiments to probe the

  6. A Deuterium NMR Study of Bent-Core Liquid Crystals. 1; Synthesis and Characterization of Deuterium-Labeled Oxadiazole-Containing Liquid Crystals (United States)

    Dingemans, Theo J.; Madsen, Louis A.; Samulski, Edward T.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)


    We have synthesized two deuterated boomerang-shaped liquid crystals based on 2,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (ODBP). Deuterium was introduced in the rigid 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole core and in the aromatic ring of the terminal 4-dodecyloxyphenyl moiety using standard acid catalyzed deuterium exchange conditions. Both compounds, ([4,4'(1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diyl-d4)] di-4-dodecyloxybenzoate: ODBP-d4-Ph-O-C12) and ([4,4'(1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diyl)] di-4-dodecyloxy-benzoate-d4; ODBP-Ph-d4-O-C12) were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance, optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The optical textures and thermal behavior of both compounds were found to be identical to the non-deuterated analog [4,4(1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diyl)] di-4-dodecyloxybenzoate (ODBP-Ph-O-C12) which we reported earlier. These compounds exhibit behavior indicative of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal phase, which we hope to confirm using deuterium NMR spectroscopy in the next phase of this study.

  7. A soft-core Gay-Berne model for the simulation of liquid crystals by Hamiltonian replica exchange. (United States)

    Berardi, Roberto; Zannoni, Claudio; Lintuvuori, Juho S; Wilson, Mark R


    The Gay-Berne (GB) potential has proved highly successful in the simulation of liquid crystal phases, although it is fairly demanding in terms of resources for simulations of large (e.g., N>10(5)) systems, as increasingly required in applications. Here, we introduce a soft-core GB model, which exhibits both liquid crystal phase behavior and rapid equilibration. We show that the Hamiltonian replica exchange method, coupled with the newly introduced soft-core GB model, can effectively speed up the equilibration of a GB liquid crystal phase by frequent exchange of configurations between replicas, while still recovering the mesogenic properties of the standard GB potential.

  8. Electrically tunable zero dispersion wavelengths in photonic crystal fibers filled with a dual frequency addressable liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahle, Markus, E-mail:; Kitzerow, Heinz-Siegfried [Department of Chemistry, University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany and Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn (CeOPP), Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)


    We present a liquid crystal (LC) infiltrated photonic crystal fiber, which enables the electrical tuning of the position of zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). A dual frequency addressable liquid crystal is aligned perpendicular on the inclusion walls of a photonic crystal fiber, which results in an escaped radial director field. The orientation of the LC is controlled by applying an external electric field. Due to the high index of the liquid crystal the fiber guides light by the photonic band gap effect. Multiple ZDWs exist in the visible and near infrared. The positions of the ZDWs can be either blue or red shifted depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

  9. Spontaneous formation and dynamics of half-skyrmions in a chiral liquid-crystal film (United States)

    Nych, Andriy; Fukuda, Jun-Ichi; Ognysta, Uliana; Žumer, Slobodan; Muševič, Igor


    Skyrmions are coreless vortex-like excitations emerging in diverse condensed-matter systems, and real-time observation of their dynamics is still challenging. Here we report the first direct optical observation of the spontaneous formation of half-skyrmions. In a thin film of a chiral liquid crystal, depending on experimental conditions including film thickness, they form a hexagonal lattice whose lattice constant is a few hundred nanometres, or appear as isolated entities with topological defects compensating their charge. These half-skyrmions exhibit intriguing dynamical behaviour driven by thermal fluctuations. Numerical calculations of real-space images successfully corroborate the experimental observations despite the challenge because of the characteristic scale of the structures close to the optical resolution limit. A thin film of a chiral liquid crystal thus offers an intriguing platform that facilitates a direct investigation of the dynamics of topological excitations such as half-skyrmions and their manipulation with optical techniques.

  10. Twist angle determination in liquid crystal displays by location of local adiabatic points (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Bennis, Noureddine; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Ferreira, Carlos


    In this work we present a method for the determination of the twist angle of an arbitrary twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The method is based on the location of local adiabatic points, i.e., situations in which the liquid crystal SLM acts only as a rotation device. For these cases, the rotation induced on the polarization of the incident beam is equal to the twist angle. Consequently, the twist angle can be determined with high precision. We show that local adiabatic regime may be achieved in two ways, either by changing the incident beam wavelength, or by applying a voltage to the electrodes of the display. However, the simple model that describes the SLM in the off-state, may break down when a voltage is applied to the display, and it may affect the local adiabatic behaviour. We present theoretical and experimental results.

  11. Controlled thermal expansion printed wiring boards based on liquid crystal polymer dielectrics (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas E.; Blizard, Kent; Jayaraj, K.; Rubin, Leslie S.


    Dielectric materials based on innovative Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCP's) have been used to fabricate surface mount printed wiring boards (PWB's) with a coefficient of thermal expansion matched to leadless ceramic chip carriers. Proprietary and patented polymer processing technology has resulted in self reinforcing material with balanced in-plane mechanical properties. In addition, LCP's possess excellent electrical properties, including a low dielectric constant (less than 2.9) and very low moisture absorption (less than 0.02%). LCP-based multilayer boards processed with conventional drilling and plating processes show improved performance over other materials because they eliminate the surface flatness problems of glass or aramid reinforcements. Laser drilling of blind vias in the LCP dielectric provides a very high density for use in direct chip attach and area array packages. The material is ideally suited for MCM-L and PCMCIA applications fabricated with very thin dielectric layers of the liquid crystal polymer.

  12. Solute NMR study of a bimesogenic liquid crystal with two nematic phases (United States)

    Dong, R. Y.; Kohlmeier, A.; Tamba, M. G.; Mehl, G. H.; Burnell, E. E.


    Recent interest in bimesogenic liquid crystals showing two nematic phases has led us to investigate the nematic mean-field interactions in these nematic phases by using rigid solutes as probes. The nematic potential that is modelled by two independent Maier-Saupe terms is successful in fitting the observed dipolar couplings (molecular order parameters) of para-, meta- and ortho-dichlorobenzene solutes in both nematic phases of 39 wt.% 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) in α,ω-bis (4-4'-cyanobiphenyl) nonane (CBC9CB) to better than the 5% level. The derived liquid-crystal potential parameters G1 and G2 for each solute in the N and Nx phases are discussed.

  13. Optically driven translational and rotational motions of microrod particles in a nematic liquid crystal (United States)

    Eremin, Alexey; Hirankittiwong, Pemika; Chattham, Nattaporn; Nádasi, Hajnalka; Stannarius, Ralf; Limtrakul, Jumras; Haba, Osamu; Yonetake, Koichiro; Takezoe, Hideo


    A small amount of azo-dendrimer molecules dissolved in a liquid crystal enables translational and rotational motions of microrods in a liquid crystal matrix under unpolarized UV light irradiation. This motion is initiated by a light-induced trans-to-cis conformational change of the dendrimer adsorbed at the rod surface and the associated director reorientation. The bending direction of the cis conformers is not random but is selectively chosen due to the curved local director field in the vicinity of the dendrimer-coated surface. Different types of director distortions occur around the rods, depending on their orientations with respect to the nematic director field. This leads to different types of motions driven by the torques exerted on the particles by the director reorientations. PMID:25624507

  14. Electric-field variations within a nematic-liquid-crystal layer. (United States)

    Cummings, L J; Mema, E; Cai, C; Kondic, L


    A thin layer of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) across which an electric field is applied is a setup of great industrial importance in liquid crystal display devices. There is thus a large literature modeling this situation and related scenarios. A commonly used assumption is that an electric field generated by electrodes at the two bounding surfaces of the layer will produce a field that is uniform: that is, the presence of NLC does not affect the electric field. In this paper, we use calculus of variations to derive the equations coupling the electric potential to the orientation of the NLC's director field, and use a simple one-dimensional model to investigate the limitations of the uniform field assumption in the case of a steady applied field. The extension of the model to the unsteady case is also briefly discussed.

  15. Transition Temperatures of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals from the Local Binary Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sreehari Sastry


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method which combines the statistical analysis with texture structural analysis called Local Binary Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (LBGLCM to investigate the phase transition temperatures of thermotropic p,n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nOBA, n=4,6,8,10 and 12 liquid crystals. Textures of the homeotropically aligned liquid crystal compounds are recorded as a function of temperature using polarizing optical microscope attached to the hot stage and high resolution camera. In this method, second-order statistical parameters (contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation are extracted from the LBGLCM of the textures. The changes associatedwiththe values of extracted parameters as a function of temperature are a helpful process to identify the phases and phase transition temperatures of the samples. Results obtained from this method have validity and are in good agreement with the literature.

  16. Detection of flow separation and reattachment using shear-sensitive liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, S. [School of Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)


    Coatings of pure chiral nematic liquid crystals are known to change colour under different levels of surface shear stress. In this study, the liquid crystal was used to provide information about flow separation and reattachment on both a two-dimensional aerofoil and a delta wing. The tests were carried out at a free-stream velocity of 28 m/s and a number of incidence angles. The Reynolds numbers based on the central chord length of the models were 200,000 and 270,000 for the aerofoil and delta wing models, respectively. The study showed that locations of boundary layer separation and reattachment can be identified from spatial variations in the surface colour; the agreement between the results and those obtained using surface oil flow was good. Issues relating to interpretation of the crystal colour pattern and the limitation of this technique in detection of flow separation were also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic-field tuning of whispering gallery mode lasing from ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal microdroplets. (United States)

    Mur, Maruša; Sofi, Junaid Ahmad; Kvasić, Ivan; Mertelj, Alenka; Lisjak, Darja; Niranjan, Vidur; Muševič, Igor; Dhara, Surajit


    We report magnetic field tuning of the structure and Whispering Gallery Mode lasing from ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal micro-droplets. Microlasers were prepared by dispersing a nematic liquid crystal, containing magnetic nanoparticles and fluorescent dye, in a glycerol-lecithin matrix. The droplets exhibit radial director structure, which shows elastic distortion at a very low external magnetic field. The fluorescent dye doped ferromagnetic nematic droplets show Whispering Gallery Mode lasing, which is tunable by the external magnetic field. The tuning of the WGM lasing modes is linear in magnetic field with a wavelength-shift of the order of 1 nm/100 mT. Depending on the lasing geometry, the WGMs are red- or blue-shifted.

  18. Thermal sensing based on whispering gallery modes in tapered-fiber-coupled liquid crystal microdroplets (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Hanyang; Zhao, Liyuan; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Shuangqiang; Yang, Jun


    We report the efficient coupling of optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in liquid crystal microdroplets suspended in immiscible aqueous environment. Individual nematic liquid crystal (NLC) microdroplet is confined at the tip of a microcapillary used to generate the microdroplets and coupled through a tapered optical fiber waveguide positioned in the vicinity of the microdroplets. Efficient coupling of WGMs is observed in the NLC microdroplets with a diameter of 50-150 μm. In addition, the wavelengths of the WGMs can be tuned by temperature, making such NLC microdroplets suitable for thermal sensors. A temperature sensitivity of 0.244 nm/°C is achieved in a 75-μm-diameter microdroplet. The estimated thermal resolution of the microdroplet sensor is 8.2 × 10-2 °C.

  19. Liquid crystal-based Mueller matrix spectral imaging polarimetry for parameterizing mineral structural organization. (United States)

    Gladish, James C; Duncan, Donald D


    Herein, we discuss the remote assessment of the subwavelength organizational structure of a medium. Specifically, we use spectral imaging polarimetry, as the vector nature of polarized light enables it to interact with optical anisotropies within a medium, while the spectral aspect of polarization is sensitive to small-scale structure. The ability to image these effects allows for inference of spatial structural organization parameters. This work describes a methodology for revealing structural organization by exploiting the Stokes/Mueller formalism and by utilizing measurements from a spectral imaging polarimeter constructed from liquid crystal variable retarders and a liquid crystal tunable filter. We provide results to validate the system and then show results from measurements on a mineral sample.

  20. All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) have attracted significant attention during the last years and much research has been devoted to develop fiber designs for various applications, hereunder tunable fiber devices. Recently, thermally and electrically tunable PCF devices based on liquid crystals (LCs......) have been demonstrated. However, optical tuning of the LC PCF has until now not been demonstrated. Here we demonstrate an all-optical modulator, which utilizes a pulsed 532nm laser to modulate the spectral position of the bandgaps in a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a dye-doped nematic liquid...... crystal. We demonstrate a modulation frequency of 2kHz for a moderate pump power of 2-3mW and describe two pump pulse regimes in which there is an order of magnitude difference between the decay times....

  1. Observation of Algebraic Decay of Positional Order in a Smectic Liquid Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Litster, J. D.; Birgeneau, R. J.


    A smectic-A liquid crystal in three dimensions has been predicted to exhibit algebraic decay of the layer correlations rather than true long-range order. As a consequence, the smectic Bragg peaks are expected to be power-law singularities of the form q∥-2+η and q⊥-4+2η, where ∥(⊥) is along...... (perpendicular to) the smectic density wave vector direction, rather than δ function peaks. Observation of these phenomena requires very high instrumental resolution together with a resolution function with wings which drop off much more rapidly than q∥-2(q⊥-4). We show that these requirements may be met...... by using a three crystal x-ray spectrometer with multiple-reflection channel cut crystals as monochromator and analyzer. We find that the smectic-A Bragg peaks observed in the liquid-crystal octyloxy-cyanobiphenyl are indeed consistent with the predicted power-law singularity form. Furthermore...

  2. Rayleigh Scattering Measurements Using a Tunable Liquid Crystal Fabry-Perot Interferometer (United States)

    Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.


    Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous density, velocity, and temperature measurements. The Fabry-Perot interferometer or etalon is a commonly employed instrument for resolving the spectrum of molecular Rayleigh scattered light for the purpose of evaluating these flow properties. This paper investigates the use of a tunable liquid crystal (LC) Fabry-Perot etalon in Rayleigh scattering experiments at NASA Glenn Research Center. The LC etalon provides a robust interferometry system that can be tuned rapidly by adjusting the voltage applied to the liquid crystal interface. Tuning the interferometer is often necessary to control the physical locations of the concentric interference fringes when Rayleigh light is imaged through the LC etalon. The LC etalon diagnostic system was tested in a 1-cm diameter nozzle flow in two different scattering configurations to evaluate its usefulness for Rayleigh measurements compared to a traditional non-tunable fused silica Fabry-Perot etalon.

  3. Feasibility of Storing Latent Heat with Liquid Crystals. Proof of Concept at Lab Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Bayón


    Full Text Available In this work, the first experimental results of thermotropic liquid crystals used as phase change materials for thermal storage are presented. For that purpose, the n = 10 derivative from the family of 4′-n-alkoxybiphenyl-4-carboxylic acids has been prepared. Different techniques like polarized-light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and rheological measurements have been applied for its characterization. Having a mesophase/isotropic transition temperature around 251 °C, a clearing enthalpy of 55 kJ/kg, a thermal heat capacity of around 2.4 kJ/kg and a dynamic viscosity lower than 0.6 Pas, this compound fulfills the main requirements for being considered as latent heat storage material. Although further studies on thermal stability are necessary, the results already obtained are both promising and encouraging since they demonstrate de viability of this new application of liquid crystals as thermal storage media.

  4. Morphogenesis of liquid crystal topological defects during the nematic-smectic A phase transition (United States)

    Gim, Min-Jun; Beller, Daniel A.; Yoon, Dong Ki


    The liquid crystalline phases of matter each possess distinct types of defects that have drawn great interest in areas such as topology, self-assembly and material micropatterning. However, relatively little is known about how defects in one liquid crystalline phase arise from defects or deformations in another phase upon crossing a phase transition. Here, we directly examine defects in the in situ thermal phase transition from nematic to smectic A in hybrid-aligned liquid crystal droplets on water substrates, using experimental, theoretical and numerical analyses. The hybrid-aligned nematic droplet spontaneously generates boojum defects. During cooling, toric focal conic domains arise through a sequence of morphological transformations involving nematic stripes and locally aligned focal conic domains. This simple experiment reveals a surprisingly complex pathway by which very different types of defects may be related across the nematic-smectic A phase transition, and presents new possibilities for controlled deformation and patterning of liquid crystals.

  5. Landau–De Gennes Theory of Nematic Liquid Crystals: the Oseen–Frank Limit and Beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala


    We study global minimizers of a continuum Landau-De Gennes energy functional for nematic liquid crystals, in three-dimensional domains, subject to uniaxial boundary conditions. We analyze the physically relevant limit of small elastic constant and show that global minimizers converge strongly, in W1,2, to a global minimizer predicted by the Oseen-Frank theory for uniaxial nematic liquid crystals with constant order parameter. Moreover, the convergence is uniform in the interior of the domain, away from the singularities of the limiting Oseen-Frank global minimizer. We obtain results on the rate of convergence of the eigenvalues and the regularity of the eigenvectors of the Landau-De Gennes global minimizer. We also study the interplay between biaxiality and uniaxiality in Landau-De Gennes global energy minimizers and obtain estimates for various related quantities such as the biaxiality parameter and the size of admissible strongly biaxial regions. © Springer-Verlag (2009).

  6. Distant optical detection of small rotations and displacements by means of chiral liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibaev, Petr V., E-mail:, E-mail:; Troisi, Juliana; Reddy, Kathryn [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Fordham University, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, New York, 10458 (United States); Iljin, Andrey [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospect Nauki 46, Kiev, 03028 (Ukraine)


    The paper describes novel chiral viscoelastic liquid crystalline mixtures and their application for the detection of small rotational displacements of two plates confining cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC). The mixtures are characterized by extremely high viscosities and stability of the selective reflection band (SRB) at ambient temperatures. Even a small rotation applied to the chiral liquid crystal (CLC) cell results in dramatic changes of the reflective properties of sandwiched CLC films. The angle and direction of rotation as well as the magnitude of CLC's shear deformation can be determined for a variety of experimental geometries, each of which is characterized by its own response function. The proposed model explains changes in the reflection spectra for different experimental geometries and relates them to the angle of rotation and magnitude of shear. The method was tested for a detection of small rotations from a distance of up to 50 m and allows for resolving small rotations of the order of fractions of degrees.

  7. One- and two-dimensional fluids properties of smectic, lamellar and columnar liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jakli, Antal


    Smectic and lamellar liquid crystals are three-dimensional layered structures in which each layer behaves as a two-dimensional fluid. Because of their reduced dimensionality they have unique physical properties and challenging theoretical descriptions, and are the subject of much current research. One- and Two-Dimensional Fluids: Properties of Smectic, Lamellar and Columnar Liquid Crystals offers a comprehensive review of these phases and their applications. The book details the basic structures and properties of one- and two-dimensional fluids and the nature of phase transitions. The later chapters consider the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of special structures, including uniformly and non-uniformly aligned anisotropic films, lyotropic lamellar systems, helical and chiral structures, and organic anisotropic materials. Topics also include typical and defective features, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity. The book concludes with a review of current and potential applications ...

  8. Improved response time of thick liquid crystal device by using electrospun nanofiber (United States)

    Duong, Toan Quoc; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Yo; Moritake, Hiroshi


    In this study, we report the improved response time of a thick nematic liquid crystal (LC) device by using an electrospun nanofiber (NF). We investigated the influence of NF characteristics including polymer material, NF volume ratio, and diameter, on the electrical characteristic of the NF/LC composite. A conventional LC device and a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) device were fabricated to compare their electrical characteristics with those of the NF/LC composite. The rise time, decay time, and threshold voltage of these LC devices are determined by measuring the dielectric permittivity. In comparison with the conventional LC device, the decay time of the NF/LC device is significantly improved. Compared with the PSLC device with the same thickness, the NF/LC device shows a lower threshold voltage while exhibiting the same decay time. Finally, we demonstrated the markedly improved response time of a THz phase shifter by using an NF/LC composite.

  9. Optical microscopy studies of dynamics within individual polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets. (United States)

    Higgins, Daniel A; Hall, Jeffrey E; Xie, Aifang


    Optical devices based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) thin films derive their functional properties from the electric-field-induced reorientation of (sub)micrometer-sized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (LC) droplets. In these materials, the LC reorientation dynamics are strongly dependent on droplet size and shape, as well as polymer/LC interfacial interactions. The dynamics also vary spatially within individual droplets. This Account describes studies of individual PDLC droplets and their field-induced dynamics by high-resolution near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy (MPEFM). Included are studies of native ("pure") PDLCs and those doped with ionic compounds and dyes; the latter are used in sophisticated photorefractive materials.

  10. Surface-induced orientational order in stretched nanoscale-sized polymer dispersed liquid-crystal droplets. (United States)

    Amimori, Ichiro; Eakin, James N; Qi, Jun; Skacej, Gregor; Zumer, Slobodan; Crawford, Gregory P


    We investigate orientational ordering in stretched polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) droplets using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance, in the nematic and isotropic phases. In the latter case, we estimate the surface order parameter S(0) and the thickness of the interfacial layer from the temperature-independent surface ordering model for an elliptical cavity with a varying aspect ratio. A simple phenomenological model well describes the quadrupole splitting frequency of NMR spectra in the isotropic phase. The strain dependence of S(0) suggests that stretching-induced changes in the orientation of polymer chains in the PDLC matrix noticeably affect liquid-crystal surface anchoring. Experimental results are supported by simulated NMR spectra obtained as output from Monte Carlo simulations of paranematic ordering in ellipsoidal droplets based on the Lebwohl-Lasher lattice model.

  11. Spatial Frequency Responses of Anisotropic Refractive Index Gratings Formed in Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Fukuda


    Full Text Available We report on an experimental investigation of spatial frequency responses of anisotropic transmission refractive index gratings formed in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs. We studied two different types of HPDLC materials employing two different monomer systems: one with acrylate monomer capable of radical mediated chain-growth polymerizations and the other with thiol-ene monomer capable of step-growth polymerizations. It was found that the photopolymerization kinetics of the two HPDLC materials could be well explained by the autocatalytic model. We also measured grating-spacing dependences of anisotropic refractive index gratings at a recording wavelength of 532 nm. It was found that the HPDLC material with the thiol-ene monomer gave higher spatial frequency responses than that with the acrylate monomer. Statistical thermodynamic simulation suggested that such a spatial frequency dependence was attributed primarily to a difference in the size of formed liquid crystal droplets due to different photopolymerization mechanisms.

  12. Formation of temperature dependable holographic memory using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. (United States)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru; Moriwaki, Retsu


    Grating devices using photosensitive organic materials play an important role in the development of optical and optoelectronic systems. High diffraction efficiency and polarization dependence achieved in a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating are expected to provide polarization controllable optical devices, such as the holographic memory for optically reconfigurable gate arrays (ORGAs). However, the optical property is affected by the thermal modulation around the transition temperature (T(ni)) that the liquid crystal (LC) changes from nematic to isotropic phases. The temperature dependence of the diffraction efficiency in HPDLC grating is discussed with two types of LC composites comprised of isotropic and LC diacrylate monomers. The holographic memory formed by the LC and LC diacrylate monomer performs precise reconstruction of the context information for ORGAs at high temperatures more than 150°C.

  13. Temperature dependence of anisotropic diffraction in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal memory. (United States)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru; Moriwaki, Retsu


    Grating devices using photosensitive organic materials play an important role in the development of optical and optoelectronic systems. High diffraction efficiency and polarization dependence achieved in a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating are expected to provide polarization-controllable optical devices, such as a holographic memory for optically reconfigurable gate arrays (ORGAs). However, the optical property is affected by the thermal modulation around the transition temperature (T(ni)) where the liquid crystal (LC) changes from nematic to isotropic phases. The temperature dependence of the diffraction efficiency in HPDLC grating is investigated using four types of LC composites comprised of LCs and monomers having different physical properties such as T(ni) and anisotropic refractive indices. The holographic memory formed by the LC with low anisotropic refractive index and LC diacrylate monomer implements optical reconfiguration for ORGAs at a high temperature beyond T(ni) of LC.

  14. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Libo; Chien, Liang-Chy [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Liao, Pei-Chun [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); AU Optronics Corporation, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chen-Chun; Ting, Tien-Lun; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Su, Jenn-Jia [AU Optronics Corporation, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)


    We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA). The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  15. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Weng


    Full Text Available We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA. The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  16. Comparative study of acoustic relaxation time of cholesteric liquid crystal and mixtures (United States)

    Bhave, Manisha G.; Gharde, Rita; Radha, S.


    The present study focuses on the relaxation processes in Cholesteric Liquid Crystal and mixtures. We have dispersed two different monomers in CLC to form Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDCLCs). PDLC films have a remarkable electro-optical behavior since they can be switched from highly light scattering state (OFF) to transparent state (ON) simply by application of an electric field. We have also doped ferroelectric nano - powder (NP) in CLC. The phase transitions occurred at temperatures lower than those exhibited by the mesogenic component before doping. The viscosity, ultrasonic velocity and density show variation with change in the material as well as temperature. The acoustic relaxation time and ultrasonic attenuation decrease with increase in temperature for CLC and CLC+NP. The parameters of PDCLC2 in comparison with PDCLC1 are more linear in isotropic and anisotropic regions. For PDCLC2 the values reach maximum value at the Cholesteric-isotropic transition.

  17. Obtaining absorption spectra from single textile fibers using a liquid crystal tunable filter microspectrophotometer. (United States)

    Markstrom, Luke J; Mabbott, Gary A


    Visible absorption spectra were recorded for single textile fibers using a microspectrophotometer based on a liquid crystal tunable filter. Spectra compared well with results from a conventional instrument. Some advantages include very fast and simple sample preparation and easy comparison of multiple fibers at the same time. Advantages over extraction-dependent methods include the fact that it is applicable to extremely small sample size, not susceptible to artifacts induced by variable extraction efficiencies, non-destructive, and much easier. Because an immense amount of information is collected in one experiment, good signal averaging is possible, along with multiple comparisons for each data set. The addition of a camera, computer, and liquid crystal tunable filter can transform a standard microscope into a microspectrophotometer capable of performing similar work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly sensitive and selective liquid crystal optical sensor for detection of ammonia. (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofang; Zhong, Yuanbo; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei; Luo, Dan


    Ammonia detection technologies are very important in environment monitoring. However, most existing technologies are complex and expensive, which limit the useful range of real-time application. Here, we propose a highly sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of ammonia (NH3) based on liquid crystals (LCs). This optical sensor is realized through the competitive binding between ammonia and liquid crystals on chitosan-Cu2+ that decorated on glass substrate. We achieve a broad detection range of ammonia from 50 ppm to 1250 ppm, with a low detection limit of 16.6 ppm. This sensor is low-cost, simple, fast, and highly sensitive and selective for detection of ammonia. The proposal LC sensing method can be a sensitive detection platform for other molecule monitors such as proteins, DNAs and other heavy metal ions by modifying sensing molecules.

  19. X-Ray Reflectivity from the Surface of a Liquid Crystal:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pershan, P.S.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage


    X-ray reflectivity from the surface of a nematic liquid crystal is interpreted as the coherent superposition of Fresnel reflection from the surface and Bragg reflection from smectic order induced by the surface. Angular dependence of the Fresnel effect yields information on surface structure. Mea....... Measurement of the intensity of diffuse critical scattering relative to the Fresnel reflection yields the absolute value of the critical part of the density-density correlation function.......X-ray reflectivity from the surface of a nematic liquid crystal is interpreted as the coherent superposition of Fresnel reflection from the surface and Bragg reflection from smectic order induced by the surface. Angular dependence of the Fresnel effect yields information on surface structure...

  20. Electro-optical characteristics of a liquid crystal cell with graphene electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nune H. Hakobyan


    Full Text Available In liquid crystal devices (LCDs the indium tin oxide (ITO films are traditionally used as transparent and conductive electrodes. However, today, due to the development of multichannel optical communication, the need for flexible LCDs and multilayer structures has grown. For this application ITO films cannot be used in principle. For this problem, graphene (an ultrathin material with unique properties, e.g., high optical transparency, chemical inertness, excellent conductivity is an excellent candidate. In this work, the electro-optical and dynamic characteristics of a liquid crystal (LC cell with graphene and ITO transparent conducting layers are investigated. To insure uniform thickness of the LC layer, as well as the same orientation boundary conditions, a hybrid LC cell containing graphene and ITO conductive layers has been prepared. The characteristics of LC cells with both types of conducting layers were found to be similar, indicating that graphene can be successfully used as a transparent conductive layer in LC devices.

  1. Polypeptide Liquid Crystal Assisted Assembly of Cylindrically Symmetric Silica-Polypeptide Hybrid Microparticles (United States)

    Russo, Paul; Rosu, Cornelia; Jacobeen, Shane; Park, Katherine; Yunker, Peter; Reichmanis, Elsa

    Liquid crystals can organize dispersed particles into exotic structures. Matching the particle surface coating to the chemistry of the mesogenic phase permits a tight focus on factors such as extended particle shape. The colloidal particles developed for this work consist of a magnetic and fluorescent cylinder-like silica core. One end of the silica is rounded, almost hemispherical, giving the particles a bullet-like shape. These particles are functionalized with helical poly(γ-stearyl-L-glutamate) and dispersed, at different concentrations in cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLC) of the same polymer in tetrahydrofuran. Defects introduced by the particles to the director field of the bulk PSLG/THF host led to a variety of phases, including a quasi-hexagonal alignment of the particles. National Science Foundation.

  2. Liquid crystal nanoparticle formulation as an oral drug delivery system for liver-specific distribution


    Kim, B. Moon; Lee,Dong Ryeol; Park,Ji Su; Bae,Il; Lee,Yan


    Dong Ryeol Lee,1,2 Ji Su Park,1 Il Hak Bae,1 Yan Lee,1 B Moon Kim1 1Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Technology Development Center, BASF Company Ltd., Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Liquid crystal nanoparticles have been utilized as an efficient tool for drug delivery with enhanced bioavailability, drug stability, and targeted drug delivery. However, the high energy requirements and the high cost ...

  3. Comparative electrooptic study of new orthoconic liquid crystals with fluorinated alkoxy terminal chains (United States)

    Spadło, A.; Otón, E.; Dąbrowski, R.; Żurowska, M.; Otón, J. M.; Bennis, N.


    Electrooptical properties of several new orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures with partially fluorinated alkoxyalkoxy terminal chains have been investigated in order to select the best mixture for display applications. Electrooptical studies have been performed on these orthoconic materials aiming at evaluating their static and dynamic performance under passive multiplexing conditions. A number of parameters have been evaluated, static and dynamic contrast, driving scheme for passive multiplexing, rise and fall response times, dynamic range, and dynamic greyscale.

  4. Synthesis and properties of cholesteryl 4-(Alkanoylamino)benzoates: liquid crystals and organogelators. (United States)

    Kubo, Kanji; Tsuji, Kazuki; Mori, Akira; Ujiie, Seiji


    As a new liquid crystal and organogelator, cholesteryl 4-(alkanoylamino)benzoates were prepared. Cholesteryl 4-(alkanoylamino)benzoates had enantiotropic cholesteric and chiral smectic C phases. Furthermore cholesteryl 4-(alkanoylamino)benzoates gelled organic liquid such as 1-decanol, linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol, linalyl acetate, lavender oil, orange oil, and rose oil. The terpene and perfume gels show good release characteristics of the volatile components for a long period.

  5. Generation of Perfect Optical Vortices by Using a Transmission Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator


    Nelson Anaya Carvajal; Acevedo, Cristian H.; Yezid Torres Moreno


    We have experimentally created perfect optical vortices by the Fourier transformation of holographic masks with combination of axicons and spiral functions, which are displayed on a transmission liquid crystal spatial light modulator. We showed theoretically that the size of the annular vortex in the Fourier plane is independent of the spiral phase topological charge but it is dependent on the axicon. We also studied numerically and experimentally the free space diffraction of a perfect optic...

  6. Dynamic Time Multiplexing Fabrication of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals for Increased Wavelength Sensitivity (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K. (Inventor); Rai, Kashma (Inventor)


    Described herein is a new holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) medium with broadband reflective properties, and a new technique for fabrication of broadband HPDLC mediums. The new technique involves dynamic variation of the holography setup during HPDLC formation, enabling the broadening of the HPDLC medium's wavelength response. Dynamic variation of the holography setup may include the rotation and/or translation of one or more motorized stages, allowing for time and spatial, or angular, multiplexing through variation of the incident angles of one or more laser beams on a pre-polymer mixture during manufacture. An HPDLC medium manufactured using these techniques exhibits improved optical response by reflecting a broadband spectrum of wavelengths. A new broadband holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film polymeric mirror stack with electrically-switchable beam steering capability is disclosed. XXXX Described herein is a new holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) medium with broadband reflective properties, and a new technique for fabrication of broadband 10 HPDLC mediums. The new technique involves dynamic variation of the holography setup during HPDLC formation, enabling the broadening of the HPDLC medium's wavelength response. Dynamic variation of the holography setup may include the rotation and/or translation of one or more 15 motorized stages, allowing for time and spatial, or angular, multiplexing through variation of the incident angles of one or more laser beams on a pre-polymer mixture during manufacture. An HPDLC medium manufactured using these techniques exhibits improved optical response by reflecting 20 a broadband spectrum of wavelengths. A new broadband holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film polymeric mirror stack with electrically switchable beam steering capability is disclosed.



    Lee, H. L.; M. Abu Bakar; Ismail, J.; A. M. Issam


    Nanocomposites comprising diol-vanilin and cadmium sulfide (CdS) has been synthesized via chemical precipitation method in ethanol at refluxed temperature (160 oC) for 12 hours. CdCl2. 2.5H2O and thiourea as cadmium and sulfide precursors respectively were employed. Diol vanilin is a thermotropic liquid crystal monomer which exhibits enantiotropic nematic metaphase texture when observed under polarizing microscope and confirmed by DSC thermal stability study. A series of different mass compos...

  8. The Efficiency of Defect Production in Planar Superconductors and Liquid Crystals


    Rivers, R. J.; A. Swarup


    A recent experiment that sees the spontaneous creation of magnetic flux on quenching high-$T_c$ films has shown that earlier null results were a consequence of the lack of saturation of the Zurek-Kibble causal bounds against which flux density was measured. In this letter we estimate how efficient the production of topological charge is in planar systems, both for the aforementioned experiment (when flux measures topological charge) and for an earlier experiment on planar liquid crystals. Agr...

  9. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Fabrication Parameters in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Devices


    Juan C. Torres; Ricardo Vergaz; David Barrios; José Manuel Sánchez-Pena; Ana Viñuales; Hans Jürgen Grande; Germán Cabañero


    A series of polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices using glass substrates have been fabricated and investigated focusing on their electrical properties. The devices have been studied in terms of impedance as a function of frequency. An electric equivalent circuit has been proposed, including the influence of the temperature on the elements into it. In addition, a relevant effect of temperature on electrical measurements has been observed.

  10. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Fabrication Parameters in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Devices. (United States)

    Torres, Juan C; Vergaz, Ricardo; Barrios, David; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; Viñuales, Ana; Grande, Hans Jürgen; Cabañero, Germán


    A series of polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices using glass substrates have been fabricated and investigated focusing on their electrical properties. The devices have been studied in terms of impedance as a function of frequency. An electric equivalent circuit has been proposed, including the influence of the temperature on the elements into it. In addition, a relevant effect of temperature on electrical measurements has been observed.

  11. Spiral phase plate based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal for wide visible band applications. (United States)

    Wu, Shing-Trong; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey


    This study demonstrates helical wave fronts via a spiral phase plate based on polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs). Because the PDLC is electric tunable, the plate can be used in a wide visible band. In addition, if the probe beam deviates from the center of the sample, some of the light propagates out of the sectors. We propose some of the applications for the results.

  12. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Fabrication Parameters in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Devices (United States)

    Torres, Juan C.; Vergaz, Ricardo; Barrios, David; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; Viñuales, Ana; Grande, Hans Jürgen; Cabañero, Germán


    A series of polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices using glass substrates have been fabricated and investigated focusing on their electrical properties. The devices have been studied in terms of impedance as a function of frequency. An electric equivalent circuit has been proposed, including the influence of the temperature on the elements into it. In addition, a relevant effect of temperature on electrical measurements has been observed. PMID:28788632

  13. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Fabrication Parameters in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Torres


    Full Text Available A series of polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices using glass substrates have been fabricated and investigated focusing on their electrical properties. The devices have been studied in terms of impedance as a function of frequency. An electric equivalent circuit has been proposed, including the influence of the temperature on the elements into it. In addition, a relevant effect of temperature on electrical measurements has been observed.

  14. Study of polymer dispersed liquid crystal film based on amphiphilic polymer matrix


    Ahmad, Farzana; Jamil, Muhammad; Jeon, Young Jae


    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films’ morphologies and electro-optical properties have been mostly investigated on the method of polymerization, rate of reaction, the relative amount, characteristic, and temperature of the LC/monomer mixtures; in chorus with the molecular associations existing among the LC, monomer molecules and with the glass. In this effort the molecular associations of polymer matrix having hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics are considered with the LC. He...

  15. Dynamic mechanism of the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition in chiral smectic liquid crystals


    VIJ, JAGDISH; Fukuda, Atsuo; SONG, JANG-KUN


    PUBLISHED We report on the observation of V-shaped switching in a ferroelectric liquid crystal cell over a wide range of temperatures. Results of the optical transmittance in the visible region give us the helical pitch for various temperatures of the ferroelectric liquid crystalline compound used. We show that the helical pitch, in addition to the spontaneous polarization (PS) and thickness of the alignment layer of the cell, is an important factor in giving V-shaped switching. A longer o...

  16. Electrically controlled phases of partially polarized light and orientational Kerr effect in liquid crystal ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev Alexei D.


    Full Text Available We study the electro-optic properties of subwavelength-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals illuminated with partially polarized light. In an experimental setup based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, it is found that the interference pattern crucially depends on the degree of polarization of the incident light. We evaluate the electric field dependence of both the Pancharatnam relative phase and the geometric phase for the general case of nonunitarily evolving mixed polarization states.

  17. Robust microfluidic encapsulation of cholesteric liquid crystals toward photonic ink capsules. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Seok; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Su Kyung; Won, Jong Chan; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyun


    Robust photonic microcapsules are created by microfluidic encapsulation of cholesteric liquid crystals with a hydrogel membrane. The membrane encloses the cholesteric core without leakage in water and the core exhibits pronounced structural colors. The photonic ink capsules, which have a precisely controlled bandgap position and size, provide new opportunities in colorimetric micro-thermometers and optoelectric applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Liquid crystal display device for total reflection switching with fluorescent dye addition. (United States)

    Urisu, T; Sugeta, T; Mizushima, Y


    Bias dependences for reflectivity curves were measured in the total reflection range for several liquid crystals, and orientation near the boundary was investigated. Incident angle dependences of the transient response for total reflection ON and OFF switching were measured. Fluorescent dye addition effects for total reflection switching were investigated. Using a mixture of the fluorescent dye (coumarin 6) and MBBA + BBCA, a novel display device for a wide viewing angle has been successfully demonstrated.

  19. Study of Memory Alignment of Nematic Liquid Crystals on Polyvinyl Alcohol Coatings (United States)

    Vetter, Peter; Ohmura, Yoshinori; Uchida, Tatsuo


    Polymer layers can cause memory alignment of nematic liquid crystals. We describe an experimental method to characterize this effect. We studied the temperature dependence of the memory alignment on polyvinyl alcohol coatings. We also investigated the influence of the time span during which the memory alignment is generated. We propose an adsorption-desorption mechanism by which we can explain our observations in a reasonable way.

  20. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)


    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  1. Formation of self-supporting reversible cellular networks in suspensions of colloids and liquid crystals. (United States)

    Vollmer, Doris; Hinze, Gerald; Ullrich, Beate; Poon, Wilson C K; Cates, Michael E; Schofield, Andrew B


    In mixtures of thermotropic liquid crystals with spherical poly (methyl methacrylate) particles, self-supporting networklike structures are formed during slow cooling past the isotropic-to-nematic phase transformation. To characterize the process of network formation in terms of morphology, phase transformation kinetics, and mechanical properties, we have combined data from polarization and laser scanning confocal microscopy with calorimetric, NMR, and rheological results. Our data suggest that the mechanism of network formation is dominated by a broadened temperature and time interval of phase transformation rather than by particle size or concentration. The observation that the width of the transformation interval strongly depends on sample preparation supports the hypothesis that a third component, most likely alkane remnants slowly liberated from the particles, plays a crucial role. In addition, calorimetric findings for liquid crystal/colloid mixtures, heated and cooled up to 13 times, point to separation of the liquid crystal into two compartments with different phase transformation kinetics. This could be explained by redistribution and enrichment of alkane in the particle-composed network walls. A further increase of the storage modulus, G', and incomplete dissolution of the networks in the isotropic state indicate that the formation of two compartments during repeated temperature cycles stabilizes the network and confers strong memory effects.

  2. Milestone in the History of Field-Effect Liquid Crystal Displays and Materials (United States)

    Schadt, Martin


    The history of digital electronics would have been very different without the invention of field-effect liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in 1970 and their sophisticated development and implementation into numerous products. Transmissive and reflective LCDs have become a key interface between man and machine. After almost 40 years of interdisciplinary R+D and engineering, today's LCDs enable virtually all display applications, including high definition television. Field-effect LCDs are characterized by flat design, low weight, low driving voltage, design flexibility, compatibility with silicon-on-glass and very low power consumption, especially in reflection. Their polarization-sensitive layer concept is the basis for sandwiching and integration of optical and electronic thin-film functions. The liquid crystal technology has become a fast growing industry over the past 38 years, today surpassing 100 billion, with many spin-offs into new areas. Prerequisite for field-effect LCDs and their large diversification potential is the unique self-organization of liquid crystals. New applications beyond displays based on self-organisation, smart boundary alignment, dedicated liquid crystalline materials and the ability of LCs to respond to electromagnetic fields, including light, are being developed. Examples for new applications are LC polymer thin-film optics, or synergies between LCDs and solid state back-lighting, such as inorganic and organic light emitting diodes (LEDs/OLEDs).

  3. Synthesis of Distinct Iron Oxide Nanomaterial Shapes Using Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Muhammad Salili


    Full Text Available A room temperature reduction-hydrolysis of Fe(III precursors such as FeCl3 or Fe(acac3 in various lyotropic liquid crystal phases (lamellar, hexagonal columnar, or micellar formed by a range of ionic or neutral surfactants in H2O is shown to be an effective and mild approach for the preparation of iron oxide (IO nanomaterials with several morphologies (shapes and dimensions, such as extended thin nanosheets with lateral dimensions of several hundred nanometers as well as smaller nanoflakes and nanodiscs in the tens of nanometers size regime. We will discuss the role of the used surfactants and lyotropic liquid crystal phases as well as the shape and size differences depending upon when and how the resulting nanomaterials were isolated from the reaction mixture. The presented synthetic methodology using lyotropic liquid crystal solvents should be widely applicable to several other transition metal oxides for which the described reduction-hydrolysis reaction sequence is a suitable pathway to obtain nanoscale particles.

  4. Self-assembly and electrostriction of arrays and chains of hopfion particles in chiral liquid crystals (United States)

    Ackerman, Paul J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Smalyukh, Ivan I.


    Some of the most exotic condensed matter phases, such as twist grain boundary and blue phases in liquid crystals and Abrikosov phases in superconductors, contain arrays of topological defects in their ground state. Comprised of a triangular lattice of double-twist tubes of magnetization, the so-called ‘A-phase’ in chiral magnets is an example of a thermodynamically stable phase with topologically nontrivial solitonic field configurations referred to as two-dimensional skyrmions, or baby-skyrmions. Here we report that three-dimensional skyrmions in the form of double-twist tori called ‘hopfions’, or ‘torons’ when accompanied by additional self-compensating defects, self-assemble into periodic arrays and linear chains that exhibit electrostriction. In confined chiral nematic liquid crystals, this self-assembly is similar to that of liquid crystal colloids and originates from long-range elastic interactions between particle-like skyrmionic torus knots of molecular alignment field, which can be tuned from isotropic repulsive to weakly or highly anisotropic attractive by low-voltage electric fields.

  5. Graphene-based liquid-crystal microlens arrays for synthetic-aperture imaging (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Hu, Wei; Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Xin, Zhaowei; Wei, Dong; Zhang, Xinyu; Liao, Jing; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng


    In this paper, a new kind of liquid-crystal microlens array with graphene electrodes controlled electrically are designed and fabricated successfully. The graphene-based liquid-crystal microlens arrays (GLCMAs) exhibit excellent beam focusing performances in both the visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelength regions and also synthetic aperture imaging function. The graphene films used to fabricate the electrodes of the GLCMAs are grown by chemical vapor deposition over copper foils, demonstrating several characters of low sheet resistance and high transmittance in both wavelength ranges above. The key processes for shaping the GLCMAs include: transferring graphene films from copper foils to wafers selected, conventional UV-photolithography, ICP etching, and liquid-crystal encapsulation. Through performing common optical measurements, the point spread functions of incident lasers with different wavelength, such as red lasers of ∼600 nm, green lasers of ∼532 nm, and NIR lasers of ∼980 nm, have been obtained. Several key parameters including focal spots size, average normalized light intensity, focal length, average deviation rate and contrast ratio have been acquired and analyzed. A particular synthetic-aperture imaging based on the GLCMA is realized so as to certify a fact that a single target pattern can be constructed effectively based on some sub-aperture patterns with several tens or hundreds of micrometer scale, and thus highlight a way to fast process partial or small-zoned patterns for enhancing the detection efficiency of special targets.

  6. Manipulating lipid membrane architecture by liquid crystal-analog curvature elasticity (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Lee, Sin-Doo


    Soft matters such as liquid crystals and biological molecules exhibit a variety of interesting physical phenomena as well as new applications. Recently, in mimicking biological systems that have the ability to sense, regulate, grow, react, and regenerate in a highly responsive and self-adaptive manner, the significance of the liquid crystal order in living organisms, for example, a biological membrane possessing the lamellar order, is widely recognized from the viewpoints of physics and chemistry of interfaces and membrane biophysics. Lipid bilayers, resembling cell membranes, provide primary functions for the transport of biological components of ions and molecules in various cellular activities, including vesicle budding and membrane fusion, through lateral organization of the membrane components such as proteins. In this lecture, I will describe how the liquid crystal-analog curvature elasticity of a lipid bilayer plays a critical role in developing a new platform for understanding diverse biological functions at a cellular level. The key concept is to manipulate the local curvature at an interface between a solid substrate and a model membrane. Two representative examples will be demonstrated: one of them is the topographic control of lipid rafts in a combinatorial array where the ligand-receptor binding event occurs and the other concerns the reconstitution of a ring-type lipid raft in bud-mimicking architecture within the framework of the curvature elasticity.

  7. Numerical study of liquid crystal elastomers by a mixed finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    LUO, C.


    Liquid crystal elastomers present features not found in ordinary elastic materials, such as semi-soft elasticity and the related stripe domain phenomenon. In this paper, the two-dimensional Bladon-Terentjev-Warner model and the one-constant Oseen-Frank energy expression are combined to study the liquid crystal elastomer. We also impose two material constraints, the incompressibility of the elastomer and the unit director norm of the liquid crystal. We prove existence of minimiser of the energy for the proposed model. Next we formulate the discrete model, and also prove that it possesses a minimiser of the energy. The inf-sup values of the discrete linearised system are then related to the smallest singular values of certain matrices. Next the existence and uniqueness of the Lagrange multipliers associated with the two material constraints are proved under the assumption that the inf-sup conditions hold. Finally numerical simulations of the clamped-pulling experiment are presented for elastomer samples with aspect ratio 1 or 3. The semi-soft elasticity is successfully recovered in both cases. The stripe domain phenomenon, however, is not observed, which might be due to the relative coarse mesh employed in the numerical experiment. Possible improvements are discussed that might lead to the recovery of the stripe domain phenomenon. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.

  8. Hybrid liquid crystals: Enhanced electro-optic and nonlinear response for manipulating beams (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Malgosia; D'Alessandro, Giampaolo; Proctor, Matthew B.


    The manipulation and processing of light beams can be efficiently accomplished through devices based on soft matter placed in a hybrid "symbiosis" with other organic or inorganic, photoresponsive materials. The performance of such smart modulating systems often relies on a subtle balance between individual properties of each component, together with the varying interaction between organic and inorganic elements. Some promising demonstrations in the visible as well as in the THz regimes include liquid crystals integrated with plasmonic or ferroelectric nanoparticles, photoconductive or photosensitive polymers as well as metamaterials. They offer adaptive, flexible and tailor-made solutions for applications in displays and optoelectronics, switching, steering and modulating electromagnetic waves. Hybrid configurations that include multiple photoresponsive layers, sandwiched with liquid crystals, led to stronger modulation and steering of light beams in the visible. Such effects can also be observed in the other regions of spectrum, as inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals modify the magnitude of the material refractive indices measured in THz. The development of such hybrid materials has to be accompanied by comprehensive characterisation of their uniformity, stability and optical quality across the whole surface of the device, capable of determining their optical, electrical and physical parameters.

  9. Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Murugesan


    Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.

  10. Theoretical model and experimental verification on the PID tracking method using liquid crystal optical phased array (United States)

    Wang, Xiangru; Xu, Jianhua; Huang, Ziqiang; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Tianyi; Wu, Shuanghong; Qiu, Qi


    Liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA) has been considered with great potential on the non-mechanical laser deflector because it is fabricated using photolithographic patterning technology which has been well advanced by the electronics and display industry. As a vital application of LC-OPA, free space laser communication has demonstrated its merits on communication bandwidth. Before data communication, ATP (acquisition, tracking and pointing) process costs relatively long time to result in a bottle-neck of free space laser communication. Meanwhile, dynamic real time accurate tracking is sensitive to keep a stable communication link. The electro-optic medium liquid crystal with low driving voltage can be used as the laser beam deflector. This paper presents a fast-track method using liquid crystal optical phased array as the beam deflector, CCD as a beacon light detector. PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) loop algorithm is introduced as the controlling algorithm to generate the corresponding steering angle. To achieve the goal of fast and accurate tracking, theoretical analysis and experimental verification are demonstrated that PID closed-loop system can suppress the attitude random vibration. Meanwhile, theoretical analysis shows that tracking accuracy can be less than 6.5μrad, with a relative agreement with experimental results which is obtained after 10 adjustments that the tracking accuracy is less than12.6μrad.

  11. Switchable and responsive liquid crystal-functionalized microfibers produced via coaxial electrospinning (United States)

    Lagerwall, Jan P. F.


    "Wearable technology" or "smart textiles" are concepts that are very rapidly gaining in attention around the world, as industry as well as academia are making major advances in integrating advanced devices with various textiles around our household. The technological challenges involved in this development are however considerable, calling for new solutions, new materials and truly original thinking. An attractive approach to realize certain classes of wearable devices may be to use textile fibers functionalized by responsive materials such as liquid crystals, normally not connected to textiles. We can produce non-woven textiles with such fibers by means of electrospinning, a technique for producing very thin polymer fibers that can be uniform or with core-sheath geometries. Since the core can be made out of traditionally non-spinnable materials we can use coaxial electrospinning (one fluid spun inside another) to produce composite fibers with a core of liquid crystal inside a polymer sheath. The resulting fibers constitute an entirely new configuration for applying liquid crystals, giving the fibers functionality and responsiveness. For instance, with a cholesteric core we can produce non-woven mats with iridescent color that can be tuned (or removed) e.g. by heating or cooling. In this paper I describe our method of producing these novel functionalized fibers and their characterization, and I will discuss the directions for future research and application possibilities, e.g. in clothing-integrated sensors and indicators.

  12. Liquid crystal elastomer foams with elastic properties specifically engineered as biodegradable brain tissue scaffolds. (United States)

    Prévôt, M E; Andro, H; Alexander, S L M; Ustunel, S; Zhu, C; Nikolov, Z; Rafferty, S T; Brannum, M T; Kinsel, B; Korley, L T J; Freeman, E J; McDonough, J A; Clements, R J; Hegmann, E


    Tissue regeneration requires 3-dimensional (3D) smart materials as scaffolds to promote transport of nutrients. To mimic mechanical properties of extracellular matrices, biocompatible polymers have been widely studied and a diverse range of 3D scaffolds have been produced. We propose the use of responsive polymeric materials to create dynamic substrates for cell culture, which goes beyond designing only a physical static 3D scaffold. Here, we demonstrated that lactone- and lactide-based star block-copolymers (SBCs), where a liquid crystal (LC) moiety has been attached as a side-group, can be crosslinked to obtain Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) with a porous architecture using a salt-leaching method to promote cell infiltration. The obtained SmA LCE-based fully interconnected-porous foams exhibit a Young modulus of 0.23 ± 0.07 MPa and a biodegradability rate of around 20% after 15 weeks both of which are optimized to mimic native environments. We present cell culture results showing growth and proliferation of neurons on the scaffold after four weeks. This research provides a new platform to analyse LCE scaffold-cell interactions where the presence of liquid crystal moieties promotes cell alignment paving the way for a stimulated brain-like tissue.

  13. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda García-García


    Full Text Available The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low.

  14. Liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis through spatial charge separation in distorted regions as a novel mechanism of electrokinetics (United States)

    Lazo, Israel; Peng, Chenhui; Xiang, Jie; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.


    Electrically controlled dynamics of fluids and particles at microscales is a fascinating area of research with applications ranging from microfluidics and sensing to sorting of biomolecules. The driving mechanisms are electric forces acting on spatially separated charges in an isotropic medium such as water. Here, we demonstrate that anisotropic conductivity of liquid crystals enables new mechanism of highly efficient electro-osmosis rooted in space charging of regions with distorted orientation. The electric field acts on these distortion-separated charges to induce liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis. Their velocities grow with the square of the field, which allows one to use an alternating current field to drive steady flows and to avoid electrode damage. Ionic currents in liquid crystals that have been traditionally considered as an undesirable feature in displays, offer a broad platform for versatile applications such as liquid crystal-enabled electrokinetics, micropumping and mixing.

  15. Electrically switchable optical vortex generated by a computer-generated hologram recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. (United States)

    Liu, Y J; Sun, X W; Wang, Q; Luo, D


    A computer-generated hologram designed to generate an optical vortex was recorded in a cell filled with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal material under a collimated Ar+ laser beam operating at 514.5 nm. Owing to the photopolymerization-induced phase separation between the polymer and the liquid crystal, an index modulation was formed between the polymer-rich and liquid crystal-rich regions. A good optical vortex beam with high fidelity was reconstructed using a collimated He-Ne laser beam. The diffraction efficiency is estimated to be about 13%-17%. With a suitable voltage applied, the reconstructed optical vortex beam can be switched owing to the index change between the polymer and the liquid crystal.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of C-16 and C-10 Fluorescent Dipyrrinone Liquid Crystal Langmuir-Blodgett Films (United States)

    Deluca, Giovanni; Carroll, Alexander; Prayaga, Chandra; Wade, Aaron; Heath, Christopher; Renaud, Amy; Huggins, Michael


    A new C-16 and C-10 Fluorescent Dipyrrinone Liquid Crystal has been synthesized by the University of West Florida's Chemistry department. The liquid crystals have amphiphilic properties with their dipyrrinone polar heads and long hydrocarbon nonpolar tails. This led to the preparation and characterization of their Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett Film, using a Nima Langmuir-Blodgett Trough. The influence of the length of the hydrocarbon tail on the behavior of the pressure-area isotherm of the Langmuir film is studied. There is considerable difference in the behavior of the C-16 and C-10 Fluorescent Dipyrrinone Liquid Crystal Films prepared. Ellipsometric characterization of the films, using an ellipsometer built by the Physics department, is used to further study the Liquid Crystal films.

  17. Solubility limit of methyl red and methylene blue in microemulsions and liquid crystals of water, sds and pentanol systems


    Beri, D.; Pratami, A.; Gobah, P. L.; Dwimala, P.; Amran, A.


    Solubility of dyes in amphiphilic association structures of water, SDS and penthanol system (i.e. in the phases of microemulsions and liquid crystals) was attracted much interest due to its wide industrial and technological applications. This research was focused on understanding the solubility limitation of methyl red and methylene blue in microemulsion and liquid crystal phases. Experimental results showed that the highest solubility of methyl red was in LLC, followed by w/o microemulsion a...

  18. QbD based approach for optimization of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate loaded liquid crystal precursor with improved permeability


    Patil, Sharvil; Kadam, Chandrashekhar; Pokharkar, Varsha


    BCS class III drugs suffer from a drawback of low permeability even though they have high aqueous solubility. The objective of current work was to screen the suitability of glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/Pluronic F127 cubic phase liquid crystals precursors for permeation enhancement and in turn the bioavailability of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), a BCS class III drug. Spray-drying method was used for preparation of TDF loaded liquid crystal precursors (LCP) consisting of GMO/Pluronic F127 a...

  19. Improved depth resolution in video-rate line-scanning multiphoton microscopy using temporal focusing (United States)

    Tal, Eran; Oron, Dan; Silberberg, Yaron


    By introducing spatiotemporal pulse shaping techniques to multiphoton microscopy it is possible to obtain video-rate images with depth resolution similar to point-by-point scanning multiphoton microscopy while mechanically scanning in only one dimension. This is achieved by temporal focusing of the illumination pulse: The pulsed excitation field is compressed as it propagates through the sample, reaching its shortest duration (and highest peak intensity) at the focal plane before stretching again beyond it. This method is applied to produce, in a simple and scalable setup, video-rate two-photon excitation fluorescence images of Drosophila egg chambers with nearly 100,000 effective pixels and 1.5 μm depth resolution.

  20. Phase behavior and properties of the liquid-crystal dimer 1'',7''-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl) heptane: a twist-bend nematic liquid crystal. (United States)

    Cestari, M; Diez-Berart, S; Dunmur, D A; Ferrarini, A; de la Fuente, M R; Jackson, D J B; Lopez, D O; Luckhurst, G R; Perez-Jubindo, M A; Richardson, R M; Salud, J; Timimi, B A; Zimmermann, H


    The liquid-crystal dimer 1'',7''-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl)heptane (CB7CB) exhibits two liquid-crystalline mesophases on cooling from the isotropic phase. The high-temperature phase is nematic; the identification and characterization of the other liquid-crystal phase is reported in this paper. It is concluded that the low-temperature mesophase of CB7CB is a new type of uniaxial nematic phase having a nonuniform director distribution composed of twist-bend deformations. The techniques of small-angle x-ray scattering, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and dielectric spectroscopy have been applied to establish the nature of the nematic-nematic phase transition and the structural features of the twist-bend nematic phase. In addition, magnetic resonance studies (electron-spin resonance and (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance) have been used to investigate the orientational order and director distribution in the liquid-crystalline phases of CB7CB. The synthesis of a specifically deuterated sample of CB7CB is reported, and measurements showed a bifurcation of the quadrupolar splitting on entering the low-temperature mesophase from the high-temperature nematic phase. This splitting could be interpreted in terms of the chirality of the twist-bend structure of the director. Calculations using an atomistic model and the surface interaction potential with Monte Carlo sampling have been carried out to determine the conformational distribution and predict dielectric and elastic properties in the nematic phase. The former are in agreement with experimental measurements, while the latter are consistent with the formation of a twist-bend nematic phase.