WorldWideScience

Sample records for video signal processing

  1. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in very large scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible an potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for DPCM (differential pulse code midulation)-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the codec are described, and performance results are provided.

  2. Video processing project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Globisch, R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Video processing source code for algorithms and tools used in software media pipelines (e.g. image scalers, colour converters, etc.) The currently available source code is written in C++ with their associated libraries and DirectShow- Filters....

  3. Video signal processing system uses gated current mode switches to perform high speed multiplication and digital-to-analog conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M. G.; Rougelot, R. S.; Schumaker, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Video signal processor uses special-purpose integrated circuits with nonsaturating current mode switching to accept texture and color information from a digital computer in a visual spaceflight simulator and to combine these, for display on color CRT with analog information concerning fading.

  4. Orbiter CCTV video signal noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.; Blanke, L. R.; Pannett, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The amount of steady state and transient noise which will couple to orbiter CCTV video signal wiring is predicted. The primary emphasis is on the interim system, however, some predictions are made concerning the operational system wiring in the cabin area. Noise sources considered are RF fields from on board transmitters, precipitation static, induced lightning currents, and induced noise from adjacent wiring. The most significant source is noise coupled to video circuits from associated circuits in common connectors. Video signal crosstalk is the primary cause of steady state interference, and mechanically switched control functions cause the largest induced transients.

  5. Implementation of multistandard video signals integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Pastuszak, Grzegorz; Sokół, Grzegorz; Borowik, Grzegorz; GÄ ska, Michał; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz H.; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Abramowski, Andrzej; Buchowicz, Andrzej; Trochimiuk, Maciej; Frasunek, Przemysław; Jurkiewicz, Rafał; Nalbach-Moszynska, Małgorzata; Wawrzusiak, Radosław; Bukowiecka, Danuta; Tyburska, Agata; Struniawski, Jarosław; Jastrzebski, Paweł; Jewartowski, BłaŻej; Brawata, Sebastian; Bubak, Iwona; Gloza, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    The paper describes the prototype implemetantion of the Video Signals Integrator (VSI). The function of the system is to integrate video signals from many sources. The VSI is a complex hybrid system consisting of hardware, firmware and software components. Its creation requires joint effort of experts from different areas. The VSI capture device is a portable hardware device responsible for capturing of video signals from different different sources and in various formats, and for transmitting them to the server. The NVR server aggregates video and control streams coming from different sources and multiplexes them into logical channels with each channel representing a single source. From there each channel can be distributed further to the end clients (consoles) for live display via a number of RTSP servers. The end client can, at the same time, inject control messages into a given channel to control movement of a CCTV camera.

  6. Processing Decoded Video for Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari

    Quality of digital image and video signals on TV screens is aected by many factors, including the display technology and compression standards. An accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the display andof the video signals can be used to develop advanced algorithms that improve the visual...... rendition of the signals, particularly in the case of LCDs with dynamic local backlight. This thesis shows that it is possible to model LCDs with dynamic backlight to design algorithms that improve the visual quality of 2D and 3D content, and that digital video coding artifacts like blocking or ringing can...... be reduced with post-processing. LCD screens with dynamic local backlight are modeled in their main aspects, like pixel luminance, light diusion and light perception. Following the model, novel algorithms based on optimization are presented and extended, then reduced in complexity, to produce backlights...

  7. Signal-to-noise improvements in moiré profilometry by acousto-optic scanned gratings and video processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Joel H.; Hooker, Jeffery A.; Ho, Huey C.; Young, Eddie H.

    1992-03-01

    Moire techniques can be a powerful tool to determine surface shape or deviation of a shape in progress from a final or desired shape. The presence of the high contrast viewing grating and the distorted grating of the final image plane makes the moire pattern hard to see. Moving grating techniques have been developed to improve the visibility of the moire pattern, but at the expense of complex moving parts. We have developed several variable resolution projection moire techniques that either move the grating or eliminate its presence electronically, and have neither mechanical moving parts nor any physical gratings. One system uses an acousto-optics cell to generate, project, and move the gratings, while the moire is viewed through a second synchronized A-O cell. The second system uses an interferometer to generate and project variable spacing gratings which are made to move across the target and across a reference surface by an A-O beam deflector. Video processing of the reference image generates the transmissive filter which produces the moire pattern. A third system removes the grating presence electronically but retains high contrast moire contours. Noise reduction is shown in moire images of targets ranging in size from 1 to 700 cm.

  8. Revisiting the video stethoscope: an application of digital signal processing software (Goldwave) to monitoring ventilation in intubated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D John; Nair, Bala

    2009-01-01

    Problems with tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are potentially important causes of perioperative morbidity and mortality. We have developed a method of monitoring the ventilation of both lungs during general anesthesia that is an advanced digital version of a more primitive analog technique developed over two decades ago. We used two miniature electret microphones connected to regular chest pieces, placing the assemblies on the anterior chest wall about 4 inches below the clavicle in the midclavicular line. After amplification and 16-bit analog-to-digital conversion, the digital signal processing software package Goldwave (Version 5.12, www.goldwave. com) was used to produce real-time X-Y plots of the signals, with sounds from the right side plotted on the horizontal axis and sounds from the left side plotted on the vertical axis. Recognizing that when two signals are identical, their X-Y plot should form a 45 degree line, we hypothesized that X-Y plots obtained under endobronchial conditions would be recognizably different to plots reflecting normal bilateral lung ventilation. We also hypothesized that as a result of noise and anatomical variations that under conditions of bilateral mechanical ventilation the obtained plot would be very different from a simple 45 degree line. The data obtained supports these hypotheses. This preliminary study suggests that our technique may help provide a practical real-time warning system for detecting endotracheal tube malpositions, and may help build on the work of other investigators.

  9. Video signals integrator (VSI) system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pastuszak, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Trochimiuk, Maciej; Abramowski, Andrzej; Gaska, Michal; Bukowiecka, Danuta; Tyburska, Agata; Struniawski, Jarosław; Jastrzebski, Pawel; Jewartowski, Blazej; Frasunek, Przemysław; Nalbach-Moszynska, Małgorzata; Brawata, Sebastian; Bubak, Iwona; Gloza, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the project is development of a platform which integrates video signals from many sources. The signals can be sourced by existing analogue CCTV surveillance installations, recent internet-protocol (IP) cameras or single cameras of any type. The system will consist of portable devices that provide conversion, encoding, transmission and archiving. The sharing subsystem will use distributed file system and also user console which provides simultaneous access to any of video streams in real time. The system is fully modular so its extension is possible, both from hardware and software side. Due to standard modular technology used, partial technology modernization is also possible during a long exploitation period.

  10. Multimedia image and video processing

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Ling

    2012-01-01

    As multimedia applications have become part of contemporary daily life, numerous paradigm-shifting technologies in multimedia processing have emerged over the last decade. Substantially updated with 21 new chapters, Multimedia Image and Video Processing, Second Edition explores the most recent advances in multimedia research and applications. This edition presents a comprehensive treatment of multimedia information mining, security, systems, coding, search, hardware, and communications as well as multimodal information fusion and interaction. Clearly divided into seven parts, the book begins w

  11. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  12. Processing Decoded Video for LCD-LED Backlight Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan

    on local LED-LCD backlight. Second, removing the digital video codec artifacts such as blocking and ringing artifacts by post-processing algorithms. A novel algorithm based on image features with optimal balance between visual quality and power consumption was developed. In addition, to remove flickering......The quality of digital images and video signal on visual media such as TV screens and LCD displays is affected by two main factors; the display technology and compression standards. Accurate knowledge about the characteristics of display and the video signal can be utilized to develop advanced...... algorithms for signal (image or video) enhancement. One particular application of such algorithms is the case of LCDs with dynamic local backlight. The thesis addressed two main problems; first, designing algorithms that improve the visual quality of perceived image and video and reduce power consumption...

  13. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  14. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  15. Synergy of seismic, acoustic, and video signals in blast analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Weigand, J. [Vibronics Inc. (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The range of mining applications from hard rock quarrying to coal exposure to mineral recovery leads to a great variety of blasting practices. A common characteristic of many of the sources is that they are detonated at or near the earth`s surface and thus can be recorded by camera or video. Although the primary interest is in the seismic waveforms that these blasts generate, the visual observations of the blasts provide important constraints that can be applied to the physical interpretation of the seismic source function. In particular, high speed images can provide information on detonation times of individuals charges, the timing and amount of mass movement during the blasting process and, in some instances, evidence of wave propagation away from the source. All of these characteristics can be valuable in interpreting the equivalent seismic source function for a set of mine explosions and quantifying the relative importance of the different processes. This paper documents work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Southern Methodist University to take standard Hi-8 video of mine blasts, recover digital images from them, and combine them with ground motion records for interpretation. The steps in the data acquisition, processing, display, and interpretation are outlined. The authors conclude that the combination of video with seismic and acoustic signals can be a powerful diagnostic tool for the study of blasting techniques and seismology. A low cost system for generating similar diagnostics using consumer-grade video camera and direct-to-disk video hardware is proposed. Application is to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  16. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate......, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time...

  17. System of video observation for electron beam welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptenok, V. D.; Seregin, Y. N.; Bocharov, A. N.; Murygin, A. V.; Tynchenko, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    Equipment of video observation system for electron beam welding process was developed. Construction of video observation system allows to reduce negative effects on video camera during the process of electron beam welding and get qualitative images of this process.

  18. Real-time data compression of broadcast video signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkauser, Mary Jo W. (Inventor); Whyte, Wayne A., Jr. (Inventor); Barnes, Scott P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A non-adaptive predictor, a nonuniform quantizer, and a multi-level Huffman coder are incorporated into a differential pulse code modulation system for coding and decoding broadcast video signals in real time.

  19. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  20. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  1. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  2. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  3. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  4. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  5. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  6. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  7. Automatic Seismic Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-04

    81-04 4 February 1982 AUTOMATIC SEISMIC SIGNAL PROCESSING FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT i j Contract F08606-80.C-0021" PREPARED BY ILKKA NOPONEN, ROBERT SAX...PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER SAS-FR-81-04 7. AUTHOR(e) a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) F08606- 80-C-0021 ILKKA NOPONEN, ROBERT SAX AND F 6 C0 STEVEN...observed, as also Swindell and Snell (1977), that the distribu- tion of x was slightly skewed, we used the median of x instead of aver- age of x for U(x

  8. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  9. Practical image and video processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Oge

    2011-01-01

    "The book provides a practical introduction to the most important topics in image and video processing using MATLAB (and its Image Processing Toolbox) as a tool to demonstrate the most important techniques and algorithms. The contents are presented in a clear, technically accurate, objective way, with just enough mathematical detail. Most of the chapters are supported by figures, examples, illustrative problems, MATLAB scripts, suggestions for further reading, bibliographical references, useful Web sites, and exercises and computer projects to extend the understanding of their contents"--

  10. [Signal Processing Suite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahr, John D.; Mir, Hasan; Morabito, Andrew; Grossman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Our role in this project was to participate in the design of the signal processing suite to analyze plasma density measurements on board a small constellation (3 or 4) satellites in Low Earth Orbit. As we are new to space craft experiments, one of the challenges was to simply gain understanding of the quantity of data which would flow from the satellites, and possibly to interact with the design teams in generating optimal sampling patterns. For example, as the fleet of satellites were intended to fly through the same volume of space (displaced slightly in time and space), the bulk plasma structure should be common among the spacecraft. Therefore, an optimal, limited bandwidth data downlink would take advantage of this commonality. Also, motivated by techniques in ionospheric radar, we hoped to investigate the possibility of employing aperiodic sampling in order to gain access to a wider spatial spectrum without suffering aliasing in k-space.

  11. Practical wavelet signal processing for automated testing

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, S

    1999-01-01

    Wavelets are very versatile signal-processing tools that can be used in automated testing for noise reduction, edge detection, focus determination of video camera, and multi-scale frequency/time domain analysis of signals. This paper presents an overview of wavelets and discusses how examples of the use of wavelets in electrical and optical testing are explored. Tools and routines for using wavelets are discussed for several programming languages and software packages including C/ATLAS, C, WAVELAB, MATLAB and the MATLAB Wavelet toolbox. (15 refs).

  12. Digital Signal Processing (Second Edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Blackledge, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an account of the mathematical background, computational methods and software engineering associated with digital signal processing. The aim has been to provide the reader with the mathematical methods required for signal analysis which are then used to develop models and algorithms for processing digital signals and finally to encourage the reader to design software solutions for Digital Signal Processing (DSP). In this way, the reader is invited to develop a small DSP lib...

  13. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  14. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  15. Scalable Video Coding with Interlayer Signal Decorrelation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenxian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalability is one of the essential requirements in the compression of visual data for present-day multimedia communications and storage. The basic building block for providing the spatial scalability in the scalable video coding (SVC standard is the well-known Laplacian pyramid (LP. An LP achieves the multiscale representation of the video as a base-layer signal at lower resolution together with several enhancement-layer signals at successive higher resolutions. In this paper, we propose to improve the coding performance of the enhancement layers through efficient interlayer decorrelation techniques. We first show that, with nonbiorthogonal upsampling and downsampling filters, the base layer and the enhancement layers are correlated. We investigate two structures to reduce this correlation. The first structure updates the base-layer signal by subtracting from it the low-frequency component of the enhancement layer signal. The second structure modifies the prediction in order that the low-frequency component in the new enhancement layer is diminished. The second structure is integrated in the JSVM 4.0 codec with suitable modifications in the prediction modes. Experimental results with some standard test sequences demonstrate coding gains up to 1 dB for I pictures and up to 0.7 dB for both I and P pictures.

  16. TRAFFIC SIGN RECOGNATION WITH VIDEO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa AYDIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traffic signs are aimed to be recognized and identified from a video image which is taken through a video camera. To accomplish our aim, a traffic sign recognition program has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The target traffic sign are recognized in the video image with the developed program.

  17. Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

  18. Optical Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-30

    that the readaptation phenomena is minimized as signal components leave the tap weight plane (the accumulator). In principle, the performance could be...accumulators so that the readaptation phenomena caused by large values pleaving the accumulator are minimized. Several examples of the performance...the jammer signal. The system then goes into a " readaptation " phase where the new contributions to the tap weights must offset the older cont

  19. Proceedings of the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing XVII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The seventeenth of a series of workshops sponsored by the IEEE Signal Processing Society and organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee (MLSP-TC). The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has...... become particularly important for solution of problems in signal processing. As reflected in this collection, machine learning for signal processing combines many ideas from adaptive signal/image processing, learning theory and models, and statistics in order to solve complex real-world signal processing......, and two papers from the winners of the Data Analysis Competition. The program included papers in the following areas: genomic signal processing, pattern recognition and classification, image and video processing, blind signal processing, models, learning algorithms, and applications of machine learning...

  20. Signal processing for radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakhostin, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a clear understanding of the principles of signal processing of radiation detectors. It puts great emphasis on the characteristics of pulses from various types of detectors and offers a full overview on the basic concepts required to understand detector signal processing systems and pulse processing techniques. Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors covers all of the important aspects of signal processing, including energy spectroscopy, timing measurements, position-sensing, pulse-shape discrimination, and radiation intensity measurement. The book encompasses a wide range of applications so that readers from different disciplines can benefit from all of the information. In addition, this resource: * Describes both analog and digital techniques of signal processing * Presents a complete compilation of digital pulse processing algorithms * Extrapolates content from more than 700 references covering classic papers as well as those of today * Demonstrates concepts with more than 340 origin...

  1. An algebra for signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Thielemann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Our paper presents an attempt to axiomatise signal processing. Our long-term goal is to formulate signal processing algorithms for an ideal world of exact computation and prove properties about them, then interpret these ideal formulations and apply them without change to real world discrete data. We give models of the axioms that are based on Gaussian functions, that allow for exact computations and automated tests of signal algorithm properties.

  2. Designing with video focusing the user-centred design process

    CERN Document Server

    Ylirisku, Salu Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Digital video for user-centered co-design is an emerging field of design, gaining increasing interest in both industry and academia. It merges the techniques and approaches of design ethnography, participatory design, interaction analysis, scenario-based design, and usability studies. This book covers the complete user-centered design project. It illustrates in detail how digital video can be utilized throughout the design process, from early user studies to making sense of video content and envisioning the future with video scenarios to provoking change with video artifacts. The text includes

  3. Transmission of multiplexed video signals in multimode optical fiber systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Preston, III

    1988-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has the need for economical transmission of two multiplexed video signals along multimode fiberoptic systems. These systems must span unusual distances and must meet RS-250B short-haul standards after reception. Bandwidth is a major problem and studies of the installed fibers, available LEDs and PINFETs led to the choice of 100 MHz as the upper limit for the system bandwidth. Optical multiplexing and digital transmission were deemed inappropriate. Three electrical multiplexing schemes were chosen for further study. Each of the multiplexing schemes included an FM stage to help meet the stringent S/N specification. Both FM and AM frequency division multiplexing methods were investigated theoretically and these results were validated with laboratory tests. The novel application of quadrature amplitude multiplexing was also considered. Frequency division multiplexing of two wideband FM video signal appears the most promising scheme although this application requires high power highly linear LED transmitters. Futher studies are necessary to determine if LEDs of appropriate quality exist and to better quantify performance of QAM in this application.

  4. High resolution signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Donald W.

    1993-08-01

    Motivated by the goal of efficient, effective, high-speed integrated-circuit realization, we have discovered an algorithm for high speed Fourier analysis called the Arithmetic Fourier Transform (AFT). It is based on the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion, a method that is well suited for integrated-circuit realization. The computation of the AFT can be carried out in parallel, pipelined channels, and the individual operations are very simple to execute and control. Except for a single scaling in each channel, all the operations are additions or subtractions. Thus, it can reduce the required power, volume, and cost. Also, analog switched-capacitor realizations of the AFT have been studied. We have also analyzed the performance of a broad and useful class of data adaptive signal estimation algorithms. This in turn has led to our proposed improvements in the methods. We have used perturbation analysis of the rank-reduced data matrix to calculate its statistical properties. The improvements made have been demonstrated by computer simulation as well as by comparison with the Cramer-Rao Bound.

  5. People detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B., E-mail: seixas@lps.ufrj.b, E-mail: eduardo@lps.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica; Cota, Raphael E.; Ramos, Bruno L., E-mail: brunolange@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica e de Computacao

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the development of a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The final objective is to track people online in videos, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during the execution of working tasks in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a real nuclear plant at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Argonauta nuclear research reactor. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta's room, supplying the data needed. Both video processing and statistical signal processing techniques may be used for detection, segmentation and tracking people in video. This first paper reports people segmentation in video using background subtraction, by two different approaches, namely frame differences, and blind signal separation based on the independent component analysis method. Results are commented, along with perspectives for further work. (author)

  6. Signal processing devices and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graveline, S. W.

    1985-02-01

    According to an axiom employed with respect to electronic warfare (EW) behavior, system effectiveness increases directly with the amount of information recovered from an intercepted signal. The evolution in EW signal processing capability has proceeded accordingly. After an initiation of EW systems as broadband receivers, the most significant advance was related to the development of digital instantaneous frequency measurement (DIFM) devices. The use of such devices provides significant improvements regarding signal identification and RF measurement to within a few MHz. An even more accurate processing device, the digital RF memory (DRFM), allows frequency characterization to within a few Hz. This invention was made in response to the need to process coherent pulse signals. Attention is given to the generic EW system, the modern EW system, and the generic receiver function for a modern EW system showing typical output signals.

  7. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  8. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  9. Video Synchronization With Bit-Rate Signals and Correntropy Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Igor; Silveira, Luiz F; Gonçalves, Luiz

    2017-09-04

    We propose an approach for the synchronization of video streams using correntropy. Essentially, the time offset is calculated on the basis of the instantaneous transfer rates of the video streams that are extracted in the form of a univariate signal known as variable bit-rate (VBR). The state-of-the-art approach uses a window segmentation strategy that is based on consensual zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC). This strategy has an elevated computational complexity, making its application to synchronizing online data streaming difficult. Hence, our proposal uses a different window strategy that, together with the correntropy function, allows the synchronization to be performed for online applications. This provides equivalent synchronization scores with a rapid offset determination as the streams come into the system. The efficiency of our approach has been verified through experiments that demonstrate its viability with values that are as precise as those obtained by ZNCC. The proposed approach scored 81 % in time reference classification against the equivalent 81 % of the state-of-the-art approach, requiring much less computational power.

  10. Video Synchronization With Bit-Rate Signals and Correntropy Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for the synchronization of video streams using correntropy. Essentially, the time offset is calculated on the basis of the instantaneous transfer rates of the video streams that are extracted in the form of a univariate signal known as variable bit-rate (VBR. The state-of-the-art approach uses a window segmentation strategy that is based on consensual zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC. This strategy has an elevated computational complexity, making its application to synchronizing online data streaming difficult. Hence, our proposal uses a different window strategy that, together with the correntropy function, allows the synchronization to be performed for online applications. This provides equivalent synchronization scores with a rapid offset determination as the streams come into the system. The efficiency of our approach has been verified through experiments that demonstrate its viability with values that are as precise as those obtained by ZNCC. The proposed approach scored 81 % in time reference classification against the equivalent 81 % of the state-of-the-art approach, requiring much less computational power.

  11. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  12. Hardware implementation of machine vision systems: image and video processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Guillermo; García, Carlos; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    This contribution focuses on different topics covered by the special issue titled `Hardware Implementation of Machine vision Systems' including FPGAs, GPUS, embedded systems, multicore implementations for image analysis such as edge detection, segmentation, pattern recognition and object recognition/interpretation, image enhancement/restoration, image/video compression, image similarity and retrieval, satellite image processing, medical image processing, motion estimation, neuromorphic and bioinspired vision systems, video processing, image formation and physics based vision, 3D processing/coding, scene understanding, and multimedia.

  13. Microsystem for signal processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, B.; Froehlich, K.-J.; Hentschel, D.; Reppe, G.

    2005-05-01

    Acoustic monitoring of technological processes requires methods that eliminate noise as much as possible. Sensor-near signal evaluation can contribute substantially. Frequently, a further necessity exists to integrate the measuring technique in the monitored structure. The solution described contains components for analog preprocessing of acoustic signals, their digitization, algorithms for data reduction, and digital communication. The core component is a digital signal processor (DSP). Digital signal processors perform the algorithms necessary for filtering, down sampling, FFT computation and correlation of spectral components particularly effective. A compact, sensor-near signal processing structure was realized. It meets the Match-X standard, which as specified by the German Association for Mechanical and Plant Engineering (VDMA) for development of micro-technical modules, which can be combined to applicaiton specific systems. The solution is based on AL2O3 ceramic components including different signal processing modules as ADC, as well as memory and power supply. An arbitrary waveform generator has been developed and combined with a power amplifier for piezoelectric transducers in a special module. A further module interfaces to these transducers. It contains a multi-channel preamplifier, some high-pass filters for analog signal processing and an ADC-driver. A Bluetooth communication chip for wireless data transmission and a DiscOnChip module are under construction. As a first application, the combustion behavior of safety-relevant contacts is monitored. A special waveform up to 5MHz is produced and sent to the monitored object. The resulting signal form is evaluated with special algorithms, which extract significant parameters of the signal, and transmitted via CAN-bus.

  14. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  15. Frequency Identification of Vibration Signals Using Video Camera Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that an image data acquisition system connecting a high-speed camera or webcam to a notebook or personal computer (PC can precisely capture most dominant modes of vibration signal, but may involve the non-physical modes induced by the insufficient frame rates. Using a simple model, frequencies of these modes are properly predicted and excluded. Two experimental designs, which involve using an LED light source and a vibration exciter, are proposed to demonstrate the performance. First, the original gray-level resolution of a video camera from, for instance, 0 to 256 levels, was enhanced by summing gray-level data of all pixels in a small region around the point of interest. The image signal was further enhanced by attaching a white paper sheet marked with a black line on the surface of the vibration system in operation to increase the gray-level resolution. Experimental results showed that the Prosilica CV640C CMOS high-speed camera has the critical frequency of inducing the false mode at 60 Hz, whereas that of the webcam is 7.8 Hz. Several factors were proven to have the effect of partially suppressing the non-physical modes, but they cannot eliminate them completely. Two examples, the prominent vibration modes of which are less than the associated critical frequencies, are examined to demonstrate the performances of the proposed systems. In general, the experimental data show that the non-contact type image data acquisition systems are potential tools for collecting the low-frequency vibration signal of a system.

  16. Signal processing for remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, CH

    2007-01-01

    Written by leaders in the field, Signal Processing for Remote Sensing explores the data acquisitions segment of remote sensing. Each chapter presents a major research result or the most up to date development of a topic. The book includes a chapter by Dr. Norden Huang, inventor of the Huang-Hilbert transform who, along with and Dr. Steven Long discusses the application of the transform to remote sensing problems. It also contains a chapter by Dr. Enders A. Robinson, who has made major contributions to seismic signal processing for over half a century, on the basic problem of constructing seism

  17. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  18. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  19. Compressive Video Acquisition, Fusion and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    that we can explore in detail exploits the fact that even though each φm is testing a different 2D image slice, the image slices are often related...space-time cube. We related temporal bandwidth to the spacial resolution of the camera and the speed of objects in the scene. We applied our findings to...performed directly on the compressive measurements without requiring a potentially expensive video reconstruction. Accomplishments In our work exploring

  20. VLSI mixed signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  1. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    The Handbook is organized in four parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools; and the fourth part describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies.

  2. computer based speech signal processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An alternative tool for research in phonetics: computer based speech signal processing. EE Williams, RC Okoro, Z Lipcsey. Abstract. No abstract available. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v10i3.16424 · AJOL African ...

  3. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  4. Development of Signal Processing Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Xavier; Voinov, Alexey

    2017-09-01

    Experiments executed on the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, has proved the hypothesis of the existence of an `island of stability' of super heavy nuclei. It is a highly sensitive detection system that uses the method of ``active correlations'' which allows rare events of the decay of super heavy nuclei to be detected in almost background-free conditions. The role of the signal processing block is to distribute an event signal to the rest of the data acquisition components within the trigger system. In doing so, it will synchronize the rest of the data acquisition signal blocks when an alpha particle recoil appears in the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator detector. This helps to limit the amount of background interference as the DGFRS undergoes an experiment with a targeted heavy nucleus to receive coherent and succinct results. Joint Institute of Nuclear Research and NSF Grant Number PHY 1713816.

  5. Signal processing with free software practical experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, François

    2014-01-01

    An ideal resource for students, industrial engineers, and researchers, Signal Processing with Free Software Practical Experiments presents practical experiments in signal processing using free software. The text introduces elementary signals through elementary waveform, signal storage files and elementary operations on signals and then presents the first tools to signal analysis such as temporal and frequency characteristics leading to Time-frequency analysis. Non-parametric spectral analysis is also discussed as well as signal processing through sampling, resampling, quantification, an

  6. Signal processing for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Samyde, David

    2003-06-01

    In 1998, Paul Kocher showed that when a smart card computes cryptographic algorithms, for signatures or encryption, its consumption or its radiations leak information. The keys or the secrets hidden in the card can then be recovered using a differential measurement based on the intercorrelation function. A lot of silicon manufacturers use desynchronization countermeasures to defeat power analysis. In this article we detail a new resynchronization technic. This method can be used to facilitate the use of a neural network to do the code recognition. It becomes possible to reverse engineer a software code automatically. Using data and clock separation methods, we show how to optimize the synchronization using signal processing. Then we compare these methods with watermarking methods for 1D and 2D signal. The very last watermarking detection improvements can be applied to signal processing for smart cards with very few modifications. Bayesian processing is one of the best ways to do Differential Power Analysis, and it is possible to extract a PIN code from a smart card in very few samples. So this article shows the need to continue to set up effective countermeasures for cryptographic processors. Although the idea to use advanced signal processing operators has been commonly known for a long time, no publication explains that results can be obtained. The main idea of differential measurement is to use the cross-correlation of two random variables and to repeat consumption measurements on the processor to be analyzed. We use two processors clocked at the same external frequency and computing the same data. The applications of our design are numerous. Two measurements provide the inputs of a central operator. With the most accurate operator we can improve the signal noise ratio, re-synchronize the acquisition clock with the internal one, or remove jitter. The analysis based on consumption or electromagnetic measurements can be improved using our structure. At first sight

  7. Applied signal processing concepts, circuits, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdy, Nadder

    2008-01-01

    Introduction What are Signals? Signal parameters Why Signal processing? Analog vs. Digital Signal processing Practical Signal processing Systems Analog Signal Processing Amplitude Shaping Frequency Spectrum Shaping Phase Errors Correction Waveform Generation Analog Filter Design Describing Equations Design Procedures Filter Specifications Approximations to the Ideal Response Realization Practical RC-Filters Design Switched Capacitor Filter Realization Design examples Data Converters Introduction A typical DSP System Specifications of Data Converters Sampling Samp

  8. Toward real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B; Kwartowitz, David M

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and use small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery uses the images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). The video streams generate approximately 360 MB of data per second, demonstrating a trend toward increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process, and visualize data in real time is essential for the performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We have performed image processing algorithms on a high-definition head phantom video (1920 × 1080 pixels) and transferred the video using a message passing interface. The total transfer time is around 53 ms or 19 fps. We will optimize and parallelize these algorithms to reduce the total time to 30 ms.

  9. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  10. Low power digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun

    2003-01-01

    -cores as well as standard DSP/CPU-cores that communicate using message passing. The work has been based on a study of the algorithm suite covering the application domain. The observation of dominant tasks for certain algorithms (FIR, IIR, correlation, etc.) that require custom computational units and special...... data addressing capabilities lead to the design of low power mini-cores. The algorithm suite also consisted of less demanding and/or irregular algorithms (LMS, compression) that required subsample rate signal processing justifying the use of a DSP/CPU-core. The thesis also contributes to the recent...

  11. Optical time-lens signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of optical time lenses for optical signal processing of advanced optical data signals. Examples given include 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist channel serial-to-parallel conversion and spectral magnification of OFDM signals.......This paper describes the use of optical time lenses for optical signal processing of advanced optical data signals. Examples given include 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist channel serial-to-parallel conversion and spectral magnification of OFDM signals....

  12. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  13. Towards real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second, demonstrating a trend towards increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process and visualize data in real-time is essential for performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We aim to develop a medical video processing system using an OpenFlow software defined network that is capable of connecting to multiple remote medical facilities and HPC servers.

  14. Automated processing of massive audio/video content using FFmpeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Siang Hock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio and video content forms an integral, important and expanding part of the digital collections in libraries and archives world-wide. While these memory institutions are familiar and well-versed in the management of more conventional materials such as books, periodicals, ephemera and images, the handling of audio (e.g., oral history recordings and video content (e.g., audio-visual recordings, broadcast content requires additional toolkits. In particular, a robust and comprehensive tool that provides a programmable interface is indispensable when dealing with tens of thousands of hours of audio and video content. FFmpeg is comprehensive and well-established open source software that is capable of the full-range of audio/video processing tasks (such as encode, decode, transcode, mux, demux, stream and filter. It is also capable of handling a wide-range of audio and video formats, a unique challenge in memory institutions. It comes with a command line interface, as well as a set of developer libraries that can be incorporated into applications.

  15. Spatial data processing for the purpose of video games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chądzyńska Dominika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced terrain models are currently commonly used in many video/computers games. Professional GIS technologies, existing spatial datasets and cartographic methodology are more widely used in their development. This allows for achieving a realistic model of the world. On the other hand, the so-called game engines have very high capability of spatial data visualization. Preparing terrain models for the purpose of video games requires knowledge and experience of GIS specialists and cartographers, although it is also accessible for non-professionals. The authors point out commonness and variety of use of terrain models in video games and the existence of a series of ready, advanced tools and procedures of terrain model creating. Finally the authors describe the experiment of performing the process of data modeling for “Condor Soar Simulator”.

  16. Digital signal processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the development, implementation, and application of modern DSP techniques with DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING USING MATLAB(R), 3E. Written in an engaging, informal style, this edition immediately captures your attention and encourages you to explore each critical topic. Every chapter starts with a motivational section that highlights practical examples and challenges that you can solve using techniques covered in the chapter. Each chapter concludes with a detailed case study example, a chapter summary with learning outcomes, and practical homework problems cross-referenced to specific chapter sections for your convenience. DSP Companion software accompanies each book to enable further investigation. The DSP Companion software operates with MATLAB(R) and provides intriguing demonstrations as well as interactive explorations of analysis and design concepts.

  17. Fundamentals of adaptive signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Uncini, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an accessible guide to adaptive signal processing methods that equips the reader with advanced theoretical and practical tools for the study and development of circuit structures and provides robust algorithms relevant to a wide variety of application scenarios. Examples include multimodal and multimedia communications, the biological and biomedical fields, economic models, environmental sciences, acoustics, telecommunications, remote sensing, monitoring, and, in general, the modeling and prediction of complex physical phenomena. The reader will learn not only how to design and implement the algorithms but also how to evaluate their performance for specific applications utilizing the tools provided. While using a simple mathematical language, the employed approach is very rigorous. The text will be of value both for research purposes and for courses of study.

  18. Hardware architectures for real time processing of High Definition video sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Genovese, Mariangela

    2014-01-01

    Actually, application fields, such as medicine, space exploration, surveillance, authentication, HDTV, and automated industry inspection, require capturing, storing and processing continuous streams of video data. Consequently, different process techniques (video enhancement, segmentation, object detection, or video compression, as examples) are involved in these applications. Such techniques often require a significant number of operations depending on the algorithm complexity and the video ...

  19. Analysis of EEG signals regularity in adults during video game play in 2D and 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Hamizah R; Malik, Aamir S; Mumtaz, Wajid; Kamel, Nidal; Xia, Likun

    2013-01-01

    Video games have long been part of the entertainment industry. Nonetheless, it is not well known how video games can affect us with the advancement of 3D technology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the EEG signals regularity when playing video games in 2D and 3D modes. A total of 29 healthy subjects (24 male, 5 female) with mean age of 21.79 (1.63) years participated. Subjects were asked to play a car racing video game in three different modes (2D, 3D passive and 3D active). In 3D passive mode, subjects needed to wear a passive polarized glasses (cinema type) while for 3D active, an active shutter glasses was used. Scalp EEG data was recorded during game play using 19-channel EEG machine and linked ear was used as reference. After data were pre-processed, the signal irregularity for all conditions was computed. Two parameters were used to measure signal complexity for time series data: i) Hjorth-Complexity and ii) Composite Permutation Entropy Index (CPEI). Based on these two parameters, our results showed that the complexity level increased from eyes closed to eyes open condition; and further increased in the case of 3D as compared to 2D game play.

  20. Identification of Mobile Phone and Analysis of Original Version of Videos through a Delay Time Analysis of Sound Signals from Mobile Phone Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Min Gu; Har, Dong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    This study designs a method of identifying the camera model used to take videos that are distributed through mobile phones and determines the original version of the mobile phone video for use as legal evidence. For this analysis, an experiment was conducted to find the unique characteristics of each mobile phone. The videos recorded by mobile phones were analyzed to establish the delay time of sound signals, and the differences between the delay times of sound signals for different mobile phones were traced by classifying their characteristics. Furthermore, the sound input signals for mobile phone videos used as legal evidence were analyzed to ascertain whether they have the unique characteristics of the original version. The objective of this study was to find a method for validating the use of mobile phone videos as legal evidence using mobile phones through differences in the delay times of sound input signals. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Sign Language Video Processing for Text Detection in Hindi Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi B Hiremath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is a way of expressing yourself with your body language, where every bit of ones expressions, goals, or sentiments are conveyed by physical practices, for example, outward appearances, body stance, motions, eye movements, touch and the utilization of space. Non-verbal communication exists in both creatures and people, yet this article concentrates on elucidations of human non-verbal or sign language interpretation into Hindi textual expression. The proposed method of implementation utilizes the image processing methods and synthetic intelligence strategies to get the goal of sign video recognition. To carry out the proposed task implementation it uses image processing methods such as frame analysing based tracking, edge detection, wavelet transform, erosion, dilation, blur elimination, noise elimination, on training videos. It also uses elliptical Fourier descriptors called SIFT for shape feature extraction and most important part analysis for feature set optimization and reduction. For result analysis, this paper uses different category videos such as sign of weeks, months, relations etc. Database of extracted outcomes are compared with the video fed to the system as a input of the signer by a trained unclear inference system.

  2. Signal analyser, the software support for education of signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tùma Jiøí

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the software that is supporting signal-processing lectures given for students of mechanical engineering. An application, named Signal Analyser is written in Visual Basic 6.0 language so it is working under Windows operating systems. The main idea is to demonstrate spectral analysis of signals that are taken from measurements in industry or synthesised by an incorporate signal generator.

  3. Algorithm-Architecture Matching for Signal and Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Gogniat, Guy; Morawiec, Adam; Erdogan, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Advances in signal and image processing together with increasing computing power are bringing mobile technology closer to applications in a variety of domains like automotive, health, telecommunication, multimedia, entertainment and many others. The development of these leading applications, involving a large diversity of algorithms (e.g. signal, image, video, 3D, communication, cryptography) is classically divided into three consecutive steps: a theoretical study of the algorithms, a study of the target architecture, and finally the implementation. Such a linear design flow is reaching its li

  4. BPSK Demodulation Using Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Thomas R.

    1996-01-01

    A digital communications signal is a sinusoidal waveform that is modified by a binary (digital) information signal. The sinusoidal waveform is called the carrier. The carrier may be modified in amplitude, frequency, phase, or a combination of these. In this project a binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) signal is the communication signal. In a BPSK signal the phase of the carrier is set to one of two states, 180 degrees apart, by a binary (i.e., 1 or 0) information signal. A digital signal is a sampled version of a "real world" time continuous signal. The digital signal is generated by sampling the continuous signal at discrete points in time. The rate at which the signal is sampled is called the sampling rate (f(s)). The device that performs this operation is called an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter or a digitizer. The digital signal is composed of the sequence of individual values of the sampled BPSK signal. Digital signal processing (DSP) is the modification of the digital signal by mathematical operations. A device that performs this processing is called a digital signal processor. After processing, the digital signal may then be converted back to an analog signal using a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter. The goal of this project is to develop a system that will recover the digital information from a BPSK signal using DSP techniques. The project is broken down into the following steps: (1) Development of the algorithms required to demodulate the BPSK signal; (2) Simulation of the system; and (3) Implementation a BPSK receiver using digital signal processing hardware.

  5. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  6. Digitally timed boxcar averager for analog integration of portions of a video signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. K.; Delaney, P. A.; Passler, M. A.

    1988-09-01

    A new system for measuring video signal intensity over selected portions of a complete video scan has been developed and applied to acquisition of LEED IV data. Unlike other systems available, this system is not microprocessor driven, but relies on appropriately timed boxcar averaging such that interfacing to the computer is relatively simple, yet data acquisition is fast. Signal to noise is theoretically better for this system since the input to the analog to digital (A/D) converter can have a lower time constant.

  7. Digital Signal Processing Based Biotelemetry Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Hines, John; Somps, Chris

    1997-01-01

    This is an attempt to develop a biotelemetry receiver using digital signal processing technology and techniques. The receiver developed in this work is based on recovering signals that have been encoded using either Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) or Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) technique. A prototype has been developed using state-of-the-art digital signal processing technology. A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is being developed based on the technique and technology described here. This board is intended to be used in the UCSF Fetal Monitoring system developed at NASA. The board is capable of handling a variety of PPM and PCM signals encoding signals such as ECG, temperature, and pressure. A signal processing program has also been developed to analyze the received ECG signal to determine heart rate. This system provides a base for using digital signal processing in biotelemetry receivers and other similar applications.

  8. [Dynamic pulse signal acquisition and processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Chou, Yongxin

    2012-03-01

    In order to obtain and process pulse signal in real-time, the integer coefficients notch, low-pass filters and an envelope filtering method were designed in consideration of the characteristics of disturbances in pulse signal and then were verified by MATLAB. The pulse signal was processed on DSP in time domain and frequency domain after simplifying the programming. The pulse wave height and pulse rate were calculated in real-time, and the pulse signal's spectrum was illustrated by FFT. The results show that the filters can effectively suppress the interference in pulse signal, and the system can detect and analyze the dynamic pulse signal in real-time.

  9. Architectures for radio over fiber transmission of high-quality video and data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander

    In this Ph.D. project, design and performance evaluation of mm-wave radio over fiber links for diverse applications including video transmission are conducted. Major objective of this Thesis is to study performance of video and data signals transmitted in radio over fiber (RoF) setups...... frequency (RF) power fading in a simple intensity modulation-direct detection mm-wave RoF link through introduction of a degree of frequency tunability at the RoF transmitter. We study advanced RoF infrastructures to better suit video transmission. To enable efficient dynamic multicast/broadcast of video...... to designated BSs is evaluated for diverse lightwave generation and data modulation techniques. Mm-wave RoF links employing various lightwave generation techniques are experimentally demonstrated for diversified fiber infractructure including standard single mode fiber, multimode fiber and dispersion shifted...

  10. A signal theoretic introduction to random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    A fresh introduction to random processes utilizing signal theory By incorporating a signal theory basis, A Signal Theoretic Introduction to Random Processes presents a unique introduction to random processes with an emphasis on the important random phenomena encountered in the electronic and communications engineering field. The strong mathematical and signal theory basis provides clarity and precision in the statement of results. The book also features:  A coherent account of the mathematical fundamentals and signal theory that underpin the presented material Unique, in-depth coverage of

  11. Signal propagation in cortical networks: a digital signal processing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisco Aparecido; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a digital signal processing approach to representing and modeling transmission and combination of signals in cortical networks. The signal dynamics is modeled in terms of diffusion, which allows the information processing undergone between any pair of nodes to be fully characterized in terms of a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Diffusion without and with time decay are investigated. All filters underlying the cat and macaque cortical organization are found to be of low-pass nature, allowing the cortical signal processing to be summarized in terms of the respective cutoff frequencies (a high cutoff frequency meaning little alteration of signals through their intermixing). Several findings are reported and discussed, including the fact that the incorporation of temporal activity decay tends to provide more diversified cutoff frequencies. Different filtering intensity is observed for each community in those networks. In addition, the brain regions involved in object recognition tend to present the highest cutoff frequencies for both the cat and macaque networks.

  12. Integrated Microwave Photonics for Wideband Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe recent progress in integrated microwave photonics in wideband signal processing applications with a focus on the key signal processing building blocks, the realization of monolithic integration, and cascaded photonic signal processing for analog radio frequency (RF photonic links. New developments in integration-based microwave photonic techniques, that have high potentialities to be used in a variety of sensing applications for enhanced resolution and speed are also presented.

  13. Radar signal processing and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Robert; Stoica, Petre; Zelnio, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Radar Signal Processing and Its Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In twelve selected chapters, it describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of radar signal processing. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. This work, originally published as Volume 14, Numbers 1-3 of the journal, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of radar signal processing. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  14. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  15. Framework for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0030 Framework for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur Ambasamudram Rajagopalan INDIAN...for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861314138 5b. GRANT NUMBER 13RSZ116_134138 5c... video analysis, Image Processing, Video analysis, Information Technology 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF

  16. Advanced optical signal processing of broadband parallel data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Hu, Hao; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration.......Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration....

  17. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  18. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  19. Digital signal processing for fiber nonlinearities [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartledge, John C.; Guiomar, Fernando P.; Kschischang, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems......This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems...

  20. Encrypted Signal Processing for Privacy Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallaro, A.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Kwasinski, A.; Barni, Mauro

    In recent years, signal processing applications that deal with user-related data have aroused privacy concerns. For instance, face recognition and personalized recommendations rely on privacy-sensitive information that can be abused if the signal processing is executed on remote servers or in the

  1. On-board processing of video image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The ldquoatmosphere-space interactions monitorrdquo (ASIM) is a payload to be mounted on one of the external platforms of the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The instruments include six video cameras, six photometers and one X-ray detector. The main scientific objective...... of the mission is to study transient luminous events (TLE) above severe thunderstorms: the sprites, jets and elves. Other atmospheric phenomena are also studied including aurora, gravity waves and meteors. As part of the ASIM Phase B study, on-board processing of data from the cameras is being developed...

  2. A joint signal processing and cryptographic approach to multimedia encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yinian; Wu, Min

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing trend for multimedia applications to use delegate service providers for content distribution, archiving, search, and retrieval. These delegate services have brought new challenges to the protection of multimedia content confidentiality. This paper discusses the importance and feasibility of applying a joint signal processing and cryptographic approach to multimedia encryption, in order to address the access control issues unique to multimedia applications. We propose two atomic encryption operations that can preserve standard compliance and are friendly to delegate processing. Quantitative analysis for these operations is presented to demonstrate that a good tradeoff can be made between security and bitrate overhead. In assisting the design and evaluation of media security systems, we also propose a set of multimedia-oriented security scores to quantify the security against approximation attacks and to complement the existing notion of generic data security. Using video as an example, we present a systematic study on how to strategically integrate different atomic operations to build a video encryption system. The resulting system can provide superior performance over both generic encryption and its simple adaptation to video in terms of a joint consideration of security, bitrate overhead, and friendliness to delegate processing.

  3. Performance of compact ICU (intensified camera unit) with autogating based on video signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Arjan; Linotte, Peter; van Veen, Django; de Witte, Martijn; Laurent, Nicolas; Hiddema, Arend; Lalkens, Fred; van Spijker, Jan

    2007-10-01

    High quality night vision digital video is nowadays required for many observation, surveillance and targeting applications, including several of the current soldier modernization programs. We present the performance increase that is obtained when combining a state-of-the-art image intensifier with a low power consumption CMOS image sensor. Based on the content of the video signal, the gating and gain of the image intensifier are optimized for best SNR. The options of the interface with a separate laser in the application for range gated imaging are discussed.

  4. Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Havelock, David; Vorländer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics presents signal processing as it is practiced in the field of acoustics. The Handbook is organized by areas of acoustics, with recognized leaders coordinating the self-contained chapters of each section. It brings together a wide range of perspectives from over 100 authors to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Success in acoustic applications often requires juggling both the acoustic and the signal processing parameters of the problem. This handbook brings the key issues from both into perspective and is complementary to other reference material on the two subjects. It is a unique resource for experts and practitioners alike to find new ideas and techniques within the diversity of signal processing in acoustics.

  5. Demonstration of 2.97-Gb/s video signal transmissions in DML-based IM-DDO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To further investigate the feasibility of the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms (e.g., symbol timing synchronization, channel estimation and equalization, and sampling clock frequency offset (SCFO) estimation and compensation) for real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, 2.97-Gb/s real-time high-definition video signal parallel transmission is experimentally demonstrated in OFDM-based short-reach intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) systems. The experimental results show that, in the presence of ∼12 ppm SCFO between transmitter and receiver, the adaptively modulated OFDM signal transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber with an error bit rate less than 1 × 10-9 can be achieved by using only DSP-based small SCFO estimation and compensation method without utilizing forward error correction technique. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we successfully demonstrate that the video signal at a bit rate in excess of 1-Gb/s transmission in a simple real-valued inverse fast Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform based IM-DD optical OFDM system employing a directly modulated laser.

  6. Homomorphic processing of seismic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brolley, J.E.

    1979-06-01

    An introduction to homomorphic processing of time series is presented. The basic concept is discussed and one form of implementation is adduced. Simple examples of reverberation problems are illustrated. Simple applications to real-time series associated with underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes are then presented. 19 figures.

  7. Speech Communication and Signal Processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Communicating with a machine in a natural mode such as speech brings out not only several technological challenges, but also limitations in our understanding of how people communicate so effortlessly. The key is to understand the distinction between speech processing (as is done in human communication) and speech ...

  8. Reconfigurable Analog Signal Processing by Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel D; Chavez, Michael; Chiu, Kwan Lun; Tan, Cheemeng

    2018-01-19

    Living cells are known for their capacity for versatile signal processing, particularly the ability to respond differently to the same stimuli using biochemical networks that integrate environmental signals and reconfigure their dynamic responses. However, the complexity of natural biological networks confounds the discovery of fundamental mechanisms behind versatile signaling. Here, we study one specific aspect of reconfigurable signal processing in which a minimal biological network integrates two signals, using one to reconfigure the network's transfer function with respect to the other, producing an emergent switch between induction and repression. In contrast to known mechanisms, the new mechanism reconfigures transfer functions through genetic networks without extensive protein-protein interactions. These results provide a novel explanation for the versatility of genetic programs, and suggest a new mechanism of signal integration that may govern flexibility and plasticity of gene expression.

  9. Skalabilitas Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR pada Pengkodean Video dengan Derau Gaussian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Purwadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In video transmission, there is a possibility of packet lost an d a large load variation on the bandwidth. These are the source of network congestion, which can interfere the communication data rate. This study discusses a system to overcome the congestion with Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR scalability-based approach, for the video sequence encoding method into two layers, which is a solution to decrease encoding mode for each packet and channel coding rate. The goal is to minimize any distortion from the source to the destination. The coding system used is a video coding standards that is MPEG-2 or H.263 with SNR scalability. The algorithm used for motion compensation, temporal redundancy and spatial redundancy is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and quantization. The transmission error is simulated by adding Gaussian noise (error on motion vectors. From the simulation results, the SNR and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR in the noisy video frames decline with averages of 3dB and 4dB respectively.

  10. Pseudo random signal processing theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, pseudo random signal processing has proven to be a critical enabler of modern communication, information, security and measurement systems. The signal's pseudo random, noise-like properties make it vitally important as a tool for protecting against interference, alleviating multipath propagation and allowing the potential of sharing bandwidth with other users. Taking a practical approach to the topic, this text provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to understanding and using pseudo random signals. Covering theoretical principles, design methodologies and applications

  11. Signal and image processing in medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit; Rahim, B Abdul; Kumar, D Sravan

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights recent findings on and analyses conducted on signals and images in the area of medicine. The experimental investigations involve a variety of signals and images and their methodologies range from very basic to sophisticated methods. The book explains how signal and image processing methods can be used to detect and forecast abnormalities in an easy-to-follow manner, offering a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, physicians and bioinformatics researchers alike.

  12. Optical Profilometers Using Adaptive Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Youngquist, Robert; Mikhael, Wasfy

    2006-01-01

    A method of adaptive signal processing has been proposed as the basis of a new generation of interferometric optical profilometers for measuring surfaces. The proposed profilometers would be portable, hand-held units. Sizes could be thus reduced because the adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to substitute lower-power coherent light sources (e.g., laser diodes) for white light sources and would eliminate the need for most of the optical components of current white-light profilometers. The adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to attain scanning ranges of the order of decimeters in the proposed profilometers.

  13. Surface Electromyography Signal Processing and Classification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rubana H.; Reaz, Mamun B. I.; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Bin Mohd; Bakar, Ashrif A. A.; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Chang, Tae. G.

    2013-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG) is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above. PMID:24048337

  14. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  15. Digitally Controlled Analog Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    process Fabricated: July - August 1987 Chip Size: 230014m x 34001im (7.82mm 2) Active Area: 235pm x 1940 /um (.45mm 2 ) Number of Pads: 11 Packaging: 28...Self-Tuned Filters,’ Proc. 26th Mid- west Symp. Ckts Systems, Puebla , Mexico, 1983. V in V C Fig. 6. (Compensated) OTA Integrator. DigWitly ControlDW...Proc. WS Mid- filters obtained by cascading the proposed second-order wat Symp. Circuits Sjdanwk INAOE, Puebla , Mex- block is presently under

  16. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  17. Ultrafast Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling....

  18. Digital signal processing in microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Stanley, W. D.; Harrington, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor based digital signal processing unit has been proposed to replace analog sections of a microwave radiometer. A brief introduction to the radiometer system involved and a description of problems encountered in the use of digital techniques in radiometer design are discussed. An analysis of the digital signal processor as part of the radiometer is then presented.

  19. Digital signal processing in communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frerking, Marvin E

    1994-01-01

    An engineer's introduction to concepts, algorithms, and advancements in Digital Signal Processing. This lucidly written resource makes extensive use of real-world examples as it covers all the important design and engineering references.

  20. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  1. Research of real-time video processing system based on 6678 multi-core DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhen; Xie, Xiaodan; Yin, Xiaoqiang

    2017-10-01

    In the information age, the rapid development in the direction of intelligent video processing, complex algorithm proposed the powerful challenge on the performance of the processor. In this article, through the FPGA + TMS320C6678 frame structure, the image to fog, merge into an organic whole, to stabilize the image enhancement, its good real-time, superior performance, break through the traditional function of video processing system is simple, the product defects such as single, solved the video application in security monitoring, video, etc. Can give full play to the video monitoring effectiveness, improve enterprise economic benefits.

  2. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  3. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  4. Digital Signal Processing Methods for Ultrasonic Echoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Kyle; Drapaca, Corina; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2016-04-28

    Digital signal processing has become an important component of data analysis needed in industrial applications. In particular, for ultrasonic thickness measurements the signal to noise ratio plays a major role in the accurate calculation of the arrival time. For this application a band pass filter is not sufficient since the noise level cannot be significantly decreased such that a reliable thickness measurement can be performed. This paper demonstrates the abilities of two regularization methods - total variation and Tikhonov - to filter acoustic and ultrasonic signals. Both of these methods are compared to a frequency based filtering for digitally produced signals as well as signals produced by ultrasonic transducers. This paper demonstrates the ability of the total variation and Tikhonov filters to accurately recover signals from noisy acoustic signals faster than a band pass filter. Furthermore, the total variation filter has been shown to reduce the noise of a signal significantly for signals with clear ultrasonic echoes. Signal to noise ratios have been increased over 400% by using a simple parameter optimization. While frequency based filtering is efficient for specific applications, this paper shows that the reduction of noise in ultrasonic systems can be much more efficient with regularization methods.

  5. Digital signal processing techniques and applications in radar image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bu-Chin

    2008-01-01

    A self-contained approach to DSP techniques and applications in radar imagingThe processing of radar images, in general, consists of three major fields: Digital Signal Processing (DSP); antenna and radar operation; and algorithms used to process the radar images. This book brings together material from these different areas to allow readers to gain a thorough understanding of how radar images are processed.The book is divided into three main parts and covers:* DSP principles and signal characteristics in both analog and digital domains, advanced signal sampling, and

  6. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  7. Multivariate Analysis for the Processing of Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-world experiments are becoming increasingly more complex, needing techniques capable of tracking this complexity. Signal based measurements are often used to capture this complexity, where a signal is a record of a sample’s response to a parameter (e.g. time, displacement, voltage, wavelength that is varied over a range of values. In signals the responses at each value of the varied parameter are related to each other, depending on the composition or state sample being measured. Since signals contain multiple information points, they have rich information content but are generally complex to comprehend. Multivariate Analysis (MA has profoundly transformed their analysis by allowing gross simplification of the tangled web of variation. In addition MA has also provided the advantage of being much more robust to the influence of noise than univariate methods of analysis. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness that the nature of the multivariate methods allows exploitation of its benefits for purposes other than data analysis, such as pre-processing of signals with the aim of eliminating irrelevant variations prior to analysis of the signal of interest. It has been shown that exploiting multivariate data reduction in an appropriate way can allow high fidelity denoising (removal of irreproducible non-signals, consistent and reproducible noise-insensitive correction of baseline distortions (removal of reproducible non-signals, accurate elimination of interfering signals (removal of reproducible but unwanted signals and the standardisation of signal amplitude fluctuations. At present, the field is relatively small but the possibilities for much wider application are considerable. Where signal properties are suitable for MA (such as the signal being stationary along the x-axis, these signal based corrections have the potential to be highly reproducible, and highly adaptable and are applicable in situations where the data is noisy or

  8. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-06-18

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement in the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds over traditional signal-processing methods in analyzing the output of a thermionic detector attached to the output of a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above. In addition, two of six were detected at levels 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. We would have had another two correct hits if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was identified by running a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  9. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-12-05

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement over traditional signal-processing methods for the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the output of a thermionic detector attached to a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above the threshold. In addition, two of six spikes were detected at levels of 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. Another two of the six would have been detected correctly if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was subsequently identified by analyzing a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods should be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  10. 2nd International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Krishnan, Sri; Li, Kuan-Ching; Mosin, Sergey; Ma, Maode

    2016-01-01

    This Edited Volume contains a selection of refereed and revised papers originally presented at the second International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems (SIRS-2015), December 16-19, 2015, Trivandrum, India. The program committee received 175 submissions. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least three or more independent referees of the program committee and the 59 papers were finally selected. The papers offer stimulating insights into biometrics, digital watermarking, recognition systems, image and video processing, signal and speech processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and knowledge-based systems. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various field of signal processing and related areas. .

  11. QoS control strategies for high-quality video processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wüst, C.C.; Steffens, E.F.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Bril, R.J.; Hentschel, C.

    2005-01-01

    Video processing in software is often characterized by highly fluctuating, content-dependent processing times, and a limited tolerance for deadline misses. We present an approach that allows close-to-average-case resource allocation to a single video processing task, based on asynchronous, scalable

  12. Experimental video signals distribution MMF network based on IEEE 802.11 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Maksymiuk, Lukasz; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    The article was focused on presentation the achievements in a scope of experimental research on transmission of digital video streams in the frame of specially realized for this purpose ROF (Radio over Fiber) network. Its construction was based on the merge of wireless IEEE 802.11 network, popularly referred as Wi-Fi, with a passive optical network PON based on multimode fibers MMF. The proposed approach can constitute interesting proposal in area of solutions in the scope of the systems monitoring extensive, within which is required covering of a large area with ensuring of a relatively high degree of immunity on the interferences transmitted signals from video IP cameras to the monitoring center and a high configuration flexibility (easily change the deployment of cameras) of such network.

  13. A unified approach to sparse signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasti, Farokh; Amini, Arash; Haddadi, Farzan; Soltanolkotabi, Mahdi; Khalaj, Babak Hossein; Aldroubi, Akram; Sanei, Saeid; Chambers, Janathon

    2012-12-01

    A unified view of the area of sparse signal processing is presented in tutorial form by bringing together various fields in which the property of sparsity has been successfully exploited. For each of these fields, various algorithms and techniques, which have been developed to leverage sparsity, are described succinctly. The common potential benefits of significant reduction in sampling rate and processing manipulations through sparse signal processing are revealed. The key application domains of sparse signal processing are sampling, coding, spectral estimation, array processing, component analysis, and multipath channel estimation. In terms of the sampling process and reconstruction algorithms, linkages are made with random sampling, compressed sensing, and rate of innovation. The redundancy introduced by channel coding in finite and real Galois fields is then related to over-sampling with similar reconstruction algorithms. The error locator polynomial (ELP) and iterative methods are shown to work quite effectively for both sampling and coding applications. The methods of Prony, Pisarenko, and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) are next shown to be targeted at analyzing signals with sparse frequency domain representations. Specifically, the relations of the approach of Prony to an annihilating filter in rate of innovation and ELP in coding are emphasized; the Pisarenko and MUSIC methods are further improvements of the Prony method under noisy environments. The iterative methods developed for sampling and coding applications are shown to be powerful tools in spectral estimation. Such narrowband spectral estimation is then related to multi-source location and direction of arrival estimation in array processing. Sparsity in unobservable source signals is also shown to facilitate source separation in sparse component analysis; the algorithms developed in this area such as linear programming and matching pursuit are also widely used in compressed sensing. Finally

  14. Financial signal processing and machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni,Sanjeev R; Dmitry M. Malioutov

    2016-01-01

    The modern financial industry has been required to deal with large and diverse portfolios in a variety of asset classes often with limited market data available. Financial Signal Processing and Machine Learning unifies a number of recent advances made in signal processing and machine learning for the design and management of investment portfolios and financial engineering. This book bridges the gap between these disciplines, offering the latest information on key topics including characterizing statistical dependence and correlation in high dimensions, constructing effective and robust risk measures, and their use in portfolio optimization and rebalancing. The book focuses on signal processing approaches to model return, momentum, and mean reversion, addressing theoretical and implementation aspects. It highlights the connections between portfolio theory, sparse learning and compressed sensing, sparse eigen-portfolios, robust optimization, non-Gaussian data-driven risk measures, graphical models, causal analy...

  15. Nonlinear filtering for LIDAR signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Lainiotis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available LIDAR (Laser Integrated Radar is an engineering problem of great practical importance in environmental monitoring sciences. Signal processing for LIDAR applications involves highly nonlinear models and consequently nonlinear filtering. Optimal nonlinear filters, however, are practically unrealizable. In this paper, the Lainiotis's multi-model partitioning methodology and the related approximate but effective nonlinear filtering algorithms are reviewed and applied to LIDAR signal processing. Extensive simulation and performance evaluation of the multi-model partitioning approach and its application to LIDAR signal processing shows that the nonlinear partitioning methods are very effective and significantly superior to the nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF, which has been the standard nonlinear filter in past engineering applications.

  16. Genomic Signal Processing: The Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers key issues in the emerging field of genomic signal processing and its relationship to functional genomics. It focuses on some of the biological mechanisms driving the development of genomic signal processing, in addition to their manifestation in gene-expression-based classification and genetic network modeling. Certain problems are inherent. For instance, small-sample error estimation, variable selection, and model complexity are important issues for both phenotype classification and expression prediction used in network inference. A long-term goal is to develop intervention strategies to drive network behavior, which is briefly discussed. It is hoped that this nontechnical paper demonstrates that the field of signal processing has the potential to impact and help drive genomics research.

  17. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun

    2015-12-25

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Signal Processing Methods Monitor Cranial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Norden Huang, of Goddard Space Flight Center, invented a set of algorithms (called the Hilbert-Huang Transform, or HHT) for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary signals that developed into a user-friendly signal processing technology for analyzing time-varying processes. At an auction managed by Ocean Tomo Federal Services LLC, licenses of 10 U.S. patents and 1 domestic patent application related to HHT were sold to DynaDx Corporation, of Mountain View, California. DynaDx is now using the licensed NASA technology for medical diagnosis and prediction of brain blood flow-related problems, such as stroke, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.

  19. Python for signal processing featuring IPython notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Unpingco, José

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental concepts in signal processing illustrated with Python code and made available via IPython Notebooks, which are live, interactive, browser-based documents that allow one to change parameters, redraw plots, and tinker with the ideas presented in the text. Everything in the text is computable in this format and thereby invites readers to ""experiment and learn"" as they read. The book focuses on the core, fundamental principles of signal processing. The code corresponding to this book uses the core functionality of the scientific Python toolchain that should remai

  20. An introduction to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, John H

    1989-01-01

    An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing is written for those who need to understand and use digital signal processing and yet do not wish to wade through a multi-semester course sequence. Using only calculus-level mathematics, this book progresses rapidly through the fundamentals to advanced topics such as iterative least squares design of IIR filters, inverse filters, power spectral estimation, and multidimensional applications--all in one concise volume.This book emphasizes both the fundamental principles and their modern computer implementation. It presents and demonstrates how si

  1. Applied digital signal processing systems for vortex flowmeter with digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke-Jun; Zhu, Zhi-Hai; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Liu, San-Shan; Huang, Yun-Zhi; Chen, Zhi-Yuan

    2009-02-01

    The spectral analysis is combined with digital filter to process the vortex sensor signal for reducing the effect of disturbance at low frequency from pipe vibrations and increasing the turndown ratio. Using digital signal processing chip, two kinds of digital signal processing systems are developed to implement these algorithms. One is an integrative system, and the other is a separated system. A limiting amplifier is designed in the input analog condition circuit to adapt large amplitude variation of sensor signal. Some technique measures are taken to improve the accuracy of the output pulse, speed up the response time of the meter, and reduce the fluctuation of the output signal. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the digital signal processing systems.

  2. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  3. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M.

    2008-07-01

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment. An infrastructure, based on standard CERN services, has been implemented, whereby master files, stored in the CERN Distributed File System (DFS), are discovered and scheduled for encoding into lightweight web formats based on predefined profiles. Changes in master files, conversion profiles or in the metadata database (read from CDS, the CERN Document Server) are automatically detected and the media re-encoded whenever necessary. The encoding processes are run on virtual servers provided on-demand by the CERN Server Self Service Centre, so that new servers can be easily configured to adapt to higher load. Finally, the generated files are made available from the CERN standard web servers with streaming implemented using Windows Media Services.

  4. A Virtual Laboratory for Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Chyi-Ren; Li, Yi-Hsung; Bai, Jin-Yu

    2006-01-01

    This work designs and implements a virtual digital signal processing laboratory, VDSPL. VDSPL consists of four parts: mobile agent execution environments, mobile agents, DSP development software, and DSP experimental platforms. The network capability of VDSPL is created by using mobile agent and wrapper techniques without modifying the source code…

  5. Broadband Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Pu, Minhao; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion...

  6. RNS Applications in Digital Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    2017-01-01

    features and the advent of powerful design tools, the advantages offered by RNS are diminishing.In this chapter, we analyze the state-of-the-art RNS implementation for a number of common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications, we compare performance with respect to the TCS and consider trade...

  7. Signal Processing for Improved Wireless Receiver Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with signal processing for improving the performance of wireless communication receivers for well-established cellular networks such as the GSM/EDGE and WCDMA/HSPA systems. The goal of doing so, is to improve the end-user experience and/or provide a higher system capacity...

  8. Signal processing aspects of windshear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalfs, David D.; Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.; Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1993-01-01

    Low-altitude windshear (LAWS) has been identified as a major hazard to aircraft, particularly during takeoff and landing. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been involved with developing technology to detect LAWS. A key element in this technology is high resolution pulse Doppler weather radar equipped with signal and data processing to provide timely information about possible hazardous conditions.

  9. Optimisation in signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Siarry, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the optimization methods most commonly encountered in signal and image processing: artificial evolution and Parisian approach; wavelets and fractals; information criteria; training and quadratic programming; Bayesian formalism; probabilistic modeling; Markovian approach; hidden Markov models; and metaheuristics (genetic algorithms, ant colony algorithms, cross-entropy, particle swarm optimization, estimation of distribution algorithms, and artificial immune systems).

  10. Recent Developments in Social Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); M. Pantic; A. Vinciarelli

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractSocial signal processing has the ambitious goal of bridging the social intelligence gap between computers and humans. Nowadays, computers are not only the new interaction partners of humans, but also a privileged interaction medium for social exchange between humans. Consequently,

  11. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  12. Digital signal processing with Matlab examples

    CERN Document Server

    Giron-Sierra, Jose Maria

    2017-01-01

    This is the first volume in a trilogy on modern Signal Processing. The three books provide a concise exposition of signal processing topics, and a guide to support individual practical exploration based on MATLAB programs. This book includes MATLAB codes to illustrate each of the main steps of the theory, offering a self-contained guide suitable for independent study. The code is embedded in the text, helping readers to put into practice the ideas and methods discussed. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to periodic and non-periodic signals. The second part is devoted to filtering, which is an important and commonly used application. The third part addresses more advanced topics, including the analysis of real-world non-stationary signals and data, e.g. structural fatigue, earthquakes, electro-encephalograms, birdsong, etc. The book’s last chapter focuses on modulation, an example of the intentional use of non-stationary signals.

  13. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  14. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  15. Analysis of Video Signal Transmission Through DWDM Network Based on a Quality Check Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Markovic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the multiplexed video signal transmission through the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM network based on a quality check algorithm, which determines where the interruption of the transmission quality starts. On the basis of this algorithm, simulations of transmission for specific values of fiber parameters ​​ are executed. The analysis of the results shows how the BER and Q-factor change depends on the length of the fiber, i.e. on the number of amplifiers, and what kind of an effect the number of multiplexed channels and the flow rate per channel have on a transmited signals. Analysis of DWDM systems is performed in the software package OptiSystem 7.0, which is designed for systems with flow rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s per channel.

  16. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  17. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  18. Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui

    with other semiconductor materials. The understanding of such properties is important in order to improve the performance of existing devices and to trigger the development of new semiconductor devices for dierent optical signal processing functionalities in the future. We present a detailed quantum dot...... and the continuum. Additional to the conventional time-domain modeling scheme, a small-signal perturbation analysis has been used to assist the investigation of harmonic modulation properties. The static properties of quantum dot devices, for example high saturation power, have been quantitatively analyzed....... Additional to the static linear amplication properties, we focus on exploring the gain dynamics on the time scale ranging from sub-picosecond to nanosecond. In terms of optical signals that have been investigated, one is the simple sinusoidally modulated optical carrier with a typical modulation frequency...

  19. Processing Electromyographic Signals to Recognize Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Lee, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    A recently invented speech-recognition method applies to words that are articulated by means of the tongue and throat muscles but are otherwise not voiced or, at most, are spoken sotto voce. This method could satisfy a need for speech recognition under circumstances in which normal audible speech is difficult, poses a hazard, is disturbing to listeners, or compromises privacy. The method could also be used to augment traditional speech recognition by providing an additional source of information about articulator activity. The method can be characterized as intermediate between (1) conventional speech recognition through processing of voice sounds and (2) a method, not yet developed, of processing electroencephalographic signals to extract unspoken words directly from thoughts. This method involves computational processing of digitized electromyographic (EMG) signals from muscle innervation acquired by surface electrodes under a subject's chin near the tongue and on the side of the subject s throat near the larynx. After preprocessing, digitization, and feature extraction, EMG signals are processed by a neural-network pattern classifier, implemented in software, that performs the bulk of the recognition task as described.

  20. Signals, processes, and systems an interactive multimedia introduction to signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karrenberg, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This is a very new concept for learning Signal Processing, not only from the physically-based scientific fundamentals, but also from the didactic perspective, based on modern results of brain research. The textbook together with the DVD form a learning system that provides investigative studies and enables the reader to interactively visualize even complex processes. The unique didactic concept is built on visualizing signals and processes on the one hand, and on graphical programming of signal processing systems on the other. The concept has been designed especially for microelectronics, computer technology and communication. The book allows to develop, modify, and optimize useful applications using DasyLab - a professional and globally supported software for metrology and control engineering. With the 3rd edition, the software is also suitable for 64 bit systems running on Windows 7. Real signals can be acquired, processed and played on the sound card of your computer. The book provides more than 200 pre-pr...

  1. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes…

  2. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W.G.; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance. PMID:20485453

  3. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W G; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance.

  4. Genomic signal processing for DNA sequence clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal-Ruiz, Gerardo; Román-Godínez, Israel; Torres-Ramos, Sulema; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Morales, J Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) methods which convert DNA data to numerical values have recently been proposed, which would offer the opportunity of employing existing digital signal processing methods for genomic data. One of the most used methods for exploring data is cluster analysis which refers to the unsupervised classification of patterns in data. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for performing cluster analysis of DNA sequences that is based on the use of GSP methods and the K-means algorithm. We also propose a visualization method that facilitates the easy inspection and analysis of the results and possible hidden behaviors. Our results support the feasibility of employing the proposed method to find and easily visualize interesting features of sets of DNA data.

  5. RF applications in digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schilcher, T

    2008-01-01

    Ever higher demands for stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and monitoring capability are being placed on Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) systems of particle accelerators. Meanwhile, continuing rapid advances in digital signal processing technology are being exploited to meet these demands, thus leading to development of digital LLRF systems. The rst part of this course will begin by focusing on some of the important building-blocks of RF signal processing including mixer theory and down-conversion, I/Q (amplitude and phase) detection, digital down-conversion (DDC) and decimation, concluding with a survey of I/Q modulators. The second part of the course will introduce basic concepts of feedback systems, including examples of digital cavity eld and phase control, followed by radial loop architectures. Adaptive feed-forward systems used for the suppression of repetitive beam disturbances will be examined. Finally, applications and principles of system identi cation approaches will be summarized.

  6. Signal processing for ION mobility spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.; Hinton, M.; Turner, R.

    1995-01-01

    Signal processing techniques for systems based upon Ion Mobility Spectrometry will be discussed in the light of 10 years of experience in the design of real-time IMS. Among the topics to be covered are compensation techniques for variations in the number density of the gas - the use of an internal standard (a reference peak) or pressure and temperature sensors. Sources of noise and methods for noise reduction will be discussed together with resolution limitations and the ability of deconvolution techniques to improve resolving power. The use of neural networks (either by themselves or as a component part of a processing system) will be reviewed.

  7. Video surveillance of epilepsy patients using color image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Gitte; Vilic, Kenan; Vilic, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for tracking patients under video surveillance based on a color marker system. The patients are not restricted in their movements, which requires a tracking system that can overcome non-ideal scenes e.g. occlusions, very fast movements, lighting issues and other mov...

  8. Video Surveillance of Epilepsy Patients using Color Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Gitte; Vilic, Kenan; Alving, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    This report introduces a method for tracking of patients under video surveillance based on a marker system. The patients are not restricted in their movements, which requires a tracking system that can overcome non-ideal scenes e.g. occlusions, very fast movements, lightning issues and other moving...

  9. Research and implementation of video image acquisition and processing based on Java and JMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jinlei; Li, Zheng; Niu, Yuguang

    2012-01-01

    The article put forward a method which had been used for video image acquisition and processing, and a system based on Java media framework (JMF) had been implemented by it. The method could be achieved not only by B/S mode but also by C/S mode taking advantage of the predominance of the Java language. Some key issues such as locating video data source, playing video, video image acquisition and processing and so on had been expatiated in detail. The operation results of the system show that this method is fully compatible with common video capture device. At the same time the system possesses many excellences as lower cost, more powerful, easier to develop and cross-platform etc. Finally the application prospect of the method which is based on java and JMF is pointed out.

  10. Digital payloads - Enhanced performance through signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstrom, G.

    A transparent signal-processing payload architecture applicable to mobile communication satellites is introduced, and its features and implementation issues are discussed. In its basic form it is characterized by the formation of a large number of narrowband beams directed at the individual users on ground, and is demonstrated to offer improved transmit power efficiency, frequency-reuse capability and traffic-routing flexibility. The processor implementation is envisaged to make extensive use of digital processing functions and ASIC technology combined with advanced SAW techniques. In addition to its inherent attractive features, this architecture provides many of the benefits of full onboard regeneration and processing while preserving most of the flexibility of conventional analog transponders. Simplified derivatives of the basic configuration that offer reduced processing complexity while preserving the essential advantages gained are also presented. Although initially conceived for FDMA/SCPC-type traffic, the concept can also be adapted to other transmission formats.

  11. NOVEL SIGNAL PROCESSING WITH NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. REAGOR; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    Nonlinear dielectrics offer uniquely strong and tunable nonlinearities that make them attractive for current devices (for example, frequency-agile microwave filters) and for future signal-processing technologies. The goal of this project is to understand pulse propagation on nonlinear coplanar waveguide prototype devices. We have performed time-domain and frequency-domain experimental studies of simple waveguide structures and pursued a theoretical understanding of the propagation of signals on these nonlinear waveguides. To realistically assess the potential applications, we used a time-domain measurement and analysis technique developed during this project to perform a broadband electrodynamics characterization in terms of nonlinear, dispersive, and dissipative effects. We completed a comprehensive study of coplanar waveguides made from high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} electrodes on nonlinear dielectric single-crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. By using parameters determined from small-signal (linear) transmission characteristics of the waveguides, we develop a model equation that successfully predicts and describes large-signal (nonlinear) behavior.

  12. Design of a dataway processor for a parallel image signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Mitsuru; Fujii, Tetsuro; Ono, Sadayasu

    1995-04-01

    Recently, demands for high-speed signal processing have been increasing especially in the field of image data compression, computer graphics, and medical imaging. To achieve sufficient power for real-time image processing, we have been developing parallel signal-processing systems. This paper describes a communication processor called 'dataway processor' designed for a new scalable parallel signal-processing system. The processor has six high-speed communication links (Dataways), a data-packet routing controller, a RISC CORE, and a DMA controller. Each communication link operates at 8-bit parallel in a full duplex mode at 50 MHz. Moreover, data routing, DMA, and CORE operations are processed in parallel. Therefore, sufficient throughput is available for high-speed digital video signals. The processor is designed in a top- down fashion using a CAD system called 'PARTHENON.' The hardware is fabricated using 0.5-micrometers CMOS technology, and its hardware is about 200 K gates.

  13. FPGA-Based Filterbank Implementation for Parallel Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Stephan; DeLeon, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    One approach to parallel digital signal processing decomposes a high bandwidth signal into multiple lower bandwidth (rate) signals by an analysis bank. After processing, the subband signals are recombined into a fullband output signal by a synthesis bank. This paper describes an implementation of the analysis and synthesis banks using (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) FPGAs.

  14. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  15. Signal Processing for Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vismara, Giuseppe

    2000-01-01

    At the first sight the problem to determine the beam position from the ratio of the induced charges of the opposite electrodes of a beam monitor seems trivial, but up to now no unique solution has been found that fits the various demands of all particle accelerators. The purpose of this paper is to help "instrumentalists" to choose the best processing system for their particular application, depending on the machine size, the input dynamic range, the required resolution and the acquisition speed. After a general introduction and an analysis of the electrical signals to be treated (frequency and time domain), the definition of the electronic specifications will be reviewed. The tutorial will present the different families in which the processing systems can be grouped. A general description of the operating principles with relative advantages and disadvantages for the most employed processing systems is presented. Special emphasis will be put on recent technological developments based on telecommunication circ...

  16. 78 FR 34370 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Availability of Video Showing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... processes for filing EQRs allows an EQR seller and its agent to file using a web interface that generally replicates the Commission-distributed software used currently. A video showing how EQRs can be filed using...

  17. Using Digital Video Editing to Shape Novice Teachers: A Generative Process for Nurturing Professional Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Brendan; Brantley-Dias, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the generative process for using video editing for teachers' professional development. The article provides a rationale, a theoretical framework, and a critical review of the authors' work over the past five years.

  18. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  19. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, Matthew W.G.; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks be...

  20. Seismic signal processing on heterogeneous supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Ermert, Laura; Fichtner, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The processing of seismic signals - including the correlation of massive ambient noise data sets - represents an important part of a wide range of seismological applications. It is characterized by large data volumes as well as high computational input/output intensity. Development of efficient approaches towards seismic signal processing on emerging high performance computing systems is therefore essential. Heterogeneous supercomputing systems introduced in the recent years provide numerous computing nodes interconnected via high throughput networks, every node containing a mix of processing elements of different architectures, like several sequential processor cores and one or a few graphical processing units (GPU) serving as accelerators. A typical representative of such computing systems is "Piz Daint", a supercomputer of the Cray XC 30 family operated by the Swiss National Supercomputing Center (CSCS), which we used in this research. Heterogeneous supercomputers provide an opportunity for manifold application performance increase and are more energy-efficient, however they have much higher hardware complexity and are therefore much more difficult to program. The programming effort may be substantially reduced by the introduction of modular libraries of software components that can be reused for a wide class of seismology applications. The ultimate goal of this research is design of a prototype for such library suitable for implementing various seismic signal processing applications on heterogeneous systems. As a representative use case we have chosen an ambient noise correlation application. Ambient noise interferometry has developed into one of the most powerful tools to image and monitor the Earth's interior. Future applications will require the extraction of increasingly small details from noise recordings. To meet this demand, more advanced correlation techniques combined with very large data volumes are needed. This poses new computational problems that

  1. Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandwood, David

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit

  2. OPTIMAL SIGNAL PROCESSING METHODS IN GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Karamzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, a lot of various applications of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR took place in real life. There are important challenges of this radar in civil applications and also in military applications. In this paper, the fundamentals of GPR systems will be covered and three important signal processing methods (Wavelet Transform, Matched Filter and Hilbert Huang will be compared to each other in order to get most accurate information about objects which are in subsurface or behind the wall.

  3. Signal processing system for electrotherapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Mirosław; Szcześniak, Zbigniew

    2017-08-01

    The system of signal processing for electrotherapeutic applications is proposed in the paper. The system makes it possible to model the curve of threshold human sensitivity to current (Dalziel's curve) in full medium frequency range (1kHz-100kHz). The tests based on the proposed solution were conducted and their results were compared with those obtained according to the assumptions of High Tone Power Therapy method and referred to optimum values. Proposed system has high dynamics and precision of mapping the curve of threshold human sensitivity to current and can be used in all methods where threshold curves are modelled.

  4. Multiplier policies for digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fred J.; Ma, Gin-Kou

    1990-01-01

    The successful design of digital signal processing (DSP) systems and subsystems is often predicted on realizing fast multiplication in digital hardware. This tutorial provides the reader with a broad perspective of this important field and the pedagogy needed to understand the basic principles of digital multiplication. Both conventional and nonconventional methods of implementing multiplication, representing a mix of speed/complexity tradeoffs, are presented. Some are based on traditional shift/add structures, whereas others strive for greater mathematical sophistication. Topics include stand-alone fixed-point multipliers, cellular arrays, memory intensive policies, homomorphic systems, and modular arithmetic.

  5. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  6. Parallel Processing with Digital Signal Processing Hardware and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Cory V.

    1995-01-01

    The assembling and testing of a parallel processing system is described which will allow a user to move a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) application from the design stage to the execution/analysis stage through the use of several software tools and hardware devices. The system will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of the Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) dataflow paradigm for static multiprocessor solutions of DSP applications. The individual components comprising the system are described followed by the installation procedure, research topics, and initial program development.

  7. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can

  8. AVSS 2007: IEEE International Conference onAdvanced Video and Signal based Surveillance, London, UK, September 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben

    This technical report will cover the participation in the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal based Surveillance in September 2007. The report will give a concise description of the most relevant topics presented at the conference, focusing on the work related to the HERMES...

  9. High Quality Real-Time Video with Scanning Electron Microscope Using Total Variation Algorithm on a Graphics Processing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouarti, Nizar; Sauvet, Bruno; Régnier, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is usually dedicated to taking a picture of micro-nanoscopic objects. In the present study, we wondered whether a SEM can be converted as a real-time video display. To this end, we designed a new methodology. We use the slow mode of the SEM to acquire a high quality reference image that can then be used to estimate the optimal parameters that regularize the signal for a given method. Here, we employ Total Variation, a method which minimizes the noise and regularizes the image. An optimal lagrangian multiplier can be computed that regularizes the image efficiently. We showed that a limited number of iterations for Total Variation algorithm can lead to an acceptable quality of regularization. This algorithm is parallel and deployed on a Graphics Processing Unit to obtain a real-time high quality video with a SEM. It opens the possibility of a real-time interaction at micro-nanoscales.

  10. Learning to diagnose using patient video case in paediatrics: perceptive and cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balslev, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Thomas Balslev, a paediatric neurologist and educational researcher, defended his thesis on 24 November 2011. The thesis included five published papers, and investigated learning with authentic, brief patient video cases. With analysis of a video case in a small group, learning processes and sharing of knowledge was intensely stimulated. Small group discussion and subsequent listening to an expert's think-aloud were particularly effective approaches to enhance diagnostic accuracy among non-experts. In a descriptive study, expertise-related differences during analysis of patient video cases were characterized, and in a controlled study, different types of visual modelling were tested.

  11. Ultrasonic signal processing and tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhiping

    Ultrasound imaging has become one of the most widely used diagnostic tools in medicine. While it has advantages, compared with other modalities, in terms of safety, low-cost, accessibility, portability and capability of real-time imaging, it has limitations. One of the major disadvantages of ultrasound imaging is the relatively low image quality, especially the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the low spatial resolution. Part of this dissertation is dedicated to the development of digital ultrasound signal and image processing methods to improve ultrasound image quality. Conventional B-mode ultrasound systems display the demodulated signals, i.e., the envelopes, in the images. In this dissertation, I introduce the envelope matched quadrature filtering (EMQF) technique, which is a novel demodulation technique generating optimal performance in envelope detection. In ultrasonography, the echo signals are the results of the convolution of the pulses and the medium responses, and the finite pulse length is a major source of the degradation of the image resolution. Based on the more appropriate complex-valued medium response assumption rather than the real-valued assumption used by many researchers, a nonparametric iterative deconvolution method, the Least Squares method with Point Count regularization (LSPC), is proposed. This method was tested using simulated and experimental data, and has produced excellent results showing significant improvements in resolution. During the past two decades, ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) has emerged as an active research field and shown potentials of applications in a variety of clinical areas. Particularly interesting to me is a group of methods characterizing the scatterer spatial distribution. For resolvable regular structures, a deconvolution based method is proposed to estimate parameters characterizing such structures, including mean scatterer spacing, and has demonstrated superior performance when compared to

  12. Silicon Photonics for Signal Processing of Tbit/s Serial Data Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent work on signal processing of terabit per second optical serial data signals using pure silicon waveguides. We employ nonlinear optical signal processing in nanoengineered silicon waveguides to perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28-Tbit....../s data signals as well as wavelength conversion of up to 320-Gbit/s data signals. We demonstrate that the silicon waveguides are equally useful for amplitude and phase-modulated data signals....

  13. A Novel Approach for Adaptive Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Chin; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive linear predictors have been used extensively in practice in a wide variety of forms. In the main, their theoretical development is based upon the assumption of stationarity of the signals involved, particularly with respect to the second order statistics. On this basis, the well-known normal equations can be formulated. If high- order statistical stationarity is assumed, then the equivalent normal equations involve high-order signal moments. In either case, the cross moments (second or higher) are needed. This renders the adaptive prediction procedure non-blind. A novel procedure for blind adaptive prediction has been proposed and considerable implementation has been made in our contributions in the past year. The approach is based upon a suitable interpretation of blind equalization methods that satisfy the constant modulus property and offers significant deviations from the standard prediction methods. These blind adaptive algorithms are derived by formulating Lagrange equivalents from mechanisms of constrained optimization. In this report, other new update algorithms are derived from the fundamental concepts of advanced system identification to carry out the proposed blind adaptive prediction. The results of the work can be extended to a number of control-related problems, such as disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. The applications implemented are speech processing, such as coding and synthesis. Simulations are included to verify the novel modelling method.

  14. Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M

    2013-10-14

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  15. A simple approach to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Marven, Craig

    1996-01-01

    A readable, understandable introduction to DSP for professionals and students alike . . . This practical guide is a welcome alternative to more complicated introductions to DSP. It assumes no prior DSP experience and takes the reader step-by-step through the most basic signal processing concepts to more complex functions and devices, including sampling, filtering, frequency transforms, data compression, and even DSP design decisions. The guide provides clear, concise explanations and examples, while keeping mathematics to a minimum, to help develop a fundamental understanding of DSP. Other features include: * An extensive resource bibliography of more advanced DSP books. * An example of a typical DSP system development cycle, including tool descriptions. * A complete glossary of DSP-related acronyms Whether you're a working engineer looking into DSP for the first time or an undergraduate struggling to comprehend the subject, this engaging introduction provides easy access to the basic knowledge that will l...

  16. Mathematical SETI Statistics, Signal Processing, Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Maccone, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part...

  17. A New Approach to Adaptive Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Raza Anjum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A unified linear algebraic approach to adaptive signal processing (ASP is presented. Starting from just Ax=b, key ASP algorithms are derived in a simple, systematic, and integrated manner without requiring any background knowledge to the field.  Algorithms covered are Steepest Descent, LMS, Normalized LMS, Kaczmarz, Affine Projection, RLS, Kalman filter, and MMSE/Least Square Wiener filters. By following this approach, readers will discover a synthesis; they will learn that one and only one equation is involved in all these algorithms. They will also learn that this one equation forms the basis of more advanced algorithms like reduced rank adaptive filters, extended Kalman filter, particle filters, multigrid methods, preconditioning methods, Krylov subspace methods and conjugate gradients. This will enable them to enter many sophisticated realms of modern research and development. Eventually, this one equation will not only become their passport to ASP but also to many highly specialized areas of computational science and engineering.

  18. Visual analysis of trash bin processing on garbage trucks in low resolution video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    We present a system for trash can detection and counting from a camera which is mounted on a garbage collection truck. A working prototype has been successfully implemented and tested with several hours of real-world video. The detection pipeline consists of HOG detectors for two trash can sizes, and meanshift tracking and low level image processing for the analysis of the garbage disposal process. Considering the harsh environment and unfavorable imaging conditions, the process works already good enough so that very useful measurements from video data can be extracted. The false positive/false negative rate of the full processing pipeline is about 5-6% at fully automatic operation. Video data of a full day (about 8 hrs) can be processed in about 30 minutes on a standard PC.

  19. Guided filtering for solar image/video processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Yan, Yihua; Cheng, Jun

    2017-06-01

    A new image enhancement algorithm employing guided filtering is proposed in this work for enhancement of solar images and videos, so that users can easily figure out important fine structures imbedded in the recorded images/movies for solar observation. The proposed algorithm can efficiently remove image noises, including Gaussian and impulse noises. Meanwhile, it can further highlight fibrous structures on/beyond the solar disk. These fibrous structures can clearly demonstrate the progress of solar flare, prominence coronal mass emission, magnetic field, and so on. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm gives significant enhancement of visual quality of solar images beyond original input and several classical image enhancement algorithms, thus facilitating easier determi-nation of interesting solar burst activities from recorded images/movies.

  20. Tunable signal processing through modular control of transcription factor translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Budnik, Bogdan A; Gunawardena, Jeremy; O'Shea, Erin K

    2013-01-25

    Signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation. We explored how TFs process signaling inputs to generate diverse dynamic responses. The budding yeast general stress-responsive TF Msn2 acted as a tunable signal processor that could track, filter, or integrate signals in an input-dependent manner. This tunable signal processing appears to originate from dual regulation of both nuclear import and export by phosphorylation, as mutants with one form of regulation sustained only one signal-processing function. Versatile signal processing by Msn2 is crucial for generating distinct dynamic responses to different natural stresses. Our findings reveal how complex signal-processing functions are integrated into a single molecule and provide a guide for the design of TFs with "programmable" signal-processing functions.

  1. Multimedia applications in nursing curriculum: the process of producing streaming videos for medication administration skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh K

    2014-07-01

    Streaming videos (SVs) are commonly used multimedia applications in clinical health education. However, there are several negative aspects related to the production and delivery of SVs. Only a few published studies have included sufficient descriptions of the videos and the production process and design innovations. This paper describes the production of innovative SVs for medication administration skills for undergraduate nursing students at a public university in Jordan and focuses on the ethical and cultural issues in producing this type of learning resource. The curriculum development committee approved the modification of educational techniques for medication administration procedures to include SVs within an interactive web-based learning environment. The production process of the videos adhered to established principles for "protecting patients' rights when filming and recording" and included: preproduction, production and postproduction phases. Medication administration skills were videotaped in a skills laboratory where they are usually taught to students and also in a hospital setting with real patients. The lab videos included critical points and Do's and Don'ts and the hospital videos fostered real-world practices. The range of time of the videos was reasonable to eliminate technical difficulty in access. Eight SVs were produced that covered different types of the medication administration skills. The production of SVs required the collaborative efforts of experts in IT, multimedia, nursing and informatics educators, and nursing care providers. Results showed that the videos were well-perceived by students, and the instructors who taught the course. The process of producing the videos in this project can be used as a valuable framework for schools considering utilizing multimedia applications in teaching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Signals, systems, transforms, and digital signal processing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Corinthios, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsIntroductionContinuous-Time SignalsPeriodic FunctionsUnit Step FunctionGraphical Representation of FunctionsEven and Odd Parts of a FunctionDirac-Delta ImpulseBasic Properties of the Dirac-Delta ImpulseOther Important Properties of the ImpulseContinuous-Time SystemsCausality, StabilityExamples of Electrical Continuous-Time SystemsMechanical SystemsTransfer Function and Frequency ResponseConvolution and CorrelationA Right-Sided and a Left-Sided FunctionConvolution with an Impulse and Its DerivativesAdditional Convolution PropertiesCorrelation FunctionProperties of the Correlation FunctionGraphical InterpretationCorrelation of Periodic FunctionsAverage, Energy and Power of Continuous-Time SignalsDiscrete-Time SignalsPeriodicityDifference EquationsEven/Odd DecompositionAverage Value, Energy and Power SequencesCausality, StabilityProblemsAnswers to Selected ProblemsFourier Series ExpansionTrigonometric Fourier SeriesExponential Fourier SeriesExponential versus ...

  3. STAR Performance with SPEAR (Signal Processing Electronic Attack RFIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    STAR Performance with SPEAR ( Signal Processing Electronic Attack RFIC) Luciano Boglione, Clayton Davis, Joel Goodman, Matthew McKeon, David...Parrett, Sanghoon Shin and Naomi Walker Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC, 20375 Figure 1: The Signal Processing Electronic Attack RFIC...SPEAR) system. Abstract: The Signal Processing Electronic Attack RFIC (SPEAR) is a simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) system capable of

  4. Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers for optical signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Uskov, A. V.; Bischoff, Svend

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of quantum dot semiconductor amplifiers are investigated theoretically with respect to the potential for ultrafast signal processing. The high-speed signal processing capacity of these devices is found to be limited by the wetting layer dynamics in case of electrical pumping, while...... optical pumping partly removes this limitation. Also, the possibility of using spectral hole burning for signal processing is discussed....

  5. 3rd International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Qilian; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of communications, signal processing, and systems. This book is a collection of contributions from the conference and covers such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, and signal processing for communications. The conference was held July 2014 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

  6. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing...

  7. VIPER: a general-purpose digital image-processing system applied to video microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, M; Ittner, W

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes VIPER, the video image-processing system Erlangen. It consists of a general purpose microcomputer, commercially available image-processing hardware modules connected directly to the computer, video input/output-modules such as a TV camera, video recorders and monitors, and a software package. The modular structure and the capabilities of this system are explained. The software is user-friendly, menu-driven and performs image acquisition, transfers, greyscale processing, arithmetics, logical operations, filtering display, colour assignment, graphics, and a couple of management functions. More than 100 image-processing functions are implemented. They are available either by typing a key or by a simple call to the function-subroutine library in application programs. Examples are supplied in the area of biomedical research, e.g. in in-vivo microscopy.

  8. Introduction to Random Signals and Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Etten, Wim

    Random signals and noise are present in many engineering systems and networks. Signal processing techniques allow engineers to distinguish between useful signals in audio, video or communication equipment, and interference, which disturbs the desired signal. With a strong mathematical grounding,

  9. XbD Video 3, The SEEing process of qualitative data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is the third video in the Experience-based Designing series. It presents a live classroom demonstration of a nine step qualitative data analysis process called SEEing: The process is useful for uncovering or discovering deeper layers of 'meaning' and meaning structures in an experience...

  10. Signal processing of aircraft flyover noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed analysis of signal processing concerns for measuring aircraft flyover noise is presented. Development of a de-Dopplerization scheme for both corrected time history and spectral data is discussed along with an analysis of motion effects on measured spectra. A computer code was written to implement the de-Dopplerization scheme. Input to the code is the aircraft position data and the pressure time histories. To facilitate ensemble averaging, a level uniform flyover is considered in the study, but the code can accept more general flight profiles. The effects of spectral smearing and its removal are discussed. Using test data acquired from an XV-15 tilt-rotor flyover, comparisons are made between the measured and corrected spectra. Frequency shifts are accurately accounted for by the de-Dopplerization procedure. It is shown that by correcting for spherical spreading and Doppler amplitude, along with frequency, can give some idea about noise source directivity. The analysis indicated that smearing increases with frequency and is more severe on approach than recession.

  11. Optimal Hamiltonian Simulation by Quantum Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Guang Hao; Chuang, Isaac L

    2017-01-06

    The physics of quantum mechanics is the inspiration for, and underlies, quantum computation. As such, one expects physical intuition to be highly influential in the understanding and design of many quantum algorithms, particularly simulation of physical systems. Surprisingly, this has been challenging, with current Hamiltonian simulation algorithms remaining abstract and often the result of sophisticated but unintuitive constructions. We contend that physical intuition can lead to optimal simulation methods by showing that a focus on simple single-qubit rotations elegantly furnishes an optimal algorithm for Hamiltonian simulation, a universal problem that encapsulates all the power of quantum computation. Specifically, we show that the query complexity of implementing time evolution by a d-sparse Hamiltonian H[over ^] for time-interval t with error ε is O[td∥H[over ^]∥_{max}+log(1/ε)/loglog(1/ε)], which matches lower bounds in all parameters. This connection is made through general three-step "quantum signal processing" methodology, comprised of (i) transducing eigenvalues of H[over ^] into a single ancilla qubit, (ii) transforming these eigenvalues through an optimal-length sequence of single-qubit rotations, and (iii) projecting this ancilla with near unity success probability.

  12. Signal Processor Development by Personnel of the JSC Signal Processing Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, S. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe systems and components of systems developed by personnel in the Signal Processing Section of the Tracking and Communications Division. The scope of this includes past developments which are in current use in NASA flight operations and future developments which are targeted for upcoming NASA applications. These projects specifically are: (1) NASA High Definition Television (HDTV) Project, (2) Video Codecs, (3) NASA Electronic Still Camera (ESC) Project, (4) Hercules Payload, (5) Ku-band Communications Adapter (KCA), (6) Windows Drivers for Satellite Interfacing to Commercial Equipment, and (7) Advanced Statistical Multiplexers. The methods used to determine what projects should be done in-house as opposed to which should not is based in NASA applications versus commercially available systems to meet those applications. If a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) component or system is available which meets the need, the first choice is to use COTS equipment. If it is not, and there is a NASA requirement, it is developed in-house. This results in technology which is being developed which otherwise was not available. Personnel involved in these projects have been contacted by many commercial companies interested in licensing or obtaining the NASA design.

  13. Signal Conditioning in Process of High Speed Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Hargas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of cinematic analysis with camera system depends on frame rate of used camera. Specific case of cinematic analysis is in medical research focusing on microscopic objects moving with high frequencies (cilia of respiratory epithelium. The signal acquired by high speed video acquisition system has very amount of data. This paper describes hardware parts, signal condition and software, which is used for image acquiring thru digital camera, intelligent illumination dimming hardware control and ROI statistic creation. All software parts are realized as virtual instruments.

  14. Action Video Games Do Not Improve the Speed of Information Processing in Simple Perceptual Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Boekel, Wouter; Forstmann, Birte U.; Ratcliff, Roger; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that playing action video games improves performance on sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks. For instance, Green, Pouget, and Bavelier (2010) used the diffusion model to decompose data from a motion detection task and estimate the contribution of several underlying psychological processes. Their analysis indicated that playing action video games leads to faster information processing, reduced response caution, and no difference in motor responding. Because perceptual learning is generally thought to be highly context-specific, this transfer from gaming is surprising and warrants corroborative evidence from a large-scale training study. We conducted 2 experiments in which participants practiced either an action video game or a cognitive game in 5 separate, supervised sessions. Prior to each session and following the last session, participants performed a perceptual discrimination task. In the second experiment, we included a third condition in which no video games were played at all. Behavioral data and diffusion model parameters showed similar practice effects for the action gamers, the cognitive gamers, and the nongamers and suggest that, in contrast to earlier reports, playing action video games does not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks. PMID:24933517

  15. Action video games do not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Boekel, Wouter; Forstmann, Birte U; Ratcliff, Roger; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Previous research suggests that playing action video games improves performance on sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks. For instance, Green, Pouget, and Bavelier (2010) used the diffusion model to decompose data from a motion detection task and estimate the contribution of several underlying psychological processes. Their analysis indicated that playing action video games leads to faster information processing, reduced response caution, and no difference in motor responding. Because perceptual learning is generally thought to be highly context-specific, this transfer from gaming is surprising and warrants corroborative evidence from a large-scale training study. We conducted 2 experiments in which participants practiced either an action video game or a cognitive game in 5 separate, supervised sessions. Prior to each session and following the last session, participants performed a perceptual discrimination task. In the second experiment, we included a third condition in which no video games were played at all. Behavioral data and diffusion model parameters showed similar practice effects for the action gamers, the cognitive gamers, and the nongamers and suggest that, in contrast to earlier reports, playing action video games does not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks.

  16. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  17. Prerequisites for Affective Signal Processing (ASP) - Part III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Healey, Jennifer A.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2010-01-01

    This is the third part in a series on prerequisites for affective signal processing (ASP). So far, six prerequisites were identified: validation (e.g., mapping of constructs on signals), triangulation, a physiology-driven approach, and contributions of the signal processing community (van den Broek

  18. Algorithm for applying interpolation in digital signal processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many practical applications of Digital Signal Processing (DSP), one is faced with the problem of changing the sampling rate of a signal, either increasing it or decreasing it by some amount. Software-defined radios and test equipment use a variety of digital signal processing techniques to improve system performance.

  19. Effects of Segmenting, Signalling, and Weeding on Learning from Educational Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Greenwood, Carmen M.; Wheeler, Denna

    2012-01-01

    Informed by the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, this study examined the effects of three multimedia design principles on undergraduate students' learning outcomes and perceived learning difficulty in the context of learning entomology from an educational video. These principles included segmenting the video into smaller units, signalling…

  20. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Donna Spruijt-Metz; Chih Ping Chou; Mary Ann Pentz

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction s...

  1. Knee joint vibroarthrographic signal processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the cutting-edge technologies of knee joint vibroarthrographic signal analysis for the screening and detection of knee joint injuries. It describes a number of effective computer-aided methods for analysis of the nonlinear and nonstationary biomedical signals generated by complex physiological mechanics. This book also introduces several popular machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms for biomedical signal classifications. The book is well-suited for all researchers looking to better understand knee joint biomechanics and the advanced technology for vibration arthrometry. Dr. Yunfeng Wu is an Associate Professor at the School of Information Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

  2. Microwave signal processing with photorefractive dynamic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, Edeline B.

    Have you ever found yourself listening to the music playing from the closest stereo rather than to the bromidic (uninspiring) person speaking to you? Your ears receive information from two sources but your brain listens to only one. What if your cell phone could distinguish among signals sharing the same bandwidth too? There would be no "full" channels to stop you from placing or receiving a call. This thesis presents a nonlinear optical circuit capable of distinguishing uncorrelated signals that have overlapping temporal bandwidths. This so called autotuning filter is the size of a U.S. quarter dollar and requires less than 3 mW of optical power to operate. It is basically an oscillator in which the losses are compensated with dynamic holographic gain. The combination of two photorefractive crystals in the resonator governs the filter's winner-take-all dynamics through signal-competition for gain. This physical circuit extracts what is mathematically referred to as the largest principal component of its spatio-temporal input space. The circuit's practicality is demonstrated by its incorporation in an RF-photonic system. An unknown mixture of unknown microwave signals, received by an antenna array, constitutes the input to the system. The output electronically returns one of the original microwave signals. The front-end of the system down converts the 10 GHz microwave signals and amplifies them before the signals phase modulate optical beams. The optical carrier is suppressed from these beams so that it may not be considered as a signal itself to the autotuning filter. The suppression is achieved with two-beam coupling in a single photorefractive crystal. The filter extracts the more intense of the signals present on the carrier-suppressed input beams. The detection of the extracted signal restores the microwave signal to an electronic form. The system, without the receiving antenna array, is packaged in a 13 x 18 x 6″ briefcase. Its power consumption equals that

  3. Ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of serial data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist

    2012-01-01

    To ensure that ultra high-speed serial data signals can be utilised in future optical communication networks, it is indispensable to have all-optical signal processing elements at our disposal. In this paper, the most recent advances in our use of non-linear materials incorporated in different...... function blocks for high-speed signal processing are reviewed....

  4. Video image processing to create a speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Image processing has been applied to traffic analysis in recent years, with different goals. In the report, a new approach is presented for extracting vehicular speed information, given a sequence of real-time traffic images. We extract moving edges ...

  5. Gaming to see: Action Video Gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten ePohl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behaviour. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants’ responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  6. Applications of the Wigner Distribution Function in Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoman Daniela

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the applications of the Wigner distribution function in various areas of signal processing: amplitude and phase retrieval, signal recognition, characterization of arbitrary signals, optical systems and devices, and coupling coefficient estimation in phase space. Although reference is made to specific signals and systems, the mathematical formulation is general and can be applied to either spatial, temporal, or spatio-temporal phase spaces, to coherent, partially coherent, or discrete signals. The universal and intuitive character of the Wigner distribution approach to signal characterization and processing and its simplicity in solving many issues are evidenced throughout the paper.

  7. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  8. Prerequisites for affective signal processing (ASP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Healey, Jennifer A.; Encarnacao, P.; Veloso, A.

    2009-01-01

    Although emotions are embraced by science, their recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of affect, its signals, features, and classification methods, we provide understanding for the problems encountered. Next, we identify the prerequisites for successful

  9. Adaptive Noise Suppression Using Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, David; Nelson, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A signal to noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction algorithm is developed to eliminate noise from noise corrupted speech signals. The algorithm determines the signal to noise ratio and adjusts the spectral subtraction proportion appropriately. After spectra subtraction low amplitude signals are squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both eh noise corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoice frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Applications include the emergency egress vehicle and the crawler transporter.

  10. Signal processing and display for electrochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. N.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Two electrochemical electrodes provide signals; apparatus automatically determines reaction end point and displays lag period in time or cell concentration. Apparatus can be used with standard pH reference anode and platinum anode or with redox electrodes.

  11. Electrical measurement, signal processing, and displays

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, John G

    2003-01-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC VARIABLES MEASUREMENTVoltage MeasurementCurrent Measurement Power Measurement Power Factor Measurement Phase Measurement Energy Measurement Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity Charge Measurement Capacitance and Capacitance Measurements Permittivity Measurement Electric Field Strength Magnetic Field Measurement Permeability and Hysteresis MeasurementInductance Measurement Immittance MeasurementQ Factor Measurement Distortion Measurement Noise Measurement.Microwave Measurement SIGNAL PROCESSINGAmplifiers and Signal ConditionersModulation Filters Spectrum Analysis and Correlat

  12. Effects of video-game play on information processing: a meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kasey L; Brooks, Patricia J; Aldrich, Naomi J; Palladino, Melissa A; Alfieri, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Do video games enhance cognitive functioning? We conducted two meta-analyses based on different research designs to investigate how video games impact information-processing skills (auditory processing, executive functions, motor skills, spatial imagery, and visual processing). Quasi-experimental studies (72 studies, 318 comparisons) compare habitual gamers with controls; true experiments (46 studies, 251 comparisons) use commercial video games in training. Using random-effects models, video games led to improved information processing in both the quasi-experimental studies, d = 0.61, 95% CI [0.50, 0.73], and the true experiments, d = 0.48, 95% CI [0.35, 0.60]. Whereas the quasi-experimental studies yielded small to large effect sizes across domains, the true experiments yielded negligible effects for executive functions, which contrasted with the small to medium effect sizes in other domains. The quasi-experimental studies appeared more susceptible to bias than were the true experiments, with larger effects being reported in higher-tier than in lower-tier journals, and larger effects reported by the most active research groups in comparison with other labs. The results are further discussed with respect to other moderators and limitations in the extant literature.

  13. The Use of Video Feedback in Teaching Process-Approach EFL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkul, Sertaç; Ortaçtepe, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the use of video feedback as an alternative to feedback with correction codes at an institution where the latter was commonly used for teaching process-approach English as a foreign language (EFL) writing. Over a 5-week period, the control and the experimental groups were provided with feedback based on…

  14. Algorithm-Based Motion Magnification for Video Processing in Urological Laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fabian; Schoelly, Reto; Schlager, Daniel; Schoenthaler, Martin; Schoeb, Dominik S; Wilhelm, Konrad; Hein, Simon; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2017-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is in constant further development and has replaced many conventional operative procedures. If vascular structure movement could be detected during these procedures, it could reduce the risk of vascular injury and conversion to open surgery. The recently proposed motion-amplifying algorithm, Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM), has been shown to substantially enhance minimal object changes in digitally recorded video that is barely perceptible to the human eye. We adapted and examined this technology for use in urological laparoscopy. Video sequences of routine urological laparoscopic interventions were recorded and further processed using spatial decomposition and filtering algorithms. The freely available EVM algorithm was investigated for its usability in real-time processing. In addition, a new image processing technology, the CRS iimotion Motion Magnification (CRSMM) algorithm, was specifically adjusted for endoscopic requirements, applied, and validated by our working group. Using EVM, no significant motion enhancement could be detected without severe impairment of the image resolution, motion, and color presentation. The CRSMM algorithm significantly improved image quality in terms of motion enhancement. In particular, the pulsation of vascular structures could be displayed more accurately than in EVM. Motion magnification image processing technology has the potential for clinical importance as a video optimizing modality in endoscopic and laparoscopic surgery. Barely detectable (micro)movements can be visualized using this noninvasive marker-free method. Despite these optimistic results, the technology requires considerable further technical development and clinical tests.

  15. Application of signal processing based on mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Hong; Cai, Xiaoxia; Weng, Pengfei; Nie, Hao

    2016-03-01

    With the development of mathematical morphology theory, the application of mathematical morphology in image processing has been very extensive, in recent years, with in-depth study of mathematical morphology and its applications in signal processing development is receiving more and more attention. As a kind of nonlinear signal processing method, its signal feature extraction is performed in time domain, compared with some other nonlinear and non-stationary signal processing method, which has no phase offset and amplitude attenuation etc. many advantages, so this method is applied to the signal processing in various industries. This paper mainly expounds the basic theory of mathematical morphology, and puts forward the method of mathematical morphology denoising pretreatment. Finally, the paper summarizes the application of mathematical morphology in speech signal processing and the combination of neural network.

  16. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the Fifteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP’2005), held in Mystic, Connecticut, USA, September 28-30, 2005. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP) organized...... by the NNSP Technical Committee of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized...... by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee with sponsorship of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. Following the practice started two years ago, the bound volume of the proceedings is going to be published by IEEE following the Workshop, and we are pleased to offer to conference attendees...

  17. All-optical signal processing and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David

    2001-01-01

    of a detailed large-signal model. An important parameter for SOA-based gates is the input power dynamic range (IPDR) as it determines the cascadability of the devices. Guidelines on how to maximise the IPDR are therefore established. Important trends are that short SOAs with low confinement factors and a low...... to conventional wavelength conversion since conversion of an optical clock signal is used instead of CW light. An investigation of these advantages is carried out and the feasibility of the scheme is demonstrated at 20 Gbit/s. A description of interferometric wavelength converters (IWCs) is also given. The high...... attractive for all-optical regeneration. Experiments carried out at 40 Gbit/s demonstrate excellent performance for 2R regeneration, which is emphasised by a clear improvement of the optical signal-to-noise ratio and a noise suppression capability. 3R regeneration is also illustrated at 40 Gbit/s, where...

  18. Optical Processing of High Dimensionality Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco

    to increase the capacity of future communication systems; on the other hand, the different nonlinear material suitable for providing parametric amplification. Therefore, three different materials, namely silica highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), silicon waveguides, and periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN......-division multiplexing (PDM) 16-QAM signal at 1.12 Tbps with significant improvements in received signal quality. Furthermore, the first demonstration of phase regeneration for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals using the silicon platform is presented. The silicon-based OPA relies on a novel design where a reverse......-biased p-i-n junction fabricated along the waveguide allows decreasing the nonlinear absorption, thus achieving phase-sensitive extinction ratios in excess of 20 dB. Finally, a recently proposed quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)-to- 2×BPSK wavelength and format converter is characterized experimentally...

  19. Video Pulses: User-Based Modeling of Interesting Video Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Avlonitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a user-based method that detects regions of interest within a video in order to provide video skims and video summaries. Previous research in video retrieval has focused on content-based techniques, such as pattern recognition algorithms that attempt to understand the low-level features of a video. We are proposing a pulse modeling method, which makes sense of a web video by analyzing users' Replay interactions with the video player. In particular, we have modeled the user information seeking behavior as a time series and the semantic regions as a discrete pulse of fixed width. Then, we have calculated the correlation coefficient between the dynamically detected pulses at the local maximums of the user activity signal and the pulse of reference. We have found that users' Replay activity significantly matches the important segments in information-rich and visually complex videos, such as lecture, how-to, and documentary. The proposed signal processing of user activity is complementary to previous work in content-based video retrieval and provides an additional user-based dimension for modeling the semantics of a social video on the web.

  20. Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

  1. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing....... This year the workshop is held in the National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition (NLPR), Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences....

  2. Laser heterodyne interferometric signal processing method based on rising edge locking with high frequency clock signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enzheng; Chen, Benyong; Yan, Liping; Yang, Tao; Hao, Qun; Dong, Wenjun; Li, Chaorong

    2013-02-25

    A novel phase measurement method composed of the rising-edge locked signal processing and the digital frequency mixing is proposed for laser heterodyne interferometer. The rising-edge locked signal processing, which employs a high frequency clock signal to lock the rising-edges of the reference and measurement signals, not only can improve the steepness of the rising-edge, but also can eliminate the error counting caused by multi-rising-edge phenomenon in fringe counting. The digital frequency mixing is realized by mixing the digital interference signal with a digital base signal that is different from conventional frequency mixing with analogue signals. These signal processing can improve the measurement accuracy and enhance anti-interference and measurement stability. The principle and implementation of the method are described in detail. An experimental setup was constructed and a series of experiments verified the feasibility of the method in large displacement measurement with high speed and nanometer resolution.

  3. Window functions and their applications in signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhu, K M M

    2013-01-01

    Window functions-otherwise known as weighting functions, tapering functions, or apodization functions-are mathematical functions that are zero-valued outside the chosen interval. They are well established as a vital part of digital signal processing. Window Functions and their Applications in Signal Processing presents an exhaustive and detailed account of window functions and their applications in signal processing, focusing on the areas of digital spectral analysis, design of FIR filters, pulse compression radar, and speech signal processing.Comprehensively reviewing previous research and re

  4. Conceptual Frameworks for Multimodal Social Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunet, P.; Martin, J-C.; Cowie, R.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Schroeder, M.

    This special issue is about a research area which is developing rapidly. Pentland gave it a name which has become widely used, ‘Social Signal Processing’ (SSP for short), and his phrase provides the title of a European project, SSPnet, which has a brief to consolidate the area. The challenge that

  5. Prerequisites for Affective Signal Processing (ASP) - Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; Healey, Jennifer A.; van der Zwaag, Marjolein; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2010-01-01

    Last year, in van den Broek et al. (2009a), a start was made with defining prerequisites for affective signal processing (ASP). Four prerequisites were identified: validation (e.g., mapping of constructs on signals), triangulation, a physiology-driven approach, and contributions of the signal

  6. Illustration of decimation in digital signal processing (DSP) systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP) has become one of the most powerful technologies in reshaping science and engineering, especially in the areas of communication and medicine. In this study, DSP applications where the signal at a given sampling rate needs to be converted into another signal with a different sampling rate ...

  7. Energy-Efficient Optical Signal Processing Using Optical Time Lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2015-01-01

    . Combining time lenses into telescopic arrangements allows for more advanced signal processing, such as temporal or spectral compression or magnification. A spectral telescope may for instance allow for conversion of OFDM signals to DWDM-like signals, which can be separated passively, i.e. without additional...

  8. All-optical signal processing data communication and storage applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eggleton, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art of optical signal processing technologies and devices. It presents breakthrough solutions for enabling a pervasive use of optics in data communication and signal storage applications. It presents presents optical signal processing as solution to overcome the capacity crunch in communication networks. The book content ranges from the development of innovative materials and devices, such as graphene and slow light structures, to the use of nonlinear optics for secure quantum information processing and overcoming the classical Shannon limit on channel capacity and microwave signal processing. Although it holds the promise for a substantial speed improvement, today’s communication infrastructure optics remains largely confined to the signal transport layer, as it lags behind electronics as far as signal processing is concerned. This situation will change in the near future as the tremendous growth of data traffic requires energy efficient and ful...

  9. Development of an Ontology-Directed Signal Processing Toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen W. Lang

    2011-05-27

    This project was focused on the development of tools for the automatic configuration of signal processing systems. The goal is to develop tools that will be useful in a variety of Government and commercial areas and useable by people who are not signal processing experts. In order to get the most benefit from signal processing techniques, deep technical expertise is often required in order to select appropriate algorithms, combine them into a processing chain, and tune algorithm parameters for best performance on a specific problem. Therefore a significant benefit would result from the assembly of a toolbox of processing algorithms that has been selected for their effectiveness in a group of related problem areas, along with the means to allow people who are not signal processing experts to reliably select, combine, and tune these algorithms to solve specific problems. Defining a vocabulary for problem domain experts that is sufficiently expressive to drive the configuration of signal processing functions will allow the expertise of signal processing experts to be captured in rules for automated configuration. In order to test the feasibility of this approach, we addressed a lightning classification problem, which was proposed by DOE as a surrogate for problems encountered in nuclear nonproliferation data processing. We coded a toolbox of low-level signal processing algorithms for extracting features of RF waveforms, and demonstrated a prototype tool for screening data. We showed examples of using the tool for expediting the generation of ground-truth metadata, for training a signal recognizer, and for searching for signals with particular characteristics. The public benefits of this approach, if successful, will accrue to Government and commercial activities that face the same general problem - the development of sensor systems for complex environments. It will enable problem domain experts (e.g. analysts) to construct signal and image processing chains without

  10. Signal Conditioning An Introduction to Continuous Wave Communication and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2012-01-01

    "Signal Conditioning” is a comprehensive introduction to electronic signal processing. The book presents the mathematical basics including the implications of various transformed domain representations in signal synthesis and analysis in an understandable and lucid fashion and illustrates the theory through many applications and examples from communication systems. The ease to learn is supported by well-chosen exercises which give readers the flavor of the subject. Supplementary electronic materials available on http://extras.springer.com including MATLAB codes illuminating applications in the domain of one dimensional electrical signal processing, image processing and speech processing. The book is an introduction for students with a basic understanding in engineering or natural sciences.

  11. Information processing in multi-step signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Ambhi; Hamidzadeh, Archer; Zhang, Jin; Levchenko, Andre

    Information processing in complex signaling networks is limited by a high degree of variability in the abundance and activity of biochemical reactions (biological noise) operating in living cells. In this context, it is particularly surprising that many signaling pathways found in eukaryotic cells are composed of long chains of biochemical reactions, which are expected to be subject to accumulating noise and delayed signal processing. Here, we challenge the notion that signaling pathways are insulated chains, and rather view them as parts of extensively branched networks, which can benefit from a low degree of interference between signaling components. We further establish conditions under which this pathway organization would limit noise accumulation, and provide evidence for this type of signal processing in an experimental model of a calcium-activated MAPK cascade. These results address the long-standing problem of diverse organization and structure of signaling networks in live cells.

  12. The Editing Process Making Video Formats to Dvd Using Sony Vegas Pro 8.0.

    OpenAIRE

    Franky Suprayitno; Yulina Yulina, SKom, MMSi

    2007-01-01

    In this modern era, the need for entertainment is very important, especially in the business world. Therefore, the application of digital systems technology is one of the appropriate solution in the process of filmmaking. With this scientific writing, may be helpful to learn the process of digital video editing using software Sony Vegas Pro 8.0 Sony Creative Software output. The need for entertainment is very important, especially in the business world such as advertising and movie theater. T...

  13. Robust digital processing of speech signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Branko; Veinović, Mladen; Marković, Milan

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on speech signal phenomena, presenting a robustification of the usual speech generation models with regard to the presumed types of excitation signals, which is equivalent to the introduction of a class of nonlinear models and the corresponding criterion functions for parameter estimation. Compared to the general class of nonlinear models, such as various neural networks, these models possess good properties of controlled complexity, the option of working in “online” mode, as well as a low information volume for efficient speech encoding and transmission. Providing comprehensive insights, the book is based on the authors’ research, which has already been published, supplemented by additional texts discussing general considerations of speech modeling, linear predictive analysis and robust parameter estimation.

  14. SIGNAL PROCESSING UTILIZING RADIO FREQUENCY PHOTONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-07

    electronic circuit . For high bandwidths, the clock jitter is the dominant noise source. ADC advancements have increased the bandwidths now possible. This is...the difference between the RF signal and the LO. The RF downconverter has the typical RF metrics of gain, noise figure and dynamic range. 2.1 RF...improve the noise figure and gain when compared to the previous method. Unfortunately the parallel architecture is a large interferometer. The

  15. Signal and Image Processing in Different Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    21 8 Transformation to the Wavelet domain 22 9 Transformation to the Ambiguity function domain 23 10 Partial Differential Equations 24 10.1 Notation...gives Eq. (90). 8 Transformation to the Wavelet domain We now consider the problem of writing an equation for the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT...electroencephalogram ( EEG ), the electromyogram (EMG) and others), machine fault monitoring, radar and sonar signals, acoustic scattering, wave

  16. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  17. Measuring eye movements during locomotion: filtering techniques for obtaining velocity signals from a video-based eye monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, V. E.; Thomas, C. W.; Zivotofsky, A. Z.; Leigh, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Video-based eye-tracking systems are especially suited to studying eye movements during naturally occurring activities such as locomotion, but eye velocity records suffer from broad band noise that is not amenable to conventional filtering methods. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined median and moving-average filters by comparing prefiltered and postfiltered records made synchronously with a video eye-tracker and the magnetic search coil technique, which is relatively noise free. Root-mean-square noise was reduced by half, without distorting the eye velocity signal. To illustrate the practical use of this technique, we studied normal subjects and patients with deficient labyrinthine function and compared their ability to hold gaze on a visual target that moved with their heads (cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex). Patients and normal subjects performed similarly during active head rotation but, during locomotion, patients held their eyes more steadily on the visual target than did subjects.

  18. Fractional Order Signal Processing Introductory Concepts and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Saptarshi

    2012-01-01

    The book tries to briefly introduce the diverse literatures in the field of fractional order signal processing which is becoming an emerging topic among an interdisciplinary community of researchers. This book is aimed at postgraduate and beginning level research scholars who would like to work in the field of Fractional Order Signal processing (FOSP). The readers should have preliminary knowledge about basic signal processing techniques. Prerequisite knowledge of fractional calculus is not essential and is exposited at relevant places in connection to the appropriate signal processing topics. Basic signal processing techniques like filtering, estimation, system identification, etc. in the light of fractional order calculus are presented along with relevant application areas. The readers can easily extend these concepts to varied disciplines like image or speech processing, pattern recognition, time series forecasting, financial data analysis and modeling, traffic modeling in communication channels, optics, b...

  19. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  20. High-speed signal processing using highly nonlinear optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2009-01-01

    We review recent progress in all-optical signal processing techniques making use of conventional silica-based highly nonlinear fibres. In particular, we focus on recent demonstrations of ultra-fast processing at 640 Gbit/s and above, as well as on signal processing of novel modulation formats...... relying on the phase of the optical field. Topics covered include all-optical switching of 640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s serial data, wavelength conversion at 640 Gbit/s, optical amplitude regeneration of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signals, as well as midspan spectral inversion for differential 8......-state phase shift keying (D8PSK) signals....

  1. Streamlining digital signal processing a tricks of the trade guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Streamlining Digital Signal Processing, Second Edition, presents recent advances in DSP that simplify or increase the computational speed of common signal processing operations and provides practical, real-world tips and tricks not covered in conventional DSP textbooks. It offers new implementations of digital filter design, spectrum analysis, signal generation, high-speed function approximation, and various other DSP functions. It provides:Great tips, tricks of the trade, secrets, practical shortcuts, and clever engineering solutions from seasoned signal processing professionalsAn assortment.

  2. Are spin junction transistors suitable for signal processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2005-03-01

    A number of spintronic analogs of bipolar junction transistors have been proposed for signal processing applications. Here, we show that some of these transistors unfortunately may not have sufficient voltage and current gains for signal processing. They may also have poor isolation between input and output terminals which hinders unidirectional propagation of logic signal from the driver stage to the output. Therefore, these devices may not improve state-of-the-art signal processing capability, although they may provide some additional functionality by offering nonvolatile storage. They may also have niche applications in nonlinear circuits.

  3. Facilitation or disengagement? Attention bias in facial affect processing after short-term violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanling; Lan, Haiying; Teng, Zhaojun; Guo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed...

  4. Digital signal processing in the radio science stability analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    The Telecommunications Division has built a stability analyzer for testing Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments. The low-frequency part of the analyzer operates by digitizing wave signals with bandwidths between 80 Hz and 45 kHz. Processed outputs include spectra of signal, phase, amplitude, and differential phase; time series of the same quantities; and Allan deviation of phase and differential phase. This article documents the digital signal-processing methods programmed into the analyzer.

  5. Passive RF Tomography: Signal Processing and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    SIGNAL PROCESSING AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical Engineering Graduate...Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering Thang M. Tran, B.S.E.E Civilian Student, USAF... Peebles , Radar Principles , New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1998. [15] R. Nitzberg, Radar signal processing and adaptive systems, Boston: Artech House

  6. Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.

  7. YY Filter - A Paradigm of Digital Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nagahara, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    YY filter, named after the founder Prof. Yutaka Yamamoto, is a digital filter designed by sampled-data control theory, which can optimize the analog performance of the signal processing system with AD/DA converters. This article discusses problems in conventional signal processing and introduces advantages of the YY filter.

  8. Signal processing for on-chip space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Our recent results on the demonstration of on-chip mode-division multiplexing are reviewed, with special emphasis on nonlinear all-optical signal processing. Mode-selective parametric processes are demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide.......Our recent results on the demonstration of on-chip mode-division multiplexing are reviewed, with special emphasis on nonlinear all-optical signal processing. Mode-selective parametric processes are demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide....

  9. Signal processing at the Poker Flat MST radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Signal processing for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar is carried out by a combination of hardware in high-speed, special-purpose devices and software in a general-purpose, minicomputer/array processor. A block diagram of the signal processing system is presented, and the steps in the processing pathway are described. The current processing capabilities are given, and a system offering greater coherent integration speed is advanced which hinges upon a high speed preprocessor.

  10. Recognising safety critical events: can automatic video processing improve naturalistic data analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozza, Marco; González, Nieves Pañeda

    2013-11-01

    New trends in research on traffic accidents include Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS). NDS are based on large scale data collection of driver, vehicle, and environment information in real world. NDS data sets have proven to be extremely valuable for the analysis of safety critical events such as crashes and near crashes. However, finding safety critical events in NDS data is often difficult and time consuming. Safety critical events are currently identified using kinematic triggers, for instance searching for deceleration below a certain threshold signifying harsh braking. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this filtering procedure, manual review of video data is currently necessary to decide whether the events identified by the triggers are actually safety critical. Such reviewing procedure is based on subjective decisions, is expensive and time consuming, and often tedious for the analysts. Furthermore, since NDS data is exponentially growing over time, this reviewing procedure may not be viable anymore in the very near future. This study tested the hypothesis that automatic processing of driver video information could increase the correct classification of safety critical events from kinematic triggers in naturalistic driving data. Review of about 400 video sequences recorded from the events, collected by 100 Volvo cars in the euroFOT project, suggested that drivers' individual reaction may be the key to recognize safety critical events. In fact, whether an event is safety critical or not often depends on the individual driver. A few algorithms, able to automatically classify driver reaction from video data, have been compared. The results presented in this paper show that the state of the art subjective review procedures to identify safety critical events from NDS can benefit from automated objective video processing. In addition, this paper discusses the major challenges in making such video analysis viable for future NDS and new potential

  11. Innovative signal processing for Johnson Noise thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, N. Dianne Bull [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report summarizes the newly developed algorithm that subtracted the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The EMI performance is very important to this measurement because any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Two methods of removing EMI were developed and tested at various locations. This report also summarizes the testing performed at different facilities outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory using both EMI removal techniques. The first EMI removal technique reviewed in previous milestone reports and therefore this report will detail the second method.

  12. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XVI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the sixteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP'2006), held in Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland, September 6-8, 2006. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP......). The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee...... the same standard as the printed version and facilitates the reading and searching of the papers. The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has become particularly important for solution of problems in signal processing. As reflected...

  13. Parallel signal processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penczek, F.; Herhut, S.; Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.; Barrère, R.; Lenormand, E.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that programming high-end stream-processing applications requires a form of coordination language that enables the designer to represent interactions between stream-processing functions asynchronously. We further argue that the level of abstraction that current programming tools engender

  14. Signal processing and electronic noise in LZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaitan, D.

    2016-03-01

    The electronics of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment, the 10-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), consists of low-noise dual-gain amplifiers and a 100-MHz, 14-bit data acquisition system for the TPC PMTs. Pre-prototypes of the analog amplifiers and the 32-channel digitizers were tested extensively with simulated pulses that are similar to the prompt scintillation light and the electroluminescence signals expected in LZ. These studies are used to characterize the noise and to measure the linearity of the system. By increasing the amplitude of the test signals, the effect of saturating the amplifier and the digitizers was studied. The RMS ADC noise of the digitizer channels was measured to be 1.19± 0.01 ADCC. When a high-energy channel of the amplifier is connected to the digitizer, the measured noise remained virtually unchanged, while the noise added by a low-energy channel was estimated to be 0.38 ± 0.02 ADCC (46 ± 2 μV). A test facility is under construction to study saturation, mitigate noise and measure the performance of the LZ electronics and data acquisition chain.

  15. Signal Processing as a Tool to Enhance Productivity in Industry : Measurement and Cancelation of Periodic Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Sven

    2006-01-01

    Preface This licentiate thesis summarizes my work within the field of Signal Processing during my time in Signal Control Sweden AB from 1987 to 2002. The work has been performed in close co-operation the customers like Volvo Personvagnar AB, Sveriges Provnings- och forskningsinstitut and others. Most of the material has been published at various conferences together with the Department of Signal Processing at Blekinge Institute of Technology. However, here I have had the opportunity to expand...

  16. Using Digital Time-Lapse Videos to Teach Geomorphic Processes to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. H.; Linneman, S. R.; Fuller, J.

    2004-12-01

    We demonstrate the use of relatively low-cost, computer-based digital imagery to create time-lapse videos of two distinct geomorphic processes in order to help students grasp the significance of the rates, styles, and temporal dependence of geologic phenomena. Student interviews indicate that such videos help them to understand the relationship between processes and landform development. Time-lapse videos have been used extensively in some sciences (e.g., biology - http://sbcf.iu.edu/goodpract/hangarter.html, meteorology - http://www.apple.com/education/hed/aua0101s/meteor/, chemistry - http://www.chem.yorku.ca/profs/hempsted/chemed/home.html) to demonstrate gradual processes that are difficult for many students to visualize. Most geologic processes are slower still, and are consequently even more difficult for students to grasp, yet time-lapse videos are rarely used in earth science classrooms. The advent of inexpensive web-cams and computers provides a new means to explore the temporal dimension of earth surface processes. To test the use of time-lapse videos in geoscience education, we are developing time-lapse movies that record the evolution of two landforms: a stream-table delta and a large, natural, active landslide. The former involves well-known processes in a controlled, repeatable laboratory experiment, whereas the latter tracks the developing dynamics of an otherwise poorly understood slope failure. The stream-table delta is small and grows in ca. 2 days; we capture a frame on an overhead web-cam every 3 minutes. Before seeing the video, students are asked to hypothesize how the delta will grow through time. The final time-lapse video, ca. 20-80 MB, elegantly shows channel migration, progradation rates, and formation of major geomorphic elements (topset, foreset, bottomset beds). The web-cam can also be "zoomed-in" to show smaller-scale processes, such as bedload transfer, and foreset slumping. Post-lab tests and interviews with students indicate that

  17. [Dynamic Pulse Signal Processing and Analyzing in Mobile System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Ou, Jiqing; Qi, Yusheng

    2015-09-01

    In order to derive dynamic pulse rate variability (DPRV) signal from dynamic pulse signal in real time, a method for extracting DPRV signal was proposed and a portable mobile monitoring system was designed. The system consists of a front end for collecting and wireless sending pulse signal and a mobile terminal. The proposed method is employed to extract DPRV from dynamic pulse signal in mobile terminal, and the DPRV signal is analyzed both in the time domain and the frequency domain and also with non-linear method in real time. The results show that the proposed method can accurately derive DPRV signal in real time, the system can be used for processing and analyzing DPRV signal in real time.

  18. Is complex signal processing for bone conduction hearing aids useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompis, Martin; Kurz, Anja; Pfiffner, Flurin; Senn, Pascal; Arnold, Andreas; Caversaccio, Marco

    2014-05-01

    To establish whether complex signal processing is beneficial for users of bone anchored hearing aids. Review and analysis of two studies from our own group, each comparing a speech processor with basic digital signal processing (either Baha Divino or Baha Intenso) and a processor with complex digital signal processing (either Baha BP100 or Baha BP110 power). The main differences between basic and complex signal processing are the number of audiologist accessible frequency channels and the availability and complexity of the directional multi-microphone noise reduction and loudness compression systems. Both studies show a small, statistically non-significant improvement of speech understanding in quiet with the complex digital signal processing. The average improvement for speech in noise is +0.9 dB, if speech and noise are emitted both from the front of the listener. If noise is emitted from the rear and speech from the front of the listener, the advantage of the devices with complex digital signal processing as opposed to those with basic signal processing increases, on average, to +3.2 dB (range +2.3 … +5.1 dB, p ≤ 0.0032). Complex digital signal processing does indeed improve speech understanding, especially in noise coming from the rear. This finding has been supported by another study, which has been published recently by a different research group. When compared to basic digital signal processing, complex digital signal processing can increase speech understanding of users of bone anchored hearing aids. The benefit is most significant for speech understanding in noise.

  19. Ubiquitous UAVs: a cloud based framework for storing, accessing and processing huge amount of video footage in an efficient way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Nectarios; Skitsas, Michael; Psaroudakis, Chrysostomos; Koutras, Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, video surveillance cameras are used for the protection and monitoring of a huge number of facilities worldwide. An important element in such surveillance systems is the use of aerial video streams originating from onboard sensors located on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Video surveillance using UAVs represent a vast amount of video to be transmitted, stored, analyzed and visualized in a real-time way. As a result, the introduction and development of systems able to handle huge amount of data become a necessity. In this paper, a new approach for the collection, transmission and storage of aerial videos and metadata is introduced. The objective of this work is twofold. First, the integration of the appropriate equipment in order to capture and transmit real-time video including metadata (i.e. position coordinates, target) from the UAV to the ground and, second, the utilization of the ADITESS Versatile Media Content Management System (VMCMS-GE) for storing of the video stream and the appropriate metadata. Beyond the storage, VMCMS-GE provides other efficient management capabilities such as searching and processing of videos, along with video transcoding. For the evaluation and demonstration of the proposed framework we execute a use case where the surveillance of critical infrastructure and the detection of suspicious activities is performed. Collected video Transcodingis subject of this evaluation as well.

  20. Video Conferencing for Opening Classroom Doors in Initial Teacher Education: Sociocultural Processes of Mimicking and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Wiesemes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an alternative framework for conceptualising video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education and in Higher Education (HE more generally. This alternative framework takes into account the existing models in the field, but – based on a set of interviews conducted with teacher trainees and wider analysis of the related literature – we suggest that there is a need to add to existing models the notions of ‘mimicking’ (copying practice and improvisation (unplanned and spontaneous personal learning moments. These two notions are considered to be vital, as they remain valid throughout teachers’ careers and constitute key affordances of video-conferencing uses in HE. In particular, we argue that improvisational processes can be considered as key for developing professional practice and lifelong learning and that video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education can contribute to an understanding of training and learning processes. Current conceptualisations of video conferencing as suggested by Coyle (2004 and Marsh et al. (2009 remain valid, but also are limited in their scope with respect to focusing predominantly on pragmatic and instrumental teacher-training issues. Our article suggests that the theoretical conceptualisations of video conferencing should be expanded to include elements of mimicking and ultimately improvisation. This allows us to consider not just etic aspects of practice, but equally emic practices and related personal professional development. We locate these arguments more widely in a sociocultural-theory framework, as it enables us to describe interactions in dialectical rather than dichotomous terms (Lantolf & Poehner, 2008.

  1. Video Conferencing for Opening Classroom Doors in Initial Teacher Education: Sociocultural Processes of Mimicking and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesemes, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an alternative framework for conceptualising video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education and in Higher Education (HE more generally. This alternative framework takes into account the existing models in the field, but – based on a set of interviews conducted with teacher trainees and wider analysis of the related literature – we suggest that there is a need to add to existing models the notions of ‘mimicking’ (copying practice and improvisation (unplanned and spontaneous personal learning moments. These two notions are considered to be vital, as they remain valid throughout teachers’ careers and constitute key affordances of video-conferencing uses in HE. In particular, we argue that improvisational processes can be considered as key for developing professional practice and lifelong learning and that video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education can contribute to an understanding of training and learning processes. Current conceptualisations of video conferencing as suggested by Coyle (2004 and Marsh et al. (2009 remain valid, but also are limited in their scope with respect to focusing predominantly on pragmatic and instrumental teacher-training issues. Our article suggests that the theoretical conceptualisations of video conferencing should be expanded to include elements of mimicking and ultimately improvisation. This allows us to consider not just etic aspects of practice, but equally emic practices and related personal professional development. We locate these arguments more widely in a sociocultural-theory framework, as it enables us to describe interactions in dialectical rather than dichotomous terms (Lantolf & Poehner, 2008.

  2. Processing the telephone speech signal for the hearing impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, M; Bright, K; Durian, M; Kepler, L; Sweetman, R; Grim, M

    1992-04-01

    Speech intelligibility scores from 16 subjects with sensorineural hearing loss were evaluated using a digitized version of the California Consonant Test that was presented via headphones through a 300 to 3000 Hz bandpass filter to simulate the telephone band. Each subject was tested with an unprocessed signal that was frequency-equalized to compensate for the individual's hearing loss, and a signal that was equalized and compressed by the use of a compressor compression technique. Subjects were tested at three sound pressure levels above a pure-tone average threshold for frequencies 1 and 2 kHz. Two digital signal processing techniques designed to compensate for high-frequency hearing loss were examined: frequency domain processing and time domain processing. Frequency domain involved modification of the short-term spectrum obtained through a fast Fourier transform, whereas time domain processing involved passing the signal through a bank of finite impulse response filters. Both techniques showed significant intelligibility improvements (15-30%). In a second experiment, 16 additional subjects with high-frequency hearing loss compared an amplified telephone signal to three processed signals: (1) 6 dB per octave emphasis; (2) a signal frequency equalized for their hearing loss; and (3) a signal that was equalized for their hearing loss and was compressed according to their uncomfortable loudness levels. Most subjects preferred the signal with the 6 dB per octave emphasis.

  3. A Gaussian process guided particle filter for tracking 3D human pose in video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedai, Suman; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Huynh, Du Q

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid method that combines Gaussian process learning, a particle filter, and annealing to track the 3D pose of a human subject in video sequences. Our approach, which we refer to as annealed Gaussian process guided particle filter, comprises two steps. In the training step, we use a supervised learning method to train a Gaussian process regressor that takes the silhouette descriptor as an input and produces multiple output poses modeled by a mixture of Gaussian distributions. In the tracking step, the output pose distributions from the Gaussian process regression are combined with the annealed particle filter to track the 3D pose in each frame of the video sequence. Our experiments show that the proposed method does not require initialization and does not lose tracking of the pose. We compare our approach with a standard annealed particle filter using the HumanEva-I dataset and with other state of the art approaches using the HumanEva-II dataset. The evaluation results show that our approach can successfully track the 3D human pose over long video sequences and give more accurate pose tracking results than the annealed particle filter.

  4. Time reversal signal processing for communication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Derek P.; Jacklin, Neil; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Counsil, David T.

    2011-09-01

    Time-reversal is a wave focusing technique that makes use of the reciprocity of wireless propagation channels. It works particularly well in a cluttered environment with associated multipath reflection. This technique uses the multipath in the environment to increase focusing ability. Time-reversal can also be used to null signals, either to reduce unintentional interference or to prevent eavesdropping. It does not require controlled geometric placement of the transmit antennas. Unlike existing techniques it can work without line-of-sight. We have explored the performance of time-reversal focusing in a variety of simulated environments. We have also developed new algorithms to simultaneously focus at a location while nulling at an eavesdropper location. We have experimentally verified these techniques in a realistic cluttered environment.

  5. Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing in Nonlinear Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals....

  6. Providing Memory Management Abstraction for Self-Reconfigurable Video Processing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Franz Ackermann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for an SDRAM controller targeting video processing platforms with dynamically reconfigurable processing units (RPUs. A priority-arbitration algorithm provides the required QoS and supports high bit-rate data streaming of multiple clients. Conforming to common video data structures the controller organizes the memory in partitions, frames, lines, and pixels. The raised level of abstraction drastically reduces the complexity of clients' addressing logic. Its uniform interface structure facilitates instantiations in systems with various clients. In addition to SDRAM controllers for regular applications, special demands of reconfigurable platforms have to be satisfied. The aim of this work is to minimize the number of required bus macros leading to relaxed place and route constraints and reducing the number of critical design paths. A suitable interface protocol is presented, and fundamental implementation issues are outlined.

  7. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....

  8. Signal quality and Bayesian signal processing in neurofeedback based on real-time fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koush, Yury; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Dyck, Miriam; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Mathiak, Klaus

    2012-01-02

    Real-time fMRI allows analysis and visualization of the brain activity online, i.e. within one repetition time. It can be used in neurofeedback applications where subjects attempt to control an activation level in a specified region of interest (ROI) of their brain. The signal derived from the ROI is contaminated with noise and artifacts, namely with physiological noise from breathing and heart beat, scanner drift, motion-related artifacts and measurement noise. We developed a Bayesian approach to reduce noise and to remove artifacts in real-time using a modified Kalman filter. The system performs several signal processing operations: subtraction of constant and low-frequency signal components, spike removal and signal smoothing. Quantitative feedback signal quality analysis was used to estimate the quality of the neurofeedback time series and performance of the applied signal processing on different ROIs. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) across the entire time series and the group event-related SNR (eSNR) were significantly higher for the processed time series in comparison to the raw data. Applied signal processing improved the t-statistic increasing the significance of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. Accordingly, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the feedback time series was improved as well. In addition, the data revealed increase of localized self-control across feedback sessions. The new signal processing approach provided reliable neurofeedback, performed precise artifacts removal, reduced noise, and required minimal manual adjustments of parameters. Advanced and fast online signal processing algorithms considerably increased the quality as well as the information content of the control signal which in turn resulted in higher contingency in the neurofeedback loop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comb filter based signal processing method to effectively reduce motion artifacts from photoplethysmographic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fulai; Liu, Hongyun; Wang, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    A photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal can provide very useful information about a subject's cardiovascular status. Motion artifacts (MAs), which usually deteriorate the waveform of a PPG signal, severely obstruct its applications in the clinical diagnosis and healthcare area. To reduce the MAs from a PPG signal, in the present study we present a comb filter based signal processing method. Firstly, wavelet de-noising was implemented to preliminarily suppress a part of the MAs. Then, the PPG signal in the time domain was transformed into the frequency domain by a fast Fourier transform (FFT). Thirdly, the PPG signal period was estimated from the frequency domain by tracking the fundamental frequency peak of the PPG signal. Lastly, the MAs were removed by the comb filter which was designed based on the obtained PPG signal period. Experiments with synthetic and real-world datasets were implemented to validate the performance of the method. Results show that the proposed method can effectively restore the PPG signals from the MA corrupted signals. Also, the accuracy of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), calculated from red and infrared PPG signals, was significantly improved after the MA reduction by the proposed method. Our study demonstrates that the comb filter can effectively reduce the MAs from a PPG signal provided that the PPG signal period is obtained.

  10. SAR Systems and Related Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is today a valuable source of remote sensing information. SAR is a side-looking imaging radar and operates from airborne and spacebome platforms. Coverage, resolution and image quality are strongly influenced by the platform. SAR processing can be performed on standard

  11. Nonlinear Real-Time Optical Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    Displays," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 576-583, February 1976. * 2. L.K. Fraas, et al., OAC Photoresponse of a Large Area Imaging...365-368, 1977. 4. A. Lohmann, "Suggestions for Hybrid Image Processing,* Optics Communications, Vol. 22, pp. 165-168, 1977. S. M. Marquet and J

  12. Assess Sleep Stage by Modern Signal Processing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hau-tieng; Lo, Yu-Lun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two modern adaptive signal processing techniques, Empirical Intrinsic Geometry and Synchrosqueezing transform, are applied to quantify different dynamical features of the respiratory and electroencephalographic signals. We show that the proposed features are theoretically rigorously supported, as well as capture the sleep information hidden inside the signals. The features are used as input to multiclass support vector machines with the radial basis function to automatically classify sleep stages. The effectiveness of the classification based on the proposed features is shown to be comparable to human expert classification -- the proposed classification of awake, REM, N1, N2 and N3 sleeping stages based on the respiratory signal (resp. respiratory and EEG signals) has the overall accuracy $81.7\\%$ (resp. $89.3\\%$) in the relatively normal subject group. In addition, by examining the combination of the respiratory signal with the electroencephalographic signal, we conclude that the respiratory s...

  13. Signal processing for mobile communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ibnkahla, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONSignal Processing for Future Mobile Communications Systems: Challenges and Perspectives; Quazi Mehbubar Rahman and Mohamed IbnkahlaCHANNEL MODELING AND ESTIMATIONMultipath Propagation Models for Broadband Wireless Systems; Andreas F. Molisch and Fredrik TufvessonModeling and Estimation of Mobile Channels; Jitendra K. TugnaitMobile Satellite Channels: Statistical Models and Performance Analysis; Giovanni E. Corazza, Alessandro Vanelli-Coralli, Raffaella Pedone, and Massimo NeriMobile Velocity Estimation for Wireless Communications; Bouchra Senadji, Ghazem Azemi, and Boualem Boashash

  14. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  15. Sigma Delta Signal Processing on Via-Configurable Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Sigma Delta Signal Processing on Via-Configurable Arrays Jim Kemerling Triad Semiconductor, Inc. Winston-Salem, NC 27103 Abstract: Sigma -Delta...Mask Programmable Analog Array; Mixed-Signal ASIC; Sigma Delta Modulation; Structured Array; Switched Capacitor Circuits; Via-Configurable Array... phase of the input signal at the rate determined by the M output. Figure 9 shows the simulation results and Figure 10 shows the tiles used in the

  16. Digital signal processing based on inverse scattering transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turitsyna, Elena G; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2013-10-15

    Through numerical modeling, we illustrate the possibility of a new approach to digital signal processing in coherent optical communications based on the application of the so-called inverse scattering transform. Considering without loss of generality a fiber link with normal dispersion and quadrature phase shift keying signal modulation, we demonstrate how an initial information pattern can be recovered (without direct backward propagation) through the calculation of nonlinear spectral data of the received optical signal.

  17. Discrete random signal processing and filtering primer with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2013-01-01

    Engineers in all fields will appreciate a practical guide that combines several new effective MATLAB® problem-solving approaches and the very latest in discrete random signal processing and filtering.Numerous Useful Examples, Problems, and Solutions - An Extensive and Powerful ReviewWritten for practicing engineers seeking to strengthen their practical grasp of random signal processing, Discrete Random Signal Processing and Filtering Primer with MATLAB provides the opportunity to doubly enhance their skills. The author, a leading expert in the field of electrical and computer engineering, offe

  18. Fundamentals of Signal Processing for Sound and Vibration Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Kihong

    2008-01-01

    Fundamentals of Signal Processing for Sound and Vibration Engineers is based on Joe Hammond's many years of teaching experience at the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton. Whilst the applications presented emphasise sound and vibration, the book focusses on the basic essentials of signal processing that ensures its appeal as a reference text to students and practitioners in all areas of mechanical, automotive, aerospace and civil engineering.  Offers an excellent introduction to signal processing for students and professionals in th

  19. Preliminary development of digital signal processing in microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Topics covered involve a number of closely related tasks including: the development of several control loop and dynamic noise model computer programs for simulating microwave radiometer measurements; computer modeling of an existing stepped frequency radiometer in an effort to determine its optimum operational characteristics; investigation of the classical second order analog control loop to determine its ability to reduce the estimation error in a microwave radiometer; investigation of several digital signal processing unit designs; initiation of efforts to develop required hardware and software for implementation of the digital signal processing unit; and investigation of the general characteristics and peculiarities of digital processing noiselike microwave radiometer signals.

  20. Digital video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.

  1. Modeling laser velocimeter signals as triply stochastic Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, W. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Previous models of laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) systems have not adequately described dual-scatter signals in a manner useful for analysis and simulation of low-level photon-limited signals. At low photon rates, an LDV signal at the output of a photomultiplier tube is a compound nonhomogeneous filtered Poisson process, whose intensity function is another (slower) Poisson process with the nonstationary rate and frequency parameters controlled by a random flow (slowest) process. In the present paper, generalized Poisson shot noise models are developed for low-level LDV signals. Theoretical results useful in detection error analysis and simulation are presented, along with measurements of burst amplitude statistics. Computer generated simulations illustrate the difference between Gaussian and Poisson models of low-level signals.

  2. High-resolution imaging methods in array signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki

    The purpose of this study is to develop methods in array signal processing which achieve accurate signal reconstruction from limited observations resulting in high-resolution imaging. The focus is on underwater acoustic applications and sonar signal processing both in active (transmit and receive...... in active sonar signal processing for detection and imaging of submerged oil contamination in sea water from a deep-water oil leak. The submerged oil _eld is modeled as a uid medium exhibiting spatial perturbations in the acoustic parameters from their mean ambient values which cause weak scattering......-of-arrival (DOA) of the associated wavefronts from a limited number of observations. Usually, there are only a few sources generating the acoustic wavefield such that DOA estimation is essentially a sparse signal reconstruction problem. Conventional methods for DOA estimation (i.e., beamforming) suffer from...

  3. Improving Video Game Development: Facilitating Heterogeneous Team Collaboration through Flexible Software Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Juergen; Schweda, Angelika; Winkler, Dietmar; Biffl, Stefan

    Based on our observations of Austrian video game software development (VGSD) practices we identified a lack of systematic processes/method support and inefficient collaboration between various involved disciplines, i.e. engineers and artists. VGSD includes heterogeneous disciplines, e.g. creative arts, game/content design, and software. Nevertheless, improving team collaboration and process support is an ongoing challenge to enable a comprehensive view on game development projects. Lessons learned from software engineering practices can help game developers to increase game development processes within a heterogeneous environment. Based on a state of the practice survey in the Austrian games industry, this paper presents (a) first results with focus on process/method support and (b) suggests a candidate flexible process approach based on Scrum to improve VGSD and team collaboration. Results showed (a) a trend to highly flexible software processes involving various disciplines and (b) identified the suggested flexible process approach as feasible and useful for project application.

  4. Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at http://videolib.marum.de). It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted

  5. Recent Advances in Ultra-High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We review recent advances in the optical signal processing of ultra-high-speed serial data signals up to 1.28 Tbit/s, with focus on applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Experimental methods for the generation of symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud are also described....

  6. All-optical signal processing in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2002-01-01

    The focal point of the research presented here is all-optical signal processing via nonlinearities. The objective has been to investigate the interaction between optical signals via nonlinearities and how these nonlinearities can be engineered to serve specific purposes. The nonlinear response...

  7. Surface light scattering: integrated technology and signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, L.; Dam-Hansen, C.; Rasmussen, E.

    1997-01-01

    systems representing increasing levels of integration are considered. It is demonstrated that efficient signal and data processing can be achieved by evaluation of the statistics of the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the detector signal. (C) 1997 Optical Society of America....

  8. Data processing method for a weak, moving telemetry signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W. B.; Levy, G. S.; Nixon, D. L.; Panson, P. L.

    1969-01-01

    Method of processing data from a spacecraft, where the carrier has a low signal-to-noise ratio and wide unpredictable frequency shifts, consists of analogue recording of the noisy signal along with a high-frequency tone that is used as a clock to trigger a digitizer.

  9. Bacterial Biofilm Control by Perturbation of Bacterial Signaling Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2017-01-01

    infections. A potential method for biofilm dismantling is chemical interception of regulatory processes that are specifically involved in the biofilm mode of life. In particular, bacterial cell to cell signaling called “Quorum Sensing” together with intracellular signaling by bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic...

  10. Data Analysis as the Search for Signals in Noisy Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Clifford; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Explores challenges of learning to think about data as signal and noise. Examines the signal/noise metaphor in the context of three different statistical processes: (1) repeated measures; (2) measuring individuals; and (3) dichotomous events. Makes several recommendations for research and instruction on the basis of this analysis. (Author/KHR)

  11. Body movement analysis during sleep for children with ADHD using video image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Masahiro; Okada, Shima; Shimizu, Sachiko; Mohri, Ikuko; Ohno, Yuko; Taniike, Masako; Makikawa, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the amount of children with sleep disorders that cause arousal during sleep or light sleep is increasing. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a cause of this sleep disorder; children with ADHD have frequent body movement during sleep. Therefore, we investigated the body movement during sleep of children with and without ADHD using video imaging. We analysed large gross body movements (GM) that occur and obtained the GM rate and the rest duration. There were differences between the body movements of children with ADHD and normally developed children. The children with ADHD moved frequently, so their rest duration was shorter than that of the normally developed children. Additionally, the rate of gross body movement indicated a significant difference in REM sleep (p video image processing.

  12. HYMOSS signal processing for pushbroom spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Pushbroom Spectral Imaging Program was to develop on-focal plane electronics which compensate for detector array non-uniformities. The approach taken was to implement a simple two point calibration algorithm on focal plane which allows for offset and linear gain correction. The key on focal plane features which made this technique feasible was the use of a high quality transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and an analog-to-digital converter for each detector channel. Gain compensation is accomplished by varying the feedback capacitance of the integrate and dump TIA. Offset correction is performed by storing offsets in a special on focal plane offset register and digitally subtracting the offsets from the readout data during the multiplexing operation. A custom integrated circuit was designed, fabricated, and tested on this program which proved that nonuniformity compensated, analog-to-digital converting circuits may be used to read out infrared detectors. Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) successfully demonstrated the following innovative on-focal-plane functions that allow for correction of detector non-uniformities. Most of the circuit functions demonstrated on this program are finding their way onto future IC's because of their impact on reduced downstream processing, increased focal plane performance, simplified focal plane control, reduced number of dewar connections, as well as the noise immunity of a digital interface dewar. The potential commercial applications for this integrated circuit are primarily in imaging systems. These imaging systems may be used for: security monitoring systems, manufacturing process monitoring, robotics, and for spectral imaging when used in analytical instrumentation.

  13. A flexible software architecture for scalable real-time image and video processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2012-06-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility because they are normally oriented towards particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse and inefficient execution on multicore processors. This paper presents a novel software architecture for real-time image and video processing applications which addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers: the platform abstraction layer, the messaging layer, and the application layer. The platform abstraction layer provides a high level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of messages. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for real-time image and video processing applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface and data processing modules, take advantage of the power of other well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, we present different prototypes and applications to show the possibilities of the proposed architecture.

  14. Array signal processing in the NASA Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Timothy T.; Jongeling, Andre P.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe the benefits of arraying and past as well as expected future use of this application. The signal processing aspects of array system are described. Field measurements via actual tracking spacecraft are also presented.

  15. Optical signal processing using electro-absorption modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Romstad, Francis Pascal; Højfeldt, Sune

    2003-01-01

    Reverse-biased semiconductor waveguides are efficient saturable absorbers and have a number of promising all-optical signal processing applications. Results on ultrafast modulator dynamics as well as demonstrations and investigations of wavelength conversion and regeneration are presented....

  16. Comparative analysis of genomic signal processing for microarray data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert S H; Sungoor, Ala; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-12-01

    Genomic signal processing is a new area of research that combines advanced digital signal processing methodologies for enhanced genetic data analysis. It has many promising applications in bioinformatics and next generation of healthcare systems, in particular, in the field of microarray data clustering. In this paper we present a comparative performance analysis of enhanced digital spectral analysis methods for robust clustering of gene expression across multiple microarray data samples. Three digital signal processing methods: linear predictive coding, wavelet decomposition, and fractal dimension are studied to provide a comparative evaluation of the clustering performance of these methods on several microarray datasets. The results of this study show that the fractal approach provides the best clustering accuracy compared to other digital signal processing and well known statistical methods.

  17. Architecture of a complex arithmetic processor for communication signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfeather, Susan L.; Gehman, John B., Jr.; Harrison, Calvin

    1994-10-01

    The Complex Arithmetic Processor (CAP) is a high performance, single chip Digital Signal Processor optimized for communication signal processing operations. The CAP VLSI provides the communication system building block necessary to meet the increased signal processing requirements of complex modulation types, voice and image compression while maintaining the requirement for small, low power implementations. The chip is intended for high speed, low power digital communication system applications such as hand held spread spectrum communications systems. The CAP architecture has been developed specifically for the complex arithmetic functions required in communication signal processing. The CAP is a software programmable, highly integrated parallel array of processors containing the arithmetic resources, memories, address generation, bit manipulation and logic functions necessary to support the sophisticated processing required in advanced communication equipment. The CAP executes a 1024 point complex Fast Fourier Transform in 131 microseconds.

  18. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozański, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using digital signal processing (DSP) methods. It includes Matlab examples for illustration of considered problems.

  19. Software for biomedical engineering signal processing laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Willis J; Wilson, J

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1990's we developed a special computer program called UW DigiScope to provide a mechanism for anyone interested in biomedical digital signal processing to study the field without requiring any other instrument except a personal computer. There are many digital filtering and pattern recognition algorithms used in processing biomedical signals. In general, students have very limited opportunity to have hands-on access to the mechanisms of digital signal processing. In a typical course, the filters are designed non-interactively, which does not provide the student with significant understanding of the design constraints of such filters nor their actual performance characteristics. UW DigiScope 3.0 is the first major update since version 2.0 was released in 1994. This paper provides details on how the new version based on MATLAB! works with signals, including the filter design tool that is the programming interface between UW DigiScope and processing algorithms.

  20. Mathematical summary for digital signal processing applications with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical Summary for Digital Signal Processing Applications with Matlab consists of Mathematics which is not usually dealt with in the DSP core subject, but used in DSP applications. It gives Matlab programs with illustrations.

  1. Relationships between digital signal processing and control and estimation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research areas associated with digital signal processing and control and estimation theory are identified. Particular attention is given to image processing, system identification problems (parameter identification, linear prediction, least squares, Kalman filtering), stability analyses (the use of the Liapunov theory, frequency domain criteria, passivity), and multiparameter systems, distributed processes, and random fields.

  2. Ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of Tbaud data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2010-01-01

    We describe methods to generate and optically signal process Tbaud serial optical data signals. We present sub-systems making serial optical Tbit/s systems compatible with standard Ethernet data for data centre applications, and present Tbit/s results using a.o. silicon nanowires....

  3. Ultrafast optical signal processing using semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing.......The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing....

  4. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  5. Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping.......We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....

  6. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching.......Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  7. Isospin equilibration processes and dipolar signals: Coherent cluster production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, M.; Berceanu, I.; Acosta, L.; Agodi, C.; Auditore, L.; Cardella, G.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Dell'Aquila, D.; De Filippo, E.; Francalanza, L.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Maiolino, C.; Martorana, N.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Trifiró, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2017-11-01

    The total dipolar signal related to multi-break-up processes induced on the system ^{48}Ca +{^{27}Al} at 40MeV/nucleon has been investigated with the CHIMERA multi-detector. Experimental data related to semi-peripheral collisions are shown and compared with CoMD-III calculations. The strong connection between the dipolar signal as obtained from the detected fragments and the dynamics of the isospin equilibration processes is also shortly discussed.

  8. 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, which provides a venue to disseminate the latest developments and to discuss the interactions and links between these multidisciplinary fields. Spanning topics ranging from Communications, Signal Processing and Systems, this book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, researchers and engineers from academia and industry as well as government employees (such as NSF, DOD, DOE, etc).

  9. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  10. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1996-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997....

  11. Signal Analysis and Processing Platform Based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A signal analysis and processing platform was developed in this paper. The platform was designed by LabVIEW 2012 which covered many signal analysis and processing functions, such as Filter, Spectrum analysis and so on. After testing and practical application, the interface of the platform is flexible, vivid and easy to operate which can meet the needs of universities and research laboratories.

  12. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks applications in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kavaklioglu, K.

    1991-12-31

    Signal validation and plant subsystem tracking in power and process industries require the prediction of one or more state variables. Both heteroassociative and auotassociative neural networks were applied for characterizing relationships among sets of signals. A multi-layer neural network paradigm was applied for sensor and process monitoring in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This nonlinear interpolation technique was found to be very effective for these applications.

  13. Decoding Signal Processing at the Single-Cell Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. Steven

    2017-12-01

    The ability of cells to detect and decode information about their extracellular environment is critical to generating an appropriate response. In multicellular organisms, cells must decode dozens of signals from their neighbors and extracellular matrix to maintain tissue homeostasis while still responding to environmental stressors. How cells detect and process information from their surroundings through a surprisingly limited number of signal transduction pathways is one of the most important question in biology. Despite many decades of research, many of the fundamental principles that underlie cell signal processing remain obscure. However, in this issue of Cell Systems, Gillies et al present compelling evidence that the early response gene circuit can act as a linear signal integrator, thus providing significant insight into how cells handle fluctuating signals and noise in their environment.

  14. Influence of acquisition frame-rate and video compression techniques on pulse-rate variability estimation from vPPG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Luca; Iozzia, Luca; Mainardi, Luca

    2017-11-14

    In this paper, common time- and frequency-domain variability indexes obtained by pulse rate variability (PRV) series extracted from video-photoplethysmographic signal (vPPG) were compared with heart rate variability (HRV) parameters calculated from synchronized ECG signals. The dual focus of this study was to analyze the effect of different video acquisition frame-rates starting from 60 frames-per-second (fps) down to 7.5 fps and different video compression techniques using both lossless and lossy codecs on PRV parameters estimation. Video recordings were acquired through an off-the-shelf GigE Sony XCG-C30C camera on 60 young, healthy subjects (age 23±4 years) in the supine position. A fully automated, signal extraction method based on the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm for regions of interest (ROI) detection and tracking, in combination with a zero-phase principal component analysis (ZCA) signal separation technique was employed to convert the video frames sequence to a pulsatile signal. The frame-rate degradation was simulated on video recordings by directly sub-sampling the ROI tracking and signal extraction modules, to correctly mimic videos recorded at a lower speed. The compression of the videos was configured to avoid any frame rejection caused by codec quality leveling, FFV1 codec was used for lossless compression and H.264 with variable quality parameter as lossy codec. The results showed that a reduced frame-rate leads to inaccurate tracking of ROIs, increased time-jitter in the signals dynamics and local peak displacements, which degrades the performances in all the PRV parameters. The root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and the proportion of successive differences greater than 50 ms (PNN50) indexes in time-domain and the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power in frequency domain were the parameters which highly degraded with frame-rate reduction. Such a degradation can be partially mitigated by up-sampling the measured

  15. Signal-processing theory for the TurboRogue receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Signal-processing theory for the TurboRogue receiver is presented. The signal form is traced from its formation at the GPS satellite, to the receiver antenna, and then through the various stages of the receiver, including extraction of phase and delay. The analysis treats the effects of ionosphere, troposphere, signal quantization, receiver components, and system noise, covering processing in both the 'code mode' when the P code is not encrypted and in the 'P-codeless mode' when the P code is encrypted. As a possible future improvement to the current analog front end, an example of a highly digital front end is analyzed.

  16. UCMS - A new signal parameter measurement system using digital signal processing techniques. [User Constraint Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Su, Y. T.

    1986-01-01

    The User Constraint Measurement System (UCMS) is a hardware/software package developed by NASA Goddard to measure the signal parameter constraints of the user transponder in the TDRSS environment by means of an all-digital signal sampling technique. An account is presently given of the features of UCMS design and of its performance capabilities and applications; attention is given to such important aspects of the system as RF interface parameter definitions, hardware minimization, the emphasis on offline software signal processing, and end-to-end link performance. Applications to the measurement of other signal parameters are also discussed.

  17. Marketing Strategy Implementation Process in the Creative Industry of Video Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryangela Drumond de Abreu Negrão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the understanding of marketing strategy process when it presents the organizational and human factors that support the processes of implementation, identified in a qualitative study conducted in the creative industry of video game development. The research, a case study applied to four video and computer game companies was based on the Sashittal and Jassawalla (2001 marketing strategic model, and on the concepts of the creative behavior and innovation in organizations proposed by Amabile (1997. The analysis suggests that the marketing strategy implementation is anchored in innovative administrative process, creative skills and the adoption of modern control technologies. It was observed that a vision that associates production, process, the market orientation and the delivery of value-adding is essential for the implementation of strategies in creative and innovative organizational structures. The research contributes to the marketing strategy implementation studies in creative and innovative environments under the approach of smaller organizations. It also contributes with the marketing strategy theory when it suggests that the analysis of the process, the control and the management skills be included as categories into the theoretical model in future investigations.

  18. Phase-based motion magnification video for monitoring of vital signals using the Hermite transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieva, Jorge; Moya-Albor, Ernesto

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a new Eulerian phase-based motion magnification technique using the Hermite Transform (HT) decomposition that is inspired in the Human Vision System (HVS). We test our method in one sequence of the breathing of a newborn baby and on a video sequence that shows the heartbeat on the wrist. We detect and magnify the heart pulse applying our technique. Our motion magnification approach is compared to the Laplacian phase based approach by means of quantitative metrics (based on the RMS error and the Fourier transform) to measure the quality of both reconstruction and magnification. In addition a noise robustness analysis is performed for the two methods.

  19. A comparison of signal processing techniques for Intrinsic Optical Signal imaging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Jordan A; Nilsson, Michael; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Johnson, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic Optical Signal imaging is a technique which allows the visualisation and mapping of activity related changes within the brain with excellent spatial and temporal resolution. We analysed a variety of signal and image processing techniques applied to real mouse imaging data. The results were compared in an attempt to overcome the unique issues faced when performing the technique on mice and improve the understanding of post processing options available.

  20. Serial optical communications and ultra-fast optical signal processing of Tbit/s data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology......This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology...

  1. Measurement of thigmomorphogenesis and gravitropism by non-intrusive computerized video image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    A video image processing instrument, DARWIN (Digital Analyser of Resolvable Whole-pictures by Image Numeration), was developed. It was programmed to measure stem or root growth and bending, and coupled to a specially mounted video camera to be able to automatically generate growth and bending curves during gravitropism. The growth of the plant is recorded on a video casette recorder with a specially modified time lapse function. At the end of the experiment, DARWIN analyses the growth or movement and prints out bending and growth curves. This system was used to measure thigmomorphagenesis in light grown corn plants. If the plant is rubbed with an applied force load of 0.38 N., it grows faster than the unrubbed control, whereas 1.14 N. retards its growth. Image analysis shows that most of the change in the rate of growth is caused in the first hour after rubbing. When DARWIN was used to measure gravitropism in dark grown oat seedlings, it was found that the top side of the shoot contracts during the first hour of gravitational stimulus, whereas the bottom side begins to elongate after 10 to 15 minutes.

  2. Individual differences in the processing of smoking-cessation video messages: An imaging genetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, An-Li; Aronowitz, Catherine A; Romer, Daniel; Langleben, Daniel D

    2017-09-01

    Studies testing the benefits of enriching smoking-cessation video ads with attention-grabbing sensory features have yielded variable results. Dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) has been implicated in attention deficits. We hypothesized that DAT1 polymorphism is partially responsible for this variability. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain responses to videos high or low in attention-grabbing features, indexed by "message sensation value" (MSV), in 53 smokers genotyped for DAT1. Compared to other smokers, 10/10 homozygotes showed greater neural response to High- vs. Low-MSV smoking-cessation videos in two a priori regions of interest: the right temporoparietal junction and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. These regions are known to underlie stimulus-driven attentional processing. Exploratory analysis showed that the right temporoparietal response positively predicted follow-up smoking behavior indexed by urine cotinine. Our findings suggest that responses to attention-grabbing features in smoking-cessation messages is affected by the DAT1 genotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. GPU accelerated OCT processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Wong, Kevin; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2013-03-01

    In this report, we describe how to highly optimize a CUDA based platform to perform real time optical coherence tomography data processing and 3D volumetric rendering using commercially-available cost-effective graphic processing units (GPUs). The maximum complete attainable axial scan processing rate (including memory transfer and rendering frame) was 2.2 megahertz for 16 bits pixel depth and 2048 pixels/A-scan, the maximum 3D volumetric rendering speed is 23 volumes/second (size:1024×256×200). To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest processing rate reported to date with single-chip GPU and the first implementation of real time video rate volumetric OCT processing and rendering that is capable of matching the ultrahigh-speed OCT acquisition rates.

  4. Removing Background Noise with Phased Array Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary; Stephens, David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test conducted to determine how well microphone phased array processing software could pull an acoustic signal out of background noise. The array consisted of 24 microphones in an aerodynamic fairing designed to be mounted in-flow. The processing was conducted using Functional Beam forming software developed by Optinav combined with cross spectral matrix subtraction. The test was conducted in the free-jet of the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig at NASA GRC. The background noise was produced by the interaction of the free-jet flow with the solid surfaces in the flow. The acoustic signals were produced by acoustic drivers. The results show that the phased array processing was able to pull the acoustic signal out of the background noise provided the signal was no more than 20 dB below the background noise level measured using a conventional single microphone equipped with an aerodynamic forebody.

  5. Mathematical principles of signal processing Fourier and wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brémaud, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful tools in many applied sciences. The recent developments of wavelet analysis indicates that in spite of its long history and well-established applications, the field is still one of active research. This text bridges the gap between engineering and mathematics, providing a rigorously mathematical introduction of Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis and related mathematical methods, while emphasizing their uses in signal processing and other applications in communications engineering. The interplay between Fourier series and Fourier transforms is at the heart of signal processing, which is couched most naturally in terms of the Dirac delta function and Lebesgue integrals. The exposition is organized into four parts. The first is a discussion of one-dimensional Fourier theory, including the classical results on convergence and the Poisson sum formula. The second part is devoted to the mathematical foundations of signal processing - sampling, filtering, digital signal proc...

  6. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren

    2009-04-14

    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The n.sup.th level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  7. Facilitation or disengagement? Attention bias in facial affect processing after short-term violent video game exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Liu

    Full Text Available Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed to either neutral or violent video games for 25 min and then event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded during two emotional search tasks. The first search task assessed attentional facilitation, in which participants were required to identify an emotional face from a crowd of neutral faces. In contrast, the second task measured disengagement, in which participants were required to identify a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. Our results found a significant presence of the ERP component, N2pc, during the facilitation task; however, no differences were observed between the two video game groups. This finding does not support a link between attentional facilitation and violent video game exposure. Comparatively, during the disengagement task, N2pc responses were not observed when participants viewed happy faces following violent video game exposure; however, a weak N2pc response was observed after neutral video game exposure. These results provided only inconsistent support for the disengagement hypothesis, suggesting that participants found it difficult to separate a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces.

  8. Facilitation or disengagement? Attention bias in facial affect processing after short-term violent video game exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Lan, Haiying; Teng, Zhaojun; Guo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed to either neutral or violent video games for 25 min and then event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during two emotional search tasks. The first search task assessed attentional facilitation, in which participants were required to identify an emotional face from a crowd of neutral faces. In contrast, the second task measured disengagement, in which participants were required to identify a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. Our results found a significant presence of the ERP component, N2pc, during the facilitation task; however, no differences were observed between the two video game groups. This finding does not support a link between attentional facilitation and violent video game exposure. Comparatively, during the disengagement task, N2pc responses were not observed when participants viewed happy faces following violent video game exposure; however, a weak N2pc response was observed after neutral video game exposure. These results provided only inconsistent support for the disengagement hypothesis, suggesting that participants found it difficult to separate a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces.

  9. Facilitation or disengagement? Attention bias in facial affect processing after short-term violent video game exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Lan, Haiying; Teng, Zhaojun; Guo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed to either neutral or violent video games for 25 min and then event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during two emotional search tasks. The first search task assessed attentional facilitation, in which participants were required to identify an emotional face from a crowd of neutral faces. In contrast, the second task measured disengagement, in which participants were required to identify a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. Our results found a significant presence of the ERP component, N2pc, during the facilitation task; however, no differences were observed between the two video game groups. This finding does not support a link between attentional facilitation and violent video game exposure. Comparatively, during the disengagement task, N2pc responses were not observed when participants viewed happy faces following violent video game exposure; however, a weak N2pc response was observed after neutral video game exposure. These results provided only inconsistent support for the disengagement hypothesis, suggesting that participants found it difficult to separate a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. PMID:28249033

  10. A psycho-ethological approach to social signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehu, Marc; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    The emerging field of social signal processing can benefit from a theoretical framework to guide future research activities. The present article aims at drawing attention to two areas of research that devoted considerable efforts to the understanding of social behaviour: ethology and social psychology. With a long tradition in the study of animal signals, ethology and evolutionary biology have developed theoretical concepts to account for the functional significance of signalling. For example, the consideration of divergent selective pressures responsible for the evolution of signalling and social cognition emphasized the importance of two classes of indicators: informative cues and communicative signals. Social psychology, on the other hand, investigates emotional expression and interpersonal relationships, with a focus on the mechanisms underlying the production and interpretation of social signals and cues. Based on the theoretical considerations developed in these two fields, we propose a model that integrates the processing of perceivable individual features (social signals and cues) with contextual information, and we suggest that output of computer-based processing systems should be derived in terms of functional significance rather than in terms of absolute conceptual meaning.

  11. Assess sleep stage by modern signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng; Talmon, Ronen; Lo, Yu-Lun

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, two modern adaptive signal processing techniques, empirical intrinsic geometry and synchrosqueezing transform, are applied to quantify different dynamical features of the respiratory and electroencephalographic signals. We show that the proposed features are theoretically rigorously supported, as well as capture the sleep information hidden inside the signals. The features are used as input to multiclass support vector machines with the radial basis function to automatically classify sleep stages. The effectiveness of the classification based on the proposed features is shown to be comparable to human expert classification-the proposed classification of awake, REM, N1, N2, and N3 sleeping stages based on the respiratory signal (resp. respiratory and EEG signals) has the overall accuracy 81.7% (resp. 89.3%) in the relatively normal subject group. In addition, by examining the combination of the respiratory signal with the electroencephalographic signal, we conclude that the respiratory signal consists of ample sleep information, which supplements to the information stored in the electroencephalographic signal.

  12. Using image processing technology combined with decision tree algorithm in laryngeal video stroboscope automatic identification of common vocal fold diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Kuo, Chung-Feng; Wang, Po-Chun; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Lai, Chun-Yu

    2013-10-01

    This study used the actual laryngeal video stroboscope videos taken by physicians in clinical practice as the samples for experimental analysis. The samples were dynamic vocal fold videos. Image processing technology was used to automatically capture the image of the largest glottal area from the video to obtain the physiological data of the vocal folds. In this study, an automatic vocal fold disease identification system was designed, which can obtain the physiological parameters for normal vocal folds, vocal paralysis and vocal nodules from image processing according to the pathological features. The decision tree algorithm was used as the classifier of the vocal fold diseases. The identification rate was 92.6%, and the identification rate with an image recognition improvement processing procedure after classification can be improved to 98.7%. Hence, the proposed system has value in clinical practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Signals and Systems in Biomedical Engineering Signal Processing and Physiological Systems Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital signal processing is ubiquitous in the field of physiology and biomedical engineering. The application of such mathematical and computational tools requires a formal or explicit understanding of physiology. Formal models and analytical techniques are interlinked in physiology as in any other field. This book takes a unitary approach to physiological systems, beginning with signal measurement and acquisition, followed by signal processing, linear systems modelling, and computer simulations. The signal processing techniques range across filtering, spectral analysis and wavelet analysis. Emphasis is placed on fundamental understanding of the concepts as well as solving numerical problems. Graphs and analogies are used extensively to supplement the mathematics. Detailed models of nerve and muscle at the cellular and systemic levels provide examples for the mathematical methods and computer simulations. Several of the models are sufficiently sophisticated to be of value in understanding real wor...

  14. Deep Learning in Visual Computing and Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning, which aims to learn a hierarchy of features from input data. Nowadays, researchers have intensively investigated deep learning algorithms for solving challenging problems in many areas such as image classification, speech recognition, signal processing, and natural language processing. In this study, we not only review typical deep learning algorithms in computer vision and signal processing but also provide detailed information on how to apply deep learning to specific areas such as road crack detection, fault diagnosis, and human activity detection. Besides, this study also discusses the challenges of designing and training deep neural networks.

  15. Real-time digital signal processing fundamentals, implementations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Sen M; Tian, Wenshun

    2013-01-01

    Combines both the DSP principles and real-time implementations and applications, and now updated with the new eZdsp USB Stick, which is very low cost, portable and widely employed at many DSP labs. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing introduces fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) principles and will be updated to include the latest DSP applications, introduce new software development tools and adjust the software design process to reflect the latest advances in the field. In the 3rd edition of the book, the key aspect of hands-on experiments will be enhanced to make the DSP principle

  16. All-Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Pu, Minhao; Ding, Yunhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent wo rk on the use of silicon waveguides for processing optical data signals. We will describe ultra-fast, ultra-broadband, polarisation-insensitive and phase-sensitive applications including processing of spectrally-efficient data formats and optical phase...

  17. Variations of the Respiration Signals for Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy Using the Video Coached Respiration Guiding System

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Oh, Se An

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) has been used to minimize the dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer radiotherapy. The present research aims to improve the regularity of respiration in RGRT using a video coached respiration guiding system. In the study, 16 patients with lung cancer were evaluated. The respiration signals of the patients were measured by a real-time position management (RPM) Respiratory Gating System (Varian, USA) and the patients were trained using the video coached respiration guiding system. The patients performed free breathing and guided breathing, and the respiratory cycles were acquired for ~5 min. Then, Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation for each phase. The standard deviation was computed in order to analyze the improvement in the respiratory regularity with respect to the period and displacement. The standard deviation of the guided breathing decreased to 65.14% in the inhale peak and 71.04% in the exhale peak compared with the...

  18. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R. Riggs

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  19. Non-Adaptive Methods of Fetal ECG Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radana Kahankova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fetal ElectroCardioGrams (fECGs carry a wealth of information about the fetus including fetal Heart Rate (fHR and signal morphology during different stages of pregnancy. Here we report our results on the implementation and evaluation of two non-adaptive signal processing methods suitable for fECG signal extraction, namely: the Independent Component Analysis (ICA and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA Methods. We used the fetal heart rate extracted from fECG signals (in Beats Per Minute - BPM and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR as effective performance evaluation metrics for our applied methods. Our findings demonstrated that given adequate SNR, these methods produced excellent results in accurate determination of fHR. Furthermore, we found out that compared to the PCA Method, the ICA Method produces a lower variance in the detection of the fHR.

  20. Optimal and adaptive methods of processing hydroacoustic signals (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, G. S.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2014-09-01

    Different methods of optimal and adaptive processing of hydroacoustic signals for multipath propagation and scattering are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the classical adaptive (Capon, MUSIC, and Johnson) algorithms and "fast" projection algorithms are analyzed for the case of multipath propagation and scattering of strong signals. The classical optimal approaches to detecting multipath signals are presented. A mechanism of controlled normalization of strong signals is proposed to automatically detect weak signals. The results of simulating the operation of different detection algorithms for a linear equidistant array under multipath propagation and scattering are presented. An automatic detector is analyzed, which is based on classical or fast projection algorithms, which estimates the background proceeding from median filtering or the method of bilateral spatial contrast.

  1. Real time video processing software for the analysis of endoscopic guided-biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, C.; Bouchet, A.; Pastore, J.; Blotta, E.

    2011-12-01

    The severity in Barrett esophagus disease is, undoubtedly, the possibility of its malignization. To make an early diagnosis in order to avoid possible complications, it is absolutely necessary collect biopsies to make a histological analysis. This should be done under endoscopic control to avoid mucus areas that may co-exist within the columnar epithelial, which could lead to a false diagnosis. This paper presents a video processing software in real-time in order to delineate and enhance areas of interest to facilitate the work of the expert.

  2. Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Lacava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review on silicon-based nonlinear devices for all optical nonlinear processing of complex telecommunication signals. We discuss some recent developments achieved by our research group, through extensive collaborations with academic partners across Europe, on optical signal processing using silicon-germanium and amorphous silicon based waveguides as well as novel materials such as silicon rich silicon nitride and tantalum pentoxide. We review the performance of four wave mixing wavelength conversion applied on complex signals such as Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and 64-QAM that dramatically enhance the telecom signal spectral efficiency, paving the way to next generation terabit all-optical networks.

  3. Video-rate processing in tomographic phase microscopy of biological cells using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardikman, Gili; Habaza, Mor; Waller, Laura; Shaked, Natan T

    2016-05-30

    We suggest a new implementation for rapid reconstruction of three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) maps of biological cells acquired by tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). The TPM computational reconstruction process is extremely time consuming, making the analysis of large data sets unreasonably slow and the real-time 3-D visualization of the results impossible. Our implementation uses new phase extraction, phase unwrapping and Fourier slice algorithms, suitable for efficient CPU or GPU implementations. The experimental setup includes an external off-axis interferometric module connected to an inverted microscope illuminated coherently. We used single cell rotation by micro-manipulation to obtain interferometric projections from 73 viewing angles over a 180° angular range. Our parallel algorithms were implemented using Nvidia's CUDA C platform, running on Nvidia's Tesla K20c GPU. This implementation yields, for the first time to our knowledge, a 3-D reconstruction rate higher than video rate of 25 frames per second for 256 × 256-pixel interferograms with 73 different projection angles (64 × 64 × 64 output). This allows us to calculate additional cellular parameters, while still processing faster than video rate. This technique is expected to find uses for real-time 3-D cell visualization and processing, while yielding fast feedback for medical diagnosis and cell sorting.

  4. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Lowry, Kristin A; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-07-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65years: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson׳s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and denoising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  6. Time Encoded Signal Processing for Speech Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kraljevski, Ivan; Stojanovic, Igor; Chungurski, Slavco; Arsenovski, Sime

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a method for speech quality assessment is described and evaluated simulating transmission of AMR-NB encoded speech over noisy GSM channel. The proposed system uses comparison of Time Encoded Signal (TES) processing of speech sequences, where one original and one degraded speech signal were transmitted trough GSM simulation system with AWGN noise channel. Several tests have been made on reference speech sample of single speaker with simulated bit-error loss effects on the perc...

  7. [A new laser scan system for video ophthalmoscopy. Initial clinical experiences also in relation to digital image processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, E; Mertz, M; Hofmann, H; Wertheimer, R; Foos, C

    1990-06-01

    The clinical advantages of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and video imaging of fundus pictures are described. Image quality (contrast, depth of field) and imaging possibilities (confocal stop) are assessed. Imaging with different lasers (argon, He-Ne) and changes in imaging rendered possible by confocal alignment of the imaging optics are discussed. Hard copies from video images are still of inferior quality compared to fundus photographs. Methods of direct processing and retrieval of digitally stored SLO video fundus images are illustrated by examples. Modifications for a definitive laser scanning system - in regard to the field of view and the quality of hard copies - are proposed.

  8. NF-kappaB signaling in the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2009-07-01

    The aging process represents a progressive decline in cellular and organism function. Explaining the aging process has given rise to a cornucopia for different theories in which the basic difference has been the question whether aging is genetically regulated or an entropic degeneration process. Different screening techniques have revealed that mammalian aging is associated with the activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor system. The NF-kappaB system is an ancient host defense system concerned with immune responses and different external and internal dangers, such as oxidative and genotoxic stress. NF-kappaB signaling is not only the master regulator of inflammatory responses but can also regulate several homeostatic responses such as apoptosis, autophagy, and tissue atrophy. We will describe how chronic activation of NF-kappaB signaling has the capacity to induce the senescent phenotype associated with aging. Interestingly, several longevity genes such as SIRT1, SIRT6, and FoxOs can clearly suppress NF-kappaB signaling and in this way delay the aging process and extend lifespan. It seems that the aging process is an entropic degeneration process driven by NF-kappaB signaling. This process can be regulated by a variety of longevity genes along with a plethora of other factors such as genetic polymorphism, immune and dietary aspects, and environmental insults.

  9. Systematic analysis of video data from different human-robot interaction studies: a categorization of social signals during error situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Manuel; Mirnig, Nicole; Stollnberger, Gerald; Stadler, Susanne; Buchner, Roland; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interactions are often affected by error situations that are caused by either the robot or the human. Therefore, robots would profit from the ability to recognize when error situations occur. We investigated the verbal and non-verbal social signals that humans show when error situations occur in human-robot interaction experiments. For that, we analyzed 201 videos of five human-robot interaction user studies with varying tasks from four independent projects. The analysis shows that there are two types of error situations: social norm violations and technical failures. Social norm violations are situations in which the robot does not adhere to the underlying social script of the interaction. Technical failures are caused by technical shortcomings of the robot. The results of the video analysis show that the study participants use many head movements and very few gestures, but they often smile, when in an error situation with the robot. Another result is that the participants sometimes stop moving at the beginning of error situations. We also found that the participants talked more in the case of social norm violations and less during technical failures. Finally, the participants use fewer non-verbal social signals (for example smiling, nodding, and head shaking), when they are interacting with the robot alone and no experimenter or other human is present. The results suggest that participants do not see the robot as a social interaction partner with comparable communication skills. Our findings have implications for builders and evaluators of human-robot interaction systems. The builders need to consider including modules for recognition and classification of head movements to the robot input channels. The evaluators need to make sure that the presence of an experimenter does not skew the results of their user studies.

  10. Systematic Analysis of Video Data from Different Human-Robot Interaction Studies: A Categorisation of Social Signals During Error Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eGiuliani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot interactions are often affected by error situations that are caused by either the robot or the human. Therefore, robots would profit from the ability to recognise when error situations occur. We investigated the verbal and non-verbal social signals that humans show when error situations occur in human-robot interaction experiments. For that, we analysed 201 videos of five human-robot interaction user studies with varying tasks from four independent projects. The analysis shows that there are two types of error situations: social norm violations and technical failures. Social norm violations are situations in which the robot does not adhere to the underlying social script of the interaction. Technical failures are caused by technical shortcomings of the robot. The results of the video analysis show that the study participants use many head movements and very few gestures, when in an error situation with the robot. We also found that the participants talked more in the case of social norm violations and less during technical failures. Finally, the participants use fewer non-verbal social signals (for example smiling, nodding, and head shaking, when they are interacting with the robot alone and no experimenter or other human is present. The results suggest that participants do not see the robot as a social interaction partner with comparable communication skills. Our findings have implications for builders and evaluators of human-robot interaction systems. The builders need to consider including modules for recognition and classification of head movements to the robot input channels. The evaluators need to make sure that the presence of an experimenter does not skew the results of their user studies.

  11. Systematic analysis of video data from different human–robot interaction studies: a categorization of social signals during error situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Manuel; Mirnig, Nicole; Stollnberger, Gerald; Stadler, Susanne; Buchner, Roland; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Human–robot interactions are often affected by error situations that are caused by either the robot or the human. Therefore, robots would profit from the ability to recognize when error situations occur. We investigated the verbal and non-verbal social signals that humans show when error situations occur in human–robot interaction experiments. For that, we analyzed 201 videos of five human–robot interaction user studies with varying tasks from four independent projects. The analysis shows that there are two types of error situations: social norm violations and technical failures. Social norm violations are situations in which the robot does not adhere to the underlying social script of the interaction. Technical failures are caused by technical shortcomings of the robot. The results of the video analysis show that the study participants use many head movements and very few gestures, but they often smile, when in an error situation with the robot. Another result is that the participants sometimes stop moving at the beginning of error situations. We also found that the participants talked more in the case of social norm violations and less during technical failures. Finally, the participants use fewer non-verbal social signals (for example smiling, nodding, and head shaking), when they are interacting with the robot alone and no experimenter or other human is present. The results suggest that participants do not see the robot as a social interaction partner with comparable communication skills. Our findings have implications for builders and evaluators of human–robot interaction systems. The builders need to consider including modules for recognition and classification of head movements to the robot input channels. The evaluators need to make sure that the presence of an experimenter does not skew the results of their user studies. PMID:26217266

  12. Static Mapping of Functional Programs: An Example in Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack B. Dennis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex signal-processing problems are naturally described by compositions of program modules that process streams of data. In this article we discuss how such compositions may be analyzed and mapped onto multiprocessor computers to effectively exploit the massive parallelism of these applications. The methods are illustrated with an example of signal processing for an optical surveillance problem. Program transformation and analysis are used to construct a program description tree that represents the given computation as an acyclic interconnection of stream-processing modules. Each module may be mapped to a set of threads run on a group of processing elements of a target multiprocessor. Performance is considered for two forms of multiprocessor architecture, one based on conventional DSP technology and the other on a multithreaded-processing element design.

  13. The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure.

  14. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Vector Field Driven Design for Lightweight Signal Processing and Control Schemes for Autonomous Robotic Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebu John Mathai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of realizing lightweight signal processing and control architectures for agents in multirobot systems. Motivated by the promising results of neuromorphic engineering which suggest the efficacy of analog as an implementation substrate for computation, we present the design of an analog-amenable signal processing scheme. We use control and dynamical systems theory both as a description language and as a synthesis toolset to rigorously develop our computational machinery; these mechanisms are mated with structural insights from behavior-based robotics to compose overall algorithmic architectures. Our perspective is that robotic behaviors consist of actions taken by an agent to cause its sensory perception of the environment to evolve in a desired manner. To provide an intuitive aid for designing these behavioral primitives we present a novel visual tool, inspired vector field design, that helps the designer to exploit the dynamics of the environment. We present simulation results and animation videos to demonstrate the signal processing and control architecture in action.

  16. Vector Field Driven Design for Lightweight Signal Processing and Control Schemes for Autonomous Robotic Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Nebu John; Zourntos, Takis; Kundur, Deepa

    2009-12-01

    We address the problem of realizing lightweight signal processing and control architectures for agents in multirobot systems. Motivated by the promising results of neuromorphic engineering which suggest the efficacy of analog as an implementation substrate for computation, we present the design of an analog-amenable signal processing scheme. We use control and dynamical systems theory both as a description language and as a synthesis toolset to rigorously develop our computational machinery; these mechanisms are mated with structural insights from behavior-based robotics to compose overall algorithmic architectures. Our perspective is that robotic behaviors consist of actions taken by an agent to cause its sensory perception of the environment to evolve in a desired manner. To provide an intuitive aid for designing these behavioral primitives we present a novel visual tool, inspired vector field design, that helps the designer to exploit the dynamics of the environment. We present simulation results and animation videos to demonstrate the signal processing and control architecture in action.

  17. ecg-kit: a Matlab Toolbox for Cardiovascular Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Julio Demski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram kit ('ecg-kit' for Matlab is an application-programming interface (API developed to provide users a common interface to access and process cardiovascular signals. In the current version, the toolbox supports several ECG recording formats, most of them used by the most popular databases, which allows access to more than 7 TB of information, stored in public databases such as those included in Physionet or the THEW project. The toolbox includes several algorithms frequently used in cardiovascular signal processing, such as heartbeat detectors and classifiers, pulse detectors for pulsatile signals and an ECG delineator. In addition, it provides a tool for manually reviewing and correcting the results produced by the automatic algorithms. The results obtained can be stored in a Matlab (.MAT file for backup or subsequent processing, or used to create a PDF report.

  18. Digital signal processing for wireless communication using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2016-01-01

    This book examines signal processing techniques used in wireless communication illustrated by using the Matlab program. The author discusses these techniques as they relate to Doppler spread; delay spread; Rayleigh and Rician channel modeling; rake receiver; diversity techniques; MIMO and OFDM -based transmission techniques; and array signal processing. Related topics such as detection theory, link budget, multiple access techniques, and spread spectrum are also covered.   ·         Illustrates signal processing techniques involved in wireless communication using Matlab ·         Discusses multiple access techniques such as Frequency division multiple access, Time division multiple access, and Code division multiple access ·         Covers band pass modulation techniques such as Binary phase shift keying, Differential phase shift keying, Quadrature phase shift keying, Binary frequency shift keying, Minimum shift keying, and Gaussian minimum shift keying.

  19. Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehak, P.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed.

  20. 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Wai; Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Saat, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This book presents important research findings and recent innovations in the field of machine learning and signal processing. A wide range of topics relating to machine learning and signal processing techniques and their applications are addressed in order to provide both researchers and practitioners with a valuable resource documenting the latest advances and trends. The book comprises a careful selection of the papers submitted to the 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing (MALSIP 2015), which was held on 15–17 December 2015 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam with the aim of offering researchers, academicians, and practitioners an ideal opportunity to disseminate their findings and achievements. All of the included contributions were chosen by expert peer reviewers from across the world on the basis of their interest to the community. In addition to presenting the latest in design, development, and research, the book provides access to numerous new algorithms for machine learni...

  1. Distributed Signal Processing for Wireless EEG Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by ongoing evolutions in the field of wireless body area networks (WBANs), this tutorial paper presents a conceptual and exploratory study of wireless electroencephalography (EEG) sensor networks (WESNs), with an emphasis on distributed signal processing aspects. A WESN is conceived as a modular neuromonitoring platform for high-density EEG recordings, in which each node is equipped with an electrode array, a signal processing unit, and facilities for wireless communication. We first address the advantages of such a modular approach, and we explain how distributed signal processing algorithms make WESNs more power-efficient, in particular by avoiding data centralization. We provide an overview of distributed signal processing algorithms that are potentially applicable in WESNs, and for illustration purposes, we also provide a more detailed case study of a distributed eye blink artifact removal algorithm. Finally, we study the power efficiency of these distributed algorithms in comparison to their centralized counterparts in which all the raw sensor signals are centralized in a near-end or far-end fusion center.

  2. USING A DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERA AS THE SMART SENSOR OF THE SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC PROCESS CONTROL OF GRANULAR FODDER MOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The most important operation of granular mixed fodder production is molding process. Properties of granular mixed fodder are defined during this process. They determine the process of production and final product quality. The possibility of digital video camera usage as intellectual sensor for control system in process of production is analyzed in the article. The developed parametric model of the process of bundles molding from granular fodder mass is presented in the paper. Dynamic characteristics of the molding process were determined. A mathematical model of motion of bundle of granular fodder mass after matrix holes was developed. The developed mathematical model of the automatic control system (ACS with the use of etalon video frame as the set point in the MATLAB software environment was shown. As a parameter of the bundles molding process it is proposed to use the value of the specific area defined in the mathematical treatment of the video frame. The algorithms of the programs to determine the changes in structural and mechanical properties of the feed mass in video frames images were developed. Digital video shooting of various modes of the molding machine was carried out and after the mathematical processing of video the transfer functions for use as a change of adjustable parameters of the specific area were determined. Structural and functional diagrams of the system of regulation of the food bundles molding process with the use of digital camcorders were built and analyzed. Based on the solution of the equations of fluid dynamics mathematical model of bundle motion after leaving the hole matrix was obtained. In addition to its viscosity, creep property was considered that is characteristic of the feed mass. The mathematical model ACS of the bundles molding process allowing to investigate transient processes which occur in the control system that uses a digital video camera as the smart sensor was developed in Simulink

  3. Content-based TV sports video retrieval using multimodal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqing; Liu, Huayong; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Dongru

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as video, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and then introduces a new approach that integrates visual stream analysis, speech recognition, speech signal processing and text extraction to realize video retrieval. The experimental results for TV sports video of football games indicate that the multimodal analysis is effective for video retrieval by quickly browsing tree-like video clips or inputting keywords within predefined domain.

  4. Ultra-broadband and ultra-fast optical signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    We have recently seen that nanowires can provide unparalleled optical signal processing (OSP) bandwidth and provide ultra-fast operation as well. Utilising the ultra-broad OSP bandwidth for e.g. optical time lenses allows for energy-efficient optical switching. © 2015 OSA.......We have recently seen that nanowires can provide unparalleled optical signal processing (OSP) bandwidth and provide ultra-fast operation as well. Utilising the ultra-broad OSP bandwidth for e.g. optical time lenses allows for energy-efficient optical switching. © 2015 OSA....

  5. SAR image enhancement via post-correlation signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, N. D.; Kaupp, V. H.; Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    Seventeen interpreters ranked sets of computer-generated radar imagery to assess the value of post-correlation processing on the interpretability of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imagery. The post-correlation processing evaluated amounts to a nonlinear mapping of the signal exiting a digital correlator and allows full use of signal bandwidth for improving the spatial resolution or for noise reduction. The results indicate that it is reasonable to hypothesize an optimal SAR presentation format for specific applications even though this study was too limited to be specific.

  6. Signal processing in magnetic resonance spectroscopy with biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Belkic, Dzevad

    2010-01-01

    ""a useful addition to the fields of both magnetic resonance (MR) as well as signal processing. … immensely useful as a practical resource handbook to dip into from time to time and to find specific advice on issues faced during the course of work in MR techniques for cancer research. … the best feature of this book is how it positions the very practical area of digital signal processing in the contextual framework of a much more esoteric and fundamental field-that of quantum mechanics. The direct link between quantum-mechanical spectral analysis and rational response functions and the gene

  7. Structural health monitoring an advanced signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuefeng; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the latest advances and trends in advanced signal processing (such as wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, empirical mode decomposition, compressive sensing and sparse representation, and stochastic resonance) for structural health monitoring (SHM). Its primary focus is on the utilization of advanced signal processing techniques to help monitor the health status of critical structures and machines encountered in our daily lives: wind turbines, gas turbines, machine tools, etc. As such, it offers a key reference guide for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals who work in the field of SHM.

  8. The Savant Hypothesis: is autism a signal-processing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Autism is being investigated through many different approaches. This paper suggests the genetic, perceptual, cognitive, and histological findings ultimately manifest themselves as variations of the same signal-processing problem of defective compression. The Savant Hypothesis is formulated from first principles of both mathematical signal-processing and primary neuroscience to reflect the failure of compression. The Savant Hypothesis is applied to the problem of autism in a surprisingly straightforward application. The enigma of the autistic savant becomes intuitive when observed from this approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marketing Strategy Implementation Process in the Creative Industry of Video Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maryangela Drumond de Abreu Negrão; Ana Maria Machado Toaldo

    2013-01-01

    ... in a qualitative study conducted in the creative industry of video game development. The research, a case study applied to four video and computer game companies was based on the Sashittal and Jassawalla (2001...

  10. Does Signal Degradation Affect Top-Down Processing of Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anita; Pals, Carina; de Blecourt, Charlotte M; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is formed based on both the acoustic signal and listeners' knowledge of the world and semantic context. Access to semantic information can facilitate interpretation of degraded speech, such as speech in background noise or the speech signal transmitted via cochlear implants (CIs). This paper focuses on the latter, and investigates the time course of understanding words, and how sentential context reduces listeners' dependency on the acoustic signal for natural and degraded speech via an acoustic CI simulation.In an eye-tracking experiment we combined recordings of listeners' gaze fixations with pupillometry, to capture effects of semantic information on both the time course and effort of speech processing. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with sentences with or without a semantically constraining verb (e.g., crawl) preceding the target (baby), and their ocular responses were recorded to four pictures, including the target, a phonological (bay) competitor and a semantic (worm) and an unrelated distractor.The results show that in natural speech, listeners' gazes reflect their uptake of acoustic information, and integration of preceding semantic context. Degradation of the signal leads to a later disambiguation of phonologically similar words, and to a delay in integration of semantic information. Complementary to this, the pupil dilation data show that early semantic integration reduces the effort in disambiguating phonologically similar words. Processing degraded speech comes with increased effort due to the impoverished nature of the signal. Delayed integration of semantic information further constrains listeners' ability to compensate for inaudible signals.

  11. Crosstalk between Wnt Signaling and RNA Processing in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bordonaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA processing involves a variety of processes affecting gene expression, including the removal of introns through RNA splicing, as well as 3' end processing (cleavage and polyadenylation. Alternative RNA processing is fundamentally important for gene regulation, and aberrant processing is associated with the initiation and progression of cancer. Deregulated Wnt signaling, which is the initiating event in the development of most cases of human colorectal cancer (CRC, has been linked to modified RNA processing, which may contribute to Wnt-mediated colonic carcinogenesis. Crosstalk between Wnt signaling and alternative RNA splicing with relevance to CRC includes effects on the expression of Rac1b, an alternatively spliced gene associated with tumorigenesis, which exhibits alternative RNA splicing that is influenced by Wnt activity. In addition, Tcf4, a crucial component of Wnt signaling, also exhibits alternative splicing, which is likely involved in colonic tumorigenesis. Modulation of 3' end formation, including of the Wnt target gene COX-2, also can influence the neoplastic process, with implications for CRC. While many human genes are dependent on introns and splicing for normal levels of gene expression, naturally intronless genes exist with a unique metabolism that allows for intron-independent gene expression. Effects of Wnt activity on the RNA metabolism of the intronless Wnt-target gene c-jun is a likely contributor to cancer development. Further, butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fiber and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, upregulates Wnt activity in CRC cells, and also modulates RNA processing; therefore, the interplay between Wnt activity, the modulation of this activity by butyrate, and differential RNA metabolism in colonic cells can significantly influence tumorigenesis. Determining the role played by altered RNA processing in Wnt-mediated neoplasia may lead to novel interventions aimed at restoring normal RNA metabolism for

  12. Comparison Of Processing Time Of Different Size Of Images And Video Resolutions For Object Detection Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Object Detection with small computation cost and processing time is a necessity in diverse domains such as traffic analysis security cameras video surveillance etc .With current advances in technology and decrease in prices of image sensors and video cameras the resolution of captured images is more than 1MP and has higher frame rates. This implies a considerable data size that needs to be processed in a very short period of time when real-time operations and data processing is needed. Real time video processing with high performance can be achieved with GPU technology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of different image and video resolutions on the processing time number of objects detections and accuracy of the detected object. MOG2 algorithm is used for processing video input data with GPU module. Fuzzy interference system is used to evaluate the accuracy of number of detected object and to show the difference between CPU and GPU computing methods.

  13. Good-Enough Language Processing: Evidence from Sentence-Video Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Gaurav; Stromswold, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how detailed a linguistic representation is formed for descriptions of visual events. In two experiments, participants watched captioned videos and decided whether the captions accurately described the videos. In both experiments, videos depicted geometric shapes moving around the screen. In the first experiment, all of the…

  14. Examining Feedback in an Instructional Video Game Using Process Data and Error Analysis. CRESST Report 817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca E.; Kerr, Deirdre S.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Appropriately designed technology-based learning environments such as video games can be used to give immediate and individualized feedback to students. However, little is known about the design and use of feedback in instructional video games. This study investigated how feedback used in a mathematics video game about fractions impacted student…

  15. Ultra-high-speed Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    on silicon photonics. In particular we use nano-engineered silicon waveguides (nanowires) [1] enabling efficient phasematched four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM) or self-phase modulation (SPM) for ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of ultra-high bit rate serial data signals. We show......— In supercomputers, the optical inter-connects are getting closer and closer to the processing cores. Today, a single supercomputer system has as many optical links as the whole worldwide web together, and it is envisaged that future computing chips will contain multiple electronic processor cores...... that silicon can indeed be used to control Tbit/s serial data signals [2], perform 640 Gbit/s wavelength conversion [3] 640 Gbit/s serial-to-parallel conversion [4], 160 Gbit/s packet switching as well as all-optical regeneration [5]. We will also discuss the performance limitations of crystalline silicon...

  16. Speech Subvocal Signal Processing using Packet Wavelet and Neuronal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Mendoza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from the recording, processing and classification of words in the Spanish language by means of the analysis of subvocal speech signals. The processed database has six words (forward, backward, right, left, start and stop. In this work, the signals were sensed with surface electrodes placed on the surface of the throat and acquired with a sampling frequency of 50 kHz. The signal conditioning consisted in: the location of area of interest using energy analysis, and filtering using Discrete Wavelet Transform. Finally, the feature extraction was made in the time-frequency domain using Wavelet Packet and statistical techniques for windowing. The classification was carried out with a backpropagation neural network whose training was performed with 70% of the database obtained. The correct classification rate was 75%±2.

  17. Smart signal processing for an evolving electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Manso; Duque, Calos Augusto; Ribeiro, Paulo F.

    2015-12-01

    Electric grids are interconnected complex systems consisting of generation, transmission, distribution, and active loads, recently called prosumers as they produce and consume electric energy. Additionally, these encompass a vast array of equipment such as machines, power transformers, capacitor banks, power electronic devices, motors, etc. that are continuously evolving in their demand characteristics. Given these conditions, signal processing is becoming an essential assessment tool to enable the engineer and researcher to understand, plan, design, and operate the complex and smart electronic grid of the future. This paper focuses on recent developments associated with signal processing applied to power system analysis in terms of characterization and diagnostics. The following techniques are reviewed and their characteristics and applications discussed: active power system monitoring, sparse representation of power system signal, real-time resampling, and time-frequency (i.e., wavelets) applied to power fluctuations.

  18. Joint Kalman–Haar Algorithm Applied to Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Viegener

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the analysis of signals disturbed by noise, in this paper we propose a working methodology aimed to seize the best estimate of combining Kalman filtering with the characterization that is achieved by applying a multiresolution analysis (MRA using wavelets. From the standpoint of Kalman filtering this combined procedure is quasi-optimal, but the change to be made allows the simultaneous implementation of a scheme of wavelet denoising; with this decreases the computational cost of applying both procedures separately. Our proposal is to process the signal by successive non-overlapping intervals, combining the process for calculating the optimal filter with a MRA using the Haar wavelet. The method takes advantage of the combined use of both tools (Kalman-Haar and is free from edge problems related to the signal segmentation.

  19. Parallel Processing of Broad-Band PPM Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew; Kang, Edward; Lay, Norman; Vilnrotter, Victor; Srinivasan, Meera; Lee, Clement

    2010-01-01

    A parallel-processing algorithm and a hardware architecture to implement the algorithm have been devised for timeslot synchronization in the reception of pulse-position-modulated (PPM) optical or radio signals. As in the cases of some prior algorithms and architectures for parallel, discrete-time, digital processing of signals other than PPM, an incoming broadband signal is divided into multiple parallel narrower-band signals by means of sub-sampling and filtering. The number of parallel streams is chosen so that the frequency content of the narrower-band signals is low enough to enable processing by relatively-low speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronic circuitry. The algorithm and architecture are intended to satisfy requirements for time-varying time-slot synchronization and post-detection filtering, with correction of timing errors independent of estimation of timing errors. They are also intended to afford flexibility for dynamic reconfiguration and upgrading. The architecture is implemented in a reconfigurable CMOS processor in the form of a field-programmable gate array. The algorithm and its hardware implementation incorporate three separate time-varying filter banks for three distinct functions: correction of sub-sample timing errors, post-detection filtering, and post-detection estimation of timing errors. The design of the filter bank for correction of timing errors, the method of estimating timing errors, and the design of a feedback-loop filter are governed by a host of parameters, the most critical one, with regard to processing very broadband signals with CMOS hardware, being the number of parallel streams (equivalently, the rate-reduction parameter).

  20. Study on a High Compression Processing for Video-on-Demand e-learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Matsuda, Ryutaro; Sakamoto, Ryota; Sugiura, Tokuhiro; Matsui, Hirokazu; Kato, Norihiko

    The authors proposed a high-quality and small-capacity lecture-video-file creating system for distance e-learning system. Examining the feature of the lecturing scene, the authors ingeniously employ two kinds of image-capturing equipment having complementary characteristics : one is a digital video camera with a low resolution and a high frame rate, and the other is a digital still camera with a high resolution and a very low frame rate. By managing the two kinds of image-capturing equipment, and by integrating them with image processing, we can produce course materials with the greatly reduced file capacity : the course materials satisfy the requirements both for the temporal resolution to see the lecturer's point-indicating actions and for the high spatial resolution to read the small written letters. As a result of a comparative experiment, the e-lecture using the proposed system was confirmed to be more effective than an ordinary lecture from the viewpoint of educational effect.

  1. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

  2. Fast optical signal processing in high bit rate OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Clausen, Anders

    1998-01-01

    As all-optical signal processing is maturing, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) has also gained interest for simple networking in high capacity backbone networks. As an example of a network scenario we show an OTDM bus interconnecting another OTDM bus, a single high capacity user...

  3. Tutorial: Signal Processing in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    Research in Electroencephalogram (EEG) based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) has been considerably expanding during the last few years. Such an expansion owes to a large extent to the multidisciplinary and challenging nature of BCI research. Signal processing undoubtedly constitutes an essential

  4. Signal processing in optical coherence tomography for aerospace material characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.; Groves, R.M.; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a customized time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system, a series of signal processing approaches have been designed and reviewed. To improve demodulation accuracy and image quality, demodulation approaches such as median filter, Hilbert transform, and envelope detector were

  5. Signal processing techniques for clutter filtering and wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.; Deshpande, Manohar D

    1991-01-01

    An extended Prony algorithm applicable to signal processing techniques for clutter filtering and windshear detection is discussed. The algorithm is based upon modelling the radar return as a time series, and appears to offer potential for improving hazard factor estimates in the presence of strong clutter returns.

  6. Foundations of digital signal processing theory, algorithms and hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydecki, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    An excellent introductory text, this book covers the basic theoretical, algorithmic and real-time aspects of digital signal processing (DSP). Detailed information is provided on off-line, real-time and DSP programming and the reader is effortlessly guided through advanced topics such as DSP hardware design, FIR and IIR filter design and difference equation manipulation.

  7. Digital Signal Processing in Acoustics--Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H.; McNeill, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the potential of a data acquisition system for illustrating the nature and significance of ideas in digital signal processing. Focuses on the fast Fourier transform and the utility of its two-channel format, emphasizing cross-correlation and its two-microphone technique of acoustic intensity measurement. Includes programing format. (ML)

  8. An Interactive Graphics Program for Investigating Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Billy K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of an interactive computer graphics program for use in teaching digital signal processing. The program allows students to interactively configure digital systems on a monitor display and observe their system's performance by means of digital plots on the system's outputs. A sample program run is included. (JN)

  9. Some recent work on lattice structures for digital signal processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper is concerned with a review of some recent work on derivation and synthesis of lattice structures for digital signal processing (DSP). ... (SFS), Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India Formerly with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India ...

  10. Using NI PXI Modules for Digital Signal Processing Microprocessor Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfin Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the implementation of the external memory interface based on National Instruments modular PXI equipment for environmental testing of digital signal processing (DSP microprocessors. The block diagram of the developed device pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this solution is provided. The block diagram of an improved external memory interface is also shown.

  11. Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the rationale behind ACII2009’s special session: Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life. Although affect is embraced by both science and engineering, its recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of ASP and the

  12. Signal processing in a randomly time varying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomian, G.

    1972-01-01

    Stochastic operators are applied to an analysis of some deterministic systems of signal transformation. The distribution of a random process at the output of a system is given through its distribution at the input and through a stochastic Green's function. A two-point correlation function is derived to obtain a solution to differential equations which contain coefficients, boundary conditions, or right-hand terms representing random processes.

  13. Compressive Sensing in Signal Processing: Algorithms and Transform Domain Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Orović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing has emerged as an area that opens new perspectives in signal acquisition and processing. It appears as an alternative to the traditional sampling theory, endeavoring to reduce the required number of samples for successful signal reconstruction. In practice, compressive sensing aims to provide saving in sensing resources, transmission, and storage capacities and to facilitate signal processing in the circumstances when certain data are unavailable. To that end, compressive sensing relies on the mathematical algorithms solving the problem of data reconstruction from a greatly reduced number of measurements by exploring the properties of sparsity and incoherence. Therefore, this concept includes the optimization procedures aiming to provide the sparsest solution in a suitable representation domain. This work, therefore, offers a survey of the compressive sensing idea and prerequisites, together with the commonly used reconstruction methods. Moreover, the compressive sensing problem formulation is considered in signal processing applications assuming some of the commonly used transformation domains, namely, the Fourier transform domain, the polynomial Fourier transform domain, Hermite transform domain, and combined time-frequency domain.

  14. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed.

  15. Modern Techniques in Acoustical Signal and Image Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V

    2002-04-04

    Acoustical signal processing problems can lead to some complex and intricate techniques to extract the desired information from noisy, sometimes inadequate, measurements. The challenge is to formulate a meaningful strategy that is aimed at performing the processing required even in the face of uncertainties. This strategy can be as simple as a transformation of the measured data to another domain for analysis or as complex as embedding a full-scale propagation model into the processor. The aims of both approaches are the same--to extract the desired information and reject the extraneous, that is, develop a signal processing scheme to achieve this goal. In this paper, we briefly discuss this underlying philosophy from a ''bottom-up'' approach enabling the problem to dictate the solution rather than visa-versa.

  16. Signal processing for 5G algorithms and implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fa-Long

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive and invaluable guide to 5G technology, implementation and practice in one single volume. For all things 5G, this book is a must-read. Signal processing techniques have played the most important role in wireless communications since the second generation of cellular systems. It is anticipated that new techniques employed in 5G wireless networks will not only improve peak service rates significantly, but also enhance capacity, coverage, reliability , low-latency, efficiency, flexibility, compatibility and convergence to meet the increasing demands imposed by applications such as big data, cloud service, machine-to-machine (M2M) and mission-critical communications. This book is a comprehensive and detailed guide to all signal processing techniques employed in 5G wireless networks. Uniquely organized into four categories, New Modulation and &n sp;Coding, New Spatial Processing, New Spectrum Opportunities and New System-level Enabling Technologies, it covers everything from network architecture...

  17. A digital signal processing system for coherent laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Diana M.; Jones, William D.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1991-01-01

    A data processing system for use with continuous-wave lidar is described in terms of its configuration and performance during the second survey mission of NASA'a Global Backscatter Experiment. The system is designed to estimate a complete lidar spectrum in real time, record the data from two lidars, and monitor variables related to the lidar operating environment. The PC-based system includes a transient capture board, a digital-signal processing (DSP) board, and a low-speed data-acquisition board. Both unprocessed and processed lidar spectrum data are monitored in real time, and the results are compared to those of a previous non-DSP-based system. Because the DSP-based system is digital it is slower than the surface-acoustic-wave signal processor and collects 2500 spectra/s. However, the DSP-based system provides complete data sets at two wavelengths from the continuous-wave lidars.

  18. A self-regulating biomolecular comparator for processing oscillatory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Franco, Elisa; Schulman, Rebecca

    2015-10-06

    While many cellular processes are driven by biomolecular oscillators, precise control of a downstream on/off process by a biochemical oscillator signal can be difficult: over an oscillator's period, its output signal varies continuously between its amplitude limits and spends a significant fraction of the time at intermediate values between these limits. Further, the oscillator's output is often noisy, with particularly large variations in the amplitude. In electronic systems, an oscillating signal is generally processed by a downstream device such as a comparator that converts a potentially noisy oscillatory input into a square wave output that is predominantly in one of two well-defined on and off states. The comparator's output then controls downstream processes. We describe a method for constructing a synthetic biochemical device that likewise produces a square-wave-type biomolecular output for a variety of oscillatory inputs. The method relies on a separation of time scales between the slow rate of production of an oscillatory signal molecule and the fast rates of intermolecular binding and conformational changes. We show how to control the characteristics of the output by varying the concentrations of the species and the reaction rates. We then use this control to show how our approach could be applied to process different in vitro and in vivo biomolecular oscillators, including the p53-Mdm2 transcriptional oscillator and two types of in vitro transcriptional oscillators. These results demonstrate how modular biomolecular circuits could, in principle, be combined to build complex dynamical systems. The simplicity of our approach also suggests that natural molecular circuits may process some biomolecular oscillator outputs before they are applied downstream. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Dynamic Request Routing for Online Video-on-Demand Service: A Markov Decision Process Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the request routing problem in the CDN-based Video-on-Demand system. We model the system as a controlled queueing system including a dispatcher and several edge servers. The system is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP. Since the MDP formulation suffers from the so-called “the curse of dimensionality” problem, we then develop a greedy heuristic algorithm, which is simple and can be implemented online, to approximately solve the MDP model. However, we do not know how far it deviates from the optimal solution. To address this problem, we further aggregate the state space of the original MDP model and use the bounded-parameter MDP (BMDP to reformulate the system. This allows us to obtain a suboptimal solution with a known performance bound. The effectiveness of two approaches is evaluated in a simulation study.

  20. Analysis of Wide-Band Signals Using Wavelet Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisii, V.; Saccorotti, G.

    2005-12-01

    Wavelets transforms allow for precise time-frequency localization in the analysis of non-stationary signals. In wavelet analysis the trade-off between frequency bandwidth and time duration, also known as Heisenberg inequality, is by-passed using a fully scalable modulated window which solves the signal-cutting problem of Windowed Fourier Transform. We propose a new seismic array data processing procedure capable of displaying the localized spatial coherence of the signal in both the time- and frequency-domain, in turn deriving the propagation parameters of the most coherent signals crossing the array. The procedure consists in: a) Wavelet coherence analysis for each station pair of the instruments array, aimed at retrieving the frequency- and time-localisation of coherent signals. To this purpose, we use the normalised wavelet cross- power spectrum, smoothed along the time and scale domains. We calculate different coherence spectra adopting smoothing windows of increasing lengths; a final, robust estimate of the time-frequency localisation of spatially-coherent signals is eventually retrieved from the stack of the individual coherence distribution. This step allows for a quick and reliable signal discrimination: wave groups propagating across the network will manifest as high-coherence patches spanning the corresponding time-scale region. b) Once the signals have been localised in the time and frequency domain,their propagation parameters are estimated using a modified MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Characterization) algorithm. We select the MUSIC approach as it demonstrated superior performances in the case of low SNR signals, more plane waves contemporaneously impinging at the array and closely separated sources. The narrow-band Coherent Signal Subspace technique is applied to the complex Continuous Wavelet Transform of multichannel data for improving the singularity of the estimated cross-covariance matrix and the accuracy of the estimated signal eigenvectors. Using

  1. Analog integrated circuits design for processing physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2010-01-01

    Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this paper, techniques for designing the analog front-end circuits with these three characteristics will be reviewed, including subthreshold circuits, bulk-driven MOSFETs, floating gate MOSFETs, and log-domain circuits to reduce power consumption; methods for designing fully integrated low cutoff frequency circuits; as well as chopper stabilization (CHS) and other techniques that can be used to achieve a high signal-to-noise performance. Novel applications using these techniques will also be discussed.

  2. A novel method to reduce time investment when processing videos from camera trap studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijn R R Swinnen

    Full Text Available Camera traps have proven very useful in ecological, conservation and behavioral research. Camera traps non-invasively record presence and behavior of animals in their natural environment. Since the introduction of digital cameras, large amounts of data can be stored. Unfortunately, processing protocols did not evolve as fast as the technical capabilities of the cameras. We used camera traps to record videos of Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber. However, a large number of recordings did not contain the target species, but instead empty recordings or other species (together non-target recordings, making the removal of these recordings unacceptably time consuming. In this paper we propose a method to partially eliminate non-target recordings without having to watch the recordings, in order to reduce workload. Discrimination between recordings of target species and non-target recordings was based on detecting variation (changes in pixel values from frame to frame in the recordings. Because of the size of the target species, we supposed that recordings with the target species contain on average much more movements than non-target recordings. Two different filter methods were tested and compared. We show that a partial discrimination can be made between target and non-target recordings based on variation in pixel values and that environmental conditions and filter methods influence the amount of non-target recordings that can be identified and discarded. By allowing a loss of 5% to 20% of recordings containing the target species, in ideal circumstances, 53% to 76% of non-target recordings can be identified and discarded. We conclude that adding an extra processing step in the camera trap protocol can result in large time savings. Since we are convinced that the use of camera traps will become increasingly important in the future, this filter method can benefit many researchers, using it in different contexts across the globe, on both videos and

  3. Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Wong, Kevin; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2013-02-01

    In this report, we describe how to highly optimize a computer unified device architecture based platform to perform real-time processing of optical coherence tomography interferometric data and three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric rendering using a commercially available, cost-effective, graphics processing unit (GPU). The maximum complete attainable axial scan processing rate, including memory transfer and displaying B-scan frame, was 2.24 MHz for 16 bits pixel depth and 2048 fast Fourier transform size; the maximum 3-D volumetric rendering rate, including B-scan, en face view display, and 3-D rendering, was ~23 volumes/second (volume size: 1024×256×200). To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest processing rate reported to date with a single-chip GPU and the first implementation of real-time video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT) processing and rendering that is capable of matching the acquisition rates of ultrahigh-speed OCT.

  4. Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Wong, Kevin; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2013-02-01

    In this report, we describe how to highly optimize a computer unified device architecture based platform to perform real-time processing of optical coherence tomography interferometric data and three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric rendering using a commercially available, cost-effective, graphics processing unit (GPU). The maximum complete attainable axial scan processing rate, including memory transfer and displaying B-scan frame, was 2.24 MHz for 16 bits pixel depth and 2048 fast Fourier transform size; the maximum 3-D volumetric rendering rate, including B-scan, en face view display, and 3-D rendering, was ˜23 volumes/second (volume size: 1024×256×200). To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest processing rate reported to date with a single-chip GPU and the first implementation of real-time video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT) processing and rendering that is capable of matching the acquisition rates of ultrahigh-speed OCT.

  5. Social multimedia signals a signal processing approach to social network phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Suman Deb

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art in understanding media popularity and trends in online social networks through social multimedia signals. With insights from the study of popularity and sharing patterns of online media, trend spread in social media, social network analysis for multimedia and visualizing diffusion of media in online social networks. In particular, the book will address the following important issues: Understanding social network phenomena from a signal processing point of view; The existence and popularity of multimedia as shared and social me

  6. Monitoring of drilling process with the application of acoustic signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labaš Milan

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of rock disintegration process at drilling, scanning of input quantities: thrust F, revolution n and the course of some output quantities: the drilling rate v and the power input P are needed for the control of this process. We can calculate the specific volume work of rock disintegration w and ϕ - quotient of drilling rate v and the specific volume work of disintegration w from the presented quantities.Works on an expertimental stand showed that the correlation relationships between the input and output quantities can be found by scanning the accompanying sound of the drilling proces.Research of the rock disintegration with small-diameter diamond drill tools and different rock types is done at the Institute of Geotechnics. The aim of this research is the possibility of monitoring and controlling the rock disintegration process with the application of acoustic signal. The acoustic vibrations accompanying the drilling process are recorded by a microphone placed in a defined position in the acoustic space. The drilling device (drilling stand, the drilling tool and the rock are the source of sound. Two basic sound states exist in the drilling stand research : the noise at no-load running and the noise at the rotary drilling of rock. Suitable quantities for optimizing the rock disintegration process are searched by the study of the acoustic signal. The dominant frequencies that characterize the disintegration process for the given rock and tool are searched by the analysis of the acoustic signal. The analysis of dominant frequencies indicates the possibility of determining an optimal regime for the maximal drilling rate. Extreme of the specific disintegration energy is determinated by the dispersion of the dominant frequency.The scanned acoustic signal is processed by the Fourier transformation. The Fourier transformation facilitates the distribution of the general non-harmonic periodic process into harmonic components. The harmonic

  7. Signal Processing in Periodically Forced Gradient Frequency Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul; Large, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Oscillatory instability at the Hopf bifurcation is a dynamical phenomenon that has been suggested to characterize active non-linear processes observed in the auditory system. Networks of oscillators poised near Hopf bifurcation points and tuned to tonotopically distributed frequencies have been used as models of auditory processing at various levels, but systematic investigation of the dynamical properties of such oscillatory networks is still lacking. Here we provide a dynamical systems analysis of a canonical model for gradient frequency neural networks driven by a periodic signal. We use linear stability analysis to identify various driven behaviors of canonical oscillators for all possible ranges of model and forcing parameters. The analysis shows that canonical oscillators exhibit qualitatively different sets of driven states and transitions for different regimes of model parameters. We classify the parameter regimes into four main categories based on their distinct signal processing capabilities. This analysis will lead to deeper understanding of the diverse behaviors of neural systems under periodic forcing and can inform the design of oscillatory network models of auditory signal processing.

  8. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-11-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  9. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-01-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  10. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar signal processing using FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yohei; Ozawa, Satoru; Inaba, Noriyasu

    2017-10-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery requires image reproduction through successive signal processing of received data before browsing images and extracting information. The received signal data records of the ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 are stored in the onboard mission data storage and transmitted to the ground. In order to compensate the storage usage and the capacity of transmission data through the mission date communication networks, the operation duty of the PALSAR-2 is limited. This balance strongly relies on the network availability. The observation operations of the present spaceborne SAR systems are rigorously planned by simulating the mission data balance, given conflicting user demands. This problem should be solved such that we do not have to compromise the operations and the potential of the next-generation spaceborne SAR systems. One of the solutions is to compress the SAR data through onboard image reproduction and information extraction from the reproduced images. This is also beneficial for fast delivery of information products and event-driven observations by constellation. The Emergence Studio (Sōhatsu kōbō in Japanese) with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is developing evaluation models of FPGA-based signal processing system for onboard SAR image reproduction. The model, namely, "Fast L1 Processor (FLIP)" developed in 2016 can reproduce a 10m-resolution single look complex image (Level 1.1) from ALOS/PALSAR raw signal data (Level 1.0). The processing speed of the FLIP at 200 MHz results in twice faster than CPU-based computing at 3.7 GHz. The image processed by the FLIP is no way inferior to the image processed with 32-bit computing in MATLAB.

  11. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevc, Matjaž; Milošević, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers' comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, they answered ten questions. The results showed that the presence of captions positively affected their rates of comprehension, which increased by 24% among deaf viewers and 42% among hard of hearing viewers. The most obvious differences in comprehension between watching sign language interpreter videos with and without captions were found for the subjects of hiking and culture, where comprehension was higher when captions were used. The results led to suggestions for the consistent use of captions in sign language interpreter videos in various media.

  12. Extending classical multirate signal processing theory to graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Oguzhan; Vaidyanathan, Palghat P.

    2017-08-01

    A variety of different areas consider signals that are defined over graphs. Motivated by the advancements in graph signal processing, this study first reviews some of the recent results on the extension of classical multirate signal processing to graphs. In these results, graphs are allowed to have directed edges. The possibly non-symmetric adjacency matrix A is treated as the graph operator. These results investigate the fundamental concepts for multirate processing of graph signals such as noble identities, aliasing, and perfect reconstruction (PR). It is shown that unless the graph satisfies some conditions, these concepts cannot be extended to graph signals in a simple manner. A structure called M-Block cyclic structure is shown to be sufficient to generalize the results for bipartite graphs on two-channels to M-channel filter banks. Many classical multirate ideas can be extended to graphs due to the unique eigenstructure of M-Block cyclic graphs. For example, the PR condition for filter banks on these graphs is identical to PR in classical theory, which allows the use of well-known filter bank design techniques. In order to utilize these results, the adjacency matrix of an M-Block cyclic graph should be given in the correct permutation. In the final part, this study proposes a spectral technique to identify the hidden M-Block cyclic structure from a graph with noisy edges whose adjacency matrix is given under a random permutation. Numerical simulation results show that the technique can recover the underlying M-Block structure in the presence of random addition and deletion of the edges.

  13. A MUSIC-based method for SSVEP signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong; Zhou, Zude; Xie, Sheng Quan; Meng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The research on brain computer interfaces (BCIs) has become a hotspot in recent years because it offers benefit to disabled people to communicate with the outside world. Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCIs are more widely used because of higher signal to noise ratio and greater information transfer rate compared with other BCI techniques. In this paper, a multiple signal classification based method was proposed for multi-dimensional SSVEP feature extraction. 2-second data epochs from four electrodes achieved excellent accuracy rates including idle state detection. In some asynchronous mode experiments, the recognition accuracy reached up to 100%. The experimental results showed that the proposed method attained good frequency resolution. In most situations, the recognition accuracy was higher than canonical correlation analysis, which is a typical method for multi-channel SSVEP signal processing. Also, a virtual keyboard was successfully controlled by different subjects in an unshielded environment, which proved the feasibility of the proposed method for multi-dimensional SSVEP signal processing in practical applications.

  14. Microphone array signal processing with application in three-dimensional spatial hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Lin, Chenpang

    2005-04-01

    Microphone arrays are known to enhance the directionality and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over single-channel sensors. This is considered beneficial in many applications such as video-conferencing systems and hearing aids. However, this advantage comes at the price of the sensation of spatial hearing. The spatial cues due to diffractions of the head and torso are lost if the array is not fitted in the ears. In this paper we present a system that incorporates binaural hearing synthesis into array signal processing, in an attempt to recover the three-dimensional sound image that a human listener would naturally perceive. In the system, the superdirective beamformer is exploited to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of the incoming sound. The spatial sound image is restored by steering the beam to the direction found in the DOA session and filtering the array output with the corresponding Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF). The algorithms have been implemented in real-time fashion using a digital signal processor. Objective and subjective experiments were performed to validate the proposed system. The experimental results showed that the accurate localization of the sound source is achievable using the array system.

  15. The Utilization of Novel Bandpass Sigma-delta Modulator for Capacitance Pressure Sensor Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Michaeli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a novel approach to processing of pressure sensor signals. A bandpass sigma-delta modulator is used for this purpose. This technique is relatively new and it is not used widely, because this kind of modulator is usually utilized for wireless and video applications. Since the bandpass sigma-delta modulator works within its defined band it is resistant to offsets of its sub-circuits. The main stages of this modulator are implemented by means of switched-capacitor (SC technique. The article presents the basic ideas of this approach and simulation results of the first order of ideal and real modulator. The paper also shows the design of the phase locked loop (PLL block for synchronization of sensor signal and modulator driving signal. The simple evaluation board was fabricated for confirmation of the proposed principle. Also shown are the results of the chip testing, the modulator layout and the design and test results of the second order of bandpass sigma-delta modulator briefly.

  16. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debevc, Matjaž; Milošević, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers' comprehension when compared with sign language...

  17. Signal processing methodologies for an acoustic fetal heart rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III; Stoughton, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development is presented of real time signal processing methodologies for the detection of fetal heart tones within a noise-contaminated signal from a passive acoustic sensor. A linear predictor algorithm is utilized for detection of the heart tone event and additional processing derives heart rate. The linear predictor is adaptively 'trained' in a least mean square error sense on generic fetal heart tones recorded from patients. A real time monitor system is described which outputs to a strip chart recorder for plotting the time history of the fetal heart rate. The system is validated in the context of the fetal nonstress test. Comparisons are made with ultrasonic nonstress tests on a series of patients. Comparative data provides favorable indications of the feasibility of the acoustic monitor for clinical use.

  18. Nonlinear Signal Processing Using Fiber-Optics Neurograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold

    1986-02-01

    A novel optical device for nonlinear signal processing is described based upon the following observations: (a) A phase space for signal processing is identified with a time-frequency joint representation (TFJR) that appears almost everywhere naturally, for example in bats, in music, etc. (b) A sudden slow down mechanism is responsible for the transition from a phase coherent-to-incoherent wavefront and provides us the sharpest tone transduction from a Bekesy traveling wave in a model of the inner ear. The cause of the slowdown is physically identified to be due to three forces. This has been used to derive a cubic deceleration polynomial responsible for a cusp bifurcation phenomenon which occur for every tone transducted along the nonuniform elastic membrane. The liquid-filled inner ear cochlea channel is divided by the membrane into an upper duct that has hair cells for the forward sound-generated flow and the lower duct for the backward balance-return flow.

  19. Sound Event Detection for Music Signals Using Gaussian Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Alvarado-Durán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting sound events in music signals using Gaussian Processes. Our method firstly takes a time-frequency representation, i.e. the spectrogram, of the input audio signal. Secondly the spectrogram dimension is reduced translating the linear Hertz frequency scale into the logarithmic Mel frequency scale using a triangular filter bank. Finally every short-time spectrum, i.e. every Mel spectrogram column, is classified as “Event” or “Not Event” by a Gaussian Processes Classifier. We compare our method with other event detection techniques widely used. To do so, we use MATLAB® to program each technique and test them using two datasets of music with different levels of complexity. Results show that the new methodology outperforms the standard approaches, getting an improvement by about 1.66 % on the dataset one and 0.45 % on the dataset two in terms of F-measure.

  20. Fast on-detector integrated signal processing status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenstruth, V

    2004-01-01

    The large and increasing channel count of modern detectors requires the use of microelectronics. The data rate and signal integrity requirements drive complex electronics to be mounted close to or directly on the detectors, possibly even integrating the complete first-level trigger stage. The latest silicon road maps indicate that the integration density of microelectronics will continue to increase during the next decade. However, there are several constraints to be taken into account that cause ramifications with respect to on- detector electronics. For instance, the core voltage will be reduced to below 500 mV, the clock rates will exceed GHz, and the power density will increase further. This article outlines two examples of trigger and readout systems, the ALICE TPC and TRD, which are completely integrated in microchips. The article expands on the expected impact future silicon processes may have on the on-detector integrated signal processing. (9 refs).

  1. Scalable video on demand adaptive Internet-based distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the proliferation of available video content and the popularity of the Internet have encouraged service providers to develop new ways of distributing content to clients. Increasing video scaling ratios and advanced digital signal processing techniques have led to Internet Video-on-Demand applications, but these currently lack efficiency and quality. Scalable Video on Demand: Adaptive Internet-based Distribution examines how current video compression and streaming can be used to deliver high-quality applications over the Internet. In addition to analysing the problems

  2. More is less: signal processing and the data deluge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniuk, Richard G

    2011-02-11

    The data deluge is changing the operating environment of many sensing systems from data-poor to data-rich--so data-rich that we are in jeopardy of being overwhelmed. Managing and exploiting the data deluge require a reinvention of sensor system design and signal processing theory. The potential pay-offs are huge, as the resulting sensor systems will enable radically new information technologies and powerful new tools for scientific discovery.

  3. Wavelet based methods for improved wind profiler signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehmann

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply wavelet thresholding for removing automatically ground and intermittent clutter (airplane echoes from wind profiler radar data. Using the concept of discrete multi-resolution analysis and non-parametric estimation theory, we develop wavelet domain thresholding rules, which allow us to identify the coefficients relevant for clutter and to suppress them in order to obtain filtered reconstructions.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing; signal processing

  4. Developing Signal Processing Blocks for Software-defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    is the most popular open-source software toolkit for deploying SDRs, and is frequently used with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral ( USRP ...After establishing a USRP testbed, the researcher will need to implement new signal processing algorithms or modify existing ones. This document...CHU Radio, USRP Ubuntu 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 44 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  5. Programmable rate modem utilizing digital signal processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Arad

    1992-01-01

    The need for a Programmable Rate Digital Satellite Modem capable of supporting both burst and continuous transmission modes with either Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) or Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation is discussed. The preferred implementation technique is an all digital one which utilizes as much digital signal processing (DSP) as possible. The design trade-offs in each portion of the modulator and demodulator subsystem are outlined.

  6. Initial evaluation of prospective cardiac triggering using photoplethysmography signals recorded with a video camera compared to pulse oximetry and electrocardiography at 7T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, Nicolai; Kukuk, Markus; Maderwald, Stefan; Ladd, Mark E

    2016-11-24

    Accurate synchronization between magnetic resonance imaging data acquisition and a subject's cardiac activity ("triggering") is essential for reducing image artifacts but conventional, contact-based methods for this task are limited by several factors, including preparation time, patient inconvenience, and susceptibility to signal degradation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of a new contact-free triggering method developed with the aim to eventually replace conventional methods in non-cardiac imaging applications. In this study, the method's performance is evaluated in the context of 7 Tesla non-enhanced angiography of the lower extremities. Our main contribution is a basic algorithm capable of estimating in real-time the phase of the cardiac cycle from reflection photoplethysmography signals obtained from skin color variations of the forehead recorded with a video camera. Instead of finding the algorithm's parameters heuristically, they were optimized using videos of the forehead as well as electrocardiography and pulse oximetry signals that were recorded from eight healthy volunteers in and outside the scanner, with and without active radio frequency and gradient coils. Based on the video characteristics, synthetic signals were generated and the "best available" values of an objective function were determined using mathematical optimization. The performance of the proposed method with optimized algorithm parameters was evaluated by applying it to the recorded videos and comparing the computed triggers to those of contact-based methods. Additionally, the method was evaluated by using its triggers for acquiring images from a healthy volunteer and comparing the result to images obtained using pulse oximetry triggering. During evaluation of the videos recorded inside the bore with active radio frequency and gradient coils, the pulse oximeter triggers were labeled in 62.5% as "potentially usable" for cardiac triggering, the electrocardiography

  7. The Ensemble Kalman filter: a signal processing perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michael; Hendeby, Gustaf; Fritsche, Carsten; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2017-12-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a Monte Carlo-based implementation of the Kalman filter (KF) for extremely high-dimensional, possibly nonlinear, and non-Gaussian state estimation problems. Its ability to handle state dimensions in the order of millions has made the EnKF a popular algorithm in different geoscientific disciplines. Despite a similarly vital need for scalable algorithms in signal processing, e.g., to make sense of the ever increasing amount of sensor data, the EnKF is hardly discussed in our field. This self-contained review is aimed at signal processing researchers and provides all the knowledge to get started with the EnKF. The algorithm is derived in a KF framework, without the often encountered geoscientific terminology. Algorithmic challenges and required extensions of the EnKF are provided, as well as relations to sigma point KF and particle filters. The relevant EnKF literature is summarized in an extensive survey and unique simulation examples, including popular benchmark problems, complement the theory with practical insights. The signal processing perspective highlights new directions of research and facilitates the exchange of potentially beneficial ideas, both for the EnKF and high-dimensional nonlinear and non-Gaussian filtering in general.

  8. Digital signal processor and processing method for GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jr., Jess B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A digital signal processor and processing method therefor for use in receivers of the NAVSTAR/GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) employs a digital carrier down-converter, digital code correlator and digital tracking processor. The digital carrier down-converter and code correlator consists of an all-digital, minimum bit implementation that utilizes digital chip and phase advancers, providing exceptional control and accuracy in feedback phase and in feedback delay. Roundoff and commensurability errors can be reduced to extremely small values (e.g., less than 100 nanochips and 100 nanocycles roundoff errors and 0.1 millichip and 1 millicycle commensurability errors). The digital tracking processor bases the fast feedback for phase and for group delay in the C/A, P.sub.1, and P.sub.2 channels on the L.sub.1 C/A carrier phase thereby maintaining lock at lower signal-to-noise ratios, reducing errors in feedback delays, reducing the frequency of cycle slips and in some cases obviating the need for quadrature processing in the P channels. Simple and reliable methods are employed for data bit synchronization, data bit removal and cycle counting. Improved precision in averaged output delay values is provided by carrier-aided data-compression techniques. The signal processor employs purely digital operations in the sense that exactly the same carrier phase and group delay measurements are obtained, to the last decimal place, every time the same sampled data (i.e., exactly the same bits) are processed.

  9. Metastable memristive lines for signal transmission and information processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipko, Valeriy A; Pershin, Yuriy V

    2017-04-01

    Traditional studies of memristive devices have mainly focused on their applications in nonvolatile information storage and information processing. Here, we demonstrate that the third fundamental component of information technologies-the transfer of information-can also be employed with memristive devices. For this purpose, we introduce a metastable memristive circuit. Combining metastable memristive circuits into a line, one obtains an architecture capable of transferring a signal edge from one space location to another. We emphasize that the suggested metastable memristive lines employ only resistive circuit components. Moreover, their networks (for example, Y-connected lines) have an information processing capability.

  10. DSPSR: Digital Signal Processing Software for Pulsar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.

    2011-01-01

    dspsr is a high-performance, open-source, object-oriented, digital signal processing software library and application suite for use in radio pulsar astronomy. Written primarily in C++, the library implements an extensive range of modular algorithms that can optionally exploit both multiple-core processors and general-purpose graphics processing units. After over a decade of research and development, dspsr is now stable and in widespread use in the community. This paper presents a detailed description of its functionality, justification of major design decisions, analysis of phase-coherent dispersion removal algorithms, and demonstration of performance on some contemporary microprocessor architectures.

  11. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices for Nonlinear Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi

    processing. Based on the previous fabrication recipe developed in our III-V platform, several processing techniques are developed and optimized for the fabrication of InP photonic crystal membrane structures. Several key issues are identified to ensure a good device quality such as air hole size control...... different, yet spatially overlapping, resonances and are spatially separated at the output. This structure reduces the complexity of the system that usually includes band pass filters in order to distinguish the signals at the output. Finally, we may need to mention an important design: a simple...

  12. Nonlinear signal processing using index calculus DBNS arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscedere, Roberto; Jullien, Graham A.; Dimitrov, Vassil S.; Miller, W. C.

    2000-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of a recently introduced index calculus Double-Base Number System (IDBNS) for representing and processing numbers for non-linear digital signal processing; the target application is a digital hearing aid processor. The IDBNS representation uses 2 orthogonal bases (2 and 3) to represent real numbers with arbitrary precision. By restricting the number of digits to one or two, It is possible to efficiently represent the real number using the indices of the bases rather than the distribution of the digits. In this paper we discuss the use of the two-digit form of this representation (2-IDBNS) to efficiently perform arithmetic associated with the non-linear processing required to correct the usual forms of hearing loss in a digital hearing aid. The non-linear processing takes the form of dynamic range compression as a function of frequency band. Currently developed digital hearing instrument processors require large dynamic range representations (20 - 24 bits) in order to accurately generate the dynamic range compression associated with typical hearing loss. We show that the natural non-linear representation afforded by the IDBNS provides both a more efficient signal representation and a more efficient technique for processing the dynamic range compression. We pay particular attention to a novel technique of converting from a linear binary input directly to the 2-IDBNS representation using an observation of partial cyclic repetition in the indices along with near unity approximants.

  13. Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo D Critchley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body, to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviours, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain’s representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed.

  14. The integrated design and archive of space-borne signal processing and compression coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang-min; Su, Hao-hang; Wu, Wen-bo

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing demand of users for the extraction of remote sensing image information, it is very urgent to significantly enhance the whole system's imaging quality and imaging ability by using the integrated design to achieve its compact structure, light quality and higher attitude maneuver ability. At this present stage, the remote sensing camera's video signal processing unit and image compression and coding unit are distributed in different devices. The volume, weight and consumption of these two units is relatively large, which unable to meet the requirements of the high mobility remote sensing camera. This paper according to the high mobility remote sensing camera's technical requirements, designs a kind of space-borne integrated signal processing and compression circuit by researching a variety of technologies, such as the high speed and high density analog-digital mixed PCB design, the embedded DSP technology and the image compression technology based on the special-purpose chips. This circuit lays a solid foundation for the research of the high mobility remote sensing camera.

  15. Signal processing in urodynamics: towards high definition urethral pressure profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klünder, Mario; Sawodny, Oliver; Amend, Bastian; Ederer, Michael; Kelp, Alexandra; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Feuer, Ronny

    2016-03-22

    Urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) is used in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) which is a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Low spatial pressure resolution, common occurrence of artifacts, and uncertainties in data location limit the diagnostic value of UPP. To overcome these limitations, high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) combining enhanced UPP hardware and signal processing algorithms has been developed. In this work, we present the different signal processing steps in HD-UPP and show experimental results from female minipigs. We use a special microtip catheter with high angular pressure resolution and an integrated inclination sensor. Signals from the catheter are filtered and time-correlated artifacts removed. A signal reconstruction algorithm processes pressure data into a detailed pressure image on the urethra's inside. Finally, the pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is calculated through deconvolution. A mathematical model of the urethra is contained in a point-spread-function (PSF) which is identified depending on geometric and material properties of the urethra. We additionally investigate the PSF's frequency response to determine the relevant frequency band for pressure information on the urinary sphincter. Experimental pressure data are spatially located and processed into high resolution pressure images. Artifacts are successfully removed from data without blurring other details. The pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is reconstructed and compared to the one on the inside. Finally, the pressure images are mapped onto the urethral geometry calculated from inclination and position data to provide an integrated image of pressure distribution, anatomical shape, and location. With its advanced sensing capabilities, the novel microtip catheter collects an unprecedented amount of urethral pressure data. Through sequential signal processing steps, physicians are provided with

  16. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997......)] but includes major changes at the peripheral and more central stages of processing. The model contains outer- and middle-ear transformations, a nonlinear basilar-membrane processing stage, a hair-cell transduction stage, a squaring expansion, an adaptation stage, a 150-Hz lowpass modulation filter, a bandpass...... modulation filterbank, a constant-variance internal noise, and an optimal detector stage. The model was evaluated in experimental conditions that reflect, to a different degree, effects of compression as well as spectral and temporal resolution in auditory processing. The experiments include intensity...

  17. A Multi-Frame Post-Processing Approach to Improved Decoding of H.264/AVC Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Video compression techniques may yield visually annoying artifacts for limited bitrate coding. In order to improve video quality, a multi-frame based motion compensated filtering algorithm is reported based on combining multiple pictures to form a single super-resolution picture and decimation...

  18. Playing with Process: Video Game Choice as a Model of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelchli, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Popular culture experience in video games creates avenues to practice information literacy skills and model research in a real-world setting. Video games create a unique popular culture experience where players can invest dozens of hours on one game, create characters to identify with, organize skill sets and plot points, collaborate with people…

  19. Exploring Novice Teachers' Cognitive Processes Using Digital Video Technology: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Ongerth, Yuelu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a qualitative case study that investigated novice teachers' video-aided reflection on their own teaching. To date, most studies that have investigated novice teachers' video-aided reflective practice have focused on examining novice teachers' levels of reflective writing rather than the cognitive…

  20. Uniform, optimal signal processing of mapped deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vibhor; Muratani, Masafumi; Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Kraus, Petra; Lufkin, Thomas; Ng, Huck Hui; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2013-07-01

    Despite their apparent diversity, many problems in the analysis of high-throughput sequencing data are merely special cases of two general problems, signal detection and signal estimation. Here we adapt formally optimal solutions from signal processing theory to analyze signals of DNA sequence reads mapped to a genome. We describe DFilter, a detection algorithm that identifies regulatory features in ChIP-seq, DNase-seq and FAIRE-seq data more accurately than assay-specific algorithms. We also describe EFilter, an estimation algorithm that accurately predicts mRNA levels from as few as 1-2 histone profiles (R ∼0.9). Notably, the presence of regulatory motifs in promoters correlates more with histone modifications than with mRNA levels, suggesting that histone profiles are more predictive of cis-regulatory mechanisms. We show by applying DFilter and EFilter to embryonic forebrain ChIP-seq data that regulatory protein identification and functional annotation are feasible despite tissue heterogeneity. The mathematical formalism underlying our tools facilitates integrative analysis of data from virtually any sequencing-based functional profile.

  1. Signal processing techniques for stepped frequency ultra-wideband radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed the impulse-based, ground vehicle-based, forward-looking ultra-wideband (UWB), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to detect concealed targets. Although the impulse-based architecture offers its own advantages, one of the important challenges is that when using this architecture it is very difficult to transmit a radar signal with an arbitrary bandwidth and shape. This feature is crucial for the radar to be compliant with the local frequency authority. In addition, being able to transmit signals with an arbitrary spectral shape is an important step in creating the next generation of smart (cognitive) radars. Therefore, we have designed a next-generation prototype radar to take advantage of the stepped frequency architecture. The design and building of the radar hardware is underway. In this paper, we study the radar transmit and acquisition scheme; the trade-offs between SAR image performance and various key radar parameters; and data reconstruction techniques for radar signals with an arbitrary spectrum. This study demonstrates performance, provides some guidelines for the radar design, and serves as a foundation for the signal and image processing stage.

  2. A signal processing analysis of Purkinje cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'ev R Abrams

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar Purkinje cells in vitro fire recurrent sequences of Sodium and Calcium spikes. Here, we analyze the Purkinje cell using harmonic analysis, and our experiments reveal that its output signal is comprised of three distinct frequency bands, which are combined using Amplitude and Frequency Modulation (AM/FM. We find that the three characteristic frequencies - Sodium, Calcium and Switching – occur in various combinations in all waveforms observed using whole-cell current clamp recordings. We found that the Calcium frequency can display a frequency doubling of its frequency mode, and the Switching frequency can act as a possible generator of pauses that are typically seen in Purkinje output recordings. Using a reversibly photo-switchable kainate receptor agonist, we demonstrate the external modulation of the Calcium and Switching frequencies. These experiments and Fourier analysis suggest that the Purkinje cell can be understood as a harmonic signal oscillator, enabling a higher level of interpretation of Purkinje signaling based on modern signal processing techniques.

  3. Wireless receiver architectures and design antennas, RF, synthesizers, mixed signal, and digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rouphael, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Receiver Architectures and Design presents the various designs and architectures of wireless receivers in the context of modern multi-mode and multi-standard devices. This one-stop reference and guide to designing low-cost low-power multi-mode, multi-standard receivers treats analog and digital signal processing simultaneously, with equal detail given to the chosen architecture and modulating waveform. It provides a complete understanding of the receiver's analog front end and the digital backend, and how each affects the other. The book explains the design process in great detail, s

  4. Towards Realising Secure and Efficient Image and Video Processing Applications on Quantum Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Iliyasu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the promise of security and efficiency that quantum computing offers, the basic foundations leading to commercial applications for quantum image processing are proposed. Two mathematical frameworks and algorithms to accomplish the watermarking of quantum images, authentication of ownership of already watermarked images and recovery of their unmarked versions on quantum computers are proposed. Encoding the images as 2n-sized normalised Flexible Representation of Quantum Images (FRQI states, with n-qubits and 1-qubit dedicated to capturing the respective information about the colour and position of every pixel in the image respectively, the proposed algorithms utilise the flexibility inherent to the FRQI representation, in order to confine the transformations on an image to any predetermined chromatic or spatial (or a combination of both content of the image as dictated by the watermark embedding, authentication or recovery circuits. Furthermore, by adopting an apt generalisation of the criteria required to realise physical quantum computing hardware, three standalone components that make up the framework to prepare, manipulate and recover the various contents required to represent and produce movies on quantum computers are also proposed. Each of the algorithms and the mathematical foundations for their execution were simulated using classical (i.e., conventional or non-quantum computing resources, and their results were analysed alongside other longstanding classical computing equivalents. The work presented here, combined together with the extensions suggested, provide the basic foundations towards effectuating secure and efficient classical-like image and video processing applications on the quantum-computing framework.

  5. Approximate Circuits in Low-Power Image and Video Processing: The Approximate Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sekanina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low power image and video processing circuits are crucial in many applications of computer vision. Traditional techniques used to reduce power consumption in these applications have recently been accompanied by circuit approximation methods which exploit the fact that these applications are highly error resilient and, hence, the quality of image processing can be traded for power consumption. On the basis of a literature survey, we identified the components whose implementations are the most frequently approximated and the methods used for obtaining these approximations. One of the components is the median image filter. We propose, evaluate and compare two approximation strategies based on Cartesian genetic programming applied to approximate various common implementations of the median filter. For filters developed using these approximation strategies, trade-offs between the quality of filtering and power consumption are investigated. Under conditions of our experiments we conclude that better trade-offs are achieved when the image filter is evolved from scratch rather than a conventional filter is approximated.

  6. Perspectives of using spin waves for computing and signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csaba, György, E-mail: gcsaba@gmail.com [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States); Faculty for Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary); Papp, Ádám [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States); Faculty for Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary); Porod, Wolfgang [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Highlights: • We give an overview of spin wave-based computing with emphasis on non-Boolean signal processors. • Spin waves can combine the best of electronics and photonics and do it in an on-chip and integrable way. • Copying successful approaches from microelectronics may not be the best way toward spin-wave based computing. • Practical devices can be constructed by minimizing the number of required magneto-electric interconnections. - Abstract: Almost all the world's information is processed and transmitted by either electric currents or photons. Now they may get a serious contender: spin-wave-based devices may just perform some information-processing tasks in a lot more efficient and practical way. In this article, we give an engineering perspective of the potential of spin-wave-based devices. After reviewing various flavors for spin-wave-based processing devices, we argue that the niche for spin-wave-based devices is low-power, compact and high-speed signal-processing devices, where most traditional electronics show poor performance.

  7. Biophoton signal transmission and processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rendong; Dai, Jiapei

    2014-10-05

    The transmission and processing of neural information in the nervous system plays a key role in neural functions. It is well accepted that neural communication is mediated by bioelectricity and chemical molecules via the processes called bioelectrical and chemical transmission, respectively. Indeed, the traditional theories seem to give valuable explanations for the basic functions of the nervous system, but difficult to construct general accepted concepts or principles to provide reasonable explanations of higher brain functions and mental activities, such as perception, learning and memory, emotion and consciousness. Therefore, many unanswered questions and debates over the neural encoding and mechanisms of neuronal networks remain. Cell to cell communication by biophotons, also called ultra-weak photon emissions, has been demonstrated in several plants, bacteria and certain animal cells. Recently, both experimental evidence and theoretical speculation have suggested that biophotons may play a potential role in neural signal transmission and processing, contributing to the understanding of the high functions of nervous system. In this paper, we review the relevant experimental findings and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of biophoton signal transmission and processing in the nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting protein subcellular location using digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu-Xi; Li, Da-Wei; Duan, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Zhou; Xu, Ming-Qing; Feng, Guo-Yin; He, Lin

    2005-02-01

    The biological functions of a protein are closely related to its attributes in a cell. With the rapid accumulation of newly found protein sequence data in databanks, it is highly desirable to develop an automated method for predicting the subcellular location of proteins. The establishment of such a predictor will expedite the functional determination of newly found proteins and the process of prioritizing genes and proteins identified by genomic efforts as potential molecular targets for drug design. The traditional algorithms for predicting these attributes were based solely on amino acid composition in which no sequence order effect was taken into account. To improve the prediction quality, it is necessary to incorporate such an effect. However, the number of possible patterns in protein sequences is extremely large, posing a formidable difficulty for realizing this goal. To deal with such difficulty, a well-developed tool in digital signal processing named digital Fourier transform (DFT) [1] was introduced. After being translated to a digital signal according to the hydrophobicity of each amino acid, a protein was analyzed by DFT within the frequency domain. A set of frequency spectrum parameters, thus obtained, were regarded as the factors to represent the sequence order effect. A significant improvement in prediction quality was observed by incorporating the frequency spectrum parameters with the conventional amino acid composition. One of the crucial merits of this approach is that many existing tools in mathematics and engineering can be easily applied in the predicting process. It is anticipated that digital signal processing may serve as a useful vehicle for many other protein science areas.

  9. Dysphagia Screening: Contributions of Cervical Auscultation Signals and Modern Signal-Processing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Joshua M; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-08-01

    Cervical auscultation is the recording of sounds and vibrations caused by the human body from the throat during swallowing. While traditionally done by a trained clinician with a stethoscope, much work has been put towards developing more sensitive and clinically useful methods to characterize the data obtained with this technique. The eventual goal of the field is to improve the effectiveness of screening algorithms designed to predict the risk that swallowing disorders pose to individual patients' health and safety. This paper provides an overview of these signal processing techniques and summarizes recent advances made with digital transducers in hopes of organizing the highly varied research on cervical auscultation. It investigates where on the body these transducers are placed in order to record a signal as well as the collection of analog and digital filtering techniques used to further improve the signal quality. It also presents the wide array of methods and features used to characterize these signals, ranging from simply counting the number of swallows that occur over a period of time to calculating various descriptive features in the time, frequency, and phase space domains. Finally, this paper presents the algorithms that have been used to classify this data into 'normal' and 'abnormal' categories. Both linear as well as non-linear techniques are presented in this regard.

  10. Ramanujan sums for signal processing of low-frequency noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planat, Michel; Rosu, Haret; Perrine, Serge

    2002-11-01

    An aperiodic (low-frequency) spectrum may originate from the error term in the mean value of an arithmetical function such as Möbius function or Mangoldt function, which are coding sequences for prime numbers. In the discrete Fourier transform the analyzing wave is periodic and not well suited to represent the low-frequency regime. In place we introduce a different signal processing tool based on the Ramanujan sums c(q)(n), well adapted to the analysis of arithmetical sequences with many resonances p/q. The sums are quasiperiodic versus the time n and aperiodic versus the order q of the resonance. Different results arise from the use of this Ramanujan-Fourier transform in the context of arithmetical and experimental signals.

  11. Wigner Ville Distribution in Signal Processing, using Scilab Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wigner Ville distribution offers a visual display of quantitative information about the way a signal’s energy is distributed in both, time and frequency. Through that, this distribution embodies the fundamentally concepts of the Fourier and time-domain analysis. The energy of the signal is distributed so that specific frequencies are localized in time by the group delay time and at specifics instants in time the frequency is given by the instantaneous frequency. The net positive volum of the Wigner distribution is numerically equal to the signal’s total energy. The paper shows the application of the Wigner Ville distribution, in the field of signal processing, using Scilab environment.

  12. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Course on Digital Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Digital Signal Processing; CAS 2007

    2008-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twenty-first specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic being Digital Signal Processing. The course was held in Sigtuna, Sweden, from 31 May–9 June 2007. This is the first time this topic has been selected for a specialized course. Taking into account the number of related applications currently in use in accelerators around the world, it was recognized that such a topic should definitively be incorporated into the CAS series of specialized courses. The specific aim of the course was to introduce the participants to the use and programming of Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) evaluation boards. The course consisted of lectures in the mornings covering fundamental background knowledge in mathematics, controls theory, design tools, programming hardware platforms, and implementation details. In the afternoons the students split into two groups with people working in pairs. One group w...

  13. Modification and Validation of an Automotive Data Processing Unit, Compessed Video System, and Communications Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    The primary purpose of the "modification and validation of an automotive data processing unit (DPU), compressed video system, and communications equipment" cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) was to modify and validate both hardware and software, developed by Scientific Atlanta, Incorporated (S-A) for defense applications (e.g., rotary-wing airplanes), for the commercial sector surface transportation domain (i.e., automobiles and trucks). S-A also furnished a state-of-the-art compressed video digital storage and retrieval system (CVDSRS), and off-the-shelf data storage and transmission equipment to support the data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) project conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In turn, S-A received access to hardware and technology related to DASCAR. DASCAR was subsequently removed completely and installation was repeated a number of times to gain an accurate idea of complete installation, operation, and removal of DASCAR. Upon satisfactory completion of the DASCAR construction and preliminary shakedown, ORNL provided NHTSA with an operational demonstration of DASCAR at their East Liberty, OH test facility. The demonstration included an on-the-road demonstration of the entire data acquisition system using NHTSA'S test track. In addition, the demonstration also consisted of a briefing, containing the following: ORNL generated a plan for validating the prototype data acquisition system with regard to: removal of DASCAR from an existing vehicle, and installation and calibration in other vehicles; reliability of the sensors and systems; data collection and transmission process (data integrity); impact on the drivability of the vehicle and obtrusiveness of the system to the driver; data analysis procedures; conspicuousness of the vehicle to other drivers; and DASCAR installation and removal training and documentation. In order to identify any operational problems not captured by the systems

  14. Demodulating Subsampled Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Signals using Compressive Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    receivers using spread spectrum technology. The main novelty of this paper is the discovery that in spread spectrum systems it is possible to apply compressive sensing with a much simpler hardware architecture than in other systems, making the implementation both simpler and more energy efficient. Our...... theoretical work is exemplified with a numerical experiment using the IEEE 802.15.4 standard’s 2.4GHz band specification. The numerical results support our theoretical indings and indicate that compressive sensing may be used successfully in spread spectrum communication systems. The results obtained here may......We show that to lower the sampling rate in a spread spectrum communication system using Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), compressive signal processing can be applied to demodulate the received signal. This may lead to a decrease in the power consumption or the manufacturing price of wireless...

  15. Bacterial Biofilm Control by Perturbation of Bacterial Signaling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Holm Jakobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective strategies to combat biofilm infections by means of either mechanical or chemical approaches could dramatically change today’s treatment procedures for the benefit of thousands of patients. Remarkably, considering the increased focus on biofilms in general, there has still not been invented and/or developed any simple, efficient and reliable methods with which to “chemically” eradicate biofilm infections. This underlines the resilience of infective agents present as biofilms and it further emphasizes the insufficiency of today’s approaches used to combat chronic infections. A potential method for biofilm dismantling is chemical interception of regulatory processes that are specifically involved in the biofilm mode of life. In particular, bacterial cell to cell signaling called “Quorum Sensing” together with intracellular signaling by bis-(3′-5′-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (cyclic-di-GMP have gained a lot of attention over the last two decades. More recently, regulatory processes governed by two component regulatory systems and small non-coding RNAs have been increasingly investigated. Here, we review novel findings and potentials of using small molecules to target and modulate these regulatory processes in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa to decrease its pathogenic potential.

  16. System identification to characterize human use of ethanol based on generative point-process models of video games with ethanol rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozil, Ipek; Plawecki, Martin H; Doerschuk, Peter C; O'Connor, Sean J

    2011-01-01

    The influence of family history and genetics on the risk for the development of abuse or dependence is a major theme in alcoholism research. Recent research have used endophenotypes and behavioral paradigms to help detect further genetic contributions to this disease. Electronic tasks, essentially video games, which provide alcohol as a reward in controlled environments and with specified exposures have been developed to explore some of the behavioral and subjective characteristics of individuals with or at risk for alcohol substance use disorders. A generative model (containing parameters with unknown values) of a simple game involving a progressive work paradigm is described along with the associated point process signal processing that allows system identification of the model. The system is demonstrated on human subject data. The same human subject completing the task under different circumstances, e.g., with larger and smaller alcohol reward values, is assigned different parameter values. Potential meanings of the different parameter values are described.

  17. Cramer-Rao Bound for Gaussian Random Processes and Applications to Radar Processing of Atmospheric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehlich, Rod

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of the exact Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) for unbiased estimates of the mean frequency, signal power, and spectral width of Doppler radar/lidar signals (a Gaussian random process) are presented. Approximate CRB's are derived using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). These approximate results are equal to the exact CRB when the DFT coefficients are mutually uncorrelated. Previous high SNR limits for CRB's are shown to be inaccurate because the discrete summations cannot be approximated with integration. The performance of an approximate maximum likelihood estimator for mean frequency approaches the exact CRB for moderate signal to noise ratio and moderate spectral width.

  18. DSPSR: Digital Signal Processing Software for Pulsar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.

    2010-10-01

    DSPSR, written primarily in C++, is an open-source, object-oriented, digital signal processing software library and application suite for use in radio pulsar astronomy. The library implements an extensive range of modular algorithms for use in coherent dedispersion, filterbank formation, pulse folding, and other tasks. The software is installed and compiled using the standard GNU configure and make system, and is able to read astronomical data in 18 different file formats, including FITS, S2, CPSR, CPSR2, PuMa, PuMa2, WAPP, ASP, and Mark5.

  19. Signal Processing with Teams of Embedded Workhorse Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobson RF

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced signal processing for voice and data in wired or wireless environments can require massive computational power. Due to the complexity and continuing evolution of such systems, it is desirable to maintain as much software controllability in the field as possible. Time to market can also be improved by reducing the amount of hardware design. This paper describes an architecture based on clusters of embedded "workhorse" processors which can be dynamically harnessed in real time to support a wide range of computational tasks. Low-power processors and memory are important ingredients in such a highly parallel environment.

  20. Music Signal Processing Using Vector Product Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z. C.; Chan, T. S.; Yang, Y. H.; Jang, J. S. R.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a novel neural network model for music signal processing using vector product neurons and dimensionality transformations. Here, the inputs are first mapped from real values into three-dimensional vectors then fed into a three-dimensional vector product neural network where the inputs, outputs, and weights are all three-dimensional values. Next, the final outputs are mapped back to the reals. Two methods for dimensionality transformation are proposed, one via context windows and the other via spectral coloring. Experimental results on the iKala dataset for blind singing voice separation confirm the efficacy of our model.

  1. Computational information geometry for image and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Critchley, Frank; Dodson, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the application and development of information geometric methods in the analysis, classification and retrieval of images and signals. It provides introductory chapters to help those new to information geometry and applies the theory to several applications. This area has developed rapidly over recent years, propelled by the major theoretical developments in information geometry, efficient data and image acquisition and the desire to process and interpret large databases of digital information. The book addresses both the transfer of methodology to practitioners involved in database analysis and in its efficient computational implementation.

  2. A Random Walk into Optical Signal Processing and Integrated Optofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    As a young child, I knew that I wanted to be a paleontologist. My parents, both artists, did their best to encourage me in my quest to dig for dinosaurs. However, decisions during my late high school and early college years serendipitously shifted my path so that I ended up pursuing a career in applied physics. In particular, my career path has been centered in optics with an emphasis on holography and signal processing. This talk will discuss my research in the areas of opto-electronic blind source separation and holographic photopolymers as well as the non-linear path that has gotten me to this point.

  3. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  4. Modeling, estimation and optimal filtration in signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najim, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide graduate students and practitioners with traditional methods and more recent results for model-based approaches in signal processing.Firstly, discrete-time linear models such as AR, MA and ARMA models, their properties and their limitations are introduced. In addition, sinusoidal models are addressed.Secondly, estimation approaches based on least squares methods and instrumental variable techniques are presented.Finally, the book deals with optimal filters, i.e. Wiener and Kalman filtering, and adaptive filters such as the RLS, the LMS and the

  5. Nonlinear Optical Signal Processing for Tbit/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2012-01-01

    detection in a delay-interferometer-balanced detector-based receiver, yielding a BER less than 10−9. We also present subsystems making serial optical Tbit/s systems compatible with standard Ethernet data for data centre applications and present Tbit/s results using, for instance silicon nanowires.......We review recent experimental demonstrations of Tbaud optical signal processing. In particular, we describe a successful 1.28 Tbit/s serial data generation based on single polarization 1.28 Tbaud symbol rate pulses with binary data modulation (OOK) and subsequent all-optical demultiplexing. We also...

  6. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eAvril

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyse communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviours (including synchrony. This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyses highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  7. Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated by intracellular acidification acting on acid-sensitive membrane proteins. Once a taste signal is generated in a taste cell, the subsequent steps involve secretion of neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin. It is now recognized that the cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami taste stimuli do not possess synapses and instead secrete the neurotransmitter ATP via a novel mechanism not involving conventional vesicular exocytosis. ATP is believed to excite primary sensory afferent fibers that convey gustatory signals to the brain. In contrast, taste cells that do have synapses release serotonin in response to gustatory stimulation. The postsynaptic targets of serotonin have not yet been identified. Finally, ATP secreted from receptor cells also acts on neighboring taste cells to stimulate their release of serotonin. This suggests that there is important information processing and signal coding taking place in the mammalian taste bud after gustatory stimulation. PMID:17468883

  8. Gaussian Process Regression-Based Video Anomaly Detection and Localization With Hierarchical Feature Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chen, Yie-Tarng; Fang, Wen-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical framework for detecting local and global anomalies via hierarchical feature representation and Gaussian process regression (GPR) which is fully non-parametric and robust to the noisy training data, and supports sparse features. While most research on anomaly detection has focused more on detecting local anomalies, we are more interested in global anomalies that involve multiple normal events interacting in an unusual manner, such as car accidents. To simultaneously detect local and global anomalies, we cast the extraction of normal interactions from the training videos as a problem of finding the frequent geometric relations of the nearby sparse spatio-temporal interest points (STIPs). A codebook of interaction templates is then constructed and modeled using the GPR, based on which a novel inference method for computing the likelihood of an observed interaction is also developed. Thereafter, these local likelihood scores are integrated into globally consistent anomaly masks, from which anomalies can be succinctly identified. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time GPR is employed to model the relationship of the nearby STIPs for anomaly detection. Simulations based on four widespread datasets show that the new method outperforms the main state-of-the-art methods with lower computational burden.

  9. Digital video image processing from dental operating microscope in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehara, Masataka; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi; Aida, Natsuko; Ushikubo, Toshihiro; Morinaga, Kazuki

    2012-01-01

    Recently, optical microscopes have been used in endodontic treatment, as they offer advantages in terms of magnification, illumination, and documentation. Documentation is particularly important in presenting images to patients, and can take the form of both still images and motion video. Although high-quality still images can be obtained using a 35-mm film or CCD camera, the quality of still images produced by a video camera is significantly lower. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of RegiStax in obtaining high-quality still images from a continuous video stream from an optical microscope. Video was captured continuously and sections with the highest luminosity chosen for frame alignment and stacking using the RegiStax program. The resulting stacked images were subjected to wavelet transformation. The results indicate that high-quality images with a large depth of field could be obtained using this method.

  10. Gravity influences top-down signals in visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheron, Guy; Leroy, Axelle; Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; De Saedeleer, Caty; Bengoetxea, Ana; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Vidal, Manuel; Dan, Bernard; Berthoz, Alain; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception is not only based on incoming visual signals but also on information about a multimodal reference frame that incorporates vestibulo-proprioceptive input and motor signals. In addition, top-down modulation of visual processing has previously been demonstrated during cognitive operations including selective attention and working memory tasks. In the absence of a stable gravitational reference, the updating of salient stimuli becomes crucial for successful visuo-spatial behavior by humans in weightlessness. Here we found that visually-evoked potentials triggered by the image of a tunnel just prior to an impending 3D movement in a virtual navigation task were altered in weightlessness aboard the International Space Station, while those evoked by a classical 2D-checkerboard were not. Specifically, the analysis of event-related spectral perturbations and inter-trial phase coherency of these EEG signals recorded in the frontal and occipital areas showed that phase-locking of theta-alpha oscillations was suppressed in weightlessness, but only for the 3D tunnel image. Moreover, analysis of the phase of the coherency demonstrated the existence on Earth of a directional flux in the EEG signals from the frontal to the occipital areas mediating a top-down modulation during the presentation of the image of the 3D tunnel. In weightlessness, this fronto-occipital, top-down control was transformed into a diverging flux from the central areas toward the frontal and occipital areas. These results demonstrate that gravity-related sensory inputs modulate primary visual areas depending on the affordances of the visual scene.

  11. Photoplethysmography Signal Analysis for Optimal Region-of-Interest Determination in Video Imaging on a Built-In Smartphone under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyoung Nam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones and tablets are widely used in medical fields, which can improve healthcare and reduce healthcare costs. Many medical applications for smartphones and tablets have already been developed and widely used by both health professionals and patients. Specifically, video recordings of fingertips made using a smartphone camera contain a pulsatile component caused by the cardiac pulse equivalent to that present in a photoplethysmographic signal. By performing peak detection on the pulsatile signal, it is possible to estimate a continuous heart rate and a respiratory rate. To estimate the heart rate and respiratory rate accurately, which pixel regions of the color bands give the most optimal signal quality should be investigated. In this paper, we investigate signal quality to determine the best signal quality by the largest amplitude values for three different smartphones under different conditions. We conducted several experiments to obtain reliable PPG signals and compared the PPG signal strength in the three color bands when the flashlight was both on and off. We also evaluated the intensity changes of PPG signals obtained from the smartphones with motion artifacts and fingertip pressure force. Furthermore, we have compared the PSNR of PPG signals of the full-size images with that of the region of interests (ROIs.

  12. Gaming to see: Action Video Gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten ePohl; Wilfried eKunde; Thomas eGanz; Annette eConzelmann; Paul ePauli; Andrea eKiesel

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behaviour. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal picture...

  13. Bacteriorhodopsin films for optical signal processing and data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkup, John F. (Principal Investigator); Mehrl, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results obtained on NASA Ames Grant NAG 2-878 entitled 'Investigations of Bacteriorhodopsin Films for Optical Signal Processing and Data Storage.' Specifically we performed research, at Texas Tech University, on applications of Bacteriorhodopisin film to both (1) dynamic spatial filtering and (2) holographic data storage. In addition, measurements of the noise properties of an acousto-optical matrix-vestor multiplier built for NASA Ames by Photonic Systems Inc. were performed at NASA Ames' Photonics Laboratory. This research resulted in two papers presented at major optical data processing conferences and a journal paper which is to appear in APPLIED OPTICS. A new proposal for additional BR research has recently been submitted to NASA Ames Research Center.

  14. Reversible Squaring Circuit for Low Power Digital Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Singla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the high demand of low power digital systems, energy dissipation in the digital system is one of the limiting factors. Reversible logic is one of the alternate to reduce heat/energy dissipation in the digital circuits and have a very significant importance in bioinformatics, optical information processing, CMOS design etc. In this paper the authors propose the design of new 2- bit binary Squaring circuit used in most of the digital signal processing hardware using Feynman & MUX gate. The proposed squaring circuit having less garbage outputs, constant inputs, Quantum cost and Total logical calculation i.e. less delay as compared to the traditional method of squaring operation by reversible multiplier. The simulating results and quantized results are also shown in the paper which shows the greatest improvement in the design against the previous methodology.

  15. Tunable photonic filters: a digital signal processing design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2009-05-20

    Digital signal processing techniques are used for synthesizing tunable optical filters with variable bandwidth and centered reference frequency including the tunability of the low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop optical filters. Potential applications of such filters are discussed, and the design techniques and properties of recursive digital filters are outlined. The basic filter structures, namely, the first-order all-pole optical filter (FOAPOF) and the first-order all-zero optical filter (FOAZOF), are described, and finally the design process of tunable optical filters and the designs of the second-order Butterworth low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop tunable optical filters are presented. Indeed, we identify that the all-zero and all-pole networks are equivalent with well known principles of optics of interference and resonance, respectively. It is thus very straightforward to implement tunable optical filters, which is a unique feature.

  16. A New Learning Control System for Basketball Free Throws Based on Real Time Video Image Processing and Biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shooting free throws plays an important role in basketball. The major problem in performing a correct free throw seems to be inappropriate training. Training is performed offline and it is often not that persistent. The aim of this paper is to consciously modify and control the free throw using biofeedback. Elbow and shoulder dynamics are calculated by an image processing technique equipped with a video image acquisition system. The proposed setup in this paper, named learning control system, is able to quantify and provide feedback of the above parameters in real time as audio signals. Therefore, it yielded to performing a correct learning and conscious control of shooting. Experimental results showed improvements in the free throw shooting style including shot pocket and locked position. The mean values of elbow and shoulder angles were controlled approximately on 89o and 26o, for shot pocket and also these angles were tuned approximately on 180o and 47o respectively for the locked position (closed to the desired pattern of the free throw based on valid FIBA references. Not only the mean values enhanced but also the standard deviations of these angles decreased meaningfully, which shows shooting style convergence and uniformity. Also, in training conditions, the average percentage of making successful free throws increased from about 64% to even 87% after using this setup and in competition conditions the average percentage of successful free throws enhanced about 20%, although using the learning control system may not be the only reason for these outcomes. The proposed system is easy to use, inexpensive, portable and real time applicable.

  17. Non-linear signal processing in digital hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunner, T; Hellgren, J; Arlinger, S; Elberling, C

    1998-01-01

    Three different non-linear digital signal processing algorithms were developed; LinEar, DynEar and RangeEar. All three provided individual frequency shaping via a seven-band low-power filterbank and compression in two channels. RangeEar and DynEar used wide dynamic range syllabic compression in the low-frequency (LF) channel, while LinEar used compression limiting. In the high-frequency (HF) channel, RangeEar used a slow-acting automatic volume control, while DynEar and LinEar used compression limiting. Wearable digital signal processing-based experimental instruments were used to evaluate the fitting algorithms under real world conditions with experienced hearing aid users. Evaluation included laboratory testing of speech recognition in noise and questionnaires on sound quality ratings. Results did not indicate one general good-for-all algorithm, but different algorithms resulting in preference and performance depending on the hearing loss configuration. Preference for any of the new algorithms could be predicted based on auditory dynamic range measurements. It was hypothesized that the different preferences were affected by different susceptibility to masking of HF sounds by amplified LF sounds.

  18. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-01-01

    .... Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control...

  19. 2012 Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Mu, Jiasong; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming; Zhao, Chenglin

    2012-01-01

    Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems is a collection of contributions coming out of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held October 2012. This book provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, and their interactions in multidisciplinary fields, such as Smart Grid. The book also examines Radar Systems, Sensor Networks, Radar Signal Processing, Design and Implementation of Signal Processing Systems and Applications. Written by experts and students in the fields of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems.

  20. High Frequency Antennas for Wireless Transmissions of Audio and Video Signals Using Threads Spun From Long Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, David; Jayasinghe, Chaminda; Schulz, Mark; Shanov, Vesselin

    2009-03-01

    We have used threads spun from long multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to make antennas for audio and video broadcasts (transmission and reception) at GHz frequencies. The MWCNT used to make the threads have outer diameters from about 6 nm to 30 nm. These MWCNT's have been grown in lengths up to 18 mm. The diameter of the CNT threads used to fabricate the high frequency antennas was 25 microns. Initial measurements consist of 1) transmission and reception of a CW signals at f= 694 MHz and 1388MHz , 2) the transmission and detection of a CW signal plus sidebands at ± 100kHz, 3) the broadcast and reception of an AM modulated audio signal, 4) the broadcast and reception of composite video images, 5) the simultaneous broadcast and reception of audio signals from a single CNT antenna, and 6) the simultaneous transmission and/or reception at multiple frequencies from a single CNT thread antenna. The results of using the CNT thread antenna for these transmissions will be discussed.