van der Meij, Hans
This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were
Full Text Available A novel video conference system is developed. Suppose that three people A, B, and C attend the video conference, the proposed system enables eye contact among every pair. Furthermore, when B and C chat, A feels as if B and C were facing each other (eye contact seems to be kept among B and C. In the case of a triangle video conference, the respective video system is composed of a half mirror, two video cameras, and two monitors. Each participant watches other participants' images that are reflected by the half mirror. Cameras are set behind the half mirror. Since participants' image (face and the camera position are adjusted to be the same direction, eye contact is kept and conversation becomes very natural compared with conventional video conference systems where participants' eyes do not point to the other participant. When 3 participants sit at the vertex of an equilateral triangle, eyes can be kept even for the situation mentioned above (eye contact between B and C from the aspect of A. Eye contact can be kept not only for 2 or 3 participants but also any number of participants as far as they sit at the vertex of a regular polygon.
Patients who took part in a tailored, video-based educational program had a better understanding of and fewer concerns about participating in clinical trials than patients who received text-based educational.
Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE
INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...
Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E
Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imagery in video games (n = 6), video game playing and smoking behavior (n = 11), video game addiction and tobacco addiction (n = 5) and genre-specific game playing and smoking behavior (n = 3). Tobacco content was present in a subset of video games. The literature is inconclusive as to whether exposure to video games as a single construct is associated with smoking behavior. Four of five studies found an association between video game addiction and smoking. For genre-specific game playing, studies suggest that the type of game played affected association with smoking behavior. Research on how playing video games influences adolescents' perceptions of smoking and smoking behaviors is still in its nascence. Further research is needed to understand how adolescents respond to viewing and manipulating tobacco imagery, and whether engaging in game smoking translates into changes in real-world attitudes or behavior. Smoking imagery in video games may contribute to normalizing adolescent smoking. A large body of research has shown that smoking imagery in a variety of media types contributes to adolescent smoking uptake and the normalization of smoking behavior, and almost 90% of adolescents play video games, yet there has never been a published systematic review of the literature on this important topic. This is the first systematic review to examine the research on tobacco and video games.We found that tobacco imagery is indeed present in video games, the relationship between video game playing and smoking
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games. Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence. Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies. PMID:28588464
Full Text Available Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games.Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass.Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games.Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence.Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies.
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games. Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence. Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies.
This dissertation examines the development of critical colleagueship among five secondary science teachers in a semester-long video club. The design of the video club was intended to promote a focus on student thinking and experimentation with elements of ambitious science teaching. Over time, participants sustained a focus on interpreting students' disciplinary thinking using evidence and began to problematize aspects of instruction related to making student thinking visible. Some participants attempted to change instruction to gain greater access to students' disciplinary thinking while others did not. Efforts to experiment with instructional practice appeared related to alignment between participants' learning goals and curricular contexts and the goals of the professional development design. Features such as framing activities, types of artifacts used, and facilitation, interacted differently over time to influence participant learning. Analysis revealed various tensions among the elements of the learning ecology that influenced participation. Findings from this study contribute to what is known about the importance of skilled facilitation as part of a learning ecology (Cobb, Confrey, diSessa, Lehrer, & Schauble, 2003) and has implications for the design of site-based professional development with secondary teachers.
Wiese, K.; Mcconnell, D. A.
Do you use video in your teaching? Do you make your own video? Interested in joining our growing community of geoscience educators designing and using video inside and outside the classroom? Over four months in Spring 2014, 22 educators of varying video design and development expertise participated in an NSF-funded On the Cutting Edge virtual workshop to review the best educational research on video design and use; to share video-development/use strategies and experiences; and to develop a website of resources for a growing community of geoscience educators who use video: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/video/workshop2014/index.html. The site includes links to workshop presentations, teaching activity collections, and a growing collection of online video resources, including "How-To" videos for various video editing or video-making software and hardware options. Additional web resources support several topical themes including: using videos to flip classes, handling ADA access and copyright issues, assessing the effectiveness of videos inside and outside the classroom, best design principles for video learning, and lists and links of the best videos publicly available for use. The workshop represents an initial step in the creation of an informal team of collaborators devoted to the development and support of an ongoing network of geoscience educators designing and using video. Instructors who are interested in joining this effort are encouraged to contact the lead author.
van der Meij, H.; van der Meij, J.
This study investigates how well a video tutorial for software training that is based on Demonstration-Based Teaching supports user motivation and performance. In addition, it is studied whether reviews significantly contribute to these measures. The Control condition employs a tutorial with instructional features added to a dynamic task…
van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan
This study investigates how well a video tutorial for software training that is based on Demonstration-Based Teaching supports user motivation and performance. In addition, it is studied whether reviews significantly contribute to these measures. The Control condition employs a tutorial with
Videos have been used in classrooms for decades, but student-produced video has recently become a viable, economical option to enhance learning. Students were asked to create videos to be used for their exam review in two different undergraduate mathematics courses: Differential Equation and Complex Analysis. Students were then surveyed about…
Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa
In this paper, we examine the different challenges and possibilities corporate vision videos pose to the ethical contract, which is intentionally or unintentionally, deliberately or accidentally concluded between a corporation and the viewers on the various online communities vision videos...... are spreading from and to. We seek to initiate the conceptual foundation for ethical considerations needed in using vision videos as a participatory resource. Our findings suggest, that the ethical contract of using user participation from online vision videos both have to account for how the video...
Pinto, Anna; Vincent, Charles; Darzi, Ara; Davis, Rachel
To explore patients' attitudes towards the PINK video, a patient education video aimed at encouraging hospital patients' involvement in safety-relevant behaviours. Qualitative semi-structured interviews. Detailed field notes were taken during the interviews which were analysed using content analysis. One National Health System (NHS) teaching hospital based in London, UK. Thirty-six in-patients aged between 20 and 79 years, 18 of them males. The PINK video is a short animated educational video aimed at encouraging patients to be involved in the safety of their care during hospitalization. Patients' perceptions of how informative, relevant and acceptable the video is; attitudes towards participating in the recommended safety-related behaviours and; potential negative side effects of watching the video. Overall the video was received favourably among the interviewees. Commonly cited benefits included raising awareness and facilitating patients to be involved in their care during their hospital stay. More variability was found in participants' views with regard to the video's role as a patient safety enhancement tool. A number of suggestions for improvement of the video were provided relating to tailoring its content and design to meet the needs of individual patients and their circumstances. Educational videos such as PINK have significant potential to empower patients in the safety and quality of their care. However, efforts to implement patient safety educational videos in practice need to consider different patient groups' needs and characteristics instead of trying to adopt 'a one size fits all' approach.
Ahmet, Akgul; Gamze, Kus; Rustem, Mustafaoglu; Sezen, Karaborklu Argut
Visual signs draw more attention during the learning process. Video is one of the most effective tool including a lot of visual cues. This systematic review set out to explore the influence of video in surgical education. We reviewed the current evidence for the video-based surgical education methods, discuss the advantages and disadvantages on the teaching of technical and nontechnical surgical skills. This systematic review was conducted according to the guidelines defined in the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. The electronic databases: the Cochrane Library, Medline (PubMED), and ProQuest were searched from their inception to the 30 January 2016. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords used were "video," "education," and "surgery." We analyzed all full-texts, randomised and nonrandomised clinical trials and observational studies including video-based education methods about any surgery. "Education" means a medical resident's or student's training and teaching process; not patients' education. We did not impose restrictions about language or publication date. A total of nine articles which met inclusion criteria were included. These trials enrolled 507 participants and the total number of participants per trial ranged from 10 to 172. Nearly all of the studies reviewed report significant knowledge gain from video-based education techniques. The findings of this systematic review provide fair to good quality studies to demonstrate significant gains in knowledge compared with traditional teaching. Additional video to simulator exercise or 3D animations has beneficial effects on training time, learning duration, acquisition of surgical skills, and trainee's satisfaction. Video-based education has potential for use in surgical education as trainees face significant barriers in their practice. This method is effective according to the recent literature. Video should be used in addition to standard techniques
Full Text Available Wherein Ian Bogost and Simon Ferrari review Nick Dyer-Witheford and Greig de Peuter's 2009 title, Games of Empire: Global Capitalism and Video Games (University of Minnesota Press.
Andrew James Reid
Full Text Available Political participation in the United Kingdom among young voters (aged 18-24 has steadily declined over the past two decades. Alongside this decline, video game popularity has meteorically risen among the same demographic, resulting in video games becoming increasingly more integrated within modern society. While these instances are not necessarily related, there is opportunity to explore the use of video games’ popularity to increase political participation.The basis of this research is to investigate video games as a medium for social change, and its application within a political context in order to encourage political participation in the United Kingdom. The research intends to critically analyse existing video game design theories with implications of social impact, such as transformative design, procedural rhetoric, ethical design, persuasive principles and the theory of play.This research has assisted in the development of the Political Design Framework, a design methodology that provides ethical definition and validation for video games that intend to promote political engagement.
Wetzel, C. D.; Radtke, Paul H.; Stern, Hervey W.; Dickieson, Jan; McLachlan, J. C.
Visual forms of instruction are increasingly used as a result of the widespread use of video technologies such as broadcasts, teleconferencing, tapes, videodiscs, and emerging multimedia combinations of computer and digital video technologies. The considerable amount of research that stretches back to early work with film, television, and static visual materials can be of benefit in developing these new forms of instruction. The objective is to present a review of the current research literature regarding the use of dynamic video media in instruction. Research on the following topics was reviewed: general reviews of the effectiveness, acceptance, and costs of several forms of educational television; teaching techniques used effectively with video media; combining visual and verbal information; the effects of motion, animation, and interactivity, the relationship between media perceptions and learning; the effect of various video production techniques on learning; and critical perspectives on learning from media. This review can be used as background material for future research or instructional development efforts concerned with learning from video-based media.
Ohannessian, Robin; Yaghobian, Sarina; Verger, Pierre; Vanhems, Philippe
Vaccination is an effective and proven method of preventing infectious diseases. However, uptake has not been optimal with available vaccines partly due to vaccination hesitancy. Various public health approaches have adressed vaccination hesitancy. Serious video games involving vaccination may represent an innovative public health approach. The aim of this study was to identify, describe, and review existing serious video games on vaccination. A systematic review was performed. Various databases were used to find data on vaccination-related serious video games published from January 1st 2000 to May 15th 2015. Data including featured medical and vaccination content, publication characteristics and games classification were collected for each identified serious game. Sixteen serious video games involved in vaccination were identified. All games were developed in high-income countries between 2003 and 2014. The majority of games were available online and were sponsored by educational/health institutions. All games were free of charge to users. Edugame was the most prevalent serious game subcategory. Twelve games were infectious disease-specific and the majority concerned influenza. The main objective of the games was disease control with a collective perspective. Utilization data was available for two games. Two games were formally evaluated. The use of serious video games for vaccination is an innovative tool for public health. Evaluation of vaccination related serious video games should be encouraged to demonstrate their efficacy and utility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BOOK AND VIDEO REVIEWS. BATTLES IN BRITAIN AND THEIR POLITICAL. BACKGROUND, 1066-1746. William Seymour. Wordsworth, Ware (Herts): 1997. 232 & 231 pages. Illustrated, maps. ISBN I 85326 672 8. R61-00. William. Seymour has produced the field guide to British battlefields for which military historians ...
King, DL; Delfabbro, PH; Griffiths, M.
The structural characteristics of video games may play an important role in explaining why some people play video games to excess. This paper provides a review of the literature on structural features of video games and the psychological experience of playing video games. The dominant view of the appeal of video games is based on operant conditioning theory and the notion that video games satisfy various needs for social interaction and belonging. However, there is a lack of experimental and ...
Marko M Skoric
Full Text Available The importance of cultivating political engagement among youth has been widely discussed and its value for a well-functioning democratic society reaffirmed by numerous scholars. This study seeks to understand the relationship between the use of emerging platforms for online sociability and entertainment and political participation among young Singaporeans. Specifically, we focus on the intensity of Facebook use and frequency of video gaming, as well as more specific civic activities taking place on these platforms. The findings indicate that the intensity of Facebook use is related to both online and traditional political participation, while civic gaming is associated with online participation only. There is also evidence linking membership in civic/political Facebook groups with increased online participation. Lastly, although the results suggest that online participation may be an important driver of traditional political participation, the role of traditional media, particularly newspapers, should not be easily dismissed.
Winston, Karin; Grendarova, Petra; Rabi, Doreen
This study reviews the published literature on the use of video-based decision aids (DA) for patients. The authors describe the areas of medicine in which video-based patient DA have been evaluated, the medical decisions targeted, their reported impact, in which countries studies are being conducted, and publication trends. The literature review was conducted systematically using Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Pubmed databases from inception to 2016. References of identified studies were reviewed, and hand-searches of relevant journals were conducted. 488 studies were included and organized based on predefined study characteristics. The most common decisions addressed were cancer screening, risk reduction, advance care planning, and adherence to provider recommendations. Most studies had sample sizes of fewer than 300, and most were performed in the United States. Outcomes were generally reported as positive. This field of study was relatively unknown before 1990s but the number of studies published annually continues to increase. Videos are largely positive interventions but there are significant remaining knowledge gaps including generalizability across populations. Clinicians should consider incorporating video-based DA in their patient interactions. Future research should focus on less studied areas and the mechanisms underlying effective patient decision aids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ortiz-Huerta, J H; Perez-de-Heredia-Torres, M; Guijo-Blanco, V; Santamaria-Vazquez, M
In recent years video games and games consoles have been developed that are potentially useful in rehabilitation, which has led to studies conducted to evaluate the degree of efficacy of these treatments for people following a stroke. To analyse the literature available related to the effectiveness of applying video games consoles in the functional recovery of the upper extremities in subjects who have survived a stroke. A review of the literature was conducted in the CINHAL, Medline, PEDro, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science databases, using the query terms 'video game', 'stroke', 'hemiplegia', 'upper extremity' and 'hemiparesis'. After applying the eligibility criteria (clinical trials published between 2007 and 2017, whose participants were adults who had suffered a stroke with involvement of the upper extremity and who used video games), the scientific quality of the selected studies was rated by means of the PEDro scale. Eleven valid clinical trials were obtained for the systematic review. The studies that were selected, all of which were quantitative, presented different data and the inferential results indicated different levels of significance between control and experimental groups (82%) or between the different types of treatment (18%). The use of video games consoles is a useful complement for the conventional rehabilitation of the upper extremities of persons who have survived a stroke, since it increases rehabilitation time and enhances the recovery of motor functioning. Nevertheless, homogeneous intervention protocols need to be implemented in order to standardise the intervention.
James D. Ivory
Full Text Available Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games’ social function that are often difficult to reconcile— or even contradictory. Research is also often categorized by topic area, rendering a comprehensive view of video games’ social role across topic areas difficult. This interpretive review presents a novel typology of four identified approaches that categorize much of the quantitative social science video game research conducted to date: “video games as stimulus,” “video games as avocation,” “video games as skill,” and “video games as social environment.” This typology is useful because it provides an organizational structure within which the large and growing number of studies on video games can be categorized, guiding comparisons between studies on different research topics and aiding a more comprehensive understanding of video games’ social role. Categorizing the different approaches to video game research provides a useful heuristic for those critiquing and expanding that research, as well as an understandable entry point for scholars new to video game research. Further, and perhaps more importantly, the typology indicates when topics should be explored using different approaches than usual to shed new light on the topic areas. Lastly, the typology exposes the conceptual disconnects between the different approaches to video game research, allowing researchers to consider new ways to bridge gaps between the different approaches’ strengths and limitations with novel methods.
Wilkinson, Nathan; Ang, Rebecca P; Goh, Dion H
There has been research on the use of offline video games for therapeutic purposes but online video game therapy is still fairly under-researched. Online therapeutic interventions have only recently included a gaming component. Hence, this review represents a timely first step toward taking advantage of these recent technological and cultural innovations, particularly for the treatment of special-needs groups such as the young, the elderly and people with various conditions such as ADHD, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. A review integrating research findings on two technological advances was conducted: the home computer boom of the 1980s, which triggered a flood of research on therapeutic video games for the treatment of various mental health conditions; and the rise of the internet in the 1990s, which caused computers to be seen as conduits for therapeutic interaction rather than replacements for the therapist. We discuss how video games and the internet can now be combined in therapeutic interventions, as attested by a consideration of pioneering studies. Future research into online video game therapy for mental health concerns might focus on two broad types of game: simple society games, which are accessible and enjoyable to players of all ages, and online worlds, which offer a unique opportunity for narrative content and immersive remote interaction with therapists and fellow patients. Both genres might be used for assessment and training purposes, and provide an unlimited platform for social interaction. The mental health community can benefit from more collaborative efforts between therapists and engineers, making such innovations a reality.
V. B. Surya Prasath
Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is used widely nowadays for visualizing the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Capsule endoscopy exams are prescribed usually as an additional monitoring mechanism and can help in identifying polyps, bleeding, etc. To analyze the large scale video data produced by VCE exams, automatic image processing, computer vision, and learning algorithms are required. Recently, automatic polyp detection algorithms have been proposed with various degrees of success. Though polyp detection in colonoscopy and other traditional endoscopy procedure based images is becoming a mature field, due to its unique imaging characteristics, detecting polyps automatically in VCE is a hard problem. We review different polyp detection approaches for VCE imagery and provide systematic analysis with challenges faced by standard image processing and computer vision methods.
King, Daniel L; Haagsma, Maria C; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D
Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to Cicchetti (1994) and Groth-Marnat's (2009) criteria and guidelines for sound psychometric assessment. A total of 63 quantitative studies, including eighteen instruments and representing 58,415 participants, were evaluated. Results indicated that reviewed instrumentation may be broadly characterized as inconsistent. Strengths of available measures include: (i) short length and ease of scoring, (ii) excellent internal consistency and convergent validity, and (iii) potentially adequate data for development of standardized norms for adolescent populations. However, key limitations included: (a) inconsistent coverage of core addiction indicators, (b) varying cut-off scores to indicate clinical status, (c) a lack of a temporal dimension, (d) untested or inconsistent dimensionality, and (e) inadequate data on predictive validity and inter-rater reliability. An emerging consensus suggests that pathological video-gaming is commonly defined by (1) withdrawal, (2) loss of control, and (3) conflict. It is concluded that a unified approach to assessment of pathological video-gaming is needed. A synthesis of extant research efforts by meta-analysis may be difficult in the context of several divergent approaches to assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paro, John A M; Nazareli, Rahim; Gurjala, Anadev; Berger, Aaron; Lee, Gordon K
Professionals in a variety of specialties use video-based review as a method of constant self-evaluation. We believe critical self-reflection will allow a surgical trainee to identify methods for improvement throughout residency and beyond. We have used 2 new popular technologies to evaluate their role in accomplishing the previously mentioned objectives. Our group investigated Google Glass and GoPro cameras. Medical students, residents, and faculty were invited to wear each of the devices during a scheduled operation. After the case, each participant was asked to comment on a number of features of the device including comfort, level of distraction/interference with operating, ease of video acquisition, and battery life. Software and hardware specifications were compiled and compared by the authors. A "proof-of-concept" was also performed using the video-conferencing abilities of Google Glass to perform a simulated flap check. The technical specifications of the 2 cameras favor GoPro over Google Glass. Glass records in 720p with 5-MP still shots, and the GoPro records in 1080p with 12-MP still shots. Our tests of battery life showed more than 2 hours of continuous video with GoPro, and less than 1 hour for Glass. Favorable features of Google Glass included comfort and relative ease of use; they could not comfortably wear loupes while operating, and would have preferred longer hands-free video recording. The GoPro was slightly more cumbersome and required a nonsterile team member to activate all pictures or video; however, loupes could be worn. Google Glass was successfully used in the hospital for a simulated flap check, with overall audio and video being transmitted--fine detail was lost, however. There are benefits and limitations to each of the devices tested. Google Glass is in its infancy and may gain a larger intraoperative role in the future. We plan to use Glass as a way for trainees to easily acquire intraoperative footage as a means to "review tape" and
Tuong, William; Larsen, Elizabeth R; Armstrong, April W
This systematic review examines the effectiveness of videos in modifying health behaviors. We searched PubMed (1975-2012), PsycINFO (1975-2012), EMBASE (1975-2012), and CINAHL (1983-2012) for controlled clinical trials that examined the effectiveness of video interventions in changing health behaviors. Twenty-eight studies comprised of 12,703 subjects were included in the systematic review. Video interventions were variably effective for modifying health behaviors depending on the target behaviors to be influenced. Video interventions appear to be effective in breast self-examination, prostate cancer screening, sunscreen adherence, self-care in patients with heart failure, HIV testing, treatment adherence, and female condom use. However, videos have not shown to be effective in influencing addiction behaviors when they are not tailored. Compared to loss-framing, gain-framed messages may be more effective in promoting certain types of health behavior change. Also, video modeling may facilitate learning of new behaviors and can be an important consideration in future video interventions.
Marc Palaus; Marron, Elena M.; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Diego Redolar-Ripoll
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video ga...
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. We aim ...
Tao, Junjie; Jia, Lili; You, Ying
Advances in digital video compression and IP communication technologies raised new issues and challenges concerning the integrity and authenticity of surveillance videos. It is so important that the system should ensure that once recorded, the video cannot be altered; ensuring the audit trail is intact for evidential purposes. This paper gives an overview of passive techniques of Digital Video Forensics which are based on intrinsic fingerprints inherent in digital surveillance videos. In this paper, we performed a thorough research of literatures relevant to video manipulation detection methods which accomplish blind authentications without referring to any auxiliary information. We presents review of various existing methods in literature, and much more work is needed to be done in this field of video forensics based on video data analysis and observation of the surveillance systems.
Marc Palaus; Elena M. Marron; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Diego Redolar-Ripoll
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study...
Geerts, Walter; Van der Werff, Anne; Hummel, Hans; Van Geert, Paul
This literature review focuses on the use of video cases in the education of preservice teachers as a means of achieving higher order learning objectives that are necessary for gaining situated knowledge. An overview of both intended and achieved learning objectives in relevant studies involving
Bonafini, Fernanda Cesar
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for teachers have emerged as a new wave of MOOCs that provide free professional development for teachers around the globe. These MOOCs for teachers often rely primarily on discussion forums and videos to drive participant engagement. Using logistic regression models this paper presents the degree to which…
Full Text Available Allison A Vanderbilt,1 Julie Mayglothling,1 Nicholas J Pastis,2 Douglas Franzen31School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Medical University of South Carolina, SC, 3School of Medicine, University of Washington, WA, USAIntroduction: A review of the literature was conducted to analyze the impact of simulation-based training for direct and video laryngoscopy (VL skills for health care professionals and health care students.Methods: This review focused on the published literature that used randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of simulation-based training to develop airway management skills and identify pertinent literature by searching PubMed from inception of the database up to July 2013. This current review addresses the question of whether airway management simulation-based training improves the acquisition of resuscitation skills for health care profession learners.Results: A total of eleven articles qualified for this systematic review based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies were analyzed and the specific simulators, participants, assessments, and details related to: time of intubation; Cormack and Lehane classification; success and failure rate; and number of attempts.Conclusion: This review suggests that simulation-based training is one effective way to teach VL skills. VL allows for a higher success rate, faster response time, and a decrease in the number of attempts by health care students and health care professionals under the conditions based on the eleven studies reviewed.Keywords: laryngoscopy, video laryngoscopy, simulation, systematic review, health care professionals, health care students
Bayen, Eleonore; Jacquemot, Julien; Netscher, George; Agrawal, Pulkit; Tabb Noyce, Lynn; Bayen, Alexandre
Falls of individuals with dementia are frequent, dangerous, and costly. Early detection and access to the history of a fall is crucial for efficient care and secondary prevention in cognitively impaired individuals. However, most falls remain unwitnessed events. Furthermore, understanding why and how a fall occurred is a challenge. Video capture and secure transmission of real-world falls thus stands as a promising assistive tool. The objective of this study was to analyze how continuous video monitoring and review of falls of individuals with dementia can support better quality of care. A pilot observational study (July-September 2016) was carried out in a Californian memory care facility. Falls were video-captured (24×7), thanks to 43 wall-mounted cameras (deployed in all common areas and in 10 out of 40 private bedrooms of consenting residents and families). Video review was provided to facility staff, thanks to a customized mobile device app. The outcome measures were the count of residents' falls happening in the video-covered areas, the acceptability of video recording, the analysis of video review, and video replay possibilities for care practice. Over 3 months, 16 falls were video-captured. A drop in fall rate was observed in the last month of the study. Acceptability was good. Video review enabled screening for the severity of falls and fall-related injuries. Video replay enabled identifying cognitive-behavioral deficiencies and environmental circumstances contributing to the fall. This allowed for secondary prevention in high-risk multi-faller individuals and for updated facility care policies regarding a safer living environment for all residents. Video monitoring offers high potential to support conventional care in memory care facilities.
Stacey Guy; Alexandria Ratzki-Leewing; Femida Gwadry-Sridhar
Increasing epidemic proportions of overweight children in the United States presents formidable challenges for education and healthcare. Given the popularity and pervasiveness of video gaming culture in North American children, the perfect opportunity arises to investigate the potential of video games to promote healthful behaviour. Our objective was to systematically review the literature for possible benefits of active and educational video games targeting diet and physical activity in chil...
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Mügge, Dirk O
Whether video game play affects social behavior is a topic of debate. Many argue that aggression and helping are affected by video game play, whereas this stance is disputed by others. The present research provides a meta-analytical test of the idea that depending on their content, video games do affect social outcomes. Data from 98 independent studies with 36,965 participants revealed that for both violent video games and prosocial video games, there was a significant association with social outcomes. Whereas violent video games increase aggression and aggression-related variables and decrease prosocial outcomes, prosocial video games have the opposite effects. These effects were reliable across experimental, correlational, and longitudinal studies, indicating that video game exposure causally affects social outcomes and that there are both short- and long-term effects.
Whether a population level increase in physical activity (PA) is critical to reduce obesity in youth. Video games are highly popular and active video games (AVGs) have the potential to play a role in promoting youth PA. Studies on AVG play energy expenditure (EE) and maintenance of play in youth wer...
Onita, Mihai; Petan, Sorin; Vasiu, Radu
In the recent years, the globalization and massification of video education offer involved more and more eLearning scenarios within universities. This article refers to interactive video and proposes an overview of it. We analyze the background information, regarding the eLearning campus used in virtual universities around the world, the MOOC…
Lynch, Jeremy; Aughwane, Paul; Hammond, Toby M
Surgical training is rapidly evolving because of reduced training hours and the reduction of training opportunities due to patient safety concerns. There is a popular conception that video game usage might be linked to improved operating ability especially those techniques involving endoscopic modalities. If true this might suggest future directions for training. A search was made of the MEDLINE databases for the MeSH term, "Video Games," combined with the terms "Surgical Procedures, Operative," "Endoscopy," "Robotics," "Education," "Learning," "Simulators," "Computer Simulation," "Psychomotor Performance," and "Surgery, Computer-Assisted,"encompassing all journal articles before November 2009. References of articles were searched for further studies. Twelve relevant journal articles were discovered. Video game usage has been studied in relationship to laparoscopic, gastrointestinal endoscopic, endovascular, and robotic surgery. Video game users acquire endoscopic but not robotic techniques quicker, and training on video games appears to improve performance. Copyright (c) 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In this article, the author reviews videos from "Molecular Biology of the Cell (MBC)" depicting various aspects of plasma membrane (PM) dynamics, including the targeting of newly synthesized components and the organization of those PM invaginations called caveolae. The papers accompanying these videos describe, respectively, the constitutive…
Merino Campos, Carlos; del Castillo Fernández, Héctor
This article sets out to conduct a systematic review of the current literature on active video games as potential educational tools for physical education or physical activity. To begin with, research on active video games for educational and physical purposes has been examined with the purpose of verifying improvement of attitudes, intellectual…
Peeters, J.M.; Mistiaen, P.; Francke, A.L.
We conducted a systematic review of video communication in home care to provide insight into the ratio between the costs and financial benefits (i.e. cost savings). Four databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, CINAHL) were searched for studies on video communication for patients living at home
King, Daniel L.; Haagsma, M.C.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Gradisar, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D.
Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of “Internet Use Disorder”, is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to
King, D.L.; Haagsma, M.C.; Delfabbro, P.H.; Gradisar, M.; Griffiths, M.D.
Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to
Acar, Cimen; Diken, Ibrahim H.
This study explored 31 instructional research articles written using video modeling to children with autism and published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies in this research have been reached by searching EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, ERIC and other Anadolu University online search engines and using keywords such as "autism, video modeling,…
Vanderbilt, Allison A; Mayglothling, Julie; Pastis, Nicholas J; Franzen, Douglas
Introduction A review of the literature was conducted to analyze the impact of simulation-based training for direct and video laryngoscopy (VL) skills for health care professionals and health care students. Methods This review focused on the published literature that used randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of simulation-based training to develop airway management skills and identify pertinent literature by searching PubMed from inception of the database up to July 2013. This current review addresses the question of whether airway management simulation-based training improves the acquisition of resuscitation skills for health care profession learners. Results A total of eleven articles qualified for this systematic review based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies were analyzed and the specific simulators, participants, assessments, and details related to: time of intubation; Cormack and Lehane classification; success and failure rate; and number of attempts. Conclusion This review suggests that simulation-based training is one effective way to teach VL skills. VL allows for a higher success rate, faster response time, and a decrease in the number of attempts by health care students and health care professionals under the conditions based on the eleven studies reviewed. PMID:24501548
Janoušková, M; Tušková, E; Weissová, A; Trančík, P; Pasz, J; Evans-Lacko, S; Winkler, P
Video is considered to be an effective, easy to use tool employed in anti-stigma interventions among young people. Mass media has been shown to be effective for reducing stigma; however, there is insufficient evidence to determine the destigmatization effects of videos specifically. This article systematically reviews the effectiveness of video intervention in reducing stigma among young people between 13 and 25 years. We searched 13 electronic databases including randomized controlled trials, cluster randomized controlled trials, and controlled before and after studies. Of the 1426 abstracts identified, 23 studies (reported in 22 papers) met the inclusion criteria. Video interventions led to improvements in stigmatising attitudes. Video was found to be more effective than other interventions, such as classical face-to-face educational sessions or simulation of hallucinations. According to results of two studies, social contact delivered via video achieved similar destigmatization effect to that delivered via a live intervention. Although the quality of studies as well as the form of video interventions varied, the findings suggest that video is a promising destigmatization tool among young people; however, more studies in this area are needed. There was a lack of evidence for interventions outside of school environments, in low- and middle-income countries, and studies, which looked at long-term outcomes or measured impact on actual behaviour and implicit attitudes. The review generates recommendations for video interventions targeted at young people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The North Carolina Sociological Society is proud to announce the long-awaited video of Max Weber's trip to North Carolina as retold by two of his cousins. Max Weber made a trip to visit relatives in Mount Airy, North Carolina, in 1904. This 2004 narrative by Larry Keeter and Stephen Hall is the story of locating and interviewing two living eyewitnesses (1976 to Max Weber's trip. The video includes information about Weber's contributions to modern sociology. Dowloadable files are provided using the .mp4 format. The video should appeal to students and professors interested in Max Weber. It can be included in courses ranging from introductory sociology to theory.
Guy, Stacey; Ratzki-Leewing, Alexandria; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida
Increasing epidemic proportions of overweight children in the United States presents formidable challenges for education and healthcare. Given the popularity and pervasiveness of video gaming culture in North American children, the perfect opportunity arises to investigate the potential of video games to promote healthful behaviour. Our objective was to systematically review the literature for possible benefits of active and educational video games targeting diet and physical activity in children. A review of English-language journal articles from 1998 to 2011 using EMBASE and PubMed was conducted. Thirty-four studies concerned with children, video games, physical, and/or nutritional outcomes were included. Results of these studies that showed some benefit (increased physical activity and nutritional knowledge as a result of gaming) demonstrate the possibility of video games to combat childhood obesity-looking beyond the stigma attached to gaming.
Guy, Stacey; Ratzki-Leewing, Alexandria; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida
Increasing epidemic proportions of overweight children in the United States presents formidable challenges for education and healthcare. Given the popularity and pervasiveness of video gaming culture in North American children, the perfect opportunity arises to investigate the potential of video games to promote healthful behaviour. Our objective was to systematically review the literature for possible benefits of active and educational video games targeting diet and physical activity in children. A review of English-language journal articles from 1998 to 2011 using EMBASE and PubMed was conducted. Thirty-four studies concerned with children, video games, physical, and/or nutritional outcomes were included. Results of these studies that showed some benefit (increased physical activity and nutritional knowledge as a result of gaming) demonstrate the possibility of video games to combat childhood obesity—looking beyond the stigma attached to gaming. PMID:21629863
Full Text Available Increasing epidemic proportions of overweight children in the United States presents formidable challenges for education and healthcare. Given the popularity and pervasiveness of video gaming culture in North American children, the perfect opportunity arises to investigate the potential of video games to promote healthful behaviour. Our objective was to systematically review the literature for possible benefits of active and educational video games targeting diet and physical activity in children. A review of English-language journal articles from 1998 to 2011 using EMBASE and PubMed was conducted. Thirty-four studies concerned with children, video games, physical, and/or nutritional outcomes were included. Results of these studies that showed some benefit (increased physical activity and nutritional knowledge as a result of gaming demonstrate the possibility of video games to combat childhood obesity—looking beyond the stigma attached to gaming.
Bynum, Ann B; Cranford, Charles O; Irwin, Cathy A; Denny, George S
Socioeconomic and demographic factors can affect the impact of telehealth education programs that use interactive compressed video technology. This study assessed program satisfaction among participants in the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences' School Telehealth Education Program delivered by interactive compressed video. Variables in the one-group posttest study were age, gender, ethnicity, education, community size, and program topics for years 1997-1999. The convenience sample included 3,319 participants in junior high and high schools. The School Telehealth Education Program provided information about health risks, disease prevention, health promotion, personal growth, and health sciences. Adolescents reported medium to high levels of satisfaction regarding program interest and quality. Significantly higher satisfaction was expressed for programs on muscular dystrophy, anatomy of the heart, and tobacco addiction (p Education Program, delivered by interactive compressed video, promoted program satisfaction among rural and minority populations and among junior high and high school students. Effective program methods included an emphasis on participants' learning needs, increasing access in rural areas among ethnic groups, speaker communication, and clarity of the program presentation.
Allana G LeBlanc
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active video games (AVGs have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0-17 years. DATA SOURCES: Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Central Database and personal libraries were searched and content experts were consulted for additional material. DATA SELECTION: Included articles were required to have a measure of AVG and at least one relevant health or behaviour indicator: EE (both habitual and acute, adherence and appeal (i.e., participation and enjoyment, opportunity cost (both time and financial considerations, and adverse events, adiposity, cardiometabolic health, energy intake, adaptation (effects of continued play, learning and rehabilitation, and video game evolution (i.e., sustainability of AVG technology. RESULTS: 51 unique studies, represented in 52 articles were included in the review. Data were available from 1992 participants, aged 3-17 years, from 8 countries, and published from 2006-2012. Overall, AVGs are associated with acute increases in EE, but effects on habitual physical activity are not clear. Further, AVGs show promise when used for learning and rehabilitation within special populations. Evidence related to other indicators was limited and inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Controlled studies show that AVGs acutely increase light- to moderate-intensity physical activity; however, the findings about if or how AVG lead to increases in habitual physical activity or decreases in sedentary behaviour are less clear. Although AVGs may elicit some health benefits in special populations, there is not sufficient evidence to
LeBlanc, Allana G; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart J H; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S
Active video games (AVGs) have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE) has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0-17 years). Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Central Database) and personal libraries were searched and content experts were consulted for additional material. Included articles were required to have a measure of AVG and at least one relevant health or behaviour indicator: EE (both habitual and acute), adherence and appeal (i.e., participation and enjoyment), opportunity cost (both time and financial considerations, and adverse events), adiposity, cardiometabolic health, energy intake, adaptation (effects of continued play), learning and rehabilitation, and video game evolution (i.e., sustainability of AVG technology). 51 unique studies, represented in 52 articles were included in the review. Data were available from 1992 participants, aged 3-17 years, from 8 countries, and published from 2006-2012. Overall, AVGs are associated with acute increases in EE, but effects on habitual physical activity are not clear. Further, AVGs show promise when used for learning and rehabilitation within special populations. Evidence related to other indicators was limited and inconclusive. Controlled studies show that AVGs acutely increase light- to moderate-intensity physical activity; however, the findings about if or how AVG lead to increases in habitual physical activity or decreases in sedentary behaviour are less clear. Although AVGs may elicit some health benefits in special populations, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as a means of increasing daily physical activity.
McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C.; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Tremblay, Mark S.
Background Active video games (AVGs) have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE) has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. Objective This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0–17 years). Data sources Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Central Database) and personal libraries were searched and content experts were consulted for additional material. Data selection Included articles were required to have a measure of AVG and at least one relevant health or behaviour indicator: EE (both habitual and acute), adherence and appeal (i.e., participation and enjoyment), opportunity cost (both time and financial considerations, and adverse events), adiposity, cardiometabolic health, energy intake, adaptation (effects of continued play), learning and rehabilitation, and video game evolution (i.e., sustainability of AVG technology). Results 51 unique studies, represented in 52 articles were included in the review. Data were available from 1992 participants, aged 3–17 years, from 8 countries, and published from 2006–2012. Overall, AVGs are associated with acute increases in EE, but effects on habitual physical activity are not clear. Further, AVGs show promise when used for learning and rehabilitation within special populations. Evidence related to other indicators was limited and inconclusive. Conclusions Controlled studies show that AVGs acutely increase light- to moderate-intensity physical activity; however, the findings about if or how AVG lead to increases in habitual physical activity or decreases in sedentary behaviour are less clear. Although AVGs may elicit some health benefits in special populations, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as a
DeShazo, Jonathan; Harris, Lynne; Pratt, Wanda
The purpose of this study is (1) to identify diabetes education video games and pilot studies in the literature, (2) to review themes in diabetes video game design and evaluation, and (3) to evaluate the potential role of educational video games in diabetes self-management education. Studies were systematically identified for inclusion from Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psychinfo, IEEE Xplore, and ACM Digital Library. Features of each video game intervention were reviewed and coded based on an existing taxonomy of diabetes interventions framework. Nine studies featuring 11 video games for diabetes care were identified. Video games for diabetes have typically targeted children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and used situation problem-solving methods to teach diet, exercise, self-monitored blood glucose, and medication adherence. Evaluations have shown positive outcomes in knowledge, disease management adherence, and clinical outcomes. Video games for diabetes education show potential as effective educational interventions. Yet we found that improvements are needed in expanding the target audience, tailoring the intervention, and using theoretical frameworks. In the future, the reach and effectiveness of educational video games for diabetes education could be improved by expanding the target audience beyond juvenile type 1 diabetes mellitus, the use of tailoring, and increased use of theoretical frameworks.
Dean, Evan E.; Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
Participation is a central aspect of human functioning and a key focus of research and practice in the intellectual disability field. However, there is not an accepted definition of participation that guides research and practice. To inform the development of a definition, a scoping review of the intellectual disability literature from 2001-2015…
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in license reviews. 72.202 Section 72.202 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... reviews. States, local governmental bodies and affected, Federally-recognized Indian Tribes may...
Full Text Available Abstract Today's video surveillance systems are increasingly equipped with video content analysis for a great variety of applications. However, reliability and robustness of video content analysis algorithms remain an issue. They have to be measured against ground truth data in order to quantify the performance and advancements of new algorithms. Therefore, a variety of measures have been proposed in the literature, but there has neither been a systematic overview nor an evaluation of measures for specific video analysis tasks yet. This paper provides a systematic review of measures and compares their effectiveness for specific aspects, such as segmentation, tracking, and event detection. Focus is drawn on details like normalization issues, robustness, and representativeness. A software framework is introduced for continuously evaluating and documenting the performance of video surveillance systems. Based on many years of experience, a new set of representative measures is proposed as a fundamental part of an evaluation framework.
Full Text Available Today's video surveillance systems are increasingly equipped with video content analysis for a great variety of applications. However, reliability and robustness of video content analysis algorithms remain an issue. They have to be measured against ground truth data in order to quantify the performance and advancements of new algorithms. Therefore, a variety of measures have been proposed in the literature, but there has neither been a systematic overview nor an evaluation of measures for specific video analysis tasks yet. This paper provides a systematic review of measures and compares their effectiveness for specific aspects, such as segmentation, tracking, and event detection. Focus is drawn on details like normalization issues, robustness, and representativeness. A software framework is introduced for continuously evaluating and documenting the performance of video surveillance systems. Based on many years of experience, a new set of representative measures is proposed as a fundamental part of an evaluation framework.
Gentile, D A; Stone, W
Studies of violent video games on children and adolescents were reviewed to: 1) determine the multiple effects; 2) to offer critical observations about common strengths and weaknesses in the literature; 3) to provide a broader perspective to understand the research on the effects of video games. The review includes general theoretical and methodological considerations of media violence, and description of the general aggression model (GAM). The literature was evaluated in relation to the GAM. Published literature, including meta-analyses, are reviewed, as well as relevant unpublished material, such as conference papers and dissertations. Overall, the evidence supports hypotheses that violent video game play is related to aggressive affect, physiological arousal, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behaviours. The effects of video game play on school performance are also evaluated, and the review concludes with a dimensional approach to video game effects. The dimensional approach evaluates video game effects in terms of amount, content, form, and mechanics, and appears to have many advantages for understanding and predicting the multiple types of effects demonstrated in the literature.
Kelly, Christopher R; Hogle, Nancy J; Landman, Jaime; Fowler, Dennis L
The use of high-definition cameras and monitors during minimally invasive procedures can provide the surgeon and operating team with more than twice the resolution of standard definition systems. Although this dramatic improvement in visualization offers numerous advantages, the adoption of high definition cameras in the operating room can be challenging because new recording equipment must be purchased, and several new technologies are required to edit and distribute video. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the popular methods for recording, editing, and distributing high-definition video. This article discusses the essential technical concepts of high-definition video, reviews the different kinds of equipment and methods most often used for recording, and describes several options for video distribution.
Sue, Damian; Ray, Pradeep; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Vichitvanichphong, Suchada
Background For individuals, especially older adults, playing video games is a promising tool for improving their driving skills. The ease of use, wide availability, and interactivity of gaming consoles make them an attractive simulation tool. Objective The objective of this study was to look at the feasibility and effects of installing video game consoles in the homes of individuals looking to improve their driving skills. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the eff...
King, DL; Haagsma, MC; Delfabbro, PH; Gradisar, MS; Griffiths, MD
Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to Cicchetti (1994) and Groth- Marnat’s (2009) criteria and guidelines for sound \\ud psychometric assessment. A total of 63 quantitative studies, including eighteen instruments and representing 58,415 ...
Sampson, Margaret; Cumber, Jordi; Li, Claudia; Pound, Catherine M; Fuller, Ann; Harrison, Denise
Background. YouTube is an increasingly important medium for consumer health information - with content provided by healthcare professionals, government and non-government organizations, industry, and consumers themselves. It is a rapidly developing area of study for healthcare researchers. We examine the methods used in reviews of YouTube consumer health videos to identify trends and best practices. Methods and Materials. Published reviews of consumer-oriented health-related YouTube videos were identified through PubMed. Data extracted from these studies included type of journal, topic, characteristics of the search, methods of review including number of reviewers and method to achieve consensus between reviewers, inclusion and exclusion criteria, characteristics of the videos reported, ethical oversight, and follow-up. Results. Thirty-three studies were identified. Most were recent and published in specialty journals. Typically, these included more than 100 videos, and were examined by multiple reviewers. Most studies described characteristics of the videos, number of views, and sometime characteristics of the viewers. Accuracy of portrayal of the health issue under consideration was a common focus. Conclusion. Optimal transparency and reproducibility of studies of YouTube health-related videos can be achieved by following guidance designed for systematic review reporting, with attention to several elements specific to the video medium. Particularly when seeking to replicate consumer viewing behavior, investigators should consider the method used to select search terms, and use a snowballing rather than a sequential screening approach. Discontinuation protocols for online screening of relevance ranked search results is an area identified for further development.
Full Text Available Background. YouTube is an increasingly important medium for consumer health information – with content provided by healthcare professionals, government and non-government organizations, industry, and consumers themselves. It is a rapidly developing area of study for healthcare researchers. We examine the methods used in reviews of YouTube consumer health videos to identify trends and best practices.Methods and Materials. Published reviews of consumer-oriented health-related YouTube videos were identified through PubMed. Data extracted from these studies included type of journal, topic, characteristics of the search, methods of review including number of reviewers and method to achieve consensus between reviewers, inclusion and exclusion criteria, characteristics of the videos reported, ethical oversight, and follow-up.Results. Thirty-three studies were identified. Most were recent and published in specialty journals. Typically, these included more than 100 videos, and were examined by multiple reviewers. Most studies described characteristics of the videos, number of views, and sometime characteristics of the viewers. Accuracy of portrayal of the health issue under consideration was a common focus.Conclusion. Optimal transparency and reproducibility of studies of YouTube health-related videos can be achieved by following guidance designed for systematic review reporting, with attention to several elements specific to the video medium. Particularly when seeking to replicate consumer viewing behavior, investigators should consider the method used to select search terms, and use a snowballing rather than a sequential screening approach. Discontinuation protocols for online screening of relevance ranked search results is an area identified for further development.
Heaslip, Vanessa; Board, Michele; Duckworth, Vicky; Thomas, Liz
Widening participation into higher education is espoused within educational policy in the UK, and internationally, as a mechanism to promote equality and social mobility. As nurse education is located within higher education it has a responsibility to promote widening participation within pre-registration educational programmes. It could also be argued that the profession has a responsibility to promote equality to ensure its' workforce is as diverse as possible in order to best address the health needs of diverse populations. To undertake an integrative review on published papers exploring Widening Participation in undergraduate, pre-registration nurse education in the UK. A six step integrative review methodology was utilised, reviewing papers published in English from 2013-2016. Search of CINAHL, Education Source, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SocINDEX, Science Direct, Business Source Complete, ERIC, British Library ETOS, Teacher Reference Centre, Informit Health Collection and Informit Humanities and Social Science Collection which highlighted 449 citations; from these 14 papers met the review inclusion criteria. Both empirical studies and editorials focusing upon widening participation in pre-registration nurse education in the UK (2013-2016) were included. Papers excluded were non UK papers or papers not focussed upon widening participation in pre-registration nursing education. Research papers included in the review were assessed for quality using appropriate critical appraisal tools. 14 papers were included in the review; these were analysed thematically identifying four themes; knowledge and identification of WP, pedagogy and WP, attrition and retention and career prospects. Whilst widening participation is a key issue for both nurse education and the wider profession there is a lack of conceptualisation and focus regarding mechanisms to both encourage and support a wider diversity of entrant. Whilst there are some studies, these focus on particular individual
Nan Zeng; Zachary Pope; Jung Eun Lee; Zan Gao
Background: Although current research supports the use of active video games (AVGs) in rehabilitation, the evidence has yet to be systematically reviewed or synthesized. The current project systematically reviewed literature, summarized findings, and evaluated the effectiveness of AVGs as a therapeutic tool in improving physical, psychological, and cognitive rehabilitative outcomes among older adults with chronic diseases. Methods: Seven databases (Academic Search Complete, Communication &...
Hammoud, Maya M; Morgan, Helen K; Edwards, Mary E; Lyon, Jennifer A; White, Casey
Purpose To determine if video review of student performance during patient encounters is an effective tool for medical student learning. Methods Multiple bibliographic databases that include medical, general health care, education, psychology, and behavioral science literature were searched for the following terms: medical students, medical education, undergraduate medical education, education, self-assessment, self-evaluation, self-appraisal, feedback, videotape, video recording, televised, and DVD. The authors examined all abstracts resulting from this search and reviewed the full text of the relevant articles as well as additional articles identified in the reference lists of the relevant articles. Studies were classified by year of student (preclinical or clinical) and study design (controlled or non-controlled). Results A total of 67 articles met the final search criteria and were fully reviewed. Most studies were non-controlled and performed in the clinical years. Although the studies were quite variable in quality, design, and outcomes, in general video recording of performance and subsequent review by students with expert feedback had positive outcomes in improving feedback and ultimate performance. Video review with self-assessment alone was not found to be generally effective, but when linked with expert feedback it was superior to traditional feedback alone. Conclusion There are many methods for integrating effective use of video-captured performance into a program of learning. We recommend combining student self-assessment with feedback from faculty or other trained individuals for maximum effectiveness. We also recommend additional research in this area. PMID:23761999
Peeters, José M; Mistiaen, Patriek; Francke, Anneke L
We conducted a systematic review of video communication in home care to provide insight into the ratio between the costs and financial benefits (i.e. cost savings). Four databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, CINAHL) were searched for studies on video communication for patients living at home (up to December 2009). Studies were only included when data about the costs of video communication as well as the financial benefits were presented. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. Nine studies, mainly conducted in the US, met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality was poor, except for one study. Most studies (8 of the 9) did not demonstrate that the financial benefits were significantly greater than the costs of video communication. One study - the only one with a high methodological quality - found that costs for patients who received video communication were higher than for patients who received traditional care. The review found no evidence that the cost of implementing video communication in home care was lower than the resulting financial benefits. More methodologically well conducted research is needed.
Pytynia, Kristen B
The peer review process for scientific journals relies on the efforts of volunteer reviewers. Reviewers are selected due to their expertise in their fields. With so many demands on professional time, the benefits of participating in peer review may not be obvious. However, reviewers benefit by exposure to the latest developments in their fields, facilitating their keeping up-to-date with the latest publications. Tenure committees look favorably on participation in peer review, and invitations to review underscore that the reviewer is a respected subject matter expert. Contacts made during the peer review process can lead to long-lasting collaboration. Continuing medical education credit can be obtained through various mechanisms. Overall, participating in peer review is an important part of career development and should be viewed as a critical component of advancement.
Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Baranowski, Tom
A population level increase in physical activity (PA) is critical to reduce obesity in youth. Video games are highly popular and active video games (AVGs) have the potential to play a role in promoting youth PA. Studies on AVG play energy expenditure (EE) and maintenance of play in youth were systematically identified in the published literature and assessed for quality and informational value. Nine studies measuring AVG play EE were identified. The meta-analytic estimates of average METs across these studies were 3.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 3.6) to 3.2 (95% CI: 2.7, 3.7). No games elicited an average EE above the 6 MET threshold for vigorous EE. Observed differences between studies were likely due to the different types of games used, rather than age or gender. Four studies related to maintenance of play were identified. Most studies reported AVG use declined over time. Studies were of low-to-medium quality. AVGs are capable of generating EE in youth to attain PA guidelines. Few studies have assessed sustainability of AVG play, which appears to diminish after a short period of time for most players. Better-quality future research must address how AVG play could be maintained over longer periods of time.
Kenny, Amanda; Farmer, Jane; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Hyett, Nerida
Internationally, community participation is highlighted in health policy reform as good for rural communities. Implicit in this policy is the message that the complexities of the rural environment are too difficult for easy solutions and that community participation will somehow build resilient, self-determining communities capable of dealing with complex rural access and equity issues and poorer health outcomes. The underpinning proposition is that by giving decision-making powers to community members, health care will be locally responsive, costs will be contained, and health outcomes will improve. What happens in the practice of enacting community participation in health-care decision making is less clear. Despite the growing body of work that documents different levels and models of community participation, significant gaps that outline the practical challenges inherent in rural community participation remain. In this article, we draw on a body of literature to outline the practical considerations in implementing community participation policy in health settings in rural areas. Through a critical review, we aim to stimulate debate, progress ideas and provide a conceptual representation of the somewhat 'messy' nature of rural community participation at a grass-roots organizational level. Based on our analysis of the current literature, we provide a summary of challenges and practical strategies that might mitigate some of these challenges. Our review highlights that despite policymakers suggesting that community participation is good for rural communities, policy enactment must move beyond mandated tokenism for there to be a recognition that meaningful participation is neither easy nor linear. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Coathup, Victoria; Hamakawa, Nao; Finlay, Teresa; Bell, Jessica; Kaye, Jane; Kato, Kazuto
Significant advances in digital technologies have meant that health care data can be collected, stored, transferred, and analyzed for research purposes more easily than ever before. Participant-centric initiatives (PCI) are defined as "tools, programs, and projects that empower participants to engage in the research process" using digital technologies and have the potential to provide a number of benefits to both participants and researchers, including the promotion of public trust in medical research, improved quality of research, increased recruitment and retention, and improved health care delivery. The main objective of this scoping review is to describe the extent and range of PCIs across the United Kingdom, United States, and Japan that are designed to facilitate medical research. The methodological framework described by Levac et al will be applied to this scoping review. We will search electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing, and Allied Health Literature and CiNii), grey literature sources, Internet search engines (Google and Bing), and hand search key journals and reference lists of relevant articles. All digital tools and programs will be eligible for inclusion if there is a description of key features and functions that fall within the parameters of a PCI. Only those that play a role in medical research will be included. Preliminary searches conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE retrieved 1820 and 2322 results, respectively. The scoping review will be completed by January 2018. The scoping review will be the first to map the extent and range of PCIs currently available across the United Kingdom, United States, and Japan, and will be the first review to contribute to a better understanding of what PCIs patients may benefit from. Researchers and practitioners will be able to use information in this review as a guide for patients and also as a guide for the development of future tools and programs. The results will be
Vingilis, Evelyn; Yıldırım-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Wickens, Christine; Seeley, Jane; Fleiter, Judy; Grushka, Daniel H
Entry of terms reflective of extreme risky driving behaviors into the YouTube website yields millions of videos. The majority of the top 20 highly subscribed automotive YouTube websites are focused on high-performance vehicles, high speed, and often risky driving. Moreover, young men are the heaviest users of online video sharing sites, overall streaming more videos, and watching them longer than any other group. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on YouTube videos and risky driving. A systematic search was performed using the following specialized database sources-Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, ERIC, and Google Scholar-for the years 2005-2015 for articles in the English language. Search words included "YouTube AND driving," "YouTube AND speeding," "YouTube AND racing." No published research was found on the content of risky driving videos or on the effects of these videos on viewers. This literature review presents the current state of our published knowledge on the topic, which includes a review of the effects of mass media on risky driving cognitions; attitudes and behavior; similarities and differences between mass and social media; information on the YouTube platform; psychological theories that could support YouTube's potential effects on driving behavior; and 2 examples of risky driving behaviors ("sidewalk skiing" and "ghost riding the whip") suggestive of varying levels of modeling behavior in subsequent YouTube videos. Every month about 1 billion individuals are reported to view YouTube videos (ebizMBA Guide 2015 ) and young men are the heaviest users, overall streaming more YouTube videos and watching them longer than women and other age groups (Nielsen 2011 ). This group is also the most dangerous group in traffic, engaging in more per capita violations and experiencing more per capita injuries and fatalities (e.g., Parker et al. 1995 ; Reason et al. 1990 ; Transport Canada 2015 ; World Health Organization 2015 ). YouTube also
Glassman, Daniel; Yiasemidou, Marina; Ishii, Hiro; Somani, Bhaskar Kumar; Ahmed, Kamran; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar
The advances in both video games and minimally invasive surgery have allowed many to consider the potential positive relationship between the two. This review aims to evaluate outcomes of studies that investigated the correlation between video game skills and performance in laparoscopic surgery. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed/Medline and EMBASE databases for the MeSH terms and keywords including "video games and laparoscopy," "computer games and laparoscopy," "Xbox and laparoscopy," "Nintendo Wii and laparoscopy," and "PlayStation and laparoscopy." Cohort, case reports, letters, editorials, bulletins, and reviews were excluded. Studies in English, with task performance as primary outcome, were included. The search period for this review was 1950 to December 2014. There were 57 abstracts identified: 4 of these were found to be duplicates; 32 were found to be nonrelevant to the research question. Overall, 21 full texts were assessed; 15 were excluded according to the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument quality assessment criteria. The five studies included in this review were randomized controlled trials. Playing video games was found to reduce error in two studies (P 0.002 and P 0.045). For the same studies, however, several other metrics assessed were not significantly different between the control and intervention group. One study showed a decrease in the time for the group that played video games (P 0.037) for one of two laparoscopic tasks performed. In the same study, however, when the groups were reversed (initial control group became intervention and vice versa), a difference was not demonstrated (P for peg transfer 1 - 0.465, P for cobra robe - 0.185). Finally, two further studies found no statistical difference between the game playing group and the control group's performance. There is a very limited amount of evidence to support that the use of video games enhances surgical simulation performance.
Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa
This article offers an empirically based contribution to the growing body of studies using Conversation Analysis (CA) as a tool for analyzing second/foreign language learning in and through interaction. Building on a sociointeractional view of learning as grounded in the structures of participation in social activities, we apply CA methods to…
Rhodes, Ryan E; Lubans, David R; Karunamuni, Nandini; Kennedy, Sarah; Plotnikoff, Ronald
Regular participation in resistance training (RT) is critical to health and recommended in most international physical activity guidelines. Few people, however, participate in RT. The purpose of this review was to assess the demographic, behavioural, intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors associated with participating in RT. Eligible studies were from English peer-reviewed published articles that examined correlates or determinants of RT in adult samples. Searches were performed from August 2015 to April 2016 in six databases. We identified 51 independent data sets, from nine countries, primarily of moderate to high quality, and 23 factors related to participating in RT. Education, perceived health status, quality of life, affective judgements, self-efficacy, intention, self-regulation behaviours, subjective norm and programme leadership were associated with RT. Low education levels and poor health status were associated with low participation rates in RT. Intrapersonal factors including affective judgements, self-efficacy, and self-regulation behaviours, and interpersonal factors including subjective norms and programme leadership may be important for promoting RT behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sue, Damian; Ray, Pradeep; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Vichitvanichphong, Suchada
For individuals, especially older adults, playing video games is a promising tool for improving their driving skills. The ease of use, wide availability, and interactivity of gaming consoles make them an attractive simulation tool. The objective of this study was to look at the feasibility and effects of installing video game consoles in the homes of individuals looking to improve their driving skills. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the effect of playing video games on improving driving skills. An observatory study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using an Xbox 360 Kinect console for improving driving skills. Twenty-nine articles, which discuss the implementation of video games in improving driving skills were found in literature. On our study, it was found the Xbox 360 with Kinect is capable of improving physical and mental activities. Xbox Video games were introduced to engage players in physical, visual and cognitive activities including endurance, postural sway, reaction time, eyesight, eye movement, attention and concentration, difficulties with orientation, and semantic fluency. However, manual dexterity, visuo-spatial perception and binocular vision could not be addressed by these games. It was observed that Xbox Kinect (by incorporating Kinect sensor facilities) combines physical, visual and cognitive engagement of players. These results were consistent with those from the literature review. From the research that has been carried out, we can conclude that video game consoles are a viable solution for improving user's physical and mental state. In future we propose to carry a thorough evaluation of the effects of video games on driving skills in elderly people.
Barlett, Christopher P.; Anderson, Craig A.; Swing, Edward L.
This literature review focuses on the confirmed, suspected, and speculative effects of violent and non-violent video game exposure on negative and positive outcomes. Negative outcomes include aggressive feelings, aggressive thoughts, aggressive behavior, physiological arousal, and desensitization, whereas positive outcomes include various types of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for
Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for research, policy and practice
The effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and toolkits onuser participation in User-generated content for video games: : A quantitative study of product development in online communities
Lundmark, Joakim; Sandström Lindberg, Eric
In this thesis we will discuss the subject of user participation in the development process of products, specifically video games, through a concept called User-generated content. Product development demands speed and flexibility in the development process and it has been suggested that managers should revise the process of product development to become more flexible and integrate the consumer in increasingly more steps of the process. Video games will often be modified after its release. In ...
Eisenhauer, Elizabeth R; Tait, Alan R; Rieh, Soo Young; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia M
Nurses are increasingly asked to obtain consent from participants for biobanking studies. Biobanking has added unique complexities to informed consent. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate participants' level of understanding of the information presented during the informed consent process unique to the donation of biological specimens for research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were utilized to conduct the review. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest bibliographic databases were searched. Results indicated that elements of informed consent unique to biobanking were poorly understood. Most studies had authors or funding associated with a biobank. Only one study disclosed and assessed participants' understanding of moral risks. Increased disclosures, values-clarification, and presenting information via multiple modalities may facilitate understanding. There is a need to improve the quality of informed consent for biobanking studies by utilizing standardized instruments, definitions, and encouraging research about informed choice outside the biobanking industry.
Full Text Available Open thoracotomy is the standard procedure for various thoracic diseases against which other procedures are compared. Currently Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS has gained widespread acceptance in the management of a variety of thoracic disorders. It decreases the morbidity and duration of hospital stay. A total of 133 children with various thoracic diseases who presented at a University Teaching Hospital in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, from June 2000 to December 2007, were included. Of the 133 patients,116 patients had empyema, all of whom were subjected to VATS, and an attempt at debridement/decortication and drainage was made. Other thoracic disorders treated included lung abscesses, lung biopsies, hydatid cysts, and so on. Patients with empyema were treated according to their stage of disease. Of the 116 patients who underwent thoracoscopy, 16 had to be converted to open surgery due to various reasons. The mean duration for removal of drain was three days and the average total duration of hospital stay was six days. Similarly the application of VATS was advantageous in other thoracic diseases.
Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Clinical research is essential for the advancement of Medicine, especially regarding the development of new drugs. Understanding the reasons behind patients' decision of participating in these studies is critical for the recruitment and retention in the research. OBJECTIVES: To examine the decision-making of participants in biomedical research, taking into account different settings and environments where clinical research is performed. Methods: A critical review of the literature was performed through several databases using the keywords: "motivation", "decision", "reason", "biomedical research", "clinical research", "recruitment", "enrollment", "participation", "benefits", "altruism", "decline", "vulnerability" and "ethics", between August and November 2013, in English and in Portuguese. RESULTS: The review pointed out that the reasons can be different according to some characteristics such as the disease being treated, study phase, prognoses and socioeconomic and cultural environment. Access to better health care, personal benefits, financial rewards and altruism are mentioned depending on the circumstances. CONCLUSION: Finding out more about individuals' reasons for taking part in the research will allow clinical investigators to design studies of greater benefit for the community and will probably help to remove undesirable barriers imposed to participation. Improving the information to health care professionals and patients on the benefits and risks of clinical trials is certainly a good start.
Primack, Brian A; Carroll, Mary V; McNamara, Megan; Klem, Mary Lou; King, Brandy; Rich, Michael; Chan, Chun W; Nayak, Smita
Video games represent a multibillion-dollar industry in the U.S. Although video gaming has been associated with many negative health consequences, it also may be useful for therapeutic purposes. The goal of this study was to determine whether video games may be useful in improving health outcomes. Literature searches were performed in February 2010 in six databases: the Center on Media and Child Health Database of Research, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reference lists were hand-searched to identify additional studies. Only RCTs that tested the effect of video games on a positive, clinically relevant health consequence were included. Study selection criteria were strictly defined and applied by two researchers working independently. Study background information (e.g., location, funding source); sample data (e.g., number of study participants, demographics); intervention and control details; outcomes data; and quality measures were abstracted independently by two researchers. Of 1452 articles retrieved using the current search strategy, 38 met all criteria for inclusion. Eligible studies used video games to provide physical therapy, psychological therapy, improved disease self-management, health education, distraction from discomfort, increased physical activity, and skills training for clinicians. Among the 38 studies, a total of 195 health outcomes were examined. Video games improved 69% of psychological therapy outcomes, 59% of physical therapy outcomes, 50% of physical activity outcomes, 46% of clinician skills outcomes, 42% of health education outcomes, 42% of pain distraction outcomes, and 37% of disease self-management outcomes. Study quality was generally poor; for example, two thirds (66%) of studies had follow-up periods of video games to improve health outcomes, particularly in the areas of psychological therapy and physical therapy. RCTs with appropriate rigor will help build evidence in this
Ivory, James D.
Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games' social function that are often difficult...
Gardner, Andrew J; Howell, David R; Levi, Christopher R; Iverson, Grant L
Many professional sports have introduced sideline video review to help recognise concussions. The reliability and validity of identifying clinical and observable signs of concussion using video analysis has not been extensively explored. This study examined the reliability and validity of clinical signs of concussion using video analysis in the National Rugby League (NRL). All 201 professional NRL matches from the 2014 season were reviewed to document six signs of possible concussion (unresponsiveness, slow to get up, clutching/shaking head, gait ataxia, vacant stare, and seizure). A total of 127,062 tackles were reviewed. Getting up slowly was the most common observable sign (2240 times in the season, 1.8% of all tackles) but only 223 times where it appeared to be a possible concussion (0.2% of all tackles and 10.0% of the times it occurred). Additionally, clutching/shaking the head occurred 361 times (on 212 occasions this sign appeared to be due to a possible concussion), gait ataxia was observed 102 times, a vacant stare was noted 98 times, unresponsiveness 52 times, and a possible seizure 4 times. On 383 occasions, one or more of the observable signs were identified and deemed associated with a possible concussion. There were 175 incidences in which a player appeared to demonstrate two or more concussion signs, and 54 incidences where a player appeared to demonstrate three or more concussion signs. A total of 60 diagnosed concussions occurred, and the concussion interchange rule was activated 167 times. Intra-rater reliability (κ = 0.65-1.00) was moderate to perfect for all six video signs; however, the inter-rater reliability was not as strong (κ = 0.22-0.76). Most of the signs had relatively low sensitivity (0.18-0.75), but high specificity (0.85-1.00). Using video replay, observable signs of concussion appear to be sensitive to concussion diagnoses when reviewing known injuries among professional rugby league players. When reviewing an entire season
Malone, Linda; Anderson, Judith; Manning, Jennifer
To examine the literature exploring the current understanding of student nurse participation in clinical handover whilst they are enrolled in an undergraduate preregistration course. The importance of handing over the care of a patient to ensure continuity and safety of care is well-recognised. Effective preparation of student nurses to competently perform this critical task requires the use of appropriate teaching strategies to support this learning, within undergraduate preregistration nursing programs. An integrative literature review. An integrative literature review was conducted to establish what is known about student nurse participation in relation to clinical handover. This resulted in 18 articles for inclusion in the literature review. An analysis was then undertaken of these 18 articles to extract key themes. Learning and teaching strategies need to address a variety of methods of the clinical handover process including verbal and written handovers. Participating in clinical handover prior to being given the responsibility of patient care prepares students for the workplace. Key themes identified within the literature included: learning strategies, limitations and challenges involved in putting theory into practice, handover structure and issues regarding confidentiality. Simulation and clinical practice are commonly used to prepare students for this role during their undergraduate education. The use of simulation and structured handover techniques prior to clinical placement increases student confidence to engage in clinical handovers during their clinical placements. This article raises the awareness of both clinical staff and educators as to the need for student nurses to develop their skills in clinical handover practice and suggests strategies to prepare student nurses to conduct clinical handover competently in the clinical setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Maya M Hammoud1, Helen K Morgan1, Mary E Edwards2, Jennifer A Lyon2, Casey White31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Health Sciences Center Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education, Faculty Affairs and Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USAPurpose: To determine if video review of student performance during patient encounters is an effective tool for medical student learning.Methods: Multiple bibliographic databases that include medical, general health care, education, psychology, and behavioral science literature were searched for the following terms: medical students, medical education, undergraduate medical education, education, self-assessment, self-evaluation, self-appraisal, feedback, videotape, video recording, televised, and DVD. The authors examined all abstracts resulting from this search and reviewed the full text of the relevant articles as well as additional articles identified in the reference lists of the relevant articles. Studies were classified by year of student (preclinical or clinical and study design (controlled or non-controlled.Results: A total of 67 articles met the final search criteria and were fully reviewed. Most studies were non-controlled and performed in the clinical years. Although the studies were quite variable in quality, design, and outcomes, in general video recording of performance and subsequent review by students with expert feedback had positive outcomes in improving feedback and ultimate performance. Video review with self-assessment alone was not found to be generally effective, but when linked with expert feedback it was superior to traditional feedback alone.Conclusion: There are many methods for integrating effective use of video-captured performance into a program of learning. We recommend combining student self-assessment with feedback
Mitchell, Imogen A; Schuster, Anne L R; Lynch, Thomas; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Bridges, John F P; Aslakson, Rebecca A
To identify videos on YouTube concerning advance care planning (ACP) and synthesise existing video content and style elements. Informed by stakeholder engagement, two researchers searched YouTube for ACP videos using predefined search terms and snowballing techniques. Videos identified were reviewed and deemed ineligible for analysis if they: targeted healthcare professionals; contained irrelevant content; focused on viewers under the age of 18; were longer than 7 min in duration; received fewer than 150 views; were in a language other than English; or were a duplicate version. For each video, two investigators independently extracted general information as well as video content and stylistic characteristics. The YouTube search identified 23 100 videos with 213 retrieved for assessment and 42 meeting eligibility criteria. The majority of videos had been posted to YouTube since 2010 and produced by organisations in the USA (71%). Viewership ranged from 171 to 10 642. Most videos used a documentary style and featured healthcare providers (60%) rather than patients (19%) or families (45%). A minority of videos (29%) used upbeat or hopeful music. The videos frequently focused on completing legal medical documents (86%). None of the ACP videos on YouTube went viral and a relatively small number of them contained elements endorsed by stakeholders. In emphasising the completion of legal medical documents, videos may have failed to support more meaningful ACP. Further research is needed to understand the features of videos that will engage patients and the wider community with ACP and palliative and end-of-life care conversations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Gait is a unique perceptible biometric feature at larger distances, and the gait representation approach plays a key role in a video sensor-based gait recognition system. Class Energy Image is one of the most important gait representation methods based on appearance, which has received lots of attentions. In this paper, we reviewed the expressions and meanings of various Class Energy Image approaches, and analyzed the information in the Class Energy Images. Furthermore, the effectiveness and robustness of these approaches were compared on the benchmark gait databases. We outlined the research challenges and provided promising future directions for the field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that focuses on Class Energy Image. It can provide a useful reference in the literature of video sensor-based gait representation approach.
Lv, Zhuowen; Xing, Xianglei; Wang, Kejun; Guan, Donghai
Gait is a unique perceptible biometric feature at larger distances, and the gait representation approach plays a key role in a video sensor-based gait recognition system. Class Energy Image is one of the most important gait representation methods based on appearance, which has received lots of attentions. In this paper, we reviewed the expressions and meanings of various Class Energy Image approaches, and analyzed the information in the Class Energy Images. Furthermore, the effectiveness and robustness of these approaches were compared on the benchmark gait databases. We outlined the research challenges and provided promising future directions for the field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that focuses on Class Energy Image. It can provide a useful reference in the literature of video sensor-based gait representation approach. PMID:25574935
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding which factors influence participation in physical activity is important to improve the public health. The aim of the present review of reviews was to summarize and present updated evidence on personal and environmental factors associated with physical activity. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for reviews published up to 31 Jan. 2017 reporting on potential factors of physical activity in adults aged over 18 years. The quality of each review was appraised with the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR checklist. The corrected covered area (CCA was calculated as a measure of overlap for the primary publications in each review. Results Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria which reviewed 90 personal and 27 environmental factors. The average quality of the studies was moderate, and the CCA ranged from 0 to 4.3%. For personal factors, self-efficacy was shown as the strongest factor for participation in physical activity (7 out of 9. Intention to exercise, outcome expectation, perceived behavioral control and perceived fitness were positively associated with physical activity in more than 3 reviews, while age and bad status of health or fitness were negatively associated with participation in physical activity in more than 3 reviews. For environmental factors, accessibility to facilities, presence of sidewalks, and aesthetics were positively associated with participation in physical activity. Conclusions The findings of this review of reviews suggest that some personal and environmental factors were related with participation in physical activity. However, an association of various factors with physical activity could not be established because of the lack of primary studies to build up the organized evidence. More studies with a prospective design should be conducted to understand the potential causes for physical activity.
Choi, Jaesung; Lee, Miyoung; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob
Understanding which factors influence participation in physical activity is important to improve the public health. The aim of the present review of reviews was to summarize and present updated evidence on personal and environmental factors associated with physical activity. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for reviews published up to 31 Jan. 2017 reporting on potential factors of physical activity in adults aged over 18 years. The quality of each review was appraised with the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist. The corrected covered area (CCA) was calculated as a measure of overlap for the primary publications in each review. Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria which reviewed 90 personal and 27 environmental factors. The average quality of the studies was moderate, and the CCA ranged from 0 to 4.3%. For personal factors, self-efficacy was shown as the strongest factor for participation in physical activity (7 out of 9). Intention to exercise, outcome expectation, perceived behavioral control and perceived fitness were positively associated with physical activity in more than 3 reviews, while age and bad status of health or fitness were negatively associated with participation in physical activity in more than 3 reviews. For environmental factors, accessibility to facilities, presence of sidewalks, and aesthetics were positively associated with participation in physical activity. The findings of this review of reviews suggest that some personal and environmental factors were related with participation in physical activity. However, an association of various factors with physical activity could not be established because of the lack of primary studies to build up the organized evidence. More studies with a prospective design should be conducted to understand the potential causes for physical activity.
Setubal, Maria Silvia Vellutini; Gonçalves, Andrea Vasconcelos; Rocha, Sheyla Ribeiro; Amaral, Eliana Martorano
Objective Resident doctors usually face the task to communicate bad news in perinatology without any formal training. The impact on parents can be disastrous. The objective of this paper is to analyze the perception of residents regarding a training program in communicating bad news in perinatology based on video reviews and setting, perception, invitation, knowledge, emotion, and summary (SPIKES) strategy. Methods We performed the analysis of complementary data collected from participants in a randomized controlled intervention study to evaluate the efficacy of a training program on improving residents' skills to communicate bad news. Data were collected using a Likert scale. Through a thematic content analysis we tried to to apprehend the meanings, feelings and experiences expressed by resident doctors in their comments as a response to an open-ended question. Half of the group received training, consisting of discussions of video reviews of participants' simulated encounters communicating a perinatal loss to a "mother" based on the SPIKES strategy. We also offered training sessions to the control group after they completed participation. Twenty-eight residents who were randomized to intervention and 16 from the control group received training. Twenty written comments were analyzed. Results The majority of the residents evaluated training highly as an education activity to help increase knowledge, ability and understanding about breaking bad news in perinatology. Three big categories emerged from residents' comments: SPIKES training effects; bad news communication in medical training; and doctors' feelings and relationship with patients. Conclusions Residents took SPIKES training as a guide to systematize the communication of bad news and to amplify perceptions of the emotional needs of the patients. They suggested the insertion of a similar training in their residency programs curricula. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; King, Daniel L; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Seung-Yup; Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Takacs, Zsofia K; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Background and aims Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming. Methods After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review. Results Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically. Discussion and conclusions Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.
LeBlanc, Allana G.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C.; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Tremblay, Mark S.
BACKGROUND: Active video games (AVGs) have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE) has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0-17 years). DATA SOURCES: Online databases...
Coyne, Elisabeth; Rands, Hazel; Frommolt, Valda; Kain, Victoria; Plugge, Melanie; Mitchell, Marion
The aim of this review is to inform future educational strategies by synthesising research related to blended learning resources using simulation videos to teach clinical skills for health students. An integrative review methodology was used to allow for the combination of diverse research methods to better understand the research topic. This review was guided by the framework described by Whittemore and Knafl (2005), DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of the following databases was conducted in consultation with a librarian using the following databases: SCOPUS, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, PsycINFO databases. Keywords and MeSH terms: clinical skills, nursing, health, student, blended learning, video, simulation and teaching. Data extracted from the studies included author, year, aims, design, sample, skill taught, outcome measures and findings. After screening the articles, extracting project data and completing summary tables, critical appraisal of the projects was completed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Ten articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The MMAT scores varied from 50% to 100%. Thematic analysis was undertaken and we identified the following three themes: linking theory to practice, autonomy of learning and challenges of developing a blended learning model. Blended learning allowed for different student learning styles, repeated viewing, and enabled links between theory and practice. The video presentation needed to be realistic and culturally appropriate and this required both time and resources to create. A blended learning model, which incorporates video-assisted online resources, may be a useful tool to teach clinical skills to students of health including nursing. Blended learning not only increases students' knowledge and skills, but is often preferred by students due to its flexibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gardner, Stephanie; Wolfe, Pamela
Identifying methods to increase the independent functioning of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is vital in enhancing their quality of life; teaching students with ASD daily living skills can foster independent functioning. This review examines interventions that implement video modeling and/or prompting to teach individuals with…
Sanderson, Saskia C; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Zweig, Micol; Bottinger, Erwin P; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richardson, Lynne D
As whole-genome sequencing (WGS) increases in availability, WGS educational aids are needed for research participants, patients, and the general public. Our aim was therefore to develop an accessible and scalable WGS educational aid. We engaged multiple stakeholders in an iterative process over a 1-year period culminating in the production of a novel 10-minute WGS educational animated video, "Whole Genome Sequencing and You" (https://goo.gl/HV8ezJ). We then presented the animated video to 281 online-survey respondents (the video-information group). There were also two comparison groups: a written-information group (n = 281) and a no-information group (n = 300). In the video-information group, 79% reported the video was easy to understand, satisfaction scores were high (mean 4.00 on 1-5 scale, where 5 = high satisfaction), and knowledge increased significantly. There were significant differences in knowledge compared with the no-information group but few differences compared with the written-information group. Intention to receive personal results from WGS and decisional conflict in response to a hypothetical scenario did not differ between the three groups. The educational animated video, "Whole Genome Sequencing and You," was well received by this sample of online-survey respondents. Further work is needed to evaluate its utility as an aid to informed decision making about WGS in other populations.Genet Med 18 5, 501-512.
Emes, C E
To provide mental health professionals with an up-to-date review of the literature regarding the effects of playing video games on the well-being of children. A computerized literature search of MEDLINE and PSYCHINFO of all articles written in English from 1966 to 1996 was performed. The various studies are organized into different sections. Playing video games is associated with a variety of physical effects including increased metabolic and heart rate, seizures, and tendinitis. Aggressive behaviour may result from playing video games, especially among younger children. There is no direct relationship between psychopathology or academic performance and playing video games. Video games have some adverse effects, but they are also valuable learning tools. Research about the role of video games is inadequate. The data are also limited by the lack of long-term studies and inconsistent findings.
Ali, Abeer Alhaj; Miller, Elaine T
Debriefing is an integral component of the high-fidelity simulation experience in health education. Video-assisted debriefing (VAD) is used to structure debriefing following simulation. This review synthesizes the best available evidence about VAD compared with verbal debriefing; moreover, it reviews the effectiveness of VAD on students' learning outcomes and learners' perceptions of using VAD postsimulation sessions. Databases included Med-line, Scopus, CINAHL, and EMBASE, and articles published between 2000 and 2016 were reviewed if they used the keywords video-assisted debriefing, HFS, debriefing and learning outcomes, and video-playback debriefing. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Three themes emerged: VAD Effectiveness Compared to Verbal (Oral) Debriefing, VAD Effectiveness on Learning Outcomes, and Learners' Perceptions of VAD Experience. VAD following simulation experiences compared with other debriefing modalities resulted in mixed findings related to learning outcomes in health education. More research on debriefing practices is needed that describes all key debriefing components. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):14-20.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available This article sets out to conduct a systematic review of the current literature on active video games as potential educational tools for physical education or physical activity. To begin with, research on active video games for educational and physical purposes has been examined with the purpose of verifying improvement of attitudes, intellectual skills, knowledge, motor skills and physical properties associated with physical activity and physical education. A second aim will be to determine the effectiveness of active video games compared with traditional approaches to physical activity. From this perspective, a systematic literature search from relevant international databases was conducted from January to July 2015 in order to find papers published in journals or conference proceedings from January 2010 onwards. Then, 2648 references were identified in database searches and 100 of these papers met the inclusion criteria. Two main conclusions are to be drawn from this research. Firstly, controlled studies demonstrate that active video games increase capacities in relation to physical activity and education. Secondly, Research also shows that physical activity interventions designed and measured using behavioural theories are more likely to be successful in comparison with traditional exercise activities.
Full Text Available Attention is an important part of the process of meditation. Traditional Yoga texts describe two stages of meditation which follow each other in sequence. These are meditative focusing (dharana in Sanskrit and effortless meditation (dhyana in Sanskrit. This review evaluated eight experimental studies conducted on participants in normal health, who practiced dharana and dhyana. The studies included evaluation of autonomic and respiratory variables, eLORETA and sLORETA assessments of the EEG, evoked potentials, functional magnetic resonance imaging, cancellation task performance and emotional intelligence. The studies differed in their sample size, design and the method of practicing dharana and dhyana. These factors have been detailed. The results revealed differences between dharana and dhyana, which would have been missed if the two stages of meditation had not been studied separately.
Hofland, Aafke C L; Devilee, Jeroen; van Kempen, Elise; den Broeder, Lea
Healthy urban environments require careful planning and a testing of environmental quality that goes beyond statutory requirements. Moreover, it requires the inclusion of resident views, perceptions and experiences that help deepen the understanding of local (public health) problems. To facilitate this, neighbourhoods should be mapped in a way that is relevant to them. One way to do this is participative neighbourhood auditing. This paper provides an insight into availability and characteristics of participatory neighbourhood audit instruments. A scoping review in scientific and grey literature, consisting of the following steps: literature search, identification and selection of relevant audit instruments, data extraction and data charting (including a work meeting to discuss outputs), reporting. In total, 13 participatory instruments were identified. The role of residents in most instruments was as 'data collectors'; only few instruments included residents in other audit activities like problem definition or analysis of data. The instruments identified focus mainly on physical, not social, neighbourhood characteristics. Paper forms containing closed-ended questions or scales were the most often applied registration method. The results show that neighbourhood auditing could be improved by including social aspects in the audit tools. They also show that the role of residents in neighbourhood auditing is limited; however, little is known about how their engagement takes place in practice. Developers of new instruments need to balance not only social and physical aspects, but also resident engagement and scientific robustness. Technologies like mobile applications pose new opportunities for participative approaches in neighbourhood auditing.
Foster Charlie E
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Most researchers who are conducting physical activity trials face difficulties in recruiting participants who are representative of the population or from specific population groups. Participants who are often the hardest to recruit are often those who stand to benefit most (the least active, from ethnic and other minority groups, from neighbourhoods with high levels of deprivation, or have poor health. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature of walking interventions, in order to identify the impact, characteristics, and differential effects of recruitment strategies among particular population groups. Methods We conducted standard searches for studies from four sources, (i electronic literature databases and websites, (ii grey literature from internet sources, (iii contact with experts to identify additional "grey" and other literature, and (iv snowballing from reference lists of retrieved articles. Included studies were randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after experimental or observational qualitative studies, examining the effects of an intervention to encourage people to walk independently or in a group setting, and detailing methods of recruitment. Results Forty seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the descriptions of recruitment in the studies was poor with little detail reported on who undertook recruitment, or how long was spent planning/preparing and implementing the recruitment phase. Recruitment was conducted at locations that either matched where the intervention was delivered, or where the potential participants were asked to attend for the screening and signing up process. We identified a lack of conceptual clarity about the recruitment process and no standard metric to evaluate the effectiveness of recruitment. Conclusion Recruitment concepts, methods, and reporting in walking intervention trials are poorly developed, adding to
Page, Zoey E; Barrington, Stephanie; Edwards, Jacqueline; Barnett, Lisa M
The use of interactive video gaming, known as 'exergames' or 'active video games (AVG)' may provide an opportunity for motor skill development. Youth with non-typical patterns of development may have deficits in gross motor skill capacities and are therefore an intervention target. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of AVG use on motor skill development in non-typically developing children and adolescents. Review article. The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of EBSCOhost, Embase, Gale Cengage, Informit, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. A total of 19 articles met inclusion criteria (non-typically developing participants such as those with a learning or developmental delay aged 3-18, use of an AVG console, assessed one or more gross motor skills). Studies were excluded if gross motor skill outcomes encompassed fine motor skills or reflected mobility related to daily living. Interventions included children and adolescents with eight different conditions. The Nintendo Wii was the most utilised gaming platform (14/19 studies). Studies examined a combination of skills, with most examining balance (15/19), five studies examining ball skills, and other gross motor skills such as coordination (3 studies), running (3 studies) and jumping (3 studies). There was strong evidence that AVG's improved balance. AVG's also appeared to benefit participants with Cerebral Palsy. AVG's could be a valuable tool to improve gross motor skills of non-typically developing children. There is scope for further exploration, particularly of ball, coordination and locomotor skills and varying platforms to draw more conclusive evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Van Sint Jan, Serge
The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of commercial video games (VGs) in physical rehabilitation of motor functions. Several databases were screened (Medline, SAGE Journals Online, and ScienceDirect) using combinations of the following free-text terms: commercial games, video games, exergames, serious gaming, rehabilitation games, PlayStation, Nintendo, Wii, Wii Fit, Xbox, and Kinect. The search was limited to peer-reviewed English journals. The beginning of the search time frame was not restricted and the end of the search time frame was 31 December 2015. Only randomized controlled trial, cohort, and observational studies evaluating the effect of VGs on physical rehabilitation were included in the review. A total of 4728 abstracts were screened, 275 were fully reviewed, and 126 papers were eventually included. The following information was extracted from the selected studies: device type, number and type of patients, intervention, and main outcomes. The integration of VGs into physical rehabilitation has been tested for various pathological conditions, including stroke, cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, balance training, weight loss, and aging. There was large variability in the protocols used (e.g. number of sessions, intervention duration, outcome measures, and sample size). The results of this review show that in most cases, the introduction of VG training in physical rehabilitation offered similar results as conventional therapy. Therefore, VGs could be added as an adjunct treatment in rehabilitation for various pathologies to stimulate patient motivation. VGs could also be used at home to maintain rehabilitation benefits.
Farren, Laura; Belza, Basia; Allen, Peg; Brolliar, Sarah; Brown, David R; Cormier, Marc L; Janicek, Sarah; Jones, Dina L; King, Diane K; Marquez, David X; Rosenberg, Dori E
Walking is a preferred and recommended physical activity for middle-aged and older adults, but many barriers exist, including concerns about safety (ie, personal security), falling, and inclement weather. Mall walking programs may overcome these barriers. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence on the health-related value of mall walking and mall walking programs. We conducted a scoping review of the literature to determine the features, environments, and benefits of mall walking programs using the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance). The inclusion criteria were articles that involved adults aged 45 years or older who walked in indoor or outdoor shopping malls. Exclusion criteria were articles that used malls as laboratory settings or focused on the mechanics of walking. We included published research studies, dissertations, theses, conference abstracts, syntheses, nonresearch articles, theoretical papers, editorials, reports, policy briefs, standards and guidelines, and nonresearch conference abstracts and proposals. Websites and articles written in a language other than English were excluded. We located 254 articles on mall walking; 32 articles met our inclusion criteria. We found that malls provided safe, accessible, and affordable exercise environments for middle-aged and older adults. Programmatic features such as program leaders, blood pressure checks, and warm-up exercises facilitated participation. Individual benefits of mall walking programs included improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being. Limited transportation to the mall was a barrier to participation. We found the potential for mall walking programs to be implemented in various communities as a health promotion measure. However, the research on mall walking programs is limited and has weak study designs. More rigorous research is needed to define best practices for mall walking programs' reach, effectiveness, adoption
Belza, Basia; Allen, Peg; Brolliar, Sarah; Brown, David R.; Cormier, Marc L.; Janicek, Sarah; Jones, Dina L.; King, Diane K.; Marquez, David X.; Rosenberg, Dori E.
Introduction Walking is a preferred and recommended physical activity for middle-aged and older adults, but many barriers exist, including concerns about safety (ie, personal security), falling, and inclement weather. Mall walking programs may overcome these barriers. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence on the health-related value of mall walking and mall walking programs. Methods We conducted a scoping review of the literature to determine the features, environments, and benefits of mall walking programs using the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance). The inclusion criteria were articles that involved adults aged 45 years or older who walked in indoor or outdoor shopping malls. Exclusion criteria were articles that used malls as laboratory settings or focused on the mechanics of walking. We included published research studies, dissertations, theses, conference abstracts, syntheses, nonresearch articles, theoretical papers, editorials, reports, policy briefs, standards and guidelines, and nonresearch conference abstracts and proposals. Websites and articles written in a language other than English were excluded. Results We located 254 articles on mall walking; 32 articles met our inclusion criteria. We found that malls provided safe, accessible, and affordable exercise environments for middle-aged and older adults. Programmatic features such as program leaders, blood pressure checks, and warm-up exercises facilitated participation. Individual benefits of mall walking programs included improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being. Limited transportation to the mall was a barrier to participation. Conclusion We found the potential for mall walking programs to be implemented in various communities as a health promotion measure. However, the research on mall walking programs is limited and has weak study designs. More rigorous research is needed to define best practices for mall walking
Graf, W D; Chatrian, G E; Glass, S T; Knauss, T A
To further describe the features, postulated pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome of seizures occurring while playing or watching video games (video game-related seizures (VGRS)). We evaluated retrospectively 10 patients with VGRS seen by us and reviewed 25 reported cases. The 35 patients ranged in age from 1 to 36 years (mean: 13.2); and 26 subjects (74%) were male. Eight individuals (29%) had prior infrequent nonfebrile seizures, 4 (11%) had febrile convulsions, and 2 (6%) had a family history of epilepsy. VGRS consisted of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 22 of 35 individuals (63%); absences in 2 (6%); simple partial seizures in 6 (19%); complex partial seizures in 4 (11%); and other manifestations in 4. Neurologic examination and computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans were normal. Electroencephalograms demonstrated generalized or focal, interictal or ictal epileptic patterns in 11 of 21 patients (52%) and photoparoxysmal responses in 17 of 32 (53%). Eleven of 15 individuals (73%) treated with video game (VG) abstinence alone, 3 of 6 who received anticonvulsants but played VGs, and 7 of 12 treated with combined VG abstinence and anticonvulsants had no further seizures. We postulate that a special convulsive susceptibility of selected neurons in striate, peristriate, infratemporal, and posterior parietal cortices to particular visual stimuli plays a major role in VGRS. VG abstinence is the treatment of choice of VGRS. Anticonvulsant medication is suggested only for those individuals who continue to play VGs or suffer from seizures triggered by other, unavoidable visual stimuli, or from unprovoked attacks.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For many vital signs, monitoring methods require contact with the patient and/or are invasive in nature. There is increasing interest in developing still and video image-guided monitoring methods that are non-contact and non-invasive. We will undertake a systematic review of still and video image-based monitoring methods. Methods We will perform searches in multiple databases which include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. We will use OpenGrey and Google searches to access unpublished or commercial data. We will not use language or publication date restrictions. The primary goal is to summarise current image-based vital signs monitoring methods, limited to heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure. Of particular interest will be the effectiveness of image-based methods compared to reference devices. Other outcomes of interest include the quality of the method comparison studies with respect to published reporting guidelines, any limitations of non-contact non-invasive technology and application in different populations. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of image-based non-contact methods of vital signs monitoring. Synthesis of currently available technology will facilitate future research in this highly topical area. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016029167
Asano, Eishi; Pawlak, Carol; Shah, Aashit; Shah, Jagdish; Luat, Aimee F; Ahn-Ewing, Judy; Chugani, Harry T
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical utility of initial video-EEG monitoring in a series of 1000 children suspected of epileptic disorders. The ages of patients (523 boys and 477 girls) ranged from 1 month to 17 years (median age: 7 years). The mean length of stay was 1.5 days (range: 1-10 days). Outcomes were classified as: 'useful-epileptic' (successful classification of epilepsy), 'useful-nonepileptic' (demonstration of nonepileptic habitual events), 'uneventful' (normal EEG without habitual events captured), and 'inconclusive' (inability to clarify the nature of habitual events with abnormal interictal EEG findings). A total of 315 studies were considered 'useful-epileptic'; 219 'useful-nonepileptic'; 224 'uneventful'; 242 'inconclusive'. Longer monitoring was associated with higher rate of a study classified as 'useful-epileptic' in all age groups (Chi square test: pepilepsy were assigned a specific diagnosis of epilepsy syndrome according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification. We found only 22 children with ictal EEG showing a seizure onset purely originating from a unilateral temporal region. Video-EEG monitoring may fail to capture habitual episodes. To maximize the utility of studies in the future, a video-EEG monitoring longer than 3 days should be considered in selected children such as adolescences with habitual events occurring on a less than daily basis. We recognize a reasonable clinical utility of the current ILAE classification in the present study. It may not be common to identify children with pure unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy solely based on video-EEG monitoring.
Eijssen, I.C.J.M.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; Dekker, J.; Terwee, C.B.
Objectives: To evaluate: (1) whether instruments which intend to measure participation actually do and (2) how frequently specific aspects and domains of participation are addressed. Data Sources: A systematic search was performed in PubMed. Study Selection: Included were patient-reported
Burford, B.; Jahoda, A.
Background: This study examined the potential of a retrospective video reviewing process [Burford Reviewing Process (BRP)] for enabling people with intellectual disabilities to describe their experiences of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). It is the first time that the BRP, described in this paper, has been used with people with intellectual…
Richard, Gabriela T.
Games, play, and learning have a long and embedded history that outdates digital games by many years. However, video games, computing, and technology have significant and historically documented diversity issues, which privilege whites and males as content producers, computing and gaming experts, and STEM learners and employees. Many aspects of…
Batallan, Graciela; Dente, Liliana; Ritta, Loreley
This article aims to open up a debate on methodological aspects of ethnographic research, arguing for the legitimacy of the information produced in a research "taller" or workshop using a participatory methodology and video production as a methodological tool. Based on the theoretical foundations and analysis of a "taller"…
Harford, Mirae; Catherall, Jacqueline; Gerry, Stephen; Young, Duncan; Watkinson, Peter
For many vital signs, monitoring methods require contact with the patient and/or are invasive in nature. There is increasing interest in developing still and video image-guided monitoring methods that are non-contact and non-invasive. We will undertake a systematic review of still and video image-based monitoring methods. We will perform searches in multiple databases which include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. We will use OpenGrey and Google searches to access unpublished or commercial data. We will not use language or publication date restrictions. The primary goal is to summarise current image-based vital signs monitoring methods, limited to heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure. Of particular interest will be the effectiveness of image-based methods compared to reference devices. Other outcomes of interest include the quality of the method comparison studies with respect to published reporting guidelines, any limitations of non-contact non-invasive technology and application in different populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of image-based non-contact methods of vital signs monitoring. Synthesis of currently available technology will facilitate future research in this highly topical area. PROSPERO CRD42016029167.
Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE enables a physician to diagnose a patient's digestive system without surgical procedures. However, it takes 1-2 hours for a gastroenterologist to examine the video. To speed up the review process, a number of analysis techniques based on machine vision have been proposed by computer science researchers. In order to train a machine to understand the semantics of an image, the image contents need to be translated into numerical form first. The numerical form of the image is known as image abstraction. The process of selecting relevant image features is often determined by the modality of medical images and the nature of the diagnoses. For example, there are radiographic projection-based images (e.g., X-rays and PET scans, tomography-based images (e.g., MRT and CT scans, and photography-based images (e.g., endoscopy, dermatology, and microscopic histology. Each modality imposes unique image-dependent restrictions for automatic and medically meaningful image abstraction processes. In this paper, we review the current development of machine-vision-based analysis of WCE video, focusing on the research that identifies specific gastrointestinal (GI pathology and methods of shot boundary detection.
Nalubega, Sylivia; Evans, Catrin
Human immunodeficiency virus clinical trials are increasingly being conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a tension between the pressure to increase levels of research participation and the need to ensure informed consent and protection of participants' rights. Researchers need to be aware of the particular ethical issues that underpin Human immunodeficiency virus research conduct in low income settings. This necessitates hearing from those who have participated in research and who have direct experience of the research process. This review aimed to synthesize and present the best available evidence in relation to Human immunodeficiency virus research participation in sub-Saharan Africa, based on the views and experiences of research participants. The review included studies whose participants were current or former adult Human immunodeficiency virus research participants from sub-Saharan African countries. Views, experiences, attitudes, understandings, perceptions and perspectives of Human immunodeficiency virus research participants in sub-Saharan Africa. Types of studies: This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data, including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, action research and feminist research. A three-step search strategy was utilized. Seven databases (CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE (R) 1946, ASSIA, PsychInfo, Web of Science, EMBASE, and African Index Medicus) were searched with no limitation to years of publication, followed by hand searching of reference lists. Only studies published in the English language were considered. Methodological quality was assessed using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Qualitative findings were extracted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Qualitative research findings were pooled using a pragmatic meta-aggregative approach and the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer
We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...
Full Text Available The ESA INTEGRAL satellite, launched in October 2002, is the first astrophysical satellite of the European Space Agency ESA with Czech participation. The results of the first 7 years of investigations of various scientific targets e.g. cataclysmic variables, blazars, X-ray sources, and GRBs with the ESA INTEGRAL satellite with Czech participation are briefly presented and discussed.
Spruit, A.; van Vugt, E.; van der Put, C.; van der Stouwe, T.; Stams, G.J.
Participation in sports activities is very popular among adolescents, and is frequently encouraged among youth. Many psychosocial health benefits in youth are attributed to sports participation, but to what extent this positive influence holds for juvenile delinquency is still not clear on both the
Spruit, Anouk; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; van der Stouwe, Trudy; Stams, Geert-Jan
Participation in sports activities is very popular among adolescents, and is frequently encouraged among youth. Many psychosocial health benefits in youth are attributed to sports participation, but to what extent this positive influence holds for juvenile delinquency is still not clear on both the theoretical and empirical level. There is much controversy on whether sports participation should be perceived as a protective or a risk factor for the development of juvenile delinquency. A multilevel meta-analysis of 51 published and unpublished studies, with 48 independent samples containing 431 effect sizes and N = 132,366 adolescents, was conducted to examine the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency and possible moderating factors of this association. The results showed that there is no overall significant association between sports participation and juvenile delinquency, indicating that adolescent athletes are neither more nor less delinquent than non-athletes. Some study, sample and sports characteristics significantly moderated the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency. However, this moderating influence was modest. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of sports to prevent juvenile delinquency are discussed.
Whitaker, Christopher; Stevelink, Sharon; Fear, Nicola
Social media is a popular online tool that allows users to communicate and exchange information. It allows digital content such as pictures, videos and websites to be shared, discussed, republished and endorsed by its users, their friends and businesses. Adverts can be posted and promoted to specific target audiences by demographics such as region, age or gender. Recruiting for health research is complex with strict requirement criteria imposed on the participants. Traditional research recruitment relies on flyers, newspaper adverts, radio and television broadcasts, letters, emails, website listings, and word of mouth. These methods are potentially poor at recruiting hard to reach demographics, can be slow and expensive. Recruitment via social media, in particular Facebook, may be faster and cheaper. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding the current use and success of Facebook to recruit participants for health research purposes. A literature review was completed in March 2017 in the English language using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, Google Scholar, and a hand search of article references. Papers from the past 12 years were included and number of participants, recruitment period, number of impressions, cost per click or participant, and conversion rate extracted. A total of 35 studies were identified from the United States (n=22), Australia (n=9), Canada (n=2), Japan (n=1), and Germany (n=1) and appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. All focused on the feasibility of recruitment via Facebook, with some (n=10) also testing interventions, such as smoking cessation and depression reduction. Most recruited young age groups (16-24 years), with the remaining targeting specific demographics, for example, military veterans. Information from the 35 studies was analyzed with median values being 264 recruited participants, a 3-month recruitment period, 3.3 million impressions, cost
Bernard, Aaron W; Ceccolini, Gabbriel; Feinn, Richard; Rockfeld, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Ilene; Thomas, Listy; Cassese, Todd
Performance feedback is considered essential to clinical skills development. Formative objective structured clinical exams (F-OSCEs) often include immediate feedback by standardized patients. Students can also be provided access to performance metrics including scores, checklists, and video recordings after the F-OSCE to supplement this feedback. How often students choose to review this data and how review impacts future performance has not been documented. We suspect student review of F-OSCE performance data is variable. We hypothesize that students who review this data have better performance on subsequent F-OSCEs compared to those who do not. We also suspect that frequency of data review can be improved with faculty involvement in the form of student-faculty debriefing meetings. Simulation recording software tracks and time stamps student review of performance data. We investigated a cohort of first- and second-year medical students from the 2015-16 academic year. Basic descriptive statistics were used to characterize frequency of data review and a linear mixed-model analysis was used to determine relationships between data review and future F-OSCE performance. Students reviewed scores (64%), checklists (42%), and videos (28%) in decreasing frequency. Frequency of review of all metric and modalities improved when student-faculty debriefing meetings were conducted (pstudents, checklist review was associated with an improved performance on subsequent F-OSCEs (p = 0.038) by 1.07 percentage points on a scale of 0-100. Among 86 second year students, no review modality was associated with improved performance on subsequent F-OSCEs. Medical students review F-OSCE checklists and video recordings less than 50% of the time when not prompted. Student-faculty debriefing meetings increased student data reviews. First-year student's review of checklists on F-OSCEs was associated with increases in performance on subsequent F-OSCEs, however this outcome was not observed among
Anak Agung Sagung Shanti Sari Dewi
Full Text Available Teaching learning materials (TLM has been widely recognised as one of most important components in language teaching to support the success of language learning. TLM is essential for teachers in planning their lessons, assisting them in their professional duty, and use them as rosources to describe instructions. This writing reviews 10 (ten teaching learning materials in the form of cousebooks, games, worksheets, and audio video files. The materials were chosen randomly and were analysed qualitatively. The discussion of the materials is done individually by presenting their target learners, how they are applied by teachers and students, the aims of the use of the materials, and the role of teachers and learners in different kind of TLM.
Objective. The objective was to review psychiatric involvement in seven prosecutorial workshops on criminal capacity between 2004 and 2009. The aim was to evaluate the changing role of the psychiatrists in the workshops in order to identify areas in forensic psychiatry where prosecutors have a specific need for training, ...
Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J
Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.
Dorfman, Robert G; Vaca, Elbert E; Fine, Neil A; Schierle, Clark F
Recent videos shared by plastic surgeons on social media applications such as Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube, among others, have blurred the line between entertainment and patient care. This has left many in the plastic surgery community calling for the development of more structured oversight and guidance regarding video sharing on social media. To date, no official guidelines exist for plastic surgeons to follow. Little is known about the ethical implications of social media use by plastic surgeons, especially with regard to video sharing. A systematic review of the literature on social media use in plastic surgery was performed on October 31, 2016, with an emphasis on ethics and professionalism. An ethical analysis was conducted using the four principles of medical ethics. The initial search yielded 87 articles. Thirty-four articles were included for analyses that were found to be relevant to the use of social media in plastic surgery. No peer-reviewed articles were found that mentioned Snapchat or addressed the ethical implications of sharing live videos of plastic surgery on social media. Using the four principles of medical ethics, it was determined that significant ethical concerns exist with broadcasting these videos. This analysis fills an important gap in the plastic surgery literature by addressing the ethical issues concerning live surgery broadcasts on social media. Plastic surgeons may use the guidelines proposed here to avoid potential pitfalls.
Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…
Anderson, C.A.; Shibuya, A.; Ihori, N.; Swing, E.L.; Bushman, B.J.; Sakamoto, A.; Rothstein, H.R.; Saleem, M.; Barlett, C.P.
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive
What Works Clearinghouse, 2015
In the 2014 study, "The Effects of Math Video Games on Learning," researchers examined the impacts of math video games on the fractions knowledge of 1,468 sixth-grade students in 23 schools. The video games focused on fractions concepts including: whole units, numerator and denominator, understanding the number line, fractions…
Parmar, Zarna; Upadhyay, Saurabh
With the innovations and development in sophisticated video editing technology and a wide spread of video information and services in our society, it is becoming increasingly significant to assure the trustworthiness of video information. Therefore in surveillance, medical and various other fields, video contents must be protected against attempt to manipulate them. Such malicious alterations could affect the decisions based on these videos. A lot of techniques are proposed by various researchers in the literature that assure the authenticity of video information in their own way. In this paper we present a brief survey on video authentication techniques with their classification. These authentication techniques are generally classified into following categories: digital signature based techniques, watermark based techniques, and other authentication techniques.
Ferguson, Christopher John
Video game violence has become a highly politicized issue for scientists and the general public. There is continuing concern that playing violent video games may increase the risk of aggression in players. Less often discussed is the possibility that playing violent video games may promote certain positive developments, particularly related to visuospatial cognition. The objective of the current article was to conduct a meta-analytic review of studies that examine the impact of violent video games on both aggressive behavior and visuospatial cognition in order to understand the full impact of such games. A detailed literature search was used to identify peer-reviewed articles addressing violent video game effects. Effect sizes r (a common measure of effect size based on the correlational coefficient) were calculated for all included studies. Effect sizes were adjusted for observed publication bias. Results indicated that publication bias was a problem for studies of both aggressive behavior and visuospatial cognition. Once corrected for publication bias, studies of video game violence provided no support for the hypothesis that violent video game playing is associated with higher aggression. However playing violent video games remained related to higher visuospatial cognition (r (x) = 0.36). Results from the current analysis did not support the conclusion that violent video game playing leads to aggressive behavior. However, violent video game playing was associated with higher visuospatial cognition. It may be advisable to reframe the violent video game debate in reference to potential costs and benefits of this medium.
Biedrzycki, Barbara A
To describe what is known about the factors that influence cancer clinical trial decision making. PubMed database and reference lists of identified articles. Variations in research design and methods, including sample characteristics, instrumentation, time between decision made and measurement of decision making, and response rates, have effects on what is known about decision making for cancer clinical trial participation. Communication, whether in the form of education about a cancer clinical trial or as a personal invitation to join, is an important factor influencing decision making. Personal and system factors influence the outcomes of decision making for cancer clinical trials. The process of decision making for cancer clinical trials is understudied. Nevertheless, the currently available cancer clinical trial decision-making literature suggests a multitude of factors that influence the outcomes of the decision to accept or decline clinical trial participation, as well as the psychosocial consequences of decisional regret, pressures, and satisfaction. The decision-making process of cancer clinical trials is a fertile area for research and, subsequently, evidence-based interventions. Oncology nurses are in a position to facilitate the process and to relieve the pressures patients perceive regarding decision making for cancer clinical trials that will benefit individuals and, ultimately, society.
Crane, Stacey; Broome, Marion E
The past 20 years have seen distinct shifts in the way the participation of children and adolescents in research is viewed. This has been emphasized by the growing pediatric research enterprise. Additional information on children's and adolescents' experiences during research participation is needed to better inform researchers on the ethical conduct of research with this vulnerable population. The objective of this analysis was to examine ethical issues in research with children and adolescents from their perspective as participants, including: assent, parental consent, risk perception, impact of research participation, and incentives. This systematic review was conducted per the Long, Godfrey, Randall, Brettle, and Grant framework by means of an iterative searching process. Using the key words "research ethics" and "child or pediatric or adolescent," PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases were searched to identify articles. Limitations placed on the searches were: English language, year of publication between 2003 and 2014, humans, abstract available, and age birth-18 years. Twenty-three empiric studies were identified and formed the sample. Included studies represented a diverse range of areas of research, methods, settings, sample demographics, authors, and journals. Even young children demonstrated the ability to understand essential elements of research, although there is variability in children's level of understanding. Trust was a significant contributing factor to children's and adolescents' participation in research, and also shaped their assessments of risk. Research participation was mainly beneficial for children and adolescents. Incentives were mainly viewed positively, although concerns of possible undue influence were expressed. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...
Li, Chong; Rusák, Zoltán; Horváth, Imre; Ji, Linhong
Efficacious stroke rehabilitation depends not only on patients' medical treatment but also on their motivation and engagement during rehabilitation exercises. Although traditional rehabilitation exercises are often mundane, technology-assisted upper-limb robotic training can provide engaging and task-oriented training in a natural environment. The factors that influence engagement, however, are not fully understood. This paper therefore studies the relationship between engagement and muscle activities as well as the influencing factors of engagement. To this end, an experiment was conducted using a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with healthy individuals in three training exercises: (a) a traditional exercise, which is typically used for training the grasping function, (b) a tracking exercise, currently used in robot-assisted stroke patient rehabilitation for fine motor movement, and (c) a video game exercise, which is a proliferating approach of robot-assisted rehabilitation enabling high-level active engagement of stroke patients. These exercises differ not only in the characteristics of the motion that they use but also in their method of triggering engagement. To measure the level of engagement, we used facial expressions, motion analysis of the arm movements, and electromyography. The results show that (a) the video game exercise could engage the participants for a longer period than the other two exercises, (b) the engagement level decreased when the participants became too familiar with the exercises, and (c) analysis of normalized root mean square in electromyographic data indicated that muscle activities were more intense when the participants are engaged. This study shows that several sub-factors on engagement, such as versatility of feedback, cognitive tasks, and competitiveness, may influence engagement more than the others. To maintain a high level of engagement, the rehabilitation system needs to be adaptive, providing different exercises to
Angie Paola Roncancio-Ortiz
Full Text Available In this new era of the 21st century when societies are constantly changing, education is the cornerstone to provide the people not only with the basic knowledge and tools, but also with the required skills for facing the challenges in a globalized world. Thus, video games have evolved from distractive activities, to more valuable tools. These tools can play a leading role in education-related processes, for example, supporting teaching tasks. The aim of this article is to present a state of art review on several particular experiences in which video games have been incorporated into teaching and learning activities. As a result, video games can be used as didactic mechanisms that help students, among other things, to solve learning problems, to improve motor and cognitive skills, and to foster creativity.
Gardner, Andrew J; Levi, Christopher R; Iverson, Grant L
Several professional contact and collision sports have recently introduced the use of sideline video review for club medical staff to help identify and manage concussions. As such, reviewing video footage on the sideline has become increasingly relied upon to assist with improving the identification of possible injury. However, as yet, a standardized method for reviewing such video footage in rugby league has not been published. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether independent raters reliably agreed on the injury characterization when using a standardized observational instrument to record video footage of National Rugby League (NRL) concussions. Video footage of 25 concussions were randomly selected from a pool of 80 medically diagnosed concussions from the 2013-2014 NRL seasons. Four raters (two naïve and two expert) independently viewed video footage of 25 NRL concussions and completed the Observational Review and Analysis of Concussion form for the purpose of this inter-rater reliability study. The inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa (κ) and intra-class correlation (ICC) statistics. The two naïve raters and the two expert raters were compared with one another separately. A considerable number of components for the naïve and expert raters had almost perfect agreement (κ or ICC value ≥ 0.9), 9 of 22 (41%) components for naïve raters and 21 of 22 (95%) components for expert raters. For the concussion signs, however, the majority of the rating agreement was moderate (κ value 0.6-0.79); both the naïve and expert raters had 4 of 6 (67%) concussion signs with moderate agreement. The most difficult concussion sign to achieve agreement on was blank or vacant stare, which had weak (κ value 0.4-0.59) agreement for both naïve and expert raters. There appears to be value in expert raters, but less value for naive raters, in using the new Observational Review and Analysis of Concussion (ORAC) Form. The ORAC Form has high inter
Ganga, Harsha V; Thompson, Paul D
Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is typified by deep invaginations of the myocardium and is caused by an arrest of normal myocardial morphogenesis. NCCM was once considered rare, but is now widely recognised owing to frequent use of advanced imaging techniques. NCCM can also be detected when competitive athletes undergo preparticipation screening for cardiac disease or when being evaluated for cardiac symptoms. It is not clear how athletes with NCCM should be managed. We searched PubMed and Google for articles addressing the issue of NCCM and athletic participation. We were able to identify only 18 cases of NCCM described in the context of sports, athletics or exercise. We conclude that there are insufficient data to develop firm recommendations on how to manage vigorous activity in patients with NCCM and future registries of sudden death in athletes should include a careful search for cases of NCCM among the victims so that clinicians can develop more definitive recommendations for athletes with this condition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Campbell, Laurie O.; Cox, Thomas D.
Students within this study followed the ICSDR (Identify, Conceptualize/Connect, Storyboard, Develop, Review/Reflect/Revise) development model to create digital video, as a personalized and active learning assignment. The participants, graduate students in education, indicated that following the ICSDR framework for student-authored video guided…
Murphy, Susan A; Boden, Catherine
This study describes the current state of Canadian university health sciences librarians' knowledge about, training needs for, and barriers to participating in systematic reviews (SRs). A convenience sample of Canadian librarians was surveyed. Over half of the librarians who had participated in SRs acknowledged participating in a traditional librarian role (e.g., search strategy developer); less than half indicated participating in any one nontraditional librarian role (e.g., data extractor). Lack of time and insufficient training were the most frequently reported barriers to participating in SRs. The findings provide a benchmark for tracking changes in Canadian university health sciences librarians' participation in SRs.
Norris, Emma; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel
To assess the quality of evidence for the effects of school active video game (AVG) use on physical activity and health outcomes. Online databases (ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) and gray literature were searched. Inclusion criteria were the use of AVGs in school settings as an intervention; assessment of at least 1 health or physical activity outcome; and comparison of outcomes with either a control group or comparison phase. Studies featuring AVGs within complex interventions were excluded. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Twenty-two reports were identified: 11 assessed physical activity outcomes only, 5 assessed motor skill outcomes only, and 6 assessed both physical activity and health outcomes. Nine out of 14 studies found greater physical activity in AVG sessions compared with controls; mostly assessed by objective measures in school time only. Motor skills were found to improve with AVGs vs controls in all studies but not compared with other motor skill interventions. Effects of AVGs on body composition were mixed. Study quality was low in 16 studies and moderate in the remaining 6, with insufficient detail given on blinding, participation rates, and confounding variables. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as efficacious health interventions within schools. Higher quality AVG research utilizing randomized controlled trial designs, larger sample sizes, and validated activity measurements beyond the school day is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beaty, Lara Margaret
Power frames student-school relations and could be viewed as problematic for student participation. Seeking research methods that reveal the development of student-school relations furthers the understanding of everyday expressions of power and leads to reforms that would improve social relations within and beyond school walls. A project focused…
Chenail, Ronald J.
YouTube, the video hosting service, offers students, teachers, and practitioners of qualitative researchers a unique reservoir of video clips introducing basic qualitative research concepts, sharing qualitative data from interviews and field observations, and presenting completed research studies. This web-based site also affords qualitative…
Hartmann, T.; Krakowiak, M.; Tsay-Vogel, M.
Mechanisms of moral disengagement in violent video game play have recently received considerable attention among communication scholars. To date, however, no study has analyzed the prevalence of moral disengagement factors in violent video games. To fill this research gap, the present approach
Wenzlaff, Frederike; Briken, Peer; Dekker, Arne
Although eye tracking has been used for decades, it has gained popularity in the area of sex research only recently. The aim of this article is to examine the potential merits of eye tracking for this field. We present a systematic review of the current use of video-based eye-tracking technology in this area, evaluate the findings, and identify future research opportunities. A total of 34 relevant studies published between 2006 and 2014 were identified for inclusion by means of online databases and other methods. We grouped them into three main areas of research: body perception and attractiveness, forensic research, and sexual orientation. Despite the methodological and theoretical differences across the studies, eye tracking has been shown to be a promising tool for sex research. The article suggests there is much potential for further studies to employ this technique because it is noninvasive and yet still allows for the assessment of both conscious and unconscious perceptional processes. Furthermore, eye tracking can be implemented in investigations of various theoretical backgrounds, ranging from biology to the social sciences.
Carbonera, Raquel Pinto; Vendrusculo, Fernanda Maria; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes
Interactive video games are recently being used as an exercise tool in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to assess the literature describing whether video games generate a physiological response similar to the exercise intensity needed for training in CF. An online search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro databases was conducted and original studies describing physiological responses of the use of video games as exercise in CF were included. In four, out of five studies, the heart rate achieved during video games was within the standards recommended for training (60-80%). Two studies assessed VO2 and showed higher levels compared to the six-minute walk test. No desaturation was reported. Most games were classified as moderate intensity. Only one study used a maximum exercise test as comparator. Interactive video games generate a heart rate response similar to the intensity required for training in CF patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brear, Michelle; Hammarberg, Karin; Fisher, Jane
Participatory health research (PHR) involves equitable community participation in all aspects of the research process. It is a potentially beneficial approach to research in resource-constrained countries. Measuring participation in specific activities and aspects is necessary for understanding the community and research-related benefits of PHR. The aims of this scoping review were to: develop a measure of lay-community participation in aspects and activities of PHR in resource-constrained countries; and use the measure to assess the nature and extent of reported participation. Directed content analysis was used to identify aspects and activities reported in peer-reviewed articles identified through a systematic search, develop the Comprehensive Community Participation in Research Framework (CCPRF) and use it to measure participation. Total and aspect participation scores, which considered both the nature and extent of participation, were calculated for articles reporting extensive participation. Eighty-five articles detailing 66 studies were included. Nine aspects and 49 activities of research were included in the CCPRF. Community participation was reported in a median of 5/9 (range 1-9) aspects and 8/49 (range 1-35) activities. The review provided diverse examples, and enabled development of a more comprehensive measure, of participation. It highlighted limited lay-community participation is reported in research labelled participatory from resource-constrained countries. As participation in all aspects of PHR is rarely achieved, strategic planning of more limited participation is imperative. More detailed and systematic planning, assessment and reporting of participation, guided by a comprehensive measure like the CCPRF, is required to develop evidence regarding the benefits of participation in various research activities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Potter, Ray; Roberts, Deborah
This guide aims to provide an introduction to Desktop Video Conferencing. You may be familiar with video conferencing, where participants typically book a designated conference room and communicate with another group in a similar room on another site via a large screen display. Desktop video conferencing (DVC), as the name suggests, allows users to video conference from the comfort of their own office, workplace or home via a desktop/laptop Personal Computer. DVC provides live audio and visua...
Bernard, Aaron W.; Ceccolini, Gabbriel; Feinn, Richard; Rockfeld, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Ilene; Thomas, Listy; Cassese, Todd
ABSTRACT Background: Performance feedback is considered essential to clinical skills development. Formative objective structured clinical exams (F-OSCEs) often include immediate feedback by standardized patients. Students can also be provided access to performance metrics including scores, checklists, and video recordings after the F-OSCE to supplement this feedback. How often students choose to review this data and how review impacts future performance has not been documented. Objective: We suspect student review of F-OSCE performance data is variable. We hypothesize that students who review this data have better performance on subsequent F-OSCEs compared to those who do not. We also suspect that frequency of data review can be improved with faculty involvement in the form of student-faculty debriefing meetings. Design: Simulation recording software tracks and time stamps student review of performance data. We investigated a cohort of first- and second-year medical students from the 2015-16 academic year. Basic descriptive statistics were used to characterize frequency of data review and a linear mixed-model analysis was used to determine relationships between data review and future F-OSCE performance. Results: Students reviewed scores (64%), checklists (42%), and videos (28%) in decreasing frequency. Frequency of review of all metric and modalities improved when student-faculty debriefing meetings were conducted (pdebriefing meetings increased student data reviews. First-year student’s review of checklists on F-OSCEs was associated with increases in performance on subsequent F-OSCEs, however this outcome was not observed among second-year students. PMID:28521646
Monk, Clare Maree; Wrightson, Stephanie Jane [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Smith, Tony Neil [Department of Rural Health, University of Newcastle, Taree, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)
As radiation oncologists' (ROs') workload has increased over time, treatment review clinics have become recognized as an area of RO practice into which radiation therapist (RT) practice could extend. There has been limited utilization of RTs in this role in Australia and a paucity of data on the acceptability and opinions regarding RTs practising in this role in an Australian context. The purpose of this audit was to investigate the feasibility of RT participation in review clinics at Calvary Mater Newcastle. Feasibility was determined by two methods: an audit of 200 treatment reviews to determine medical intervention (MI) levels required and a survey of 80 clinical staff to explore attitudes towards RT participation in clinics. Medical intervention was required in 59% (n = 118) of observed reviews, with the lowest being for breast (33%) and prostate (28%) cancers. MI peaked at 73% between fractions 16–20 and was lowest early and late in the treatment period at 48%. There were 60 responses to the staff survey. All but one respondent agreed that RTs would be willing to participate in treatment review clinics, but all five consultant ROs indicated they would not be willing to delegate reviews to RTs. Neither feasibility measure reached acceptable levels to recommend RT participation in treatment review clinics. Further investigation and RT education are required to help meet the future RO workforce shortfall. As MI rates are lowest for breast and prostate cancer RT participation could be targeted to these clinics.
Suenderhauf, Claudia; Walter, Anna; Lenz, Claudia; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and strongly disabling neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by cognitive decline, positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms respond well to antipsychotic medication and psycho-social interventions, in contrast to negative symptoms and neurocognitive impairments. Cognitive deficits have been linked to a poorer outcome and hence specific cognitive remediation therapies have been proposed. Their effectiveness is nowadays approved and neurobiological correlates have been reconfirmed by brain imaging studies. Interestingly, recent MRI work showed that commercial video games modified similar brain areas as these specialized training programs. If gray matter increases and functional brain modulations would translate in better cognitive and every day functioning, commercial video game training could be an enjoyable and economically interesting treatment option for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. This systematic review summarizes advances in the area with emphasis on imaging studies dealing with brain changes upon video game training and contrasts them to conventional cognitive remediation. Moreover, we discuss potential challenges therapeutic video game development and research would have to face in future treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ruoff, Mitchell Kenneth
This study investigated the connection between sport, emotion, and psychological health through an examination of the literature on sports participation and psychological health. The review found that while some of the research supports a relationship between psychological well-being and sports participation, some of it is inconclusive. Many…
van Tol, Erik; Gorter, Jan Willem; Dematteo, Carol; Meester-Delver, Anke
To review the literature on participation outcomes used in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) and to synthesize the available evidence on recovery trajectories in participation after ABI. This study searched electronic databases (Medline, Cinahl, Embase and PsychInfo) from
Vandelanotte, Corneel; Duncan, Mitch J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Mummery, W Kerry
In randomized controlled trials, participants cannot choose their preferred intervention delivery mode and thus might refuse to participate or not engage fully if assigned to a nonpreferred group. This might underestimate the true effectiveness of behavior-change interventions. To examine whether receiving interventions either matched or mismatched with participants' preferred delivery mode would influence effectiveness of a Web-based physical activity intervention. Adults (n = 863), recruited via email, were randomly assigned to one of three intervention delivery modes (text based, video based, or combined) and received fully automated, Internet-delivered personal advice about physical activity. Personalized intervention content, based on the theory of planned behavior and stages of change concept, was identical across groups. Online, self-assessed questionnaires measuring physical activity were completed at baseline, 1 week, and 1 month. Physical activity advice acceptability and website usability were assessed at 1 week. Before randomization, participants were asked which delivery mode they preferred, to categorize them as matched or mismatched. Time spent on the website was measured throughout the intervention. We applied intention-to-treat, repeated-measures analyses of covariance to assess group differences. Attrition was high (575/863, 66.6%), though equal between groups (t(86) (3) =1.31, P =.19). At 1-month follow-up, 93 participants were categorized as matched and 195 as mismatched. They preferred text mode (493/803, 61.4%) over combined (216/803, 26.9%) and video modes (94/803, 11.7%). After the intervention, 20% (26/132) of matched-group participants and 34% (96/282) in the mismatched group changed their delivery mode preference. Time effects were significant for all physical activity outcomes (total physical activity: F(2,801) = 5.07, P = .009; number of activity sessions: F(2,801) = 7.52, P < .001; walking: F(2,801) = 8.32, P < .001; moderate physical
Lauer, Patricia A.; Christopher, Debra E.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Buchting, Francisco
A narrative literature review was conducted to identify the design features of effective short-term face-to-face professional development (PD) events. The 23 reviewed studies described PD with durations of 30 hours or less and involved participants in education or human service-related professions. Design features associated with positive impacts…
Forbes, Helen; Oprescu, Florin I; Downer, Terri; Phillips, Nicole M; McTier, Lauren; Lord, Bill; Barr, Nigel; Alla, Kristel; Bright, Peter; Dayton, Jeanne; Simbag, Vilma; Visser, Irene
Information and communications technology is influencing the delivery of education in tertiary institutions. In particular, the increased use of videos for teaching and learning clinical skills in nursing may be a promising direction to pursue, yet we need to better document the current research in this area of inquiry. The aim of this paper was to explore and document the current areas of research into the use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education. The four main areas of current and future research are effectiveness, efficiency, usage, and quality of videos as teaching and learning materials. While there is a clear need for additional research in the area, the use of videos seems to be a promising, relevant, and increasingly used instructional strategy that could enhance the quality of clinical skills education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Busanello, Josefine; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; Kerber, Nalú Pereira da Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; dos Santos, Silvana Sidnei
This is an integrative review that aims to identify the contribution of nursing care for woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle, as described in Brazilian scientific publications. The scientific productions were retrieved in May, 2010, from the Virtual Library of Health (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) database. From the eight articles reviewed, two themes stood out: Contributions of nursing care to the woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle; and Limitations of nursing care to the woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle. The following review supports the production of knowledge in nursing, by identifying a gap in what nurses know and do about this issue, as shown by the lack of nursing researches that concern, specifically, the participation of the woman in the decision process during the pregnancy and puerperal cycle and the possible contributions of nursing care to ensure women of this right.
Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior
Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.
Silva Junior, Sérgio Henrique Almeida da; Santos, Simone M; Coeli, Cláudia Medina; Carvalho, Marilia Sá
The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science) for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline) were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.
Willis, Claire; Girdler, Sonya; Thompson, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Reid, Siobhan; Elliott, Catherine
To synthesise research literature describing elements of community recreation and leisure activities that create meaningful participation experiences for children and youth with disabilities. Database searches of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, SportDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science were conducted. Studies describing the experience of participating in a community-based programme or activity from the perspectives of children and youth with a disability aged 0-21 or their parents, and published in English were included. Meta-ethnography was used to synthesise qualitative data, and resulting themes were conceptualised in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Child and Youth version. Consultation with stakeholders occurred throughout the review process. The search identified 9544 articles, of which 20 were included for review. Ten elements contributing to meaningful participation experiences were identified and organised as follows: person-based elements (n = 5; having fun, experiencing success, belonging, experiencing freedom, developing an identity); environment-focused elements (n = 4; authentic friendships, the opportunity to participate, role models, family support) and activity-related elements (n = 1; learning). Elements contributing to meaningful leisure participation are interrelated. This review reveals the substantial contribution that meaningful interactions and relationships have in creating and facilitating positive and engaging experiences. Outcomes of this review may assist professionals in the design of targeted interventions to facilitate leisure participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Elements identified in this review may operate as core components of interventions that aim to optimise participation outcomes in community-based leisure activities. Supportive relationships and the availability of services are specific aspects of the environment that needs to be considered by health
Goodwin, Emma; Kandler, Rosalind H; Alix, James J P
The demand for long term EEG monitoring is increasing with the emphasis on recording patients' attacks. Outpatient ambulatory EEG is relatively inexpensive and widely available. The main disadvantage of the technique is the lack of video which can make interpretation of an ictus difficult. We investigated whether patients, if offered home video equipment, would take it, if this resulted in simultaneous EEG-video capture of an ictus and if interpretation of the recording was facilitated by the video. All ambulatory EEG patients, adults and children, were offered a camcorder to take home during a 17-month study period. 130 patients/carers were offered a camcorder (93 adults, 37 children), 45 patients (35%) accepted; the main reason for not accepting was that attacks were considered too brief to record. An ictal event occurred in 34 patients (76%) with a camcorder; in 17 (50%) of these an attack was captured successfully on video. The main reasons for failure to capture events were that attacks were too brief, or that the camcorder was not operated successfully. Attacks were captured with greater success in children (14/23, 61%) than adults (3/11, 27%). Of the 17 video recordings, 14 (82%) were helpful in aiding interpretation of the ambulatory EEG. In our study, home video facilities aided interpretation of ambulatory EEG recordings in approximately one third of patients. Technological advances and familiarity with portable recording devices will improve this figure and patients and their carers should be encouraged to use such facilities when available. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Empelen Pepijn
Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace has been identified as a promising setting for health promotion, and many worksite health promotion programmes have been implemented in the past years. Research has mainly focused on the effectiveness of these interventions. For implementation of interventions at a large scale however, information about (determinants of participation in these programmes is essential. This systematic review investigates initial participation in worksite health promotion programmes, the underlying determinants of participation, and programme characteristics influencing participation levels. Methods Studies on characteristics of participants and non-participants in worksite health promotion programmes aimed at physical activity and/or nutrition published from 1988 to 2007 were identified through a structured search in PubMed and Web of Science. Studies were included if a primary preventive worksite health promotion programme on PA and/or nutrition was described, and if quantitative information was present on determinants of participation. Results In total, 23 studies were included with 10 studies on educational or counselling programmes, 6 fitness centre interventions, and 7 studies examining determinants of participation in multi-component programmes. Participation levels varied from 10% to 64%, with a median of 33% (95% CI 25–42%. In general, female workers had a higher participation than men (OR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.25–2.27], but this difference was not observed for interventions consisting of access to fitness centre programmes. For the other demographic, health- and work-related characteristics no consistent effect on participation was found. Pooling of studies showed a higher participation level when an incentive was offered, when the programme consisted of multiple components, or when the programme was aimed at multiple behaviours. Conclusion In this systematic review, participation levels in health promotion interventions
Domire, Sarah C.; Wolfe, Pamela
Video-based instruction is becoming a common intervention in today's classrooms. Previous research has focused primarily on video modeling techniques that required the student to watch an entire video of the task before attempting to complete the task independently. Video prompting is a form of video instruction that breaks down target skills…
Jørgensen, Kim; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
In contemporary Western liberal society, patient participation has become a key goal in psychiatric healthcare treatment. Health professionals must encourage patients to play an active and involved part in their treatment. According to Danish health law, patients have the right to participate in their treatment, and the mental health system therefore needs to be reformed in order to ensure that treatment is based on individual, liberal, values. However, patient participation is not clearly defined, and it is therefore a challenge to transfer it to clinical practice. This integrative review's aims are to explore how professionals perceive the challenges regarding patient participation in the treatment course in mental health care. An integrative review. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria: six employed qualitative methodologies and one utilised a mixed-methods approach. The empirical studies took place in Norway, the UK and Australia, all in a mental health setting. Three themes were identified: 'Patient participation as collaboration between the healthcare professional and patient', 'Challenges to participation' and 'From a professional's perspective - what expectations do patients have when participating in decision-making?' Different synonymous terms describing the patient's active role during treatment - user participation, collaboration, partnership, user involvement and patient participation - are linked to a recovery-oriented approach, shared decision-making, shared ownership and care plans. This integrative review achieves specific knowledge around patient participation, comparing the situation for adult patients with various mental disorders. However, upon reflecting on the included studies, patient participation is not clearly defined, and it is therefore difficult to transfer it to clinical practice. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Anaby, Dana; Hand, Carri; Bradley, Laura; DiRezze, Briano; Forhan, Mary; DiGiacomo, Anthony; Law, Mary
The study’s purpose was to identify and synthesize research evidence regarding the effect of the environment on community participation of children with disabilities. A scoping review of peer-reviewed studies published from 1990 to 2011 was performed. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on a systematic procedure. Inclusion criteria for studies were: participants with a disability, aged 5–21 years, whose environment was examined in relation to participation in out-of-school activities. Data were organized and synthesized based on environmental domains within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): Natural Environment/Products and Technology; Support and Relationships; Attitudes; and Services, Systems and Policies. Searching identified 1232 articles and 31 met the inclusion criteria. Each domain of the environment within the ICF influenced participation as a facilitator and/or barrier. The most common facilitators involved social support of family and friends and geographic location. The most common barriers included attitudes, physical environment, transportation, policies and the lack of support from staff and service providers. Knowledge derived from this review can assist practitioners in addressing the specific environmental domains that influence children's participation. Such awareness can also foster new research questions and assist policy makers in identifying the factors influencing participation. All domains of the environment, suggested by the ICF, have an influence on children’s participation.Evidence regarding the effect of the environment on participation is focused primarily on children with physical disabilities; more studies are needed involving various health conditions and age groups. Practitioners and decision-makers can focus attention on specific aspects of the environment, e.g. attitudinal challenges and social support, in order to foster inclusion and participation-based communities.
Elie A Akl
Full Text Available Systematic reviewer authors intending to include all randomized participants in their meta-analyses need to make assumptions about the outcomes of participants with missing data.The objective of this paper is to provide systematic reviewer authors with a relatively simple guidance for addressing dichotomous data for participants excluded from analyses of randomized trials.This guide is based on a review of the Cochrane handbook and published methodological research. The guide deals with participants excluded from the analysis who were considered 'non-adherent to the protocol' but for whom data are available, and participants with missing data.Systematic reviewer authors should include data from 'non-adherent' participants excluded from the primary study authors' analysis but for whom data are available. For missing, unavailable participant data, authors may conduct a complete case analysis (excluding those with missing data as the primary analysis. Alternatively, they may conduct a primary analysis that makes plausible assumptions about the outcomes of participants with missing data. When the primary analysis suggests important benefit, sensitivity meta-analyses using relatively extreme assumptions that may vary in plausibility can inform the extent to which risk of bias impacts the confidence in the results of the primary analysis. The more plausible assumptions draw on the outcome event rates within the trial or in all trials included in the meta-analysis. The proposed guide does not take into account the uncertainty associated with assumed events.This guide proposes methods for handling participants excluded from analyses of randomized trials. These methods can help in establishing the extent to which risk of bias impacts meta-analysis results.
Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Walsh, Natalia Escobar
Engagement in child and family mental health treatment has critically important clinical, implementation, and policy implications for efforts to improve the quality and effectiveness of care. This article describes a review of the existing literature on one understudied element of engagement, parent participation. Twenty-three published articles were identified. Questions asked of the literature include what terms are used to represent parent participation engagement, how parent participation engagement is measured, what are the rates of parent participation engagement reported in studies of child and family mental health treatment, whether parent participation engagement has been found to overlap with attendance engagement, what factors have been identified as associated with parent participation engagement, whether parent participation engagement is associated with improved outcomes, and what strategies have been designed to improve PPE and whether such strategies are associated with improved outcomes. Results indicate varied terms and measures of parent participation engagement, moderate overall rates, and high overlap with measures of attendance engagement. The extant literature on factors associated with parent participation engagement was somewhat limited and focused primarily on parent/family-level factors. Evidence of links between parent participation engagement and outcome improvements was found across some outcome domains, and strategies designed to target parent participation engagement were found to be effective overall. A framework for organizing efforts to examine the different elements of engagement is described, and findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for consistent terminology, clinical implications, and areas for future research. PMID:25726421
Fabiano, Gregory A
Research on parenting has generally focused on mothers, with fathers' parenting approaches and interventions for fathers being relatively less studied. To investigate the involvement of fathers in behavioral parent training (BPT), the literature on BPT for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reviewed. A systematic review of this literature (N = 32) indicated that the majority of research studies are composed of mothers as participants in treatment and raters of outcome (87% of reviewed studies did not include information on father-related outcomes). Present barriers to father participation in BPT (e.g., content of classes, characteristics of fathers) are discussed. Strategies for increasing father participation are offered and include establishing the expectation that fathers will be involved in treatment at initial clinical contacts, collecting treatment-related information from both parents, conducting BPT classes that focus on issues of direct relevance to fathers, and integrating parent-child interactions in recreational settings into BPT programs.
This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV
Oliver, Kathryn; Rees, Rebecca; Brady, Louca-Mai; Kavanagh, Josephine; Oliver, Sandy; Thomas, James
Background: Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies. Methods: Two consultative workshops were carried out with a group of young…
Bennett, Kyle D.; Aljehany, Mashal Salman; Altaf, Enas Mohammednour
Video-based instruction (VBI) has a substantial amount of research supporting its use with individuals with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. However, it has typically been implemented as a treatment package containing multiple interventions. Additionally, there are procedural variations of VBI. Thus, it is difficult…
Mack, Isabelle; Bayer, Carolin; Schäffeler, Norbert; Reiband, Nadine; Brölz, Ellen; Zurstiege, Guido; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Gawrilow, Caterina; Zipfel, Stephan
A systematic literature search was conducted to assess the chances and limitations of video games to combat and prevent childhood obesity. This search included studies with video or computer games targeting nutrition, physical activity and obesity for children between 7 and 15 years of age. The study distinguished between games that aimed to (i) improve knowledge about nutrition, eating habits and exercise; (ii) increase physical activity; or (iii) combine both approaches. Overall, the games were well accepted. On a qualitative level, most studies reported positive effects on obesity-related outcomes (improvement of weight-related parameters, physical activity or dietary behaviour/knowledge). However, the observed effects were small. The games did not address psychosocial aspects. Using video games for weight management exclusively does not deliver satisfying results. Video games as an additional guided component of prevention and treatment programs have the potential to increase compliance and thus enhance treatment outcome. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Volino, Lucio R.; Das, Rolee Pathak
The objectives of this study were to develop a student self-assessment activity of a video-recorded counseling session and evaluate its impact on student self-perceptions of specific communication skills. This activity was incorporated into a core-communications course within the third professional year of a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. Student…
Julia Steinthorsdottir, Kristin; Wildgaard, Lorna; Jessen Hansen, Henrik
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is emerging as the standard surgical procedure for both minor and major oncologic lung surgery. Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) and paravertebral block (PVB) are established analgesic golden standards for open surgery such as thoracotomy; however there is ...
Sim, Timothy; Gentile, Douglas A.; Bricolo, Francesco; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Gulamoydeen, Farah
Preliminary research studies suggest that some people who use computer, video games, and the Internet heavily develop dysfunctional symptoms, often referred to in the popular press as an "addiction." Although several studies have measured various facets of this issue, there has been no common framework within which to view these studies. This…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances have enabled the widespread use of video cases via web-streaming and online download as an educational medium. The use of real subjects to demonstrate acute pathology should aid the education of health care professionals. However, the methodology by which this effect may be tested is not clear. Methods We undertook a literature review of major databases, found relevant articles relevant to using patient video cases as educational interventions, extracted the methodologies used and assessed these methods for internal and construct validity. Results A review of 2532 abstracts revealed 23 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and a final review of 18 of relevance. Medical students were the most commonly studied group (10 articles with a spread of learner satisfaction, knowledge and behaviour tested. Only two of the studies fulfilled defined criteria on achieving internal and construct validity. The heterogeneity of articles meant it was not possible to perform any meta-analysis. Conclusions Previous studies have not well classified which facet of training or educational outcome the study is aiming to explore and had poor internal and construct validity. Future research should aim to validate a particular outcome measure, preferably by reproducing previous work rather than adopting new methods. In particular cognitive processing enhancement, demonstrated in a number of the medical student studies, should be tested at a postgraduate level.
Full Text Available A good assignment of code reviewers can effectively utilize the intellectual resources, assure code quality and improve programmers’ skills in software development. However, little research on reviewer assignment of code review has been found. In this study, a code reviewer assignment model is created based on participants’ preference to reviewing assignment. With a constraint of the smallest size of a review group, the model is optimized to maximize review outcomes and avoid the negative impact of “mutual admiration society”. This study shows that the reviewer assignment strategies incorporating either the reviewers’ preferences or the authors’ preferences get much improvement than a random assignment. The strategy incorporating authors’ preference makes higher improvement than that incorporating reviewers’ preference. However, when the reviewers’ and authors’ preference matrixes are merged, the improvement becomes moderate. The study indicates that the majority of the participants have a strong wish to work with reviewers and authors having highest competence. If we want to satisfy the preference of both reviewers and authors at the same time, the overall improvement of learning outcomes may be not the best.
Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue; Kangasniemi, Mari
This systematic review aims to synthesise the existing research on how patients participate in patient safety initiatives. Ambiguities remain about how patients participate in routine measures designed to promote patient safety. Systematic review using integrative methods. Electronic databases were searched using keywords describing patient involvement, nursing input and patient safety initiatives to retrieve empirical research published between 2007 and 2013. Findings were synthesized using the theoretical domains of Vincent's framework for analysing risk and safety in clinical practice: "patient", "healthcare provider", "task", "work environment", "organisation & management". We identified 17 empirical research papers: four qualitative, one mixed-method and 12 quantitative designs. All 17 papers indicated that patients can participate in safety initiatives. Improving patient participation in patient safety necessitates considering the patient as a person, the nurse as healthcare provider, the task of participation and the clinical environment. Patients' knowledge, health conditions, beliefs and experiences influence their decisions to engage in patient safety initiatives. An important component of the management of long-term conditions is to ensure that patients have sufficient knowledge to participate. Healthcare providers may need further professional development in patient education and patient care management to promote patient involvement in patient safety, and ensure that patients understand that they are 'allowed' to inform nurses of adverse events or errors. A healthcare system characterised by patient-centredness and mutual acknowledgement will support patient participation in safety practices. Further research is required to improve international knowledge of patient participation in patient safety in different disciplines, contexts and cultures. Patients have a significant role to play in enhancing their own safety while receiving hospital care. This
Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin
People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…
van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Krol, Boudien; van Son, Willem J.; de Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.
Objective: To summarize and assess literature regarding social participation of recipients after successful kidney transplantation.Methods: A systematic review including a literature search in Medline (1980-2003) and five other databases, and assessment of methodological quality of selected studies
Pike, Caitlin; Kritzinger, Alta; Pillay, Bhavani
A previous systematic review found limited data regarding social participation in working-age people with aphasia (PWA). A review of recent studies may reveal more information on challenges in reestablishing social roles. The aim was to provide an updated systematic review on social participation in PWA under 65 years of age. Studies from 2005 to 2017 were searched from Scopus, Pubmed, and Psychinfo. Search terms were derived from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the Aphasia- Framework for Outcomes Measures (A-FROM). Aspects of domestic life, interpersonal relations and interactions, education and employment, and community, civic, and social life were investigated. From 2864 initial hits, 11 studies were identified, all of which were on the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Level III of evidence. The studies indicated that participation in domestic life is reduced and PWA showed reduced social networks, loss of friendships and changes in the quality of marital relations. Few PWA returned to work or spent time on education. Limitations in community, civic, and social life were noted and there were contradictory findings on the impact of contextual factors on social participation. There was an increase in research into contextual factors impacting on social participation in PWA and in the use of conceptual frameworks in the last decade. While the ICF conceptual framework is increasingly used, no studies used the A-FROM. There is greater use of standardized assessments and larger sample sizes.
Mitrofan, O; Paul, M; Spencer, N
Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications from relevant organizations and for grey literature; scanned bibliographies; hand-searched key journals; and corresponded with authors. We critically appraised all studies. A total of 12 studies: three experiments with children with behavioural and emotional difficulties found increased aggression after watching aggressive as opposed to low-aggressive content television programmes, one found the opposite and two no clear effect, one found such children no more likely than controls to imitate aggressive television characters. One case-control study and one survey found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties watched more television than controls; another did not. Two studies found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more hours of aggressive television programmes than controls. One study on video game use found that young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more minutes of violence and played longer than controls. In a qualitative study children with behavioural and emotional difficulties, but not their parents, did not associate watching television with aggression. All studies had significant methodological flaws. None was based on power calculations. This systematic review found insufficient, contradictory and methodologically flawed evidence on the association between television viewing and video game playing and aggression in children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties. If public health advice is to be evidence
Gómara-Toldrà, Natàlia; Sliwinski, Martha; Dijkers, Marcel P.
Context Over the last four decades, the focus of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation has shifted from medical management to issues that affect quality of life and community participation. Physical therapists (PTs) need to design and implement interventions that result in maximal participation to provide an individual with SCI an effective rehabilitation program. Objective The aim of this review is to assess the extent, content, and outcomes of physical therapy (PT) interventions focused on improving the participation of individuals with SCI. Methods A search was conducted in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PEDro, and PsycINFO. We included studies, of all designs, focused on improving the participation of individuals with SCI using PT interventions.The primary author and a reviewer independently selected articles for inclusion, assessed articles quality, and extracted the data. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions applied were 9- and 12-month body weight-supported treadmill training in two studies, a supervised 9-month exercise program, a 12-week home exercise program, and a 10-week multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral program for coping with chronic neuropathic pain. Four of five PT interventions positively impacted the individual's perceived participation and satisfaction with participation. Conclusion The body of research by PTs on interventions to improve participation is limited. PTs must document the effects of interventions with a valid outcome tool to enable more research that examines participation. Expanding participation research will allow PTs to meet the needs of individuals with SCI and identify what interventions best facilitate integration into the community. PMID:24621042
Hipp, Kirsi; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Leinonen, Minna; Louheranta, Olavi; Kangasniemi, Mari
Pro re nata (PRN) medication is widely used and studied in psychiatric care, but our knowledge about patient participation in its administration is fragmented. The aim of this integrative review was to describe and synthesize previous knowledge of patient participation in PRN in psychiatric inpatient settings. We conducted both electronic and manual searches, using the CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases, and eight scientific journals. Searches were limited to the English language, to the years 2006-2016, and to selected papers using inclusion, exclusion, and quality criteria. We identified 16 relevant papers, and these showed that patient participation included patient-related starting points, including the patients' willingness to participate and their knowledge of the medication. The patients' participation in PRN practices was demonstrated by the opportunity to request PRN and to refuse any PRN that was offered. Patient participation was shown to be linked to certain situations where PRN was recommended. The role that the professionals played in patient participation included interacting with patients, providing counselling and alternatives for PRN. Our results also revealed that coercion was used administering PRN. The existing literature exposed challenges that need to be addressed if patient participation in the use of PRN medication is to be effectively achieved in psychiatric inpatient settings. Equal partnerships between patients, nurses, and physicians are an essential part of this process, and further research into PRN medication is urgently needed, particularly studies that focus on patients' experiences. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel; Lau, Annie Ys
Recent publications on YouTube have advocated its potential for patient education. However, a reliable description of what could be considered quality information for patient education on YouTube is missing. To identify topics associated with the concept of quality information for patient education on YouTube in the scientific literature. A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and PsychINFO. Abstract selection was first conducted by two independent reviewers; discrepancies were discussed in a second abstract review with two additional independent reviewers. Full text of selected papers were analyzed looking for concepts, definitions, and topics used by its authors that focused on the quality of information on YouTube for patient education. In total, 456 abstracts were extracted and 13 papers meeting eligibility criteria were analyzed. Concepts identified related to quality of information for patient education are categorized as expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures. These include (in descending order): (1) quality of content in 10/13 (77%), (2) view count in 9/13 (69%), (3) health professional opinion in 8/13 (62%), (4) adequate length or duration in 6/13 (46%), (5) public ratings in 5/13 (39%), (6) adequate title, tags, and description in 5/13 (39%), (7) good description or a comprehensive narrative in 4/13 (31%), (8) evidence-based practices included in video in 4/13 (31%), (9) suitability as a teaching tool in 4/13 (31%), (10) technical quality in 4/13 (31%), (11) credentials provided in video in 4/13 (31%), (12) enough amount of content to identify its objective in 3/13 (23%), and (13) viewership share in 2/13 (15%). Our review confirms that the current topics linked to quality of information for patient education on YouTube are unclear and not standardized. Although expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures are used as proxies to estimate the quality of video information
de Kloet, Arend J; Gijzen, Rianne; Braga, Lucia W; Meesters, Jorit J L; Schoones, Jan W; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M
Participation is considerably restricted in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) as compared to their healthy peers. This systematic review aims to identify which factors are associated with participation in children and adolescents with ABI. A systematic search in Medline and various other electronic databases from January 2001-November 2014 was performed. All clinical studies describing determinants of participation at least 1 year after the diagnosis of ABI by means of one or more pre-defined instruments in patients up to 18 years of age were included. Extracted data included study characteristics, patient characteristics, participation outcome and determinants of participation (categorized into: health conditions (including characteristics of ABI), body functions and structures, activities, personal factors and environmental factors). The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated based on three quality aspects (selection, information and statistical analysis bias) and scored as low, moderate or high. Eight studies using an explicit participation outcome measure were selected after review, including a total of 1863 patients, with a follow-up ranging from 1 up to 288 months. Three studies included patients with a traumatic or a non-traumatic brain injury (TBI or NTBI) and five studies with only TBI patients. Factors consistently found to be associated with more participation restrictions were: greater severity of ABI, impaired motor, cognitive, behavioural and/or sensory functioning, limited accessibility of the physical environmentand worse family functioning. Fewer participation problems were associated with a supportive/nurturing parenting style, higher household income, acceptance and support in the community and availability of special programmes. The overall methodological quality of the included studies was high in two and moderate in six studies. This systematic review shows that only a few, moderate quality, studies on the
Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah; White, Lesley; Chen, Timothy F
Patients at risk of experiencing medicine-related problems do not always appear willing to participate in collaborative medication management services. Little is known about the psycho-social factors which motivate patients to participate in these services. The theory of motivated information management (TMIM) suggests that patients' willingness to participate may be motivated by their uncertainty and worry about their medicines. The objective of this study was to investigate factors which may motivate patients to participate in a collaborative medication management program. Fourteen semi-structured focus group interviews held throughout Australia provided the data for the study. Eighty participants were recruited by community pharmacists. Participants were recruited into the study if they had experienced Australia's Home Medicines Review (HMR) program or would be eligible to participate in the program because they were at risk of experiencing medicine-related problems. Methods An interview guide was developed which was informed by TMIM. Focus group data were audio-recorded, transcribed and where necessary, translated into English. Qualitative data were thematically analysed to identify participants' expectations about the outcomes of HMR and the factors which may influence these expectations. Participants' most salient outcome expectancies of HMR were that it was a medication-information source which would assist them to manage their medicines. Recipients of the program held overall positive outcome expectancies, whereas nonrecipients' expectancies varied widely. Consistent with theory, participants who expressed some worry about their medicines, generally held positive outcome expectancies and were willing to participate in HMR. Compared with younger participants, older participants (those aged >74 years) tended to engage less in their thoughts about being at risk, and consequently did not experience worry. Worry about medicines is a key factor in motivating
Full Text Available Per il veterinario libero professionista le malattie auricolari dei cani e dei gatti sono il pane quotidiano, ciò nonostante il loro studio è progredito lentamente anche perché molti veterinari trovavano difficoltà nell’effettuare l’otoscopia e nel riconoscere la patologia otologica. L’avvento del video-otoscopio ha permesso di rilevare le malattie e i cambiamenti dell’orecchio. L'autore ha pertanto sentito la necessità di sviluppare i principi di video-otoendoscopia nel cane e nel gatto e inserirli in un’opera, unica in Italia nel suo genere, basandosi sulla propria esperienza clinica e sul materiale iconografico presente in letteratura. Nell’agile libro ci sono 94 figure video-otoscopiche che fanno comprendere visivamente la normale anatomia e le malattie dell’orecchio. Sono presentati 68 casi in cui è visibile l’immagine dell’orecchio esterno, sempre accompagnata da visioni video-otoscopiche di ciò che sta succedendo nel canale uditivo più in profondità. Nella prima parte del volume viene descritta l’anatomia dell’orecchio esterno e medio, sono fornite le informazioni essenziali per un corretto approccio e per la gestione delle otiti, per la preparazione del paziente e, infine, vengono indicati strumenti e metodiche di video-otoendoscopia. La seconda parte, attraverso immagini endoscopiche, illustra l’aspetto dell’orecchio normale del cane e del gatto. Successivamente, immagini endoscopiche chiare ed esemplificative accompagnano la descrizione delle lesioni presenti in corso di otiti acute, croniche e neoplastiche. Lo stesso schema è stato seguito nell’illustrare l’aspetto normale e alterato della membrana timpanica e dell’orecchio medio. Per ogni causa di otite sono state affiancate, a un testo essenziale d’immediata comprensione, immagini endoscopiche per una collezione iconografica il più possibile completa. Inoltre, Giovanni Ghibaudo fornisce utili consigli per esempio sull’utilizzo di spugne
Lin, Patrice S; Viscardi, Molly Kreider; McHugh, Matthew D
Nurse residency programs are designed to increase competence and skill, and ease the transition from student to new graduate nurse. These programs also offer the possibility to positively influence the job satisfaction of new graduate nurses, which could decrease poor nursing outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of participation in a nurse residency program on new graduate nurses' satisfaction. This review examines factors that influence job satisfaction of nurse residency program participants. Eleven studies were selected for inclusion, and seven domains influencing new graduate nurses' satisfaction during participation in nurse residency programs were identified: extrinsic rewards, scheduling, interactions and support, praise and recognition, professional opportunities, work environment, and hospital system. Within these domains, the evidence for improved satisfaction with nurse residency program participation was mixed. Further research is necessary to understand how nurse residency programs can be designed to improve satisfaction and increase positive nurse outcomes. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Soundy, Andrew; Roskell, Carolyn; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Vancampfort, Davy
The purpose of this review was to consider the impact of being introduced to a sport and sport participation on (a) weight loss and psychiatric symptoms, (b) any other health benefits in people with schizophrenia, supported by quantitative and qualitative findings. A systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA statement was conducted. Searches were undertaken in January 2014. Articles were eligible that (1) considered the effect (quantitative studies) and experience (qualitative and case studies) of either; being introduced to a 'sport' or undertaking a sport activity, (2) included >85% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective spectrum disorders according to recognised criteria. A total of 10 studies including 5 trials (2*pre-experimental, 2*controlled trials, 1*randomised control trial), 2 qualitative studies and 3 case studies were included (n=185). Two out of 3 studies that considered weight as an outcome measure reported significant reductions in weight and psychiatric symptoms following sports participation. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI) ranged from -0.7kg.m2 (pparticipants had positive experiences from participating in sports. Sport participation may result in reduced BMI and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Sport has the potential to improve an individual's quality of life through providing a meaningful normalizing activity that leads to achievement, success and satisfaction. Well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to fully determine the health effects of sports participation in schizophrenia.
Full Text Available This study focused on assessment of health risk behaviours among Romanian high school boys from Cluj-Napoca, Romania and to the best of our knowledge is the first Romanian study which makes a clear distinction between three categories of participants: high school boys involved in intense sport training and competition (football players, high school boys participating at least once per week in a sport club (sport club participants and the male high school students who do not do participate at least once per week in a club sport (sport club non-participants. A cross sectional study was performed among 113 male high school students aged 15-18 from grades IX-XI of three high schools from Cluj-Napoca (31sport club participants, 82 sport club non-participants as well as among 40 male high school students 15 to 18 years old, participating in a competition football club from the city (football players. Health risk behaviours were assessed through means of anonymous questionnaires. The results show that both football players and sport club participants had statistically significant more involvement in physical activity and better nutritional habits when comparing with sport club non-participants- they had the tendency to eat more frequent the breakfast, fruits and vegetables, while eating less frequent sweets. With regard to smoking and alcohol use as well as violence related behaviour, no significant differences were found between sport club participants and non-participants, while football players behaved differently than the other two groups with regard to several issues; smoking, electronic cigarette use and alcohol use were less frequent among football players, but they were more frequent exposed to verbal aggression as well as to offended messages sent by phone or social media platforms. This article presents an exploratory study which shows several differences with regard to health risk behaviours of Romanian high school boys based on their
Rifkin, Susan B
The year 2008 marked the 30 year anniversary of Primary Health Care, the health policy of all member nations of the WHO. Community participation was one of the key principles of this policy. This article reviews the experiences of and lessons learned by policy makers, planners and programme managers in attempting to integrate community participation into their health programmes. The lessons, identified in an earlier article by the author, are still relevant today. They help to identify three reasons why integrating community participation into health programmes is so difficult. These reasons are: (1) the dominance of the bio-medical paradigm as the main planning tool for programmes, leading to the view of community participation as an intervention; (2) the lack of in-depth analysis of the perceptions of community members regarding the use of community health workers; and (3) the propensity to use a framework that limits investigation into what works, why and how in community participation in health programmes. Despite these challenges, evidence suggests that community participation has contributed to health improvements at the local level, particularly in poor communities, and will continue to be relevant to programme professionals.
Dutta, Nirjhar; Pereira, Mark A
The objective of this study was to estimate the mean difference in energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adults between playing active video games (AVGs) compared with traditional video games (TVGs) or rest. A systematic search was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and Academic Search Premier between 1998 and April 2012 for relevant keywords, yielding 15 studies. EE and heart rate (HR) data were extracted, and random effects meta-analysis was performed. EE during AVG play was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29-2.34; I² = 94.2%) kcal/kg/hr higher, or about 108 kcal higher per hour for a 60-kg person, compared with TVG play. Mean HR was 21 (95% CI, 13.7-28.3; I² = 93.4%) beats higher per minute during AVG play compared with TVG play. There was wide variation in the EE and HR estimates across studies because different games were evaluated. Overall metabolic equivalent associated with AVG play was 2.62 (95% CI, 2.25-3.00; I² = 99.2%), equivalent to a light activity level. Most studies had low risk of bias due to proper study design and use of indirect calorimetry to measure EE. AVGs may be used to replace sedentary screen time (eg, television watching or TVG play) with light activity in healthy adults.
Patten, Emma; O'Meara, Peter; Dickson-Swift, Virginia
Few studies have considered the impact of rural migration on rural community engagement. The objective of this research was to undertake a scoping review about the inclusion and exclusion of newcomers in rural community participation to inform design of inclusive participation processes. The scoping review used the six stages of Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. Narrative analysis of the articles was structured using three themes of inclusion and exclusion derived from the literature: interpersonal, socio-cultural norms, and structural and organisational processes. Inclusion and exclusion at the interpersonal level is intricate and often represents broader social rules and tensions that newcomers must navigate in order to become involved. Social norms, such as fear of outsiders and difference, can exclude newcomers from participating in a rural community. Newcomer's awareness of these issues means they are mindful of how they contribute and give respect to the social position of existing residents. Despite this, resistance to change is experienced by newcomers when contributing in organisational contexts. Formal participation processes can harness the practice and value of rural hospitality that newcomers experience as inclusionary. Deliberately designing group processes and operational norms for inclusion can reduce tensions when change occurs and prevent group loss due to exclusionary practices. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Tempfer, Clemens B; Nowak, Peter
To provide an overview of published data on user participation in Health Care. Active and passive involvement of consumers into agendas associated with Health Care is still an exception. Data on the success of user participation projects in various areas of Health Care are lacking. Systematic literature review using public databases. We identified 467 studies including five systematic reviews describing various participation projects, among them workshops, citizens' panels, focus groups, citizens' juries, and consultation meetings. A general trend favoring a specific method was not observed. The categorization of evaluable studies according to Health Care area (n = 331) yielded the following results: general medicine/preventive medicine (n = 5), internal medicine/oncology (n = 132), obstetrics and gynecology (n = 2), surgery (n = 1), neurology/psychiatry (n = 2), social medicine (n = 16), health worker training (n = 38), and research agenda setting (n = 135). Predefined qualitative parameters were extracted from 69/467 (15%) studies. Sixty one of 69 studies (88%) were retrospective analyses without control groups and without outcome assessment. Six studies had outcome assessment, three judged the outcome as successful, two as negative, and one multi-project study reported 'very successful' project assessments in 24% of the projects. In 18 studies, the level of consumer participation was described as 'informed' in 2/18, 'advisory' in 14/18, and 'decision-making' in 2/18. The following factors associated with project success were identified: adequate financing, partnerships with well institutionalized consumer organizations, advanced project logistics, small-scale projects, and adequate internal and external communication. Most consumer participation projects were performed in research agenda setting, internal medicine/oncology, and health worker training. Various methods have been used in the projects, the level of consumer participation was low, and the success
Bennouna, Cyril; Mansourian, Hani; Stark, Lindsay
Children's right to participate in data collection during emergencies has been widely recognized by humanitarian actors. However, participation in such activities can expose children to risk. Tensions have been noted between the right to participate and other principles, such as the imperative to 'do no harm.' With little evidence to inform guidance on addressing this tension, our study sought to identify expert consensus on whether and how children participate in emergency-related data collection activities. We employed a three-round Delphi technique with a purposive sample of 52 child protection specialists. Respondents answered two open-ended questions in round one. A thematic analysis of responses generated a set of unique statements addressing the study questions. In the second round, respondents rated each statement on a five-point scale. In the final round, respondents reviewed the group's average ratings for each statement with the option to revise their own ratings. A statement was said to have reached clear consensus when at least 90% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the statement. A total of 124 statements and 14 themes emerged from the thematic analysis, with 46.0% of statements reaching clear consensus in the third round. Respondents strongly supported children's right to participate in data collection in humanitarian settings, while also recognizing that protecting children from harm may "over-ride" the participation principle in some contexts. Respondents identified capacity and contextual considerations as important factors influencing participation decisions, though they sometimes disagreed about how these factors should determine participation. Respondents also considered the role of individual child factors and the presence of caregivers in selecting child participants, and proposed best practice approaches for securing children's safe and meaningful participation. With almost half of statements reaching clear consensus, these
Tenforde, Adam S; Fredericson, Michael
Peak bone mass is attained during the second and third decades of life. Sports participation during the years that peak bone mass is being acquired may lead to adaptive changes that improve bone architecture through increased density and enhanced geometric properties. A review of the literature evaluating sports participation in young athletes, ages 10-30 years, revealed that sports that involve high-impact loading (eg, gymnastics, hurdling, judo, karate, volleyball, and other jumping sports) or odd-impact loading (eg, soccer, basketball, racquet games, step-aerobics, and speed skating) are associated with higher bone mineral composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and enhanced bone geometry in anatomic regions specific to the loading patterns of each sport. Repetitive low-impact sports (such as distance running) are associated with favorable changes in bone geometry. Nonimpact sports such as swimming, water polo, and cycling are not associated with improvements in bone mineral composition or BMD, and swimming may negatively influence hip geometry. Participating in sports during early puberty may enhance bone mass. Continued participation in sports appears to maintain the full benefits of increased peak bone mass, although former athletes who do not maintain participation in sports may retain some benefits of increased BMD. Long-term elite male cycling was reported to negatively influence bone health, and female adolescent distance running was associated with suppressed bone mineral accrual; confounding factors associated with participation in endurance sports may have contributed to those findings. In summary, young men and women who participate in sports that involve high-impact or odd-impact loading exhibit the greatest associated gains in bone health. Participation in nonimpact sports, such as swimming and cycling, is not associated with an improvement in bone health. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by
Watts, Amy R; Williams, Ben; Kim, Susan W; Bramwell, Donald C; Krishnan, Jeganath
Shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) is a common diagnosis for patients with pain and dysfunction of the shoulder. Variations in the signs and symptoms might lead to uncertainty regarding the definition of SIS. The aim of this review is to explore the participant selection criteria used in the literature when investigating SIS and to assess differences in criteria among treating professions. This is a PRISMA systematic review of publications from 2009 to 2014 from MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus and CINAHL. Ninety-seven articles met inclusion criteria for this review. Twenty-five different surgical and nonsurgical treatments were investigated. Impingement-specific index tests were used in all studies. Exclusion index tests were used in 62% of studies. Twenty index tests were identified. Radiological investigations were reported in 53% of all studies, of which a further 53% reported using two or more radiological investigations. This systematic review has illustrated that studies investigating SIS test for various signs and symptoms, which is in keeping with describing the condition as a 'syndrome'. However, there are inconsistencies in participant selection criteria between health disciplines, highlighting a need for harmonization of the selection criteria in the form of an international editorial consensus.
Sønderlund, Anders L; O'Brien, Kerry; Kremer, Peter; Rowland, Bosco; De Groot, Florentine; Staiger, Petra; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Miller, Peter G
To review the current research on alcohol-related violence and sports participation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to identify relevant studies for inclusion. A search of six databases (EBSCOhost) was conducted. A total of 6890 studies was were identified in the initial search. Of these, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies were from the US (n=10) and focused on collegiate athletes (n=7), adolescents (n=3), professional/former professional athletes (n=1). The reviewed research indicates higher rates of alcohol use and violence in athlete populations when compared against non-athlete populations. Masculinity, violent social identity and antisocial norms connected to certain sports stand out as potential factors that may impact the association between sport and violence in athlete populations. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon
From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...
Driban, Jeffrey B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Sitler, Michael R; Harris, Kyle P; Cattano, Nicole M
Information regarding the relative risks of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) as a result of sport participation is critical for shaping public health messages and for informing knee-OA prevention strategies. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the association between participation in specific sports and knee OA. We completed a systematic literature search in September 2012 using 6 bibliographic databases (PubMed; Ovid MEDLINE; Journals@Ovid; American College of Physicians Journal Club; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; and Ovid HealthStar), manual searches (4 journals), and reference lists (56 articles). Studies were included if they met the following 4 criteria: (1) an aim was to investigate an association between sport participation and knee OA; (2) the outcome measure was radiographic knee OA, clinical knee OA, total knee replacement, self-reported diagnosis of knee OA, or placement on a waiting list for a total knee replacement; (3) the study design was case control or cohort; and (4) the study was written in English. Articles were excluded if the study population had an underlying condition other than knee OA. One investigator extracted data (eg, group descriptions, knee OA prevalence, source of nonexposed controls). The overall knee-OA prevalence in sport participants (n = 3759) was 7.7%, compared with 7.3% among nonexposed controls (referent group n = 4730, odds ratio [OR] = 1.1). Specific sports with a significantly higher prevalence of knee OA were soccer (OR = 3.5), elite-level long-distance running (OR = 3.3), competitive weight lifting (OR = 6.9), and wrestling (OR = 3.8). Elite-sport (soccer or orienteering) and nonelite-sport (soccer or American football) participants without a history of knee injury had a greater prevalence of knee OA than nonexposed participants. Participants in soccer (elite and nonelite
Jaarsma, E A; Dijkstra, P U; Geertzen, J H B; Dekker, R
Most people with physical disabilities do not participate in sports regularly, which could increase the chances of developing secondary health conditions. Therefore, knowledge about barriers to and facilitators of sports participation is needed. Barriers and facilitators for people with physical disabilities other than amputation or spinal cord injuries (SCI) are unknown. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature focusing on barriers to and facilitators of sports participation for all people with various physical disabilities. Four databases were searched using MeSH terms and free texts up to April 2012. The inclusion criteria were articles focusing on people with physical disabilities, sports and barriers and/or facilitators. The exclusion criteria were articles solely focusing on people with cognitive disabilities, sensory impairments or disabilities related to a recent organ transplant or similar condition. Fifty-two articles were included in this review, with 27 focusing on people with SCI. Personal barriers were disability and health; environmental barriers were lack of facilities, transport and difficulties with accessibility. Personal facilitators were fun and health, and the environmental facilitator was social contacts. Experiencing barriers to and facilitators of sports participation depends on age and type of disability and should be considered when advising people about sports. The extent of sports participation for people with physical disabilities also increases with the selection of the most appropriate sport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Learning disabilities' (LD refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF concepts. METHODS: "PsychInfo", "Eric" and "PubMed" were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. RESULTS: Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life, however literature concerning these domains is scarce. CONCLUSIONS: The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs.
Abd El-Shafy, Ibrahim; Savino, Jillian; Christopherson, Nathan A M; Prince, Jose M
In 2012, 76,000 pedestrians were struck by motor vehicles. This resulted in 20% of all pediatric mortalities between the ages of 5 and 15. We hypothesize that children are exposed to increased risk as pedestrians to motor vehicle injury when arriving to school and that identification of these hazards would improve targeting of injury prevention efforts. Within a county containing 355 public schools, we identified a primary school with 588 students located in an urban setting with concerns for a high-risk traffic environment. Field surveys observed traffic patterns and established an optimal surveillance period 30 minutes before school. Three observation periods, from two discreet and blinded locations, were conducted from January to March 2016. Videos were evaluated by two independent reviewers to identify and score quantifiable hazards. Three controlled observations were conducted on non-school days, followed by three post-intervention observations from October to December 2016. Comparison was made using Student's t test. Data was analyzed using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). We identified nine safety hazards including double parking (29.3 ± 5.5), dropping off in a bus stop (23.3 ± 7.6), and jaywalking (9.3 ± 3.1). Combining all hazards seen in each observation resulted in an overall hazard average of 83.0 ± 3.6 events/period. Comparing control periods to school observation identified significantly increased hazard events on school days (p school in an urban setting, used our analysis to develop an intervention, and demonstrated the impact of our intervention. Our novel use of video review to identify hazards provides a metric against which the impact of pedestrian road safety interventions might be measured. Epidemiological, level II; Therapeutic, level IV.
... Mythteries: A Video Game About Clinical Trials SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the... currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Clinical Mythteries: A Video Game About... create an engaging, informational ``serious video game'' for adolescents about clinical studies which: (1...
Griebler, Ursula; Rojatz, Daniela; Simovska, Venka; Forster, Rudolf
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize systematically the existing evidence for the effects of student participation in designing, planning, implementing and/or evaluating school health promotion measures. The focus was on the effects of participation in school health promotion measures rather than on student involvement at school in general. Participation is a core value for health promotion but empirical evidence of its outcomes is scarce. We searched major bibliographic databases (including ASSIA, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, PubMed and the Social Sciences Citation Index). Two reviewers independently decided about inclusion and exclusion of the identified abstracts (n = 5075) and full text articles. Of the 90 full text articles screened, 26 papers met the inclusion criteria. We identified evidence for positive effects, especially for the students themselves, the school as organization, and interactions and social relations at school. Almost all included studies showed personal effects on students referring to an increased satisfaction, motivation and ownership, an increase in skills, competencies and knowledge, personal development, health-related effects and influence on student perspective. Given that student participation has more been discussed as a value, or ideal of health promotion in schools, these findings documenting its effectiveness are important. However, further research is needed to consider the level or intensity of involvement, different approaches and stages of participation in the health promotion intervention, as well as mediating factors such as gender, socio-cultural background or academic achievement, in a more systematic manner. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cullen, Patricia; Clapham, Kathleen; Hunter, Kate; Treacy, Rebekah; Ivers, Rebecca
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are overrepresented in transport-related morbidity and mortality. Low rates of licensure in Aboriginal communities and households have been identified as a contributor to high rates of unlicensed driving. There is increasing recognition that Aboriginal people experience challenges and adversity in attaining a licence. This systematic review aims to identify the barriers to licence participation among Aboriginal people in Australia. A systematic search of electronic databases and purposive sampling of grey literature was conducted, two authors independently assessed publications for eligibility for inclusion. Twelve publications were included in this review, of which there were 11 reporting primary research (qualitative and mixed methods) and a practitioner report. Barriers identified were categorised as individual and family barriers or systemic barriers relating to the justice system, graduated driver licensing (GDL) and service provision. A model is presented that depicts the barriers within a cycle of licensing adversity. There is an endemic lack of licensing access for Aboriginal people that relates to financial hardship, unmet cultural needs and an inequitable system. This review recommends targeting change at the systemic level, including a review of proof of identification and fines enforcement policy, diversionary programs and increased provision for people experiencing financial hardship. This review positions licensing within the context of barriers to social inclusion that Aboriginal people frequently encounter. Equitable access to licensing urgently requires policy reform and service provision that is inclusive, responsive to the cultural needs of Aboriginal people and accessible to regional and remote communities.
Drummond, D; Tesnière, A; Hadchouel, A
Playing video games has been associated with several negative effects in children. However, serious games, which are video games designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment, should not be neglected by pediatricians. In the field of public health, some serious games are a means to decrease drug consumption and improve sexual health behavior in adolescents. In schools, serious games can be used to change students' perception of the disease of one of their classmates, or to train students on basic life support. Serious games are also used with patients: they can distract them from a painful procedure, increase their compliance to treatments, or participate in their rehabilitation. Finally, serious games allow healthcare professionals to train on the management of various medical situations without risk. For every field of application, this review presents the rationale of the use of video games, followed by concrete examples of video games and the results of their scientific evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Dong-Mi; Yoon, HyunBae; Lee, Seunghee
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the peer review in an integrated curriculum and to guide further improvements of curriculum. In 2012, Seoul National University College of Medicine implemented a peer review system for 11 courses in an integrated curriculum. For each lecture, two reviewers conducted the rating using a 10-item questionnaire on a 4-point scale. We analyzed the correlation between total scores and each item and the inter-rater reliability between the two reviewers by Pearson correlation. Further, the link between peer review scores and the student lecture evaluation was analyzed. The mean total score for the checklist rating was 31.3 (out of 40.0), and the mean score for each item ranged from 2.65 to 3.35 (out of 4.00). The correlation coefficient between the total score and each item was high, ranging from 0.656 to 0.849, except for three items. The mean of difference scores between reviewers was 5.03, and the correlation coefficient was significantly high, which ranged from 0.968 to 0.999. The peer reviews scores and student lecture evaluations generally correlated, but there were some outlying exceptions; the correlation coefficient was 0.105 and 0.093. Peer review is a useful method for improving the quality of lectures in an integrated curriculum by monitoring the objectives, contents, and methods of the lectures and providing feedback to the professors.
Webber, Martin; Fendt-Newlin, Meredith
The association between social networks and improved mental and physical health is well documented in the literature, but mental health services rarely routinely intervene to improve an individual's social network. This review summarises social participation intervention models to illustrate different approaches which practitioners use, highlight gaps in the evidence base and suggest future directions for research. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted, and social participation interventions were grouped into six categories using a modified narrative synthesis approach. Nineteen interventions from 14 countries were identified, six of which were evaluated using a randomised controlled trial. They were grouped together as: individual social skills training; group skills training; supported community engagement; group-based community activities; employment interventions; and peer support interventions. Social network gains appear strongest for supported community engagement interventions, but overall, evidence was limited. The small number of heterogeneous studies included in this review, which were not quality appraised, tentatively suggests that social participation interventions may increase individuals' social networks. Future research needs to use experimental designs with sufficient samples and follow-up periods longer than 12 months to enable us to make firm recommendations for mental health policy or practice.
Cooke, Rachel; Jones, Andy
To undertake a systematic review of the effectiveness of recruitment mechanisms for engaging and retaining target participants in sports interventions to promote physical activity behaviour change in adults. A narrative systematic review of published studies providing details of the effectiveness of recruitment techniques used in interventions aimed at increasing physical activity via sport in adults. Searches were conducted using five electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and snowballing from reference lists. All papers published in the English language were considered. The search was completed in November 2015. All articles providing information on the recruitment of adults into interventions involving sport and reporting physical activity or participation outcomes were included. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of recruitment reporting across included studies was generally classified as poor, lacking detailed descriptions of recruitment processes and providing insufficient reporting of recruitment outcomes. There was a distinct recruitment bias for more affluent, white, middle-aged women. Active-only recruitment techniques appeared to achieve a participant sample with more representative demographic characteristics than passive approaches. Due to inadequate reporting and evaluation, the mechanisms for achieving effective recruitment and engagement in sport, particularly in hard-to-reach groups, are still unclear. Independent of recruitment mode, creating an intervention and context that reflect the interests and motivations of the target audience presents a promising area. There is an urgent need for more robust evaluation design and reporting of sports interventions.
Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise
Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....
Mol, S S L; Peelen, J H; Kuyvenhoven, M M
Recruiting general practitioners (GPs) to host students for their clerkship is difficult. GPs often assume patients dislike consulting a student-doctor. To systematically review the evidence on patient satisfaction regarding the presence/participation of a student during a consultation in general practice. Medline search (January 1990 to July 2010). One reviewer extracted data from the articles fulfilling the criteria which were set, and a second reviewer checked these for accuracy. Due to heterogeneity a quantitative synthesis could not be performed. Sixteen studies fulfilled the criteria. The majority of patients gave permission for the presence or participation of a student-doctor. Emotional problems and the need for an intimate examination were the main reasons for refusal. Satisfaction was high. Benefits the patients mentioned were: more time, a more thorough physical examination, better patient education and getting a second opinion. Altruism also played a role. In general, the attitude of patients towards student-doctors is positive. There is a general reluctance to see a student-doctor for emotional or intimate problems. Future research should focus on the effect of the preceptor's presence in the latter case. Another interesting topic would be the effect on consent and appreciation of the student-doctor when there are differences in cultural background between patient and student.
Yan, Ling; Hicks, Matt; Winslow, Korey; Comella, Cynthia; Ludlow, Christy; Jinnah, H. A; Rosen, Ami R; Wright, Laura; Galpern, Wendy R; Perlmutter, Joel S
Background We developed a novel secured web-based dystonia video repository for the Dystonia Coalition, part of the Rare Disease Clinical Research network funded by the Office of Rare Diseases Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A critical component of phenotypic data collection for all projects of the Dystonia Coalition includes a standardized video of each participant. We now describe our method for collecting, serving and securing these videos that is widely applicable to other studies. Methods Each recruiting site uploads standardized videos to a centralized secured server for processing to permit website posting. The streaming technology used to view the videos from the website does not allow downloading of video files. With appropriate institutional review board approval and agreement with the hosting institution, users can search and view selected videos on the website using customizable, permissions-based access that maintains security yet facilitates research and quality control. Results This approach provides a convenient platform for researchers across institutions to evaluate and analyze shared video data. We have applied this methodology for quality control, confirmation of diagnoses, validation of rating scales, and implementation of new research projects. Conclusions We believe our system can be a model for similar projects that require access to common video resources. PMID:25630890
Yan, Ling; Hicks, Matt; Winslow, Korey; Comella, Cynthia; Ludlow, Christy; Jinnah, H A; Rosen, Ami R; Wright, Laura; Galpern, Wendy R; Perlmutter, Joel S
We developed a novel secured web-based dystonia video repository for the Dystonia Coalition, part of the Rare Disease Clinical Research network funded by the Office of Rare Diseases Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A critical component of phenotypic data collection for all projects of the Dystonia Coalition includes a standardized video of each participant. We now describe our method for collecting, serving and securing these videos that is widely applicable to other studies. Each recruiting site uploads standardized videos to a centralized secured server for processing to permit website posting. The streaming technology used to view the videos from the website does not allow downloading of video files. With appropriate institutional review board approval and agreement with the hosting institution, users can search and view selected videos on the website using customizable, permissions-based access that maintains security yet facilitates research and quality control. This approach provides a convenient platform for researchers across institutions to evaluate and analyze shared video data. We have applied this methodology for quality control, confirmation of diagnoses, validation of rating scales, and implementation of new research projects. We believe our system can be a model for similar projects that require access to common video resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ridgway, James; Stannett, Mike
Although techniques for separate image and audio steganography are widely known, relatively little has been described concerning the hiding of information within video streams ("video steganography"). In this paper we review the current state of the art in this field, and describe the key issues we have encountered in developing a practical video steganography system. A supporting video is also available online at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhnlHmZolRM
Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due
. They can consist of job search assistance, training, education, subsidized work and similar programmes. Some of the programmes (such as subsidized work, training and education) demand full-time participation over a long time period (e.g. several months), while other programmes (such as job search...... assistance and education) are part-time and have a short duration (e.g. few days/weeks). It is possible to classify these programmes into a set of four core categories: A: (labour market) training, B: Private sector programmes, C: direct employment programmes in the public sector and D: Job search assistance...... that the effect of ALMP participation differs by type of programme. Other reviews by for example Kluve, 2010 and Card et al., 2010 conclude job search assistance programmes are relatively better, and direct employment programmes in the public sector relatively worse, than other programmes in terms...
Full Text Available The purpose of the current metasynthesis review was to explore the psychosocial benefits of sport and psychosocial factors which impact on sports participation for individuals with severe mental illness. AMED, CINAHL Plus, Medline, EMBASE, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source, and Science Citation Index were searched from inception until January 2014. Articles included use qualitative methods to examine the psychosocial effects of sports participation in people with severe mental illness. Methodological quality was assessed using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies and a case study tool. Included studies were analysed within a metasynthesis approach. Eight articles involving 56 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results identified the broader and direct psychosocial benefits of sport. Sport provided a “normal” environment and interactions that were not associated with an individual’s mental illness. Sport provided individuals with a sense of meaning, purpose, belonging, identity, and achievement. Other findings are discussed. Direct psychosocial benefits are a consequence of sports participation for the vast majority of individuals with severe mental illness. Further to this, sports participation was associated with a reduction in social isolation and an increase in social confidence, autonomy, and independence.
Bemelmans, S A S A; Tromp, K; Bunnik, E M; Milne, R J; Badger, S; Brayne, C; Schermer, M H; Richard, E
Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosure are. This systematic review therefore examines the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing genetic and nongenetic AD-related biomarkers to cognitively healthy research participants. We performed a systematic literature search in eight scientific databases. Three independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant articles. Results extracted from the included articles were aggregated and presented per effect group. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data synthesis. None of the identified studies examined the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers. All studies but one concerned the disclosure of APOE genotype and were conducted in the USA. Study populations consisted largely of cognitively healthy first-degree relatives of AD patients. In this group, disclosure of an increased risk was not associated with anxiety, depression or changes in perceived risk in relation to family history. Disclosure of an increased risk did lead to an increase in specific test-related distress levels, health-related behavior changes and long-term care insurance uptake and possibly diminished memory functioning. In cognitively healthy research participants with a first-degree relative with AD, disclosure of APOE ε4-positivity does not lead to elevated anxiety and depression levels, but does increase test-related distress and results in behavior changes concerning insurance and health. We did not find studies reporting the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers and only one study included people without a family history of AD. Empirical studies on the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers
P. A. Ullrich
Full Text Available Atmospheric dynamical cores are a fundamental component of global atmospheric modeling systems and are responsible for capturing the dynamical behavior of the Earth's atmosphere via numerical integration of the Navier–Stokes equations. These systems have existed in one form or another for over half of a century, with the earliest discretizations having now evolved into a complex ecosystem of algorithms and computational strategies. In essence, no two dynamical cores are alike, and their individual successes suggest that no perfect model exists. To better understand modern dynamical cores, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of 11 non-hydrostatic dynamical cores, drawn from modeling centers and groups that participated in the 2016 Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP workshop and summer school. This review includes a choice of model grid, variable placement, vertical coordinate, prognostic equations, temporal discretization, and the diffusion, stabilization, filters, and fixers employed by each system.
Ullrich, Paul A.; Jablonowski, Christiane; Kent, James; Lauritzen, Peter H.; Nair, Ramachandran; Reed, Kevin A.; Zarzycki, Colin M.; Hall, David M.; Dazlich, Don; Heikes, Ross; Konor, Celal; Randall, David; Dubos, Thomas; Meurdesoif, Yann; Chen, Xi; Harris, Lucas; Kühnlein, Christian; Lee, Vivian; Qaddouri, Abdessamad; Girard, Claude; Giorgetta, Marco; Reinert, Daniel; Klemp, Joseph; Park, Sang-Hun; Skamarock, William; Miura, Hiroaki; Ohno, Tomoki; Yoshida, Ryuji; Walko, Robert; Reinecke, Alex; Viner, Kevin
Atmospheric dynamical cores are a fundamental component of global atmospheric modeling systems and are responsible for capturing the dynamical behavior of the Earth's atmosphere via numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations. These systems have existed in one form or another for over half of a century, with the earliest discretizations having now evolved into a complex ecosystem of algorithms and computational strategies. In essence, no two dynamical cores are alike, and their individual successes suggest that no perfect model exists. To better understand modern dynamical cores, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of 11 non-hydrostatic dynamical cores, drawn from modeling centers and groups that participated in the 2016 Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP) workshop and summer school. This review includes a choice of model grid, variable placement, vertical coordinate, prognostic equations, temporal discretization, and the diffusion, stabilization, filters, and fixers employed by each system.
Hickman, Robbin; Popescu, Lisa; Manzanares, Robert; Morris, Brendan; Lee, Szu-Ping; Dufek, Janet S
To examine current evidence on use of active video gaming (AVG) to improve motor function in children with movement disorders including cerebral palsy, developmental coordination disorder, and Down syndrome. Scopus, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched. Included papers studied the use of AVG for improving movement-related outcomes in these populations. Parameters studied included health condition, strength of evidence, AVG delivery methods, capacity for individualizing play, outcomes addressed, effectiveness for achieving outcomes, and challenges/limitations. The 20 extracted articles varied in quality. Studies involved children with six different conditions using AVG in clinical, home, or school settings for 49 different motor outcomes. Dosage varied in frequency and duration. Choice of games played and difficulty level were therapist determined (n=6) or child controlled (n=14). The most common study limitations were small sample sizes and difficulty individualizing treatment. All articles showed improvement in outcomes with AVG, although differences were not consistently significant compared with conventional therapy. Heterogeneity of measurement tools and target outcomes prevented meta-analysis or development of formal recommendations. However, AVG is feasible and shows potential for improving outcomes in this population. Additional investigations of dosing variables, utility as a home supplement to clinical care, and outcomes with larger sample sizes are merited. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
Suherman; Suwendri; Al-Akaidi, Marwan
The transport layer protocol is responsible for the end to end data transmission. Transmission control protocol (TCP) provides a reliable connection and user datagram protocol (UDP) offers fast but unguaranteed data transfer. Meanwhile, the 802.11 (wireless fidelity/WiFi) networks have been widely used as internet hotspots. This paper evaluates TCP, TCP variants and UDP performances for video transmission on an adhoc network. The transport protocol - medium access cross-layer is proposed by prioritizing TCP acknowledgement to reduce delay. The NS-2 evaluations show that the average delays increase linearly for all the evaluated protocols and the average packet losses grow logarithmically. UDP produces the lowest transmission delay; 5.4% and 5.8% lower than TCP and TCP variant, but experiences the highest packet loss. Both TCP and TCP Vegas maintain packet loss as low as possible. The proposed cross-layer successfully decreases TCP and TCP Vegas delay about 0.12 % and 0.15%, although losses remain similar.
Levola, Jonna; Kaskela, Teemu; Holopainen, Antti; Sabariego, Carla; Tourunen, Jouni; Cieza, Alarcos; Pitkänen, Tuuli
There has been a lack of comprehensive reviews targeting specific aspects of functioning and the difficulties faced by persons with alcohol dependence. The aim of the present review was to systematically compile the existing literature on activity limitations and participation restrictions as defined in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in the context of alcohol dependence. A database search (MEDLINE and PsychINFO) was performed for studies published in English (2005-2012), examining the activity limitations and participation restrictions in alcohol dependence. Using a standardised protocol, information about the studies' characteristics and data on activity limitations and participation restrictions, their evolution, onset, determinants and associations with other variables were extracted from the studies under review. A total of 211 difficulties in activities and participation in persons with alcohol dependence were extracted from 125 papers. The spectrum of studies was wide, and their overall quality was good. A common reason for the exclusion of studies was an inconclusive definition of alcohol dependence. Issues with interpersonal interactions, economic and professional life, dealing with aggression and legal problems were the most frequently reported difficulties. Problems with high-risk behaviours and in seeking appropriate treatment were also common. The most frequent determinants of the onset and evolution of the identified difficulties were factors pertaining to the course of alcohol dependence. These difficulties were rarely the studies' focus; therefore, the data on their underlying causes and courses were limited. The results confirm that alcohol dependence profoundly affects the family and social network of the afflicted person. The treatment of alcohol dependence can contribute to the alleviation of these associated difficulties. The ICF offers a new perspective on evaluating the wide range of difficulties
Nyman, Samuel R; Adamczewska, Natalia; Howlett, Neil
The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD). PsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000-01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and BCTs were coded using Michie et al., 2013, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81. taxonomy. Intervention findings were narratively synthesized as either 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising', and BCTs were judged as having potential promise if they featured in at least twice as many very/quite promising than non-promising interventions (as per Gardner et al., 2016, Health Psychology Review, 10, 89). Nineteen articles from nine trials reported physical activity findings on behavioural outcomes (two very promising, one quite promising, and two non-promising) or intervention adherence (one quite promising and four non-promising). Thirteen BCTs were used across the interventions. While no BCT had potential promise to increase intervention adherence, three BCTs had potential promise for improving physical activity behaviour outcomes: goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source. Three BCTs have potential promise for use in future interventions to increase physical activity among PWD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While physical activity is a key lifestyle factor to enhance and maintain health and wellbeing amongst the general population, adults rarely participate in sufficient levels to obtain these benefits. Systematic reviews suggest that
This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.
Flory, James; Emanuel, Ezekiel
Available data suggest that prospective research participants may frequently not understand information disclosed to them in the informed consent process. Little is known about how understanding can be improved. To review research on interventions to improve research participants' understanding of information disclosed in the informed consent process. A search of MEDLINE was performed using the terms informed consent and clinical research and informed consent and (comprehension or understanding) from 1966 to March 2004 , which included randomized controlled trials, longitudinal trials, and controlled trials with nonrandom allocation that compared the understanding of research participants who had undergone only a standard informed consent process to that of participants who had received an intervention to improve their understanding. A comprehensive bibliography of empirical research on informed consent published in January 1999 was also reviewed, as were personal files and all issues of the journals IRB and Controlled Clinical Trials. Study design, quality criteria, population characteristics, interventions, and outcomes for each trial were extracted. The statistical significance of the interventions' effects on understanding were noted, as were mean scores for understanding for each group of each trial. For those trials that measured the secondary outcomes of satisfaction and willingness to enroll, results were also summarized. Thirty studies described 42 trials that met inclusion criteria. Of 12 trials of multimedia interventions, 3 showed significant improvement in understanding. Of 15 trials of enhanced consent forms, 6 showed significant improvement in understanding (all Pcasting doubt on their practical relevance. Of 5 trials of extended discussion, 3 showed significant improvement in understanding (all P<.001) and 2 showed trends toward improvement (P=.054 and P=.08). Of 5 trials of test/feedback, all showed significant improvement in understanding (all P
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete Bender
Review question/objective The objective of this review is to identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. More specifically, the review question is: How do informal caregivers of older adults...... with dementia, living in urban and rural settings, perceive the meaningfulness of participating in support groups? Inclusion Criteria Types of participant(s) This review will consider studies that include informal caregivers of older adults aged 65 years and older with dementia, regardless of the severity...... that investigate how the informal caregivers of older adults with dementia, living in urban or rural settings perceive the meaningfulness of participating in support groups. The phenomenon of interest will consider studies that include informal caregivers, aged 18 years and older, who are caring for an older adult...
Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu
This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...
Hellman, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Nordstrom, B.R.; Holst, R.J. van
Drawing on explanatory pluralism this cross-disciplinary theoretical study asks whether excessive compulsive online gaming can be called an addiction on the basis of what is known about the disorder. This article discusses the concept of addiction; the social seating of the problems and it reviews,
Chia Youyee Vang
Full Text Available This article provides a review of Better Places: a documentary that follows up with Hmong families who were originally part of a film produced in the early 1980s about the resettlement experiences of Hmong refugees in Providence, Rhode Island.
Hellman, Matilda; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Nordstrom, Benjamin R.; van Holst, Ruth J.
Drawing on explanatory pluralism this cross-disciplinary theoretical study asks whether excessive compulsive online gaming can be called an addiction on the basis of what is known about the disorder. This article discusses the concept of addiction; the social seating of the problems and it reviews,
Atkinson, Jo-An; Vallely, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Whittaker, Maxine; Tanner, Marcel
Community engagement and participation has played a critical role in successful disease control and elimination campaigns in many countries. Despite this, its benefits for malaria control and elimination are yet to be fully realized. This may be due to a limited understanding of the influences on participation in developing countries as well as inadequate investment in infrastructure and resources to support sustainable community participation. This paper reports the findings of an atypical systematic review of 60 years of literature in order to arrive at a more comprehensive awareness of the constructs of participation for communicable disease control and elimination and provide guidance for the current malaria elimination campaign. Evidence derived from quantitative research was considered both independently and collectively with qualitative research papers and case reports. All papers included in the review were systematically coded using a pre-determined qualitative coding matrix that identified influences on community participation at the individual, household, community and government/civil society levels. Colour coding was also carried out to reflect the key primary health care period in which community participation programmes originated. These processes allowed exhaustive content analysis and synthesis of data in an attempt to realize conceptual development beyond that able to be achieved by individual empirical studies or case reports. Of the 60 papers meeting the selection criteria, only four studies attempted to determine the effect of community participation on disease transmission. Due to inherent differences in their design, interventions and outcome measures, results could not be compared. However, these studies showed statistically significant reductions in disease incidence or prevalence using various forms of community participation. The use of locally selected volunteers provided with adequate training, supervision and resources are common and
Smeaton, Alan F.
Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to indexing, browsing, and searching of digital video: video coding and standards; conventional approaches to accessing digital video; automatically structuring and indexing digital video; searching, browsing, and summarization; measurement and evaluation of the effectiveness of…
Nevitt, Sarah J; Marson, Anthony G; Weston, Jennifer; Tudur Smith, Catrin
Registry Platform (ICTRP, 1st November 2016). Previously we also searched SCOPUS (1823 to 16th September 2014) as an alternative to Embase, but this is no longer necessary, because randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials in Embase are now included in CENTRAL. We handsearched relevant journals, contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures, comparing carbamazepine monotherapy versus phenytoin monotherapy. This is an individual participant data (IPD) review. Our primary outcome was time to withdrawal of allocated treatment, and our secondary outcomes were time to six-month remission, time to 12-month remission, and time to first seizure post-randomisation. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to obtain study-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the generic inverse variance method to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. IPD were available for 595 participants out of 1192 eligible individuals, from four out of 12 trials (i.e. 50% of the potential data). For remission outcomes, HR greater than 1 indicates an advantage for phenytoin; and for first seizure and withdrawal outcomes, HR greater than 1 indicates an advantage for carbamazepine. The methodological quality of the four studies providing IPD was generally good and we rated it at low risk of bias overall in the analyses.The main overall results (pooled HR adjusted for seizure type) were time to withdrawal of allocated treatment: 1.04 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.39; three trials, 546 participants); time to 12-month remission: 1.01 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.31; three trials, 551 participants); time to six-month remission: 1.11 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.37; three trials, 551 participants); and time to first seizure: 0.85 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.04; four trials, 582 participants). The results suggest no overall
Payne, Jennifer I; Caines, Judy S; Gallant, Julie; Foley, Theresa J
To conduct a radiologic review of interval breast cancer cases to determine rates of true interval and missed cancers in Nova Scotia, Canada. This quality assurance project was exempt from institutional review board approval. Interval cancer cases were identified among women aged 40-69 years who were participants in the Nova Scotia Breast Screening Program from 1991 to 2004. For each case, the index negative screening mammogram was reviewed blindly by three radiologists from a pool of experienced radiologists. Cases were identified as those with normal or abnormal findings, the latter being a case that required further investigation. True interval cases were identified as cases in which a minimum of two radiologists reviewed the findings as normal. True interval and missed cancer rates were calculated separately for women according to age group and screening interval (for ages 40-49 years, a 1-year interval; for ages 50-69 years, a 1-year and a 2-year interval). The rate of missed cancers per 1000 women screened was one-half of the true interval rate among women screened annually (for ages 40-49 years, 0.45 vs 0.93; for ages 50-69 years, 1.08 vs 2.22). Among women aged 50-69 years who were screened biennially, the rate of missed cancers per 1000 women screened was one-third of the true interval rate (0.90 vs 3.15). Similarly, the rate of missed cancers per 10,000 screening examinations was one-half of the true interval rate among those 40-49 years old (1.95 vs 3.99) and one-third of the true interval rate among those 50-69 years old (3.34 vs 10.44). In screening programs, true interval cancer rates should be differentiated from missed cancer rates as part of ongoing quality assurance. RSNA, 2012
"Design Inspection Reviews" are structured meetings in which participants follow certain rules of procedure and behavior when conducting detailed readings of design plans to identify errors and misunderstandings. The technique is widely used in the software engineering industry, where it is demonstrably more effective than testing at…
Cook, Wendy A.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Bridges, Elizabeth J.
Background ClinicalTrials.gov reviews have evaluated research trends for specific conditions and age groups but not for specific populations of research participants. No ClinicalTrials.gov reviews have evaluated research with military service member participants. Purpose Study objectives were (a) to use ClinicalTrials.gov to identify trends in biomedical research from 2005 to 2014 in which U.S. military service members actively participated as research participants and (b) to describe a search strategy for adaptation in future ClinicalTrials.gov reviews of specific participant populations. Methods A systematic review of ClinicalTrials.gov was performed to identify studies that included U.S. service members as participants, either exclusively or with other groups of participants. Results U.S. service members were identified as participants in 512 studies. Service members participated together with other groups in 392 studies, while 120 studies included only service members. The top five conditions of interest were post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, amputations, burns, and ocular injuries/disorders. The number of studies started each year peaked in 2011 and declined from 2012 to 2014. Twenty-five percent of studies exclusive to service members aimed to enroll 500 or more participants. Research exclusive to Guard and Reserve service members during this period was limited. Conclusions U.S. military service members participate in biomedical research. To address the health needs of U.S. service members, it is important to ensure there is not a prolonged decline in research among this population. The search strategy may be adapted to ClinicalTrials.gov reviews of specific participant populations for which straightforward searches are not possible. PMID:27822569
Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Iwanaga, Kazuki (ed. (2008, Women’s Political Participation and Representation in Asia. Obstacles and Challenges, Copenhagen: NIAS Press, = Women and Politics in Asia No. 2, ISBN 9788776940164, XVII and 314 pages.
Full Text Available This article presents a review of methods in 60 empirical studies on forest conservation impact of popular participation in forest management. The review illustrates a high degree of variance in methods among the studies, and shows that a majority of the studies could benefit from a stronger focus on one or more of the following three areas: (i the empirical verification and characterisation of popular participation as it exists on the ground, (ii the indicators of impact and the method used to assess them, and (iii the disentanglement of the effect of popular participation from other developments in the study area that may impact on forest condition. The variation in methods inhibits comparisons and meta-analyses, as well as questions the basis on which policy recommendations on popular participation in forest management are made. Based on the review, we provide recommendations for future evaluations of the conservation impact of popular participation in forest management.
Qaed, Fatema; Briggs, Jo; Cockton, Gilbert
We present our experiences of novel value from online social media for Participative Design (PD) research. We describe how particular social media (e.g. Facebook, Pinterest, WhatsApp and Twitter) were used during a five-year project on learning space design by the researcher and interested teachers across all research phases (contextual review, user studies, PD action research). Social media were used to source and share comments, photographs and video documentation, supporting participation ...
Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Ma, Jasmin K; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Rimmer, James H
Dozens of published papers cite factors related to leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) participation among people with physical disabilities. Unfortunately, there has been little effort to synthesise this literature in a manner that is accessible and useful to the sectors (e.g., health care, recreation) responsible for LTPA promotion in disability populations. In this systematic review, over 200 factors were extracted from 22 review articles addressing barriers and facilitators to LTPA in children and adults with physical disabilities. Factors were grouped according to common themes, classified into five levels of a social ecological model, and coded according to whether they could be affected by the health-care and/or recreation sectors. Findings are discussed with regard to key factors to target in LTPA-enhancing interventions, relevant theories and models in which to frame interventions, the levels at which the interventions can be implemented, and intervention priorities. The synthesis provides a blueprint and a catalyst for researchers and practitioners to shift focus from conducting studies that merely describe LTPA barriers and facilitators, to developing and delivering strategies to increase LTPA among persons with physical disabilities.
Alharbi, Muaddi; Bauman, Adrian; Neubeck, Lis; Gallagher, Robyn
Assessment of physical activity (PA) for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participants is critical to monitor changes. However, the validity and reliability of PA measures to assess PA throughout the day, not only during exercise training, is poorly investigated. To establish a reliable and valid measure to assess overall PA in CR participants. A narrative literature review was performed based on a systematic search of Embase, CINAHL, MEDLINE and PubMed databases. Eight studies comparing two or more PA measures with at least one direct measure met the inclusion criteria. Methodological designs were heterogeneous. Correlations and levels of agreement between self-reported measures and direct measures were weak to moderate, while the correlations between direct measures were high. Of the direct measures, the SenseWear armband (BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) had the highest validity, and the PA diary and MobilePAL questionnaires performed better than other self-reported PA measures. Direct measures were more valid and reliable than self-reported measures. No recommendation for a definitive PA measure was made due to lack of strong evidentiary support for one PA measure over another. There is a need for accurate measures of overall PA in evaluating current and changing PA levels following CR. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Handberg, C; Nielsen, C V; Lomborg, K
This paper aims to report on a systematic review of qualitative studies on men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation. Nine databases were systematically searched to identify qualitative papers published between 2000 and 2013. Papers were selected by pre-defined inclusion criteria and subsequently critically appraised. Key themes were extracted and synthesised. Fifteen papers were selected and represented. Four central themes were identified in the analytical process: 'changed life perspective', 'the masculinity factor', 'a desire to get back to normal' and 'the meaning of work'. Six peripheral themes were identified: 'the meaning of context', 'music', 'physical training', 'religion', 'humour' and 'the unmentionable'. The themes were synthesised into an integrative model representing men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation. We conclude that existing qualitative literature offers insight into men's reflections on cancer rehabilitation and highlights the interrelationship between men's reflections on their changed life perspective, masculinity, orientation towards a normal life and getting back to work. Further research-based knowledge is needed to explore (1) the underlying causes and patterns of the men's needs, preferences and choices in rehabilitation; and (2) the health professional perspective on male cancer rehabilitation. © 2013 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Studying the Positive Influence of the Use of Video in Teaching & Learning Environments, Focusing on Registration of the Directions Where It Improves the PBL Effectiveness: A Systematic Literature Review
Previous studies report the involvement of the use of video in the frameworks of problem-based learning (PBL), case-based learning, and project-based learning. This systematic literature review, through two research questions, explores the positive influence of the use of video in those instructional methods, and, while focusing on PBL, identifies…
Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike
The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.
Nolan, Sarah J; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Weston, Jennifer; Marson, Anthony G
2016). We imposed no language restrictions. We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and trial investigators. Randomised controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures comparing monotherapy with either carbamazepine or lamotrigine. This was an individual participant data (IPD) review. Our primary outcome was time to withdrawal of allocated treatment and our secondary outcomes were time to first seizure post-randomisation, time to six-month, 12-month and 24-month remission, and incidence of adverse events. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to obtain trial-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the generic inverse variance method to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. We included 13 studies in this review. Individual participant data were available for 2572 participants out of 3394 eligible individuals from nine out of 13 trials: 78% of the potential data. For remission outcomes, a HR lamotrigine.The main overall results (pooled HR adjusted for seizure type) were: time to withdrawal of allocated treatment (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.82), time to first seizure (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.37) and time to six-month remission (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.94), showing a significant advantage for lamotrigine compared to carbamazepine for withdrawal but a significant advantage for carbamazepine compared to lamotrigine for first seizure and six-month remission. We found no difference between the drugs for time to 12-month remission (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.07) or time to 24-month remission (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.25), however only two trials followed up participants for more than one year so the evidence is limited.The results of this review are applicable mainly to individuals with partial onset seizures; 88% of included individuals experienced seizures of this type at baseline. Up to 50% of the limited number of individuals classified as
Thiago eStrahler Rivero
Full Text Available Empirical research studies have highlighted the need to investigate whether video game can be useful as a tool within a neuropsychological rehabilitation program for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients. However, little is known about the possible gains that this kind of video game based interventions can produce and even if these gains can be transferred to real life abilities. The present paper aims to uncover key information related to the use of video game in ADHD neuropsychological rehabilitation/intervention by focusing on its gains and its capability to transfer/generalize these gains to real life situation via a systematic review of the empirical literature. The PRISMA guidelines were adopted. Internet-based bibliographic searches were conducted via seven major electronic databases (i.e., PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Core Collection BIOSIS Citation Index, MEDLINE, SciELO Citation Index, and PubMed to access studies examining the association between video game interventions in ADHD patients and behavioral and cognitive outcomes. A total of 14 empirical studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The studies reported the attention, working memory and the behavioral aspects as the main target of the intervention. Cognitive and behavioral gains were reported after the video game training. However, many bias related to the choice of outcome instruments, sampling and blindness of assessors, weaken the results power. Additional researches are important to clarify the effects and stability of the video games training programs, and an important effort should be made to construct better methods to assess improvements on everyday cognitive abilities and real world functioning.
Wendy A. Cook
Conclusions: U.S. military service members participate in biomedical research. To address the health needs of U.S. service members, it is important to ensure there is not a prolonged decline in research among this population. The search strategy may be adapted to ClinicalTrials.gov reviews of specific participant populations for which straightforward searches are not possible.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent. Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112. The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent, lack of financial support (36 percent, methodological problems (23 percent and problems with group dynamics (10 percent. Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review.
van de Sande, Danny A J P; Breuer, Michelle A W; Kemps, Hareld M C
Although test characteristics of exercise electrocardiography are well established in symptomatic patients, data on healthy athletes are scarce. This systematic review focuses on the diagnostic utility of exercise electrocardiography for the detection of coronary heart disease in athletes during pre-participation screening. This systematic review evaluated the prevalence of an abnormal exercise test result and the positive predictive value of exercise electrocardiography in asymptomatic athletes. In addition, the long-term prognosis of a false-positive test result was evaluated. An electronic search was performed using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and MEDLINE. Only studies using exercise electrocardiography in an unselected population of asymptomatic athletes were included. Data on population characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, exercise test parameters, left ventricular hypertrophy, and morbidity/mortality were extracted and analyzed. The mean prevalence of an abnormal exercise test result was 0.6 % (range 0-29 %), with a positive predictive value of 9 % (range 0-55 %). Left ventricular hypertrophy was observed in 57 % of the athletes with an abnormal exercise test result, in 50 % of the athletes with a false-positive exercise test result, and in 24 % of the athletes with a normal exercise test. Among athletes with a false-positive test, only one athlete (3 %) experienced a possible cardiac event. This systematic review revealed a relatively low prevalence of positive exercise test results in asymptomatic athletes, but a very poor positive predictive value. There were insufficient data available to determine the prognostic implications of false-positive test results in asymptomatic athletes.
Quiroga, M A; Román, F J; De La Fuente, J; Privado, J; Colom, R
This paper reviews the use of video games for measuring intelligence differences and reports two studies analyzing the relationship between intelligence and performance on a leisure video game. In the first study, the main focus was to design an Intelligence Test using puzzles from the video game. Forty-seven young participants played "Professor Layton and the curious village"® for a maximum of 15 hours and completed a set of intelligence standardized tests. Results show that the time required for completing the game interacts with intelligence differences: the higher the intelligence, the lower the time (d = .91). Furthermore, a set of 41 puzzles showed excellent psychometric properties. The second study, done seven years later, confirmed the previous findings. We finally discuss the pros and cons of video games as tools for measuring cognitive abilities with commercial video games, underscoring that psychologists must develop their own intelligence video games and delineate their key features for the measurement devices of next generation.
Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.
Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.
Hotelling, Barbara A
There are enough worthwhile videos available today so that a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator could literally teach an entire class series using only videos and feedback discussion. In this column, the author explores considerations in choosing videos for adult learners in Lamaze birth classes. Some things to consider when using videos should be the adult learner's attention span, whether the video increases fear of birth or empowers the learner, and if the video is appropriate for the culture of the class participants. Finally, the author provides a list of some of the many wonderful videos available to Lamaze birth educators.
Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie
.... This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity...
Slimani, Maamer; Tod, David; Chaabene, Helmi; Miarka, Bianca; Chamari, Karim
The aims of the present review were to (i) provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), (ii) identify potential moderators and mediators of the "mental imagery-strength performance" relationship and (iii) determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG) and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship. This paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the contemporary literature and suggests possible directions for future research. Overall, the results reveal that the combination of mental imagery and physical practice is more efficient than, or at least comparable to, physical execution with respect to strength performance. Imagery prevention intervention was also effective in reducing of strength loss after short-term muscle immobilization and ACL. The present review also indicates advantageous effects of internal imagery (range from 2.6 to 136.3%) for strength performance compared with external imagery (range from 4.8 to 23.2%). Typically, mental imagery with muscular activity was higher in active than passive muscles, and imagining "lifting a heavy object" resulted in more EMG activity compared with imagining "lifting a lighter object". Thus, in samples of students, novices, or youth male and female athletes, internal mental imagery has a greater effect on muscle strength than external mental imagery does. Imagery ability, motivation, and self-efficacy have been shown to be the variables mediating the effect of mental imagery on strength performance. Finally, the greater effects of internal imagery than those of external imagery could be explained in terms of neural adaptations, stronger brain activation, higher muscle excitation, greater somatic and sensorimotor
Samuelsson, Kersti A M; Töytäri, Outi; Salminen, Anna-Liisa; Brandt, Ase
Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Helmi Chaabene, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari
Full Text Available The aims of the present review were to (i provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, (ii identify potential moderators and mediators of the “mental imagery-strength performance” relationship and (iii determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship. This paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the contemporary literature and suggests possible directions for future research. Overall, the results reveal that the combination of mental imagery and physical practice is more efficient than, or at least comparable to, physical execution with respect to strength performance. Imagery prevention intervention was also effective in reducing of strength loss after short-term muscle immobilization and ACL. The present review also indicates advantageous effects of internal imagery (range from 2.6 to 136.3% for strength performance compared with external imagery (range from 4.8 to 23.2%. Typically, mental imagery with muscular activity was higher in active than passive muscles, and imagining “lifting a heavy object” resulted in more EMG activity compared with imagining “lifting a lighter object”. Thus, in samples of students, novices, or youth male and female athletes, internal mental imagery has a greater effect on muscle strength than external mental imagery does. Imagery ability, motivation, and self-efficacy have been shown to be the variables mediating the effect of mental imagery on strength performance. Finally, the greater effects of internal imagery than those of external imagery could be explained in terms of neural adaptations, stronger brain activation, higher muscle excitation, greater somatic
Mort, Alasdair; Godden, David
The objective of this review is to summarize evidence on injuries occurring in individuals participating in mountain and wilderness sports. Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SPORTDiscus, Ovid Safety and Health, Index to Theses, COPAC, and sportscotland e-library. The search terms were (mountain* or wilderness or adventure or climb* or (hill walk*)) and (accident* or injur* or rescue*) and (epidemiolog* or statistic* or pattern* or survey*). The search period was from 1987 to 2010. A total of 2034 articles were identified. The full text of 137 articles was retrieved. Fifty articles met inclusion criteria-mountain and wilderness; nonmotorized, leisure time, outdoor activities; and nonfatal injury. Skiing and snowboarding articles were excluded. Study design was classified using the "STOX" hierarchy of evidence. Study quality was rated independently by 2 reviewers. All studies were observational. Twenty-one (42%) were longitudinal, 20 (40%) were cross-sectional surveys, and 9 were cohort studies. A majority of casualties were aged 20 to 39 years. There was a clear male majority, 70% to 89% in most studies. The percentage of casualties who sustained severe injuries ranged from 5% to 10%--less than 10% were admitted to hospital. Casualties sustained an average of 1.2 to 2.8 injuries (most >1.6), which mainly affected the soft tissues; between 2% and 38% were fractures. Up to 90% of injuries were to the extremities. The majority of mountain and wilderness sports injuries are minor to moderate. However, some casualties have life-threatening medical problems, which may have long-term implications for return to sport and general well-being.
Gardner, Andrew J; Levi, Christopher R; Iverson, Grant L
... published. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether independent raters reliably agreed on the injury characterization when using a standardized observational instrument to record video footage of National Rugby League (NRL...
This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...
Harte, J Davis; Homer, Caroline Se; Sheehan, Athena; Leap, Nicky; Foureur, Maralyn
Conducting video-research in birth settings raises challenges for ethics review boards to view birthing women and research-midwives as capable, autonomous decision-makers. This study aimed to gain an understanding of how the ethical approval process was experienced and to chronicle the perceived risks and benefits. The Birth Unit Design project was a 2012 Australian ethnographic study that used video recording to investigate the physical design features in the hospital birthing space that might influence both verbal and non-verbal communication and the experiences of childbearing women, midwives and supporters. Participants and research context: Six women, 11 midwives and 11 childbirth supporters were filmed during the women's labours in hospital birth units and interviewed 6 weeks later. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by an Australian Health Research Ethics Committee after a protracted process of negotiation. The ethics committee was influenced by a traditional view of research as based on scientific experiments resulting in a poor understanding of video-ethnographic research, a paradigmatic view of the politics and practicalities of modern childbirth processes, a desire to protect institutions from litigation, and what we perceived as a paternalistic approach towards protecting participants, one that was at odds with our aim to facilitate situations in which women could make flexible, autonomous decisions about how they might engage with the research process. The perceived need for protection was overly burdensome and against the wishes of the participants themselves; ultimately, this limited the capacity of the study to improve care for women and babies. Recommendations are offered for those involved in ethical approval processes for qualitative research in childbirth settings. The complexity of issues within childbirth settings, as in most modern healthcare settings, should be analysed using a variety of research approaches, beyond efficacy
Full Text Available It has been suggested that video-assisted (VATS lobectomy is safer than open lobectomy in patients with compromised lung function, but data regarding this are limited. We assessed acute outcomes of VATS compared to open lobectomy in these high-risk patients using a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of data.The databases PubMed and Scopus were searched for studies published between 2000 and 2013 that reported mortality and morbidity of VATS in high-risk lung cancer patients defined as having compromised pulmonary or cardiopulmonary function. Study selection, data collection and critical assessment of the included studies were performed according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration.Three case-control studies and three case series that included 330 VATS and 257 open patients were identified for inclusion. Operative mortality, overall morbidity and pulmonary morbidity were 2.5%, 39.3%, 26.2% in VATS patients and 7.8%, 57.5%, 45.5% in open lobectomy group, respectively. VATS lobectomy patients experienced significantly lower pulmonary morbidity (RR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.67; p = 0.0001, somewhat reduced operative mortality (RR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.06; p = 0.07, but no significant difference in overall morbidity (RR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.14; p = 0.14.The existing data suggest that VATS lobectomy is associated with lower risk for pulmonary morbidity compared with open lobectomy in lung cancer patients with compromised lung function.
Kalss, Gudrun; Leitinger, Markus; Dobesberger, Judith; Granbichler, Claudia A.; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Trinka, Eugen
Introduction There is limited information on ictal unilateral eye blinking (UEB) as a lateralizing sign in focal seizures. We identified two patients with UEB and propose a novel mechanism of UEB based on a review of the literature. Materials and methods We report on two patients with intractable focal epilepsy showing UEB among 269 consecutive patients undergoing noninvasive video-EEG monitoring from October 2011 to May 2013. Results Unilateral eye blinking was observed in 0.7% (two of 269) of our patients. Patient one had four focal seizures. Semiological signs in all of her seizures were impaired consciousness, bilateral eye blinking (BEB), and UEB on the right. During one seizure, BEB recurred after UEB with a higher blink frequency on the right. Patient two had ten focal seizures. Among them were one electrographic seizure and nine focal seizures with BEB (in 3/10) and UEB on the left (in 1/10 seizures, respectively). Both patients did not display any clonic activity of the face. In seizures with UEB, ictal EEG onset was observed over the ipsilateral frontotemporal region in both of the patients (over F8 in 2/4, Fp2-F8 in 1/4, Sp2-T2 in 1/4, and F7 in 1/1 seizures, respectively). Ictal pattern during UEB showed bilateral ictal activity (in 4/4) and ictal discharges over the ipsilateral frontal region (maximum over F3 in 1/1 seizure). Interictal EEG showed sharp waves over the same regions. Discussion Unilateral eye blinking was ipsilateral to the frontotemporal ictal EEG pattern in both patients. The asymmetric blink frequency during BEB in patient one leads to the hypothesis that ictal UEB is caused by contralateral blink inhibition due to activation in frontotemporal cortical areas and mediated by trigeminal fibers. PMID:25667853
Kalss, Gudrun; Leitinger, Markus; Dobesberger, Judith; Granbichler, Claudia A; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Trinka, Eugen
There is limited information on ictal unilateral eye blinking (UEB) as a lateralizing sign in focal seizures. We identified two patients with UEB and propose a novel mechanism of UEB based on a review of the literature. We report on two patients with intractable focal epilepsy showing UEB among 269 consecutive patients undergoing noninvasive video-EEG monitoring from October 2011 to May 2013. Unilateral eye blinking was observed in 0.7% (two of 269) of our patients. Patient one had four focal seizures. Semiological signs in all of her seizures were impaired consciousness, bilateral eye blinking (BEB), and UEB on the right. During one seizure, BEB recurred after UEB with a higher blink frequency on the right. Patient two had ten focal seizures. Among them were one electrographic seizure and nine focal seizures with BEB (in 3/10) and UEB on the left (in 1/10 seizures, respectively). Both patients did not display any clonic activity of the face. In seizures with UEB, ictal EEG onset was observed over the ipsilateral frontotemporal region in both of the patients (over F8 in 2/4, Fp2-F8 in 1/4, Sp2-T2 in 1/4, and F7 in 1/1 seizures, respectively). Ictal pattern during UEB showed bilateral ictal activity (in 4/4) and ictal discharges over the ipsilateral frontal region (maximum over F3 in 1/1 seizure). Interictal EEG showed sharp waves over the same regions. Unilateral eye blinking was ipsilateral to the frontotemporal ictal EEG pattern in both patients. The asymmetric blink frequency during BEB in patient one leads to the hypothesis that ictal UEB is caused by contralateral blink inhibition due to activation in frontotemporal cortical areas and mediated by trigeminal fibers.
McCambridge, Jim; Witton, John; Elbourne, Diana R.
Objectives This study aims to (1) elucidate whether the Hawthorne effect exists, (2) explore under what conditions, and (3) estimate the size of any such effect. Study Design and Setting This systematic review summarizes and evaluates the strength of available evidence on the Hawthorne effect. An inclusive definition of any form of research artifact on behavior using this label, and without cointerventions, was adopted. Results Nineteen purposively designed studies were included, providing quantitative data on the size of the effect in eight randomized controlled trials, five quasiexperimental studies, and six observational evaluations of reporting on one's behavior by answering questions or being directly observed and being aware of being studied. Although all but one study was undertaken within health sciences, study methods, contexts, and findings were highly heterogeneous. Most studies reported some evidence of an effect, although significant biases are judged likely because of the complexity of the evaluation object. Conclusion Consequences of research participation for behaviors being investigated do exist, although little can be securely known about the conditions under which they operate, their mechanisms of effects, or their magnitudes. New concepts are needed to guide empirical studies. PMID:24275499
McCambridge, Jim; Witton, John; Elbourne, Diana R
This study aims to (1) elucidate whether the Hawthorne effect exists, (2) explore under what conditions, and (3) estimate the size of any such effect. This systematic review summarizes and evaluates the strength of available evidence on the Hawthorne effect. An inclusive definition of any form of research artifact on behavior using this label, and without cointerventions, was adopted. Nineteen purposively designed studies were included, providing quantitative data on the size of the effect in eight randomized controlled trials, five quasiexperimental studies, and six observational evaluations of reporting on one's behavior by answering questions or being directly observed and being aware of being studied. Although all but one study was undertaken within health sciences, study methods, contexts, and findings were highly heterogeneous. Most studies reported some evidence of an effect, although significant biases are judged likely because of the complexity of the evaluation object. Consequences of research participation for behaviors being investigated do exist, although little can be securely known about the conditions under which they operate, their mechanisms of effects, or their magnitudes. New concepts are needed to guide empirical studies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting >2.5 million people worldwide. Damage to neurons in the CNS causes various sensorimotor and cognitive symptoms, such as fatigue, pain, spasticity, memory deficits, and impairment of mobility. Until the late 1990s, it was believed that symptoms of MS would be worsened with physical exertion and people with MS were encouraged to limit physical activity and exertion. Not only has emerging evidence suggested that physical activity, including exercise, is safe for people with MS, there is also evidence that at least some of the disability that occurs after MS is due to secondary deconditioning from the sedentary lifestyle adopted because of the symptoms of MS, not just CNS damage alone. Therefore, not only is physical activity safe, it is also required for maintaining function and health in people with MS. The purpose of this article is to review the unique physical and social barriers to physical activity in people with MS, including those with moderate to severe disability who use a wheelchair or scooter for mobility. We will discuss how existing guidelines for physical activity may not meet the needs of people with MS and present evidence-based considerations for promoting physical activity in people with MS. Ultimately, the goal is to overcome the barriers to physical activity and improve health, participation, and quality of life in people with MS. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Deans, Sarah; Burns, David; McGarry, Anthony; Murray, Kevin; Mutrie, Nanette
The UK will host the Paralympics in 2012 and the Commonwealth Games in 2014 showcasing the talents of elite athletes and aiming to inspire the population to become involved. However, low levels of physical activity are prevalent: only 40% of men and 28% of women meet the minimum UK physical activity recommendations. The population of people with limb absence is no exception. To determine if people with amputation are participating in physical activity and sport; whether post-amputation activity levels match pre-amputation levels; and if there are motivations and barriers to participation. Literature review. Five reviewers systematically searched all peer reviewed and gray literature in seven bibliographic databases and the Cochrane Library. Following rigorous elimination, 12 articles were finally included in the review and critically appraised. Four themes were identified: components; rehabilitation outcomes; body image; and motivations and barriers to participation. People with limb absence are not participating in physical activity conducive to health benefits, and only a minority participate in exercise and sports. Participation following amputation does not mirror that of pre-amputation levels, and more barriers than motivations exist to adopting or maintaining a physically active lifestyle.
Bennett, Guinevere S
This study compared interactive video test performance and students' overall class performance. The hypothesis was that there would be a difference in video test performance compared to overall class performance. A total of 30 students participated in the pilot study from a master's level biomechanics course. Students completed four interactive video tests using EduCanon; content of videos included base of support, lever systems, scapulohumeral rhythm, and postural analysis. This content was reviewed with class discussion after completion of the interactive video test. The tests administered counted toward the participation portion of the final student grade. Student performance on the EduCanon interactive video test was compared to overall class grade using a paired t-test. All 30 students completed the 4 EduCanon interactive video tests. Final class grades were greater compared to cumulative EduCanon test performance. There was no difference between performance using interactive video testing compared to students' overall class performance (t = -1.43, p = .16). The results of this study did not support improved student assessment performance with incorporation of interactive video testing in the classroom environment. Continued research into new testing strategies is recommended to identify additional effective testing in the classroom.
Mulder, Raoul A.; Pearce, Jon M.; Baik, Chi
Peer review is integral to academic endeavour, but opportunities for students to benefit from peer review in higher education remain limited, and relatively little is known about how student perceptions influence their appreciation of peer review. University student perceptions were examined before and after experiencing student peer review in…
Jaarsma, E. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Dekker, R.
Most people with physical disabilities do not participate in sports regularly, which could increase the chances of developing secondary health conditions. Therefore, knowledge about barriers to and facilitators of sports participation is needed. Barriers and facilitators for people with physical
Full Text Available As the public education system in Northern Ontario continues to take a downward spiral, a plethora of secondary school students are being placed in an alternative educational environment. Juxtaposing the two educational settings reveals very similar methods and characteristics of educating our youth as opposed to using a truly alternative approach to education. This video reviews the relationship between public education and alternative education in a remote Northern Ontario setting. It is my belief that the traditional methods of teaching are not appropriate in educating at risk students in alternative schools. Paper and pencil worksheets do not motivate these students to learn and succeed. Alternative education should emphasize experiential learning, a just in time curriculum based on every unique individual and the students true passion for everyday life. Cameron Culbert was born on February 3rd, 1977 in North Bay, Ontario. His teenage years were split between attending public school and his willed curriculum on the ski hill. Culbert spent 10 years (1996-2002 & 2006-2010 competing for Canada as an alpine ski racer. His passion for teaching and coaching began as an athlete and has now transferred into the classroom and the community. As a graduate of Nipissing University (BA, BEd, MEd. Camerons research interests are alternative education, physical education and technology in the classroom. Currently Cameron is an active educator and coach in Northern Ontario.
Bult, M. K.; Verschuren, O.; Jongmans, M. J.; Lindeman, E.; Ketelaar, M.
In 2001 the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) defined participation as "someone's involvement in life situations". Participation in leisure activities contributes to the development of children and their quality of life. Children with physical disabilities are known to be at risk for participation in fewer activities. The group of…
Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Miller, Trube; Callahan, Kevin J.
Video instruction as an intervention for teaching skills to children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is gaining increased momentum in applied settings.Video instruction, comprised of video modeling, video self-modeling, and point-of-view video, has been utilized in various fields of study with various populations and target behaviors.…
Koehler Hildebrandt, Aubry N; Hodgson, Jennifer L; Dodor, Bernice A; Knight, Sharon M; Rappleyea, Damon L
The purposes of this systematic review were to (1) review the literature related to the demographic and biopsychosocial-spiritual factors impacting cardiac rehabilitation (CR) referral and participation of African American patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD); (2) identify barriers and facilitators to CR referral and participation for this population; (3) identify gaps in the literature; and (4) make recommendations for future research studies and interventions. The Cooper 7-step protocol for research synthesis was followed to formulate a research question and search MEDLINE via PubMed, PsycINFO via EBSCO, and CINAHL via EBSCO. A second reviewer repeated the searches performed by the first author in the initial review. A total of 1640 articles identified using the search strategy yielded 7 articles that fit the search criteria. Most studies measured demographic or social factors. Two studies measured biological factors, 1 study measured psychological factors, and no study measured spiritual factors. According to the studies reviewed, African American patients with CVD were less likely to receive a CR referral, more likely to enroll in CR with more cardiovascular risk factors, and less likely to participate in and complete CR due to factors related to low socioeconomic status (eg, lack of insurance, work conflicts, lower level of education) than non-Hispanic white patients. Further research is needed on the interaction between demographic/biopsychosocial-spiritual factors and referral to and participation of African Americans in CR in order to ensure that interventions fit the needs of this particular population.
White, Kiri; Boehm, Emilia; Chester, Andrea
Peer review of teaching is a collegial process designed to help academics reflect on and improve their teaching practice. Considerable research supports the value of peer review of teaching. However, uptake of voluntary programs is typically low. Few studies have examined the predictors of engagement in voluntary peer review. This study surveyed…
Reponen, Erika; Lehikoinen, Jaakko; Impiö, Jussi
Video recording has become a spontaneous everyday activity for many people, thanks to the video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Internet connectivity of mobile phones enables fluent sharing of captured material even real-time, which makes video an up-and-coming everyday interaction medium. In this article we discuss the effect of the video camera in the social environment, everyday life situations, mainly based on a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their normal settings. We also reflect on another study of ours, relating to real-time mobile video communication and discuss future views. The aim of our research is to understand the possibilities in the domain of mobile video. Live and delayed sharing seem to have their special characteristics, live video being used as a virtual window between places whereas delayed video usage has more scope for good-quality content. While this novel way of interacting via mobile video enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust between participating persons in all roles, largely due to the widely spreading possibilities of videos. Video in a social situation affects cameramen (who record), targets (who are recorded), passers-by (who are unintentionally in the situation), and the audience (who follow the videos or recording situations) but also the other way around, the participants affect the video by their varying and evolving personal and communicational motivations for recording.
Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John
Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...
Hayes, Elizabeth; Silberman, Lauren
Contrary to common belief, several studies have found no relationship between video gaming and obesity or physical inactivity. In fact, video gaming is an untapped resource for enhancing young people's motivation and ability to participate in sports and other movement-based activities. Many popular video games offer sophisticated and engaging…
van Bijleveld, Ganna G.; Dedding, Christine W. M.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
This state-of-the-art literature review, based on a literature search of multiple scientific bibliographic databases, aims to shed light on what is known about barriers and factors facilitating child participation within the child protection and child welfare services from both children's and social
Vale, C.L.; Rydzewska, L.H.; Rovers, M.M.; Emberson, J.R.; Gueyffier, F.; Stewart, L.A.
OBJECTIVE: To establish the extent to which systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) are being used to inform the recommendations included in published clinical guidelines. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Database maintained by the Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis
Vale, Claire L.; Rydzewska, Larysa H. M.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Emberson, Jonathan R.; Gueyffier, François; Stewart, Lesley A.; Alderson, P.; Askie, L.; Bennett, D.; Burdett, S.; Clarke, M.; Dias, S.; Emberson, J.; Gueyffier, F.; Iorio, A.; Macleod, M.; Mol, B. W.; Moons, C.; Parmar, M.; Perera, R.; Phillips, R.; Pignon, J. P.; Rees, J.; Reitsma, H.; Riley, R.; Rovers, M.; Rydzewska, L.; Schmid, C.; Shepperd, S.; Stenning, S.; Stewart, L.; Tierney, J.; Tudur Smith, C.; Vale, C.; Welge, J.; White, I.; Whiteley, W.
OBJECTIVE To establish the extent to which systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) are being used to inform the recommendations included in published clinical guidelines. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Database maintained by the Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis Methods
Yang, Zhang; Shen, Zhenghai; Zhou, Qinghua; Huang, Yunchao
Recent studies compared single-incision thoracoscopic surgery (SITS) with more widely used conventional multiport video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the treatment of lung cancer. To establish the safety and feasible of SITS in the treatment of lung cancer, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis. Eleven studies were identified from the databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, SpringerLink, and ScienceDirect. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies evaluated the outcomes of SITS compared with multiport video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the treatment of lung cancer were included for analysis. Odds ratio (OR, used to compare dichotomous variables) and weight mean difference (WMD, used to compare continuous variables) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on intention-to-treat analysis. Eleven studies including 1314 patients were included for analysis. Our analysis showed that the operative time, blood loss amount, mean duration of chest tube, lymph nodes retrieved were similar between two approaches, the SITS pulmonary resection might be associated with shorter hospital stay (p = .008) and lower complication rate (p = .009) when compared with conventional multiport video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approaches. In selected patients SITS is safe, feasible and may be considered an alternative to multiport VATS.
Bell, Jennifer A H; Balneaves, Lynda G
Oncology clinical trials are necessary for the improvement of patient care as they have the ability to confirm the efficacy and safety of novel cancer treatments and in so doing, contribute to a solid evidence base on which practitioners and patients can make informed treatment decisions. However, only 3-5 % of adult cancer patients enroll in clinical trials. Lack of participation compromises the success of clinical trials and squanders an opportunity for improving patient outcomes. This literature review summarizes the factors and contexts that influence cancer patient decision making related to clinical trial participation. An integrative review was undertaken within PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases for articles written between 1995 and 2012 and archived under relevant keywords. Articles selected were data-based, written in English, and limited to adult cancer patients. In the 51 articles reviewed, three main types of factors were identified that influence cancer patients' decision making about participation in clinical trials: personal, social, and system factors. Subthemes included patients' trust in their physician and the research process, undue influence within the patient-physician relationship, and systemic social inequalities. How these factors interact and influence patients' decision-making process and relational autonomy, however, is insufficiently understood. Future research is needed to further elucidate the sociopolitical barriers and facilitators of clinical trial participation and to enhance ethical practice within clinical trial enrolment. This research will inform targeted education and support interventions to foster patients' relational autonomy in the decision-making process and potentially improve clinical trial participation rates.
Boulton, Natalie E; Williams, Jonathan; Jones, Robert Sp
People with intellectual disabilities are entitled to equitable access to psychological support. Traditional therapeutic approaches often rely on a person's ability to verbally articulate a description of their life, which can be particularly difficult for emotionally salient information. A systematic literature review was undertaken to determine the evidence base underpinning the use of participant-produced photography within therapeutic settings. Evidence across a range of specialisms was examined in order to extrapolate areas of best practice and make recommendations for its implementation alongside people with intellectual disabilities. A systematic search of peer-reviewed journals identified 13 relevant documents. Participant-produced photography showed promise, although evidence pertaining specifically to people with intellectual disabilities was sparse ( n = 2). Participant-produced photography within therapeutic settings shows promise for people with intellectual disabilities. Methodological limitations made it difficult to derive firm conclusions regarding the effectiveness of different approaches. Implications for clinical and research practice are discussed.
George, Sheba; Duran, Nelida; Norris, Keith
To assess the experienced or perceived barriers and facilitators to health research participation for major US racial/ethnic minority populations, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies from a search on PubMed and Web of Science from January 2000 to December 2011. With 44 articles included in the review, we found distinct and shared barriers and facilitators. Despite different expressions of mistrust, all groups represented in these studies were willing to participate for altruistic reasons embedded in cultural and community priorities. Greater comparative understanding of barriers and facilitators to racial/ethnic minorities' research participation can improve population-specific recruitment and retention strategies and could better inform future large-scale prospective quantitative and in-depth ethnographic studies.
Full Text Available This is the first in Athabasca University’s series of evaluation reports to feature online Webcam and videoconferencing products. While Webcam software generates a simple visual presentation from a live online camera, videoconferencing products contain a wider range of interactive features serving multi-point interactions between participants. In many online situations, the addition of video images to a live presentation can add substantially to its educational effectiveness. Ten products/ online services are reviewed, supporting a wide range of video-based activities.
Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
participation and involvement has a positive effect on the process and outcome of rehabilitation in mental health. Exploration of this area would benefit from greater clarity of theoretical concepts around user participation, and further research should explore barriers to user involvement....
Rettke, Horst; Geschwindner, Heike M.; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.
PurposeIn addition to the amount and intensity of rehabilitation interventions and the number of therapies, the degree of patient participation in physical rehabilitation activities is key. For this reason, adequate information regarding participation is necessary to evaluate patient performance.
Kilpatrick, Sue; Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Baynes, Hazel
The educational participation and retention of youth in education in Tasmania and factors affecting them were examined in relation to the patterns observed throughout Australia and elsewhere. The study established that Australian youth's participation in education, including school, vocational education and training (VET), and higher education,…
Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar
Purpose: To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method: Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results: No…
Porter, Guy; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Fenech, Pauline
It has been increasingly recognized that some people develop problem video game use, defined here as excessive use of video games resulting in various negative psychosocial and/or physical consequences. The main objectives of the present study were to identify individuals with problem video game use and compare them with those without problem video game use on several variables. An international, anonymous online survey was conducted, using a questionnaire with provisional criteria for problem video game use, which the authors have developed. These criteria reflect the crucial features of problem video game use: preoccupation with and loss of control over playing video games and multiple adverse consequences of this activity. A total of 1945 survey participants completed the survey. Respondents who were identified as problem video game users (n = 156, 8.0%) differed significantly from others (n = 1789) on variables that provided independent, preliminary validation of the provisional criteria for problem video game use. They played longer than planned and with greater frequency, and more often played even though they did not want to and despite believing that they should not do it. Problem video game users were more likely to play certain online role-playing games, found it easier to meet people online, had fewer friends in real life, and more often reported excessive caffeine consumption. People with problem video game use can be identified by means of a questionnaire and on the basis of the present provisional criteria, which require further validation. These findings have implications for recognition of problem video game users among individuals, especially adolescents, who present to mental health services. Mental health professionals need to acknowledge the public health significance of the multiple negative consequences of problem video game use.
Jiwa, Moyez; Meng, Xingqiong
There is unequal access to health care in Australia, particularly for the one-third of the population living in remote and rural areas. Video consultations delivered via the Internet present an opportunity to provide medical services to those who are underserviced, but this is not currently routine practice in Australia. There are advantages and shortcomings to using video consultations for diagnosis, and general practitioners (GPs) have varying opinions regarding their efficacy. The aim of this Internet-based study was to explore the attitudes of Australian GPs toward video consultation by using a range of patient scenarios presenting different clinical problems. Overall, 102 GPs were invited to view 6 video vignettes featuring patients presenting with acute and chronic illnesses. For each vignette, they were asked to offer a differential diagnosis and to complete a survey based on the theory of planned behavior documenting their views on the value of a video consultation. A total of 47 GPs participated in the study. The participants were younger than Australian GPs based on national data, and more likely to be working in a larger practice. Most participants (72%-100%) agreed on the differential diagnosis in all video scenarios. Approximately one-third of the study participants were positive about video consultations, one-third were ambivalent, and one-third were against them. In all, 91% opposed conducting a video consultation for the patient with symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction. Inability to examine the patient was most frequently cited as the reason for not conducting a video consultation. Australian GPs who were favorably inclined toward video consultations were more likely to work in larger practices, and were more established GPs, especially in rural areas. The survey results also suggest that the deployment of video technology will need to focus on follow-up consultations. Patients with minor self-limiting illnesses and those with medical
Full Text Available Questions: Does constraint-induced movement therapy improve activity and participation in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy? Does it improve activity and participation more than the same dose of upper limb therapy without restraint? Is the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy related to the duration of intervention or the age of the children? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Participants: Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy with any level of motor disability. Intervention: The experimental group received constraint-induced movement therapy (defined as restraint of the less affected upper limb during supervised activity practice of the more affected upper limb. The control group received no intervention, sham intervention, or the same dose of upper limb therapy. Outcome measures: Measures of upper limb activity and participation were used in the analysis. Results: Constraint-induced movement therapy was more effective than no/sham intervention in terms of upper limb activity (SMD 0.63, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.06 and participation (SMD 1.21, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.02. However, constraint-induced movement therapy was no better than the same dose of upper limb therapy without restraint either in terms of upper limb activity (SMD 0.05, 95% CI –0.21 to 0.32 or participation (SMD –0.02, 95% CI –0.34 to 0.31. The effect of constraint-induced movement therapy was not related to the duration of intervention or the age of the children. Conclusions: This review suggests that constraint-induced movement therapy is more effective than no intervention, but no more effective than the same dose of upper limb practice without restraint. Registration: PROSPERO CRD42015024665. [Chiu H-C, Ada L (2016 Constraint-induced movement therapy improves upper limb activity and participation in hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 130–137
The requirements for this literature review were set out in 5.1 as detailed in the Environment Agencys proposal for ComCoast work package 4 stakeholder dialogue and communication. The aims were: 1) To review literature relevant to the BTwC and ComCoast to understand the main messages and evidence to
Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma
Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.
Saun, Tomas J; Odorizzi, Scott; Yeung, Celine; Johnson, Marjorie; Bandiera, Glen; Dev, Shelly P
Online medical education resources are becoming an increasingly used modality and many studies have demonstrated their efficacy in procedural instruction. This study sought to determine whether a standardized online procedural video is as effective as a standard recorded didactic teaching session for chest tube insertion. A randomized control trial was conducted. Participants were taught how to insert a chest tube with either a recorded didactic teaching session, or a New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) video. Participants filled out a questionnaire before and after performing the procedure on a cadaver, which was filmed and assessed by 2 blinded evaluators using a standardized tool. Western University, London, Ontario. Level of clinical care: institutional. A total of 30 fourth-year medical students from 2 graduating classes at the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry were screened for eligibility. Two students did not complete the study and were excluded. There were 13 students in the NEJM group, and 15 students in the didactic group. The NEJM group׳s average score was 45.2% (±9.56) on the prequestionnaire, 67.7% (±12.9) for the procedure, and 60.1% (±7.65) on the postquestionnaire. The didactic group׳s average score was 42.8% (±10.9) on the prequestionnaire, 73.7% (±9.90) for the procedure, and 46.5% (±7.46) on the postquestionnaire. There was no difference between the groups on the prequestionnaire (Δ + 2.4%; 95% CI: -5.16 to 9.99), or the procedure (Δ -6.0%; 95% CI: -14.6 to 2.65). The NEJM group had better scores on the postquestionnaire (Δ + 11.15%; 95% CI: 3.74-18.6). The NEJM video was as effective as video-recorded didactic training for teaching the knowledge and technical skills essential for chest tube insertion. Participants expressed high satisfaction with this modality. It may prove to be a helpful adjunct to standard instruction on the topic. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc
Medical emergencies occur commonly in offices of family physicians, yet many offices are poorly prepared for emergencies. An Internet-based educational video discussing office emergencies might improve the responses of physicians and their staff to emergencies, yet such a tool has not been previously described. To use evidence-based practices to develop an educational video detailing preparation for emergencies in medical offices, disseminate the video online, and evaluate the attitudes of physicians and their staff toward the video. A 6-minute video was created using a review of recent literature and Canadian regulatory body policies. The video describes recommended emergency equipment, emergency response improvement, and office staff training. Physicians and their staff were invited to view the video online at www.OfficeEmergencies.ca. Viewers' opinions of the video format and content were assessed by survey (n = 275). Survey findings indicated the video was well presented and relevant, and the Web-based format was considered convenient and satisfactory. Participants would take other courses using this technology, and agreed this program would enhance patient care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
de Beer, Joost; Engels, Josephine; Heerkens, Yvonne; van der Klink, Jac
Background: Evidence has been synthesized to determine hindering and facilitating factors associated with the work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD), classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods: A systematic
Nunnerley, Joanne; Dunn, Jennifer; McPherson, Kathryn; Hooper, Gary; Woodfield, Tim
A literature review to evaluate quality of life and participation outcomes of individuals with earthquake-related physical injury. A systematic review was performed using National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL and AMED electronic databases were searched from 1966 to January 2014. Studies that measured quality of life or participation outcomes among individuals who acquired a physical disability as a result of an earthquake injury were included, with no limits on research design. The search yielded 961 potentially relevant articles after removal of duplicates. Of these, only 8 articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were rated for quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) guidelines. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of the included studies. Injured earthquake survivors in developing countries experience diminished participation and reduced quality of life. Small sample sizes and lack of uniformity in outcome measurement limit generalizability. No studies from developed countries were identified. To maximize our understanding of quality of life and participation in injured earthquake survivors, future research should consider both the functional consequences of the injury and the environmental impact of the earthquake. The research should be based on representative samples of the injured earthquake survivors and use validated condition-specific outcome measures that are clearly defined within the publications. In addition, research should include all countries that are affected by earthquakes.
This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…
Jenkin, Claire R; Eime, Rochelle M; Westerbeek, Hans; O'Sullivan, Grant; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z
The global population is ageing. As ageing is often associated with a decline in health, there is a need to further develop preventative health measures. Physical activity can positively influence older adults' (aged 50 years and older) health. Previous research on the relationship between physical activity and health for older adults has mainly focused on physical activity in general, and not specific types of exercise. Due to the social nature of sport, it may assist in improving physical, mental and social health for older adults. Sport, as a form of physical activity, has not been widely explored as a physical activity opportunity for older adults. This review concurrently explored two research questions: the determinants and the trends of sport participation for community dwelling older adults. Two parallel systematic searches of nine electronic databases were conducted in December 2015 for the two research questions. English language quantitative and qualitative studies that provided specific results for community dwelling older adults' sport participation were included and a quality ratings assessment was undertaken. There were 10,171 studies initially identified for the first research question and 1992 studies for the second research question. This culminated in 18 and 8 studies respectively that met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently mentioned determinants of participation were health and using sport to negotiate the ageing process. The most frequently mentioned trends of sport participation were the effect of historical sport participation on current participation, and sport participation across the lifespan. The main themes for both research questions had contrasting results, for example, participation in sport could improve health, but poor health was also a limitation of sport participation. This review demonstrates that older adults are a heterogeneous age group, and therefore require different strategies than other age groups to
Full Text Available The one constant of librarianship is the inevitability of interaction with diverse populations throughout all facets of the profession. This literature review critically examines works on the education and participation of North American Aboriginal people in the profession of librarianship and outlines the evolution of recruitment and retention strategies as they are addressed in scholarly literature. The authors pay particular attention to Canada where Aboriginal people have, historically, constituted an under-served and understudied demographic in the field of Library and Information Studies (LIS. The authors note that much LIS literature on diversity tackles the subject in its broadest scope; even authors specifically addressing race tend to focus on all visible minorities and ignore those factors specific to Aboriginal people. Those who do examine the topic in a more targeted fashion discuss the barriers that discourage Aboriginal people from pursuing librarianship, and touch on the varying levels of success achieved by a variety of recruitment strategies. As many of these recruitment tactics have proven inadequate, educators and academics have begun to explore the necessity of infusing diversity education throughout LIS curricula and - going further - indigenizing academia. In more recent scholarship, the fundamental bias of western education is increasingly discussed, and recruitment literature now reflects the need to foster an academic environment where alternate methodologies and epistemologies are used and respected, rather than studied as the historic relics of a stagnant culture. L’une des constantes du poste de bibliothécaire est l’inévitable interaction avec des populations diverses à travers toutes facettes de la profession. Cette analyse bibliographique examine d’un oeil critique des travaux sur l’éducation et la participation des peuples autochtones nord-américaines dans la profession de documentation, et expose les
Purnell, Tanjala S; Auguste, Priscilla; Crews, Deidra C; Lamprea-Montealegre, Julio; Olufade, Temitope; Greer, Raquel; Ephraim, Patti; Sheu, Johanna; Kostecki, Daniel; Powe, Neil R; Rabb, Hamid; Jaar, Bernard; Boulware, L Ebony
A comprehensive assessment of the association of patients' renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality with their participation in life activities (physical function, travel, recreation, freedom, and work) is needed. Systematic review of peer-reviewed published studies. Adults undergoing RRT (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or transplantation). We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE from January 1980 through April 2012 for English-language articles that compared participation in life activities among patients receiving: (1) hemodialysis compared with peritoneal dialysis, (2) hemodialysis compared with kidney transplantation, or (3) peritoneal dialysis compared with kidney transplantation. RRT modality. Reported rates of physical function, travel, recreation, freedom, and work-related activities by RRT modality. 46 studies (6 prospective cohort, 38 cross-sectional, and 2 pre-post transplantation) provided relevant comparisons of life participation activities among patients treated with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Studies were conducted in 1985-2011 among diverse patient populations in 16 distinct locations. A majority of studies reported greater life participation rates for patients with kidney transplants compared with patients receiving either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In contrast, a majority of studies reported no differences in outcomes between patients receiving hemodialysis and patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. These results were consistent throughout the study period, across diverse populations, and among the subset of studies that performed appropriate adjustments for potential confounding factors. Many studies included in the review had significant design weaknesses. Evidence suggests that patients with kidney transplants may experience better rates of life participation compared with patients receiving dialysis, whereas patients receiving hemodialysis and patients receiving peritoneal dialysis
Ohtake, Patricia J; Coffey Scott, Jacqueline; Hinman, Rana S; Lee, Alan Chong; Smith, James M
Critical illness requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management is a life-altering event with ∼25% of ICU survivors experiencing persistent reductions in physical functioning, impairments in mental health, cognitive dysfunction and decreased quality of life. This constellation of problems is known as 'postintensive care syndrome' (PICS) and may persist for months and/or years. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the scope and magnitude of physical problems associated with PICS during the first year after discharge from ICU, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to elucidate the impairments of body functions and structures, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Ovid), PubMed, CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science and EMBASE will be systematically searched for observational studies reporting the physical impairments of body functions and structures, activity limitations and participation restrictions associated with PICS. Two reviewers will assess the articles for eligibility according to prespecified selection criteria, after which an independent reviewer will perform data extraction which will be validated by a second independent reviewer. Quality appraisal will be performed by two independent reviewers. Outcomes of the included studies will be summarised in tables and in narrative format and meta-analyses will be conducted where appropriate. Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data is collected. This systematic review will identify the scope and magnitude of physical problems associated with PICS during the first year after discharge from ICU and will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and at conference meetings, to inform practice and future research on the physical problems associated with PICS. CRD42015023520. Published by the BMJ Publishing
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Bjerrum, Merete Bender
Informal caregivers who perform at-home care of older people with dementia might have feelings of a meaningless existence, burden, anxiety, stress and fatigue. Support groups are considered an especially effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers' stress and burden, although it is unclear if participating in group meetings produces a meaningful outcome for the informal caregiver. To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. Informal caregivers of older adults aged 65 years and over with dementia. The informal caregiver was a family member, and care was performed at home. How the informal caregivers perceived the meaningfulness of participating in support groups. The setting was all locations where support groups for informal caregivers were held and studied. TYPES OF STUDIES: Studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: Subjective accounts of the informal caregivers' perceptions of the meaningfulness associated with participating in support groups. Beliefs, benefits, rewards and attitudes related to a caregiver's experiences as a participant in support groups and in the role as caregiver. The perception by informal caregivers of participating in support groups as a way to release stress. The search aimed at finding published and unpublished studies in English, German, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian, and was unrestricted by time. Eleven electronic databases and eleven websites were searched. Methodological quality of the qualitative papers was assessed independently by two reviewers using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Qualitative data were extracted from papers included in the review using the standardized data
M.Sc. (Computer Science) A video conference is an interactive meeting between two or more locations, facilitated by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. People in a video conference, also known as participants, join these video conferences for business and recreational purposes. In a typical video conference, we should properly identify and authenticate every participant in the video conference, if information discussed during the video conference is confidential. This preve...
Shabani, Mahsa; Bezuidenhout, Louise; Borry, Pascal
Introducing data sharing practices into the genomic research arena has challenged the current mechanisms established to protect rights of individuals and triggered policy considerations. To inform such policy deliberations, soliciting public and research participants' attitudes with respect to genomic data sharing is a necessity. The main electronic databases were searched in order to retrieve empirical studies, investigating the attitudes of research participants and the public towards genomic data sharing through public databases. In the 15 included studies, participants' attitudes towards genomic data sharing revealed the influence of a constellation of interrelated factors, including the personal perceptions of controllability and sensitivity of data, potential risks and benefits of data sharing at individual and social level and also governance level considerations. This analysis indicates that future policy responses and recruitment practices should be attentive to a wide variety of concerns in order to promote both responsible and progressive research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric rehabilitation considers Family-centered service (FCS as a way to increase participation of children with a physical disability in daily life. An important principal is that parents greatly contribute to their child’s participation at school, at home, and in the community. However, it is unclear what kind of information is available from literature about what parents actually do to support their child’s participation and what problems and needs they experience? Hence, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of the actions, challenges, and needs of parents in enabling participation of their child with a physical disability that is neurological and non-progressive in nature. Methods Scoping review with extensive literature search (September 2011 and a thematic analysis to synthesize findings. Results Fourteen relevant articles revealed two major themes: ‘parents enable and support performance of meaningful activities’ and ‘parents enable, change and use the environment’. Each theme holds a number of actions (e.g. choosing the right type of meaningful activities for facilitating social contacts and challenges (e.g. negative attitudes of other people. Less information is available about the needs of parents. Conclusions This study indicates that parents apply a broad range of strategies to support participation of their children. They experience many challenges, especially as a result of constraints in the social and physical environments. However, this review also shows that little is known about needs of parents in facilitating participation. As Family-centered service (FCS philosophy is all about the needs of the child and the family, it is essential to further investigate the needs of the parents and to understand if and to what extent they wish to be supported in enabling their child’s participation in daily life.
D'Abramo, Flavio; Schildmann, Jan; Vollmann, Jochen
Appropriate information and consent has been one of the most intensely discussed topics within the context of biobank research. In parallel to the normative debate, many socio-empirical studies have been conducted to gather experiences, preferences and views of patients, healthy research participants and further stakeholders. However, there is scarcity of literature which connects the normative debate about justifications for different consent models with findings gained in empirical research. In this paper we discuss findings of a limited review of socio-empirical research on patients' and healthy research participants' experiences and views regarding consent to biobank research in light of ethical principles for appropriate information and consent. Review question: Which empirical data are available on research participants' perceptions and views regarding information and elicitation of consent for biobank research? Search of articles published till March 1st 2014 in Pubmed. Review of abstracts and potentially relevant full text articles by two authors independently. As categories for content analysis we defined (i) understanding or recall of information, (ii) preferences regarding information or consent, and (iii) research participants' concerns. The search in Pubmed yielded 337 abstracts of which 10 articles were included in this study. Approaches to information and consent varied considerably across the selected studies. The majority of research participants opted for some version of limited consent when being informed about such possibility. Among the factors influencing the type of preferred consent were information about sponsoring of biobank research by pharmaceutical industry and participants' trade-off between privacy and perceived utility. Studies investigating research participants' understanding and recall regarding the consent procedure indicated considerable lack of both aspects. Research participants' perceptions of benefits and harms differ across
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
Introduction: Support groups are considered an effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers stress and burden. Research shows, that participating in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but there are no significant improvements in feelings of stress...... and burden. It is unclear how support groups can produce a meaningful and optimal outcome for the informal caregivers. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. Method: A systematic literature review...... Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Qualitative research data were extracted and the findings were pooled, which involved the aggregation of findings to generate a set of statements that represent that aggregation, through assembling the findings rated according...
O'Driscoll, Téa; Banting, Lauren Kate; Borkoles, Erika; Eime, Rochelle; Polman, Remco
Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrants face significant health risks as they adapt to new cultures. These risks are exacerbated by their limited participation in preventative behaviours such as sports and physical activity. The review aimed to identify studies that examined the correlates of sport and physical activity participation in migrants. The systematic review identified 72 papers, including 6 interventions, 18 qualitative and 48 quantitative studies. The 44 identified correlates highlight the complexities involved in working with migrants. The correlates were grouped in four themes using the social ecological model; acculturation, demographic, psychosocial and environmental/organisational. The social ecological model identified general correlates such as social support and safety. However, there were unique correlates relating to individuals who are facing cultural changes such as acculturation and language. Overall, there is a lack of contextualisation of CALD migrants' sport and physical activity experiences because many studies fail to consider acculturation comprehensively.
Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet er...... der dog opstået nye muligheder og udfordringer i forhold til at formidle og distribuere forskningsresultater til forskellige målgrupper via video. Samtidig er klassiske metodologiske problematikker som forskerens positionering i forhold til det undersøgte stadig aktuelle. Både klassiske og nye...... problemstillinger diskuteres i kapitlet, som rammesætter diskussionen ud fra forskellige positioneringsmuligheder: formidler, historiefortæller, eller dialogist. Disse positioner relaterer sig til genrer inden for ’akademisk video’. Afslutningsvis præsenteres en metodisk værktøjskasse med redskaber til planlægning...
Alawneh, Muhammad K.
This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…
Pot, N.; Keizer, R.
Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA), including sport participation, is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Scholars have devoted considerable attention to understanding the impact of parenthood on MVPA, albeit only for women. As the impact of fatherhood on men's lives is drawing
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and... carries out or arranges for a periodic evaluation of its total program. The evaluation is done at least... clinical records; and (iii) The CAH's health care policies. (2) The purpose of the evaluation is to...
Lagerveld, S. E.; Bultmann, U.; Franche, R. L.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Vlasveld, M. C.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C. M.; Bruinvels, D. J.; Huijs, J. J. J. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.
Background Depression is associated with negative work outcomes such as reduced work participation (WP) (e.g., sick leave duration, work status) and work functioning (WF) (e.g., loss of productivity, work limitations). For the development of evidence-based interventions to improve these work
..., including press releases or any other forum or medium to elicit public participation. (4) Contents—(i) All... permit is inappropriate or that the permitting authority's initial decision to deny an application, terminate a permit, or prepare a draft permit is inappropriate, must raise all reasonably ascertainable...
David J. Ganz
Full Text Available The advent of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks (REDD+ in developing countries has raised much concern regarding impacts on local communities. To inform this debate, we analyze the initial outcomes of those REDD+ projects that systematically report on their socio-economic dimensions. To categorize and compare projects, we develop a participation and benefits framework that considers REDD+’s effects on local populations’ opportunities (jobs, income, security (of tenure and ecosystem services, and empowerment (participation in land use and development decisions. We find material benefits, in terms of jobs and income, to be, thus far, modest. On the other hand, we find that many projects are helping populations gain tenure rights. A majority of projects are obtaining local populations’ free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC. However, for those projects interacting with multiple populations, extent of participation and effects on forest access are often uneven. Our participation and benefits framework can be a useful tool for identifying the multi-faceted socio-economic impacts of REDD+, which are realized under different timescales. The framework and initial trends reported here can be used to build hypotheses for future REDD+ impact evaluations and contribute to evolving theories of incentive-based environmental policy.
Seow, Poh-Sun; Pan, Gary
Extracurricular activities (ECA) have become an important component of students' school life and many schools have invested significant resources on extracurricular activities. The authors suggest three major theoretical frameworks (zero-sum, developmental, and threshold) to explain the impact of ECA participation on students' academic…
Rainey, Linda; van Nispen, Ruth; van der Zee, Carlijn; van Rens, Ger
To critically appraise the measurement properties of questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0-18 years) with a disability. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies evaluating the measurement properties of self-report or parent-report questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0-18 years) with a disability. The methodological quality of the included studies and the results of the measurement properties were evaluated using a checklist developed on consensus-based standards. The search strategy identified 3,977 unique publications, of which 22 were selected; these articles evaluated the development and measurement properties of eight different questionnaires. The Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation was evaluated most extensively, generally showing moderate positive results on content validity, internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. The remaining questionnaires also demonstrated positive results. However, at least 50 % of the measurement properties per questionnaire were not (or only poorly) assessed. Studies of high methodological quality, using modern statistical methods, are needed to accurately assess the measurement properties of currently available questionnaires. Moreover, consensus is required on the definition of the construct 'participation' to determine content validity and to enable meaningful interpretation of outcomes.
Meek, Sarah E. M.; Blakemore, Louise; Marks, Leah
Many aspects of higher education must be reconceptualised for massive open online courses (MOOCs). Formative and summative assessment of qualitative work in particular requires novel approaches to cope with the numbers involved. Peer review has been proposed as one solution, and has been widely adopted by major MOOC providers, but there is…
Pinto-Bruno, Ángel C.; García-Casal, J. Antonio; Csipke, Emese; Jenaro Río, Cristina
Objectives: Information and communication technologies (ICT) developers, together with dementia experts have created several technological solutions to improve and facilitate social health and social participation and quality of life of older adults living with dementia. However, there is a need to carry out a systematic literature review that focuses on the validity and efficacy of these new technologies assessing their utility to promote ‘social health’ and ‘active ageing’ in people with de...
Pinto-Bruno, A. C.; Antonio Garcia-Casal, J.; Csipke, E.; Jenaro-Rio, C.; Franco-Martin, M.
OBJECTIVES: Information and communication technologies (ICT) developers, together with dementia experts have created several technological solutions to improve and facilitate social health and social participation and quality of life of older adults living with dementia. However, there is a need to carry out a systematic literature review that focuses on the validity and efficacy of these new technologies assessing their utility to promote ‘social health’ and ‘active ageing’ in people with de...
Costello, Joseph T.; Donnelly, Alan E.
Abstract Objective: To (1) search the English-language literature for original research addressing the effect of cryotherapy on joint position sense (JPS) and (2) make recommendations regarding how soon healthy athletes can safely return to participation after cryotherapy. Data Sources: We performed an exhaustive search for original research using the AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SportDiscus databases from 1973 to 2009 to gather information on cryotherapy and JPS. Key words used were cryotherapy and proprioception, cryotherapy and joint position sense, cryotherapy, and proprioception. Study Selection: The inclusion criteria were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) participants were human, (3) an outcome measure included JPS, (4) participants were healthy, and (5) participants were tested immediately after a cryotherapy application to a joint. Data Extraction: The means and SDs of the JPS outcome measures were extracted and used to estimate the effect size (Cohen d) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of JPS before and after a cryotherapy treatment. The numbers, ages, and sexes of participants in all 7 selected studies were also extracted. Data Synthesis: The JPS was assessed in 3 joints: ankle (n = 2), knee (n = 3), and shoulder (n = 2). The average effect size for the 7 included studies was modest, with effect sizes ranging from −0.08 to 1.17, with a positive number representing an increase in JPS error. The average methodologic score of the included studies was 5.4/10 (range, 5–6) on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Conclusions: Limited and equivocal evidence is available to address the effect of cryotherapy on proprioception in the form of JPS. Until further evidence is provided, clinicians should be cautious when returning individuals to tasks requiring components of proprioceptive input immediately after a cryotherapy treatment. PMID:20446845
Héctor Alejandro Galvis
Full Text Available This paper introduces video-game based language instruction as a teaching approach catering to the different socio-economic and learning needs of English as a Foreign Language students. First, this paper reviews statistical data revealing the low participation of Colombian students in English as a second language programs abroad (U.S. context especially. This paper also provides solid reasons why the use of video games in education and foreign language education is justified. Additionally, this paper reviews second language acquisition theoretical foundations that provide the rationale for adapting video-game based language instruction in light of important second language acquisition constructs such as culture and identity, among others. Finally, this document provides options for further research to construct and test the efficacy of video-game based language instruction while simultaneously leaving it open for collaborative contributions.
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
Background: Support groups are considered an especially effective and economical way to relieve informal caregiver’s stress and burden, although it is unclear if participating in group meetings produces a meaningful outcome for the informal caregiver. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness of partic......Background: Support groups are considered an especially effective and economical way to relieve informal caregiver’s stress and burden, although it is unclear if participating in group meetings produces a meaningful outcome for the informal caregiver. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness...... of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted based on a peer-reviewed and published review protocol. 233 full-text papers were assessed for eligibility. Five qualitative papers met......-QARI. Result: The meta-synthesis produced three synthesized findings: 1. Emotional benefits of peer-based support, 2. Facing the challenges of caregiving, 3. Embracing the future through virtual configurations of group meetings Conclusion: Peer support is meaningful and beneficial for informal caregivers...
Dowell, Kathy A.; Ogles, Benjamin M.
Forty-eight child psychotherapy outcome studies offering direct comparisons of an individual child treatment group to a combined parent-child/family therapy treatment group were included in this meta-analytic review. Results indicate that combined treatments produced a moderate effect beyond the outcomes achieved by individual child treatments,…
Broeder, den Lea; Uiters, Ellen; Have, ten Wim; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Schuit, Albertine Jantine
Currently, the engagement of local communities in Health Impact Assessment is becoming more and more important. A scoping review was performed to take stock of visions, methods and experiences in this field. A combined Scopus and Medline search yielded 100 articles in scientific journals. The
Rapp, Allison K; Healy, Michael G; Charlton, Mary E; Keith, Jerrod N; Rosenbaum, Marcy E; Kapadia, Muneera R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical preparation methods of medical students, residents, and faculty with special attention to video usage. Following Institutional Review Board approval, anonymous surveys were distributed to participants. Information collected included demographics and surgical preparation methods, focusing on video usage. Participants were questioned regarding frequency and helpfulness of videos, video sources used, and preferred methods between videos, reading, and peer consultation. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS. Surveys were distributed to participants in the Department of Surgery at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, a tertiary care center in Iowa City, Iowa. Survey participants included fourth-year medical students pursuing general surgery, general surgery residents, and faculty surgeons in the Department of Surgery. A total of 86 surveys were distributed, and 78 surveys were completed. This included 42 learners (33 residents, 9 fourth-year medical students) and 36 faculty. The overall response rate was 91%; 90% of respondents reported using videos for surgical preparation (learners = 95%, faculty = 83%, p = NS). Regarding surgical preparation methods overall, most learners and faculty selected reading (90% versus 78%, p = NS), and fewer respondents reported preferring videos (64% versus 44%, p = NS). Faculty more often use peer consultation (31% versus 50%, p YouTube (86%). Learners and faculty use different video sources. Learners use YouTube and Surgical Council on Resident Education (SCORE) Portal more than faculty (YouTube: 95% versus 73%, p YouTube was the preferred source. Posting surgical videos to YouTube may allow for maximal access to learners who are preparing for surgical cases. Copyright Â© 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jones, Janet E; Jones, Laura L; Keeley, Thomas J H; Calvert, Melanie J; Mathers, Jonathan
To be meaningful, a core outcome set (COS) should be relevant to all stakeholders including patients and carers. This review aimed to explore the methods by which patients and carers have been included as participants in COS development exercises and, in particular, the use and reporting of qualitative methods. In August 2015, a search of the Core Outcomes Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database was undertaken to identify papers involving patients and carers in COS development. Data were extracted to identify the data collection methods used in COS development, the number of health professionals, patients and carers participating in these, and the reported details of qualitative research undertaken. Fifty-nine papers reporting patient and carer participation were included in the review, ten of which reported using qualitative methods. Although patients and carers participated in outcome elicitation for inclusion in COS processes, health professionals tended to dominate the prioritisation exercises. Of the ten qualitative papers, only three were reported as a clear pre-designed part of a COS process. Qualitative data were collected using interviews, focus groups or a combination of these. None of the qualitative papers reported an underpinning methodological framework and details regarding data saturation, reflexivity and resource use associated with data collection were often poorly reported. Five papers reported difficulty in achieving a diverse sample of participants and two reported that a large and varied range of outcomes were often identified by participants making subsequent rating and ranking difficult. Consideration of the best way to include patients and carers throughout the COS development process is needed. Additionally, further work is required to assess the potential role of qualitative methods in COS, to explore the knowledge produced by different qualitative data collection methods, and to evaluate the time and resources required to
Background To be meaningful, a core outcome set (COS) should be relevant to all stakeholders including patients and carers. This review aimed to explore the methods by which patients and carers have been included as participants in COS development exercises and, in particular, the use and reporting of qualitative methods. Methods In August 2015, a search of the Core Outcomes Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database was undertaken to identify papers involving patients and carers in COS development. Data were extracted to identify the data collection methods used in COS development, the number of health professionals, patients and carers participating in these, and the reported details of qualitative research undertaken. Results Fifty-nine papers reporting patient and carer participation were included in the review, ten of which reported using qualitative methods. Although patients and carers participated in outcome elicitation for inclusion in COS processes, health professionals tended to dominate the prioritisation exercises. Of the ten qualitative papers, only three were reported as a clear pre-designed part of a COS process. Qualitative data were collected using interviews, focus groups or a combination of these. None of the qualitative papers reported an underpinning methodological framework and details regarding data saturation, reflexivity and resource use associated with data collection were often poorly reported. Five papers reported difficulty in achieving a diverse sample of participants and two reported that a large and varied range of outcomes were often identified by participants making subsequent rating and ranking difficult. Conclusions Consideration of the best way to include patients and carers throughout the COS development process is needed. Additionally, further work is required to assess the potential role of qualitative methods in COS, to explore the knowledge produced by different qualitative data collection methods, and to evaluate
Janet E Jones
Full Text Available To be meaningful, a core outcome set (COS should be relevant to all stakeholders including patients and carers. This review aimed to explore the methods by which patients and carers have been included as participants in COS development exercises and, in particular, the use and reporting of qualitative methods.In August 2015, a search of the Core Outcomes Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET database was undertaken to identify papers involving patients and carers in COS development. Data were extracted to identify the data collection methods used in COS development, the number of health professionals, patients and carers participating in these, and the reported details of qualitative research undertaken.Fifty-nine papers reporting patient and carer participation were included in the review, ten of which reported using qualitative methods. Although patients and carers participated in outcome elicitation for inclusion in COS processes, health professionals tended to dominate the prioritisation exercises. Of the ten qualitative papers, only three were reported as a clear pre-designed part of a COS process. Qualitative data were collected using interviews, focus groups or a combination of these. None of the qualitative papers reported an underpinning methodological framework and details regarding data saturation, reflexivity and resource use associated with data collection were often poorly reported. Five papers reported difficulty in achieving a diverse sample of participants and two reported that a large and varied range of outcomes were often identified by participants making subsequent rating and ranking difficult.Consideration of the best way to include patients and carers throughout the COS development process is needed. Additionally, further work is required to assess the potential role of qualitative methods in COS, to explore the knowledge produced by different qualitative data collection methods, and to evaluate the time and resources
Lauritzen, Jette; Bjerrum, Merete; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
the future through virtual configurations of group meetings Conclusion: Peer support is meaningful and beneficial for informal caregivers. The support groups provide a source for obtaining positive emotional support, venting negative feeling and gaining help to deal with the everyday life of caring for older......Background: Support groups are considered an effective way to care for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia and relieve their feelings of stress and burden. Research shows, that participating in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but with no significant......: A systematic literature review was conducted based on a peer-reviewed and published review protocol. 233 full-text papers were assessed for eligibility. Five qualitative papers were selected and assessed for methodological quality prior to inclusion using The Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment...
Palechka, Gail; MacDonald, Rebecca
We compared the effects of a commercially-available children's video relative to an instructor-created video model on the acquisition of play skills with three children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Each participant was exposed to one commercially-available video model for one play scenario and one instructor-created video for a…
Santos-Magalhaes, Andre Filipe; Hambly, Karen
The assessment of physical activity and return to sport and exercise activities is an important component in the overall evaluation of outcome after autologous cartilage implantation (ACI). To identify the patient-report instruments that are commonly used in the evaluation of physical activity and return to sport after ACI and provide a critical analysis of these instruments from a rehabilitative perspective. A computerized search was performed in January 2013 and repeated in March 2013. Criteria for inclusion required that studies (1) be written in English and published between 1994 and 2013; (2) be clinical studies where knee ACI cartilage repair was the primary treatment, or comparison studies between ACI and other techniques or between different ACI generations; (3) report postoperative physical activity and sport participation outcomes results, and (4) have evidence level of I-III. Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three physical activity scales were identified: the Tegner Activity Scale, Modified Baecke Questionnaire, and Activity Rating Scale. Five knee-specific instruments were identified: the Lysholm Knee Function Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee Score Subjective Form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Modified Cincinnati Knee Score, and Stanmore-Bentley Functional Score. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the reporting of physical activity and sports participation after ACI. Current instruments do not fulfill the rehabilitative needs in the evaluation of physical activity and sports participation.
Gagnon, Cynthia; Kierkegaard, Marie; Blackburn, Catherine; Chrestian, Nicolas; Lavoie, Mélissa; Bouchard, Marie-Frédéric; Mathieu, Jean
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a neuromuscular disorder, is divided into four clinical phenotypes: congenital; childhood; adult-onset, and late-onset. Publications about the childhood phenotype, especially the long-term outcome, are scarce. The aims of this study were to assess and describe participation outcomes in adults with the childhood phenotype. A retrospective chart methodology. Data were extracted from health records for 63 adults with childhood DM1 (32 males, 31 females; mean age 34y, standard deviation [SD] 11y 6mo; range 18-54y) who had attended the Saguenay Neuromuscular Clinic, Canada. Thirty-four adults (54%) lived with their parents or in foster homes, and most patients needed services or help to live independently. A significant proportion (22%) were isolated in regard to friendship. Very few adults had children, although 33% lived with a spouse. The majority of patients (86%) relied on social security and only one person was currently working. Financial responsibilities were often an issue and 13 (21%) were under legal guardianship. This study showed that patients with the childhood phenotype present a guarded prognosis regarding long-term social participation. These participation restrictions could be related to behavioural, cognitive, and social stigma problems in childhood. This study illustrates the absolute necessity to pursue an interdisciplinary follow-up of these patients when they are reaching adulthood. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.
Newitt, Rosemarie; Barnett, Fiona; Crowe, Melissa
This review aims to describe the factors that influence participation in physical activity (PA) in people with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions. A systematic search of six databases was conducted. Articles were included if the study qualitatively explored factors that influence participation in PA by individuals with a NMS condition. Fifteen peer-reviewed articles published between 2003 and 2013 were analysed for common themes and critically appraised. Results were categorised using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. The most common demotivators reported for the three areas of functioning, body function and structures, activities and participation were lack of walking balance, muscle weakness, pain, stiffness, bladder and blower problems, depression, thermoregulation and fear of injury. Fluctuating symptoms and fatigue were mentioned as demotivators in all of the progressive conditions. Maintaining independence, function and weight, and the prevention of secondary conditions were the leading motivators reported in this domain. Most common environmental barriers include accessibility, costs, transport and insufficient information and knowledge from health professionals. Social support is a consistent determinate of PA and is reported as a facilitator in every study. The most common personal demotivators include lack of motivation, feelings of self-consciousness and embarrassment in public, anxiety, frustration and anger. Personal motivators include goal setting and achieving, enjoyment, feeling good, feeling "normal", motivation and optimism, redefining self and escapism from everyday boundaries. Individuals with NMS conditions report complex common barriers, facilitators, demotivators and motivators to participation in PA. The way these factors influence participation in PA is unique to the individual; therefore, it is necessary to adopt an individually tailored approach when designing interventions. Individuals
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...
Diaz, Abbey; Kang, Jimin; Moore, Suzanne P; Baade, Peter; Langbecker, Danette; Condon, John R; Valery, Patricia C
Comorbidity is associated with poor outcomes for cancer patients but it is less clear how it influences cancer prevention and early detection. This review synthesizes evidence from studies that have quantified the association between comorbidity and participation in breast and cervical screening. PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE databases were systematically searched using key terms related to cancer screening and comorbidity for original research articles published between 1 January 1991 and 21 March 2016. Two reviewers independently screened 1283 studies that met eligibility criteria related to Population (adult, non-cancer populations), Exposure (comorbidity), Comparison (a 'no comorbidity' group), and Outcome (participation in breast cancer or cervical screening). Data was extracted and risk of bias assessed using a standardised tool from the 22 studies identified for inclusion (17 breast; 13 cervical). Meta-analyses were performed for participation in breast and cervical screening, stratified by important study characteristics. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States. Results of individual studies were variable. Most had medium to high risk of bias. Based on the three "low risk of bias" studies, mammography screening was less common among those with comorbidity (pooled Odds Ratio 0.66, 95%CI 0.44-0.88). The one "low risk of bias" study of cervical screening reported a negative association between comorbidity and participation. While a definitive conclusion could not be drawn, the results from high quality studies suggest that women with comorbidity are less likely to participate in breast, and possibly cervical, cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galvis, Héctor Alejandro
This paper introduces video-game based language instruction as a teaching approach catering to the different socio-economic and learning needs of English as a Foreign Language students. First, this paper reviews statistical data revealing the low participation of Colombian students in English as a second language programs abroad (U.S. context…
Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.
Miller, J Jay; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Jones, Blake; Niu, Chunling
The year 2016 marked the 20th anniversary of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) amendments (P.L. 104-235) that mandated Citizen Review Panels (CRPs). CRPs are citizen volunteer groups authorized by United States (U.S.) federal law to examine policies and procedures of state child welfare agencies. Despite the potential of CRPs to positively impact child welfare systems outcomes associated with child abuse and neglect, and the millions of dollars in resources allocated to these groups, there remains a dearth in the literature about CRPs. This exploratory study examined CRP member perceptions from across the United States. Researchers collected scaled survey data to examine member knowledge, engagement and assessment of panel influence and impact, membership composition, and meeting structure. Results revealed that panel members lack some knowledge related to the federal mandate guiding their work, and data suggest the need for panels to more adroitly recruit and retain members representative of the communities in which the panels are formed. After a brief review of background literature, this paper will explicate key results, discuss these findings, and identify salient practice, policy and research implications derived from the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wyttenbach, Robert A
Demonstrating laboratory procedures in person during class time can be time-consuming. When procedures are done under a microscope, live demonstration is also impractical because of the limited number of students who can view the demonstration at once. Creating videos beforehand, which students can watch before class and review during lab sessions, solves both of these problems. This article suggests ways to make and distribute high quality video of microscopic procedures.
Rombolá, Carlos A; Genovés Crespo, Marta; Tárraga López, Pedro J; García Jiménez, María Dolores; Honguero Martínez, Antonio F; León Atance, Pablo; Rodríguez Ortega, Claudia R; Triviño Ramírez, Ana; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio
Diaphragmatic plication is the most accepted treatment for symptomatic diaphragmatic hernia in adults. The fact that this pathology is infrequent and this procedure not been widespread means that this is an exceptional technique in our field. To estimate its use in the literature, we carried out a review in English and Spanish, to which we added our series. We found only six series that contribute 59 video-assisted mini-thoractomy for diaphragmatic plications in adults, and none in Spanish. Our series will be the second largest with 18 cases. Finally, we conducted a survey in all the Spanish Thoracic Surgery units in Spain: none reported more than 10 cases operated by thoracoscopy in the last 8 years (except our series) and most continue employing thoracotomy as the main approach. We believe that many patients with symptomatic diaphragmatic hernia could benefit from the use of such techniques. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Sawyer, Taylor; Sierocka-Castaneda, Agnes; Chan, Debora; Berg, Benjamin; Lustik, Mike; Thompson, Mark
Debriefing is a critical component of effective simulation-based medical education. The optimal format in which to conduct debriefing is unknown. The use of video review has been promoted as a means of enhancing debriefing, and video-assisted debriefing is widely used in simulation training. Few empirical studies have evaluated the impact of video-assisted debriefing, and the results of those studies have been mixed. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of video-assisted debriefing to oral debriefing alone at improving performance in neonatal resuscitation. Thirty residents, divided into 15 teams of 2 members each, participated in the study. Each team completed a series of 3 neonatal resuscitation simulations. Each simulation was followed by a facilitated debriefing. Teams were randomly assigned to receive either oral debriefing alone or video-assisted debriefing after each simulation. Objective measures of performance and times to complete critical tasks in resuscitation were evaluated by blinded video review on the first (pretest) and the third (posttest) simulations using a previously validated tool. Overall neonatal resuscitation performance scores improved in both groups [mean (SD), 83% (14%) for oral pretest vs. 91% (7%) for oral posttest (P = 0.005); 81% (16%) for video pretest vs. 93% (10%) for video posttest (P debriefing versus oral debriefing alone was small (d = 0.08). Using this study design, we failed to show a significant educational benefit of video-assisted debriefing. Although our results suggest that the use of video-assisted debriefing may not offer significant advantage over oral debriefing alone, exactly why this is the case remains obscure. Further research is needed to define the optimal role of video review during simulation debriefing in neonatal resuscitation.
Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne
Although participation is not a new issue, it would be fair to say that consequential participation, which implies young people engaging in meaningful dialogue with adults and institutions and influencing decision-making processes in matters that concern them, is still in its infancy. This document...... aims to set the scene for discussing young people's participation in different domains that have an impact on their lives. It outlines the meaning and different interpretations of the concept of "participation" before reviewing why participation is an important issue in relation to young people...... and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...
de Silva, Viran; Swain, Michael; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien
Sports participation can be an integral part of adolescent development with numerous positive short and long-term effects. Despite these potential benefits very high levels of physical activity, during skeletal maturation, have been proposed as a possible cause of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The influence of physical activity on the developing physis has been previously described both in animal studies and epidemiological studies of adolescent athletes. It is therefore important to determine whether the development of FAI is secondary to excessive physical activity or a combination of a vulnerable physis and a set level of physical activity. A review of the current literature suggests that adolescent males participating in ice-hockey, basketball and soccer, training at least three times a week, are at greater risk than their non-athletic counterparts of developing the femoral head-neck deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement.
Lopez-Neyman, Stephanie M.; Warren, Cynthia A.
Participation in school meals is a preventive measure against childhood hunger. Participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) continues to lag behind that of the National School Lunch Program. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the barriers and advantages to student participation in the SBP. Using the adaptable…
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...
include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...
Martineau, Adrian R; Jolliffe, David A; Hooper, Richard L; Greenberg, Lauren; Aloia, John F; Bergman, Peter; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Esposito, Susanna; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Ginde, Adit A; Goodall, Emma C; Grant, Cameron C; Griffiths, Christopher J; Janssens, Wim; Laaksi, Ilkka; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Mauger, David; Murdoch, David R; Neale, Rachel; Rees, Judy R; Simpson, Steve; Stelmach, Iwona; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Camargo, Carlos A
Objectives To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry from inception to December 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D 3 or vitamin D 2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Results 25 eligible randomised controlled trials (total 11 321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years) were identified. IPD were obtained for 10 933 (96.6%) participants. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96; P for heterogeneity acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most benefit. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014013953. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Viscogliosi, Chantal; Asselin, Hugo; Basile, Suzy; Couturier, Yves; Drolet, Marie-Josée; Gagnon, Dominique; Torrie, Jill; Levasseur, Mélanie
Indigenous elders have traditionally played an important role in maintaining social cohesion within their communities. Today, part of this role has been taken over by government social and healthcare services, but they are having limited success in addressing social challenges. Increasing elders' social participation and intergenerational solidarity might foster community development and benefit young people, families, communities and the elders themselves. However, knowledge of the contribution of elders' social participation and intergenerational solidarity to wellness is scattered and needs to be synthesised. This protocol presents a scoping review on the social participation of indigenous elders, intergenerational solidarity and their influence on individual and community wellness. This scoping review protocol is based on an innovative methodological framework designed to gather information from the scientific and grey literature and from indigenous sources. It was developed by an interdisciplinary team including indigenous scholars/researchers, knowledge users and key informants. In addition to searching information databases in fields such as public health and indigenous studies, an advisory committee will ensure that information is gathered from grey literature and indigenous sources. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Review Board of the Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue and the First Nations of Quebec and Labrador Health and Social Services Commission. The comprehensive synthesis of the scientific and grey literature and indigenous sources proposed in this protocol will not only raise awareness within indigenous communities and among healthcare professionals and community organisations, but will also enable decision-makers to better meet the needs of indigenous people. The innovative methodological framework proposed in this scoping review protocol will yield richer information on the contribution of elders to community wellness. This
D'Agostino, Thomas A; Atkinson, Thomas M; Latella, Lauren E; Rogers, Madeline; Morrissey, Dana; DeRosa, Antonio P; Parker, Patricia A
To present literature on training patients in the use of effective communication skills. Systematic searches were conducted in six databases. References were screened for inclusion through several phases. Extracted data included intervention study design, sample characteristics, content and structure of training programs, outcomes assessed, and findings reported. A total of 32 unique intervention studies were included. Most targeted primary care or cancer patients and used a randomized controlled study design. Interventions used a variety of training formats and modes of delivering educational material. Reported findings suggest that communication training is an effective approach to increase patients' total level of active participation in healthcare interactions and that some communication behaviors may be more amenable to training (e.g., expressing concerns). Trained patients do not have longer visits and tend to receive more information from their providers. Most studies have found no relationship between communication training and improved health, psychosocial wellbeing, or treatment-related outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance and potential benefits of patient communication training. Additional research is warranted to determine the most efficacious training programs with the strongest potential for dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vistisen, Peter; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig
This paper examines the role of corporate vision videos as a possible setting for participation when exploring the future potentials (and pitfalls) of new technological concepts. We propose that through the recent decade’s rise web 2.0 platforms, and the viral effects of user sharing, the corporate...... vision video of today might take on a significantly different role than before, and act as a participatory design approach. This address the changing landscaping for participatory and user-involved design processes, in the wake of new digital forms of participation, communication and collaboration, which...... have radically changed the possible power dynamics of the production life cycle of new product developments. Through a case study, we pose the question of whether the online engagements around corporate vision videos can be viewed as a form of participation in a design process, and thus revitalize...
Jolliffe, David A; Greenberg, Lauren; Hooper, Richard L; Griffiths, Christopher J; Camargo, Carlos A; Kerley, Conor P; Jensen, Megan E; Mauger, David; Stelmach, Iwona; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Martineau, Adrian R
A previous aggregate data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces the rate of asthma exacerbations requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids. Whether this effect is restricted to patients with low baseline vitamin D status is unknown. For this systematic review and one-step and two-step meta-analysis of individual participant data, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science for double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised controlled trials of vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 supplementation in people with asthma that reported incidence of asthma exacerbation, published between database inception and Oct 26, 2016. We analysed individual participant data requested from the principal investigator for each eligible trial, adjusting for age and sex, and clustering by study. The primary outcome was the incidence of asthma exacerbation requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids. Mixed-effects regression models were used to obtain the pooled intervention effect with a 95% CI. Subgroup analyses were done to determine whether effects of vitamin D on risk of asthma exacerbation varied according to baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration, age, ethnic or racial origin, body-mass index, vitamin D dosing regimen, use of inhaled corticosteroids, or end-study 25(OH)D levels; post-hoc subgroup analyses were done according to sex and study duration. This study was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42014013953. Our search identified 483 unique studies, eight of which were eligible randomised controlled trials (total 1078 participants). We sought individual participant data for each and obtained it for seven studies (955 participants). Vitamin D supplementation reduced the rate of asthma exacerbation requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids among all participants (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·56-0·97; p=0·03; 955
Hillman, Charles H; Kamijo, Keita; Scudder, Mark
A growing body of research has detailed the beneficial relation of chronic participation in--and acute responses to--physical activity on aspects of cognition that underlie scholastic achievement. Here, we review the relevant neuroelectric findings on this beneficial relation in children, providing support for the influence of physical activity on specific cognitive processes that comprise academic performance. A review of studies examining physical activity and neuroelectric concomitants of cognition during childhood is described. When applicable, research involving adult populations is also described to better inform on this relationship in children. Collectively, the data support a beneficial relation of chronic and acute participation in physical activity to brain health and cognition. The results suggest more effective allocation of cognitive processes involved in stimulus engagement and action monitoring during tasks requiring variable amounts of cognitive control in children. Physical activity may influence brain health and cognition in children, leading to enhanced scholastic performance and greater overall effective functioning across the lifespan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Doherty, Carole; Stavropoulou, Charitini
This systematic review identifies the factors that both support and deter patients from being willing and able to participate actively in reducing clinical errors. Specifically, we add to our understanding of the safety culture in healthcare by engaging with the call for more focus on the relational and subjective factors which enable patients' participation (Iedema, Jorm, & Lum, 2009; Ovretveit, 2009). A systematic search of six databases, ten journals and seven healthcare organisations' web sites resulted in the identification of 2714 studies of which 68 were included in the review. These studies investigated initiatives involving patients in safety or studies of patients' perspectives of being actively involved in the safety of their care. The factors explored varied considerably depending on the scope, setting and context of the study. Using thematic analysis we synthesized the data to build an explanation of why, when and how patients are likely to engage actively in helping to reduce clinical errors. The findings show that the main factors for engaging patients in their own safety can be summarised in four categories: illness; individual cognitive characteristics; the clinician-patient relationship; and organisational factors. We conclude that illness and patients' perceptions of their role and status as subordinate to that of clinicians are the most important barriers to their involvement in error reduction. In sum, patients' fear of being labelled "difficult" and a consequent desire for clinicians' approbation may cause them to assume a passive role as a means of actively protecting their personal safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gordon, Shayna L; Porto, Dennis A; Ozog, David M; Council, M Laurin
The use of video can enhance the learning experience by demonstrating procedural techniques that are difficult to relay in writing. Several peer-reviewed journals allow publication of videos alongside articles to complement the written text. The purpose of this article is to instruct the dermatologic surgeon on how to create and edit a video using a smartphone, to accompany a article. The authors describe simple tips to optimize surgical videography. The video that accompanies this article further demonstrates the techniques described. Creating a surgical video requires little experience or equipment and can be completed in a modest amount of time. Making and editing a video to accompany a article can be accomplished by following the simple recommendations in this article. In addition, the increased use of video in dermatologic surgery education can enhance the learning opportunity.
Sewell, Mathew David; Wallace, Charles; Gibson, Alex; Noordeen, Hilali; Tucker, Stewart; Molloy, Sean; Lehovsky, Jan
This study investigates outcome of scoliosis treatment for 11 children with Angelman syndrome (AS), with particular focus on activity, participation and the musculoskeletal factors that may affect these outcomes. Retrospective review of medical records, radiographs and questionnaires administered to caregivers of 11 children (8M:3F) with AS and scoliosis. Six underwent observational treatment during childhood and five underwent spinal fusion. The Activities Scale for Kids (ASKp) questionnaire was used to measure activity and participation. Questionnaire and radiographic data were recorded over a 2 year period. In the observational group, scoliosis increased from 31° to 46°. Mean ASKp decreased from 13.8 to 11.9 (p = 0.06). In the operative group, scoliosis decreased from 68° to 29°. Mean ASKp increased from 11.4 to 15.9 (p < 0.01). There was also a reduction in spinal-related pain and mean number of hospital admissions for chest infection. However, there was a 60% major complication rate. There was no difference in mobility, GMFCS level, feeding or communication in either group before or after treatment. In children with significant scoliosis and AS, spinal fusion was associated with a small improvement in activity and participation, reduction in pain and a decrease in frequency of severe chest infections. Non-operative treatment resulted in progression of scoliosis during childhood and decrease in activity.
Gorini, Alessandra; Mazzocco, Ketti; Pravettoni, Gabriella
Due to the lack of other treatment options, patient candidates for participation in phase I clinical trials are considered the most vulnerable, and many ethical concerns have emerged regarding the informed consent process used in the experimental design of such trials. Starting with these considerations, this nonsystematic review is aimed at analyzing the decision-making processes underlying patients' decision about whether to participate (or not) in phase I trials in order to clarify the cognitive and emotional aspects most strongly implicated in this decision. Considering that there is no uniform decision calculus and that many different variables other than the patient-physician relationship (including demographic, clinical, and personal characteristics) may influence patients' preferences for and processing of information, we conclude that patients' informed decision-making can be facilitated by creating a rigorously developed, calibrated, and validated computer tool modeled on each single patient's knowledge, values, and emotional and cognitive decisional skills. Such a tool will also help oncologists to provide tailored medical information that is useful to improve the shared decision-making process, thereby possibly increasing patient participation in clinical trials. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The Geotail mission, part of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, measures global energy flow and transformation in the magnetotail to increase understanding of fundamental magnetospheric processes. The satellite was launched on July 24, 1992 onboard a Delta II rocket. This video shows with animation the solar wind, and its effect on the Earth. The narrator explains that the Geotail spacecraft was designed and built by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), the Japanese Space Agency. The mission objectives are reviewed by one of the scientist in a live view. The video also shows an animation of the orbit, while the narrator explains the orbit and the reason for the small launch window.
Tint, A; Thomson, K; Weiss, J A
Special Olympics (SO) is commonly cited to play an important role in the lives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of the current review was to (a) synthesise key findings regarding the physical, psychological/emotional, social and/or intellectual/cognitive correlates of SO participation for individuals with ID and (b) highlight limitations in the extant research as well as directions for future research. A systematic review of electronic databases was undertaken. A total of 46 articles were confirmed to meet study criteria. Quality assessments of included studies were conducted using checklists from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodology checklists (SIGN 50; SIGN 2008). There was a larger amount of support for physical, psychological/emotional and social outcomes as compared with cognitive/intellectual outcomes; however, many studies were confounded by measurement difficulties, sampling procedures and a lack of replicable methods, which hinder generalisation of results. This review highlights the need for a continued critical focus on SO programme evaluation research with more rigorous and replicable methods. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Griffiths, MD; Nuyens, F
Purpose of Review: There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in th...
The main goal of this thesis project is to introduce latest media technology and provide a complete guideline. This project is based on the production of 360° video by using multiple GoPro cameras. This project was the first 360° video project at Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences. 360° video is a video with a totally different viewing experience and incomparable features on it. 360° x 180° video coverage and active participation from viewers are the best part of this vid...
Harrington, Cuan M; Kavanagh, Dara O; Wright Ballester, Gemma; Wright Ballester, Athena; Dicker, Patrick; Traynor, Oscar; Hill, Arnold; Tierney, Sean
Although two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional videos have traditionally provided foundations for reviewing operative procedures, the recent 360º format may provide new dimensions to surgical education. This study sought to describe the production of a high quality 360º video for an index-operation (augmented with educational material), while evaluating for variances in attentiveness, information retention, and appraisal compared to 2D. A 6-camera synchronised array (GoPro Omni, [California, United States]) was suspended inverted and recorded an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 2016. A single-blinded randomised cross-over study was performed to evaluate this video in 360º vs 2D formats. Group A experienced the 360º video using Samsung (Suwon, South-Korea) GearVR virtual-reality headsets, followed by the 2D experience on a 75-inch television. Group B were reversed. Each video was probed at designated time points for engagement levels and task-unrelated images or thoughts. Alternating question banks were administered following each video experience. Feedback was obtained via a short survey at study completion. The New Academic and Education Building (NAEB) in Dublin, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, July 2017. Preclinical undergraduate students from a medical university in Ireland. Forty students participated with a mean age of 23.2 ± 4.5 years and equal sex involvement. The 360º video demonstrated significantly higher engagement (p video as their learning platform of choice. Mean appraisal levels for the 360º platform were positive with mean responses of >8/10 for the platform for learning, immersion, and entertainment. This study describes the successful development and evaluation of a 360º operative video. This new video format demonstrated significant engagement and attentiveness benefits compared to traditional 2D formats. This requires further evaluation in the field of technology enhanced learning. Copyright © 2017 Association of
Gromik, Nicolas A.
This paper reports on a case study conducted at a Japanese national university. Nine participants used the video recording feature on their cell phones to produce weekly video productions. The task required that participants produce one 30-second video on a teacher-selected topic. Observations revealed the process of video creation with a cell…
Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Lye, Weng Kit; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan E; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sharrett, A Richey; Wong, Tien Y
The calibre of the retinal vessels has been linked to diabetes mellitus but studies have not shown consistent results. We conducted a participant-level meta-analysis to evaluate the association between retinal arteriolar and venular calibre and diabetes. We performed a systematic review on MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published up to December 2014. We identified five population-based prospective cohort studies that provided individual-level data on 18,771 diabetes-free participants. We used discrete time proportional hazards models to estimate pooled HRs of diabetes associated with 1 SD (20 μm) change in retinal vascular calibre. We identified 2,581 incident cases of diabetes over a median follow-up period of 10 years (interquartile interval of 3.4-15.8 years). After adjustment for demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors, retinal venular calibre was significantly associated with incident diabetes (pooled HR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02, 1.15] per SD increase in venular calibre). This association persisted in analyses excluding individuals with diabetes (0.95 [0.86, 1.06] per SD decrease in arteriolar calibre). Wider retinal venules but not narrower retinal arterioles were associated with a modestly increased risk for diabetes. Knowledge of pathological mechanisms underlying wider retinal venule may provide further insights concerning microvascular alterations in diabetes.
Waters, Lauren; George, Alexis S; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian
Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
This paper will look at participation in higher education in Ireland and the current focus of encouraging students from non-traditional and underrepresented groups to understand the ‘why’ of the widening participation debate in higher education. It will then review the evolution of government policies in relation to higher education and in particular of widening access and participation, for example Bologna and Erasmus at EU level and the encouragement of mobility of students within the EU. T...
Weed, M. E.; Coren, E; Fiore, J.; Wellard, I; Chatziefstathiou, D.; Suzanne, D.
Research questions:\\ud Can a demonstration effect, whereby people are inspired by elite sport, sports people and events to actively participate themselves, be harnessed from an Olympic Games to influence sport participation? Did London 2012 sport participation legacy policy draw on evidence about a demonstration effect, and was a legacy delivered?\\ud \\ud Research methods:\\ud A worldwide systematic review of English language evidence returned 1,778 sources iteratively reduced by the author pan...
Clark, Heather J.; Camir?, Martin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John
ABSTRACT This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000?2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that c...
Robert C. Lorenz
Full Text Available Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual towards playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training.Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG or control group (CG. Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was conducted using a non-video game related reward task.At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated.This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the ventral striatum in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.
Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone
Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.
Nolan, Sarah J; Marson, Anthony G; Weston, Jennifer; Tudur Smith, Catrin
Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001 and updated in 2013. To review the time to withdrawal, remission and first seizure of phenytoin compared to valproate when used as monotherapy in people with partial onset seizures or generalised tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library; 2015, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1946 to 19 May 2015), SCOPUS (19 February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (19 May 2015), and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP (19 May 2015). We handsearched relevant journals, contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with a comparison of valproate monotherapy versus phenytoin monotherapy. This was an individual participant data (IPD) review. Outcomes were time to: (a) withdrawal of allocated treatment (retention time); (b) achieve 12-month remission (seizure-free period); (c) achieve six-month remission (seizure-free period); and (d) first seizure (post-randomisation). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to obtain study-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and the generic inverse variance method to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. IPD were available for 669 individuals out of 1119 eligible individuals
Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...
Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...
... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...
Full Text Available Modern trends in crime control include a variety of technological innovations, including video surveillance systems. The aim of this paper is to review the implementation of video surveillance in contemporary context, considering fundamental theoretical aspects, the legislation and the effectiveness in controlling crime. While considering the theoretical source of ideas on the implementation of video surveillance, priority was given to the concept of situational prevention that focuses on the contextual factors of crime. Capacities for the implementation of video surveillance in Serbia are discussed based on the analysis of the relevant international and domestic legislation, the shortcomings in regulation of this area and possible solutions. Special attention was paid to the effectiveness of video surveillance in public places, in schools and prisons. Starting from the results of studies of video surveillance effectiveness, strengths and weaknesses of these measures and recommendations for improving practice were discussed.
Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane
The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…
S. Gunkel (Simon); A.J. Jansen (Jack); I. Kegel; D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)
htmlabstractWith the growing popularity of video communication systems, more people are using group video chat, rather than only one-to-one video calls. In such multi-party sessions, remote participants compete for the available screen space and bandwidth. A common solution is showing the current
At Bell High School (Los Angeles, California), students have been using video cameras, computers and editing machines to create videos in a variety of forms and on a variety of topics; in this setting, video is the textual medium of expression. A study was conducted using participant-observation and interviewing over the course of one school year…
Pisanu, Adolfo; Podda, Mauro; Reccia, Isabella; Porceddu, Giulia; Uccheddu, Alessandro
Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) has gained acceptance among surgeons as its feasibility has been well documented. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis has been to assess and validate the safety and feasibility of MIVAT when compared to conventional thyroidectomy (CT) and to verify other potential benefits and drawbacks. A literature search for prospective randomized trials comparing MIVAT and CT was performed. Trials were reviewed for the primary outcome measures: overall morbidity, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, postoperative hypocalcemia, and postoperative hematoma; and for the secondary outcome measures: operative time, conversion to standard procedure, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative drain insertion, nodule size and thyroid weight, postoperative pain evaluation, length of hospital stay, patient satisfactory score, and cosmetics results. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated for continuous variables and odds ratio for qualitative variables. Nine prospective randomized studies comparing MIVAT and CT were analyzed. Overall, 581 patients were randomized to either MIVAT (289, 49.7 %) or CT (292, 50.3 %). The primary outcome measures of MIVAT were comparable with those of CT without statistically significant difference. Patients who underwent MIVAT experienced significantly less pain than those operated on conventionally during the whole postoperative period. Patient satisfactory score significantly favored MIVAT (9.0 vs. 6.8, SMD = -3.388, 95 % CI = -5.720 to -1.057). Operative time was significantly longer in MIVAT (75.2 vs. 59.2 min, SMD = 1.246, 95 % CI = 0.227-2.266). MIVAT is a safe and feasible alternative for the removal of small-volume benign thyroid disease and low-risk papillary thyroid carcinomas showing better cosmetics results and less postoperative pain but significantly longer operative time when compared to CT. New multicenter randomized studies are needed to evaluate the
Full Text Available ... Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed ... Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic ...
Nisbet, Gillian; Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Gordon, Christopher J; Chen, Timothy F
Large scale models of interprofessional learning (IPL) where outcomes are assessed are rare within health professional curricula. To date, there is sparse research describing robust assessment strategies to support such activities. We describe the development of an IPL assessment task based on peer rating of a student generated video evidencing collaborative interprofessional practice. We provide content validation evidence of an assessment rubric in the context of large scale IPL. Two established approaches to scale development in an educational setting were combined. A literature review was undertaken to develop a conceptual model of the relevant domains and issues pertaining to assessment of student generated videos within IPL. Starting with a prototype rubric developed from the literature, a series of staff and student workshops were undertaken to integrate expert opinion and user perspectives. Participants assessed five-minute videos produced in a prior pilot IPL activity. Outcomes from each workshop informed the next version of the rubric until agreement was reached on anchoring statements and criteria. At this point the rubric was declared fit to be used in the upcoming mandatory large scale IPL activity. The assessment rubric consisted of four domains: patient issues, interprofessional negotiation; interprofessional management plan in action; and effective use of video medium to engage audience. The first three domains reflected topic content relevant to the underlying construct of interprofessional collaborative practice. The fourth domain was consistent with the broader video assessment literature calling for greater emphasis on creativity in education. We have provided evidence for the content validity of a video-based peer assessment task portraying interprofessional collaborative practice in the context of large-scale IPL activities for healthcare professional students. Further research is needed to establish the reliability of such a scale.
Williams, Brian; Powell, Alison; Hoskins, Gaylor; Neville, Ron
Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children and accounts for 1 in 5 of all child GP consultations. This paper reviews and discusses recent literature outlining the growing problem of physical inactivity among young people with asthma and explores the psychosocial dimensions that may explain inactivity levels and potentially relevant interventions and strategies, and the principles that should underpin them. A narrative review based on an extensive and documented search of search of CinAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Children and young people with asthma are generally less active than their non-asthmatic peers. Reduced participation may be influenced by organisational policies, family illness beliefs and behaviours, health care advice, and inaccurate symptom perception and attribution. Schools can be reluctant to encourage children to take part in physical education or normal play activity due to misunderstanding and a lack of clear corporate guidance. Families may accept a child's low level of activity if it is perceived that breathlessness or the need to take extra inhalers is harmful. Many young people themselves appear to accept sub-optimal control of symptoms and frequently misinterpret healthy shortness of breath on exercising with the symptoms of an impending asthma attack. A multi-faceted approach is needed to translate the rhetoric of increasing activity levels in young people to the reality of improved fitness. Physical activity leading to improved fitness should become part of a goal orientated management strategy by schools, families, health care professionals and individuals. Exercise induced asthma should be regarded as a marker of poor control and a need to increase fitness rather as an excuse for inactivity. Individuals' perceptual accuracy deserves further research attention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children and accounts for 1 in 5 of all child GP consultations. This paper reviews and discusses recent literature outlining the growing problem of physical inactivity among young people with asthma and explores the psychosocial dimensions that may explain inactivity levels and potentially relevant interventions and strategies, and the principles that should underpin them. Methods A narrative review based on an extensive and documented search of search of CinAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Results & Discussion Children and young people with asthma are generally less active than their non-asthmatic peers. Reduced participation may be influenced by organisational policies, family illness beliefs and behaviours, health care advice, and inaccurate symptom perception and attribution. Schools can be reluctant to encourage children to take part in physical education or normal play activity due to misunderstanding and a lack of clear corporate guidance. Families may accept a child's low level of activity if it is perceived that breathlessness or the need to take extra inhalers is harmful. Many young people themselves appear to accept sub-optimal control of symptoms and frequently misinterpret healthy shortness of breath on exercising with the symptoms of an impending asthma attack. Conclusion A multi-faceted approach is needed to translate the rhetoric of increasing activity levels in young people to the reality of improved fitness. Physical activity leading to improved fitness should become part of a goal orientated management strategy by schools, families, health care professionals and individuals. Exercise induced asthma should be regarded as a marker of poor control and a need to increase fitness rather as an excuse for inactivity. Individuals' perceptual accuracy deserves further research attention.
Konstantas, Dimitri; Milanese, Ruggero; Jacot-Descombes, Alain; Pun, Thierry
The DVP project investigated the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of broadcasters for several forms of distributed video production and run a series of trials of distributed virtual studios (studio on demand), distributed virtual reality, distributed musical rehearsals and distributed video editing and retrieval. The CUI of the University of Geneva participated in the DVP project in the distributed musical rehearsal (DR) and distributed video editing and retrieval (DVER) applications.
Ostrowski, Jeffrey R.; Sarhan, Nabil J.
The popularity of social media has grown dramatically over the World Wide Web. In this paper, we analyze the video popularity distribution of well-known social video websites (YouTube, Google Video, and the AOL Truveo Video Search engine) and characterize their workload. We identify trends in the categories, lengths, and formats of those videos, as well as characterize the evolution of those videos over time. We further provide an extensive analysis and comparison of video content amongst the main regions of the world.
There is little research on music and audio in video games. What theory exists relies heavily upon borrowing concepts from similar fields such as film music. The empirical research conducted has been varied in scope, but small in number. This thesis explores the current state of theory and research in video game music and audio. In order to investigate if music can affect performance in a video game, an experiment was conducted. Participants were asked to play the popular video game Tetris...
Sherman, Kerry A; Miller, Suzanne M; Shaw, Laura-Kate; Cavanagh, Karen; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri
Breast cancer is a significant health concern for African American women. Nonetheless, uptake of genetic risk assessment (including both genetic counseling and testing) for breast cancer gene mutations among these populations remains low. This paper systematically reviews cognitive (i.e., beliefs) and affective (i.e., emotions) factors influencing BRCA1/2 genetic risk assessment among African American women as well as psychosocial interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this population. A systematic search of CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO was undertaken, yielding 112 published studies. Of these, 18 met the eligibility criteria. African American woman are likely to participate in genetic risk assessment if they are knowledgeable about cancer genetics, perceive a high risk of developing breast cancer, have low expectancies of stigmatization from medical professionals, view themselves as independent from family, and have fatalistic beliefs and a future temporal orientation. Anticipated negative affective responses, such as an inability to "handle" the results of testing, are barriers to uptake. Specific perceptions, beliefs, and emotional factors are associated with genetic risk assessment among African American women. Understanding these factors is key in the development of interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this population.
Höferlin, Markus Johannes
The amount of video data recorded world-wide is tremendously growing and has already reached hardly manageable dimensions. It originates from a wide range of application areas, such as surveillance, sports analysis, scientific video analysis, surgery documentation, and entertainment, and its analysis represents one of the challenges in computer science. The vast amount of video data renders manual analysis by watching the video data impractical. However, automatic evaluation of video material...
Gross, M. Scott
This article provides a review of some of the currently available literature surrounding the academic study of video games. Many of these theoretical methods have been used to study film and television and are discussed here in order to frame the need for further examination of video games. Suggestions for the use of video games in the classroom…
Scalability features embedded within the video sequences allows for streaming over heterogeneous networks to a variety of end devices. Compressive sensing techniques that will allow for lowering the complexity increase the robustness of the video scalability are reviewed. Human visual system models are often used in establishing perceptual metrics that would evaluate quality of video. Combining of perceptual and compressive sensing approach outlined from recent investigations. The performance and the complexity of different scalability techniques are evaluated. Application of perceptual models to evaluation of the quality of compressive sensing scalability is considered in the near perceptually lossless case and to the appropriate coding schemes is reviewed.
Adam Eichenbaum; Daphne Bavelier; C Shawn Green
The authors review recent research that reveals how today's video games instantiate naturally and effectively many principles psychologists, neuroscientists, and educators believe critical for learning...
Yang, Yanlong; Dong, Junjie; Huang, Yunchao
Single-incision thoracoscopic surgery (SITS) has been applied in the treatment of pneumothorax. To establish the feasibility of SITS in comparison with conventional three-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (3P-VATS), we conducted this meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library, SpringerLink and ScienceDirect. Studies that compared the outcomes between SITS and 3P-VATS were included for analysis. Nine eligible studies with 768 participants were included. Our analysis indicates that when compared with 3P-VATS, SITS was associated with less postoperative pain (weight mean difference, WMD = -0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI = -1.11 to -0.22, P = 0.004 for postoperative pain at 24 h; WMD = -0.62, 95% CI = -1.11 to -0.12, P = 0.01 for postoperative pain at 72 h), lower paraesthesia rate (odds ratio, OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.04-0.21, P = 0.01) and shorter hospital stay (WMD = -0.34 days, 95% CI = -0.60 to -0.08, P = 0.01). No significant association was found in operative time, mean duration of chest tube, complications and recurrence rates. SITS was a safe and efficient procedure for the treatment of pneumothorax with less postoperative pain and faster recovery. The complication and recurrence rates were equivalent when compared with 3P-VATS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Strahler Rivero, Thiago; Herrera Nuñez, Lina Maria; Uehara Pires, Emmy; Amodeo Bueno, Orlando Francisco
Empirical research studies have highlighted the need to investigate whether video game can be useful as a tool within a neuropsychological rehabilitation program for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients...
Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Johnston, Vanessa; Walker, Natalie; Thomas, David; Chang, Anne B; Bullen, Chris; Segan, C J; Brown, Ngiare
Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conducted each year but only a small proportion is specifically designed for Indigenous people. In this review we consider the challenges of participation in RCTs for Indigenous peoples from New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States and the opportunities for increasing participation. The literature was systematically searched for published articles including information on the barriers and facilitators for Indigenous people's participation in health-related RCTs. Articles were identified using a key word search of electronic databases (Scopus, Medline and EMBASE). To be included, papers had to include in their published work at least one aspect of their RCT that was either a barrier and/or facilitator for participation identified from, for example, design of intervention, or discussion sections of articles. Articles that were reviews, discussions, opinion pieces or rationale/methodology were excluded. Results were analysed inductively, allowing themes to emerge from the data. Facilitators enabling Indigenous people's participation in RCTs included relationship and partnership building, employing Indigenous staff, drawing on Indigenous knowledge models, targeted recruitment techniques and adapting study material. Challenges for participation included both participant-level factors (such as a distrust of research) and RCT-level factors (including inadequately addressing likely participant barriers (phone availability, travel costs), and a lack of recognition or incorporation of Indigenous knowledge systems. The findings from our review add to the body of knowledge on elimination of health disparities, by identifying effective and practical strategies for conducting and engaging Indigenous peoples with RCTs. Future trials that seek to benefit Indigenous peoples should actively involve Indigenous research partners, and respect and draw on pertinent Indigenous knowledge and values. This review has the potential to
Stenberg, Una; Haaland-Øverby, Mette; Fredriksen, Kari; Westermann, Karl Fredrik; Kvisvik, Toril
To give a comprehensive overview of benefits and challenges from participating in group based patient education programs that are carried out by health care professionals and lay participants, aimed at promoting self-management for people living with chronic illness. We searched 8 literature databases. Full text articles meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved and reviewed. Arksey and O'Malley's framework for scoping studies guided the review process and thematic analysis was undertaken to synthesize extracted data. Of the 5935 titles identified, 47 articles were included in this review. The participants experienced the programs as beneficial according to less symptom distress and greater awareness of their own health, improved self-management strategies, peer support, learning and hope. A substantial evidence base supports the conclusion that group based self-management patient education programs in different ways have been experienced as beneficial, but more research is needed. The insights gained from this review can enable researchers, health care professionals, and participants to understand the complexity in evaluating self-management patient education programs, and constitute a basis for a more standardized and systematic evaluation. The results may also encourage health care professionals in planning and carrying out programs in cooperation with lay participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arafah, Alaa M; Bouchard, Vanessa; Mayo, Nancy E
The objectives were to provide an estimate of expected enrolment and attrition rates based on published studies of existing self-management interventions for people with multiple sclerosis, and to identify contributing factors and impact on outcomes. A systematic literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, OT Seeker, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases. Controlled trials with or without randomization using either a between-group or within-person design were included if they met specified criteria. A random-effect meta-regression analysis was conducted to estimate the overall enrolment and attrition proportions, effect of person- and study-related factors, and impact on outcomes. A total of 48 studies, comprising 4446 persons were identified. The estimated enrolment rate was 50.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 49.6 to 51.1) and the estimated attrition rates in the intervention and control groups were 16.8% (95% CI: 16.2 to 17.3) and 14.4% (95% CI: 13.8 to 14.9), respectively. The main reported reason for refusing to participate was lack of interest (70.6%), while the reported reasons for dropping out were mainly owing to medical issues (26.1%) and disliking the intervention (17.9%). Trial, programme, and patient-related variables were found to influence the enrolment and/or attrition rates. Studies that had a 10% higher attrition rate had an effect size that was larger by 0.19 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.24). Greater understanding of the factors associated with enrolment and attrition rates would help in planning and developing a more appealing self-management intervention that patients can easily accept and incorporate into their everyday lives.
Doets, P.J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Ranguelova, E.; Kraaij, W.
TNO has evaluated a baseline audio and a video fingerprinting system based on robust hashing for the TRECVID 2008 copy detection task. We participated in the audio, the video and the combined audio-video copy detection task. The audio fingerprinting implementation clearly outperformed the video
Frentsos, Jeanne M
Patients who are dealing with life changes as a result of a cancer diagnosis often search for information about the disease and its treatment. Knowledge gained from this information helps patients with cancer during survivorship and improves their active participation with the healthcare team. To provide patients with the information they need, healthcare providers must offer various methods for the delivery of educational materials. The use of video as a delivery mechanism should be considered as one option for patient content acquisition. This article describes the use of videos as supplemental education tools before, during, or after one-on-one patient teaching interactions. A literature review was performed that focused on locating, reviewing, and synthesizing published data from clinical studies related to the use of video in patient education. Videos deliver material in a way that is flexible and often familiar to patients. For example, delivery can occur via smartphone, electronic health record, computer, DVD, or television, and it does not require reading or a high level of literacy. Healthcare providers in oncology settings should consider establishing a process for instructional video development as part of a multimedia patient education library.
Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Ørngreen, Rikke; Hautopp, Heidi
This paper introduces a video sketching technique applied to learning settings and investigates what participants learn from creating and redesigning videos while sketching. This process links various sketching techniques and creative reflection processes to video productions. Traditionally......, designers across various disciplines have used sketching as an integrative part of their everyday practice, and sketching has proven to have a multitude of purposes in professional design. The purpose of this paper is to explore what happens when an extra layer of video recording is added during the early...... sketching phases. Using empirical examples, this paper presents and discusses the video recording of sketching sessions. The empirical data is based on workshop sessions with researchers, students and teachers. Inspired by the work of Olofsson and Sjölén (2007), the sketching sessions were organised...
Hickman, Simon J
Internet video sharing sites allow the free dissemination of educational material. This study investigated the quality and educational content of videos of eye movement disorders posted on such sites. Educational neurological eye movement videos were identified by entering the titles of the eye movement abnormality into the search boxes of the video sharing sites. Also, suggested links were followed from each video. The number of views, likes, and dislikes for each video were recorded. The videos were then rated for their picture and sound quality. Their educational value was assessed according to whether the video included a description of the eye movement abnormality, the anatomical location of the lesion (if appropriate), and the underlying diagnosis. Three hundred fifty-four of these videos were found on YouTube and Vimeo. There was a mean of 6,443 views per video (range, 1-195,957). One hundred nineteen (33.6%) had no form of commentary about the eye movement disorder shown apart from the title. Forty-seven (13.3%) contained errors in the title or in the text. Eighty (22.6%) had excellent educational value by describing the eye movement abnormality, the anatomical location of the lesion, and the underlying diagnosis. Of these, 30 also had good picture and sound quality. The videos with excellent educational value had a mean of 9.84 "likes" per video compared with 2.37 for those videos without a commentary (P educational value with good picture and sound quality had a mean of 10.23 "likes" per video (P = 0.004 vs videos with no commentary). There was no significant difference in the mean number of "dislikes" between those videos that had no commentary or which contained errors and those with excellent educational value. There are a large number of eye movement videos freely available on these sites; however, due to the lack of peer review, a significant number have poor educational value due to having no commentary or containing errors. The number of "likes
Brame, Cynthia J
Educational videos have become an important part of higher education, providing an important content-delivery tool in many flipped, blended, and online classes. Effective use of video as an educational tool is enhanced when instructors consider three elements: how to manage cognitive load of the video; how to maximize student engagement with the video; and how to promote active learning from the video. This essay reviews literature relevant to each of these principles and suggests practical ways instructors can use these principles when using video as an educational tool. © 2016 C. J. Brame. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Kon, Haruka; Botelho, Michael George; Bridges, Susan; Leung, Katherine Chiu Man
The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical instructional video with a structured worksheet for independent self-study in a complete denture program. 47 multilingual dental students completed a task by watching an instructional video with subtitles regarding clinical complete denture procedures. After completion, students evaluated their learning experience, and 11 students participated in focus group interviews to gain further insight. A mixed-methods approach to data collection and analysis provided descriptive statistical results and a grounded theory approach to coding identified key concepts and categories from the qualitative data. Over 70% of students had favorable opinions of the learning experience and indicated that the speed and length of the video were appropriate. Highly positive and conflicting negative comments regarding the use of subtitles showed both preferences for subtitles over audio and vice versa. The use of a video resource was considered valuable as the replay and review functions allowed better visualization of the procedures, which was considered a good recap tool for the clinical demonstration. It was also a better revision aid than textbooks. So, if the students were able to view these videos at will, they believed that videos supplemented their self-study. Despite the positive response, videos were not considered to replace live clinical demonstrations. While students preferred live demonstrations over the clinical videos they did express a realization of these as a supplemental learning material for self-study based on their ease of access, use for revision, and prior to clinical preparation. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Soetaert, Ronald
... by exploring a particular aspect of digitization that affects young people, namely video games. They explore the new social spaces which emerge in video game culture and how these spaces relate to community building and citizenship...
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questions of our media literacy pertaining to authoring multimodal texts (visual, verbal, audial, etc.) in research practice and the status of multimodal texts in academia. The implications of academic video extend to wider issues of how researchers harness opportunities to author different types of texts......Is video becoming “the new black” in academia, if so, what are the challenges? The integration of video in research methodology (for collection, analysis) is well-known, but the use of “academic video” for dissemination is relatively new (Eriksson and Sørensen). The focus of this paper is academic...... video, or short video essays produced for the explicit purpose of communicating research processes, topics, and research-based knowledge (see the journal of academic videos: www.audiovisualthinking.org). Video is increasingly used in popular showcases for video online, such as YouTube and Vimeo, as well...
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This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.
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Tankersley, R. A.; Windsor, J. G.; Briceno, K. V.
Recognizing the need for scientists to engage and communicate more effectively with the public, the Florida Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE Florida) created an opportunity to connect the two through film. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge taps into the competitive spirit of scientists and encourages them to submit short, 3-minute video abstracts summarizing the important findings of recent peer-reviewed papers and highlighting the relevance, meaning, and implications of the research to persons outside their discipline. Although the videos are initially screened and evaluated by a team of science and communication experts, the winners (from a field of ten finalists) are selected by middle school students in classrooms all over the world. Since its inception in 2013, Ocean 180 has grown in popularity, with more than 38,000 middle school students from 1,637 classrooms in 21 countries participating as judges. Results of a Draw-a-Scientist Test administered during the 2015 competition indicate Ocean 180 is an successful intervention that has a positive impact on students' views of science, including their perception and attitudes toward scientists and science careers. Thus, our presentation will discuss how video competitions can serve as effective outreach strategies for encouraging scientists to share new discoveries and their enthusiasm for science with K-12 students. We will also highlight the outcomes and lessons-learned from the 2014 and 2015 competitions, including (1) strategies for recruiting teachers and students to participate as judges, (2) approaches used by educators to align the content of videos with state and national science standards, and (3) ways contest videos can be integrated into science training and professional development programs, including workshops focusing on effective video storytelling techniques.
Pasch, H. L.
An overview of video coding is presented. The aim is not to give a technical summary of possible coding techniques, but to address subjects related to video compression in general and to the transmission of compressed video in more detail. Bit rate reduction is in general possible by removing redundant information; removing information the eye does not use anyway; and reducing the quality of the video. The codecs which are used for reducing the bit rate, can be divided into two groups: Constant Bit rate Codecs (CBC's), which keep the bit rate constant, but vary the video quality; and Variable Bit rate Codecs (VBC's), which keep the video quality constant by varying the bit rate. VBC's can be in general reach a higher video quality than CBC's using less bandwidth, but need a transmission system that allows the bandwidth of a connection to fluctuate in time. The current and the next generation of the PSTN does not allow this; ATM might. There are several factors which influence the quality of video: the bit error rate of the transmission channel, slip rate, packet loss rate/packet insertion rate, end-to-end delay, phase shift between voice and video, and bit rate. Based on the bit rate of the coded video, the following classification of coded video can be made: High Definition Television (HDTV); Broadcast Quality Television (BQTV); video conferencing; and video telephony. The properties of these classes are given. The video conferencing and video telephony equipment available now and in the next few years can be divided into three categories: conforming to 1984 CCITT standard for video conferencing; conforming to 1988 CCITT standard; and conforming to no standard.
Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators to post video pre-labs or to flip our classrooms. In this article, I share my advice on creating engaging physics videos.
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Video description of video programming. 79.3... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.3 Video description of video programming. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply: (1...
Piskur, B.; Beurskens, A.J.; Jongmans, M.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Norton, M.; Frings, C.A.; Hemmingsson, H.; Smeets, R.J.P.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pediatric rehabilitation considers Family-centered service (FCS) as a way to increase participation of children with a physical disability in daily life. An important principal is that parents greatly contribute to their child's participation at school, at home, and in the
Puente Rodriguez, D.
Participation (e.g., stakeholder involvement) has become a central concept in the practice of environmental and coastal zone management. Research has shown that the integration of participation in coastal zone management has positive ecological and social outcomes. In the literature, however,
Daykin, Norma; Orme, Judy; Evans, David; Salmon, Debra; McEachran, Malcolm; Brain, Sarah
This article reports a systematic review of literature published between 1994 and 2004 on the effects of performing arts for health in young people aged 11-18. The review includes research on music, performance, drama and dance in community settings and non-curricular mainstream education. A total of 17 electronic databases were searched and 3670 papers identified, 104 of which met relevance criteria. Full text scrutiny of 85 papers was undertaken and 14 of these were identified for review. The research was heterogeneous, making overall synthesis of results inappropriate. The review demonstrates that research on the impact of the performing arts on young people is at a relatively early stage.
Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey
Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…
Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin
With an interest in learning that is set in collaborative situations, the data session presents excerpts from video data produced by two of fifteen students from a class of 5th semester techno-anthropology course. Students used video cameras to capture the time they spent working with a scientist...... video, nature of the interactional space, and material and spatial semiotics....
Epley, Hannah K.
There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…
Holck, Ulla; Oldfield, Amelia; Plahl, Christine
Three music therapy researchers from three different countries who have recently completed their PhD theses will each briefly discuss the role of video analysis in their investigations. All three of these research projects have involved music therapy work with children, some of whom were...... and qualitative approaches to data collection. In addition, participants will be encouraged to reflect on what types of knowledge can be gained from video analyses and to explore the general relevance of video analysis in music therapy research....
Schultz, Daniel Joseph; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Houghtaling, Bailey
For the first time since 1980, the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policies were revised in 2009 to meet the Institute of Medicine's nutrition recommendations. These changes included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy to improve nutrition and health of WIC participants. Our systematic review of the literature assessed the influence that the 2009 WIC food package revisions have had on dietary intake, healthy food and beverage availability, and breastfeeding participation. The systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Four electronic databases were searched between April 1 and 30, 2014, for peer-reviewed research. Two reviewers screened the articles, extracted the data, and established inter-rater reliability by discussing and resolving discrepancies. Twenty articles were included that met our inclusion criteria. Nine of the studies analyzed changes in dietary intake, eight examined changes in healthy food and beverage availability, and three evaluated breastfeeding participation exclusively. The review demonstrated an improved dietary intake and an increase in the availability of healthier foods and beverages in authorized WIC stores. The revised food package was also associated with improved dietary intake of WIC participants. Mixed results were demonstrated in regard to improved breastfeeding outcomes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of WIC 2009 food package revisions on breastfeeding outcomes and to make conclusions about broad nutrition-related implications. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
English, Derek L; Gounden, Sadhana; Dagher, Richard E; Chan, Shu Fen; Furlonger, Brett E; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W
To examine the effectiveness of a video modeling (VM) with video feedback (VFB) intervention to teach vocational gardening skills to three adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple probe design across skills was used to assess the effects of the intervention on the three participants' ability to perform skills accurately. The use of VM with VFB led to improvements across skills for two of the participants. The third participant required video prompting (VP) for successful skill acquisition. Skill performance generalized across personnel and settings for two of the participants, but it was not assessed for the third. Skill performance maintained at follow-up for all three participants. Social validity data gathered from participants, parents, and co-workers were positive. These findings suggest that VM with VFB and VP with VFB were effective and socially acceptable interventions for teaching vocational gardening skills to young adults with ASD.
Hollink, L.; Nguyen, G.; Koelma, D.; Schreiber, A.T.; Worring, M.
The results of a study are presented, in which people queried a news archive using an interactive video retrieval system. 242 search sessions by 39 participants on 24 topics were assessed. Before, during and after the study, participants filled in questionnaires about their expectations of a search.
Current video transmission and distribution systems at CERN use a variety of analogue techniques which are several decades old. It will soon be necessary to replace this obsolete equipment, and the opportunity therefore exists to rationalize the diverse systems now in place. New standards for digital transmission and distribution are now emerging. This paper gives an overview of these new standards and of the underlying technology common to many of them. The paper reviews Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), the Motion Picture Experts Group specifications (MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4, and MPEG7), videoconferencing standards (H.261 etc.), and packet video systems, together with predictions of the penetration of these standards into the consumer market. The digital transport mechanisms now available (IP, SDH, ATM) are also reviewed, and the implication of widespread adoption of these systems on video transmission and distribution is analysed.
Calvin SH Ng
Full Text Available The proven safety and efficacy of minimal access video-assisted thoracic surgery has changed the way that spontaneous pneumothorax is managed. This review presents some of the experiences of the decade, discusses the controversies and reviews the current video-assisted thoracic surgical management of spontaneous pneumothorax.
Mayo, Merrilea J
Video games have enormous mass appeal, reaching audiences in the hundreds of thousands to millions. They also embed many pedagogical practices known to be effective in other environments. This article reviews the sparse but encouraging data on learning outcomes for video games in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, then reviews the infrastructural obstacles to wider adoption of this new medium.
Cardwell, Michael Steven
Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.
Belonging to the wider academic field of computer vision, video analytics has aroused a phenomenal surge of interest since the current millennium. Video analytics is intended to solve the problem of the incapability of exploiting video streams in real time for the purpose of detection or anticipation. It involves analyzing the videos using algorithms that detect and track objects of interest over time and that indicate the presence of events or suspect behavior involving these objects.The aims of this book are to highlight the operational attempts of video analytics, to identify possi
There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.
Hamour, Amr F; Mendez, Adrian I; Harris, Jeffrey R; Biron, Vincent L; Seikaly, Hadi; Côté, David W J
With the changing landscape of postgraduate surgical education to competency-based curricula, there emerges a need for alternative forms of training. Video teaching modules have been shown to be effective tools in surgical education, complementing traditional postgraduate curricula. There is a lack of validated modules described in the literature, specifically for teaching thyroidectomy. The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a high definition video-based teaching module instructing thyroidectomy surgery to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery trainees. This prospective study included intermediate to senior Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery residents. Each participant first performed a thyroid lobectomy, serving as the initial assessment. After a washout period of at least 3 weeks, each participant was given the teaching module. The 15-minute module was developed using a 3-camera system and detailed a step-by-step approach to the surgery. After exposure to the module, each trainee performed the same procedure. Recordings of both procedures were deidentified and reviewed by a blinded, independent evaluator. Scoring was done using the Observational Clinical Human Reliability Assessment (OCHRA) system. University of Alberta Hospital and Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. A total of 6 intermediate to senior Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery residents entered and completed the study. The mean error rate was 8.8 errors per procedure before module exposure and 4.5 errors per procedure after exposure, representing a 49% decrease in error occurrence (p definition video teaching modules are a useful complement to traditional surgical training. In a climate where new innovations for teaching thyroid surgery are needed, properly constructed and validated video teaching modules can serve as important tools in supplementing traditional surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by
van den Broek, Ellen G. C.; van Eijden, Ans J P M; Overbeek, Mathilde M.; Kef, Sabina; Sterkenburg, Paula S.; Schuengel, Carlo
Secure parent-child attachment may help children to overcome the challenges of growing up with a visual or visual-and-intellectual impairment. A large literature exists that provides a blueprint for interventions that promote parental sensitivity and secure attachment. The Video-feedback
Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphné
Here we review the literature examining the perceptual, attentional, and cognitive benefits of playing one sub-type of video games known as ‘action video games,’ as well as the mechanistic underpinnings of these behavioral effects. We then outline evidence indicating the potential usefulness of these commercial off-the-shelf games for practical, real-world applications such as rehabilitation or the training of job-related skills. Finally, we discuss potential core characteristics of action vi...
The full-color guide to shooting great video with the Flip Video camera. The inexpensive Flip Video camera is currently one of the hottest must-have gadgets. It's portable and connects easily to any computer to transfer video you shoot onto your PC or Mac. Although the Flip Video camera comes with a quick-start guide, it lacks a how-to manual, and this full-color book fills that void! Packed with full-color screen shots throughout, Flip Video For Dummies shows you how to shoot the best possible footage in a variety of situations. You'll learn how to transfer video to your computer and then edi
Bonacho dos Anjos Henriques-Cadby, Inês; Bortolami, Oscar; Flight, Laura; Hind, Daniel; Knox, Christopher; Nadin, Ben; Rothwell, Joanne; Surtees, Michael; Julious, Steven A
Background Substantial amounts of public funds are invested in health research worldwide. Publicly funded randomised controlled trials (RCTs) often recruit participants at a slower than anticipated rate. Many trials fail to reach their planned sample size within the envisaged trial timescale and trial funding envelope. Objectives To review the consent, recruitment and retention rates for single and multicentre randomised control trials funded and published by the UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme. Data sources and study selection HTA reports of individually randomised single or multicentre RCTs published from the start of 2004 to the end of April 2016 were reviewed. Data extraction Information was extracted, relating to the trial characteristics, sample size, recruitment and retention by two independent reviewers. Main outcome measures Target sample size and whether it was achieved; recruitment rates (number of participants recruited per centre per month) and retention rates (randomised participants retained and assessed with valid primary outcome data). Results This review identified 151 individually RCTs from 787 NIHR HTA reports. The final recruitment target sample size was achieved in 56% (85/151) of the RCTs and more than 80% of the final target sample size was achieved for 79% of the RCTs (119/151). The median recruitment rate (participants per centre per month) was found to be 0.92 (IQR 0.43–2.79) and the median retention rate (proportion of participants with valid primary outcome data at follow-up) was estimated at 89% (IQR 79–97%). Conclusions There is considerable variation in the consent, recruitment and retention rates in publicly funded RCTs. Investigators should bear this in mind at the planning stage of their study and not be overly optimistic about their recruitment projections. PMID:28320800
Walters, Stephen J; Bonacho Dos Anjos Henriques-Cadby, Inês; Bortolami, Oscar; Flight, Laura; Hind, Daniel; Jacques, Richard M; Knox, Christopher; Nadin, Ben; Rothwell, Joanne; Surtees, Michael; Julious, Steven A
Substantial amounts of public funds are invested in health research worldwide. Publicly funded randomised controlled trials (RCTs) often recruit participants at a slower than anticipated rate. Many trials fail to reach their planned sample size within the envisaged trial timescale and trial funding envelope. To review the consent, recruitment and retention rates for single and multicentre randomised control trials funded and published by the UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme. HTA reports of individually randomised single or multicentre RCTs published from the start of 2004 to the end of April 2016 were reviewed. Information was extracted, relating to the trial characteristics, sample size, recruitment and retention by two independent reviewers. Target sample size and whether it was achieved; recruitment rates (number of participants recruited per centre per month) and retention rates (randomised participants retained and assessed with valid primary outcome data). This review identified 151 individually RCTs from 787 NIHR HTA reports. The final recruitment target sample size was achieved in 56% (85/151) of the RCTs and more than 80% of the final target sample size was achieved for 79% of the RCTs (119/151). The median recruitment rate (participants per centre per month) was found to be 0.92 (IQR 0.43-2.79) and the median retention rate (proportion of participants with valid primary outcome data at follow-up) was estimated at 89% (IQR 79-97%). There is considerable variation in the consent, recruitment and retention rates in publicly funded RCTs. Investigators should bear this in mind at the planning stage of their study and not be overly optimistic about their recruitment projections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
ELLIOTT, LUTHER; Golub, Andrew; Ream, Geoffrey; DUNLAP, ELOISE
This study assessed how problem video game playing (PVP) varies with game type, or “genre,” among adult video gamers. Participants (n=3,380) were adults (18+) who reported playing video games for 1 hour or more during the past week and completed a nationally representative online survey. The survey asked about characteristics of video game use, including titles played in the past year and patterns of (problematic) use. Participants self-reported the extent to which characteristics of PVP (e.g...
Dong, Chaoyan; Goh, Poh Sun
Videos can promote learning by either complementing classroom activities, or in self-paced online learning modules. Despite the wide availability of online videos in medicine, it can be a challenge for many educators to decide when videos should be used, how to best use videos, and whether to use existing videos or produce their own. We outline 12 tips based on a review of best practices in curriculum design, current research in multimedia learning and our experience in producing and using educational videos. The 12 tips review the advantages of using videos in medical education, present requirements for teachers and students, discuss how to integrate video into a teaching programme, and describe technical requirements when producing one's own videos. The 12 tips can help medical educators use videos more effectively to promote student engagement and learning.
Choo, Hyekyung; Gentile, Douglas A; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline; Liau, Albert K
Increase in internet use and video-gaming contributes to public concern on pathological or obsessive play of video games among children and adolescents worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of pathological symptoms in video-gaming among Singaporean youth and the psychometric properties of instruments measuring pathological symptoms in video-gaming. A total of 2998 children and adolescents from 6 primary and 6 secondary schools in Singapore responded to a comprehensive survey questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, video-gaming habits, school performance, somatic symptoms, various psychological traits, social functioning and pathological symptoms of video-gaming. After weighting, the survey data were analysed to determine the prevalence of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth and gender differences in the prevalence. The construct validity of instrument used to measure pathological symptoms of video-gaming was tested. Of all the study participants, 8.7% were classified as pathological players with more boys reporting more pathological symptoms than girls. All variables, including impulse control problem, social competence, hostility, academic performance, and damages to social functioning, tested for construct validity, were significantly associated with pathological status, providing good evidence for the construct validity of the instrument used. The prevalence rate of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth is comparable with that from other countries studied thus far, and gender differences are also consistent with the findings of prior research. The positive evidence of construct validity supports the potential use of the instrument for future research and clinical screening on Singapore children and adolescents' pathological video-gaming.
Pohjola, Mikko V; Tuomisto, Jouni T
Issues of environment and environmental health involve multiple interests regarding e.g. political, societal, economical, and public concerns represented by different kinds of organizations and individuals. Not surprisingly, stakeholder and public participation has become a major issue in environmental and environmental health policy and assessment. The need for participation has been discussed and reasoned by many, including environmental legislators around the world. In principle, participation is generally considered as desirable and the focus of most scholars and practitioners is on carrying out participation, and making participation more effective. In practice also doubts regarding the effectiveness and importance of participation exist among policy makers, assessors, and public, leading even to undermining participatory practices in policy making and assessment.There are many possible purposes for participation, and different possible models of interaction between assessment and policy. A solid conceptual understanding of the interrelations between participation, assessment, and policy making is necessary in order to design and implement effective participatory practices. In this paper we ask, do current common conceptions of assessment, policy making and participation provide a sufficient framework for achieving effective participation? This question is addresses by reviewing the range of approaches to participation in assessment and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health and some related insights from recent research projects, INTARESE and BENERIS.Openness, considered e.g. in terms of a) scope of participation, b) access to information, c) scope of contribution, d) timing of openness, and e) impact of contribution, provides a new perspective to the relationships between participation, assessment and policy making. Participation, assessment, and policy making form an inherently intertwined complex with interrelated objectives and
Asha S George
Full Text Available Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research.To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries.We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research.Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260, even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively, but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service availability
George, Asha S; Mehra, Vrinda; Scott, Kerry; Sriram, Veena
Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research. To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research. Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260), even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively), but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service availability, accessibility and
Tan, Clive M; Tan, Ian Wern; Kok, Wai Leong; Lee, Melvin C; Lee, Vernon J
Systematically planning appropriate medical coverage for mass-participation running events is a challenge that has received relatively little attention in the medical literature, despite its potentially severe consequences. In particular, the literature lacks quantitative information on running events that medical planners can utilize for decisions on medical resource allocation and deployment. Using a case-study approach, this study provides a detailed quantitative medical services utilization profile for the Singapore Army Half-Marathon, constructed from participant and casualty data spanning three years and comprising over 80,000 data points. Casualty rates for participants of varying age and sex in different running events were also estimated using a multivariate logistic regression model. Qualitatively, planning processes and practices were described and discussed. The quantitative profile yielded three main findings. Firstly, the analysis reveals that the gross Medical Usage Rate had remained fairly stable at between 16.9 and 26.0 casualties per 10,000 participants over the three years. Secondly, comparing injury types, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries were the most commonly-presented injuries. Thirdly, more casualties presented at the race end-point as compared to the along the race routes. The regression analysis showed that, of the four modeled variables, the longer event distance (21 km vs. 10 km) had the largest effect on the likelihood that a participant would become a casualty. Conversely, being of an older age, being male, and running in a non-competitive event were each associated with lower casualty risk. The stable and intuitive casualty patterns detailed in this study provide a strong basis for further quantitative research on the medical aspects of running events, as well as for mass-participation sporting events in general. The qualitative aspects of this report may serve as a useful resource to medical planners for running events.
Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is
Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R
The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross
Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad
...) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity...
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia
Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved
Park, Kelly; Caine, Vera; Wimmer, Randolph
Enriched high school curricula like the Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Diploma programs are endorsed as "pathway programs" for postsecondary-bound students. Program participation is perceived to have benefits that appeal to a broad stakeholder group of universities, administrators, teachers, students, and parents. In…
Cameron, Roslyn; Stuart, Lynne; Bell, Terry
The poor outcomes in education, training and employment achieved by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia have been well documented. The transition from a traditional Indigenous society to the statuses of mainstream Australian society has been, and continues to be problematic for Indigenous Australians. The participation in…
Byker, Carmen J.; Misyak, Sarah; Shanks, Justin; Serrano, Elena L.
Farmers' markets have emerged as one health strategy to improve the access and availability of fresh foods for limited-resource audiences using federal nutrition assistance programs, although their effectiveness on dietary intake is not well understood. The review reported here evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of existing research about…
Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a
Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R
There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children
Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: email@example.com [21st Century Oncology, LLC, Fort Myers, Florida, and American Board of Radiology, Tucson, Arizona (United States); Ang, K. Kian [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harris, Jay R. [Harvard Medical School and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahoney, Mary C. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Mezwa, Duane G. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oaks, Michigan (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Becker, Gary J. [American Board of Radiology, Tucson, Arizona (United States)
Introduction: In 1999, the American Board of Radiology (ABR) implemented an innovative training program track in diagnostic radiology (DR) and radiation oncology (RO) designed to stimulate development of a cadre of future academic researchers and educators in the 2 disciplines. The program was designated the Holman Research Pathway (HRP). An in-depth retrospective review of initial certification examination performance, post-training career choices, and academic productivity has not been written. This report represents a 10-year retrospective review of post-training performance of a cohort of trainees who have had sufficient time to complete their training and initial certification process and to enter practice. Methods and Materials: All pertinent proceedings of the ABR and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committees for DR and RO between 1997 and May 2011 were reviewed. Thirty-four HRP candidates who fulfilled the established evaluation criteria were identified, and their ABR data files were analyzed regarding performance on the qualifying and certifying examinations. All candidates were contacted directly to obtain a current curriculum vitae. Results: Twenty candidates in RO and 14 candidates in DR were identifiable for review. All candidates attained initial certification. At the time of analysis, 23 of 33 (66.6%) candidates were employed in full-time academic practice (1 DR candidate remained in a fellowship and was not evaluated regarding employment status). Fifteen of 20 (75%) RO candidates were in faculty positions compared with 7 of 13 (53.8%) DR trainees. Additional academic productivity metrics are reported. Conclusions: A high percentage of HRP trainees remained in academic practice and demonstrated significant academic productivity as measured by manuscript authorship and research support. Additional time and observation will be needed to determine whether these findings will be sustained by past, current
DeBourgh, Gregory A; Prion, Susan K
Background Essential nursing skills for safe practice are not limited to technical skills, but include abilities for determining salience among clinical data within dynamic practice environments, demonstrating clinical judgment and reasoning, problem-solving abilities, and teamwork competence. Effective instructional methods are needed to prepare new nurses for entry-to-practice in contemporary healthcare settings. Method This mixed-methods descriptive study explored self-reported perceptions of a process to self-record videos for psychomotor skill performance evaluation in a convenience sample of 102 pre-licensure students. Results Students reported gains in confidence and skill acquisition using team skills to record individual videos of skill performance, and described the importance of teamwork, peer support, and deliberate practice. Conclusion Although time consuming, the production of student-directed video validations of psychomotor skill performance is an authentic task with meaningful accountabilities that is well-received by students as an effective, satisfying learner experience to increase confidence and competence in performing psychomotor skills.
Henningsen, Birgitte; Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Hautopp, Heidi
This paper introduces to what we define as a collaborative video sketching process. This process links various sketching techniques with digital storytelling approaches and creative reflection processes in video productions. Traditionally, sketching has been used by designers across various...... forms and through empirical examples, we present and discuss the video recording of sketching sessions, as well as development of video sketches by rethinking, redoing and editing the recorded sessions. The empirical data is based on workshop sessions with researchers and students from universities...... and university colleges and primary and secondary school teachers. As researchers, we have had different roles in these action research case studies where various video sketching techniques were applied.The analysis illustrates that video sketching can take many forms, and two common features are important...
Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.
Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise
Aims To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. Design Nationally representative survey. Setting Online. Participants Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. Measurements Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. Findings Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. Conclusions Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of “addictive” video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. PMID:23284310
Elliott, Luther; Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise
AIMS: To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. MEASUREMENTS: Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. FINDINGS: Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play.
Sala, Giovanni; Tatlidil, K Semir; Gobet, Fernand
As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess. Video game training is another activity that has been claimed by many researchers to foster a broad range of cognitive abilities such as visual processing, attention, spatial ability, and cognitive control. We tested these claims with three random-effects meta-analytic models. The first meta-analysis (k = 310) examined the correlation between video game skill and cognitive ability. The second meta-analysis (k = 315) dealt with the differences between video game players and nonplayers in cognitive ability. The third meta-analysis (k = 359) investigated the effects of video game training on participants' cognitive ability. Small or null overall effect sizes were found in all three models. These outcomes show that overall cognitive ability and video game skill are only weakly related. Importantly, we found no evidence of a causal relationship between playing video games and enhanced cognitive ability. Video game training thus represents no exception to the general difficulty of obtaining far transfer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Quinn, S; Herron, D; Menzies, R; Scott, L; Black, R; Zhou, Y; Waller, A; Humphris, G; Freeman, R
To examine dentists' views of a novel video review technique to improve communication skills in complex clinical situations. Dentists (n = 3) participated in a video review known as Video Interaction Guidance to encourage more attuned interactions with their patients (n = 4). Part of this process is to identify where dentists and patients reacted positively and effectively. Each dentist was presented with short segments of video footage taken during an appointment with a patient with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties. Having observed their interactions with patients, dentists were asked to reflect on their communication strategies with the assistance of a trained VIG specialist. Dentists reflected that their VIG session had been insightful and considered the review process as beneficial to communication skills training in dentistry. They believed that this technique could significantly improve the way dentists interact and communicate with patients. The VIG sessions increased their awareness of the communication strategies they use with their patients and were perceived as neither uncomfortable nor threatening. The VIG session was beneficial in this exploratory investigation because the dentists could identify when their interactions were most effective. Awareness of their non-verbal communication strategies and the need to adopt these behaviours frequently were identified as key benefits of this training approach. One dentist suggested that the video review method was supportive because it was undertaken by a behavioural scientist rather than a professional counterpart. Some evidence supports the VIG approach in this specialist area of communication skills and dental training. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tan, Clive M; Tan, Ian Wern; Kok, Wai Leong; Lee, Melvin C; Lee, Vernon J.
Background Systematically planning appropriate medical coverage for mass-participation running events is a challenge that has received relatively little attention in the medical literature, despite its potentially severe consequences. In particular, the literature lacks quantitative information on running events that medical planners can utilize for decisions on medical resource allocation and deployment. Methods Using a case-study approach, this study provides a detailed quantitative medical...
Balmer, Claire; Griffiths, Frances; Dunn, Janet
To discuss the issues and challenges that may occur when using participant-produced photographs in nursing research. The place of visual representation in society is increasingly being recognized and there is a growing discussion on the advantages of implementing visual methods, such as photography, in health and illness research. Integrating photographs has much potential for both nurse researchers and participants but it remains a novel method of gathering qualitative data and many aspects have had little consideration in the nursing and medical literature. This paper presents a discussion of some of the issues that may arise when using photographs as data. It draws on examples of the insights and experiences we had when we asked study participants to produce photographs to complement their interviews designed to explore their experience of living after cancer. Discussion paper This paper is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory. Disseminating this research has prompted much interest from nurses and clinical staff. This paper should highlight some of the factors that may need to be addressed before employing such a novel method, thus ensuring the research process is positive and the outcome relevant for all parties. Examples are used here to illustrate practical, ethical and philosophical issues around the research plan, creating and interpreting photographic data, confidentiality and copyright and analysing and disseminating photographs produced for research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lobel, A.M.; Granic, I.; Stone, L.L.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health
Bungay, Hilary; Vella-Burrows, Trish
Health-promoting strategies need to be culturally appropriate to encourage healthy behaviours and lifestyle choices in children and young people. This rapid review explores the effects of participating in creative activities on the health and well-being of children aged between 11 and 18 years. Building on an earlier systematic review undertaken by Daykin and colleagues(1) a rapid review of the literature published between 2004 and 2011 was undertaken. The search was conducted systematically and included research on music, dance, singing, drama and visual arts, taking place in community settings or as extracurricular activities in mainstream schools. Therapies such as art, drama and music were excluded from the review. Following rigorous application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 20 papers were included in the review: six quantitative, eight qualitative and six mixed-method approaches. The interventions used in the studies were diverse and the research was heterogeneous, therefore overall synthesis of the results was inappropriate. The review is therefore organised into the following headings: sexual health, obesity, mental health and emotional well-being. Despite the methodological weakness and limitations of the majority of the studies there were some consistencies in their findings. It was found that participating in creative activities can have a positive effect on behavioural changes, self-confidence, self-esteem, levels of knowledge and physical activity. Although the research evidence is generally weak there is some evidence that using creative activities as part of a health-promoting strategy may be a useful method of increasing knowledge and positive behaviours in children and young people.
Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction
The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.
Prognostic importance of self-reported traits/problems/strengths and environmental barriers/facilitators for predicting participation outcomes in persons with traumatic brain injury: a systematic review.
Sherer, Mark; Davis, Lynne C; Sander, Angelle M; Caroselli, Jerome S; Clark, Allison N; Pastorek, Nicholas J
To conduct a systematic review of the prognostic value of self-reported traits/problems/strengths and environmental barriers/facilitators for participation outcomes in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Articles published through August 15, 2013, obtained by conducting electronic searches of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases and a review of reference lists of reviewed articles. Reviewed articles were written in English and presented findings on adult humans with TBI, participation outcomes, and ≥ 1 self-reported trait/problem/strength (eg, depression, pain, coping style) and/or ≥ 1 environment barrier/facilitator (eg, social support, family functioning, access to services). Each of the 996 abstracts was examined by 2 reviewers, and those failing to meet all inclusion criteria were excluded. Data were extracted from the 63 retained articles by 2 independent reviewers, who met to resolve any differences in study quality rating or evidence recorded. Study quality was determined using American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria. Conclusions regarding prognostic importance of self-report and environmental barrier/facilitator variables were made using AAN criteria. Conclusions regarding barrier/facilitator variables indicated that access to transportation, access to services, and participation in social interaction were possibly predictive of employment outcome, whereas living arrangements and social support were possibly not predictive of employment outcome. Conclusions regarding self-report variables indicated that the number of postconcussive symptoms, fatigue, and physical competence were probably predictive of employment and need for supervision, whereas self-efficacy was probably not predictive of employment. Subjective well-being, pain, and social interaction were possibly predictive of employment, whereas coping style was possibly not predictive. Although additional investigation is needed, self
Sherman, Kerry A.; Suzanne M. Miller; Shaw, Laura-Kate; Cavanagh, Karen; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri
Breast cancer is a significant health concern for African American women. Nonetheless, uptake of genetic risk assessment (including both genetic counseling and testing) for breast cancer gene mutations among these populations remains low. This paper systematically reviews cognitive (i.e., beliefs) and affective (i.e., emotions) factors influencing BRCA1/2 genetic risk assessment among African American women as well as psychosocial interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this p...
Osborne, Candice L; Meyer, Walter J; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Arcari, Christine M
The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a universal classification system of health and health-related domains. The ICF has been successfully applied to a wide range of health conditions and diseases; however, its application in the field of burn recovery has been minimal. This systematic review uses the domains of the ICF component 'activities and participation' to explore: (1) the extent to which return to daily activities and community participation after burn has been examined in the pediatric population, (2) the most common assessments used to determine activity and participation outcomes, and (3) what activity and participation areas are most affected in the pediatric burn population after discharge from acute care. Results determined that it is difficult to draw overarching conclusions in the area of return to 'activities and participation' for children with burn based on the paucity of current evidence. Of the studies conducted, few examined the same subtopics or used similar measurements. This suggests a need for more robust studies in this area in order to inform and improve burn rehabilitation practices to meet the potential needs of burn patients beyond an acute care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Griffiths, Mark D; Nuyens, Filip
There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in the field to date. The paper examines a number of areas including (i) similarities in structural characteristics of gambling and video gaming, (ii) structural characteristics in video games, (iii) narrative and flow in video games, (iv) structural characteristic taxonomies for video games, and (v) video game structural characteristics and game design ethics. Many of the studies carried out to date are small-scale, and comprise self-selected convenience samples (typically using self-report surveys or non-ecologically valid laboratory experiments). Based on the small amount of empirical data, it appears that structural features that take a long time to achieve in-game are the ones most associated with problematic video game play (e.g., earning experience points, managing in-game resources, mastering the video game, getting 100% in-game). The study of video games from a structural characteristic perspective is of benefit to many different stakeholders including academic researchers, video game players, and video game designers, as well as those interested in prevention and policymaking by making the games more socially responsible. It is important that researchers understand and recognize the psycho-social effects and impacts that the structural characteristics of video games can have on players, both positive and negative.
Statton, Sarah; Jones, Ray; Thomas, Martin; North, Tracie; Endacott, Ruth; Frost, Adrian; Tighe, Dazzle; Wilson, Gail
Most people want to die at home but only half do. Supporting patients in rural locations is challenging. Video calls such as Skype, might help but are not routinely used; we should consider learning needs to increase uptake and ensure effective use. We aimed to identify learning needs of healthcare professionals (HCPs) in using video calls to support patients (and their carers) to die at home. Face-to-face workshops were held in five Southwest England locations. Participants discussed advantages, disadvantages, scenarios for use, and the learning needs of video call users. Ideas were documented on flipcharts and discussions audio-recorded. The 116 participants included nurses, allied HCPs, doctors and previously bereaved volunteers. Lists of advantages, disadvantages, scenarios and learning needs were compiled and circulated to participants. In a subsequent online workshop, 21 participants ranked seven groups of learning needs in priority order. Most participants thought video calls could be used to advantage in many end-of-life scenarios, especially in rural areas. Seven themes, covering 59 learning needs for HCPs, were identified (in priority order): (i) confidence and technical ability in using video calls; (ii) being aware of how video calls fit into clinical practice; (iii) managing video calls; (iv) communication skills on 'camera'; (v) understanding how patients and families may be affected by video call use; (vi) presenting video calls as an option to patients and families to assess their readiness; (vii) normal professional skills that become essential for effective video calls. Although almost ubiquitous, video call software is not routinely and effectively used in British clinical practice. Supporting patients and families at end-of-life is one example where it could be used to advantage, but clinicians need to plan and practise before using it in real situations. Learning needs were identified that could be developed into learning modules and/or courses.
Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.
Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but with no significant improvements in feelings of stress and burden. It is unclear how support groups can produce a meaningful outcome for the informal caregivers. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups...... assembling the findings rated according to their quality, and categorizing these findings based on similarity in meaning. These categories were subjected to a meta-synthesis that produced a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. Result: The meta-synthesis produced three synthesized findings: 1. Emotional...
Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.J.F.; Köhler, J.; Larson, M.; de Jong, F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Ordelman, R.J.F.
VideoCLEF is a new track for the CLEF 2008 campaign. This track aims to develop and evaluate tasks in analyzing multilingual video content. A pilot of a Vid2RSS task involving assigning thematic class labels to video kicks off the VideoCLEF track in 2008. Task participants deliver classification
Castro, Eva Marie; Van Regenmortel, Tine; Vanhaecht, Kris; Sermeus, Walter; Van Hecke, Ann
The concepts of patient empowerment, patient participation and patient-centeredness have been introduced as part of the trend towards a more participatory health care and have largely been used interchangeably. Although these concepts have been discussed for a number of years, their exact meaning in hospital care remains somewhat unclear. This absence of theoretical and conceptual clarity has led to (1) poor understanding and communication among researchers, health practitioners and policy makers and (2) problems in measurement and comparison between studies across different hospitals. This paper examines all three concepts through a concept analysis based on the method of Avant and Walker (2005)  and the simultaneous concept analysis of Haase et al. (1992) . Through these methods, the antecedents, attributes, consequences and empirical referents of each concept are determined. In addition, similarities and differences between the three concepts are identified and a definition offered for each concept. Furthermore, the interrelatedness between the key concepts is mapped, and definitions are proposed. It can be concluded that patient empowerment is a much broader concept than just patient participation and patient-centeredness. The present study may provide a useful framework that researchers, policy makers and health care providers can use to facilitate patient empowerment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Couto, Maria Inês Vieira; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho
To identify and analyze factors that influence the participation of parents in the rehabilitation process of children with cochlear implants (CI). Question formulation and articles selection in three databases using the following keywords: cochlear implant (implante coclear) and parents (pais). Complete original articles published in Brazilian Portuguese or English, with direct participation of parents of children with CI. Articles were fully read. Data regarding characterization of the centers, research methodology and content were analyzed. Thirteen articles were selected based on the established criteria. The types of studies were cross-sectional and case-control (interview technique). The following influential factors were identified: pre-CI surgery factors (knowledge about CI, quality and quantity of information, specialist's advices, ethical and biomedical aspects, rehabilitation engagement, contact with experienced families, social service support and overall costs); rehabilitation aspects (CI use, oral communication modality, regular school, other disabilities, social and demographic aspects and rehabilitation program's effectiveness); other important influential processes (communication modality, auditory and language development, second oral language learning, as well as parent's behavior and satisfaction). The engagement of parents in the rehabilitation process of children with CI depends on several distinct influential factors which audiologists should understand and consider when elaborating a rehabilitation program.