Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey
Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…
There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.
Guo, Shiyi; Mai, Ying; Zhao, Hongying; Gao, Pengqi
The airborne video streams of small-UAVs are commonly plagued with distractive jittery and shaking motions, disorienting rotations, noisy and distorted images and other unwanted movements. These problems collectively make it very difficult for observers to obtain useful information from the video. Due to the small payload of small-UAVs, it is a priority to improve the image quality by means of electronic image stabilization. But when small-UAV makes a turn, affected by the flight characteristics of it, the video is easy to become oblique. This brings a lot of difficulties to electronic image stabilization technology. Homography model performed well in the oblique image motion estimation, while bringing great challenges to intentional motion estimation. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on solve the problem of the video stabilized when small-UAVs banking and turning. We attend to the small-UAVs fly along with an arc of a fixed turning radius. For this reason, after a series of experimental analysis on the flight characteristics and the path how small-UAVs turned, we presented a new method to estimate the intentional motion in which the path of the frame center was used to fit the video moving track. Meanwhile, the image sequences dynamic mosaic was done to make up for the limited field of view. At last, the proposed algorithm was carried out and validated by actual airborne videos. The results show that the proposed method is effective to stabilize the oblique video of small-UAVs.
Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem
In recent years, research in video databases has increased greatly, but relatively little work has been done in the area of semantic content-based retrieval. In this paper, we present a framework for video modelling with emphasis on semantic content of video data. The video data model presented
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.
Full Text Available The integration of a surveillance camera video with a three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS requires the georeferencing of that video. Since a video consists of separate frames, each frame must be georeferenced. To georeference a video frame, we rely on the information about the camera view at the moment that the frame was captured. A camera view in 3D space is completely determined by the camera position, orientation, and field-of-view. Since the accurate measuring of these parameters can be extremely difficult, in this paper we propose a method for their estimation based on matching video frame coordinates of certain point features with their 3D geographic locations. To obtain these coordinates, we rely on high-resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM of the area of interest. Once an adequate number of points are matched, Levenberg–Marquardt iterative optimization is applied to find the most suitable video frame georeference, i.e., position and orientation of the camera.
Jacco R. Taal
Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.
Marino, Desha; Myck-Wayne, Janice
The purpose of this investigation is to identify the technological barriers teachers encounter when attempting to implement video modeling in the classroom. Video modeling is an emerging evidence-based intervention method used with individuals with autism. Research has shown the positive effects video modeling can have on its recipients. Educators…
Full Text Available This article investigates a new method of motion estimation based on block matching criterion through the modeling of image blocks by a mixture of two and three Gaussian distributions. Mixture parameters (weights, means vectors, and covariance matrices are estimated by the Expectation Maximization algorithm (EM which maximizes the log-likelihood criterion. The similarity between a block in the current image and the more resembling one in a search window on the reference image is measured by the minimization of Extended Mahalanobis distance between the clusters of mixture. Performed experiments on sequences of real images have given good results, and PSNR reached 3 dB.
Van Zyl, Abraham
This thesis examines the teaching methods used in three successful educational video games with the goal to provide a concise, practical guide for the proper implementation of educational learning into video games. The main source for analysing the teaching methods of educational games in this thesis is James Paul Gee’s book What Video Games Have To Teach Us About Learning And Literacy (2004). Gee expresses 36 learning principles existing in good games (chapter 4.2). This ideology serves ...
Hoogerheide, V.; Loyens, S.M.M.; van Gog, T.
Online learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the model-observer
Hoogerheide, Vincent; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; van Gog, Tamara
Online learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the model-observer similarity hypothesis suggests that such…
Fernandez , Adrian; Insfran , Emilio; Abrahão , Silvia; Carsí , José ,; Montero , Emanuel
Part 3: Short Papers; International audience; The increasing complexity of video game development highlights the need of design and evaluation methods for enhancing quality and reducing time and cost. In this context, Model-Driven Development approaches seem to be very promising since a video game can be obtained by transforming platform-independent models into platform-specific models that can be in turn transformed into code. Although this approach is started to being used for video game de...
V. Hoogerheide (Vincent); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara)
textabstractOnline learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the
Awad, Rasha; Al-Zuky, Ali A.; Al-Saleh, Anwar H.; Mohamad, Haidar J.
An enhancement technique used to improve the studied video quality. Algorithms like mean and standard deviation are used as a criterion within this paper, and it applied for each video clip that divided into 80 images. The studied filming environment has different light intensity (315, 566, and 644Lux). This different environment gives similar reality to the outdoor filming. The outputs of the suggested algorithm are compared with the results before applying it. This method is applied into two ways: first, it is applied for the full video clip to get the enhanced film; second, it is applied for every individual image to get the enhanced image then compiler them to get the enhanced film. This paper shows that the enhancement technique gives good quality video film depending on a statistical method, and it is recommended to use it in different application.
Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hao
As quality assurance is of strong concern in advanced surgeries, intelligent surgical systems are expected to have knowledge such as the knowledge of the surgical workflow model (SWM) to support their intuitive cooperation with surgeons. For generating a robust and reliable SWM, a large amount of training data is required. However, training data collected by physically recording surgery operations is often limited and data collection is time-consuming and labor-intensive, severely influencing knowledge scalability of the surgical systems. The objective of this research is to solve the knowledge scalability problem in surgical workflow modeling with a low cost and labor efficient way. A novel web-video-mining-supported surgical workflow modeling (webSWM) method is developed. A novel video quality analysis method based on topic analysis and sentiment analysis techniques is developed to select high-quality videos from abundant and noisy web videos. A statistical learning method is then used to build the workflow model based on the selected videos. To test the effectiveness of the webSWM method, 250 web videos were mined to generate a surgical workflow for the robotic cholecystectomy surgery. The generated workflow was evaluated by 4 web-retrieved videos and 4 operation-room-recorded videos, respectively. The evaluation results (video selection consistency n-index ≥0.60; surgical workflow matching degree ≥0.84) proved the effectiveness of the webSWM method in generating robust and reliable SWM knowledge by mining web videos. With the webSWM method, abundant web videos were selected and a reliable SWM was modeled in a short time with low labor cost. Satisfied performances in mining web videos and learning surgery-related knowledge show that the webSWM method is promising in scaling knowledge for intelligent surgical systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Song, Xiaomu; Fan, Guoliang
We propose a new statistical generative model for spatiotemporal video segmentation. The objective is to partition a video sequence into homogeneous segments that can be used as "building blocks" for semantic video segmentation. The baseline framework is a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based video modeling approach that involves a six-dimensional spatiotemporal feature space. Specifically, we introduce the concept of frame saliency to quantify the relevancy of a video frame to the GMM-based spatiotemporal video modeling. This helps us use a small set of salient frames to facilitate the model training by reducing data redundancy and irrelevance. A modified expectation maximization algorithm is developed for simultaneous GMM training and frame saliency estimation, and the frames with the highest saliency values are extracted to refine the GMM estimation for video segmentation. Moreover, it is interesting to find that frame saliency can imply some object behaviors. This makes the proposed method also applicable to other frame-related video analysis tasks, such as key-frame extraction, video skimming, etc. Experiments on real videos demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
Full Text Available Video surveillance system senses and trails out all the threatening issues in the real time environment. It prevents from security threats with the help of visual devices which gather the information related to videos like CCTV’S and IP (Internet Protocol cameras. Video surveillance system has become a key for addressing problems in the public security. They are mostly deployed on the IP based network. So, all the possible security threats exist in the IP based application might also be the threats available for the reliable application which is available for video surveillance. In result, it may increase cybercrime, illegal video access, mishandling videos and so on. Hence, in this paper an intelligent model is used to propose security for video surveillance system which ensures safety and it provides secured access on video.
Full Text Available People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem. This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an ϵ-SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.
Full Text Available People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem. This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an -SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.
Conte, Donatello; Foggia, Pasquale; Percannella, Gennaro; Tufano, Francesco; Vento, Mario
People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem). This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.
Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Anna
In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set.......In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set....
You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew
averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in modeling visual attention, which is then integrated into IQMs to calculate the local quality of a video frame...... average between the global quality and the local quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the combination of the global quality and local quality outperforms both sole global quality and local quality, as well as other quality models, in video quality assessment. In addition, the proposed video...... quality modeling algorithm can improve the performance of image quality metrics on video quality assessment compared to the normal averaged spatiotemporal pooling scheme....
You, Shaodi; Tan, Robby T; Kawakami, Rei; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeuchi, Katsushi
Raindrops adhered to a windscreen or window glass can significantly degrade the visibility of a scene. Modeling, detecting and removing raindrops will, therefore, benefit many computer vision applications, particularly outdoor surveillance systems and intelligent vehicle systems. In this paper, a method that automatically detects and removes adherent raindrops is introduced. The core idea is to exploit the local spatio-temporal derivatives of raindrops. To accomplish the idea, we first model adherent raindrops using law of physics, and detect raindrops based on these models in combination with motion and intensity temporal derivatives of the input video. Having detected the raindrops, we remove them and restore the images based on an analysis that some areas of raindrops completely occludes the scene, and some other areas occlude only partially. For partially occluding areas, we restore them by retrieving as much as possible information of the scene, namely, by solving a blending function on the detected partially occluding areas using the temporal intensity derivative. For completely occluding areas, we recover them by using a video completion technique. Experimental results using various real videos show the effectiveness of our method.
Karthikeyan, Ramasamy; Sainarayanan, Gopalakrishnan; Deepa, Subramaniam Nachimuthu
Since usage of digital video is wide spread nowadays, quality considerations have become essential, and industry demand for video quality measurement is rising. This proposal provides a method of perceptual quality assessment in H.264 standard encoder using objective modeling. For this purpose, quality impairments are calculated and a model is developed to compute the perceptual video quality metric based on no reference method. Because of the shuttle difference between the original video and the encoded video the quality of the encoded picture gets degraded, this quality difference is introduced by the encoding process like Intra and Inter prediction. The proposed model takes into account of the artifacts introduced by these spatial and temporal activities in the hybrid block based coding methods and an objective modeling of these artifacts into subjective quality estimation is proposed. The proposed model calculates the objective quality metric using subjective impairments; blockiness, blur and jerkiness compared to the existing bitrate only calculation defined in the ITU G 1070 model. The accuracy of the proposed perceptual video quality metrics is compared against popular full reference objective methods as defined by VQEG.
Hata, Toshihiko; Boh, Satoru; Tsukada, Akihiro; Ozaki, Minoru
These days fewer people, who must carry out their tasks quickly and precisely, are required in industrial surveillance and monitoring applications such as plant control or building security. Utilizing multimedia technology is a good approach to meet this need, and we previously developed Media Controller, which is designed for the applications and provides realtime recording and retrieval of digital video data in a distributed environment. In this paper, we propose a user interface for such a distributed video surveillance system in which 3D models of buildings and facilities are connected to the surveillance video. A novel method of synchronizing camera field data with each frame of a video stream is considered. This method records and reads the camera field data similarity to the video data and transmits it synchronously with the video stream. This enables the user interface to have such useful functions as comprehending the camera field immediately and providing clues when visibility is poor, for not only live video but also playback video. We have also implemented and evaluated the display function which makes surveillance video and 3D model work together using Media Controller with Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Language employed for multi-purpose and intranet use of 3D model.
Han, Z.; Cui, C.; Kong, Y.; Wu, H.
Geographic video includes both spatial and temporal geographic features acquired through ground-based or non-ground-based cameras. With the popularity of video capture devices such as smartphones, the volume of user-generated geographic video clips has grown significantly and the trend of this growth is quickly accelerating. Such a massive and increasing volume poses a major challenge to efficient video management and query. Most of the today's video management and query techniques are based on signal level content extraction. They are not able to fully utilize the geographic information of the videos. This paper aimed to introduce a geographic video 3D data model based on spatial information. The main idea of the model is to utilize the location, trajectory and azimuth information acquired by sensors such as GPS receivers and 3D electronic compasses in conjunction with video contents. The raw spatial information is synthesized to point, line, polygon and solid according to the camcorder parameters such as focal length and angle of view. With the video segment and video frame, we defined the three categories geometry object using the geometry model of OGC Simple Features Specification for SQL. We can query video through computing the spatial relation between query objects and three categories geometry object such as VFLocation, VSTrajectory, VSFOView and VFFovCone etc. We designed the query methods using the structured query language (SQL) in detail. The experiment indicate that the model is a multiple objective, integration, loosely coupled, flexible and extensible data model for the management of geographic stereo video.
Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.
Oh, Byung Tae; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Sun, Shijun; Lei, Shawmin
A new technique for film grain noise extraction, modeling and synthesis is proposed and applied to the coding of high definition video in this work. The film grain noise is viewed as a part of artistic presentation by people in the movie industry. On one hand, since the film grain noise can boost the natural appearance of pictures in high definition video, it should be preserved in high-fidelity video processing systems. On the other hand, video coding with film grain noise is expensive. It is desirable to extract film grain noise from the input video as a pre-processing step at the encoder and re-synthesize the film grain noise and add it back to the decoded video as a post-processing step at the decoder. Under this framework, the coding gain of the denoised video is higher while the quality of the final reconstructed video can still be well preserved. Following this idea, we present a method to remove film grain noise from image/video without distorting its original content. Besides, we describe a parametric model containing a small set of parameters to represent the extracted film grain noise. The proposed model generates the film grain noise that is close to the real one in terms of power spectral density and cross-channel spectral correlation. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.
Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yuzhen; Ning, Chen
Infrared video applications such as target detection and recognition, moving target tracking, and so forth can benefit a lot from visual saliency detection, which is essentially a method to automatically localize the ;important; content in videos. In this paper, a novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences is proposed. Specifically, for infrared video saliency detection, both the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are considered. For spatial saliency, we adopt a mutual consistency-guided spatial cues combination-based method to capture the regions with obvious luminance contrast and contour features. For temporal saliency, a multi-frame symmetric difference approach is proposed to discriminate salient moving regions of interest from background motions. Then, the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are combined to compute the spatiotemporal saliency using an adaptive fusion strategy. Besides, to highlight the spatiotemporal salient regions uniformly, a multi-scale fusion approach is embedded into the spatiotemporal saliency model. Finally, a Gestalt theory-inspired optimization algorithm is designed to further improve the reliability of the final saliency map. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art saliency detection approaches for infrared videos under various backgrounds.
Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Jun; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira
Service providers should monitor the quality of experience of a communication service in real time to confirm its status. To do this, we previously proposed a packet-layer model that can be used for monitoring the average video quality of typical Internet protocol television content using parameters derived from transmitted packet headers. However, it is difficult to monitor the video quality per user using the average video quality because video quality depends on the video content. To accurately monitor the video quality per user, a model that can be used for estimating the video quality per video content rather than the average video quality should be developed. Therefore, to take into account the impact of video content on video quality, we propose a model that calculates the difference in video quality between the video quality of the estimation-target video and the average video quality estimated using a packet-layer model. We first conducted extensive subjective quality assessments for different codecs and video sequences. We then model their characteristics based on parameters related to compression and packet loss. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed model by applying it to unknown data sets different from the training data sets used for developing the model.
Mason, Rose A.; Ganz, Jennifer B.; Parker, Richard I.; Burke, Mack D.; Camargo, Siglia P.
Video modeling with other as model (VMO) is a more practical method for implementing video-based modeling techniques, such as video self-modeling, which requires significantly more editing. Despite this, identification of contextual factors such as participant characteristics and targeted outcomes that moderate the effectiveness of VMO has not…
Zhang, Xianguo; Huang, Tiejun; Tian, Yonghong; Gao, Wen
The exponential growth of surveillance videos presents an unprecedented challenge for high-efficiency surveillance video coding technology. Compared with the existing coding standards that were basically developed for generic videos, surveillance video coding should be designed to make the best use of the special characteristics of surveillance videos (e.g., relative static background). To do so, this paper first conducts two analyses on how to improve the background and foreground prediction efficiencies in surveillance video coding. Following the analysis results, we propose a background-modeling-based adaptive prediction (BMAP) method. In this method, all blocks to be encoded are firstly classified into three categories. Then, according to the category of each block, two novel inter predictions are selectively utilized, namely, the background reference prediction (BRP) that uses the background modeled from the original input frames as the long-term reference and the background difference prediction (BDP) that predicts the current data in the background difference domain. For background blocks, the BRP can effectively improve the prediction efficiency using the higher quality background as the reference; whereas for foreground-background-hybrid blocks, the BDP can provide a better reference after subtracting its background pixels. Experimental results show that the BMAP can achieve at least twice the compression ratio on surveillance videos as AVC (MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding) high profile, yet with a slightly additional encoding complexity. Moreover, for the foreground coding performance, which is crucial to the subjective quality of moving objects in surveillance videos, BMAP also obtains remarkable gains over several state-of-the-art methods.
Wei, Xian; Li, Yuanxiang; Shen, Hao; Chen, Fang; Kleinsteuber, Martin; Wang, Zhongfeng
Video representation is an important and challenging task in the computer vision community. In this paper, we consider the problem of modeling and classifying video sequences of dynamic scenes which could be modeled in a dynamic textures (DT) framework. At first, we assume that image frames of a moving scene can be modeled as a Markov random process. We propose a sparse coding framework, named joint video dictionary learning (JVDL), to model a video adaptively. By treating the sparse coefficients of image frames over a learned dictionary as the underlying "states", we learn an efficient and robust linear transition matrix between two adjacent frames of sparse events in time series. Hence, a dynamic scene sequence is represented by an appropriate transition matrix associated with a dictionary. In order to ensure the stability of JVDL, we impose several constraints on such transition matrix and dictionary. The developed framework is able to capture the dynamics of a moving scene by exploring both sparse properties and the temporal correlations of consecutive video frames. Moreover, such learned JVDL parameters can be used for various DT applications, such as DT synthesis and recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the strong competitiveness of the proposed JVDL approach in comparison with state-of-the-art video representation methods. Especially, it performs significantly better in dealing with DT synthesis and recognition on heavily corrupted data.
Zhang, Yue; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Lei
This paper presents four methods for selective video encryption based on the MPEG-2 video compression,including the slices, the I-frames, the motion vectors, and the DCT coefficients. We use the AES encryption method for simulation experiment for the four methods on VS2010 Platform, and compare the video effects and the processing speed of each frame after the video encrypted. The encryption depth can be arbitrarily selected, and design the encryption depth by using the double limit counting method, so the accuracy can be increased.
Yang, Jiong; Price, Brian; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yuan, Junsong
Automatic segmentation of the primary object in a video clip is a challenging problem as there is no prior knowledge of the primary object. Most existing techniques thus adapt an iterative approach for foreground and background appearance modeling, i.e., fix the appearance model while optimizing the segmentation and fix the segmentation while optimizing the appearance model. However, these approaches may rely on good initialization and can be easily trapped in local optimal. In addition, they are usually time consuming for analyzing videos. To address these limitations, we propose a novel and efficient appearance modeling technique for automatic primary video object segmentation in the Markov random field (MRF) framework. It embeds the appearance constraint as auxiliary nodes and edges in the MRF structure, and can optimize both the segmentation and appearance model parameters simultaneously in one graph cut. The extensive experimental evaluations validate the superiority of the proposed approach over the state-of-the-art methods, in both efficiency and effectiveness.
Wang, Xiaoyang; Ji, Qiang
Current video event recognition research remains largely target-centered. For real-world surveillance videos, targetcentered event recognition faces great challenges due to large intra-class target variation, limited image resolution, and poor detection and tracking results. To mitigate these challenges, we introduced a context-augmented video event recognition approach. Specifically, we explicitly capture different types of contexts from three levels including image level, semantic level, and prior level. At the image level, we introduce two types of contextual features including the appearance context features and interaction context features to capture the appearance of context objects and their interactions with the target objects. At the semantic level, we propose a deep model based on deep Boltzmann machine to learn event object representations and their interactions. At the prior level, we utilize two types of prior-level contexts including scene priming and dynamic cueing. Finally, we introduce a hierarchical context model that systematically integrates the contextual information at different levels. Through the hierarchical context model, contexts at different levels jointly contribute to the event recognition. We evaluate the hierarchical context model for event recognition on benchmark surveillance video datasets. Results show that incorporating contexts in each level can improve event recognition performance, and jointly integrating three levels of contexts through our hierarchical model achieves the best performance.
van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.
Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In
Habibi Aghdam, Hamed; Jahani Heravi, Elnaz; Puig, Domenec
People are getting more interested to record their sport activities using head-worn or hand-held cameras. This type of videos which is called egocentric sport videos has different motion and appearance patterns compared with life-logging videos. While a life-logging video can be defined in terms of well-defined human-object interactions, notwithstanding, it is not trivial to describe egocentric sport videos using well-defined activities. For this reason, summarizing egocentric sport videos based on human-object interaction might fail to produce meaningful results. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised method for summarizing egocentric videos by identifying the key-frames of the video. Our method utilizes both appearance and motion information and it automatically finds the number of the key-frames. Our blind user study on the new dataset collected from YouTube shows that in 93:5% cases, the users choose the proposed method as their first video summary choice. In addition, our method is within the top 2 choices of the users in 99% of studies.
Lao, So-An; Furlonger, Brett E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Busacca, Margherita
Although many adults who cannot swim are primarily interested in learning by direct coaching there are options that have a focus on self-directed learning. As an alternative a self-management program combined with video modelling, video feedback and high quality and affordable video technology was used to assess its effectiveness to assisting an…
Gershkoff, I.; Haspert, J. K.; Morgenstern, B.
A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink (studio to satellite), downlink (satellite to audience), and voice talkback (between audience and studio) segments of the network. The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure.
Gudumasu, Srinivas; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan
360° video is an emerging new format in the media industry enabled by the growing availability of virtual reality devices. It provides the viewer a new sense of presence and immersion. Compared to conventional rectilinear video (2D or 3D), 360° video poses a new and difficult set of engineering challenges on video processing and delivery. Enabling comfortable and immersive user experience requires very high video quality and very low latency, while the large video file size poses a challenge to delivering 360° video in a quality manner at scale. Conventionally, 360° video represented in equirectangular or other projection formats can be encoded as a single standards-compliant bitstream using existing video codecs such as H.264/AVC or H.265/HEVC. Such method usually needs very high bandwidth to provide an immersive user experience. While at the client side, much of such high bandwidth and the computational power used to decode the video are wasted because the user only watches a small portion (i.e., viewport) of the entire picture. Viewport dependent 360°video processing and delivery approaches spend more bandwidth on the viewport than on non-viewports and are therefore able to reduce the overall transmission bandwidth. This paper proposes a dual buffer segment scheduling algorithm for viewport adaptive streaming methods to reduce latency when switching between high quality viewports in 360° video streaming. The approach decouples the scheduling of viewport segments and non-viewport segments to ensure the viewport segment requested matches the latest user head orientation. A base layer buffer stores all lower quality segments, and a viewport buffer stores high quality viewport segments corresponding to the most recent viewer's head orientation. The scheduling scheme determines viewport requesting time based on the buffer status and the head orientation. This paper also discusses how to deploy the proposed scheduling design for various viewport adaptive video
Nguyen The Cuong
Full Text Available Video files are files that store motion pictures and sounds like in real life. In today's world, the need for automated processing of information in video files is increasing. Automated processing of information has a wide range of application including office/home surveillance cameras, traffic control, sports applications, remote object detection, and others. In particular, detection and tracking of object movement in video file plays an important role. This article describes the methods of detecting objects in video files. Today, this problem in the field of computer vision is being studied worldwide.
Raquel Perez Leal
Full Text Available New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.
Full Text Available Abstract New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.
D. R. Marković
Full Text Available From the perspective of average viewer, high definition video streams such as HD (High Definition and UHD (Ultra HD are increasing their internet presence year over year. This is not surprising, having in mind expansion of HD streaming services, such as YouTube, Netflix etc. Therefore, high definition video streams are starting to challenge network resource allocation with their bandwidth requirements and statistical characteristics. Need for analysis and modeling of this demanding video traffic has essential importance for better quality of service and experience support. In this paper we use an easy-to-apply statistical model for prediction of 4K video traffic. Namely, seasonal autoregressive modeling is applied in prediction of 4K video traffic, encoded with HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding. Analysis and modeling were performed within R programming environment using over 17.000 high definition video frames. It is shown that the proposed methodology provides good accuracy in high definition video traffic modeling.
The purpose of video enhancement is to improve the subjective picture quality. The field of video enhancement includes a broad category of research topics, such as removing noise in the video, highlighting some specified features and improving the appearance or visibility of the video content. The
Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.
This study compared the effects of three procedures (video prompting: VP, video modeling: VM, and continuous video modeling: CVM) on task completion by three high school students with moderate intellectual disability. The comparison was made across three sets of fundamentally different tasks (putting away household items in clusters of two items;…
Marcello Arnaldo Picucci
Full Text Available In the present study a model is proposed offering a comprehensive categorization of video game narrative structures intended as the methods and techniques used by game designers and allowed by the medium to deliver the story content throughout the gameplay in collaboration with the players. A case is first made for the presence of narrative in video games and its growth of importance as a central component in game design. An in-depth analysis ensues focusing on how games tell stories, guided by the criteria of linearity/nonlinearity, interactivity and randomness. Light is shed upon the fundamental architectures through which stories are told as well as the essential boundaries posed by the close link between narrative and game AI.
Li, Chuan; Pickup, David; Saunders, Thomas; Cosker, Darren; Marshall, David; Hall, Peter; Willis, Philip
We introduce a video-based approach for producing water surface models. Recent advances in this field output high-quality results but require dedicated capturing devices and only work in limited conditions. In contrast, our method achieves a good tradeoff between the visual quality and the production cost: It automatically produces a visually plausible animation using a single viewpoint video as the input. Our approach is based on two discoveries: first, shape from shading (SFS) is adequate to capture the appearance and dynamic behavior of the example water; second, shallow water model can be used to estimate a velocity field that produces complex surface dynamics. We will provide qualitative evaluation of our method and demonstrate its good performance across a wide range of scenes.
Full Text Available The video captured by Micro Aerial Vehicle is often degraded due to unexpected random trembling and jitter caused by wind and the shake of the aerial platform. An approach for stabilizing the aerial video based on SURF feature and Kalman filter is proposed. SURF feature points are extracted in each frame, and the feature points between adjacent frames are matched using Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors search method. Then Random Sampling Consensus matching algorithm and Least Squares Method are used to remove mismatching points pairs, and estimate the transformation between the adjacent images. Finally, Kalman filter is applied to smooth the motion parameters and separate Intentional Motion from Unwanted Motion to stabilize the aerial video. Experiments results show that the approach can stabilize aerial video efficiently with high accuracy, and it is robust to the translation, rotation and zooming motion of camera.
Boyer, Eva; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Batsche, Catherine; Fogel, Victoria
The effects of combining video modeling by experts with video feedback were analyzed with 4 female competitive gymnasts (7 to 10 years old) in a multiple baseline design across behaviors. During the intervention, after the gymnast performed a specific gymnastics skill, she viewed a video segment showing an expert gymnast performing the same skill and then viewed a video replay of her own performance of the skill. The results showed that all gymnasts demonstrated improved performance across three gymnastics skills following exposure to the intervention.
Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Fleming, Courtney; Chung, Yi-Cheih; Wheeler, Geoffrey M.; Basbagill, Abby R.; Singh, Angella H.
We conducted a systematic replication of Cannella-Malone et al. by comparing the effects of video prompting to video modeling for teaching seven students with severe disabilities to do laundry and wash dishes. The video prompting and video modeling procedures were counterbalanced across tasks and participants and compared in an alternating…
Kellems, Ryan O.; Edwards, Sean
Practitioners are constantly searching for evidence-based practices that are effective in teaching academic skills to students with learning disabilities (LD). Video modeling (VM) and video prompting have become popular instructional interventions for many students across a wide range of different disability classifications, including those with…
Zeng, Xiaoxia; Huang, Likun
Background modeling plays an important role in the task of gas detection based on infrared video. VIBE algorithm is a widely used background modeling algorithm in recent years. However, the processing speed of the VIBE algorithm sometimes cannot meet the requirements of some real time detection applications. Therefore, based on the traditional VIBE algorithm, we propose a fast prospect model and optimize the results by combining the connected domain algorithm and the nine-spaces algorithm in the following processing steps. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Alsadik, B.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.
Currently, there is a rapid development in the techniques of the automated image based modelling (IBM), especially in advanced structure-from-motion (SFM) and dense image matching methods, and camera technology. One possibility is to use video imaging to create 3D reality based models of cultural heritage architectures and monuments. Practically, video imaging is much easier to apply when compared to still image shooting in IBM techniques because the latter needs a thorough planning and proficiency. However, one is faced with mainly three problems when video image sequences are used for highly detailed modelling and dimensional survey of cultural heritage objects. These problems are: the low resolution of video images, the need to process a large number of short baseline video images and blur effects due to camera shake on a significant number of images. In this research, the feasibility of using video images for efficient 3D modelling is investigated. A method is developed to find the minimal significant number of video images in terms of object coverage and blur effect. This reduction in video images is convenient to decrease the processing time and to create a reliable textured 3D model compared with models produced by still imaging. Two experiments for modelling a building and a monument are tested using a video image resolution of 1920×1080 pixels. Internal and external validations of the produced models are applied to find out the final predicted accuracy and the model level of details. Related to the object complexity and video imaging resolution, the tests show an achievable average accuracy between 1 - 5 cm when using video imaging, which is suitable for visualization, virtual museums and low detailed documentation.
Full Text Available Currently, there is a rapid development in the techniques of the automated image based modelling (IBM, especially in advanced structure-from-motion (SFM and dense image matching methods, and camera technology. One possibility is to use video imaging to create 3D reality based models of cultural heritage architectures and monuments. Practically, video imaging is much easier to apply when compared to still image shooting in IBM techniques because the latter needs a thorough planning and proficiency. However, one is faced with mainly three problems when video image sequences are used for highly detailed modelling and dimensional survey of cultural heritage objects. These problems are: the low resolution of video images, the need to process a large number of short baseline video images and blur effects due to camera shake on a significant number of images. In this research, the feasibility of using video images for efficient 3D modelling is investigated. A method is developed to find the minimal significant number of video images in terms of object coverage and blur effect. This reduction in video images is convenient to decrease the processing time and to create a reliable textured 3D model compared with models produced by still imaging. Two experiments for modelling a building and a monument are tested using a video image resolution of 1920×1080 pixels. Internal and external validations of the produced models are applied to find out the final predicted accuracy and the model level of details. Related to the object complexity and video imaging resolution, the tests show an achievable average accuracy between 1 – 5 cm when using video imaging, which is suitable for visualization, virtual museums and low detailed documentation.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the comparison of video steganography methods for the purpose of digital watermarking in the context of copyright protection. Four embedding methods that use Discrete Cosine and Discrete Wavelet Transforms have been researched and compared based on their embedding efficiency and fidelity. A video steganography program has been developed in the Java programming language with all of the researched methods implemented for experiments. The experiments used 3 video containers with different amounts of movement. The impact of the movement has been addressed in the paper as well as the ways of potential improvement of embedding efficiency using adaptive embedding based on the movement amount. Results of the research have been verified using a survey with 17 participants.
Fang, Yuming; Zhang, Chi; Li, Jing; Lei, Jianjun; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu; Le Callet, Patrick
In this paper, we investigate the visual attention modeling for stereoscopic video from the following two aspects. First, we build one large-scale eye tracking database as the benchmark of visual attention modeling for stereoscopic video. The database includes 47 video sequences and their corresponding eye fixation data. Second, we propose a novel computational model of visual attention for stereoscopic video based on Gestalt theory. In the proposed model, we extract the low-level features, including luminance, color, texture, and depth, from discrete cosine transform coefficients, which are used to calculate feature contrast for the spatial saliency computation. The temporal saliency is calculated by the motion contrast from the planar and depth motion features in the stereoscopic video sequences. The final saliency is estimated by fusing the spatial and temporal saliency with uncertainty weighting, which is estimated by the laws of proximity, continuity, and common fate in Gestalt theory. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art stereoscopic video saliency detection models on our built large-scale eye tracking database and one other database (DML-ITRACK-3D).
Tang Yu; Yin Zejie; Qian Weiming; Wu Xiaoyi
The author describes a Fixed-point data-collection method of video signal. The method provides an idea of fixed-point data-collection, and has been successfully applied in the research of real-time radiography on dose field, a project supported by National Science Fund
ZHAO Anjun; LU Xiangli; GUO Lei
A novel video data authentication model based on digital video watermarking and MAC (message authentication code) in multicast protocol is proposed in this paper. The digital watermarking which composes of the MAC of the significant video content, the key and instant authentication data is embedded into the insignificant video component by the MLUT (modified look-up table) video watermarking technology. We explain a method that does not require storage of each data packet for a time, thus making receiver not vulnerable to DOS (denial of service) attack. So the video packets can be authenticated instantly without large volume buffer in the receivers. TESLA(timed efficient stream loss-tolerant authentication) does not explain how to select the suitable value for d, which is an important parameter in multicast source authentication. So we give a method to calculate the key disclosure delay (number of intervals). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms improve the performance of data source authentication in multicast.
Becker, Emily Ann; Watry-Christian, Meghan; Simmons, Amanda; Van Eperen, Ashleigh
This review explores the evidence in support of using video modeling for teaching children with autism. The process of implementing video modeling, the use of various perspectives, and a wide range of target skills are addressed. Additionally, several helpful clinician resources including handheld device applications, books, and websites are…
DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena
We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…
The invention relates to a video coding method and system including a quantization and coding sub-assembly (38) in which a quantization parameter is controlled by another parameter defined as being in direct relation with the dynamic range value of the data contained in given blocks of pixels.
Sitter, Kathleen C.
Using the new conceptual framework of participatory visual media as method, advocacy and voice (MAV), the author explores an action research study using an exemplar in which advocates from the disability community created and distributed a series of videos about love and sexuality as a critical human rights issue in the disability community. The…
Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yanardag, Mehmet; Batu, E. Sema
Teaching play skills is important for children with autism. The purpose of the present study was to compare effectiveness and efficiency of providing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. The study was conducted with four students. The study was conducted…
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10, 10', 10") and method for encoding video data and to a corresponding video decoding device (60, 60') and method. To preserve PPG relevant information after encoding without requiring a large amount of additional data for the video encoder
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10, 10', 10'') and method for encoding video data and to a corresponding video decoding device (60, 60') and method. To preserve PPG relevant information after encoding without requiring a large amount of additional data for the video encoder
Geiger, Kaneen B; Leblanc, Linda A; Dillon, Courtney M; Bates, Stephanie L
We assessed preference for video or in vivo modeling using a concurrent-chains arrangement with 3 children with autism. The two modeling conditions produced similar acquisition rates and no differential selection (i.e., preference) for all 3 participants.
Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Delcampo, Marisa A.
Although widely recommended, evidence-based interventions are not regularly utilized by school practitioners. Video self-modeling is an effective and efficient evidence-based intervention for a variety of student problem behaviors. However, like many other evidence-based interventions, it is not frequently used in schools. As video creation…
Kellems, Ryan O.; Mourra, Kjerstin; Morgan, Robert L.; Riesen, Tim; Glasgow, Malinda; Huddleston, Robin
This article discusses the creation of video modeling (VM) and video prompting (VP) interventions for teaching novel multi-step tasks to individuals with disabilities. This article reviews factors to consider when selecting skills to teach, and students for whom VM/VP may be successful, as well as the difference between VM and VP and circumstances…
Guo, Jian-xin; Zhao, Ji-chun; Gong, Jing; Chun, Yang
As 3G (3rd-generation) networks evolve worldwide, the rising demand for mobile video services and the enormous growth of video on the internet is creating major new revenue opportunities for mobile network operators and application developers. The text introduced a method of mobile video transmission based on J2ME, giving the method of video compressing, then describing the video compressing standard, and then describing the software design. The proposed mobile video method based on J2EE is a typical mobile multimedia application, which has a higher availability and a wide range of applications. The users can get the video through terminal devices such as phone.
Abdolhosseini Moghadam, Abdolreza; Kumar, Mrityunjay; Radha, Hayder
Efficient video representation models are critical for many video analysis and processing tasks. In this paper, we present a framework based on the concept of finding the sparsest solution to model video frames. To model the spatio-temporal information, frames from one scene are decomposed into two components: (i) a common frame, which describes the visual information common to all the frames in the scene/segment, and (ii) a set of innovative frames, which depicts the dynamic behaviour of the scene. The proposed approach exploits and builds on recent results in the field of compressed sensing to jointly estimate the common frame and the innovative frames for each video segment. We refer to the proposed modeling framework by CIV (Common and Innovative Visuals). We show how the proposed model can be utilized to find scene change boundaries and extend CIV to videos from multiple scenes. Furthermore, the proposed model is robust to noise and can be used for various video processing applications without relying on motion estimation and detection or image segmentation. Results for object tracking, video editing (object removal, inpainting) and scene change detection are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and the performance of the proposed model.
Cihak, David F.; Schrader, Linda
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of learning and maintaining vocational chain tasks using video self-modeling and video adult modeling instruction. Four adolescents with autism spectrum disorders were taught vocational and prevocational skills. Although both video modeling conditions were effective for…
Charlop, M H; Milstein, J P
We assessed the effects of video modeling on acquisition and generalization of conversational skills among autistic children. Three autistic boys observed videotaped conversations consisting of two people discussing specific toys. When criterion for learning was met, generalization of conversational skills was assessed with untrained topics of conversation; new stimuli (toys); unfamiliar persons, siblings, and autistic peers; and other settings. The results indicated that the children learned through video modeling, generalized their conversational skills, and maintained conversational speech over a 15-month period. Video modeling shows much promise as a rapid and effective procedure for teaching complex verbal skills such as conversational speech. PMID:2793634
Wang, Min; Hong, Hanyu; Huang, Likun
In order to detect the invisible leaking gas that is usually dangerous and easily leads to fire or explosion in time, many new technologies have arisen in the recent years, among which the infrared video based gas leak detection is widely recognized as a viable tool. However, all the moving regions of a video frame can be detected as leaking gas regions by the existing infrared video based gas leak detection methods, without discriminating the property of each detected region, e.g., a walking person in a video frame may be also detected as gas by the current gas leak detection methods.To solve this problem, we propose a novel infrared video based gas leak detection method in this paper, which is able to effectively suppress strong motion disturbances.Firstly, the Gaussian mixture model(GMM) is used to establish the background model.Then due to the observation that the shapes of gas regions are different from most rigid moving objects, we modify the Features From Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) algorithm and use the modified FAST (mFAST) features to describe each connected component. In view of the fact that the statistical property of the mFAST features extracted from gas regions is different from that of other motion regions, we propose the Pixel-Per-Points (PPP) condition to further select candidate connected components.Experimental results show that the algorithm is able to effectively suppress most strong motion disturbances and achieve real-time leaking gas detection.
Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C
Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.
Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Hoston, Douglas; Shapiro, Marina; Matthews, Benjamin
Video games with violent content have raised considerable concern in popular media and within academia. Recently, there has been considerable attention regarding the claim of the relationship between aggression and video game play. The authors of this study propose the use of a new class of tools developed via computational models to allow examination of the question of whether there is a relationship between violent video games and aggression. The purpose of this study is to computationally model and compare the General Aggression Model with the Diathesis Mode of Aggression related to the play of violent content in video games. A secondary purpose is to provide a method of measuring and examining individual aggression arising from video game play. Total participants examined for this study are N = 1065. This study occurs in three phases. Phase 1 is the development and quantification of the profile combination of traits via latent class profile analysis. Phase 2 is the training of the artificial neural network. Phase 3 is the comparison of each model as a computational model with and without the presence of video game violence. Results suggest that a combination of environmental factors and genetic predispositions trigger aggression related to video games.
Mitra, Adway; Biswas, Soma; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib
A video is understood by users in terms of entities present in it. Entity Discovery is the task of building appearance model for each entity (e.g., a person), and finding all its occurrences in the video. We represent a video as a sequence of tracklets, each spanning 10-20 frames, and associated with one entity. We pose Entity Discovery as tracklet clustering, and approach it by leveraging Temporal Coherence (TC): the property that temporally neighboring tracklets are likely to be associated with the same entity. Our major contributions are the first Bayesian nonparametric models for TC at tracklet-level. We extend Chinese Restaurant Process (CRP) to TC-CRP, and further to Temporally Coherent Chinese Restaurant Franchise (TC-CRF) to jointly model entities and temporal segments using mixture components and sparse distributions. For discovering persons in TV serial videos without meta-data like scripts, these methods show considerable improvement over state-of-the-art approaches to tracklet clustering in terms of clustering accuracy, cluster purity and entity coverage. The proposed methods can perform online tracklet clustering on streaming videos unlike existing approaches, and can automatically reject false tracklets. Finally we discuss entity-driven video summarization- where temporal segments of the video are selected based on the discovered entities, to create a semantically meaningful summary.
Full Text Available Packet loss will make severe errors due to the corruption of related video data. For most video streams, because the predictive coding structures are employed, the transmission errors in one frame will not only cause decoding failure of itself at the receiver side, but also propagate to its subsequent frames along the motion prediction path, which will bring a significant degradation of end-to-end video quality. To quantify the effects of packet loss on video quality, a no-reference objective quality assessment model is presented in this paper. Considering the fact that the degradation of video quality significantly relies on the video content, the temporal complexity is estimated to reflect the varying characteristic of video content, using the macroblocks with different motion activities in each frame. Then, the quality of the frame affected by the reference frame loss, by error propagation, or by both of them is evaluated, respectively. Utilizing a two-level temporal pooling scheme, the video quality is finally obtained. Extensive experimental results show that the video quality estimated by the proposed method matches well with the subjective quality.
Galaiduk, Ronen; Radford, Ben T; Wilson, Shaun K; Harvey, Euan S
Information on habitat associations from survey data, combined with spatial modelling, allow the development of more refined species distribution modelling which may identify areas of high conservation/fisheries value and consequentially improve conservation efforts. Generalised additive models were used to model the probability of occurrence of six focal species after surveys that utilised two remote underwater video sampling methods (i.e. baited and towed video). Models developed for the towed video method had consistently better predictive performance for all but one study species although only three models had a good to fair fit, and the rest were poor fits, highlighting the challenges associated with modelling habitat associations of marine species in highly homogenous, low relief environments. Models based on baited video dataset regularly included large-scale measures of structural complexity, suggesting fish attraction to a single focus point by bait. Conversely, models based on the towed video data often incorporated small-scale measures of habitat complexity and were more likely to reflect true species-habitat relationships. The cost associated with use of the towed video systems for surveying low-relief seascapes was also relatively low providing additional support for considering this method for marine spatial ecological modelling.
English, Derek L; Gounden, Sadhana; Dagher, Richard E; Chan, Shu Fen; Furlonger, Brett E; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W
To examine the effectiveness of a video modeling (VM) with video feedback (VFB) intervention to teach vocational gardening skills to three adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple probe design across skills was used to assess the effects of the intervention on the three participants' ability to perform skills accurately. The use of VM with VFB led to improvements across skills for two of the participants. The third participant required video prompting (VP) for successful skill acquisition. Skill performance generalized across personnel and settings for two of the participants, but it was not assessed for the third. Skill performance maintained at follow-up for all three participants. Social validity data gathered from participants, parents, and co-workers were positive. These findings suggest that VM with VFB and VP with VFB were effective and socially acceptable interventions for teaching vocational gardening skills to young adults with ASD.
Marcus, Alonna; Wilder, David A
Peer video modeling was compared to self video modeling to teach 3 children with autism to respond appropriately to (i.e., identify or label) novel letters. A combination multiple baseline and multielement design was used to compare the two procedures. Results showed that all 3 participants met the mastery criterion in the self-modeling condition, whereas only 1 of the participants met the mastery criterion in the peer-modeling condition. In addition, the participant who met the mastery criterion in both conditions reached the criterion more quickly in the self-modeling condition. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for teaching new skills to children with autism.
Full Text Available This paper deals with video transmission over lossy communication networks. The main idea is to develop video concealment method for information losses and errors correction. At the beginning, three main groups of video concealment methods, divided by encoder/decoder collaboration, are briefly described. The modified algorithm based on the detection and filtration of damaged watermark blocks encapsulated to the transmitted video was developed. Finally, the efficiency of developed algorithm is presented in experimental part of this paper.
Obrusnikova, Iva; Rattigan, Peter J.
Video-based modeling is becoming increasingly popular for teaching fundamental motor skills to children in physical education. Two frequently used video-based instructional strategies that incorporate modeling are video prompting (VP) and video modeling (VM). Both strategies have been used across multiple disciplines and populations to teach a…
Asan, Onur; Montague, Enid
The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient-clinician interaction in primary care settings. We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings. This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared "unmanned" video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies. With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.
Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin
pedagogical innovativeness, including collaborative and technological issues. The research is based on the Global Classroom Model as it is implemented and used at an adult learning center in Denmark (VUC Storstrøm). VUC Storstrøms (VUC) Global Classroom Model is an approach to video conferencing and e......Learning using campus-based teaching combined with laptop solutions for students at home. After a couple of years of campus-to-campus video streaming, VUC started a fulltime day program in 2011 with the support of a hybrid campus and videoconference model. In this model the teachers and some of the students......This paper presents and discusses findings about how students, teachers, and the organization experience a start-up-project applying video conferences between campus and home. This is new territory for adult learning centers. The paper discusses the transition to this eLearning form and discusses...
Yang, Xinyan; Zhao, Wei; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qin
This paper proposes a no-reference objective stereoscopic video quality assessment method with the motivation that making the effect of objective experiments close to that of subjective way. We believe that the image regions with different visual salient degree should not have the same weights when designing an assessment metric. Therefore, we firstly use GBVS algorithm to each frame pairs and separate both the left and right viewing images into the regions with strong, general and week saliency. Besides, local feature information like blockiness, zero-crossing and depth are extracted and combined with a mathematical model to calculate a quality assessment score. Regions with different salient degree are assigned with different weights in the mathematical model. Experiment results demonstrate the superiority of our method compared with the existed state-of-the-art no-reference objective Stereoscopic video quality assessment methods.
Smith, Molly; Ayres, Kevin; Mechling, Linda; Smith, Katie
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two forms of video modeling: video modeling that includes narration (VMN) and video models without narration (VM) on skill acquisition of four adolescent boys with a primary diagnosis of autism enrolled in an Extended School Year (ESY) summer program. An adapted alternating treatment design…
David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Paul J. Champlin; Tracey B. Champlin
Video monitoring of active bird nests is gaining popularity among researchers because it eliminates many of the biases associated with reliance on incidental observations of predation events or use of artificial nests, but the expense of video systems may be prohibitive. Also, the range and efficiency of current video monitoring systems may be limited by the need to...
Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Gelfusa, Michela [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Arnoux, Gilles [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Development of an image registration method for JET IR and fast visible cameras. • Method based on SIFT descriptors and coherent point drift points set registration technique. • Method able to deal with extremely noisy images and very low luminosity images. • Computation time compatible with the inter-shot analysis. - Abstract: The last years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital cameras on JET. They are routinely applied for imaging in the IR and visible spectral regions. One of the main technical difficulties in interpreting the data of camera based diagnostics is the presence of movements of the field of view. Small movements occur due to machine shaking during normal pulses while large ones may arise during disruptions. Some cameras show a correlation of image movement with change of magnetic field strength. For deriving unaltered information from the videos and for allowing correct interpretation an image registration method, based on highly distinctive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors and on the coherent point drift (CPD) points set registration technique, has been developed. The algorithm incorporates a complex procedure for rejecting outliers. The method has been applied for vibrations correction to videos collected by the JET wide angle infrared camera and for the correction of spurious rotations in the case of the JET fast visible camera (which is equipped with an image intensifier). The method has proved to be able to deal with the images provided by this camera frequently characterized by low contrast and a high level of blurring and noise.
Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
The rapid growth in the use of video streaming over IP networks has outstripped the rate at which new network infrastructure has been deployed. These bandwidth-hungry applications now comprise a significant part of all Internet traffic and present major challenges for network service providers. The situation is more acute in mobile networks where the available bandwidth is often limited. Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently on track for completion in 2013. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC) for the same quality. However, there has been very little published research on HEVC streaming or the challenges of delivering HEVC streams in resource-constrained network environments. In this paper we consider the problem of adapting an HEVC encoded video stream to meet the bandwidth limitation in a mobile networks environment. Video sequences were encoded using the Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM6) for HEVC. Network abstraction layers (NAL) units were packetized, on a one NAL unit per RTP packet basis, and transmitted over a realistic hybrid wired/wireless testbed configured with dynamically changing network path conditions and multiple independent network paths from the streamer to the client. Two different schemes for the prioritisation of RTP packets, based on the NAL units they contain, have been implemented and empirically compared using a range of video sequences, encoder configurations, bandwidths and network topologies. In the first prioritisation method the importance of an RTP packet was determined by the type of picture and the temporal switching point information carried in the NAL unit header. Packets containing parameter set NAL units and video coding layer (VCL) NAL units of the instantaneous decoder refresh (IDR) and the clean random access (CRA) pictures were given the
Watanabe, Keishiro; Okamoto, Jun; Kurita, Takaaki
With the development of the broadband network, video communications such as videophone, video distribution, and IPTV services are beginning to become common. In order to provide these services appropriately, we must manage them based on subjective video quality, in addition to designing a network system based on it. Currently, subjective quality assessment is the main method used to quantify video quality. However, it is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we need an objective quality assessment technology that can estimate video quality from video characteristics effectively. Video degradation can be categorized into two types: spatial and temporal. Objective quality assessment methods for spatial degradation have been studied extensively, but methods for temporal degradation have hardly been examined even though it occurs frequently due to network degradation and has a large impact on subjective quality. In this paper, we propose an objective quality assessment method for temporal degradation. Our approach is to aggregate multiple freeze distortions into an equivalent freeze distortion and then derive the objective video quality from the equivalent freeze distortion. Specifically, our method considers the total length of all freeze distortions in a video sequence as the length of the equivalent single freeze distortion. In addition, we propose a method using the perceptual characteristics of short freeze distortions. We verified that our method can estimate the objective video quality well within the deviation of subjective video quality.
Fu, Weijian; Wei, Baozhi; Li, Xiaobin; Wang, Quan; Hu, Xiaofei
In order to guarantee the fluency of multi-channel video transmission in video monitoring scenarios, we designed a kind of video format conversion method based on FPGA and its DMA scheduling for video data, reduces the overall video transmission delay.In order to sace the time in the conversion process, the parallel ability of FPGA is used to video format conversion. In order to improve the direct memory access (DMA) writing transmission rate of PCIe bus, a DMA scheduling method based on asynchronous command buffer is proposed. The experimental results show that this paper designs a low delay transmission method based on FPGA, which increases the DMA writing transmission rate by 34% compared with the existing method, and then the video overall delay is reduced to 23.6ms.
B. Ravi Kiran
Full Text Available Videos represent the primary source of information for surveillance applications. Video material is often available in large quantities but in most cases it contains little or no annotation for supervised learning. This article reviews the state-of-the-art deep learning based methods for video anomaly detection and categorizes them based on the type of model and criteria of detection. We also perform simple studies to understand the different approaches and provide the criteria of evaluation for spatio-temporal anomaly detection.
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new approach for facial micro expressions recognition. For this purpose the Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM method is used to retrieve the subtle motions of the face. The results of this method are obtained as in the magnified images sequence. In this study the numerical tests are performed on two databases: Spontaneous Micro expression (SMIC and Category and Sourcing Managers Executive (CASME. We evaluate our proposed method in two phases using the eigenface method. In phase 1 we recognize the type of a micro expression, for example emotional versus unemotional in SMIC database. Phase 2 classifies the recognized micro expression as negative versus positive in SMIC database and happiness versus disgust in CASME database. The results show that the eigenface method by the EVM method for the retrieval of subtle motions of the face increases the performance of micro expression recognition. Moreover, the proposed approach is more accurate and promising than the previous works in micro expressions recognition.
Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.
Simulation models are widely used in all types of hydrologic studies, and many of these models can be used to estimate recharge. Models can provide important insight into the functioning of hydrologic systems by identifying factors that influence recharge. The predictive capability of models can be used to evaluate how changes in climate, water use, land use, and other factors may affect recharge rates. Most hydrological simulation models, including watershed models and groundwater-flow models, are based on some form of water-budget equation, so the material in this chapter is closely linked to that in Chapter 2. Empirical models that are not based on a water-budget equation have also been used for estimating recharge; these models generally take the form of simple estimation equations that define annual recharge as a function of precipitation and possibly other climatic data or watershed characteristics.Model complexity varies greatly. Some models are simple accounting models; others attempt to accurately represent the physics of water movement through each compartment of the hydrologic system. Some models provide estimates of recharge explicitly; for example, a model based on the Richards equation can simulate water movement from the soil surface through the unsaturated zone to the water table. Recharge estimates can be obtained indirectly from other models. For example, recharge is a parameter in groundwater-flow models that solve for hydraulic head (i.e. groundwater level). Recharge estimates can be obtained through a model calibration process in which recharge and other model parameter values are adjusted so that simulated water levels agree with measured water levels. The simulation that provides the closest agreement is called the best fit, and the recharge value used in that simulation is the model-generated estimate of recharge.
Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Ørngreen, Rikke; Hautopp, Heidi
model, where we explore the relation between the educational research design team, their sketching and video sketching activities. The results show how sketching can be done in different modes and how it supports thinking, communication, reflection and distributed cognition in design teams when......The literature on design research emphasizes working in iterative cycles that investigate and explore many ideas and alternative designs. However, these cycles are seldom applied or documented in educational research papers. In this paper, we illustrate the development process of a video sketching...
Gundersen, Peter; Ørngreen, Rikke; Henningsen, Birgitte
model, where we explore the relation between the educational research design team, their sketching and video sketching activities. The results show how sketching can be done in different modes and how it supports thinking, communication, reflection and distributed cognition in design teams when......The literature on design research emphasizes working in iterative cycles that investigate and explore many ideas and alternative designs. However, these cycles are seldom applied or documented in educational research papers. In this paper, we illustrate the development process of a video sketching...
MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Dickson, Chata A.; Martineau, Meaghan; Ahearn, William H.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tasks that require delayed discriminations such as delayed imitation and delayed matching to sample on acquisition of skills using video modeling. Twenty-nine participants with an ASD diagnosis were assessed on a battery of tasks including both immediate and delayed imitation and…
Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren
Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The noise model is one of the inherently difficult challenges in DVC. This paper considers Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes...
Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt
An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.
Komorowski, Marlen; Delaere, Simon
Today’s media industry is characterized by disruptive changes and business models have been acknowledged as a driving force for success. Current business model research manages only to grasp static descriptions while in reality media managers are struggling with the dynamics of the industry. This article aims to close this gap by investigating a new paradigm of online media business models. Based on three video game case studies of the massively multiplayer online role-playing game genre, thi...
Van Gog, Tamara; Verveer, Ilse; Verveer, Lise
Video modeling examples in which a human(-like) model shows learners how to perform a task are increasingly used in education, as they have become very easy to create and distribute in e-learning environments. However, little is known about design guidelines to optimize learning from video modeling
Campbell, Laurie O.; Cox, Thomas D.
Students within this study followed the ICSDR (Identify, Conceptualize/Connect, Storyboard, Develop, Review/Reflect/Revise) development model to create digital video, as a personalized and active learning assignment. The participants, graduate students in education, indicated that following the ICSDR framework for student-authored video guided…
Shiell, Derek J.; Xiao, Jing; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.
Emerging communications trends point to streaming video as a new form of content delivery. These systems are implemented over wired systems, such as cable or ethernet, and wireless networks, cell phones, and portable game systems. These communications systems require sophisticated methods of compression and error-resilience encoding to enable communications across band-limited and noisy delivery channels. Additionally, the transmitted video data must be of high enough quality to ensure a satisfactory end-user experience. Traditionally, video compression makes use of temporal and spatial coherence to reduce the information required to represent an image. In many communications systems, the communications channel is characterized by a probabilistic model which describes the capacity or fidelity of the channel. The implication is that information is lost or distorted in the channel, and requires concealment on the receiving end. We demonstrate a generative model based transmission scheme to compress human face images in video, which has the advantages of a potentially higher compression ratio, while maintaining robustness to errors and data corruption. This is accomplished by training an offline face model and using the model to reconstruct face images on the receiving end. We propose a sub-component AAM modeling the appearance of sub-facial components individually, and show face reconstruction results under different types of video degradation using a weighted and non-weighted version of the sub-component AAM.
Parikh, Sejal B.; Janson, Christopher; Singleton, Tiffany
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine seven school counseling students' experiences of creating reflective video journals during their first internship course. Specifically, this study focused on capturing the essence of the experiences related to personal reactions, feelings, and thoughts about creating two video journal…
Sikandar, Tasriva; Samsudin, Wan Nur Azhani W.; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Mohd, Izzeldin I.; Fazle Rabbi, Mohammad
Wearing sunglass to hide face from surveillance camera is a common activity in criminal incidences. Therefore, sunglass detection from surveillance video has become a demanding issue in automation of security systems. In this paper we propose an image processing method to detect sunglass from surveillance images. Specifically, a unique feature using facial height and width has been employed to identify the covered region of the face. The presence of covered area by sunglass is evaluated using facial height-width ratio. Threshold value of covered area percentage is used to classify the glass wearing face. Two different types of glasses have been considered i.e. eye glass and sunglass. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect sunglasses in two different illumination conditions such as, room illumination as well as in the presence of sunlight. In addition, due to the multi-level checking in facial region, this method has 100% accuracy of detecting sunglass. However, in an exceptional case where fabric surrounding the face has similar color as skin, the correct detection rate was found 93.33% for eye glass.
Chu, Szu-Yin; Baker, Sonia
Video self-modeling has been proven to be effective with other populations with challenging behaviors, but only a few studies of video self-modeling have been conducted with high school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This study aimed to focus on analyzing the effects of video self-modeling on four high school students with…
Morlock, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Fisher, Sycarah; Comer, Ronald J.
Video modeling involves the learner viewing videos of a model demonstrating a target skill. According to the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (2011), video modeling is an evidenced-based intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in elementary through middle school. Little research exists…
Scheflen, Sarah Clifford; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Paparella, Tanya
Four children with autism were taught play skills through the use of video modeling. Video instruction was used to model play and appropriate language through a developmental sequence of play levels integrated with language techniques. Results showed that children with autism could successfully use video modeling to learn how to play appropriately…
Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Purrazzella, Kaitlin; Purrazzella, Kimberly
This investigation examined the ability of four adults with moderate intellectual disability to complete multi-component tasks using continuous video modeling. Continuous video modeling, which is a newly researched application of video modeling, presents video in a "looping" format which automatically repeats playing of the video while…
DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Marshall, Patricia L.; McCulloch, Allison W.
This article uses data from 65 teachers participating in a K-2 mathematics professional development research project as an example of how to analyze video recordings of teachers' classroom lessons using mixed methods. Through their discussion, the authors demonstrate how using a mixed methods approach to classroom video analysis allows researchers…
Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul; Stewart, Iain
Educational outreach plays a vital role in improving the resilience of vulnerable populations at risk from natural disasters. Currently, that activity is undertaken in many guises including the distribution of leaflets and posters, maps, presentations, education sessions and through radio and TV broadcasts. Such tried-and-tested communication modes generally target traditional stakeholder groups, but it is becoming increasingly important to engage with the new generation of learners who, due to advancements in technology, obtain information in ways different to their predecessors. That new generation is defined by a technological way of life and it remains a challenge to keep them motivated. On the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, the La Soufriere Volcano lies in quiescence since the last eruption in 1979. Since then, an entire generation - over 56% of the population (Worldbank, 2015) - has little or no direct experience of a volcanic eruption. The island experiences, more frequently, other hazards (hurricanes, flooding, earthquakes landsliding), such that disaster preparedness measures give less priority to volcanic threats, which are deemed to pose less of a risk. With no accurate predictions to warn of the next eruption, it is especially important to educate residents about the potential of future volcanic hazards on the island, and to motivate them to prepare to mitigate their risk. This research critically examines the application of video games in supporting and enhancing existing public education and outreach programmes for volcanic hazards. St. Vincent's Volcano is a computer game designed to improve awareness and knowledge of the eruptive phenomena from La Soufriere that could pose a threat to residents. Within an interactive and immersive environment, players become acquainted with a 3D model of St. Vincent together with an overlay of the established volcanic hazard map (Robertson, 2005). Players are able to view visualisations of two historical
Full Text Available The concentration of practical knowledge and experiential knowledge in the form of collective intelligence (the wisdom of the crowd is of interest in the area of skill transfer. Previous studies have confirmed that collective intelligence can be formed through the utilization of video annotation systems where knowledge that is recalled while watching videos of work tasks can be assigned in the form of a comment. The knowledge that can be collected is limited, however, to the content that can be depicted in videos, meaning that it is necessary to prepare many videos when collecting knowledge. This paper proposes a method for expanding the scope of recall from the same video through the automatic generation and simultaneous display of related words and video scenes. Further, the validity of the proposed method is empirically illustrated through the example of a field experiment related to mountaineering skills.
Gardner, Stephanie; Wolfe, Pamela
Identifying methods to increase the independent functioning of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is vital in enhancing their quality of life; teaching students with ASD daily living skills can foster independent functioning. This review examines interventions that implement video modeling and/or prompting to teach individuals with…
Du, Bangshi; Qi, Feng; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Ying; Li, Weijian
Video conference system has become an important support platform for smart grid operation and management, its operation quality is gradually concerning grid enterprise. First, the evaluation indicator system covering network, business and operation maintenance aspects was established on basis of video conference system's operation statistics. Then, the operation quality assessment model combining genetic algorithm with regularized BP neural network was proposed, which outputs operation quality level of the system within a time period and provides company manager with some optimization advice. The simulation results show that the proposed evaluation model offers the advantages of fast convergence and high prediction accuracy in contrast with regularized BP neural network, and its generalization ability is superior to LM-BP neural network and Bayesian BP neural network.
Practically established video compression and storage techniques still process video sequences as rectangular images without further semantic structure. However, humans watching a video sequence immediately recognize acting objects as semantic units. This semantic object separation is currently not
Full Text Available High efficiency video coding (HEVC is the latest video coding standard. HEVC can achieve higher compression performance than previous standards, such as MPEG-4, H.263, and H.264/AVC. However, HEVC requires enormous computational complexity in encoding process due to quadtree structure. In order to reduce the computational burden of HEVC encoder, an early transform unit (TU decision algorithm (ETDA is adopted to pruning the residual quadtree (RQT at early stage based on the number of nonzero DCT coefficients (called NNZ-EDTA to accelerate the encoding process. However, the NNZ-ETDA cannot effectively reduce the computational load for sequences with active motion or rich texture. Therefore, in order to further improve the performance of NNZ-ETDA, we propose an adaptive RQT-depth decision for NNZ-ETDA (called ARD-NNZ-ETDA by exploiting the characteristics of high temporal-spatial correlation that exist in nature video sequences. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve time improving ratio (TIR about 61.26%~81.48% when compared to the HEVC test model 8.1 (HM 8.1 with insignificant loss of image quality. Compared with the NNZ-ETDA, the proposed method can further achieve an average TIR about 8.29%~17.92%.
Spriggs, Amy D.; Gast, David L.; Knight, Victoria F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate both video modeling and observational learning to teach age-appropriate recreation and leisure skills (i.e., accessing video games) to students with autism spectrum disorder. Effects of video modeling were evaluated via a multiple probe design across participants and criteria for mastery were based on…
Besler, Fatma; Kurt, Onur
Video modeling is an evidence-based practice that can be used to provide instruction to individuals with autism. Studies show that this instructional practice is effective in teaching many types of skills such as self-help skills, social skills, and academic skills. However, in previous studies, videos used in the video modeling process were…
Tereshko, Lisa; MacDonald, Rebecca; Ahearn, William H.
Video modeling has been found to be an effective procedure for teaching a variety of skills to persons with autism, however, some individuals do not learn through video instruction. The purpose of the current investigation was to teach children with autism, who initially did not imitate a video model, to construct three toy structures through the…
Gao, Chuanji; Wedell, Douglas H; Kim, Jongwan; Weber, Christine E; Shinkareva, Svetlana V
Two experiments examined how affective values from visual and auditory modalities are integrated. Experiment 1 paired music and videos drawn from three levels of valence while holding arousal constant. Experiment 2 included a parallel combination of three levels of arousal while holding valence constant. In each experiment, participants rated their affective states after unimodal and multimodal presentations. Experiment 1 revealed a congruency effect in which stimulus combinations of the same extreme valence resulted in more extreme state ratings than component stimuli presented in isolation. An interaction between music and video valence reflected the greater influence of negative affect. Video valence was found to have a significantly greater effect on combined ratings than music valence. The pattern of data was explained by a five parameter differential weight averaging model that attributed greater weight to the visual modality and increased weight with decreasing values of valence. Experiment 2 revealed a congruency effect only for high arousal combinations and no interaction effects. This pattern was explained by a three parameter constant weight averaging model with greater weight for the auditory modality and a very low arousal value for the initial state. These results demonstrate key differences in audiovisual integration between valence and arousal.
Salmistraro, Matteo; Ascenso, Joao; Brites, Catarina
Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the redundancy of the source (video) at the decoder side, as opposed to predictive coding, where the encoder leverages the redundancy. To exploit the correlation between views, multiview predictive video codecs require the encoder...... with a robust fusion system able to improve the quality of the fused SI along the decoding process through a learning process using already decoded data. We shall here take the approach to fuse the estimated distributions of the SIs as opposed to a conventional fusion algorithm based on the fusion of pixel...... values. The proposed solution is able to achieve gains up to 0.9 dB in Bjøntegaard difference when compared with the best-performing (in a RD sense) single SI DVC decoder, chosen as the best of an inter-view and a temporal SI-based decoder one....
Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.
Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D
We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.
Henry, Stephen G.; Fetters, Michael D.
We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. PMID:22412003
Torres Vega, M.; Mocanu, D.C.; Liotta, A.; Abdulrazak, B.; Pardede, E.; Steinbauer, M.; Khalil, I.; Anderst-Kotsis, G.
No-Reference (NR) metrics provide a mechanism to assess video quality in an ever-growing wireless network. Their low computational complexity and functional characteristics make them the primary choice when it comes to realtime content management and mobile streaming control. Unfortunately, common
Özerk, Meral; Özerk, Kamil
"Video modeling" is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The model's theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986) social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can…
Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative SIFT-based method for rigid video object recognition (hereafter called RVO-SIFT. Just like what happens in the vision system of human being, this method makes the object recognition and feature updating process organically unify together, using both trajectory and feature matching, and thereby it can learn new features not only in the training stage but also in the recognition stage, which can improve greatly the completeness of the video object’s features automatically and, in turn, increases the ratio of correct recognition drastically. The experimental results on real video sequences demonstrate its surprising robustness and efficiency.
Ballesteros, Luis Guillermo Martinez; Ickin, Selim; Fiedler, Markus
In this paper, we study the influence of video stalling on QoE. We provide QoE models that are obtained in realistic scenarios on the smartphone, and provide energy-saving approaches for smartphone by leveraging the proposed QoE models in relation to energy. Results show that approximately 5J...... is saved in a 3 minutes video clip with an acceptable Mean Opinion Score (MOS) level when the video frames are skipped. If the video frames are not skipped, then it is suggested to avoid freezes during a video stream as the freezes highly increase the energy waste on the smartphones....
Firdaus, T.; Setiawan, W.; Hamidah, I.
An educator currently in demand to apply the learning to not be separated from the development of technology. Educators often experience difficulties when explaining kinematics material, this is because kinematics is one of the lessons that often relate the concept to real life. Kinematics is one of the courses of physics that explains the cause of motion of an object, Therefore it takes the thinking skills and analytical skills in understanding these symptoms. Technology is one that can bridge between conceptual relationship with real life. A framework of technology-based learning models has been developed using video and interfaces analysis on kinematics concept. By using this learning model, learners will be better able to understand the concept that is taught by the teacher. This learning model is able to improve the ability of creative thinking, analytical skills, and problem-solving skills on the concept of kinematics.
Yamada, Toru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Senda, Yuzo; Serizawa, Masahiro
This paper presents a Reduced-reference based video-quality estimation method suitable for individual end-user quality monitoring of IPTV services. With the proposed method, the activity values for individual given-size pixel blocks of an original video are transmitted to end-user terminals. At the end-user terminals, the video quality of a received video is estimated on the basis of the activity-difference between the original video and the received video. Psychovisual weightings and video-quality score adjustments for fatal degradations are applied to improve estimation accuracy. In addition, low-bit-rate transmission is achieved by using temporal sub-sampling and by transmitting only the lower six bits of each activity value. The proposed method achieves accurate video quality estimation using only low-bit-rate original video information (15kbps for SDTV). The correlation coefficient between actual subjective video quality and estimated quality is 0.901 with 15kbps side information. The proposed method does not need computationally demanding spatial and gain-and-offset registrations. Therefore, it is suitable for real-time video-quality monitoring in IPTV services.
Plavnick, Joshua B.
Video modeling is an effective and efficient methodology for teaching new skills to individuals with autism. New technology may enhance video modeling as smartphones or tablet computers allow for portable video displays. However, the reduced screen size may decrease the likelihood of attending to the video model for some children. The present…
In a video gaming environment, a player is enabled to interact with the environment. Further, a score and/or performance of the player in a particular session is machine detected and fed fed back into the gaming environment and a representation of said score and/or performance is displayed in visual
Ahmet, Akgul; Gamze, Kus; Rustem, Mustafaoglu; Sezen, Karaborklu Argut
Visual signs draw more attention during the learning process. Video is one of the most effective tool including a lot of visual cues. This systematic review set out to explore the influence of video in surgical education. We reviewed the current evidence for the video-based surgical education methods, discuss the advantages and disadvantages on the teaching of technical and nontechnical surgical skills. This systematic review was conducted according to the guidelines defined in the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. The electronic databases: the Cochrane Library, Medline (PubMED), and ProQuest were searched from their inception to the 30 January 2016. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords used were "video," "education," and "surgery." We analyzed all full-texts, randomised and nonrandomised clinical trials and observational studies including video-based education methods about any surgery. "Education" means a medical resident's or student's training and teaching process; not patients' education. We did not impose restrictions about language or publication date. A total of nine articles which met inclusion criteria were included. These trials enrolled 507 participants and the total number of participants per trial ranged from 10 to 172. Nearly all of the studies reviewed report significant knowledge gain from video-based education techniques. The findings of this systematic review provide fair to good quality studies to demonstrate significant gains in knowledge compared with traditional teaching. Additional video to simulator exercise or 3D animations has beneficial effects on training time, learning duration, acquisition of surgical skills, and trainee's satisfaction. Video-based education has potential for use in surgical education as trainees face significant barriers in their practice. This method is effective according to the recent literature. Video should be used in addition to standard techniques
Aghamohammadi, Amirhossein; Ang, Mei Choo; A Sundararajan, Elankovan; Weng, Ng Kok; Mogharrebi, Marzieh; Banihashem, Seyed Yashar
Visual tracking in aerial videos is a challenging task in computer vision and remote sensing technologies due to appearance variation difficulties. Appearance variations are caused by camera and target motion, low resolution noisy images, scale changes, and pose variations. Various approaches have been proposed to deal with appearance variation difficulties in aerial videos, and amongst these methods, the spatiotemporal saliency detection approach reported promising results in the context of moving target detection. However, it is not accurate for moving target detection when visual tracking is performed under appearance variations. In this study, a visual tracking method is proposed based on spatiotemporal saliency and discriminative online learning methods to deal with appearance variations difficulties. Temporal saliency is used to represent moving target regions, and it was extracted based on the frame difference with Sauvola local adaptive thresholding algorithms. The spatial saliency is used to represent the target appearance details in candidate moving regions. SLIC superpixel segmentation, color, and moment features can be used to compute feature uniqueness and spatial compactness of saliency measurements to detect spatial saliency. It is a time consuming process, which prompted the development of a parallel algorithm to optimize and distribute the saliency detection processes that are loaded into the multi-processors. Spatiotemporal saliency is then obtained by combining the temporal and spatial saliencies to represent moving targets. Finally, a discriminative online learning algorithm was applied to generate a sample model based on spatiotemporal saliency. This sample model is then incrementally updated to detect the target in appearance variation conditions. Experiments conducted on the VIVID dataset demonstrated that the proposed visual tracking method is effective and is computationally efficient compared to state-of-the-art methods.
Visual tracking in aerial videos is a challenging task in computer vision and remote sensing technologies due to appearance variation difficulties. Appearance variations are caused by camera and target motion, low resolution noisy images, scale changes, and pose variations. Various approaches have been proposed to deal with appearance variation difficulties in aerial videos, and amongst these methods, the spatiotemporal saliency detection approach reported promising results in the context of moving target detection. However, it is not accurate for moving target detection when visual tracking is performed under appearance variations. In this study, a visual tracking method is proposed based on spatiotemporal saliency and discriminative online learning methods to deal with appearance variations difficulties. Temporal saliency is used to represent moving target regions, and it was extracted based on the frame difference with Sauvola local adaptive thresholding algorithms. The spatial saliency is used to represent the target appearance details in candidate moving regions. SLIC superpixel segmentation, color, and moment features can be used to compute feature uniqueness and spatial compactness of saliency measurements to detect spatial saliency. It is a time consuming process, which prompted the development of a parallel algorithm to optimize and distribute the saliency detection processes that are loaded into the multi-processors. Spatiotemporal saliency is then obtained by combining the temporal and spatial saliencies to represent moving targets. Finally, a discriminative online learning algorithm was applied to generate a sample model based on spatiotemporal saliency. This sample model is then incrementally updated to detect the target in appearance variation conditions. Experiments conducted on the VIVID dataset demonstrated that the proposed visual tracking method is effective and is computationally efficient compared to state-of-the-art methods. PMID:29438421
Principal component pursuit (PCP) is a state-of-the-art approach for background estimation problems. Due to their higher computational cost, PCP algorithms, such as robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and its variants, are not feasible in processing high definition videos. To avoid the curse of dimensionality in those algorithms, several methods have been proposed to solve the background estimation problem in an incremental manner. We propose a batch-incremental background estimation model using a special weighted low-rank approximation of matrices. Through experiments with real and synthetic video sequences, we demonstrate that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art background estimation algorithms such as GRASTA, ReProCS, incPCP, and GFL.
Dutta, Aritra; Li, Xin; Richtarik, Peter
Principal component pursuit (PCP) is a state-of-the-art approach for background estimation problems. Due to their higher computational cost, PCP algorithms, such as robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and its variants, are not feasible in processing high definition videos. To avoid the curse of dimensionality in those algorithms, several methods have been proposed to solve the background estimation problem in an incremental manner. We propose a batch-incremental background estimation model using a special weighted low-rank approximation of matrices. Through experiments with real and synthetic video sequences, we demonstrate that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art background estimation algorithms such as GRASTA, ReProCS, incPCP, and GFL.
Axelrod, Michael I; Bellini, Scott; Markoff, Kimberly
The current study investigated the effects of a Video Self-Modeling (VSM) intervention on the compliance and aggressive behavior of three children placed in a psychiatric hospital. Each participant viewed brief video clips of himself following simple adult instructions just prior to the school's morning session and the unit's afternoon free period. A multiple baseline design across settings was used to evaluate the effects of the VSM intervention on compliance with staff instructions and aggressive behavior on the hospital unit and in the hospital-based classroom. All three participants exhibited higher levels of compliance and fewer aggressive episodes during the intervention condition, and the effects were generally maintained when the intervention was withdrawn. Hospital staff reported at the conclusion of the study that the VSM intervention was easy to implement and beneficial for all participants. Taken altogether, the results suggest VSM is a promising, socially acceptable, and proactive intervention approach for improving the behavior of noncompliant children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The use of RGB-D sensors for mapping and recognition tasks in robotics or, in general, for virtual reconstruction has increased in recent years. The key aspect of these kinds of sensors is that they provide both depth and color information using the same device. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of the most important methods used in the literature for the registration of subsequent RGB-D video frames in static scenarios. The analysis begins by explaining the characteristics of the registration problem, dividing it into two representative applications: scene modeling and object reconstruction. Then, a detailed experimentation is carried out to determine the behavior of the different methods depending on the application. For both applications, we used standard datasets and a new one built for object reconstruction.
Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori
Developing a non-intrusive packet-layer model is required to passively monitor the quality of experience (QoE) during service. We propose a packet-layer model that can be used to estimate the video quality of IPTV using quality parameters derived from transmitted packet headers. The computational load of the model is lighter than that of the model that takes video signals and/or video-related bitstream information such as motion vectors as input. This model is applicable even if the transmitted bitstream information is encrypted because it uses transmitted packet headers rather than bitstream information. For developing the model, we conducted three extensive subjective quality assessments for different encoders and decoders (codecs), and video content. Then, we modeled the subjective video quality assessment characteristics based on objective features affected by coding and packet loss. Finally, we verified the model's validity by applying our model to unknown data sets different from training data sets used above.
Shepley, Sally B.; Smith, Katie A.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Alexander, Jennifer L.
Self-instruction for individuals with an intellectual disability can be viewed as a pivotal skill in that once learned this skill has collateral effects on future behaviors in various environments. This study used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate video modeling to teach high school students with an intellectual disability to…
O'Handley, Roderick D; Allen, Keith D
A multiple baseline across tasks design was used to evaluate the production effects of video self-modeling on three activities of daily living tasks of an adult male with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. Results indicated large increases in task accuracy after the production of a self-modeling video for each task, but before the video was viewed by the participant. Results also indicated small increases when the participant was directed to view the same video self-models before being prompted to complete each task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren
This paper considers a method for evaluation of Rate-Distortion-Complexity (R-D-C) performance of video coding. A statistical model of the transformed coefficients is used to estimate the Rate-Distortion (R-D) performance. A model frame work for rate, distortion and slope of the R-D curve for inter...... and intra frame is presented. Assumptions are given for analyzing an R-D model for fast R-D-C evaluation. The theoretical expressions are combined with H.264 video coding, and confirmed by experimental results. The complexity frame work is applied to the integer motion estimation....
Full Text Available With the wide development of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle technology, moving target detection for aerial video has become a popular research topic in the computer field. Most of the existing methods are under the registration-detection framework and can only deal with simple background scenes. They tend to go wrong in the complex multi background scenarios, such as viaducts, buildings and trees. In this paper, we break through the single background constraint and perceive the complex scene accurately by automatic estimation of multiple background models. First, we segment the scene into several color blocks and estimate the dense optical flow. Then, we calculate an affine transformation model for each block with large area and merge the consistent models. Finally, we calculate subordinate degree to multi-background models pixel to pixel for all small area blocks. Moving objects are segmented by means of energy optimization method solved via Graph Cuts. The extensive experimental results on public aerial videos show that, due to multi background models estimation, analyzing each pixel’s subordinate relationship to multi models by energy minimization, our method can effectively remove buildings, trees and other false alarms and detect moving objects correctly.
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joseph; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Morris, Joanne; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Ramoutar, Seendy; Collard, Anna; Hodkinson, Isabel
There is much interest in virtual consultations using video technology. Randomized controlled trials have shown video consultations to be acceptable, safe, and effective in selected conditions and circumstances. However, this model has rarely been mainstreamed and sustained in real-world settings. The study sought to (1) define good practice and inform implementation of video outpatient consultations and (2) generate transferable knowledge about challenges to scaling up and routinizing this service model. A multilevel, mixed-method study of Skype video consultations (micro level) was embedded in an organizational case study (meso level), taking account of national context and wider influences (macro level). The study followed the introduction of video outpatient consultations in three clinical services (diabetes, diabetes antenatal, and cancer surgery) in a National Health Service trust (covering three hospitals) in London, United Kingdom. Data sources included 36 national-level stakeholders (exploratory and semistructured interviews), longitudinal organizational ethnography (300 hours of observations; 24 staff interviews), 30 videotaped remote consultations, 17 audiotaped face-to-face consultations, and national and local documents. Qualitative data, analyzed using sociotechnical change theories, addressed staff and patient experience and organizational and system drivers. Quantitative data, analyzed via descriptive statistics, included uptake of video consultations by staff and patients and microcategorization of different kinds of talk (using the Roter interaction analysis system). When clinical, technical, and practical preconditions were met, video consultations appeared safe and were popular with some patients and staff. Compared with face-to-face consultations for similar conditions, video consultations were very slightly shorter, patients did slightly more talking, and both parties sometimes needed to make explicit things that typically remained implicit in
Li, Jia; Tian, Yonghong; Gao, Wen
In recent years, the amount of streaming video has grown rapidly on the Web. Often, retrieving these streaming videos offers the challenge of indexing and analyzing the media in real time because the streams must be treated as effectively infinite in length, thus precluding offline processing. Generally speaking, captions are important semantic clues for video indexing and retrieval. However, existing caption detection methods often have difficulties to make real-time detection for streaming video, and few of them concern on the differentiation of captions from scene texts and scrolling texts. In general, these texts have different roles in streaming video retrieval. To overcome these difficulties, this paper proposes a novel approach which explores the inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video. In our approach, the inter-frame correlation information is used to distinguish caption texts from scene texts and scrolling texts. Moreover, wavelet-domain Generalized Gaussian Models (GGMs) are utilized to automatically remove non-text regions from each frame and only keep caption regions for further processing. Experiment results show that our approach is able to offer real-time caption detection with high recall and low false alarm rate, and also can effectively discern caption texts from the other texts even in low resolutions.
Takizawa, Kenichi; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi
This paper presents a low-complexity video encoding method applicable for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscopes. This encoding method is based on Wyner-Ziv theory, in which side information available at a transmitter is treated as side information at its receiver. Therefore complex processes in video encoding, such as estimation of the motion vector, are moved to the receiver side, which has a larger-capacity battery. As a result, the encoding process is only to decimate coded original data through channel coding. We provide a performance evaluation for a low-density parity check (LDPC) coding method in the AWGN channel.
Nagy, Judit T.
The aim of the study was to examine the determining factors of students' video usage and their learning satisfaction relating to the supplementary application of educational videos, accessible in a Moodle environment in a Business Mathematics Course. The research model is based on the extension of "Technology Acceptance Model" (TAM), in…
Wilson, Kaitlyn P.
Purpose: Video modeling is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video modeling by school-based speech-language…
Hoogerheide, Vincent; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara
Two experiments investigated whether acting as a peer model for a video-based modeling example, which entails studying a text with the intention to explain it to others and then actually explaining it on video, would foster learning and transfer. In both experiments, novices were instructed to study
Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Anderson, Candace; McCarthy, Scott; Buggey, Tom
Video self-modeling demonstrates promise as an intervention strategy to improve outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This article summarizes the empirical evidence supporting the use of video self-modeling with individuals with autism spectrum disorders to increase language and communication, increase social skills, modify…
Acar, Cimen; Diken, Ibrahim H.
This study explored 31 instructional research articles written using video modeling to children with autism and published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies in this research have been reached by searching EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, ERIC and other Anadolu University online search engines and using keywords such as "autism, video modeling,…
Plavnick, Joshua B.; MacFarland, Mari C.; Ferreri, Summer J.
Video modeling is an evidence-based instructional strategy for teaching a variety of skills to individuals with autism. Despite the effectiveness of this strategy, there is some uncertainty regarding the conditions under which video modeling is likely to be effective. The present investigation examined the differential effectiveness of video…
Dupere, Sally; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Ahearn, William H.
Children with autism often engage in repetitive play with little variation in the actions performed or items used. This study examined the use of video modeling with scripted substitutable loops on children's pretend play with trained and untrained characters. Three young children with autism were shown a video model of scripted toy play that…
Ergenekon, Yasemin; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kapan, Alper; Akmanoglu, Nurgul
Research has shown that video and live modeling are both effective in teaching new skills to children with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of video and live modeling in teaching response chains to three children with autism. Each child was taught two chained skills; one skill…
Zafarifar, B.; With, de P.H.N.; Lagendijk, R.L.; Weber, Jos H.; Berg, van den A.F.M.
Video content analysis for still- and moving images can be used for various applications, such as high-level semantic-driven operations or pixel-level contentdependent image manipulation. Within video content analysis, sky regions of an image form visually important objects, for which interesting
Cady, Rhonda G.; Finkelstein, Stanley M.
Nurse-delivered telephone triage is a common component of outpatient clinic settings. Adding new communication technology to clinic triage has the potential to not only transform the triage process, but also alter triage workflow. Evaluating the impact of new technology on an existing workflow is paramount to maximizing efficiency of the delivery system. This study investigated triage nurse workflow before and after the implementation of video telehealth using a sequential mixed methods protocol that combined ethnography and time-motion study to provide a robust analysis of the implementation environment. Outpatient clinic triage using video telehealth required significantly more time than telephone triage, indicating a reduction in nurse efficiency. Despite the increased time needed to conduct video telehealth, nurses consistently rated it useful in providing triage. Interpretive analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data suggests the increased depth and breadth of data available during video triage alters the assessment triage nurses provide physicians. This in turn could impact the time physicians spend formulating a diagnosis and treatment plan. While the immediate impact of video telehealth is a reduction in triage nurse efficiency, what is unknown is the impact of video telehealth on physician and overall clinic efficiency. Future studies should address this area. PMID:24080753
Rayner, Christopher Stephen
To evaluate the use of video modelling as an intervention for increasing task completion for individuals with autism who have high support needs. A 12-year-old-boy with autism received video modelling intervention on two routines (unpacking his bag and brushing his teeth). Use of the video modelling intervention led to rapid increases in the percentage of steps performed in the unpacking his bag sequence and these gains generalized to packing his bag prior to departure from school. There was limited success in the use of the video modelling intervention for teaching the participant to brush his teeth. Video modelling can be successfully applied to enhance daily functioning in a classroom environment for students with autism and high support needs.
Wen, Jun; Wu, Ling-da; Zeng, Pu; Luan, Xi-dao; Xie, Yu-xiang
News story segmentation is an important aspect for news video analysis. This paper presents a method for news video story segmentation. Different form prior works, which base on visual features transform, the proposed technique uses audio features as baseline and fuses visual features with it to refine the results. At first, it selects silence clips as audio features candidate points, and selects shot boundaries and anchor shots as two kinds of visual features candidate points. Then this paper selects audio feature candidates as cues and develops different fusion method, which effectively using diverse type visual candidates to refine audio candidates, to get story boundaries. Experiment results show that this method has high efficiency and adaptability to different kinds of news video.
Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo
This article reports on the evaluation of four methods for transferring video content from a mobile device to a fixed television. The methods have been investigated in a Wizard-of-Oz approach through two consecutive studies. The first experiment aimed at collecting general opinions toward such a ...
Mantel, Claire; Søgaard, Jacob; Bech, Søren
is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net......This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant...
Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric
Long range telescopic video imagery of distant terrestrial scenes, aircraft, rockets and other aerospace vehicles can be a powerful observational tool. But what about the associated acoustic activity? A new technology, Remote Acoustic Sensing (RAS), may provide a method to remotely listen to the acoustic activity near these distant objects. Local acoustic activity sometimes weakly modulates the ambient illumination in a way that can be remotely sensed. RAS is a new type of microphone that separates an acoustic transducer into two spatially separated components: 1) a naturally formed in situ acousto-optic modulator (AOM) located within the distant scene and 2) a remote sensing readout device that recovers the distant audio. These two elements are passively coupled over long distances at the speed of light by naturally occurring ambient light energy or other electromagnetic fields. Stereophonic, multichannel and acoustic beam forming are all possible using RAS techniques and when combined with high-definition video imagery it can help to provide a more cinema like immersive viewing experience. A practical implementation of a remote acousto-optic readout device can be a challenging engineering problem. The acoustic influence on the optical signal is generally weak and often with a strong bias term. The optical signal is further degraded by atmospheric seeing turbulence. In this paper, we consider two fundamentally different optical readout approaches: 1) a low pixel count photodiode based RAS photoreceiver and 2) audio extraction directly from a video stream. Most of our RAS experiments to date have used the first method for reasons of performance and simplicity. But there are potential advantages to extracting audio directly from a video stream. These advantages include the straight forward ability to work with multiple AOMs (useful for acoustic beam forming), simpler optical configurations, and a potential ability to use certain preexisting video recordings. However
Kooloos, Jan G M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Bergman, Esther M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M
Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments, the learning effects of clay modeling were compared to either live observations (Experiment I) or video observations (Experiment II) of the clay-modeling exercise. The effects of learning were measured with multiple choice questions, extended matching questions, and recognition of structures on illustrations of cross-sections. Analysis of covariance with pretest scores as the covariate was used to elaborate the results. Experiment I showed a significantly higher post-test score for the observers, whereas Experiment II showed a significantly higher post-test score for the clay modelers. This study shows that (1) students who perform clay-modeling exercises show less gain in anatomical knowledge than students who attentively observe the same exercise being carried out and (2) performing a clay-modeling exercise is better in anatomical knowledge gain compared to the study of a video of the recorded exercise. The most important learning effect seems to be the engagement in the exercise, focusing attention and stimulating time on task. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.
Rex, Catherine; Charlop, Marjorie H; Spector, Vicki
In the present study, we used a multiple baseline design across participants to assess the efficacy of a video modeling intervention to teach six children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to assertively respond to bullying. During baseline, the children made few appropriate responses upon viewing video clips of bullying scenarios. During the video modeling intervention, participants viewed videos of models assertively responding to three types of bullying: physical, verbal bullying, and social exclusion. Results indicated that all six children learned through video modeling to make appropriate assertive responses to bullying scenarios. Four of the six children demonstrated learning in the in situ bullying probes. The results are discussed in terms of an intervention for victims of bullying with ASD.
Tyner, Bryan C.; Fienup, Daniel M.
Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance.…
Bandini, Andrea; Orlandi, Silvia; Escalante, Hugo Jair; Giovannelli, Fabio; Cincotta, Massimo; Reyes-Garcia, Carlos A; Vanni, Paola; Zaccara, Gaetano; Manfredi, Claudia
The automatic analysis of facial expressions is an evolving field that finds several clinical applications. One of these applications is the study of facial bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a major motor sign of this neurodegenerative illness. Facial bradykinesia consists in the reduction/loss of facial movements and emotional facial expressions called hypomimia. In this work we propose an automatic method for studying facial expressions in PD patients relying on video-based METHODS: 17 Parkinsonian patients and 17 healthy control subjects were asked to show basic facial expressions, upon request of the clinician and after the imitation of a visual cue on a screen. Through an existing face tracker, the Euclidean distance of the facial model from a neutral baseline was computed in order to quantify the changes in facial expressivity during the tasks. Moreover, an automatic facial expressions recognition algorithm was trained in order to study how PD expressions differed from the standard expressions. Results show that control subjects reported on average higher distances than PD patients along the tasks. This confirms that control subjects show larger movements during both posed and imitated facial expressions. Moreover, our results demonstrate that anger and disgust are the two most impaired expressions in PD patients. Contactless video-based systems can be important techniques for analyzing facial expressions also in rehabilitation, in particular speech therapy, where patients could get a definite advantage from a real-time feedback about the proper facial expressions/movements to perform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C
Over-the-top adaptive video streaming services are frequently impacted by fluctuating network conditions that can lead to rebuffering events (stalling events) and sudden bitrate changes. These events visually impact video consumers' quality of experience (QoE) and can lead to consumer churn. The development of models that can accurately predict viewers' instantaneous subjective QoE under such volatile network conditions could potentially enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for media-driven services, such as YouTube, Amazon, Netflix, and so on. However, most existing models only predict a single overall QoE score on a given video and are based on simple global video features, without accounting for relevant aspects of human perception and behavior. We have created a QoE evaluator, called the time-varying QoE Indexer, that accounts for interactions between stalling events, analyzes the spatial and temporal content of a video, predicts the perceptual video quality, models the state of the client-side data buffer, and consequently predicts continuous-time quality scores that agree quite well with human opinion scores. The new QoE predictor also embeds the impact of relevant human cognitive factors, such as memory and recency, and their complex interactions with the video content being viewed. We evaluated the proposed model on three different video databases and attained standout QoE prediction performance.
Regan, Helen; Howe, Julia
There has recently been a growth in interest in the use of video technology in the practice of educational psychologists. This research explores the effects of a video self-modelling (VSM) intervention on the behaviours of a child in mainstream education using a single case study design set within a behaviourist paradigm. VSM is a behavioural…
Popular culture experience in video games creates avenues to practice information literacy skills and model research in a real-world setting. Video games create a unique popular culture experience where players can invest dozens of hours on one game, create characters to identify with, organize skill sets and plot points, collaborate with people…
Wynkoop, Kaylee Stahr
The video modeling (VM) teaching strategy is one in which a student watches a video of someone performing a specific behavior, skill, or task and is then expected to complete the behavior, skill, or task. This column discusses the variety of ways in which VM has been documented within the literature and supports teacher interest in the strategy by…
Sancho, Kimberly; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Sidener, David W.
The current study employed an adapted alternating treatments design with reversal and multiple probe across participants components to compare the effects of traditional video priming and simultaneous video modeling on the acquisition of play skills in two children diagnosed with autism. Generalization was programmed across play sets, instructors,…
AL-Salahat, Mohammad Mousa
The current study aimed to identify the impact of video modeling upon teaching three pupils with Down syndrome the skill of preparing a simple meal (sandwich), where the training was conducted in a separate classroom in schools of normal students. The training consisted of (i) watching the video of an intellectually disabled pupil, who is…
Dillavou, Marcus W.; Shum, Phillip Corey; Guthrie, Baron L.; Shenai, Mahesh B.; Deaton, Drew Steven; May, Matthew Benton
Provided herein are methods and systems for image registration from multiple sources. A method for image registration includes rendering a common field of interest that reflects a presence of a plurality of elements, wherein at least one of the elements is a remote element located remotely from another of the elements and updating the common field of interest such that the presence of the at least one of the elements is registered relative to another of the elements.
Vladescu, Jason C; Carroll, Regina; Paden, Amber; Kodak, Tiffany M
The present study replicates and extends previous research on the use of video modeling (VM) with voiceover instruction to train staff to implement discrete-trial instruction (DTI). After staff trainees reached the mastery criterion when teaching an adult confederate with VM, they taught a child with a developmental disability using DTI. The results showed that the staff trainees' accurate implementation of DTI remained high, and both child participants acquired new skills. These findings provide additional support that VM may be an effective method to train staff members to conduct DTI.
Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)
The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using computer configured exercise equipment and an electric motor provided physical resistance in conjunction with a game system, such as a video game system, where the exercise system provides real physical resistance to a user interface. Results of user interaction with the user interface are integrated into a video game, such as running on a game console. The resistance system comprises: a subject interface, software control, a controller, an electric servo assist/resist motor, an actuator, and/or a subject sensor. The system provides actual physical interaction with a resistance device as input to the game console and game run thereon.
Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.
The current study evaluated a relatively new video-based procedure, continuous video modeling (CVM), to teach multi-step cleaning tasks to high school students with moderate intellectual disability. CVM in contrast to video modeling and video prompting allows repetition of the video model (looping) as many times as needed while the user completes…
A method and apparatus wherein video images are recorded on a plurality of tracks of a tape such that, for playback in a search mode at a speed, higher than the recording speed the displayed image will consist of a plurality of contiguous parts, some of the parts being read out from tracks each
A method and apparatus wherein video images are recorded on a plurality of tracks of a tape such that, for playback in a search mode at a speed higher than the recording speed the displayed image will consist of a plurality of contiguous parts, some of the parts being read out from tracks each
Chmiel, Margaret (Marjee)
Increased bandwidth, inexpensive video cameras and easy-to-use video editing software have made social media sites featuring user generated video (UGV) an increasingly popular vehicle for online communication. As such, UGV have come to play a role in education, both formal and informal, but there has been little research on this topic in scholarly literature. In this mixed-methods study, a content and discourse analysis are used to describe the most successful UGV in the science channel of an education-focused site called TeacherTube. The analysis finds that state achievement tests, and their focus on vocabulary and recall-level knowledge, drive much of the content found on TeacherTube.
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C.
Over-the-top mobile video streaming is invariably influenced by volatile network conditions which cause playback interruptions (stalling events), thereby impairing users' quality of experience (QoE). Developing models that can accurately predict users' QoE could enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for video streaming networks that reduce network operational costs while still delivering high-quality video content to the customers. Existing objective models that predict QoE are based on global video features, such as the number of stall events and their lengths, and are trained and validated on a small pool of ad hoc video datasets, most of which are not publicly available. The model we propose in this work goes beyond previous models as it also accounts for the fundamental effect that a viewer's recent level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction has on their overall viewing experience. In other words, the proposed model accounts for and adapts to the recency, or hysteresis effect caused by a stall event in addition to accounting for the lengths, frequency of occurrence, and the positions of stall events - factors that interact in a complex way to affect a user's QoE. On the recently introduced LIVE-Avvasi Mobile Video Database, which consists of 180 distorted videos of varied content that are afflicted solely with over 25 unique realistic stalling events, we trained and validated our model to accurately predict the QoE, attaining standout QoE prediction performance.
Full Text Available A novel method for thermal diffusivity evolution of thin-film materials with pulsed Gaussian beam and infrared video is reported. Compared with common pulse methods performed in specialized labs, the proposed method implements a rapid on-line measurement without producing the off-centre detection error. Through mathematical deduction of the original heat conduction model, it is discovered that the area s, which is encircled by the maximum temperature curve rTMAX(θ, increases linearly over elapsed time. The thermal diffusivity is acquired from the growth rate of the area s. In this study, the off-centre detection error is avoided by performing the distance regularized level set evolution formulation. The area s was extracted from the binary images of temperature variation rate, without inducing errors from determination of the heat source centre. Thermal diffusivities of three materials, 304 stainless steel, titanium, and zirconium have been measured with the established on-line detection system, and the measurement errors are: −2.26%, −1.07%, and 1.61% respectively.
Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
TDWZ video coding trails that of conventional video coding solutions, mainly due to the quality of side information, inaccurate noise modeling and loss in the final coding step. The major goal of this paper is to enhance the accuracy of the noise modeling, which is one of the most important aspects...... influencing the coding performance of DVC. A TDWZ video decoder with a novel cross-band based adaptive noise model is proposed, and a noise residue refinement scheme is introduced to successively update the estimated noise residue for noise modeling after each bit-plane. Experimental results show...... that the proposed noise model and noise residue refinement scheme can improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of TDWZ video coding significantly. The quality of the side information modeling is also evaluated by a measure of the ideal code length....
Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
The noise model is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of Distributed Video Coding. This paper proposes a novel noise model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding by using clustering of DCT blocks. The clustering algorithm takes advantage of the residual...... modelling. Furthermore, the proposed cluster level noise model is adaptively combined with a coefficient level noise model in this paper to robustly improve coding performance of TDWZ video codec up to 1.24 dB (by Bjøntegaard metric) compared to the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....... information of all frequency bands, iteratively classifies blocks into different categories and estimates the noise parameter in each category. The experimental results show that the coding performance of the proposed cluster level noise model is competitive with state-ofthe- art coefficient level noise...
Catania, Cynthia N; Almeida, Daniel; Liu-Constant, Brian; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D
Three new direct-service staff participated in a program that used a video model to train target skills needed to conduct a discrete-trial session. Percentage accuracy in completing a discrete-trial teaching session was evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. During baseline, performances ranged from a mean of 12% to 63% accuracy. During video modeling, there was an immediate increase in accuracy to a mean of 98%, 85%, and 94% for each participant. Performance during maintenance and generalization probes remained at high levels. Results suggest that video modeling can be an effective technique to train staff to conduct discrete-trial sessions.
Soucisse, Mikael L; Boulva, Kerianne; Sideris, Lucas; Drolet, Pierre; Morin, Michel; Dubé, Pierre
As surgical training is evolving and operative exposure is decreasing, new, effective, and experiential learning methods are needed to ensure surgical competency and patient safety. Video coaching is an emerging concept in surgery that needs further investigation. In this randomized controlled trial conducted at a single teaching hospital, participating residents were filmed performing a side-to-side intestinal anastomosis on cadaveric dog bowel for baseline assessment. The Surgical Video Coaching (SVC) group then participated in a one-on-one video playback coaching and debriefing session with a surgeon, during which constructive feedback was given. The control group went on with their normal clinical duties without coaching or debriefing. All participants were filmed making a second intestinal anastomosis. This was compared to their first anastomosis using a 7-category-validated technical skill global rating scale, the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills. A single independent surgeon who did not participate in coaching or debriefing to the SVC group reviewed all videos. A satisfaction survey was then sent to the residents in the coaching group. Department of Surgery, HôpitalMaisonneuve-Rosemont, tertiary teaching hospital affiliated to the University of Montreal, Canada. General surgery residents from University of Montreal were recruited to take part in this trial. A total of 28 residents were randomized and completed the study. After intervention, the SVC group (n = 14) significantly increased their Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills score (mean of differences 3.36, [1.09-5.63], p = 0.007) when compared to the control group (n = 14) (mean of differences 0.29, p = 0.759). All residents agreed or strongly agreed that video coaching was a time-efficient teaching method. Video coaching is an effective and efficient teaching intervention to improve surgical residents' technical skills. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier
Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and achieved positive results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.
Jason J. Quinlan
Full Text Available When we couple the rise in video streaming with the growing number of portable devices (smart phones, tablets, laptops, we see an ever-increasing demand for high-definition video online while on the move. Wireless networks are inherently characterised by restricted shared bandwidth and relatively high error loss rates, thus presenting a challenge for the efficient delivery of high quality video. Additionally, mobile devices can support/demand a range of video resolutions and qualities. This demand for mobile streaming highlights the need for adaptive video streaming schemes that can adjust to available bandwidth and heterogeneity, and can provide a graceful changes in video quality, all while respecting viewing satisfaction. In this context, the use of well-known scalable/layered media streaming techniques, commonly known as scalable video coding (SVC, is an attractive solution. SVC encodes a number of video quality levels within a single media stream. This has been shown to be an especially effective and efficient solution, but it fares badly in the presence of datagram losses. While multiple description coding (MDC can reduce the effects of packet loss on scalable video delivery, the increased delivery cost is counterproductive for constrained networks. This situation is accentuated in cases where only the lower quality level is required. In this paper, we assess these issues and propose a new approach called Streaming Classes (SC through which we can define a key set of quality levels, each of which can be delivered in a self-contained manner. This facilitates efficient delivery, yielding reduced transmission byte-cost for devices requiring lower quality, relative to MDC and Adaptive Layer Distribution (ALD (42% and 76% respective reduction for layer 2, while also maintaining high levels of consistent quality. We also illustrate how selective packetisation technique can further reduce the effects of packet loss on viewable quality by
Shimada, Satoshi; Azuma, Shouzou; Teranaka, Sayaka; Kojima, Akira; Majima, Yukie; Maekawa, Yasuko
We developed the system that knowledge could be discovered and shared cooperatively in the organization based on the SECI model of knowledge management. This system realized three processes by the following method. (1)A video that expressed skill is segmented into a number of scenes according to its contents. Tacit knowledge is shared in each scene. (2)Tacit knowledge is extracted by bulletin board linked to each scene. (3)Knowledge is acquired by repeatedly viewing the video scene with the comment that shows the technical content to be practiced. We conducted experiments that the system was used by nurses working for general hospitals. Experimental results show that the nursing practical knack is able to be collected by utilizing bulletin board linked to video scene. Results of this study confirmed the possibility of expressing the tacit knowledge of nurses' empirical nursing skills sensitively with a clue of video images.
Noordman, J.; Verhaak, P.; Dulmen, S. van
OBJECTIVE: To describe our web-enabled video-feedback method designed to reflect on the communication skills of experienced physicians. METHODS: Participating physicians (n=28) received a 'personal web link' to two of their video-recorded consultations. After watching the consultations physicians
Full Text Available This exploratory study intends to model kinematics learning of a pair of student teachers when exposed to prescribed teaching strategies in a video-based laboratory. Two student teachers were chosen from the Francophone B.Ed. program of the Faculty of Education of a Canadian university. The study method consisted of having the participants interact with a video-based laboratory to complete two activities for learning properties of acceleration in rectilinear motion. Time limits were placed on the learning activities during which the researcher collected detailed multimodal information from the student teachers' answers to questions, the graphs they produced from experimental data, and the videos taken during the learning sessions. As a result, we describe the learning approach each one followed, the evidence of conceptual change and the difficulties they face in tackling various aspects of the accelerated motion. We then specify advantages and limits of our research and propose recommendations for further study.
Taber, Traci A; Lambright, Nathan; Luiselli, James K
We evaluated the effects of abbreviated (i.e., one-session) video modeling on delivery of student-preferred attention by educational care-providers. The video depicted a novel care-provider interacting with and delivering attention to the student. Within a concurrent multiple baseline design, video modeling increased delivery of the targeted attention for all participants as well as their delivery of another type of attention that was not trained although these effects were variable within and between care-providers. We discuss the clinical and training implications from these findings.
Mason, Rose A; Rispoli, Mandy; Ganz, Jennifer B; Boles, Margot B; Orr, Kristie
Empirical support regarding effective interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a postsecondary community is limited. Video modeling, an empirically supported intervention for children and adolescents with ASD, may prove effective in addressing the needs of individuals with ASD in higher education. This study evaluated the effects of video modeling without additional treatment components to improve social-communicative skills, specifically, eye contact, facial expression, and conversational turntaking in college students with ASD. This study utilized a multiple baseline single-case design across behaviors for two post-secondary students with ASD to evaluate the effects of the video modeling intervention. Large effect sizes and statistically significant change across all targeted skills for one participant and eye contact and turntaking for the other participant were obtained. The use of video modeling without additional intervention may increase the social skills of post-secondary students with ASD. Implications for future research are discussed.
Vonk, Matthew; Bohacek, Peter; Militello, Cheryl; Iverson, Ellen
This study focuses on student development of two important laboratory skills in the context of introductory college-level physics. The first skill, which we call model making, is the ability to analyze a phenomenon in a way that produces a quantitative multimodal model. The second skill, which we call model breaking, is the ability to critically evaluate if the behavior of a system is consistent with a given model. This study involved 116 introductory physics students in four different sections, each taught by a different instructor. All of the students within a given class section participated in the same instruction (including labs) with the exception of five activities performed throughout the semester. For those five activities, each class section was split into two groups; one group was scaffolded to focus on model-making skills and the other was scaffolded to focus on model-breaking skills. Both conditions involved direct measurement videos. In some cases, students could vary important experimental parameters within the video like mass, frequency, and tension. Data collected at the end of the semester indicate that students in the model-making treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-making skill despite the fact that both groups shared a common physical lab experience. Likewise, the model-breaking treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-breaking skill. This is important because it shows that direct measurement video-based instruction can help students acquire science-process skills, which are critical for scientists, and which are a key part of current science education approaches such as the Next Generation Science Standards and the Advanced Placement Physics 1 course.
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10) for encoding video data and a corresponding video decoding device, wherein during decoding PPG relevant information shall be preserved. For this purpose the video coding device (10) comprises a first encoder (20) for encoding input video
Bohil, Corey J.; Biocca, Frank A.
This paper argues for the use of cognitive modeling to gain a detailed and dynamic look into user experience during game play. Applying cognitive models to game play data can help researchers understand a player's attentional focus, memory status, learning state, and decision strategies (among other things) as these cognitive processes occurred throughout game play. This is a stark contrast to the common approach of trying to assess the long-term impact of games on cognitive functioning after game play has ended. We describe what cognitive models are, what they can be used for and how game researchers could benefit by adopting these methods. We also provide details of a single model - based on decision field theory - that has been successfUlly applied to data sets from memory, perception, and decision making experiments, and has recently found application in real world scenarios. We examine possibilities for applying this model to game-play data.
Srivastava, Amit; Khanwalkar, Saurabh; Kumar, Anoop
The ability to quickly search for large volumes of videos for specific actions or events can provide a dramatic new capability to intelligence agencies. Example-based queries from video are a form of content-based information retrieval (CBIR) where the objective is to retrieve clips from a video corpus, or stream, using a representative query sample to find more like this. Often, the accuracy of video retrieval is largely limited by the gap between the available video descriptors and the underlying query concept, and such exemplar queries return many irrelevant results with relevant ones. In this paper, we present an Interactive Query Refinement (IQR) system which acts as a powerful tool to leverage human feedback and allow intelligence analyst to iteratively refine search queries for improved precision in the retrieved results. In our approach to IQR, we leverage discriminative models that operate on high dimensional features derived from low-level video descriptors in an iterative framework. Our IQR model solicits relevance feedback on examples selected from the region of uncertainty and updates the discriminating boundary to produce a relevance ranked results list. We achieved 358% relative improvement in Mean Average Precision (MAP) over initial retrieval list at a rank cutoff of 100 over 4 iterations. We compare our discriminative IQR model approach to a naïve IQR and show our model-based approach yields 49% relative improvement over the no model naïve system.
Irie, K; Woodhead, I M; McKinnon, A E; Unsworth, K
This study presents a comprehensive measurement of CCD digital-video camera noise. Knowledge of noise detail within images or video streams allows for the development of more sophisticated algorithms for separating true image content from the noise generated in an image sensor. The robustness and performance of an image-processing algorithm is fundamentally limited by sensor noise. The individual noise sources present in CCD sensors are well understood, but there has been little literature on the development of a complete noise model for CCD digital-video cameras, incorporating the effects of quantization and demosaicing
Full Text Available Construction of three-dimensional structures from video sequences has wide applications for intelligent video analysis. This paper summarizes the key issues of the theory and surveys the recent advances in the state of the art. Reconstruction of a scene object from video sequences often takes the basic principle of structure from motion with an uncalibrated camera. This paper lists the typical strategies and summarizes the typical solutions or algorithms for modeling of complex three-dimensional structures. Open difficult problems are also suggested for further study.
Juan P. Artero
Full Text Available Los orígenes y el desarrollo de dos de los servicios de vídeo en línea con más éxito en los Estados Unidos: YouTube y Hulu se examinan en este documento. Al mirar ambas historias de negocios, este estudio de caso analiza los diferentes modelos comerciales aplicados, los resultados en términos de tráfico web e ingresos y la perspectiva estratégica para cada una. YouTube desarrolla un modelo que ofrece vídeos gratis a una escala global, pero con peculiaridades locales en los mercados más importantes. Tiene una gran cantidad de videos; sin embargo, en general, son de corta duración y de baja calidad. En la mayoría de los casos, presentados y producidos por los propios usuarios. Esto tiene el potencial para crear problemas tecnológicos (la capacidad de video streaming tendrá que ser de alto rendimiento, dificultades de orden jurídico (posibles infracciones con respecto a contenido protegido o inadecuado y los problemas comerciales (reticencia entre los anunciantes a insertar publicidad en los vídeos de baja calidad. Hulu se concentra en la oferta gratuita de contenido profesional y sólo a escala nacional en los Estados Unidos. La cantidad de videos es menor y, por lo general, de mayor duración y mejor calidad. Los videos son puestos a disposición por los canales y las productoras que posee los derechos. En consecuencia, Hulu enfrenta menos problemas de carácter tecnológico, legal y comercial, pero su marca no es tan conocida, ni tiene el poder de convocatoria de YouTube
Sudarmin, S.; Mursiti, S.; Asih, A. G.
In this disruption era, students are encouraged to develop critical thinking skills and important cultural conservation characters. Student's thinking skill in chemistry learning has not been developed because learning chemistry in schools still uses teacher-centered, lecture method, is less interesting and does not utilize local culture as a learning resource. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of the application of direct Instruction (DI) model with video learning of ethnoscience on the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills. This study was experimental research. The population was the students from class XI MIPA MA Negeri Gombong with the sample chosen by purposive random sampling. The material of local wisdom as the study of ethnosciences which was the focus of the research was the production of genting, dawet, lanting, and sempor reservoirs which is integrated with colloidal chemical contents. The learning video of ethnoscience before being applied was validated by experts. Students’ critical thinking skills were revealed through the concept of conceptualizing test instruments. The data analysis technique used was the test of proportion and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results of this study suggested that the experimental class that was treated by scientific direct instruction model with the learning video of ethnoscience shows cognitive learning and critical thinking which were better than the control class. Besides, the students indicated their interest in the application of scientific direct instruction model with ethnoscience learning video.
Kalwitzki, Matthias; Meller, Christina; Beyer, Christine
The purpose of this study was to determine whether dental students' perceptions regarding six communication patterns for use in pediatric dentistry differed depending on whether they were taught by lecturing or by video-based teaching. Prior to the introduction of interpersonal skills in a clinical course in pediatric dentistry, four consecutive cohorts of students (n=107) in a German dental school were divided equally into two groups. Group one (n=57) was taught by video sequences and group two (n=50) by conventional lecture. Six communication patterns were presented: involvement of the child's toy(s), speaking in positive phrases, mentioning a personal aspect, recalling positive behavior of the patient, addressing fear verbally, and complimenting the patient. Immediately after the presentation, students were asked by means of a questionnaire about their assessment of and intentions regarding the clinical application of the communication patterns presented. After completion of the course, they were asked about the communication patterns that had been used. There were significant differences for three communication patterns in favor of video-based teaching (pstudents perceived differences between video-based teaching and lecturing regarding ease of use, but they did not seem to benefit from one method over the other regarding clinical application.
Zobeida Jezabel Guzman-Zavaleta
Full Text Available Passive content fingerprinting is widely used for video content identification and monitoring. However, many challenges remain unsolved especially for partial-copies detection. The main challenge is to find the right balance between the computational cost of fingerprint extraction and fingerprint dimension, without compromising detection performance against various attacks (robustness. Fast video detection performance is desirable in several modern applications, for instance, in those where video detection involves the use of large video databases or in applications requiring real-time video detection of partial copies, a process whose difficulty increases when videos suffer severe transformations. In this context, conventional fingerprinting methods are not fully suitable to cope with the attacks and transformations mentioned before, either because the robustness of these methods is not enough or because their execution time is very high, where the time bottleneck is commonly found in the fingerprint extraction and matching operations. Motivated by these issues, in this work we propose a content fingerprinting method based on the extraction of a set of independent binary global and local fingerprints. Although these features are robust against common video transformations, their combination is more discriminant against severe video transformations such as signal processing attacks, geometric transformations and temporal and spatial desynchronization. Additionally, we use an efficient multilevel filtering system accelerating the processes of fingerprint extraction and matching. This multilevel filtering system helps to rapidly identify potential similar video copies upon which the fingerprint process is carried out only, thus saving computational time. We tested with datasets of real copied videos, and the results show how our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods regarding detection scores. Furthermore, the granularity of our method makes
Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, Tamara; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Mayer, Richard E.
The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner's (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed a video showing how to assemble an 8-component…
Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Bouck, Emily C.; Tom, Kinsey; Jasper, Andrea D.; Flanagan, Sara M.; Bassette, Laura
Self-operated video prompting and video modeling was compared when used by three secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities as they completed novel recipes during cooking activities. Alternating between video systems, students completed twelve recipes within their classroom kitchen. An alternating treatment design with a follow-up and…
Gil, Gustavo; Savino, Giovanni; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco
Artificial prediction of future location of other cars in the context of advanced safety systems is a must. The remote estimation of car pose and particularly its heading angle is key to predict its future location. Stereo vision systems allow to get the 3D information of a scene. Ground truth in this specific context is associated with referential information about the depth, shape and orientation of the objects present in the traffic scene. Creating 3D ground truth is a measurement and data fusion task associated with the combination of different kinds of sensors. The novelty of this paper is the method to generate ground truth car pose only from video data. When the method is applied to stereo video, it also provides the extrinsic camera parameters for each camera at frame level which are key to quantify the performance of a stereo vision system when it is moving because the system is subjected to undesired vibrations and/or leaning. We developed a video post-processing technique which employs a common camera calibration tool for the 3D ground truth generation. In our case study, we focus in accurate car heading angle estimation of a moving car under realistic imagery. As outcomes, our satellite marker method provides accurate car pose at frame level, and the instantaneous spatial orientation for each camera at frame level.
This paper presents a new method for high-capacity robust digital video watermarking and algorithms of embedding and extraction of watermark based on this method. Proposed method uses password-based two-dimensional pseudonoise arrays for watermark embedding, making brute-force attacks aimed at steganographic key retrieval mostly impractical. Proposed algorithm for 2-dimensional "noise-like" watermarking patterns generation also allows to significantly decrease watermark collision probability ( i.e. probability of correct watermark detection and extraction using incorrect steganographic key or password).. Experimental research provided in this work also shows that simple correlation-based watermark detection procedure can be used, providing watermark robustness against lossy compression and watermark estimation attacks. At the same time, without decreasing robustness of embedded watermark, average complexity of the brute-force key retrieval attack can be increased to 1014 watermark extraction attempts (compared to 104-106 for a known robust watermarking schemes). Experimental results also shows that for lowest embedding intensity watermark preserves it's robustness against lossy compression of host video and at the same time preserves higher video quality (PSNR up to 51dB) compared to known wavelet-based and DCT-based watermarking algorithms.
Bampis, Christos G; Li, Zhi; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Bovik, Alan C
Streaming video services represent a very large fraction of global bandwidth consumption. Due to the exploding demands of mobile video streaming services, coupled with limited bandwidth availability, video streams are often transmitted through unreliable, low-bandwidth networks. This unavoidably leads to two types of major streaming-related impairments: compression artifacts and/or rebuffering events. In streaming video applications, the end-user is a human observer; hence being able to predict the subjective Quality of Experience (QoE) associated with streamed videos could lead to the creation of perceptually optimized resource allocation strategies driving higher quality video streaming services. We propose a variety of recurrent dynamic neural networks that conduct continuous-time subjective QoE prediction. By formulating the problem as one of time-series forecasting, we train a variety of recurrent neural networks and non-linear autoregressive models to predict QoE using several recently developed subjective QoE databases. These models combine multiple, diverse neural network inputs, such as predicted video quality scores, rebuffering measurements, and data related to memory and its effects on human behavioral responses, using them to predict QoE on video streams impaired by both compression artifacts and rebuffering events. Instead of finding a single time-series prediction model, we propose and evaluate ways of aggregating different models into a forecasting ensemble that delivers improved results with reduced forecasting variance. We also deploy appropriate new evaluation metrics for comparing time-series predictions in streaming applications. Our experimental results demonstrate improved prediction performance that approaches human performance. An implementation of this work can be found at https://github.com/christosbampis/NARX_QoE_release.
Viswasom, Angela A; Jobby, Abraham
Technology and its applications are the most happening things in the world. So, is it in the field of medical education. This study was an evaluation of whether the conventional methods can compete with the test of technology. A comparative study of traditional method of teaching osteology in human anatomy with an innovative visual aided method. The study was conducted on 94 students admitted to MBBS 2014 to 2015 batch of Travancore Medical College. The students were divided into two academically validated groups. They were taught using conventional and video demonstrational techniques in a systematic manner. Post evaluation tests were conducted. Analysis of the mark pattern revealed that the group taught using traditional method scored better when compared to the visual aided method. Feedback analysis showed that, the students were able to identify bony features better with clear visualisation and three dimensional view when taught using the video demonstration method. The students identified visual aided method as the more interesting one for learning which helped them in applying the knowledge gained. In most of the questions asked, the two methods of teaching were found to be comparable on the same scale. As the study ends, we discover that, no new technique can be substituted for time tested techniques of teaching and learning. The ideal method would be incorporating newer multimedia techniques into traditional classes.
Han, Junwei; Chen, Changyuan; Shao, Ling; Hu, Xintao; Han, Jungong; Liu, Tianming
Generally, various visual media are unequally memorable by the human brain. This paper looks into a new direction of modeling the memorability of video clips and automatically predicting how memorable they are by learning from brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We propose a novel computational framework by integrating the power of low-level audiovisual features and brain activity decoding via fMRI. Initially, a user study experiment is performed to create a ground truth database for measuring video memorability and a set of effective low-level audiovisual features is examined in this database. Then, human subjects' brain fMRI data are obtained when they are watching the video clips. The fMRI-derived features that convey the brain activity of memorizing videos are extracted using a universal brain reference system. Finally, due to the fact that fMRI scanning is expensive and time-consuming, a computational model is learned on our benchmark dataset with the objective of maximizing the correlation between the low-level audiovisual features and the fMRI-derived features using joint subspace learning. The learned model can then automatically predict the memorability of videos without fMRI scans. Evaluations on publically available image and video databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.
Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For many vital signs, monitoring methods require contact with the patient and/or are invasive in nature. There is increasing interest in developing still and video image-guided monitoring methods that are non-contact and non-invasive. We will undertake a systematic review of still and video image-based monitoring methods. Methods We will perform searches in multiple databases which include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. We will use OpenGrey and Google searches to access unpublished or commercial data. We will not use language or publication date restrictions. The primary goal is to summarise current image-based vital signs monitoring methods, limited to heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure. Of particular interest will be the effectiveness of image-based methods compared to reference devices. Other outcomes of interest include the quality of the method comparison studies with respect to published reporting guidelines, any limitations of non-contact non-invasive technology and application in different populations. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of image-based non-contact methods of vital signs monitoring. Synthesis of currently available technology will facilitate future research in this highly topical area. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016029167
Diego José Luis Botia Valderrama
Full Text Available The measurement and evaluation of the QoE (Quality of Experience have become one of the main focuses in the telecommunications to provide services with the expected quality for their users. However, factors like the network parameters and codification can affect the quality of video, limiting the correlation between the objective and subjective metrics. The above increases the complexity to evaluate the real quality of video perceived by users. In this paper, a model based on artificial neural networks such as BPNNs (Backpropagation Neural Networks and the RNNs (Random Neural Networks is applied to evaluate the subjective quality metrics MOS (Mean Opinion Score and the PSNR (Peak Signal Noise Ratio, SSIM (Structural Similarity Index Metric, VQM (Video Quality Metric, and QIBF (Quality Index Based Frame. The proposed model allows establishing the QoS (Quality of Service based in the strategy Diffserv. The metrics were analyzed through Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients, RMSE (Root Mean Square Error, and outliers rate. Correlation values greater than 90% were obtained for all the evaluated metrics.
Gurov, Igor; Volkov, Mikhail; Margaryants, Nikita; Pimenov, Aleksei; Potemkin, Andrey
The video capillaroscopy system with high image recording rate to resolve moving red blood cells with velocity up to 5 mm/s into a capillary is considered. Proposed procedures of the recorded video sequence processing allow evaluating spatial capillary area, capillary diameter and central line with high accuracy and reliability independently on properties of individual capillary. Two-dimensional inter frame procedure is applied to find lateral shift of neighbor images in the blood flow area with moving red blood cells and to measure directly the blood flow velocity along a capillary central line. The developed method opens new opportunities for biomedical diagnostics, particularly, due to long-time continuous monitoring of red blood cells velocity into capillary. Spatio-temporal representation of capillary blood flow is considered. Experimental results of direct measurement of blood flow velocity into separate capillary as well as capillary net are presented and discussed.
Oh, Hyungsuk; Kim, Wonha
We have developed a video processing method that achieves human perceptual visual quality-oriented video coding. The patterns of moving objects are modeled by considering the limited human capacity for spatial-temporal resolution and the visual sensory memory together, and an online moving pattern classifier is devised by using the Hedge algorithm. The moving pattern classifier is embedded in the existing visual saliency with the purpose of providing a human perceptual video quality saliency model. In order to apply the developed saliency model to video coding, the conventional foveation filtering method is extended. The proposed foveation filter can smooth and enhance the video signals locally, in conformance with the developed saliency model, without causing any artifacts. The performance evaluation results confirm that the proposed video processing method shows reliable improvements in the perceptual quality for various sequences and at various bandwidths, compared to existing saliency-based video coding methods.
Full Text Available Human detection in videos plays an important role in various real life applications. Most of traditional approaches depend on utilizing handcrafted features which are problem-dependent and optimal for specific tasks. Moreover, they are highly susceptible to dynamical events such as illumination changes, camera jitter, and variations in object sizes. On the other hand, the proposed feature learning approaches are cheaper and easier because highly abstract and discriminative features can be produced automatically without the need of expert knowledge. In this paper, we utilize automatic feature learning methods which combine optical flow and three different deep models (i.e., supervised convolutional neural network (S-CNN, pretrained CNN feature extractor, and hierarchical extreme learning machine for human detection in videos captured using a nonstatic camera on an aerial platform with varying altitudes. The models are trained and tested on the publicly available and highly challenging UCF-ARG aerial dataset. The comparison between these models in terms of training, testing accuracy, and learning speed is analyzed. The performance evaluation considers five human actions (digging, waving, throwing, walking, and running. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed methods are successful for human detection task. Pretrained CNN produces an average accuracy of 98.09%. S-CNN produces an average accuracy of 95.6% with soft-max and 91.7% with Support Vector Machines (SVM. H-ELM has an average accuracy of 95.9%. Using a normal Central Processing Unit (CPU, H-ELM’s training time takes 445 seconds. Learning in S-CNN takes 770 seconds with a high performance Graphical Processing Unit (GPU.
Ouwehand, Kim; van Gog, Tamara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/294304975; Paas, Fred
Research suggests that learners will likely spend a substantial amount of time looking at the model's face when it is visible in a video-based modeling example. Consequently, in this study we hypothesized that learners might not attend timely to the task areas the model is referring to, unless their
Harford, Mirae; Catherall, Jacqueline; Gerry, Stephen; Young, Duncan; Watkinson, Peter
For many vital signs, monitoring methods require contact with the patient and/or are invasive in nature. There is increasing interest in developing still and video image-guided monitoring methods that are non-contact and non-invasive. We will undertake a systematic review of still and video image-based monitoring methods. We will perform searches in multiple databases which include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. We will use OpenGrey and Google searches to access unpublished or commercial data. We will not use language or publication date restrictions. The primary goal is to summarise current image-based vital signs monitoring methods, limited to heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure. Of particular interest will be the effectiveness of image-based methods compared to reference devices. Other outcomes of interest include the quality of the method comparison studies with respect to published reporting guidelines, any limitations of non-contact non-invasive technology and application in different populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of image-based non-contact methods of vital signs monitoring. Synthesis of currently available technology will facilitate future research in this highly topical area. PROSPERO CRD42016029167.
Oh, Kwan-Jung; Oh, Byung Tae
We present an intracoding method that is applicable to depth map coding in multiview plus depth systems. Our approach combines skip prediction and plane segmentation-based prediction. The proposed depth intraskip prediction uses the estimated direction at both the encoder and decoder, and does not need to encode residual data. Our plane segmentation-based intraprediction divides the current block into biregions, and applies a different prediction scheme for each segmented region. This method avoids incorrect estimations across different regions, resulting in higher prediction accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is superior to H.264/advanced video coding intraprediction and has the ability to improve the subjective rendering quality.
Zhao, Gangqiang; Yuan, Junsong; Hua, Gang; Yang, Jiong
A topical video object refers to an object, that is, frequently highlighted in a video. It could be, e.g., the product logo and the leading actor/actress in a TV commercial. We propose a topic model that incorporates a word co-occurrence prior for efficient discovery of topical video objects from a set of key frames. Previous work using topic models, such as latent Dirichelet allocation (LDA), for video object discovery often takes a bag-of-visual-words representation, which ignored important co-occurrence information among the local features. We show that such data driven co-occurrence information from bottom-up can conveniently be incorporated in LDA with a Gaussian Markov prior, which combines top-down probabilistic topic modeling with bottom-up priors in a unified model. Our experiments on challenging videos demonstrate that the proposed approach can discover different types of topical objects despite variations in scale, view-point, color and lighting changes, or even partial occlusions. The efficacy of the co-occurrence prior is clearly demonstrated when compared with topic models without such priors.
Ki, Sehwan; Bae, Sung-Ho; Kim, Munchurl; Ko, Hyunsuk
Conventional predictive video coding-based approaches are reaching the limit of their potential coding efficiency improvements, because of severely increasing computation complexity. As an alternative approach, perceptual video coding (PVC) has attempted to achieve high coding efficiency by eliminating perceptual redundancy, using just-noticeable-distortion (JND) directed PVC. The previous JNDs were modeled by adding white Gaussian noise or specific signal patterns into the original images, which were not appropriate in finding JND thresholds due to distortion with energy reduction. In this paper, we present a novel discrete cosine transform-based energy-reduced JND model, called ERJND, that is more suitable for JND-based PVC schemes. Then, the proposed ERJND model is extended to two learning-based just-noticeable-quantization-distortion (JNQD) models as preprocessing that can be applied for perceptual video coding. The two JNQD models can automatically adjust JND levels based on given quantization step sizes. One of the two JNQD models, called LR-JNQD, is based on linear regression and determines the model parameter for JNQD based on extracted handcraft features. The other JNQD model is based on a convolution neural network (CNN), called CNN-JNQD. To our best knowledge, our paper is the first approach to automatically adjust JND levels according to quantization step sizes for preprocessing the input to video encoders. In experiments, both the LR-JNQD and CNN-JNQD models were applied to high efficiency video coding (HEVC) and yielded maximum (average) bitrate reductions of 38.51% (10.38%) and 67.88% (24.91%), respectively, with little subjective video quality degradation, compared with the input without preprocessing applied.
Hori, Takayuki; Ohya, Jun; Kurumisawa, Jun
This paper proposes a Tensor Decomposition Based method that can recognize an unknown person's action from a video sequence, where the unknown person is not included in the database (tensor) used for the recognition. The tensor consists of persons, actions and time-series image features. For the observed unknown person's action, one of the actions stored in the tensor is assumed. Using the motion signature obtained from the assumption, the unknown person's actions are synthesized. The actions of one of the persons in the tensor are replaced by the synthesized actions. Then, the core tensor for the replaced tensor is computed. This process is repeated for the actions and persons. For each iteration, the difference between the replaced and original core tensors is computed. The assumption that gives the minimal difference is the action recognition result. For the time-series image features to be stored in the tensor and to be extracted from the observed video sequence, the human body silhouette's contour shape based feature is used. To show the validity of our proposed method, our proposed method is experimentally compared with Nearest Neighbor rule and Principal Component analysis based method. Experiments using 33 persons' seven kinds of action show that our proposed method achieves better recognition accuracies for the seven actions than the other methods.
Cannella-Malone, Helen I; Mizrachi, Sharona V; Sabielny, Linsey M; Jimenez, Eliseo D
The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of video modeling on teaching physical activities to three adolescents with significant disabilities. The study implemented a multiple baseline across six physical activities (three per student): jumping rope, scooter board with cones, ladder drill (i.e., feet going in and out), ladder design (i.e., multiple steps), shuttle run, and disc ride. Additional prompt procedures (i.e., verbal, gestural, visual cues, and modeling) were implemented within the study. After the students mastered the physical activities, we tested to see if they would link the skills together (i.e., complete an obstacle course). All three students made progress learning the physical activities, but only one learned them with video modeling alone (i.e., without error correction). Video modeling can be an effective tool for teaching students with significant disabilities various physical activities, though additional prompting procedures may be needed.
Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
Distributed video coding (DVC) has been proposed as a new video coding paradigm to deal with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. A virtual channel noise model is utilized at the decoder to estimate...... the noise distribution between the side information frame and the original frame. This is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of DVC. Noise models with different granularity have been proposed. In this paper, an improved noise model for transform domain Wyner-Ziv video...... coding is proposed, which utilizes cross-band correlation to estimate the Laplacian parameters more accurately. Experimental results show that the proposed noise model can improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance....
Decker, Martha M; Buggey, Tom
The authors compared the effects of video self-modeling and video peer modeling on oral reading fluency of elementary students with learning disabilities. A control group was also included to gauge general improvement due to reading instruction and familiarity with researchers. The results indicated that both interventions resulted in improved fluency. Students in both experimental groups improved their reading fluency. Two students in the self-modeling group made substantial and immediate gains beyond any of the other students. Discussion is included that focuses on the importance that positive imagery can have on student performance and the possible applications of both forms of video modeling with students who have had negative experiences in reading.
Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes
The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...
Amaya, F.; Cárdenas, A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we...... consider in the model the effect of distributed Raman amplification, used to extent the capacity and the reach of the optical link. In the model, we use the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the purpose to obtain capacity limitations and design constrains of the next generation optical access networks....
Amaya, F; Cardenas, A; Tafur, I
In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we consider in the model the effect of distributed Raman amplification, used to extent the capacity and the reach of the optical link. In the model, we use the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the purpose to obtain capacity limitations and design constrains of the next generation optical access networks.
Wang, Chao; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhaoxiang
This paper addresses the problem of tracking and recognizing faces via incremental local sparse representation. First a robust face tracking algorithm is proposed via employing local sparse appearance and covariance pooling method. In the following face recognition stage, with the employment of a novel template update strategy, which combines incremental subspace learning, our recognition algorithm adapts the template to appearance changes and reduces the influence of occlusion and illumination variation. This leads to a robust video-based face tracking and recognition with desirable performance. In the experiments, we test the quality of face recognition in real-world noisy videos on YouTube database, which includes 47 celebrities. Our proposed method produces a high face recognition rate at 95% of all videos. The proposed face tracking and recognition algorithms are also tested on a set of noisy videos under heavy occlusion and illumination variation. The tracking results on challenging benchmark videos demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods. In the case of the challenging dataset in which faces undergo occlusion and illumination variation, and tracking and recognition experiments under significant pose variation on the University of California, San Diego (Honda/UCSD) database, our proposed method also consistently demonstrates a high recognition rate.
Turel, O; Romashkin, A; Morrison, K M
There is a growing need to curb paediatric obesity. The aim of this study is to untangle associations between video-game-use attributes and obesity as a first step towards identifying and examining possible interventions. Cross-sectional time-lagged cohort study was employed using parent-child surveys (t1) and objective physical activity and physiological measures (t2) from 125 children/adolescents (mean age = 13.06, 9-17-year-olds) who play video games, recruited from two clinics at a Canadian academic children's hospital. Structural equation modelling and analysis of covariance were employed for inference. The results of the study are as follows: (i) self-reported video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime is related to greater abdominal adiposity (waist-to-height ratio) and this association may be mediated through reduced sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index); and (ii) self-reported average video-game session duration is associated with greater abdominal adiposity and this association may be mediated through higher self-reported sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and reduced sleep quality. Video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime, typical video-game session duration, sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and poor sleep quality have aversive associations with abdominal adiposity. Paediatricians and researchers should further explore how these factors can be altered through behavioural or pharmacological interventions as a means to reduce paediatric obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Raaijmakers, Steven F.; Baars, Martine; Schaap, Lydia; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara
Self-assessment and task-selection skills are crucial in self-regulated learning situations in which students can choose their own tasks. Prior research suggested that training with video modeling examples, in which another person (the model) demonstrates and explains the cyclical process of problem-solving task performance, self-assessment, and…
Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F
This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kotevski, Zoran; Mitrevski, Pece
Peer to Peer (P2P) live streaming is relatively new paradigm that aims at streaming live video to large number of clients at low cost. Many such applications already exist in the market, but, prior to creating such system it is necessary to analyze its performance via representative model that can provide good insight in the system’s behavior. Modeling and performance analysis of P2P live video streaming systems is challenging task which requires addressing many properties and issues of P2P s...
Paterson, Claire R; Arco, Lucius
The present study examined effects of video modeling on generalized independent toy play of two boys with autism. Appropriate and repetitive verbal and motor play were measured, and intermeasure relationships were examined. Two single-participant experiments with multiple baselines and withdrawals across toy play were used. One boy was presented with three physically unrelated toys, whereas the other was presented with three related toys. Video modeling produced increases in appropriate play and decreases in repetitive play, but generalized play was observed only with the related toys. Generalization may have resulted from variables including the toys' common physical characteristics and natural reinforcing properties and the increased correspondence between verbal and motor play.
Full Text Available Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively; however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed at detecting the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on predefined facial expressions, training of a model, or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically significant differences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient, and better suited for contexts involving games.
Pospisil, J.; Jakubik, P.; Machala, L.
This article reports the suggestion, realization and verification of the newly developed measuring means of the noiseless and locally shift-invariant modulation transfer function (MTF) of a digital video camera in a usual incoherent visible region of optical intensity, especially of its combined imaging, detection, sampling and digitizing steps which are influenced by the additive and spatially discrete photodetector, aliasing and quantization noises. Such means relates to the still camera automatic working regime and static two-dimensional spatially continuous light-reflection random target of white-noise property. The introduced theoretical reason for such a random-target method is also performed under exploitation of the proposed simulation model of the linear optical intensity response and possibility to express the resultant MTF by a normalized and smoothed rate of the ascertainable output and input power spectral densities. The random-target and resultant image-data were obtained and processed by means of a processing and evaluational PC with computation programs developed on the basis of MATLAB 6.5E The present examples of results and other obtained results of the performed measurements demonstrate the sufficient repeatability and acceptability of the described method for comparative evaluations of the performance of digital video cameras under various conditions.
Panda, Rameswar; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K.
Networks of vision sensors are deployed in many settings, ranging from security needs to disaster response to environmental monitoring. Many of these setups have hundreds of cameras and tens of thousands of hours of video. The difficulty of analyzing such a massive volume of video data is apparent whenever there is an incident that requires foraging through vast video archives to identify events of interest. As a result, video summarization, that automatically extract a brief yet informative summary of these videos, has attracted intense attention in the recent years. Much progress has been made in developing a variety of ways to summarize a single video in form of a key sequence or video skim. However, generating a summary from a set of videos captured in a multi-camera network still remains as a novel and largely under-addressed problem. In this paper, with the aim of summarizing videos in a camera network, we introduce a novel representative selection approach via joint embedding and capped l21-norm minimization. The objective function is two-fold. The first is to capture the structural relationships of data points in a camera network via an embedding, which helps in characterizing the outliers and also in extracting a diverse set of representatives. The second is to use a capped l21-norm to model the sparsity and to suppress the influence of data outliers in representative selection. We propose to jointly optimize both of the objectives, such that embedding can not only characterize the structure, but also indicate the requirements of sparse representative selection. Extensive experiments on standard multi-camera datasets well demonstrate the efficacy of our method over state-of-the-art methods.
Yuan Mei; Zhao Jianbin; Cui Lei
There will be variable noises appear on images in video once the play device irradiated by γ-rays, so as to affect the image clarity. In order to eliminate the image noising, the affection mechanism of γ-irradiation on video-play device was studied in this paper and the methods to improve the image quality with both hardware and software were proposed by use of protection program and de-noising algorithm. The experimental results show that the scheme of video de-noising based on hardware and software can improve effectively the PSNR by 87.5 dB. (authors)
Ayala, SM; O'Connor, R
Ten first grade students who had responded poorly to a Tier 2 reading intervention in a response to intervention (RTI) model received an intervention of video self-modeling to improve decoding skills and sight word recognition. Students were video recorded blending and segmenting decodable words and reading sight words. Videos were edited and viewed a minimum of four times per week. Data were collected twice per week using curriculum-based measures. A single subject multiple baseline across p...
Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.; Bott, T.F.
The numerical methods and physical models used in the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) versions PD2 and PF1 are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on TRAC-PF1, the version specifically designed to analyze small-break loss-of-coolant accidents
Bell, Beth T; Lawton, Rebecca; Dittmar, Helga
Music videos are a particularly influential, new form of mass media for adolescents, which include the depiction of scantily clad female models whose bodies epitomise the ultra-thin sociocultural ideal for young women. The present study is the first exposure experiment that examines the impact of thin models in music videos on the body dissatisfaction of 16-19-year-old adolescent girls (n=87). First, participants completed measures of positive and negative affect, body image, and self-esteem. Under the guise of a memory experiment, they then either watched three music videos, listened to three songs (from the videos), or learned a list of words. Affect and body image were assessed afterwards. In contrast to the music listening and word-learning conditions, girls who watched the music videos reported significantly elevated scores on an adaptation of the Body Image States Scale after exposure, indicating increased body dissatisfaction. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant moderator of this relationship. Implications and future research are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.
van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
The 3D Morphable Face Model (3DMM) has been used for over a decade for creating 3D models from single images of faces. This model is based on a PCA model of the 3D shape and texture generated from a limited number of 3D scans. The goal of fitting a 3DMM to an image is to find the model coefficients,
Liu, Mei-Feng; Zhong, Guo-Yun; He, Xiao-Hai; Qing, Lin-Bo
Currently, most video resources on line are encoded in the H.264/AVC format. More fluent video transmission can be obtained if these resources are encoded in the newest international video coding standard: high efficiency video coding (HEVC). In order to improve the video transmission and storage on line, a transcoding method from H.264/AVC to HEVC is proposed. In this transcoding algorithm, the coding information of intraprediction, interprediction, and motion vector (MV) in H.264/AVC video stream are used to accelerate the coding in HEVC. It is found through experiments that the region of interprediction in HEVC overlaps that in H.264/AVC. Therefore, the intraprediction for the region in HEVC, which is interpredicted in H.264/AVC, can be skipped to reduce coding complexity. Several macroblocks in H.264/AVC are combined into one PU in HEVC when the MV difference between two of the macroblocks in H.264/AVC is lower than a threshold. This method selects only one coding unit depth and one prediction unit (PU) mode to reduce the coding complexity. An MV interpolation method of combined PU in HEVC is proposed according to the areas and distances between the center of one macroblock in H.264/AVC and that of the PU in HEVC. The predicted MV accelerates the motion estimation for HEVC coding. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm achieves significant coding time reduction with a little loss in bitrates distortion rate, compared to the existing transcoding algorithms and normal HEVC coding.
Shi, Guozhong; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Liu, Yangdong; Liu, Jing
As three-dimensional television (3-DTV) and 3-D movie become popular, the discomfort of visual feeling limits further applications of 3D display technology. The cause of visual discomfort from stereoscopic video conflicts between accommodation and convergence, excessive binocular parallax, fast motion of objects and so on. Here, a novel method for evaluating visual fatigue is demonstrated. Influence factors including spatial structure, motion scale and comfortable zone are analyzed. According to the human visual system (HVS), people only need to converge their eyes to the specific objects for static cameras and background. Relative motion should be considered for different camera conditions determining different factor coefficients and weights. Compared with the traditional visual fatigue prediction model, a novel visual fatigue predicting model is presented. Visual fatigue degree is predicted using multiple linear regression method combining with the subjective evaluation. Consequently, each factor can reflect the characteristics of the scene, and the total visual fatigue score can be indicated according to the proposed algorithm. Compared with conventional algorithms which ignored the status of the camera, our approach exhibits reliable performance in terms of correlation with subjective test results.
Liau, Albert K; Neo, Eng Chuan; Gentile, Douglas A; Choo, Hyekyung; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline
Given the potential negative mental health consequences of pathological video gaming, understanding its etiology may lead to useful treatment developments. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of impulsive and regulatory processes on pathological video gaming. Study 1 involved 2154 students from 6 primary and 4 secondary schools in Singapore. Study 2 involved 191 students from 2 secondary schools. The results of study 1 and study 2 supported the hypothesis that self-regulation is a mediator between impulsivity and pathological video gaming. Specifically, higher levels of impulsivity was related to lower levels of self-regulation, which in turn was related to higher levels of pathological video gaming. The use of impulsivity and self-regulation in predicting pathological video gaming supports the dual-system model of incorporating both impulsive and reflective systems in the prediction of self-control outcomes. The study highlights the development of self-regulatory resources as a possible avenue for future prevention and treatment research. © 2011 APJPH.
Vision is a part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolve ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback projections, and provide image understanding that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. Computer simulation models are built on the basis of graphs/networks. The ability of human brain to emulate similar graph/network models is found. Symbols, predicates and grammars naturally emerge in such networks, and logic is simply a way of restructuring such models. Brain analyzes an image as a graph-type relational structure created via multilevel hierarchical compression of visual information. Primary areas provide active fusion of image features on a spatial grid-like structure, where nodes are cortical columns. Spatial logic and topology naturally present in such structures. Mid-level vision processes like perceptual grouping, separation of figure from ground, are special kinds of network transformations. They convert primary image structure into the set of more abstract ones, which represent objects and visual scene, making them easy for analysis by higher-level knowledge structures. Higher-level vision phenomena are results of such analysis. Composition of network-symbolic models combines learning, classification, and analogy together with higher-level model-based reasoning into a single framework, and it works similar to frames and agents. Computational intelligence methods transform images into model-based knowledge representation. Based on such principles, an Image/Video Understanding system can convert images into the knowledge models, and resolve uncertainty and ambiguity. This allows creating intelligent computer vision systems for design and manufacturing.
Yu Kuo; Jabbari, B. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Zafar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.
Wavelet-based video codecs provide a hierarchical structure for the encoded data, which can cater to a wide variety of applications such as multimedia systems. The characteristics of such an encoder and its output, however, have not been well examined. In this paper, the authors investigate the output characteristics of a wavelet-based video codec and develop a composite model to capture the traffic behavior of its output video data. Wavelet decomposition transforms the input video in a hierarchical structure with a number of subimages at different resolutions and scales. the top-level wavelet in this structure contains most of the signal energy. They first describe the characteristics of traffic generated by each subimage and the effect of dropping various subimages at the encoder on the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver. They then develop an N-state Markov model to describe the traffic behavior of the top wavelet. The behavior of the remaining wavelets are then obtained through estimation, based on the correlations between these subimages at the same level of resolution and those wavelets located at an immediate higher level. In this paper, a three-state Markov model is developed. The resulting traffic behavior described by various statistical properties, such as moments and correlations, etc., is then utilized to validate their model.
Van Laarhoven, Toni; Winiarski, Lauren; Blood, Erika; Chan, Jeffrey M.
A modified pre/posttest control group design was used to measure the effectiveness of video modeling on the maintenance of vocational tasks for six students with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disabilities. Each student was assigned two vocational tasks at their employment settings and their independence with each task was measured…
Rosales, Rocío; Gongola, Leah; Homlitas, Christa
A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of video modeling with embedded instructions on training teachers to implement 3 preference assessments. Each assessment was conducted with a confederate learner or a child with autism during generalization probes. All teachers met the predetermined mastery criterion,…
Alzyoudi, Mohammed; Sartawi, AbedAlziz; Almuhiri, Osha
Children with autism often show a lack of the interactive social skills that would allow them to engage with others successfully. They therefore frequently need training to aid them in successful social interaction. Video modeling is a widely used instructional technique that has been applied to teach children with developmental disabilities such…
Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Cook, Katherine E.
Visually based interventions such as video modeling have been demonstrated to be effective with students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This approach has wide utility, is appropriate for use with students of a range of ages and abilities, promotes independent functioning, and can be used to address numerous learner objectives, including…
Lao, W.; Han, Jungong; With, de P.H.N.; Perales, F.J.; Fisher, R.B.
This paper presents a novel and fast scheme to detect different body parts in human motion. Using monocular video sequences, trajectory estimation and body modeling of moving humans are combined in a co-operating processing architecture. More specifically, for every individual person, features of
Thompson, Teresa Lynn
The objective of this research was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine existing research studies on video modeling as an effective teaching tool for children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study eligibility criteria included (a) single case research design using multiple baselines, alternating treatment designs,…
Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit
Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the
Kleeberger, Vickie; Mirenda, Pat
This study examined the effectiveness of video modeling to teach a preschooler with autism to imitate previously mastered and not mastered actions during song and toy play activities. A general case approach was used to examine the instructional universe of preschool songs and select exemplars that were most likely to facilitate generalization.…
Green, Vanessa A.; Prior, Tessa; Smart, Emily; Boelema, Tanya; Drysdale, Heather; Harcourt, Susan; Roche, Laura; Waddington, Hannah
The study described in this article sought to enhance the social interaction skills of 3 preschool children using video modeling. All children had been assessed as having difficulties in their interactions with peers. Two were above average on internalizing problems and the third was above average on externalizing problems. The study used a…
Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit
Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, August). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science
Spivey, Corrine E.; Mechling, Linda C.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling with a constant time delay procedure to teach social safety skills to three young women with intellectual disability. A multiple probe design across three social safety skills (responding to strangers who: requested personal information; requested money; and entered the participant's…
Ozen, Arzu; Batu, Sema; Birkan, Binyamin
The purpose of the present study was to examine if video modeling was an effective way of teaching sociodramatic play skills to individuals with autism in a small group arrangement. Besides maintenance, observational learning and social validation data were collected. Three 9 year old boys with autism participated in the study. Multiple probe…
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of teaching naming emotional facial expression via video modeling to children with autism. Teaching the naming of emotions (happy, sad, scared, disgusted, surprised, feeling physical pain, and bored) was made by creating situations that lead to the emergence of facial expressions to children…
Cardon, Teresa A.; Guimond, Amy; Smith-Treadwell, Amanda M.
Video modeling (VM) has shown promise as an effective intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about what may promote or prevent caregivers' use of this intervention. While VM is an effective tool to support skill development among a wide range of children in research and clinical settings, VM is…
Sherrow, Lauren A.; Spriggs, Amy D.; Knight, Victoria F.
This study investigated effects of video modeling (VM) when teaching recreation and leisure skills to three high school students with moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorder. Results, evaluated via a multiple probe across participants design, indicated that VM was effective for teaching all students to play the Wii.…
Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.
Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…
Mishra, Vikas; Gautier, Nicole M; Glasscock, Edward
In epilepsy, seizures can evoke cardiac rhythm disturbances such as heart rate changes, conduction blocks, asystoles, and arrhythmias, which can potentially increase risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) are widely used clinical diagnostic tools to monitor for abnormal brain and cardiac rhythms in patients. Here, a technique to simultaneously record video, EEG, and ECG in mice to measure behavior, brain, and cardiac activities, respectively, is described. The technique described herein utilizes a tethered (i.e., wired) recording configuration in which the implanted electrode on the head of the mouse is hard-wired to the recording equipment. Compared to wireless telemetry recording systems, the tethered arrangement possesses several technical advantages such as a greater possible number of channels for recording EEG or other biopotentials; lower electrode costs; and greater frequency bandwidth (i.e., sampling rate) of recordings. The basics of this technique can also be easily modified to accommodate recording other biosignals, such as electromyography (EMG) or plethysmography for assessment of muscle and respiratory activity, respectively. In addition to describing how to perform the EEG-ECG recordings, we also detail methods to quantify the resulting data for seizures, EEG spectral power, cardiac function, and heart rate variability, which we demonstrate in an example experiment using a mouse with epilepsy due to Kcna1 gene deletion. Video-EEG-ECG monitoring in mouse models of epilepsy or other neurological disease provides a powerful tool to identify dysfunction at the level of the brain, heart, or brain-heart interactions.
Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Peterson, Blake; Gubin, Amber; Jurgens, Mandy; Selders, Andrew; Dickinson, Jessica; Barenz, Rebecca
Fear of dental procedures deters many individuals with mental retardation from accepting dental treatment. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two procedures, in vivo desensitization and video modeling, for increasing compliance with dental procedures in participants with severe or profound mental retardation. Desensitization increased compliance for all 5 participants, whereas video modeling increased compliance for only 1 of 3 participants.
Video modeling is a non-punitive, evidence-based intervention that has been proven effective for teaching functional life skills and social skills to individuals with autism and developmental disabilities. Compared to the literature base on using video modeling for students with autism and developmental disabilities, fewer studies have examined…
Wilson, Kaitlyn P.
Video modeling is a time- and cost-efficient intervention that has been proven effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the comparative efficacy of this intervention has not been examined in the classroom setting. The present study examines the relative efficacy of video modeling as compared to the more widely-used…
Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face clustering and face tracking from real world videos. The motivation for the proposed research is that face clustering and face tracking can provide useful information and constraints to each other, thus can bootstrap and improve the performances of each other. To this end, we introduce a Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field (CHMRF) to simultaneously model face clustering, face tracking, and their interactions. We provide an effective algorithm based on constrained clustering and optimal tracking for the joint optimization of cluster labels and face tracking. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art results in face clustering and tracking on several videos.
Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling
Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.
Bouma, Henri; van der Mark, Wannes; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Landsmeer, Sander H.; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Wieringa, F. Pieter; van Basten, Jean-Paul
Compared to open surgery, minimal invasive surgery offers reduced trauma and faster recovery. However, lack of direct view limits space perception. Stereo-endoscopy improves depth perception, but is still restricted to the direct endoscopic field-of-view. We describe a novel technology that reconstructs 3D-panoramas from endoscopic video streams providing a much wider cumulative overview. The method is compatible with any endoscope. We demonstrate that it is possible to generate photorealistic 3D-environments from mono- and stereoscopic endoscopy. The resulting 3D-reconstructions can be directly applied in simulators and e-learning. Extended to real-time processing, the method looks promising for telesurgery or other remote vision-guided tasks.
Ayala, Sandra M
Ten first grade students, participating in a Tier II response to intervention (RTI) reading program received an intervention of video self modeling to improve decoding skills and sight word recognition. The students were video recorded blending and segmenting decodable words, and reading sight words taken directly from their curriculum instruction. Individual videos were recorded and edited to show students successfully and accurately decoding words and practicing sight word recognition. Each...
Full Text Available Background. YouTube is an increasingly important medium for consumer health information – with content provided by healthcare professionals, government and non-government organizations, industry, and consumers themselves. It is a rapidly developing area of study for healthcare researchers. We examine the methods used in reviews of YouTube consumer health videos to identify trends and best practices.Methods and Materials. Published reviews of consumer-oriented health-related YouTube videos were identified through PubMed. Data extracted from these studies included type of journal, topic, characteristics of the search, methods of review including number of reviewers and method to achieve consensus between reviewers, inclusion and exclusion criteria, characteristics of the videos reported, ethical oversight, and follow-up.Results. Thirty-three studies were identified. Most were recent and published in specialty journals. Typically, these included more than 100 videos, and were examined by multiple reviewers. Most studies described characteristics of the videos, number of views, and sometime characteristics of the viewers. Accuracy of portrayal of the health issue under consideration was a common focus.Conclusion. Optimal transparency and reproducibility of studies of YouTube health-related videos can be achieved by following guidance designed for systematic review reporting, with attention to several elements specific to the video medium. Particularly when seeking to replicate consumer viewing behavior, investigators should consider the method used to select search terms, and use a snowballing rather than a sequential screening approach. Discontinuation protocols for online screening of relevance ranked search results is an area identified for further development.
Cumber, Jordi; Li, Claudia; Pound, Catherine M.; Fuller, Ann; Harrison, Denise
Background. YouTube is an increasingly important medium for consumer health information – with content provided by healthcare professionals, government and non-government organizations, industry, and consumers themselves. It is a rapidly developing area of study for healthcare researchers. We examine the methods used in reviews of YouTube consumer health videos to identify trends and best practices. Methods and Materials. Published reviews of consumer-oriented health-related YouTube videos were identified through PubMed. Data extracted from these studies included type of journal, topic, characteristics of the search, methods of review including number of reviewers and method to achieve consensus between reviewers, inclusion and exclusion criteria, characteristics of the videos reported, ethical oversight, and follow-up. Results. Thirty-three studies were identified. Most were recent and published in specialty journals. Typically, these included more than 100 videos, and were examined by multiple reviewers. Most studies described characteristics of the videos, number of views, and sometime characteristics of the viewers. Accuracy of portrayal of the health issue under consideration was a common focus. Conclusion. Optimal transparency and reproducibility of studies of YouTube health-related videos can be achieved by following guidance designed for systematic review reporting, with attention to several elements specific to the video medium. Particularly when seeking to replicate consumer viewing behavior, investigators should consider the method used to select search terms, and use a snowballing rather than a sequential screening approach. Discontinuation protocols for online screening of relevance ranked search results is an area identified for further development. PMID:24058879
Sampson, Margaret; Cumber, Jordi; Li, Claudia; Pound, Catherine M; Fuller, Ann; Harrison, Denise
Background. YouTube is an increasingly important medium for consumer health information - with content provided by healthcare professionals, government and non-government organizations, industry, and consumers themselves. It is a rapidly developing area of study for healthcare researchers. We examine the methods used in reviews of YouTube consumer health videos to identify trends and best practices. Methods and Materials. Published reviews of consumer-oriented health-related YouTube videos were identified through PubMed. Data extracted from these studies included type of journal, topic, characteristics of the search, methods of review including number of reviewers and method to achieve consensus between reviewers, inclusion and exclusion criteria, characteristics of the videos reported, ethical oversight, and follow-up. Results. Thirty-three studies were identified. Most were recent and published in specialty journals. Typically, these included more than 100 videos, and were examined by multiple reviewers. Most studies described characteristics of the videos, number of views, and sometime characteristics of the viewers. Accuracy of portrayal of the health issue under consideration was a common focus. Conclusion. Optimal transparency and reproducibility of studies of YouTube health-related videos can be achieved by following guidance designed for systematic review reporting, with attention to several elements specific to the video medium. Particularly when seeking to replicate consumer viewing behavior, investigators should consider the method used to select search terms, and use a snowballing rather than a sequential screening approach. Discontinuation protocols for online screening of relevance ranked search results is an area identified for further development.
Naphade, Milind R.; Huang, Thomas S.
Tools for efficient and intelligent management of digital content are essential for digital video data management. An extremely challenging research area in this context is that of multimedia analysis and understanding. The capabilities of audio analysis in particular for video data management are yet to be fully exploited. We present a novel scheme for indexing and segmentation of video by analyzing the audio track. This analysis is then applied to the segmentation and indexing of movies. We build models for some interesting events in the motion picture soundtrack. The models built include music, human speech and silence. We propose the use of hidden Markov models to model the dynamics of the soundtrack and detect audio-events. Using these models we segment and index the soundtrack. A practical problem in motion picture soundtracks is that the audio in the track is of a composite nature. This corresponds to the mixing of sounds from different sources. Speech in foreground and music in background are common examples. The coexistence of multiple individual audio sources forces us to model such events explicitly. Experiments reveal that explicit modeling gives better result than modeling individual audio events separately.
Crisafio, Anthony; Anderson, Victoria; Frank, Julia
The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of adding video models of brief alcohol assessment and counseling to a standardized patient (SP) curriculum that covers and tests acquisition of this skill. The authors conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of third- and fourth-year medical students between 2013 and 2015. All students completed a standardized patient (SP) encounter illustrating the diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, followed by an SP exam on the same topic. Beginning in August 2014, the authors supplemented the existing formative SP exercise on problem drinking with one of two 5-min videos demonstrating screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment (SBIRT). P values and Z tests were performed to evaluate differences between students who did and did not see the video in knowledge and skills related to alcohol use disorders. One hundred ninety-four students were included in this analysis. Compared to controls, subjects did not differ in their ability to uncover and accurately characterize an alcohol problem during a standardized encounter (mean exam score 41.29 vs 40.93, subject vs control, p = 0.539). However, the SPs' rating of students' expressions of empathy were significantly higher for the group who saw the video (81.63 vs 69.79%, p videos would improve students' recognition and knowledge of alcohol-related conditions. However, feedback from the SPs produced the serendipitous finding that the communication skills demonstrated in the videos had a sustained effect in enhancing students' professional behavior.
Full Text Available Modeling background and segmenting moving objects are significant techniques for computer vision applications. Mixture-of-Gaussians (MoG background model is commonly used in foreground extraction in video steam. However considering the case that the objects enter the scenery and stay for a while, the foreground extraction would fail as the objects stay still and gradually merge into the background. In this paper, we adopt a blob tracking method to cope with this situation. To construct the MoG model more quickly, we add frame difference method to the foreground extracted from MoG for very crowded situations. What is more, a new shadow removal method based on RGB color space is proposed.
effectively. The goal of the modeling effort is to provide an understanding of the current state of the system with respect to the impact on human ...representation of the human ‒ machine system. Third, task network modeling is relatively easy to use and understand . Lastly, it is more cost effective and can...and communication issues. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 2006;48(2):2396–2400. Reid GB, Colle HA
Locke, Austin; Uhrínová, Bianka
Technological innovation has changed business models across multiple industries – retail (Amazon), taxi (Uber), hotel (Airbnb). Through exploratory research, using secondary data, this thesis describes changes that have occurred in video gaming industry from its creation to the current, modern era that are connected to technological innovation. Based on the current research of business models, the authors created a “Value Creation-Revenue Stream Framework” that they use to anal...
Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih
With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).
Listening and speaking are the important skills that have to be mastered by the students. By having these skills, the students can communicate with others easily. There are many strategies that can be used to teach listening and speaking skills. One of the strategies is by using animation videos. Many students of all ages still like watching animation videos for they are interesting. Animation videos can help the students more understand because they present visual context aids that assist th...
Full Text Available Remotely measuring physiological activity can provide substantial benefits for both the medical and the affective computing applications. Recent research has proposed different methodologies for the unobtrusive detection of heart rate (HR using human face recordings. These methods are based on subtle color changes or motions of the face due to cardiovascular activities, which are invisible to human eyes but can be captured by digital cameras. Several approaches have been proposed such as signal processing and machine learning. However, these methods are compared with different datasets, and there is consequently no consensus on method performance. In this article, we describe and evaluate several methods defined in literature, from 2008 until present day, for the remote detection of HR using human face recordings. The general HR processing pipeline is divided into three stages: face video processing, face blood volume pulse (BVP signal extraction, and HR computation. Approaches presented in the paper are classified and grouped according to each stage. At each stage, algorithms are analyzed and compared based on their performance using the public database MAHNOB-HCI. Results found in this article are limited on MAHNOB-HCI dataset. Results show that extracted face skin area contains more BVP information. Blind source separation and peak detection methods are more robust with head motions for estimating HR.
Full Text Available Designing an effective and high performance network requires an accurate characterization and modeling of network traffic. The modeling of video frame sizes is normally applied in simulation studies and mathematical analysis and generating streams for testing and compliance purposes. Besides, video traffic assumed as a major source of multimedia traffic in future heterogeneous network. Therefore, the statistical distribution of video data can be used as the inputs for performance modeling of networks. The finding of this paper comprises the theoretical definition of distribution which seems to be relevant to the video trace in terms of its statistical properties and finds the best distribution using both the graphical method and the hypothesis test. The data set used in this article consists of layered video traces generating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC video compression technique of three different movies.
Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Gustafson, Melissa R.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling to teach fire extinguishing behaviors to three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. A multiple probe design across three fire extinguishing behaviors and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based program. Results indicate that…
Bagaiolo, Leila F.; Mari, Jair de J.; Bordini, Daniela; Ribeiro, Tatiane C.; Martone, Maria Carolina C.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Brunoni, Decio; Brentani, Helena; Paula, Cristiane S.
Video modeling using applied behavior analysis techniques is one of the most promising and cost-effective ways to improve social skills for parents with autism spectrum disorder children. The main objectives were: (1) To elaborate/describe videos to improve eye contact and joint attention, and to decrease disruptive behaviors of autism spectrum…
MacDonald, Rebecca; Sacramone, Shelly; Mansfield, Renee; Wiltz, Kristine; Ahearn, William H
The purpose of the present study was to use video modeling to teach children with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play with typically developing peers. Scripted play scenarios involving various verbalizations and play actions with adults as models were videotaped. Two children with autism were each paired with a typically developing child, and a multiple-probe design across three play sets was used to evaluate the effects of the video modeling procedure. Results indicated that both children with autism and the typically developing peers acquired the sequences of scripted verbalizations and play actions quickly and maintained this performance during follow-up probes. In addition, probes indicated an increase in the mean number of unscripted verbalizations as well as reciprocal verbal interactions and cooperative play. These findings are discussed as they relate to the development of reciprocal pretend-play repertoires in young children with autism.
Tyner, Bryan C; Fienup, Daniel M
Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance. Participants who used VM constructed graphs significantly faster and with fewer errors than those who used text-based instruction or no instruction. Implications for instruction are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Lee, Hyo Jin; Tran, Denise D; Morrell, Holly E R
Problematic video game use (PVGU), or addiction-like use of video games, is associated with physical and mental health problems and problems in social and occupational functioning. Possible correlates of PVGU include frequency of play, cigarette smoking, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of the current study was to explore simultaneously the relationships among these variables as well as test whether two separate measures of PVGU measure the same construct, using a structural modeling approach. Secondary data analysis was conducted on 2,801 video game users (M age = 22.43 years, standard deviation [SD] age = 4.7; 93 percent male) who completed an online survey. The full model fit the data well: χ 2 (2) = 2.017, p > 0.05; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.002 (90% CI [0.000-0.038]); comparative fit index (CFI) = 1.000; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.004; and all standardized residuals video game use explained 41.8 percent of variance in PVGU. Tracking these variables may be useful for PVGU prevention and assessment. Young's Internet Addiction Scale, adapted for video game use, and the Problem Videogame Playing Scale both loaded strongly onto a PVGU factor, suggesting that they measure the same construct, that studies using either measure may be compared to each other, and that both measures may be used as a screener of PVGU.
Chen, Jun; Xiao, Yang; Cao, Zhiguo; Fang, Zhiwen
Different video modal for human action recognition has becoming a highly promising trend in the video analysis. In this paper, we propose a method for human action recognition from RGB video to Depth video using domain adaptation, where we use learned feature from RGB videos to do action recognition for depth videos. More specifically, we make three steps for solving this problem in this paper. First, different from image, video is more complex as it has both spatial and temporal information, in order to better encode this information, dynamic image method is used to represent each RGB or Depth video to one image, based on this, most methods for extracting feature in image can be used in video. Secondly, as video can be represented as image, so standard CNN model can be used for training and testing for videos, beside, CNN model can be also used for feature extracting as its powerful feature expressing ability. Thirdly, as RGB videos and Depth videos are belong to two different domains, in order to make two different feature domains has more similarity, domain adaptation is firstly used for solving this problem between RGB and Depth video, based on this, the learned feature from RGB video model can be directly used for Depth video classification. We evaluate the proposed method on one complex RGB-D action dataset (NTU RGB-D), and our method can have more than 2% accuracy improvement using domain adaptation from RGB to Depth action recognition.
Xing, Junliang; Ai, Haizhou; Liu, Liwei; Lao, Shihong
Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a very challenging task yet of fundamental importance for many practical applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of tracking multiple players in sports video which is even more difficult due to the abrupt movements of players and their complex interactions. To handle the difficulties in this problem, we present a new MOT algorithm which contributes both in the observation modeling level and in the tracking strategy level. For the observation modeling, we develop a progressive observation modeling process that is able to provide strong tracking observations and greatly facilitate the tracking task. For the tracking strategy, we propose a dual-mode two-way Bayesian inference approach which dynamically switches between an offline general model and an online dedicated model to deal with single isolated object tracking and multiple occluded object tracking integrally by forward filtering and backward smoothing. Extensive experiments on different kinds of sports videos, including football, basketball, as well as hockey, demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
Blum-Dimaya, Alyssa; Reeve, Sharon A.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Hoch, Hannah
Children with autism have severe and pervasive impairments in social interactions and communication that impact most areas of daily living and often limit independent engagement in leisure activities. We taught four children with autism to engage in an age-appropriate leisure skill, playing the video game Guitar Hero II[TM], through the use of (a)…
Hochhauser, M; Weiss, P L; Gal, E
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have particular difficulty in negotiating conflict. A randomized control trial (RCT) was carried out to determine whether the negotiation strategies of adolescents with ASD would be enhanced via a 6-week intervention based on a video modeling application. Adolescents with ASD, aged 12-18 years, were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 36) and a non-treatment control group (n = 25). Participants' negotiating strategies prior to and following the intervention were measured using the Five Factor Negotiation Scale (FFNS; Nakkula & Nikitopoulos, 1999) and the ConflicTalk questionnaire (Kimsey & Fuller, 2003). The results suggest that video modeling is an effective intervention for improving and maintaining conflict negotiation strategies of adolescents with ASD.
Nikopoulos, Christos K; Keenan, Michael
We examined the effects of a video modeling intervention on social initiation and play behaviors with 3 children with autism using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Each child watched a videotape showing a typically developing peer, and the experimenter engaged in a simple social interactive play using one toy. For all children, social initiation and reciprocal play skills were enhanced, and these effects were maintained at 1- and 3-month follow-up periods.
Meister, Christine; Salls, Joyce
This pilot study investigated the efficacy of point-of-view video modeling as an intervention strategy to improve self-help skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A single-subject A-B design was implemented with eight school-aged children ages 7.5 years to 13.5 years. Six of the students participated in general education classes…
Lin, Weiyao; Sun, Ming-Ting; Poovendran, Radha; Zhang, Zhengyou
This paper presents a novel approach for automatic recognition of human activities for video surveillance applications. We propose to represent an activity by a combination of category components, and demonstrate that this approach offers flexibility to add new activities to the system and an ability to deal with the problem of building models for activities lacking training data. For improving the recognition accuracy, a Confident-Frame- based Recognition algorithm is also proposed, where th...
Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn; Kully, Deborah
This multiple-baseline across subjects study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) in reducing stuttering and bringing about improvements in associated self-report measures. Participants' viewing practices and perceptions of the utility of VSM also were explored. Three adult males who had previously completed speech restructuring treatment viewed VSM recordings twice per week for 6 weeks. Weekly speech data, treatment viewing logs, and pre- and post-treatment self-report measures were obtained. An exit interview also was conducted. Two participants showed a decreasing trend in stuttering frequency. All participants appeared to engage in fewer avoidance behaviors and had less expectations to stutter. All participants perceived that, in different ways, the VSM treatment had benefited them and all participants had unique viewing practices. Given the increasing availability and ease in using portable audio-visual technology, VSM appears to offer an economical and clinically useful tool for clients who are motivated to use the technology to recover fluency. Readers will be able to describe: (a) the tenets of video-self modeling; (b) the main components of video-self modeling as a fluency recovery treatment as used in this study; and (c) speech and self-report outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Video Comparator is a comparative gage that uses electronic images from two sources, a standard and an unknown. Two matched video cameras are used to obtain the electronic images. The video signals are mixed and displayed on a single video receiver (CRT). The video system is manufactured by ITP of Chatsworth, CA and is a Tele-Microscope II, Model 148. One of the cameras is mounted on a toolmaker's microscope stand and produces a 250X image of a cast. The other camera is mounted on a stand and produces an image of a 250X template. The two video images are mixed in a control box provided by ITP and displayed on a CRT. The template or the cast can be moved to align the desired features. Vertical reference lines are provided on the CRT, and a feature on the cast can be aligned with a line on the CRT screen. The stage containing the casts can be moved using a Boeckleler micrometer equipped with a digital readout, and a second feature aligned with the reference line and the distance moved obtained from the digital display
Schonau-Fog, Henrik; Bjorner, Thomas
In order to explore one aspect of the engaging nature of computer games, this study will propose a method that aims at classifying the experience of engagement in video games. Inspired by a literature review, we will focus on the fundamental causes of engagement that motivate a player so much that he or she wants to continue playing. By organizing…
Amador, Julie M.
The purpose of this study was to implement a Video Simulation Task in a mathematics methods teacher education course to engage preservice teachers in considering both the teaching and learning aspects of mathematics lesson delivery. Participants anticipated student and teacher thinking and created simulations, in which they acted out scenes on a…
Pospíšil, Jaroslav; Jakubík, P.; Machala, L.
Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 573-585 ISSN 0030-4026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : random-target measuring method * light-reflection white - noise target * digital video camera * modulation transfer function * power spectral density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.395, year: 2005
Full Text Available This work is a review of the block-based algorithms used for motion estimation in video compression. It researches different types of block-based algorithms that range from the simplest named Full Search to the fast adaptive algorithms like Hierarchical Search. The algorithms evaluated in this paper are widely accepted by the video compressing community and have been used in implementing various standards, such as MPEG-4 Visual and H.264. The work also presents a very brief introduction to the entire flow of video compression.
Steel, Kylie Ann; Mudie, Kurt; Sandoval, Remi; Anderson, David; Dogramaci, Sera; Rehmanjan, Mohammad; Birznieks, Ingvars
The authors examined whether feedforward video self-modeling (FF VSM) would improve control over the affected limb, movement self-confidence, movement self-consciousness, and well-being in 18 stroke survivors. Participants completed a cup transport task and 2 questionnaires related to psychological processes pre- and postintervention. Pretest video footage of the unaffected limb performing the task was edited to create a best-of or mirror-reversed training DVD, creating the illusion that patients were performing proficiently with the affected limb. The training yielded significant improvements for the forward movement of the affected limb compared to the unaffected limb. Significant improvements were also seen in movement self-confidence, movement self-consciousness, and well-being. FF VSM appears to be a viable way to improve motor ability in populations with movement disorders.
Sayood, K.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, X.
During this reporting period we have worked on three somewhat different problems. These are modeling of video traffic in packet networks, low rate video compression, and the development of a lossy + lossless image compression algorithm, which might have some application in browsing algorithms. The lossy + lossless scheme is an extension of work previously done under this grant. It provides a simple technique for incorporating browsing capability. The low rate coding scheme is also a simple variation on the standard discrete cosine transform (DCT) coding approach. In spite of its simplicity, the approach provides surprisingly high quality reconstructions. The modeling approach is borrowed from the speech recognition literature, and seems to be promising in that it provides a simple way of obtaining an idea about the second order behavior of a particular coding scheme. Details about these are presented.
The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....
Full Text Available This study extends previous research on observational learning in writing. It was our objective to enhance students’ motivation and learning in an academic writing course on research synthesis writing. Participants were 162 first-year college students who had no experience with the writing task. Based on Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory we developed two videos. In the first video a manager (prestige model elaborated on how synthesizing information is important in professional life. In the second video a peer model demonstrated a five-step writing strategy for writing up a research synthesis. We compared two versions of this video. In the explicit-strategy-instruction-video we added visual cues to channel learners’ attention to critical features of the demonstrated task using an acronym in which each letter represented a step of the model’s strategy. In the implicit-strategy-instruction-video these cues were absent. The effects of the videos were tested using a 2x2 factorial between-subjects design with video of the prestige model (yes/no and type of instructional video (implicit versus explicit strategy instruction as factors. Four post-test measures were obtained: task value, self-efficacy beliefs, task knowledge and writing performances. Path analyses revealed that the prestige model did not affect students’ task value. Peer-mediated explicit strategy instruction had no effect on self-efficacy, but a strong effect on task knowledge. Task knowledge – in turn – was found to be predictive of writing performance.
Demirkus, Meltem; Precup, Doina; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal
Recent literature shows that facial attributes, i.e., contextual facial information, can be beneficial for improving the performance of real-world applications, such as face verification, face recognition, and image search. Examples of face attributes include gender, skin color, facial hair, etc. How to robustly obtain these facial attributes (traits) is still an open problem, especially in the presence of the challenges of real-world environments: non-uniform illumination conditions, arbitrary occlusions, motion blur and background clutter. What makes this problem even more difficult is the enormous variability presented by the same subject, due to arbitrary face scales, head poses, and facial expressions. In this paper, we focus on the problem of facial trait classification in real-world face videos. We have developed a fully automatic hierarchical and probabilistic framework that models the collective set of frame class distributions and feature spatial information over a video sequence. The experiments are conducted on a large real-world face video database that we have collected, labelled and made publicly available. The proposed method is flexible enough to be applied to any facial classification problem. Experiments on a large, real-world video database McGillFaces  of 18,000 video frames reveal that the proposed framework outperforms alternative approaches, by up to 16.96 and 10.13%, for the facial attributes of gender and facial hair, respectively.
Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino
Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD......) and show how the modeled image can be used as an input to quality assessment algorithms. For quality assessment, we propose an image quality metric, based on Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) computation in the CIE L*a*b* color space. The metric takes luminance reduction, color distortion and loss...
This work contains a conference that was treated about the principles of the luminescence phenomena, the mathematical treatment concerning the thermoluminescent emission of light as well as the Randall-Wilkins model, the Garlick-Gibson model, the Adirovitch model, the May-Partridge model, the Braunlich-Scharman model, the mixed first and second order kinetics, the methods for evaluating the kinetics parameters such as the initial rise method, the various heating rates method, the isothermal decay method and those methods based on the analysis of the glow curve shape. (Author)
Furetta, C. [ICN, UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
This work contains a conference that was treated about the principles of the luminescence phenomena, the mathematical treatment concerning the thermoluminescent emission of light as well as the Randall-Wilkins model, the Garlick-Gibson model, the Adirovitch model, the May-Partridge model, the Braunlich-Scharman model, the mixed first and second order kinetics, the methods for evaluating the kinetics parameters such as the initial rise method, the various heating rates method, the isothermal decay method and those methods based on the analysis of the glow curve shape. (Author)
Gena, Angeliki; Couloura, Sophia; Kymissis, Effie
The purpose of this study was to modify the affective behavior of three preschoolers with autism in home settings and in the context of play activities, and to compare the effects of video modeling to the effects of in-vivo modeling in teaching these children contextually appropriate affective responses. A multiple-baseline design across subjects, with a return to baseline condition, was used to assess the effects of treatment that consisted of reinforcement, video modeling, in-vivo modeling, and prompting. During training trials, reinforcement in the form of verbal praise and tokens was delivered contingent upon appropriate affective responding. Error correction procedures differed for each treatment condition. In the in-vivo modeling condition, the therapist used modeling and verbal prompting. In the video modeling condition, video segments of a peer modeling the correct response and verbal prompting by the therapist were used as corrective procedures. Participants received treatment in three categories of affective behavior--sympathy, appreciation, and disapproval--and were presented with a total of 140 different scenarios. The study demonstrated that both treatments--video modeling and in-vivo modeling--systematically increased appropriate affective responding in all response categories for the three participants. Additionally, treatment effects generalized across responses to untrained scenarios, the child's mother, new therapists, and time.
Full Text Available Abstract The two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT and its subsequent quantization are widely used in standard video encoders. However, since most DCT coefficients become zeros after quantization, a number of redundant computations are performed. This paper proposes a hybrid statistical model used to predict the zeroquantized DCT (ZQDCT coefficients for intratransform and to achieve better real-time performance. First, each pixel block at the input of DCT is decomposed into a series of mean values and a residual block. Subsequently, a statistical model based on Gaussian distribution is used to predict the ZQDCT coefficients of the residual block. Then, a sufficient condition under which each quantized coefficient becomes zero is derived from the mean values. Finally, a hybrid model to speed up the DCT and quantization calculations is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed model can reduce more redundant computations and achieve better real-time performance than the reference in the literature at the cost of negligible video quality degradation. Experiments also show that the proposed model significantly reduces multiplications for DCT and quantization. This is particularly suitable for processors in portable devices where multiplications consume more power than additions. Computational reduction implies longer battery lifetime and energy economy.
Zhou, Teng; Han, Guoqiang; Li, Bing Nan; Lin, Zhizhe; Ciaccio, Edward J; Green, Peter H; Qin, Jing
Celiac disease is one of the most common diseases in the world. Capsule endoscopy is an alternative way to visualize the entire small intestine without invasiveness to the patient. It is useful to characterize celiac disease, but hours are need to manually analyze the retrospective data of a single patient. Computer-aided quantitative analysis by a deep learning method helps in alleviating the workload during analysis of the retrospective videos. Capsule endoscopy clips from 6 celiac disease patients and 5 controls were preprocessed for training. The frames with a large field of opaque extraluminal fluid or air bubbles were removed automatically by using a pre-selection algorithm. Then the frames were cropped and the intensity was corrected prior to frame rotation in the proposed new method. The GoogLeNet is trained with these frames. Then, the clips of capsule endoscopy from 5 additional celiac disease patients and 5 additional control patients are used for testing. The trained GoogLeNet was able to distinguish the frames from capsule endoscopy clips of celiac disease patients vs controls. Quantitative measurement with evaluation of the confidence was developed to assess the severity level of pathology in the subjects. Relying on the evaluation confidence, the GoogLeNet achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity for the testing set. The t-test confirmed the evaluation confidence is significant to distinguish celiac disease patients from controls. Furthermore, it is found that the evaluation confidence may also relate to the severity level of small bowel mucosal lesions. A deep convolutional neural network was established for quantitative measurement of the existence and degree of pathology throughout the small intestine, which may improve computer-aided clinical techniques to assess mucosal atrophy and other etiologies in real-time with videocapsule endoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khan, Arun Rashid
The purpose of the paper is to present an insight and elaboration of the growing Gaming Industry. As the video-game industry has enjoyed immense growth in both consumers that part-take / consume the product of video-games and increases in profits, current research discourse has been focussed around the emergence of micro-transactions and their role in business model development of the firm. Furthermore research has also been focussed around the sociological aspects of video-games in terms of ...
Macpherson, Kevin; Charlop, Marjorie H; Miltenberger, Catherine A
A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the effects of a portable video modeling intervention delivered in the natural environment on the verbal compliments and compliment gestures demonstrated by five children with autism. Participants were observed playing kickball with peers and adults. In baseline, participants demonstrated few compliment behaviors. During intervention, an iPad(®) was used to implement the video modeling treatment during the course of the athletic game. Viewing the video rapidly increased the verbal compliments participants gave to peers. Participants also demonstrated more response variation after watching the videos. Some generalization to an untrained activity occurred and compliment gestures also occurred. Results are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature.
Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta
The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.
Full Text Available The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs over non-players (NVGPs and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.
Full Text Available Moving object detection and tracking is the computer vision and image processing is a hot research direction, based on the analysis of the moving target detection and tracking algorithm in common use, focus on the sports video target tracking non rigid body. In sports video, non rigid athletes often have physical deformation in the process of movement, and may be associated with the occurrence of moving target under cover. Media data is surging to fast search and query causes more difficulties in data. However, the majority of users want to be able to quickly from the multimedia data to extract the interested content and implicit knowledge (concepts, rules, rules, models and correlation, retrieval and query quickly to take advantage of them, but also can provide the decision support problem solving hierarchy. Based on the motion in sport video object as the object of study, conducts the system research from the theoretical level and technical framework and so on, from the layer by layer mining between low level motion features to high-level semantic motion video, not only provides support for users to find information quickly, but also can provide decision support for the user to solve the problem.
Managheb, S. E.; Zamani, A.; Shams, B.; Farajzadegan, Z.
Background: Effective communication is essential to the practice of high-quality medicine. There are methodological challenges in communication skills training. This study was performed in order to assess the educational benefits of communication skills training by video feedback method versus traditional formats such as lectures on clinical…
Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E, E-mail: email@example.com [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, JCMB Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)
We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.
Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E
We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.
Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, JCMB Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)
We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.
Alberto, Paul A; Cihak, David F; Gama, Robert I
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of static picture prompts and video modeling as classroom simulation strategies in combination with in vivo community instruction. Students with moderate intellectual disabilities were instructed in the tasks of withdrawing money from an ATM and purchasing items using a debit card. Both simulation strategies were effective and efficient at teaching the skills. The two simulation strategies were not functionally different in terms of number of trials to acquisition, number of errors, and number of instructional sessions to criterion.
Campbell, Joseph E; Morgan, Michele; Barnett, Veronica; Spreat, Scott
The viewing of videos is a much-studied intervention to teach self-help, social, and vocational skills. Many of the studies to date looked at video modeling using televisions, computers, and other large screens. This study looked at the use of video modeling on portable handheld devices to teach hand washing to three adolescent students with an autism spectrum disorder. Three students participated in this 4-week study conducted by occupational therapists. Baseline data were obtained for the first student for 1 week, the second for 2 weeks, and the third for 3 weeks; videos were introduced when the participants each finished the baseline phase. Given the cognitive and motor needs of the participants, the occupational therapist set the player so that the participants only had to press the play button to start the video playing. The participants were able to hold the players and view at distances that were most appropriate for their individual needs and preferences. The results suggest that video modeling on a handheld device improves the acquisition of self-help skills.
Slot machine games have become the most popular form of gambling worldwide. In Finland, their pervasiveness in public spaces and popularity makes them one of the most common form of gaming. However, in game studies, gambling games are often regarded as borderline games due to the player’s lack of control. In this thesis I ask whether modern video slot machine games can be considered as games and if so, what similarities there are between them and contemporary video games. To find out if m...
Ma, Xiang; Schonfeld, Dan; Khokhar, Ashfaq A
In this paper, we propose a novel solution to an arbitrary noncausal, multidimensional hidden Markov model (HMM) for image and video classification. First, we show that the noncausal model can be solved by splitting it into multiple causal HMMs and simultaneously solving each causal HMM using a fully synchronous distributed computing framework, therefore referred to as distributed HMMs. Next we present an approximate solution to the multiple causal HMMs that is based on an alternating updating scheme and assumes a realistic sequential computing framework. The parameters of the distributed causal HMMs are estimated by extending the classical 1-D training and classification algorithms to multiple dimensions. The proposed extension to arbitrary causal, multidimensional HMMs allows state transitions that are dependent on all causal neighbors. We, thus, extend three fundamental algorithms to multidimensional causal systems, i.e., 1) expectation-maximization (EM), 2) general forward-backward (GFB), and 3) Viterbi algorithms. In the simulations, we choose to limit ourselves to a noncausal 2-D model whose noncausality is along a single dimension, in order to significantly reduce the computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance, higher accuracy rate, and applicability of the proposed noncausal HMM framework to image and video classification.
Jeong, Il-Do; Lee, Jae-Jun; Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul
Information on the accuracy of intraoral video scanners for long-span areas is limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the trueness and precision of an intraoral video scanner, an intraoral still image scanner, and a blue-light scanner for the production of digital impressions. Reference scan data were obtained by scanning a complete-arch model. An identical model was scanned 8 times using an intraoral video scanner (CEREC Omnicam; Sirona) and an intraoral still image scanner (CEREC Bluecam; Sirona), and stone casts made from conventional impressions of the same model were scanned 8 times with a blue-light scanner as a control (Identica Blue; Medit). Accuracy consists of trueness (the extent to which the scan data differ from the reference scan) and precision (the similarity of the data from multiple scans). To evaluate precision, 8 scans were superimposed using 3-dimensional analysis software; the reference scan data were then superimposed to determine the trueness. Differences were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests (α=.05). Trueness in the video scanner group was not significantly different from that in the control group. However, the video scanner group showed significantly lower values than those of the still image scanner group for all variables (P<.05), except in tolerance range. The root mean square, standard deviations, and mean negative precision values for the video scanner group were significantly higher than those for the other groups (P<.05). Digital impressions obtained by the intraoral video scanner showed better accuracy for long-span areas than those captured by the still image scanner. However, the video scanner was less accurate than the laboratory scanner. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Werner, Cara; Bowyer, Samantha; Weinrich, Barbara; Gottliebson, Renee; Brehm, Susan Baker
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not presenting patients with a video model improves efficacy of the assessment as defined by efficiency and decreased variability in trials during the acoustic component of voice evaluations. Twenty pediatric participants with a mean age of 7.6 years (SD = 1.50; range = 6-11 years), 32 college-age participants with a mean age of 21.32 years (SD = 1.61; range = 18-30 years), and 17 adult participants with a mean age of 54.29 years (SD = 2.78; range = 50-70 years) were included in the study and divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group viewed a training video prior to receiving verbal instructions and performing acoustic assessment tasks, whereas the control group received verbal instruction only prior to completing the acoustic assessment. Primary measures included the number of clinician cues required and instructional time. Standard deviations of acoustic measurements (eg, minimum and maximum frequency) were also examined to determine effects on stability. Individuals in the experimental group required significantly less cues, P = 0.012, compared to the control group. Although some trends were observed in instructional time and stability of measurements, no significant differences were observed. The findings of this study may be useful for speech-language pathologists in regard to improving assessment of patients' voice disorders with the use of video modeling. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paula Bleckmann; Nadine Jukschat
We aim to build a new theory of highly committed problematic video gaming based on rich qualitative data and to compare it to existing theories. To do this, we used hermeneutic analytical methods and grounded theory methodology to analyze 125 hours of recording from 42 biographical interviews, 23 of them with long-term follow-up. Participants were addicted (ex-) gamers according to screening instruments, aged 16 to 44, 29 males and 13 females. The integrated (dys-) functionality model shows i...
Bleckmann, Paula; Jukschat, Nadine
We aim to build a new theory of highly committed problematic video gaming based on rich qualitative data and to compare it to existing theories. To do this, we used hermeneutic analytical methods and grounded theory methodology to analyze 125 hours of recording from 42 biographical interviews, 23 of them with long-term follow-up. Participants were addicted (ex-) gamers according to screening instruments, aged 16 to 44, 29 males and 13 females.The integrated (dys-) functionality model shows in...
real world); proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors allowing the recreating of the 3D geometric database of an environment (virtual world). The virtual world is projected onto a video display terminal (VDT). Computer-generated and video ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement level of parents and reveal whether principal-generated YouTube videos for regular communication would enhance levels of parental involvement at one North Texas Christian Middle School (pseudonym). The following questions guided this study: 1. What is the beginning level of parental…
Han, Jungong; Farin, D.S.; With, de P.H.N.; Lao, Weilun
With the advent of hard-disk video recording, video databases gradually emerge for consumer applications. The large capacity of disks requires the need for fast storage and retrieval functions. We propose a semantic analyzer for sports video, which is able to automatically extract and analyze key
Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy
in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models.......Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...
How the “Understanding Research Evidence” Web-Based Video Series From the National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools Contributes to Public Health Capacity to Practice Evidence-Informed Decision Making: Mixed-Methods Evaluation
Chan, Linda; Mackintosh, Jeannie
Background The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT) offers workshops and webinars to build public health capacity for evidence-informed decision-making. Despite positive feedback for NCCMT workshops and resources, NCCMT users found key terms used in research papers difficult to understand. The Understanding Research Evidence (URE) videos use plain language, cartoon visuals, and public health examples to explain complex research concepts. The videos are posted on the NCCMT website and YouTube channel. Objective The first four videos in the URE web-based video series, which explained odds ratios (ORs), confidence intervals (CIs), clinical significance, and forest plots, were evaluated. The evaluation examined how the videos affected public health professionals’ practice. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine the delivery mode and the content of the videos. Specifically, the evaluation explored (1) whether the videos were effective at increasing knowledge on the four video topics, (2) whether public health professionals were satisfied with the videos, and (3) how public health professionals applied the knowledge gained from the videos in their work. Methods A three-part evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the first four URE videos. The evaluation included a Web-based survey, telephone interviews, and pretest and posttests, which evaluated public health professionals’ experience with the videos and how the videos affected their public health work. Participants were invited to participate in this evaluation through various open access, public health email lists, through informational flyers and posters at the Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) conference, and through targeted recruitment to NCCMT’s network. Results In the Web-based surveys (n=46), participants achieved higher scores on the knowledge assessment questions from watching the OR (P=.04), CI (P=.04), and clinical significance (P=.05) videos but
Sanz Perucha, J.
Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis
Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari
Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated...... signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight......-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage...
Jitin N Trivedi
Full Text Available Video laryngoscope (VL provides excellent laryngeal exposure in patients when anaesthesiologists encounter difficulty with direct laryngoscopy. Videolaryngoscopy, like flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy demands a certain level of training by practitioners to become dexterous at successful intubation with a given instrument. Due to their cost factors, VLs are not easily available for training purposes to all the students, paramedics and emergency medical services providers in developing countries. We tried to develop a cost-effective instrument, which can work analogous to various available VLs. An inexpensive and easily available instrument was used to create an Airtraq Model for VL guided intubation training on manikin. Using this technique, successful intubation of manikin could be achieved. The Airtraq Model mimics the Airtraq Avant ® and may be used for VL guided intubation training for students as well as paramedics, and decrease the time and shorten the learning curve for Airtraq ® as well as various other VLs.
Vision is only a part of a system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, which is an interpretation of visual information in terms of these knowledge models. These mechanisms provide a reliable recognition if the object is occluded or cannot be recognized as a whole. It is hard to split the entire system apart, and reliable solutions to the target recognition problems are possible only within the solution of a more generic Image Understanding Problem. Brain reduces informational and computational complexities, using implicit symbolic coding of features, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, is the most feasible for such models. It converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic structures, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Network-Symbolic Transformations derive abstract structures, which allows for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps creating consistent models. Attention, separation of figure from ground and perceptual grouping are special kinds of network-symbolic transformations. Such Image/Video Understanding Systems will be reliably recognizing targets.
Plavnick, Joshua B; Ferreri, Summer J
Previous research suggests that language-training procedures for children with autism might be enhanced following an assessment of conditions that evoke emerging verbal behavior. The present investigation examined a methodology to teach recognizable mands based on environmental variables known to evoke participants' idiosyncratic communicative responses in the natural environment. An alternating treatments design was used during Experiment 1 to identify the variables that were functionally related to gestures emitted by 4 children with autism. Results showed that gestures functioned as requests for attention for 1 participant and as requests for assistance to obtain a preferred item or event for 3 participants. Video modeling was used during Experiment 2 to compare mand acquisition when video sequences were either related or unrelated to the results of the functional analysis. An alternating treatments within multiple probe design showed that participants repeatedly acquired mands during the function-based condition but not during the nonfunction-based condition. In addition, generalization of the response was observed during the former but not the latter condition.
Cream, Angela; O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Harrison, Elisabeth; Lincoln, Michelle; Hewat, Sally; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark
In this study, the authors investigated the efficacy of video self-modeling (VSM) following speech restructuring treatment to improve the maintenance of treatment effects. The design was an open-plan, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Participants were 89 adults and adolescents who undertook intensive speech restructuring treatment. Post treatment, participants were randomly assigned to 2 trial arms: standard maintenance and standard maintenance plus VSM. Participants in the latter arm viewed stutter-free videos of themselves each day for 1 month. The addition of VSM did not improve speech outcomes, as measured by percent syllables stuttered, at either 1 or 6 months postrandomization. However, at the latter assessment, self-rating of worst stuttering severity by the VSM group was 10% better than that of the control group, and satisfaction with speech fluency was 20% better. Quality of life was also better for the VSM group, which was mildly to moderately impaired compared with moderate impairment in the control group. VSM intervention after treatment was associated with improvements in self-reported outcomes. The clinical implications of this finding are discussed.
Bagaiolo, Leila F; Mari, Jair de J; Bordini, Daniela; Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Martone, Maria Carolina C; Caetano, Sheila C; Brunoni, Decio; Brentani, Helena; Paula, Cristiane S
Video modeling using applied behavior analysis techniques is one of the most promising and cost-effective ways to improve social skills for parents with autism spectrum disorder children. The main objectives were: (1) To elaborate/describe videos to improve eye contact and joint attention, and to decrease disruptive behaviors of autism spectrum disorder children, (2) to describe a low-cost parental training intervention, and (3) to assess participant's compliance. This is a descriptive study of a clinical trial for autism spectrum disorder children. The parental training intervention was delivered over 22 weeks based on video modeling. Parents with at least 8 years of schooling with an autism spectrum disorder child between 3 and 6 years old with an IQ lower than 70 were invited to participate. A total of 67 parents fulfilled the study criteria and were randomized into two groups: 34 as the intervention and 33 as controls. In all, 14 videos were recorded covering management of disruptive behaviors, prompting hierarchy, preference assessment, and acquisition of better eye contact and joint attention. Compliance varied as follows: good 32.4%, reasonable 38.2%, low 5.9%, and 23.5% with no compliance. Video modeling parental training seems a promising, feasible, and low-cost way to deliver care for children with autism spectrum disorder, particularly for populations with scarce treatment resources.
Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul D.; Stewart, Iain
This paper presents the findings from a study aimed at understanding whether video games (or serious games) can be effective in enhancing volcanic hazard education and communication. Using the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, we have developed a video game - St. Vincent's Volcano - for use in existing volcano education and outreach sessions. Its twin aims are to improve residents' knowledge of potential future eruptive hazards (ash fall, pyroclastic flows and lahars) and to integrate traditional methods of education in a more interactive manner. Here, we discuss the process of game development including concept design through to the final implementation on St. Vincent. Preliminary results obtained from the final implementation (through pre- and post-test knowledge quizzes) for both student and adult participants provide indications that a video game of this style may be effective in improving a learner's knowledge. Both groups of participants demonstrated a post-test increase in their knowledge quiz score of 9.3 % for adults and 8.3 % for students and, when plotted as learning gains (Hake, 1998), show similar overall improvements (0.11 for adults and 0.09 for students). These preliminary findings may provide a sound foundation for the increased integration of emerging technologies within traditional education sessions. This paper also shares some of the challenges and lessons learnt throughout the development and testing processes and provides recommendations for researchers looking to pursue a similar study.
Holzman, Samuel B; Zenilman, Avi; Shah, Maunank
Directly observed therapy (DOT) remains an integral component of treatment support and adherence monitoring in tuberculosis care. In-person DOT is resource intensive and often burdensome for patients. Video DOT (vDOT) has been proposed as an alternative to increase treatment flexibility and better meet patient-specific needs. We conducted a pragmatic, prospective pilot implementation of vDOT at 3 TB clinics in Maryland. A mixed-methods approach was implemented to assess (1) effectiveness, (2) acceptability, and (3) cost. Medication adherence on vDOT was compared with that of in-person DOT. Interviews and surveys were conducted with patients and providers before and after implementation, with framework analysis utilized to extract salient themes. Last, a cost analysis assessed the economic impacts of vDOT implementation across heterogeneous clinic structures. Medication adherence on vDOT was comparable to that of in-person DOT (94% vs 98%, P = .17), with a higher percentage of total treatment doses (inclusive of weekend/holiday self-administration) ultimately observed during the vDOT period (72% vs 66%, P = .03). Video DOT was well received by staff and patients alike, who cited increased treatment flexibility, convenience, and patient privacy. Our cost analysis estimated a savings with vDOT of $1391 per patient for a standard 6-month treatment course. Video DOT is an acceptable and important option for measurement of TB treatment adherence and may allow a higher proportion of prescribed treatment doses to be observed, compared with in-person DOT. Video DOT may be cost-saving and should be considered as a component of individualized, patient-centered case management plans.
Peters, R M H; Zweekhorst, M B M; van Brakel, W H; Bunders, J F G; Irwanto
The Stigma Assessment and Reduction of Impact project aims to assess the effectiveness of stigma-reduction interventions in the field of leprosy. Participatory video seemed to be a promising approach to reducing stigma among stigmatized individuals (in this study the video makers) and the stigmatisers (video audience). This study focuses on the video makers and seeks to assess the impact on them of making a participatory video and to increase understanding of how to deal with foreseeable difficulties. Participants were selected on the basis of criteria and in collaboration with the community health centre. This study draws on six qualitative methods including interviews with the video makers and participant observation. Triangulation was used to increase the validity of the findings. Two videos were produced. The impact on participants ranged from having a good time to a greater sense of togetherness, increased self-esteem, individual agency and willingness to take action in the community. Concealment of leprosy is a persistent challenge, and physical limitations and group dynamics are also areas that require attention. Provided these three areas are properly taken into account, participatory video has the potential to address stigma at least at three levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and community - and possibly more.
Moorman, M.; Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T.; Qian, S.
The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film about the results of modeling the effects urbanization on stream ecology. The film describes some of the results of the EUSE ecological modeling effort and the advantages of the Bayesian and multi-level statistical modeling approaches, while relating the science to fly fishing. The complex scientific discussion combined with the lighter, more popular activity of fly fishing leads to an entertaining forum while educating viewers about a complex topic. This approach is intended to represent the scientists as interesting people with diverse interests. Video can be an effective scientific communication tool for presenting scientific findings to a broad audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). Additional films are planned to be released in 2012 on other USGS project results and programs.
An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.
Full Text Available The importance of Modelling Methods Engineering is equally rising with the importance of domain specific languages (DSL and individual modelling approaches. In order to capture the relevant semantic primitives for a particular domain, it is necessary to involve both, (a domain experts, who identify relevant concepts as well as (b method engineers who compose a valid and applicable modelling approach. This process consists of a conceptual design of formal or semi-formal of modelling method as well as a reliable, migratable, maintainable and user friendly software development of the resulting modelling tool. Modelling Method Engineering cycle is often under-estimated as both the conceptual architecture requires formal verification and the tool implementation requires practical usability, hence we propose a guideline and corresponding tools to support actors with different background along this complex engineering process. Based on practical experience in business, more than twenty research projects within the EU frame programmes and a number of bilateral research initiatives, this paper introduces the phases, corresponding a toolbox and lessons learned with the aim to support the engineering of a modelling method. ”The proposed approach is illustrated and validated within use cases from three different EU-funded research projects in the fields of (1 Industry 4.0, (2 e-learning and (3 cloud computing. The paper discusses the approach, the evaluation results and derived outlooks.
Li, Shuohao; Tang, Min; Zhang, Jun
Pairing video to natural language description remains a challenge in computer vision and machine translation. Inspired by image description, which uses an encoder-decoder model for reducing visual scene into a single sentence, we propose a deep hierarchical attention network for video description. The proposed model uses convolutional neural network (CNN) and bidirectional LSTM network as encoders while a hierarchical attention network is used as the decoder. Compared to encoder-decoder models used in video description, the bidirectional LSTM network can capture the temporal structure among video frames. Moreover, the hierarchical attention network has an advantage over single-layer attention network on global context modeling. To make a fair comparison with other methods, we evaluate the proposed architecture with different types of CNN structures and decoders. Experimental results on the standard datasets show that our model has a more superior performance than the state-of-the-art techniques.
Cardon, Teresa A; Wilcox, M Jeanne
The inability to imitate is a salient diagnostic marker for autism. It has been suggested that for children with autism, imitation may be a prerequisite skill that can assist in the development of various skills. Using a multiple baseline design across subjects, the purpose of this research was to determine if two interventions, reciprocal imitation training and video modeling were effective in promoting imitation acquisition in young children with autism. Six boys were matched across various features (i.e., age, language, autism severity) and randomly placed in a treatment condition. Results indicated that all six participants increased their imitation skills to varying degrees in both conditions, and imitation maintained and generalized at higher than baseline levels post treatment.
Giannakakos, Antonia R; Vladescu, Jason C; Kisamore, April N; Reeve, Sharon A
Direct teaching procedures are often an important part of early intensive behavioral intervention for consumers with autism spectrum disorder. In the present study, a video model with voiceover (VMVO) instruction plus feedback was evaluated to train three staff trainees to implement a most-to-least direct (MTL) teaching procedure. Probes for generalization were conducted with untrained direct teaching procedures (i.e., least-to-most, prompt delay) and with an actual consumer. The results indicated that VMVO plus feedback was effective in training the staff trainees to implement the MTL procedure. Although additional feedback was required for the staff trainees to show mastery of the untrained direct teaching procedures (i.e., least-to-most and prompt delay) and with an actual consumer, moderate to high levels of generalization were observed.
Wang, Xiaohui; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian
The current study systematically reviews and summarizes the existing literature of game acceptance, identifies the core determinants, and evaluates the strength of the relationships in the extended technology acceptance model. Moreover, this study segments video games into two categories: hedonic and utilitarian and examines player acceptance of these two types separately. Through a meta-analysis of 50 articles, we find that perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and perceived enjoyment (PE) significantly associate with attitude and behavioral intention. PE is the dominant predictor of hedonic game acceptance, while PEOU and PU are the main determinants of utilitarian game acceptance. Furthermore, we find that respondent type and game platform are significant moderators. Findings of this study provide critical insights into the phenomenon of game acceptance and suggest directions for future research.
This thesis is centered around three topics, sharing integrability as a common theme. This thesis explores different methods in the field of integrable models. The first two chapters are about integrable lattice models in statistical physics. The last chapter describes an integrable quantum chain.
A recently proposed iterative method for solving scattering integral equations is applied to the spin doublet and spin quartet neutron-deuteron scattering in the Amado model. The method is tested numerically in the calculation of scattering lengths and phase-shifts and results are found better than those obtained by using the conventional Pade technique. (Author) [pt
Reardon, Cillian; Tobin, Daniel P; Tierney, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn
The aim of our study was to determine if there is a role for manipulation of g force thresholds acquired via micro-technology for accurately detecting collisions in rugby union. In total, 36 players were recruited from an elite Guinness Pro12 rugby union team. Player movement profiles and collisions were acquired via individual global positioning system (GPS) micro-technology units. Players were assigned to a sub-category of positions in order to determine positional collision demands. The coding of collisions by micro-technology at g force thresholds between 2 and 5.5 g (0.5 g increments) was compared with collision coding by an expert video analyst using Bland-Altman assessments. The most appropriate g force threshold (smallest mean difference compared with video analyst coding) was lower for all forwards positions (2.5 g) than for all backs positions (3.5 g). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement indicated that there may be a substantial over- or underestimation of collisions coded via GPS micro-technology when using expert video analyst coding as the reference comparator. The manipulation of the g force thresholds applied to data acquired by GPS micro-technology units based on incremental thresholds of 0.5 g does not provide a reliable tool for the accurate coding of collisions in rugby union. Future research should aim to investigate smaller g force threshold increments and determine the events that cause coding of false positives.
van Wermeskerken, Margot; Grimmius, Bianca; van Gog, Tamara
We investigated the effects of seeing the instructor's (i.e., the model's) face in video modeling examples on students' attention and their learning outcomes. Research with university students suggested that the model's face attracts students' attention away from what the model is doing, but this did not hamper learning. We aimed to investigate…
Sethna, Sohrab B.
External beam radiation therapy is commonly used to eliminate and control cancerous tumors. High-energy beams are shaped to match the patient's specific tumor volume, whereby maximizing radiation dose to malignant cells and limiting dose to normal tissue. A multileaf collimator (MLC) consisting of multiple pairs of tungsten leaves is used to conform the radiation beam to the desired treatment field. Advanced treatment methods utilize dynamic MLC settings to conform to multiple treatment fields and provide intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Future methods would further increase conformity by actively tracking tumor motion caused by patient cardiac and respiratory motion. Leaf position quality assurance for a dynamic MLC is critical as variation between the planned and actual leaf positions could induce significant errors in radiation dose. The goal of this research project is to prototype a video-optical quality assurance system for MLC leaf positions. The system captures light-field images of MLC leaf sequences during dynamic therapy. Image acquisition and analysis software was developed to determine leaf edge positions. The mean absolute difference between QA prototype predicted and caliper measured leaf positions was found to be 0.6 mm with an uncertainty of +/- 0.3 mm. Maximum errors in predicted positions were below 1.0 mm for static fields. The prototype served as a proof of concept for quality assurance of future tumor tracking methods. Specifically, a lung tumor phantom was created to mimic a lung tumor's motion from respiration. The lung tumor video images were superimposed on MLC field video images for visualization and analysis. The toolbox is capable of displaying leaf position, leaf velocity, tumor position, and determining errors between planned and actual treatment fields for dynamic radiation therapy.
State-of-the-art temporal action detectors inefficiently search the entire video for specific actions. Despite the encouraging progress these methods achieve, it is crucial to design automated approaches that only explore parts of the video which are the most relevant to the actions being searched. To address this need, we propose the new problem of action spotting in videos, which we define as finding a specific action in a video while observing a small portion of that video. Inspired by the observation that humans are extremely efficient and accurate in spotting and finding action instances in a video, we propose Action Search, a novel Recurrent Neural Network approach that mimics the way humans spot actions. Moreover, to address the absence of data recording the behavior of human annotators, we put forward the Human Searches dataset, which compiles the search sequences employed by human annotators spotting actions in the AVA and THUMOS14 datasets. We consider temporal action localization as an application of the action spotting problem. Experiments on the THUMOS14 dataset reveal that our model is not only able to explore the video efficiently (observing on average 17.3% of the video) but it also accurately finds human activities with 30.8% mAP (0.5 tIoU), outperforming state-of-the-art methods
Full Text Available A new teaching methodology was tested at a private college, which delivers business studyprograms on the undergraduate and graduate level. The combination of video-lectures with live classactivities (discussions, case study solving was used in the course which provides studentscompetences for managing growing small and medium-sized business. Full- and part-time studentsparticipated in the two separated classes with identical study program and the same methodologicalapproach was applied to assess the teaching approach. The main objective of the study was toexamine the possible differences between the two groups of studies. In total 126 students participatedin the study and the data collection was done with a survey. Several statistically significantdifferences were revealed. The most important finding is that part-time students were much lessenthusiastic for the delivered teaching approach. It looks like they appreciated more the liveinteraction with other students and with the teacher and probably saw the opportunity of activeparticipation as the main added value of the studies. The implication of the study is that coursedesign, which includes video, should carefully take into account the two types of students addressed.
Pinter, Stephen Z; Kim, Dae-Ro; Hague, M Nicole; Chambers, Ann F; MacDonald, Ian C; Lacefield, James C
Flow quantification with high-frequency (>20 MHz) power Doppler ultrasound can be performed objectively using the wall-filter selection curve (WFSC) method to select the cutoff velocity that yields a best-estimate color pixel density (CPD). An in vivo video microscopy system (IVVM) is combined with high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound to provide a method for validation of CPD measurements based on WFSCs in mouse testicular vessels. The ultrasound and IVVM systems are instrumented so that the mouse remains on the same imaging platform when switching between the two modalities. In vivo video microscopy provides gold-standard measurements of vascular diameter to validate power Doppler CPD estimates. Measurements in four image planes from three mice exhibit wide variation in the optimal cutoff velocity and indicate that a predetermined cutoff velocity setting can introduce significant errors in studies intended to quantify vascularity. Consistent with previously published flow-phantom data, in vivo WFSCs exhibited three characteristic regions and detectable plateaus. Selection of a cutoff velocity at the right end of the plateau yielded a CPD close to the gold-standard vascular volume fraction estimated using IVVM. An investigator can implement the WFSC method to help adapt cutoff velocity to current blood flow conditions and thereby improve the accuracy of power Doppler for quantitative microvascular imaging. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted
Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his "Lab Out Loud" blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing…
Ozkan, Serife Yucesoy
The purposes of this study were to (1) compare peer and self-video modeling in terms of effectiveness and efficiency in teaching first aid skills to children with intellectual disability and (2) analyze the error patterns made in probe sessions to determine whether the children who took the role of sufferers during the first aid skill sessions…
Cardon, Teresa A.
Children with autism fail to imitate from an early age and this lack of imitation is a salient diagnostic marker for the disorder. For children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), increased imitation skills appear to be related to increased skill development in a variety of areas. Video modeling was recently validated as a technique to support…
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Shinaberry, Megan
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the…
Carter, Kathleen; Pennington, Robert; Ledford, Elizabeth
As adults with Down syndrome (DS) age, their strength decreases resulting in difficulty performing activities of daily living. In the current study, we investigated the use of video modeling for teaching three adults with DS to perform weight lifting techniques. A multiple probe design across behaviors (i.e., lifts) was used to evaluate…
Losinski, Mickey; Wiseman, Nicole; White, Sherry A.; Balluch, Felicity
The current study examined the use of video modeling (VM)-based interventions to reduce the challenging behaviors of students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Each study was evaluated using Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC's) quality indicators for evidence-based practices. In addition, study effects were calculated along the three…
Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Takeuchi, Ai; Watanabe, Kentaro
This study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) for eliminating the public undressing of two elementary-aged students with developmental disabilities during urination. A multiple-probe design across participants revealed that the degree of exposed body parts decreased immediately after introduction of VSM. However, exposure…
Macpherson, Kevin; Charlop, Marjorie H.; Miltenberger, Catherine A.
A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the effects of a portable video modeling intervention delivered in the natural environment on the verbal compliments and compliment gestures demonstrated by five children with autism. Participants were observed playing kickball with peers and adults. In baseline, participants…
Gül, Seray Olçay
There are many studies in the literature in which individuals with intellectual disabilities exhibit social skills deficits and which show the need for teaching these skills systematically. This study aims to investigate the effects of an intervention package of consisting computer-presented video modeling and Social Stories on individuals with…
Genc-Tosun, Derya; Kurt, Onur
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of simultaneous prompting with and without video modeling in teaching food preparation skills to four participants with autism spectrum disorder, whose ages ranged from 5 to 6 years old. An adapted alternating treatment single-case experimental design was used to…
Acar, Cimen; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Yikmis, Ahmet
An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare mother-developed and delivered social stories and video modeling in teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers' opinions about the social validity of the study were also examined. Three mother-child dyads participated in the study. Results showed that…
Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick
Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…
Markey, Patricia T.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a video peer modeling and least-to-most prompting intervention in the school library setting, targeting the instructional delivery of an information-literacy skill to students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Research studies have evaluated the effectiveness of video-modeling procedures in the…
Lau, Chun Pong
In this paper, we study the problem of video quality prediction over the wireless 4G network. Video transmission data is collected from a real 4G SCM testbed for investigating factors that affect video quality. After feature transformation and selection on video and network parameters, video quality is predicted by solving as regression problem. Experimental results show that the dominated factor on video quality is the channel attenuation and video quality can be well estimated by our models with small errors.
Lau, Chun Pong; Zhang, Xiangliang; Shihada, Basem
In this paper, we study the problem of video quality prediction over the wireless 4G network. Video transmission data is collected from a real 4G SCM testbed for investigating factors that affect video quality. After feature transformation and selection on video and network parameters, video quality is predicted by solving as regression problem. Experimental results show that the dominated factor on video quality is the channel attenuation and video quality can be well estimated by our models with small errors.
This book presents tutorial overviews for many applications of variational methods to molecular modeling. Topics discussed include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov-Feynman variational principle, square-gradient models, classical density functional theories, self-consistent-field theories, phase-field methods, Ginzburg-Landau and Helfrich-type phenomenological models, dynamical density functional theory, and variational Monte Carlo methods. Illustrative examples are given to facilitate understanding of the basic concepts and quantitative prediction of the properties and rich behavior of diverse many-body systems ranging from inhomogeneous fluids, electrolytes and ionic liquids in micropores, colloidal dispersions, liquid crystals, polymer blends, lipid membranes, microemulsions, magnetic materials and high-temperature superconductors. All chapters are written by leading experts in the field and illustrated with tutorial examples for their practical applications to specific subjects. With emphasis placed on physical unders...
van der Schaar-Mitrea, Mihaela; Chen, Yingwei; Radha, Hayder
Video transmission over bandwidth-varying networks is becoming increasingly important due to emerging applications such as streaming of video over the Internet. The fundamental obstacle in designing such systems resides in the varying characteristics of the Internet (i.e. bandwidth variations and packet-loss patterns). In MPEG-4, a new SNR scalability scheme, called Fine-Granular-Scalability (FGS), is currently under standardization, which is able to adapt in real-time (i.e. at transmission time) to Internet bandwidth variations. The FGS framework consists of a non-scalable motion-predicted base-layer and an intra-coded fine-granular scalable enhancement layer. For example, the base layer can be coded using a DCT-based MPEG-4 compliant, highly efficient video compression scheme. Subsequently, the difference between the original and decoded base-layer is computed, and the resulting FGS-residual signal is intra-frame coded with an embedded scalable coder. In order to achieve high coding efficiency when compressing the FGS enhancement layer, it is crucial to analyze the nature and characteristics of residual signals common to the SNR scalability framework (including FGS). In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of SNR residual signals by evaluating its statistical properties, compaction efficiency and frequency characteristics. The signal analysis revealed that the energy compaction of the DCT and wavelet transforms is limited and the frequency characteristic of SNR residual signals decay rather slowly. Moreover, the blockiness artifacts of the low bit-rate coded base-layer result in artificial high frequencies in the residual signal. Subsequently, a variety of wavelet and embedded DCT coding techniques applicable to the FGS framework are evaluated and their results are interpreted based on the identified signal properties. As expected from the theoretical signal analysis, the rate-distortion performances of the embedded wavelet and DCT-based coders are very
Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise
Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....
Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Roeber, Steffen; Samour, Amjad; Sikora, Thomas
In this paper, we present an automatic extraction of goal events in soccer videos by using audio track features alone without relying on expensive-to-compute video track features. The extracted goal events can be used for high-level indexing and selective browsing of soccer videos. The detection of soccer video highlights using audio contents comprises three steps: 1) extraction of audio features from a video sequence, 2) event candidate detection of highlight events based on the information provided by the feature extraction Methods and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), 3) goal event selection to finally determine the video intervals to be included in the summary. For this purpose we compared the performance of the well known Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) feature extraction method vs. MPEG-7 Audio Spectrum Projection feature (ASP) extraction method based on three different decomposition methods namely Principal Component Analysis( PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). To evaluate our system we collected five soccer game videos from various sources. In total we have seven hours of soccer games consisting of eight gigabytes of data. One of five soccer games is used as the training data (e.g., announcers' excited speech, audience ambient speech noise, audience clapping, environmental sounds). Our goal event detection results are encouraging.
For face naming in TV series or movies, a typical way is using subtitles/script alignment to get the time stamps of the names, and tagging them to the faces. We study the problem of face naming in videos when subtitles are not available. To this end, we divide the problem into two tasks: face clustering which groups the faces depicting a certain person into a cluster, and name assignment which associates a name to each face. Each task is formulated as a structured prediction problem and modeled by a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) model. We argue that the two tasks are correlated problems whose outputs can provide prior knowledge of the target prediction for each other. The two HCRFs are coupled in a unified graphical model called coupled HCRF where the joint dependence of the cluster labels and face name association is naturally embedded in the correlation between the two HCRFs. We provide an effective algorithm to optimize the two HCRFs iteratively and the performance of the two tasks on real-world data set can be both improved.
Williamson, Robert L; Casey, Laura B; Robertson, Janna Siegel; Buggey, Tom
Given the recent interest in the use of video self-modeling (VSM) to provide instruction within iPod apps and other pieces of handheld mobile assistive technologies, investigating appropriate prerequisite skills for effective use of this intervention is particularly timely and relevant. To provide additional information regarding the efficacy of VSM for students with autism and to provide insights into any possible prerequisite skills students may require for such efficacy, the authors investigated the use of VSM in increasing the instances of effective initiations of interpersonal greetings for three students with autism that exhibited different pre-intervention abilities. Results showed that only one of the three participants showed an increase in self-initiated greetings following the viewing of videos edited to show each participant self-modeling a greeting when entering his or her classroom. Due to the differences in initial skill sets between the three children, this finding supports anecdotally observed student prerequisite abilities mentioned in previous studies that may be required to effectively utilize video based teaching methods.
Massey, D; Byrne, J; Higgins, N; Weeks, B; Shuker, M-A; Coyne, E; Mitchell, M; Johnston, A N B
Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are designed to assess clinical skill performance and competency of students in preparation for 'real world' clinical responsibilities. OSCEs are commonly used in health professional education and are typically associated with high levels of student anxiety, which may present a significant barrier to performance. Students, including nursing students, have identified that flexible access to exemplar OSCEs might reduce their anxiety and enable them to better prepare for such examinations. To implement and evaluate an innovative approach to preparing students for OSCEs in an undergraduate (registration) acute care nursing course. A set of digitized OSCE exemplars were prepared and embedded in the University-based course website as part of usual course learning activities. Use of the exemplars was monitored, pre and post OSCE surveys were conducted, and qualitative data were collected to evaluate the approach. OSCE grades were also examined. The online OSCE exemplars increased self-rated student confidence, knowledge, and capacity to prepare and provided clarity around assessment expectations. OSCE exemplars were accessed frequently and positively received; but did not impact on performance. Video exemplars aid student preparation for OSCEs, providing a flexible, innovative and clear example of the assessment process. Video exemplars improved self-rated student confidence and understanding of performance expectations, leading to increased engagement and reduced anxiety when preparing for the OSCE, but not overall OSCE performance. Such OSCE exemplars could be used to increase staff capacity and improve the quality of the student learning experience. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holland, Agi; Smith, Fiona; McCrossan, Gill; Adamson, Elizabeth; Watt, Susan; Penny, Kay
Improvements in the safety of the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines are identified as a priority across international healthcare systems. It is therefore essential that higher education institutions play their part in helping to meet this patient safety objective. New developments in clinical skills education which are aligned to emerging educational theory are available, but evaluations and supportive evidence are limited. To evaluate the use of an online best practice exemplar as an adjunct to the clinical skills teaching of oral medication administration to undergraduate student nurses. Mixed-methods prospective cohort design. Two intakes of undergraduate nursing students (n=168, n=154) undertaking a first year clinical skills based module at a British university. The Control group received standard teaching using lectures and skills classes facilitated by experienced clinical skills lecturers. The Intervention group received the standard teaching and unlimited access to an online video clip of medication administration. Performance and satisfaction were measured using module assessment results and a satisfaction questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered using focus groups (n=16, n=20). The Intervention group was significantly (p=0.021) more likely to pass the assessment and rate their satisfaction with the teaching significantly higher (pTeaching and Time and when Classroom Learning was positive, the Transfer to Practice of the clinical skill was enhanced. An online video of a best practice exemplar as an adjunct to taught clinical skills sessions improves student assessment results and satisfaction ratings. The video was also reported to positively influence all themes identified in Classroom Learning and was perceived to promote the Transfer to Practice of teaching input. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A HTTP based video transmission system has been built upon the p2p(peer to peer) network structure utilizing the Java technologies. This makes the video monitoring available to any host which has been connected to the World Wide Web in any method, including those hosts behind firewalls or in isolated sub-networking. In order to achieve this, a video source peer has been developed, together with the client video playback peer. The video source peer can respond to the video stream request in HTTP protocol. HTTP based pipe communication model is developed to speeding the transmission of video stream data, which has been encoded into fragments using the JPEG codec. To make the system feasible in conveying video streams between arbitrary peers on the web, a HTTP protocol based relay peer is implemented as well. This video monitoring system has been applied in a tele-robotic system as a visual feedback to the operator.
Full Text Available This paper describes a simplified 2D to 3D Video Conversion Technology, taking virtual campus 3D video production as an example. First, it clarifies the meaning of the 2D to 3D Video Conversion Technology, and points out the disadvantages of traditional methods. Second, it forms an innovative and convenient method. A flow diagram, software and hardware configurations are presented. Finally, detailed description of the conversion steps and precautions are given in turn to the three processes, namely, preparing materials, modeling objects and baking landscapes, recording screen and converting videos .
Singer, C.; Cox, D.
This report documents progress to date under a three-year contract for developing ''Methods for Testing Transport Models.'' The work described includes (1) choice of best methods for producing ''code emulators'' for analysis of very large global energy confinement databases, (2) recent applications of stratified regressions for treating individual measurement errors as well as calibration/modeling errors randomly distributed across various tokamaks, (3) Bayesian methods for utilizing prior information due to previous empirical and/or theoretical analyses, (4) extension of code emulator methodology to profile data, (5) application of nonlinear least squares estimators to simulation of profile data, (6) development of more sophisticated statistical methods for handling profile data, (7) acquisition of a much larger experimental database, and (8) extensive exploratory simulation work on a large variety of discharges using recently improved models for transport theories and boundary conditions. From all of this work, it has been possible to define a complete methodology for testing new sets of reference transport models against much larger multi-institutional databases
Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.; Langanke, K.
We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; the resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, the thermal and rotational behavior of rare-earth and γ-soft nuclei, and the calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. (orig.)
We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of γ-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs
This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.
Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu
Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based curricula was employed to determine how science teacher's attitudes and efficacy where impacted while designing science-based video games. The study's mixed-method design ascertained teacher efficacy on five factors (General computer use, Science Learning, Inquiry Teaching and Learning, Synchronous chat/text, and Playing Video Games) related to technology and gaming using a web-based survey). Qualitative data in the form of online blog posts was gathered during the project to assist in the triangulation and assessment of teacher efficacy. Data analyses consisted of an Analysis of Variance and serial coding of teacher reflective responses. Results indicated participants who used computers daily have higher efficacy while using inquiry-based teaching methods and science teaching and learning. Additional emergent findings revealed possible motivating factors for efficacy. This professional development project was focused on inquiry as a pedagogical strategy, standard-based science learning as means to develop content knowledge, and creating video games as technological knowledge. The project was consistent with the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework where overlapping circles of the three components indicates development of an integrated understanding of the suggested relationships. Findings provide suggestions for development of standards-based science education software, its integration into the curriculum and, strategies for implementing technology into teaching practices.
Full Text Available European Years are a means of promoting European issues at a macro and micro-level. The objective of this paper is to provide the visual differences in the framing of the issue of volunteering at a European and national level. The approach focuses on a blending of two qualitative research methods in visual communication: ATLAS.ti (computer assisted/ aided qualitative data analysis software and social semiotics. The results of our analysis highlight two network views on volunteering promoted through videos, a salience of transactional processes in the implementation of volunteering at a European and national level, and a classification of various types of social practices specific to Romania. This study provides an insight into the way in which two different qualitative methods may be combined in order to provide a visual representation and interpretation to a European issue.
Işık, Şahin; Özkan, Kemal; Günal, Serkan; Gerek, Ömer Nezih
Change detection with background subtraction process remains to be an unresolved issue and attracts research interest due to challenges encountered on static and dynamic scenes. The key challenge is about how to update dynamically changing backgrounds from frames with an adaptive and self-regulated feedback mechanism. In order to achieve this, we present an effective change detection algorithm for pixelwise changes. A sliding window approach combined with dynamic control of update parameters is introduced for updating background frames, which we called sliding window-based change detection. Comprehensive experiments on related test videos show that the integrated algorithm yields good objective and subjective performance by overcoming illumination variations, camera jitters, and intermittent object motions. It is argued that the obtained method makes a fair alternative in most types of foreground extraction scenarios; unlike case-specific methods, which normally fail for their nonconsidered scenarios.
Gao, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yanming; Wu, Xingyao; El-Khatib, Yehia; Edwards, Christopher
Most of the work on grid technology in video area has been generally restricted to aspects of resource scheduling and replica management. The traffic of such service has a lot of characteristics in common with that of the traditional video service. However the architecture and user behavior in Grid networks are quite different from those of traditional Internet. Considering the potential of grid networks and video sharing services, measuring and analyzing P2P IPTV traffic are important and fundamental works in the field grid networks.
Länsitie, Janne; Stevenson, Blair; Männistö, Riku; Karjalainen, Tommi; Karjalainen, Asko
The short film is an introduction to the concept of video pedagogy. The five categories of video pedagogy further elaborate how videos can be used as a part of instruction and learning process. Most pedagogical videos represent more than one category. A video itself doesn’t necessarily define the category – the ways in which the video is used as a part of pedagogical script are more defining factors. What five categories did you find? Did you agree with the categories, or are more...
Ruggieri, Andrea; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Benuzzi, Francesca; Serafini, Marco; Gessaroli, Giuliana; Farinelli, Valentina; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Meletti, Stefano
During resting-state EEG-fMRI studies in epilepsy, patients' spontaneous head-face movements occur frequently. We tested the usefulness of synchronous video recording to identify and model the fMRI changes associated with non-epileptic movements to improve sensitivity and specificity of fMRI maps related to interictal epileptiform discharges (IED). Categorization of different facial/cranial movements during EEG-fMRI was obtained for 38 patients [with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS, n=16); with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, n=17); focal symptomatic/cryptogenic epilepsy (n=5)]. We compared at single subject- and at group-level the IED-related fMRI maps obtained with and without additional regressors related to spontaneous movements. As secondary aim, we considered facial movements as events of interest to test the usefulness of video information to obtain fMRI maps of the following face movements: swallowing, mouth-tongue movements, and blinking. Video information substantially improved the identification and classification of the artifacts with respect to the EEG observation alone (mean gain of 28 events per exam). Inclusion of physiological activities as additional regressors in the GLM model demonstrated an increased Z-score and number of voxels of the global maxima and/or new BOLD clusters in around three quarters of the patients. Video-related fMRI maps for swallowing, mouth-tongue movements, and blinking were comparable to the ones obtained in previous task-based fMRI studies. Video acquisition during EEG-fMRI is a useful source of information. Modeling physiological movements in EEG-fMRI studies for epilepsy will lead to more informative IED-related fMRI maps in different epileptic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari
types of videos, estimating the level of quantization used in the I-frames, and exploiting this information to assess the video quality. In order to do this for H.264/AVC, the distribution of the DCT-coefficients after intra-prediction and deblocking are modeled. To obtain VQA features for H.264/AVC, we......A no-reference video quality assessment (VQA) method is presented for videos distorted by H.264/AVC and MPEG-2. The assessment is performed without access to the bit-stream. Instead we analyze and estimate coefficients based on decoded pixels. The approach involves distinguishing between the two...... propose a novel estimation method of the quantization in H.264/AVC videos without bitstream access, which can also be used for Peak Signalto-Noise Ratio (PSNR) estimation. The results from the MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC analysis are mapped to a perceptual measure of video quality by Support Vector Regression...
eral; hence the video rental store owner (the decision maker) is required to procure new ... process by presenting a point of departure from which procurement decisions may be made. .... M = number of titles available for purchase,. Qi.
Wu, Baoyuan; Hu, Bao-Gang; Ji, Qiang
Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face
Sani-Bozkurt, Sunagul; Ozen, Arzu
This study aimed to examine whether or not there was any difference in the effectiveness and efficiency of the presentation of video modeling interventions using peer and adult models in teaching pretend play skills to children with ASD and to examine the views of parents about the study. Participants were two boys and one girl, aged 5-6 years…
Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, T.; Hoogerheide, V.; Mayer, Richard
The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner’s (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed
Wilson, Kaitlyn P
Video modeling is a time- and cost-efficient intervention that has been proven effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the comparative efficacy of this intervention has not been examined in the classroom setting. The present study examines the relative efficacy of video modeling as compared to the more widely-used strategy of in vivo modeling using an alternating treatments design with baseline and replication across four preschool-aged students with ASD. Results offer insight into the heterogeneous treatment response of students with ASD. Additional data reflecting visual attention and social validity were captured to further describe participants' learning preferences and processes, as well as educators' perceptions of the acceptability of each intervention's procedures in the classroom setting.
Dimitrova, Nevenka; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed
This paper presents a novel approach for video retrieval from a large archive of MPEG or Motion JPEG compressed video clips. We introduce a retrieval algorithm that takes a video clip as a query and searches the database for clips with similar contents. Video clips are characterized by a sequence of representative frame signatures, which are constructed from DC coefficients and motion information (`DC+M' signatures). The similarity between two video clips is determined by using their respective signatures. This method facilitates retrieval of clips for the purpose of video editing, broadcast news retrieval, or copyright violation detection.
Yeung, Serena; Fathi, Alireza; Fei-Fei, Li
In this paper we present VideoSET, a method for Video Summary Evaluation through Text that can evaluate how well a video summary is able to retain the semantic information contained in its original video. We observe that semantics is most easily expressed in words, and develop a text-based approach for the evaluation. Given a video summary, a text representation of the video summary is first generated, and an NLP-based metric is then used to measure its semantic distance to ground-truth text ...
Post, Phillip G; Aiken, Christopher A; Laughlin, David D; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T
Allowing learners to control the video presentation of knowledge of performance (KP) or an expert model during practice has been shown to facilitate motor learning (Aiken, Fairbrother, & Post, 2012; Wulf, Raupach, & Pfeiffer, 2005). Split-screen replay features now allow for the simultaneous presentation of these modes of instructional support. It is uncertain, however, if such a combination incorporated into a self-control protocol would yield similar benefits seen in earlier self-control studies. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of self-controlled split-screen replay on the learning of a golf chip shot. Participants completed 60 practice trials, three administrations of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and a questionnaire on day one. Retention and transfer tests and a final motivation inventory were completed on day two. Results revealed significantly higher form and accuracy scores for the self-control group during transfer. The self-control group also had significantly higher scores on the perceived competence subscale, reported requesting feedback mostly after perceived poor trials, and recalled a greater number of critical task features compared to the yoked group. The findings for the performance measures were consistent with previous self-control research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Singer, C.; Cox, D.
Substantial progress has been made over the past year on six aspects of the work supported by this grant. As a result, we have in hand for the first time a fairly complete set of transport models and improved statistical methods for testing them against large databases. We also have initial results of such tests. These results indicate that careful application of presently available transport theories can reasonably well produce a remarkably wide variety of tokamak data
Allori, Alexander C; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Daluvoy, Sanjay; Bond, Jennifer
Objective : The learning process for intraoral procedures is arguably more difficult than for other surgical procedures because of the assistant's severely limited visibility. Consequently, trainees may not be able to adequately see and follow all steps of the procedure, and attending surgeons may be less willing to entrust trainees with critical portions of the procedure. In this report, we propose a video-assisted approach to intraoral procedures that improves lighting, visibility, and potential for effective education and training. Design : Technical report (idea/innovation). Setting : Tertiary referral hospital. Patients : Children with cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency requiring surgery. Interventions : Video-assisted palatoplasty, sphincteroplasty, and pharyngoplasty. Main Outcome Measures : Qualitative and semiquantitative educational outcomes, including learner perception regarding "real-time" (video-assisted surgery) and "non-real-time" (video-library-based) surgical education. Results : Trainees were strongly in favor of the video-assisted modality in "real-time" surgical training. Senior trainees identified more opportunities in which they had been safely entrusted to perform critical portions of the procedure, corresponding with satisfaction with the learning process scores, and they showed greater comfort/confidence scores related to performing the procedure under supervision and alone. Conclusions : Adoption of the video-assisted approach can be expected to markedly improve the learning curve for surgeons in training. This is now standard practice at our institution. We are presently conducting a full educational technology assessment to better characterize the effect on knowledge acquisition and technical improvement.
King, Suzanne N; Davis, Larry; Lehman, Jeffrey J; Ruddy, Bari Hoffman
Clinicians use a variety of approaches to motivate children with hyperfunctional voice disorders to comply with voice therapy in a therapeutic session and improve the motivation of children to practice home-based exercises. Utilization of current entertainment technology in such approaches may improve participation and motivation in voice therapy. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of using an entertainment video game as a therapy device. Prospective cohort and case-control study. Three levels of game testing were conducted to an existing entertainment video game for use as a voice therapy protocol. The game was tested by two computer programmers and five normal participants. The third level of testing was a case study with a child diagnosed with a hyperfunctional voice disorder. Modifications to the game were made after each feasibility test. Errors with the video game performance were modified, including the addition of a time stamp directory and game controller. Resonance voice exercises were modified to accommodate the gaming environment and unique competitive situation, including speech rate, acoustic parameters, game speed, and point allocations. The development of video games for voice therapeutic purposes attempt to replicate the high levels of engagement and motivation attained with entertainment video games, stimulating a more productive means of learning while doing. This case study found that a purely entertainment video game can be implemented as a voice therapeutic protocol based on information obtained from the case study. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.
van der Meij, Hans
This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were
Hutchings, Sam; Watts, Sarah; Kirkman, Emrys
We report a new microcirculatory assessment device, the Braedius Cytocam, an Incident Dark Field (IDF) video microscope, and compare it with a precursor device utilising side stream dark field (SDF) imaging. Time matched measurements were made with both devices from the sublingual microcirculation of pigs subjected to traumatic injury and hemorrhagic shock at baseline and during a shock phase. Images were analysed for vessel density, microcirculatory flow and image quality. There were no differences in density or flow data recorded from the two devices at baseline [TVD IDF 14.2 ± 2.4/TVD SDF 13.2 ± 2.0, p 0.17] [MFI IDF 3 (2.8-3.0)/MFI SDF 3 (2.9-3.0), p 0.36] or during the shock state [TVD IDF 11.64 ± 3.3/TVD SDF 11.4 ± 4.0 p = 0.98] [MFI IDF 1.9 (0.6-2.7)/MFI SDF 1.7 (0.3-2.6) p 0.55]. Bland and Altman analysis showed no evidence of significant bias. Vessel contrast was significantly better with the IDF device for both capillaries [17.1 ± 3.9 (IDF) v 3.4 ± 3.6 (SDF), p = 0.0006] and venules [36.1 ± 11.4 (IDF) v 26.4 ± 7.1 (SDF) p 0.014] The Braedius Cytocam showed comparable vessel detection to a precursor device during both baseline and low flow (shock) states.
Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve
Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene.
Full Text Available Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12–18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; “Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness,” “Experiencing changes in one's own movement,” and “Experiencing challenges in the learning process.” The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required.
Backåberg, Sofia; Gummesson, Christina; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael
Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students' experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12-18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; "Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness," "Experiencing changes in one's own movement," and "Experiencing challenges in the learning process." The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required.
Zappella, Luca; Béjar, Benjamín; Hager, Gregory; Vidal, René
Much of the existing work on automatic classification of gestures and skill in robotic surgery is based on dynamic cues (e.g., time to completion, speed, forces, torque) or kinematic data (e.g., robot trajectories and velocities). While videos could be equally or more discriminative (e.g., videos contain semantic information not present in kinematic data), they are typically not used because of the difficulties associated with automatic video interpretation. In this paper, we propose several methods for automatic surgical gesture classification from video data. We assume that the video of a surgical task (e.g., suturing) has been segmented into video clips corresponding to a single gesture (e.g., grabbing the needle, passing the needle) and propose three methods to classify the gesture of each video clip. In the first one, we model each video clip as the output of a linear dynamical system (LDS) and use metrics in the space of LDSs to classify new video clips. In the second one, we use spatio-temporal features extracted from each video clip to learn a dictionary of spatio-temporal words, and use a bag-of-features (BoF) approach to classify new video clips. In the third one, we use multiple kernel learning (MKL) to combine the LDS and BoF approaches. Since the LDS approach is also applicable to kinematic data, we also use MKL to combine both types of data in order to exploit their complementarity. Our experiments on a typical surgical training setup show that methods based on video data perform equally well, if not better, than state-of-the-art approaches based on kinematic data. In turn, the combination of both kinematic and video data outperforms any other algorithm based on one type of data alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS. Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM, has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants (N = 101 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game--offline, neutral video game--online, violent video game--offline and violent video game--online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression.
Smith, Stephen M; Miller, Karla L; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Webster, Matthew; Beckmann, Christian F; Nichols, Thomas E; Ramsey, Joseph D; Woolrich, Mark W
There is great interest in estimating brain "networks" from FMRI data. This is often attempted by identifying a set of functional "nodes" (e.g., spatial ROIs or ICA maps) and then conducting a connectivity analysis between the nodes, based on the FMRI timeseries associated with the nodes. Analysis methods range from very simple measures that consider just two nodes at a time (e.g., correlation between two nodes' timeseries) to sophisticated approaches that consider all nodes simultaneously and estimate one global network model (e.g., Bayes net models). Many different methods are being used in the literature, but almost none has been carefully validated or compared for use on FMRI timeseries data. In this work we generate rich, realistic simulated FMRI data for a wide range of underlying networks, experimental protocols and problematic confounds in the data, in order to compare different connectivity estimation approaches. Our results show that in general correlation-based approaches can be quite successful, methods based on higher-order statistics are less sensitive, and lag-based approaches perform very poorly. More specifically: there are several methods that can give high sensitivity to network connection detection on good quality FMRI data, in particular, partial correlation, regularised inverse covariance estimation and several Bayes net methods; however, accurate estimation of connection directionality is more difficult to achieve, though Patel's τ can be reasonably successful. With respect to the various confounds added to the data, the most striking result was that the use of functionally inaccurate ROIs (when defining the network nodes and extracting their associated timeseries) is extremely damaging to network estimation; hence, results derived from inappropriate ROI definition (such as via structural atlases) should be regarded with great caution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
How the "Understanding Research Evidence" Web-Based Video Series From the National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools Contributes to Public Health Capacity to Practice Evidence-Informed Decision Making: Mixed-Methods Evaluation.
Chan, Linda; Mackintosh, Jeannie; Dobbins, Maureen
The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT) offers workshops and webinars to build public health capacity for evidence-informed decision-making. Despite positive feedback for NCCMT workshops and resources, NCCMT users found key terms used in research papers difficult to understand. The Understanding Research Evidence (URE) videos use plain language, cartoon visuals, and public health examples to explain complex research concepts. The videos are posted on the NCCMT website and YouTube channel. The first four videos in the URE web-based video series, which explained odds ratios (ORs), confidence intervals (CIs), clinical significance, and forest plots, were evaluated. The evaluation examined how the videos affected public health professionals' practice. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine the delivery mode and the content of the videos. Specifically, the evaluation explored (1) whether the videos were effective at increasing knowledge on the four video topics, (2) whether public health professionals were satisfied with the videos, and (3) how public health professionals applied the knowledge gained from the videos in their work. A three-part evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the first four URE videos. The evaluation included a Web-based survey, telephone interviews, and pretest and posttests, which evaluated public health professionals' experience with the videos and how the videos affected their public health work. Participants were invited to participate in this evaluation through various open access, public health email lists, through informational flyers and posters at the Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) conference, and through targeted recruitment to NCCMT's network. In the Web-based surveys (n=46), participants achieved higher scores on the knowledge assessment questions from watching the OR (P=.04), CI (P=.04), and clinical significance (P=.05) videos but not the forest plot (P=.12) video, as
Tarassenko, L; Villarroel, M; Guazzi, A; Jorge, J; Clifton, D A; Pugh, C
Remote sensing of the reflectance photoplethysmogram using a video camera typically positioned 1 m away from the patient’s face is a promising method for monitoring the vital signs of patients without attaching any electrodes or sensors to them. Most of the papers in the literature on non-contact vital sign monitoring report results on human volunteers in controlled environments. We have been able to obtain estimates of heart rate and respiratory rate and preliminary results on changes in oxygen saturation from double-monitored patients undergoing haemodialysis in the Oxford Kidney Unit. To achieve this, we have devised a novel method of cancelling out aliased frequency components caused by artificial light flicker, using auto-regressive (AR) modelling and pole cancellation. Secondly, we have been able to construct accurate maps of the spatial distribution of heart rate and respiratory rate information from the coefficients of the AR model. In stable sections with minimal patient motion, the mean absolute error between the camera-derived estimate of heart rate and the reference value from a pulse oximeter is similar to the mean absolute error between two pulse oximeter measurements at different sites (finger and earlobe). The activities of daily living affect the respiratory rate, but the camera-derived estimates of this parameter are at least as accurate as those derived from a thoracic expansion sensor (chest belt). During a period of obstructive sleep apnoea, we tracked changes in oxygen saturation using the ratio of normalized reflectance changes in two colour channels (red and blue), but this required calibration against the reference data from a pulse oximeter. (paper)
Pasunuru, Ramakanth; Bansal, Mohit
Video captioning, the task of describing the content of a video, has seen some promising improvements in recent years with sequence-to-sequence models, but accurately learning the temporal and logical dynamics involved in the task still remains a challenge, especially given the lack of sufficient annotated data. We improve video captioning by sharing knowledge with two related directed-generation tasks: a temporally-directed unsupervised video prediction task to learn richer context-aware vid...
De Lepeleere, Sara; Verloigne, Maïté; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity caused by an unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) is a prominent public health concern. Parenting practices may contribute to healthy behaviour change in children, but well-researched examples are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the systematic development of an intervention for parents to prevent childhood overweight/obesity through the improvement of parenting practices. The six steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP), a theory- and evidence-based tool to develop health-related interventions, were used as a framework to develop the 'Movie Models' programme. In Step 1, a needs assessment was performed to better understand the health problem of overweight/obesity in children and its association with diet, PA and SB. In Step 2, the programme goal (increasing the adoption of effective parenting practices) was sub-divided into performance objectives. Change objectives, which specify explicit actions required to accomplish the performance objectives, were also identified. Step 3 included the selection of theoretical methods (e.g. 'modelling' and 'images'), which were then translated into the practical strategy of online parenting videos. Step 4 comprised the development of a final intervention framework, and Step 5 included the planning of programme adoption and implementation. The final phase, Step 6, included the development of an effect- and process-evaluation plan. The IMP was used to structure the development of 'Movie Models', an intervention targeting specific parenting practices related to children's healthy diet, PA, SB, and parental self-efficacy. A clear framework for process analyses is offered, which aims to increase the potential effectiveness of an intervention and can be useful for those developing health promotion programmes. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.
Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…
Wang, Chuan; Zhu, Jie; Guo, Yanwen; Wang, Wenping
We present a video vectorization method that generates a video in vector representation from an input video in raster representation. A vector-based video representation offers the benefits of vector graphics, such as compactness and scalability. The vector video we generate is represented by a simplified tetrahedral control mesh over the spatial-temporal video volume, with color attributes defined at the mesh vertices. We present novel techniques for simplification and subdivision of a tetrahedral mesh to achieve high simplification ratio while preserving features and ensuring color fidelity. From an input raster video, our method is capable of generating a compact video in vector representation that allows a faithful reconstruction with low reconstruction errors.
Changing student conceptions in physics is a difficult process and has been a topic of research for many years. The purpose of this study was to understand what prompted students to change or not change their incorrect conceptions of Newtons Second or Third Laws in response to an intervention, Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs), designed to overcome them. This study is based on prior research reported in the literature which has found that a curricular framework of elicit, confront, resolve, and reflect (ECRR) is important for changing student conceptions (McDermott, 2001). This framework includes four essential parts such that during an instructional event student conceptions should be elicited, incorrect conceptions confronted, these conflicts resolved, and then students should be prompted to reflect on their learning. Twenty-two undergraduate student participants who completed either or both IVVs were studied to determine whether or not they experienced components of the ECRR framework at multiple points within the IVVs. A fully integrated, mixed methods design was used to address the study purpose. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected iteratively for each participant. Successive data collections were informed by previous data collections. All data were analyzed concurrently. The quantitative strand included a pre/post test that participants took before and after completing a given IVV and was used to measure the effect of each IVV on learning. The qualitative strand included video of each participant completing the IVV as well as an audio-recorded video elicitation interview after the post-test. The qualitative data collection was designed to describe student experiences with each IVV as well as to observe how the ECRR framework was experienced. Collecting and analyzing data using this mixed methods approach helped develop a more complete understanding of how student conceptions of Newtons Second and Third Laws changed through completion of
Jalink, Maarten B; Goris, Jetse; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O
Recently, there has been a growth in studies supporting the hypothesis that video games have positive effects on basic laparoscopic skills. This review discusses all studies directly related to these effects. A search in the PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed using synonymous terms for video games and laparoscopy. All available articles concerning video games and their effects on skills on any laparoscopic simulator (box trainer, virtual reality, and animal models) were selected. Video game experience has been related to higher baseline laparoscopic skills in different studies. There is currently, however, no standardized method to assess video game experience, making it difficult to compare these studies. Several controlled experiments have, nevertheless, shown that video games cannot only be used to improve laparoscopic basic skills in surgical novices, but are also used as a temporary warming-up before laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mar, Pamela; Spears, Robert; Reeb, Jeffrey; Thompson, Sarah B; Myers, Paul; Burke, Rita V
Eight million American children under the age of 5 attend daycare and more than another 50 million American children are in school or daycare settings. Emergency planning requirements for daycare licensing vary by state. Expert opinions were used to create a disaster preparedness video designed for daycare providers to cover a broad spectrum of scenarios. Various stakeholders (17) devised the outline for an educational pre-disaster video for child daycare providers using the Delphi technique. Fleiss κ values were obtained for consensus data. A 20-minute video was created, addressing the physical, psychological, and legal needs of children during and after a disaster. Viewers completed an anonymous survey to evaluate topic comprehension. A consensus was attempted on all topics, ranging from elements for inclusion to presentation format. The Fleiss κ value of 0.07 was obtained. Fifty-seven of the total 168 video viewers completed the 10-question survey, with comprehension scores ranging from 72% to 100%. Evaluation of caregivers that viewed our video supports understanding of video contents. Ultimately, the technique used to create and disseminate the resources may serve as a template for others providing pre-disaster planning education. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 5).
Russell, Christopher Michael Post; Wang, Daniel; Cuadra, Jorge
360-degree videos, which render an image over all 4pi steradian, provide a unique and immersive way to visualize astrophysical simulations. Video sharing sites such as YouTube allow these videos to be shared with the masses; they can be viewed in their 360° nature on computer screens, with smartphones, or, best of all, in virtual-reality (VR) goggles. We present the first such 360° video of an astrophysical simulation: a hydrodynamics calculation of the Wolf-Rayet stars and their ejected winds in the inner parsec of the Galactic center. Viewed from the perspective of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), the most striking aspect of the video, which renders column density, is the inspiraling and stretching of clumps of WR-wind material as they makes their way towards the SMBH. We will brielfy describe how to make 360° videos and how to publish them online in their desired 360° format. Additionally we discuss computing the thermal X-ray emission from a suite of Galactic-center hydrodynamic simulations that have various SMBH feedback mechanisms, which are compared to Chandra X-ray Visionary Program observations of the region. Over a 2-5” ring centered on Sgr A*, the spectral shape is well matched, indicating that the WR winds are the dominant source of the thermal X-ray emission. Furthermore, the X-ray flux depends on the SMBH feedback due to the feedback's ability to clear out material from the central parsec. A moderate outburst is necessary to explain the current thermal X-ray flux, even though the outburst ended ˜100 yr ago.
Ana Sebastián Morillas
Full Text Available The article aims the advertising efficiency video games have in Spain, which is of theutmost importance considering results from latest studies on effectiveness. Video gameshave become one of the most valuable platforms used by advertisers when looking fornew ways to reinforce brand awareness. This study seeks to explain the reasons whybrands are using the advergaming and ingame advertising in order to have their advertisingmessages being effectively reached by the target audience. The topic proposedin this paper deploys a qualitative research methodology focused on a bibliographicreview, in-depth interviews and the analysis of several case studies. Results obtained bythis research may help companies to develop effective marketing and communicationstrategies.
Full Text Available Increase in number of elderly people who are living independently needs especial care in the form of healthcare monitoring systems. Recent advancements in depth video technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR realizable for elderly healthcare applications. In this paper, a depth video-based novel method for HAR is presented using robust multi-features and embedded Hidden Markov Models (HMMs to recognize daily life activities of elderly people living alone in indoor environment such as smart homes. In the proposed HAR framework, initially, depth maps are analyzed by temporal motion identification method to segment human silhouettes from noisy background and compute depth silhouette area for each activity to track human movements in a scene. Several representative features, including invariant, multi-view differentiation and spatiotemporal body joints features were fused together to explore gradient orientation change, intensity differentiation, temporal variation and local motion of specific body parts. Then, these features are processed by the dynamics of their respective class and learned, modeled, trained and recognized with specific embedded HMM having active feature values. Furthermore, we construct a new online human activity dataset by a depth sensor to evaluate the proposed features. Our experiments on three depth datasets demonstrated that the proposed multi-features are efficient and robust over the state of the art features for human action and activity recognition.
Devane, L A; Lucking, E; Evers, J; Buffini, M; Scott, S M; Knowles, C H; O'Connell, P R; Jones, J F X
The aim was to develop a behavioural animal model of faecal continence and assess the effect of retro-uterine balloon inflation (RBI) injury. RBI in the rat causes pudendal neuropathy, a risk factor for obstetric related faecal incontinence in humans. Video-tracking of healthy rats (n = 12) in a cage containing a latrine box was used to monitor their defaecatory behaviour index (DBI) over 2 weeks. The DBI (range 0-1) was devised by dividing the defaecation rate (pellets per hour) outside the latrine by that of the whole cage. A score of 0 indicates all pellets were deposited in the latrine. Subsequently, the effects of RBI (n = 19), sham surgery (n = 4) and colostomy (n = 2) were determined by monitoring the DBI for 2 weeks preoperatively and 3 weeks postoperatively. The DBI for healthy rats was 0.1 ± 0.03 with no significant change over 2 weeks (P = 0.71). In the RBI group, 13 of 19 rats (68%) showed no significant change in DBI postoperatively (0.08 ± -0.05 vs 0.11 ± -0.07) while in six rats the DBI increased from 0.16 ± -0.09 to 0.46 ± 0.23. The negative control, sham surgery, did not significantly affect the DBI (0.09 ± 0.06 vs 0.08 ± 0.04, P = 0.14). The positive control, colostomy, increased the DBI from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 0.86 ± 0.08. This is the first study showing a quantifiable change in defaecatory behaviour following injury in an animal model. This model of pudendal neuropathy affects continence in 32% of rats and provides a basis for research on interventions for incontinence. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Alba Sandyra Bezerra Lopes
Full Text Available The motion estimation is the most complex module in a video encoder requiring a high processing throughput and high memory bandwidth, mainly when the focus is high-definition videos. The throughput problem can be solved increasing the parallelism in the internal operations. The external memory bandwidth may be reduced using a memory hierarchy. This work presents a memory hierarchy model for a full-search motion estimation core. The proposed memory hierarchy model is based on a data reuse scheme considering the full search algorithm features. The proposed memory hierarchy expressively reduces the external memory bandwidth required for the motion estimation process, and it provides a very high data throughput for the ME core. This throughput is necessary to achieve real time when processing high-definition videos. When considering the worst bandwidth scenario, this memory hierarchy is able to reduce the external memory bandwidth in 578 times. A case study for the proposed hierarchy, using 32×32 search window and 8×8 block size, was implemented and prototyped on a Virtex 4 FPGA. The results show that it is possible to reach 38 frames per second when processing full HD frames (1920×1080 pixels using nearly 299 Mbytes per second of external memory bandwidth.
Daniel J. M. Buck
Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM. Subjects (13 male, 7 female who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental (n = 10 or a control (n = 10 group. Subjects′ 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance.
Buck, Daniel J M; Hutchinson, Jasmin C; Winter, Christa R; Thompson, Brian A
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM). Subjects (13 male, 7 female) who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental ( n = 10) or a control ( n = 10) group. Subjects' 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance.
Sanchez, Gustavo; Marcon, César; Agostini, Luciano Volcan
The 3D-high efficiency video coding has introduced tools to obtain higher efficiency in 3-D video coding, and most of them are related to the depth maps coding. Among these tools, the depth modeling mode-1 (DMM-1) focuses on better encoding edges regions of depth maps. The large memory required for storing all wedgelet patterns is one of the bottlenecks in the DMM-1 hardware design of both encoder and decoder since many patterns must be stored. Three algorithms to reduce the DMM-1 memory requirements and a hardware design targeting the most efficient among these algorithms are presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solutions surpass related works reducing up to 78.8% of the wedgelet memory, without degrading the encoding efficiency. Synthesis results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm reduces almost 75% of the power dissipation when compared to the standard approach.
Full Text Available Circuits and systems able to process high quality video in real time are fundamental in nowadays imaging systems. The circuit proposed in the paper, aimed at the robust identification of the background in video streams, implements the improved formulation of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM algorithm that is included in the OpenCV library. An innovative, hardware oriented, formulation of the GMM equations, the use of truncated binary multipliers, and ROM compression techniques allow reduced hardware complexity and increased processing capability. The proposed circuit has been designed having commercial FPGA devices as target and provides speed and logic resources occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The circuit, when implemented on Virtex6 or StratixIV, processes more than 45 frame per second in 1080p format and uses few percent of FPGA logic resources.
Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela
Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.
Kelly, Mary; Lyng, Colette; McGrath, Mary; Cannon, Gerald
E-learning is regularly promoted in higher education settings as a way of fostering more flexible approaches to learning. It has been argued however that the 'potential benefits of new information and communication technology instruments in education' have not been subjected to critical scrutiny (Debande, O., 2004. ICTs and the development of e-learning in Europe: the role of the public and private sectors. European Journal of Education 39 (2), 191-208, p. 192). This paper outlines a multi-method evaluation of an e-learning innovation designed to teach clinical skills to student nurses. Responding to the challenges of teaching clinical skills to large class sizes, we developed a set of instructional videos for one undergraduate skills-based module, which are now integral to the module and available online to students on a continuous basis. Evaluation suggests that students' performance outcomes are unchanged. The students view the flexible and self-management aspects of this method of learning positively, with some attitudinal differences between male and female, and mature and non-mature students. However, it is best used to complement rather than replace lecturer demonstration, lending support to a 'blended' model (Collis, B., van der Wende, M., 2002. Models of Technology and Change in Higher Education: An International Comparative Survey on The Current and Future Use of ICT in Higher Education, University of Twente, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, The Netherlands).
You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom.
Han, Jungong; Farin, D.S.; With, de P.H.N.
This paper addresses the automatic analysis of court-net sports video content. We extract information about the players, the playing-field in a bottom-up way until we reach scene-level semantic concepts. Each part of our framework is general, so that the system is applicable to several kinds of
Creusen, I.M.; Javanbakhti, S.; Loomans, M.J.H.; Hazelhoff, L.; Roubtsova, N.S.; Zinger, S.; With, de P.H.N.
The use of contextual information can significantly aid scene understanding of surveillance video. Just detecting people and tracking them does not provide sufficient information to detect situations that require operator attention. We propose a proof-of-concept system that uses several sources of
Zou, Yi; Kraker, De Joop; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Telgen, Van Mario D.; Xiao, Haijun; Werf, Van Der Wopke
Immobilized preys are routinely used in agro-ecological exposure studies to quantify predation of pests under field conditions, but this method has not been validated. Our purpose was to determine the validity of using immobilized adults of the major rice pest Nilaparvata lugens, brown plant hopper
Jin, Meihua; Jung, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-Ryun
With the arrival of the era of Internet of Things (IoT), Wi-Fi Direct is becoming an emerging wireless technology that allows one to communicate through a direct connection between the mobile devices anytime, anywhere. In Wi-Fi Direct-based IoT networks, all devices are categorized by group of owner (GO) and client. Since portability is emphasized in Wi-Fi Direct devices, it is essential to control the energy consumption of a device very efficiently. In order to avoid unnecessary power consumed by GO, Wi-Fi Direct standard defines two power-saving methods: Opportunistic and Notice of Absence (NoA) power-saving methods. In this paper, we suggest an algorithm to enhance the energy efficiency of Wi-Fi Direct power-saving, considering the characteristics of multimedia video traffic. Proposed algorithm utilizes the statistical distribution for the size of video frames and adjusts the lengths of awake intervals in a beacon interval dynamically. In addition, considering the inter-dependency among video frames, the proposed algorithm ensures that a video frame having high priority is transmitted with higher probability than other frames having low priority. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional NoA method in terms of average delay and energy efficiency.
Martinez, Mara Vanina; Superfine, Alison Castro; Carlton, Theresa; Dasgupta, Chandan
This paper focuses on results from a study conducted with two cohorts of pre-service teachers (PSTs) in a video case-based mathematics methods course at a large Midwestern university in the US. The motivation for this study was to look beyond whether or not PSTs pay attention to mathematical thinking of students, as shown by previous studies when…
Tasdemir, Kasim; Kurugollu, Fatih; Sezer, Sakir
A rich model based motion vector steganalysis benefiting from both temporal and spatial correlations of motion vectors is proposed in this work. The proposed steganalysis method has a substantially superior detection accuracy than the previous methods, even the targeted ones. The improvement in detection accuracy lies in several novel approaches introduced in this work. Firstly, it is shown that there is a strong correlation, not only spatially but also temporally, among neighbouring motion vectors for longer distances. Therefore, temporal motion vector dependency along side the spatial dependency is utilized for rigorous motion vector steganalysis. Secondly, unlike the filters previously used, which were heuristically designed against a specific motion vector steganography, a diverse set of many filters which can capture aberrations introduced by various motion vector steganography methods is used. The variety and also the number of the filter kernels are substantially more than that of used in previous ones. Besides that, filters up to fifth order are employed whereas the previous methods use at most second order filters. As a result of these, the proposed system captures various decorrelations in a wide spatio-temporal range and provides a better cover model. The proposed method is tested against the most prominent motion vector steganalysis and steganography methods. To the best knowledge of the authors, the experiments section has the most comprehensive tests in motion vector steganalysis field including five stego and seven steganalysis methods. Test results show that the proposed method yields around 20% detection accuracy increase in low payloads and 5% in higher payloads.
Elbouz, Marwa; Alfalou, Ayman; Brosseau, Christian
Home automation is being implemented into more and more domiciles of the elderly and disabled in order to maintain their independence and safety. For that purpose, we propose and validate a surveillance video system, which detects various posture-based events. One of the novel points of this system is to use adapted Vander-Lugt correlator (VLC) and joint-transfer correlator (JTC) techniques to make decisions on the identity of a patient and his three-dimensional (3-D) positions in order to overcome the problem of crowd environment. We propose a fuzzy logic technique to get decisions on the subject's behavior. Our system is focused on the goals of accuracy, convenience, and cost, which in addition does not require any devices attached to the subject. The system permits one to study and model subject responses to behavioral change intervention because several levels of alarm can be incorporated according different situations considered. Our algorithm performs a fast 3-D recovery of the subject's head position by locating eyes within the face image and involves a model-based prediction and optical correlation techniques to guide the tracking procedure. The object detection is based on (hue, saturation, value) color space. The system also involves an adapted fuzzy logic control algorithm to make a decision based on information given to the system. Furthermore, the principles described here are applicable to a very wide range of situations and robust enough to be implementable in ongoing experiments.
Hwang, Ing-Ming; Wu, Jay; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Ding, Hueisch-Jy
We present an alternative effective method for verifying the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves speed using a digital-video imaging system in daily dynamic conformal radiation therapy (DCRT) and intensity-modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) in achieving increased convenience and shorter treatment times. The horizontal leaves speed measured was within 1.76-2.08 cm/s. The mean full range of traveling time was 20 s. The initial speed-up time was within 1.5-2.0 s, and the slowing-down time was within 2.0-2.5 s. Due to gravity the maximum speed-up effect in the X1 bank was +0.10 cm/s, but the lagging effect in the X2 bank was -0.20 cm/s. This technique offered an alternative method with electronic portal imaging device (EPID), charged coupled device (CCD) or a light field for the measurement of MLC leaves speed. When time taken on the linac was kept to a minimum, the image could be processed off-line.
supervoxels in space- time . This property embodies many of the basic Gestalt principles—proximity, continuation, closure, and symmetry—and helps...streaming approach. The mean shift algorithm used in our paper is presented by Paris and Durand , who introduce Morse theory to interpret mean...maximum 86 fpv. This data set allows us to evaluate the supervoxel methods against human perception . The third data set is from Grundman et al. [15
Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.; Yang, Huamin
A method for video encryption and decryption on quantum computers is proposed based on color information transformations on each frame encoding the content of the encoding the content of the video. The proposed method provides a flexible operation to encrypt quantum video by means of the quantum measurement in order to enhance the security of the video. To validate the proposed approach, a tetris tile-matching puzzle game video is utilized in the experimental simulations. The results obtained suggest that the proposed method enhances the security and speed of quantum video encryption and decryption, both properties required for secure transmission and sharing of video content in quantum communication.
Karunarathne, S.; Marshall, T.; Stolzenburg, M.; Warner, T. A.; Orville, R. E.
In summer of 2011, we collected lightning data with 10 stations of electric field change meters (bandwidth of 0.16 Hz - 2.6 MHz) on and around NASA/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) covering nearly 70 km × 100 km area. We also had a high-speed video (HSV) camera recording 50,000 images per second collocated with one of the electric field change meters. In this presentation we describe our use of these data to model the electric field change caused by stepped leaders. Stepped leaders of a cloud to ground lightning flash typically create the initial path for the first return stroke (RS). Most of the time, stepped leaders have multiple complex branches, and one of these branches will create the ground connection for the RS to start. HSV data acquired with a short focal length lens at ranges of 5-25 km from the flash are useful for obtaining the 2-D location of these multiple branches developing at the same time. Using HSV data along with data from the KSC Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR2) system and the Cloud to Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS), the 3D path of a leader may be estimated. Once the path of a stepped leader is obtained, the time dependent multi-dipole model [ Lu, Winn,and Sonnenfeld, JGR 2011] can be used to match the electric field change at various sensor locations. Based on this model, we will present the time-dependent charge distribution along a leader channel and the total charge transfer during the stepped leader phase.
This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...
Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.
The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.
Fournely, Marion; Petit, Yvan; Wagnac, Éric; Laurin, Jérôme; Callot, Virginie; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean
Animal models of spinal cord injuries aim to utilize controlled and reproducible conditions. However, a literature review reveals that mouse contusion studies using equivalent protocols may show large disparities in the observed impact force vs. cord compression relationship. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate possible sources of bias in these measurements. The specific objective was to improve spinal cord compression measurements using a video-based setup to detect the impactor-spinal cord time-to-contact. A force-controlled 30kDyn unilateral contusion at C4 vertebral level was performed in six mice with the Infinite Horizon impactor (IH). High-speed video was used to determine the time-to-contact between the impactor tip and the spinal cord and to compute the related displacement of the tip into the tissue: the spinal cord compression and the compression ratio. Delayed time-to-contact detection with the IH device led to an underestimation of the cord compression. Compression values indicated by the IH were 64% lower than those based on video analysis (0.33mm vs. 0.88mm). Consequently, the mean compression ratio derived from the device was underestimated when compared to the value derived from video analysis (22% vs. 61%). Default time-to-contact detection from the IH led to significant errors in spinal cord compression assessment. Accordingly, this may explain some of the reported data discrepancies in the literature. The proposed setup could be implemented by users of contusion devices to improve the quantative description of the primary injury inflicted to the spinal cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Erickson, Gary E.
A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.
Benmoussa , Yahia; Boukhobza , Jalil; Hadjadj-Aoul , Yassine; Lagadec , Loïc; Benazzouz , Djamel
National audience; Nowadays, the use of mobile applications and terminals faces fundamental challenges related to energy constraint. This is due to the limited battery lifetime as compared to the increasing hardware evolution. Video streaming is one of the most energy consuming applications in a mobile system because of its intensive use of bandwidth, memory and processing power. In this work, we aim to propose a methodology for building and validating a high level global power consumption mo...
Slizovskaia, Olga; Gómez, Emilia; Haro, Gloria
This work aims at investigating cross-modal connections between audio and video sources in the task of musical instrument recognition. We also address in this work the understanding of the representations learned by convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and we study feature correspondence between audio and visual components of a multimodal CNN architecture. For each instrument category, we select the most activated neurons and investigate exist- ing cross-correlations between neurons from the ...
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present results of a single-center, nonrandomized, prospective study of the video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT. Methods. 68 consecutive patients with perianal fistulas were operated on using the VAAFT technique. 30 of the patients had simple fistulas, and 38 had complex fistulas. The mean follow-up time was 31 months. Results. The overall healing rate was 54.41% (37 of the 68 patients healed with no recurrence during the follow-up period. The results varied depending on the type of fistula. The success rate for the group with simple fistulas was 73.3%, whereas it was only 39.47% for the group with complex fistulas. Female patients achieved higher healing rates for both simple (81.82% versus 68.42% and complex fistulas (77.78% versus 27.59%. There were no major complications. Conclusions. The results of VAAFT vary greatly depending on the type of fistula. The procedure has some drawbacks due to the rigid construction of the fistuloscope and the diameter of the shaft. The electrocautery of the fistula tract from the inside can be insufficient to close wide tracts. However, low risk of complications permits repetition of the treatment until success is achieved. Careful selection of patients is advised.
Thackray, Debbie; Roberts, Lisa
The ability of physiotherapists to make clinical decisions is a vital component of being an autonomous practitioner, yet this complex phenomenon has been under-researched in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore clinical decision-making (CDM) by experienced physiotherapists in a scenario of a simulated patient experiencing acute deterioration of their respiratory function. The main objective of this observational study was to identify the actions, thoughts, and behaviours used by experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists in their clinical decision-making processes. A mixed-methods (qualitative) design employing observation and think-aloud, was adopted using a computerised manikin in a simulated environment. The participants clinically assessed the manikin programmed with the same clinical signs, under standardised conditions in the clinical skills practice suite, which was set up as a ward environment. Experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists, recruited from clinical practice within a 50-mile radius of the University(*). Participants were video-recorded throughout the assessment and treatment and asked to verbalise their thought processes using the 'think-aloud' method. The recordings were transcribed verbatim and managed using a Framework approach. Eight cardiorespiratory physiotherapists participated (mean 7years clinical experience, range 3.5-16years. CDM was similar to the collaborative hypothetico-deductive model, five-rights nursing model, reasoning strategies, inductive reasoning and pattern recognition. However, the CDM demonstrated by the physiotherapists was complex, interactive and iterative. Information processing occurred continuously throughout the whole interaction with the patient, and the specific cognitive skills of recognition, matching, discriminating, relating, inferring, synthesising and prediction were identified as being used sequentially. The findings from this study were used to develop a new
Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline
While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th
Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio.......This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...
Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet ...
Pressman, N.J.; Frost, J.K.; Gupta, P.K.; Showers, R.L.; Gill, G.W.; Cook, D.L.; Frost, J.K. Jr.; Traub, R.K.
Cellular dynamics often involve extremely low concentrations of biologically active substances, which can be radiolabeled and detected, localized and quantitated by autoradiography. The latter may require exposures from a few days to many months. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the feasibility of reducing this long period of data collection by one to two orders of magnitude, while maintaining or improving the spatial resolution and localization in tissues and the quantitative characteristics inherent in autoradiography. A mathematical model describing the complete system was generated using energy partition calculations to estimate photon production via scintillant per H3 beta particle emission and to estimate the subsequent photon capture based upon imaging system parameters and microscope geometry. Calculations showed that, typically, a single tritium beta particle produces a maximum of 5.8 X 10(3) photons. A photon-limited camera and microscope imaging system were selected and optimized in conjunction with a specially developed physical scintillation model. Results showed that the number of detected photoevents increases monotonically with both signal integration time and, independently, with the concentration of the radionuclide. Consequently, this work demonstrates that video microscopy imaging methods can spatially and temporally quantify very low concentrations of radiolabeled substances and can reduce data acquisition times
A description of analytical methods used at the model LEU Fuel Fabrication Facility is presented. The methods include gravimetric uranium analysis, isotopic analysis, fluorimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy
Shahid, Muhammad; Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Rossholm, Andreas; Lövström, Benny
Reduced-reference (RR) and no-reference (NR) models for video quality estimation, using features that account for the impact of coding artifacts, spatio-temporal complexity, and packet losses, are proposed. The purpose of this study is to analyze a number of potentially quality-relevant features in order to select the most suitable set of features for building the desired models. The proposed sets of features have not been used in the literature and some of the features are used for the first time in this study. The features are employed by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), which selects only the most influential of them toward perceptual quality. For comparison, we apply feature selection in the complete feature sets and ridge regression on the reduced sets. The models are validated using a database of H.264/AVC encoded videos that were subjectively assessed for quality in an ITU-T compliant laboratory. We infer that just two features selected by RR LASSO and two bitstream-based features selected by NR LASSO are able to estimate perceptual quality with high accuracy, higher than that of ridge, which uses more features. The comparisons with competing works and two full-reference metrics also verify the superiority of our models.
Yan, Ling; Hicks, Matt; Winslow, Korey; Comella, Cynthia; Ludlow, Christy; Jinnah, H A; Rosen, Ami R; Wright, Laura; Galpern, Wendy R; Perlmutter, Joel S
We developed a novel secured web-based dystonia video repository for the Dystonia Coalition, part of the Rare Disease Clinical Research network funded by the Office of Rare Diseases Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A critical component of phenotypic data collection for all projects of the Dystonia Coalition includes a standardized video of each participant. We now describe our method for collecting, serving and securing these videos that is widely applicable to other studies. Each recruiting site uploads standardized videos to a centralized secured server for processing to permit website posting. The streaming technology used to view the videos from the website does not allow downloading of video files. With appropriate institutional review board approval and agreement with the hosting institution, users can search and view selected videos on the website using customizable, permissions-based access that maintains security yet facilitates research and quality control. This approach provides a convenient platform for researchers across institutions to evaluate and analyze shared video data. We have applied this methodology for quality control, confirmation of diagnoses, validation of rating scales, and implementation of new research projects. We believe our system can be a model for similar projects that require access to common video resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M; Shinaberry, Megan
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of addition, subtraction, and number comparison skills for four elementary school students with ASD. Findings supported the effectiveness of the intervention in improving skill acquisition and maintenance at a 3-week follow-up. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Bovi, Gina M Delli; Vladescu, Jason C; DeBar, Ruth M; Carroll, Regina A; Sarokoff, Randi A
The identification of putative reinforcers is a critical component of programming for individuals with disabilities. A multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment is one option for identifying putative reinforcers; however, staff must be trained on the steps necessary to conduct the assessment for it to be useful in practice. This study examined the effectiveness of using video modeling with voice-over instruction (VMVO) to train two public school staff to conduct this assessment. Results demonstrate that VMVO was effective in training, producing generalized responding, maintenance, and high social validity ratings.
Gonzalez Viejo, Claudia; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Torrico, Damir D; Dunshea, Frank R
Traditional methods to assess heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are intrusive and can affect results in sensory analysis of food as participants are aware of the sensors. This paper aims to validate a non-contact method to measure HR using the photoplethysmography (PPG) technique and to develop models to predict the real HR and BP based on raw video analysis (RVA) with an example application in chocolate consumption using machine learning (ML). The RVA used a computer vision algorithm based on luminosity changes on the different RGB color channels using three face-regions (forehead and both cheeks). To validate the proposed method and ML models, a home oscillometric monitor and a finger sensor were used. Results showed high correlations with the G color channel (R² = 0.83). Two ML models were developed using three face-regions: (i) Model 1 to predict HR and BP using the RVA outputs with R = 0.85 and (ii) Model 2 based on time-series prediction with HR, magnitude and luminosity from RVA inputs to HR values every second with R = 0.97. An application for the sensory analysis of chocolate showed significant correlations between changes in HR and BP with chocolate hardness and purchase intention.
Huang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang
Super resolving a low-resolution video, namely video super-resolution (SR), is usually handled by either single-image SR or multi-frame SR. Single-Image SR deals with each video frame independently, and ignores intrinsic temporal dependency of video frames which actually plays a very important role in video SR. Multi-Frame SR generally extracts motion information, e.g., optical flow, to model the temporal dependency, but often shows high computational cost. Considering that recurrent neural networks (RNNs) can model long-term temporal dependency of video sequences well, we propose a fully convolutional RNN named bidirectional recurrent convolutional network for efficient multi-frame SR. Different from vanilla RNNs, 1) the commonly-used full feedforward and recurrent connections are replaced with weight-sharing convolutional connections. So they can greatly reduce the large number of network parameters and well model the temporal dependency in a finer level, i.e., patch-based rather than frame-based, and 2) connections from input layers at previous timesteps to the current hidden layer are added by 3D feedforward convolutions, which aim to capture discriminate spatio-temporal patterns for short-term fast-varying motions in local adjacent frames. Due to the cheap convolutional operations, our model has a low computational complexity and runs orders of magnitude faster than other multi-frame SR methods. With the powerful temporal dependency modeling, our model can super resolve videos with complex motions and achieve well performance.
Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed renewed interest in developing skin segmentation approaches. Skin feature segmentation has been widely employed in different aspects of computer vision applications including face detection and hand gestures recognition systems. This is mostly due to the attractive characteristics of skin colour and its effectiveness to object segmentation. On the contrary, there are certain challenges in using human skin colour as a feature to segment dynamic hand gesture, due to various illumination conditions, complicated environment, and computation time or real-time method. These challenges have led to the insufficiency of many of the skin color segmentation approaches. Therefore, to produce simple, effective, and cost efficient skin segmentation, this paper has proposed a skin segmentation scheme. This scheme includes two procedures for calculating generic threshold ranges in Cb-Cr colour space. The first procedure uses threshold values trained online from nose pixels of the face region. Meanwhile, the second procedure known as the offline training procedure uses thresholds trained out of skin samples and weighted equation. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme achieved good performance in terms of efficiency and computation time.
Daniel Tik-Pui Fong
Full Text Available Lateral ankle sprains continue to be the most common injury sustained by athletes and create an annual healthcare burden of over $4 billion in the U.S. alone. Foot inversion is suspected in these cases, but the mechanism of injury remains unclear. While kinematics and kinetics data are crucial in understanding the injury mechanisms, ligament behaviour measures – such as ligament strains – are viewed as the potential causal factors of ankle sprains. This review article demonstrates a novel methodology that integrates model matching video analyses with computational simulations in order to investigate injury-producing events for a better understanding of such injury mechanisms. In particular, ankle joint kinematics from actual injury incidents were deduced by model matching video analyses and then input into a generic computational model based on rigid bone surfaces and deformable ligaments of the ankle so as to investigate the ligament strains that accompany these sprain injuries. These techniques may have the potential for guiding ankle sprain prevention strategies and targeted rehabilitation therapies.
Full Text Available We describe a method for the synthesis of visual speech movements using a hybrid unit selection/model-based approach. Speech lip movements are captured using a 3D stereo face capture system and split up into phonetic units. A dynamic parameterisation of this data is constructed which maintains the relationship between lip shapes and velocities; within this parameterisation a model of how lips move is built and is used in the animation of visual speech movements from speech audio input. The mapping from audio parameters to lip movements is disambiguated by selecting only the most similar stored phonetic units to the target utterance during synthesis. By combining properties of model-based synthesis (e.g., HMMs, neural nets with unit selection we improve the quality of our speech synthesis.
Reuter, A [Division of Energy Management and Planning, Verbundplan, Klagenfurt (Austria); Kuehner, R [IER Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Wohlgemuth, N [Department of Economy, University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt (Austria)
Energy environmental and economical systems do not allow for experimentation since this would be dangerous, too expensive or even impossible. Instead, mathematical models are applied for energy planning. Experimenting is replaced by varying the structure and some parameters of `energy models`, computing the values of depending parameters, comparing variations, and interpreting their outcomings. Energy models are as old as computers. In this article the major new developments in energy modeling will be pointed out. We distinguish between 3 reasons of new developments: progress in computer technology, methodological progress and novel tasks of energy system analysis and planning. 2 figs., 19 refs.
Reuter, A.; Kuehner, R.; Wohlgemuth, N.
Energy environmental and economical systems do not allow for experimentation since this would be dangerous, too expensive or even impossible. Instead, mathematical models are applied for energy planning. Experimenting is replaced by varying the structure and some parameters of 'energy models', computing the values of depending parameters, comparing variations, and interpreting their outcomings. Energy models are as old as computers. In this article the major new developments in energy modeling will be pointed out. We distinguish between 3 reasons of new developments: progress in computer technology, methodological progress and novel tasks of energy system analysis and planning
T W Maduretno
Full Text Available The purpose of research are: (1 to know the effect of video-assisted inquiry modified learning model on student’s achievement; (2 to improve the student’s achievement in 1st Fundamental Physics Practice through video-assisted inquiry modified learning model. The student’s achievement as dependent variables includes the aspects of knowledge, skill, and attitude. The sampling technique did not choose at random. The Mathematics Education as the control group and the Science Education as the experimental group. The experimental group used video-assisted inquiry modified learning model and the control group used inquiry learning model. The collecting data technique used observation, questionnaire, and test. The researcher used the independent t-test that purposed to compare the average of achievement of control and experiment group. The results of research were: (1 there was an effect of video-assisted inquiry modified learning model on the knowledge and skill aspect but there was not on the attitude aspect; (2 The average of learning outcome of the experimental group higher than the control group’s; (3 The video-assisted inquiry modified learning model helped more skilled and trained student to discovery, inquiry the scientific principle, experiment and observation, and explain the experiment and observation’s result so that the students be able to understand the materials on the 1st Fundamental Physics Practice.
You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom. There is even a sweet spot where it all comes together around 20 years of age. At least, as far as game performance goes among 13,000 players of a shooter game like Battlefield 3. When we look at g...
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik
This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...... the possibilities w.r.t. different numerical weather predictions actually available to the project....
Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...
Funk, Jeanne B
The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.
Gonzalez, Ray; Martinez, Jose M; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Iglesias, Alberto R; Ro, Charles Y; Madan, Atul K
The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skill (GOALS) is one validated metric utilized to grade laparoscopic skills and has been utilized to score recorded operative videos. To facilitate easier viewing of these recorded videos, we are developing novel techniques to enable surgeons to view these videos. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of utilizing widespread current consumer-based technology to assist in distributing appropriate videos for objective evaluation. Videos from residents were recorded via a direct connection from the camera processor via an S-video output via a cable into a hub to connect to a standard laptop computer via a universal serial bus (USB) port. A standard consumer-based video editing program was utilized to capture the video and record in appropriate format. We utilized mp4 format, and depending on the size of the file, the videos were scaled down (compressed), their format changed (using a standard video editing program), or sliced into multiple videos. Standard available consumer-based programs were utilized to convert the video into a more appropriate format for handheld personal digital assistants. In addition, the videos were uploaded to a social networking website and video sharing websites. Recorded cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a porcine model were utilized. Compression was required for all formats. All formats were accessed from home computers, work computers, and iPhones without difficulty. Qualitative analyses by four surgeons demonstrated appropriate quality to grade for these formats. Our preliminary results show promise that, utilizing consumer-based technology, videos can be easily distributed to surgeons to grade via GOALS via various methods. Easy accessibility may help make evaluation of resident videos less complicated and cumbersome.
Sun, Huifang; Chen, Xuemin
Professionals in the video and multimedia industries need a book that explains industry standards for video coding and how to convert the compressed information between standards. Digital Video Transcoding for Transmission and Storage answers this demand while also supplying the theories and principles of video compression and transcoding technologies. Emphasizing digital video transcoding techniques, this book summarizes its content via examples of practical methods for transcoder implementation. It relates almost all of its featured transcoding technologies to practical applications.This vol
Sánchez-Bocanegra, C L; Rivero-Rodriguez, A; Fernández-Luque, L; Sevillano, J L
Diavideos is a web platform that collects trustworthy diabetes health videos from YouTube and offers them in a easy way. YouTube is a big repository of health videos, but good content is sometimes mixed with misleading and harmful videos such as promoting anorexia . Diavideos is a web portal that provides easy access to a repository of trustworthy diabetes videos. This poster describes Diavideos and explains the crawling method used to retrieve these videos from trusted channels.
Video games are a popular form of entertainment. Serious video games for health attempt to use entertainment to promote health behavior change. When designed within a framework informed by behavioral science and supported by commercial game-design principles, serious video games for health have the ...
Gonzalez-Zamora, Jose F; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Soriano-Rosales, Rosa E; Jimenez-Bravo-Luna, Miguel A; Gutierrez-Castrellon, Pedro; Ridaura-Sanz, Cecilia; Alvarez, Fernando Villegas
Plication of a nonfunctional hemidiaphragm usually restores altered ventilatory mechanics. This study compared two techniques in performing diaphragmatic plication: video-assisted thoracoscopy (group A) and thoracotomy (group B). Twenty dogs with induced paralysis of the right hemidiaphragm were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. Evaluations were performed before and after plication of the respiratory frequency (f) and lung area (LA) of the affected side. Operative time, time to resumption of walking, ingestion of fluids and solid food, pain intensity, and postoperative complications were measured. Group A had less pain after the surgery (P fluid ingestion (P < 0.05), and earlier resumption of walking (P < 0.019). Four weeks after the procedure, LA was similar in both groups, while a significant decrease in f was recorded in group A (P < 0.02). The remaining evaluated variables showed no differences. Both approaches were effective. Pain recorded in the postoperative period was less and recovery was faster in group A. Complications and surgical times were similar. The video-assisted thoracoscopy is a safe and efficient option for performing diaphragmatic plication in dogs.
Hong, Ee Rea; Ganz, Jennifer B; Mason, Rose; Morin, Kristi; Davis, John L; Ninci, Jennifer; Neely, Leslie C; Boles, Margot B; Gilliland, Whitney D
Many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits in functional living skills, leading to low independence, limited community involvement, and poor quality of life. With development of mobile devices, utilizing video modeling has become more feasible for educators to promote functional living skills of individuals with ASD. This article aims to review the single-case experimental literature and aggregate results across studies involving the use of video modeling to improve functional living skills of individuals with ASD. The authors extracted data from single-case experimental studies and evaluated them using the Tau-U effect size measure. Effects were also differentiated by categories of potential moderators and other variables, including age of participants, concomitant diagnoses, types of video modeling, and outcome measures. Results indicate that video modeling interventions are overall moderately effective with this population and dependent measures. While significant differences were not found between categories of moderators and other variables, effects were found to be at least moderate for most of them. It is apparent that more single-case experiments are needed in this area, particularly with preschool and secondary-school aged participants, participants with ASD-only and those with high-functioning ASD, and for video modeling interventions addressing community access skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shuai; Cong, Yang; Cao, Jun; Yang, Yunsheng; Tang, Yandong; Zhao, Huaici; Yu, Haibin
This paper aims at developing an automated gastroscopic video summarization algorithm to assist clinicians to more effectively go through the abnormal contents of the video. To select the most representative frames from the original video sequence, we formulate the problem of gastroscopic video summarization as a dictionary selection issue. Different from the traditional dictionary selection methods, which take into account only the number and reconstruction ability of selected key frames, our model introduces the similar-inhibition constraint to reinforce the diversity of selected key frames. We calculate the attention cost by merging both gaze and content change into a prior cue to help select the frames with more high-level semantic information. Moreover, we adopt an image quality evaluation process to eliminate the interference of the poor quality images and a segmentation process to reduce the computational complexity. For experiments, we build a new gastroscopic video dataset captured from 30 volunteers with more than 400k images and compare our method with the state-of-the-arts using the content consistency, index consistency and content-index consistency with the ground truth. Compared with all competitors, our method obtains the best results in 23 of 30 videos evaluated based on content consistency, 24 of 30 videos evaluated based on index consistency and all videos evaluated based on content-index consistency. For gastroscopic video summarization, we propose an automated annotation method via similar-inhibition dictionary selection. Our model can achieve better performance compared with other state-of-the-art models and supplies more suitable key frames for diagnosis. The developed algorithm can be automatically adapted to various real applications, such as the training of young clinicians, computer-aided diagnosis or medical report generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper investigates and analyzes the characteristics of video data and puts forward a campus surveillance video storage system with the university campus as the specific application environment. Aiming at the challenge that the content-based video retrieval response time is too long, the key-frame index subsystem is designed. The key frame of the video can reflect the main content of the video. Extracted from the video, key frames are associated with the metadata information to establish the storage index. The key-frame index is used in lookup operations while querying. This method can greatly reduce the amount of video data reading and effectively improves the query’s efficiency. From the above, we model the storage system by a stochastic Petri net (SPN and verify the promotion of query performance by quantitative analysis.
Cha, Jae H.; Olson, Jeffrey T.; Preece, Bradley L.; Espinola, Richard L.; Abbott, A. Lynn
Linear system theory is employed to make target acquisition performance predictions for electro-optical/infrared imaging systems where the modulation transfer function (MTF) may be imposed from a nonlinear degradation process. Previous research relying on image quality metrics (IQM) methods, which heuristically estimate perceived MTF has supported that an average perceived MTF can be used to model some types of degradation such as image compression. Here, we discuss the validity of the IQM approach by mathematically analyzing the associated heuristics from the perspective of reliability, robustness, and tractability. Experiments with standard images compressed by x.264 encoding suggest that the compression degradation can be estimated by a perceived MTF within boundaries defined by well-behaved curves with marginal error. Our results confirm that the IQM linearizer methodology provides a credible tool for sensor performance modeling.
Full Text Available We propose a modular no-reference video quality prediction model for videos that are encoded with H.265/HEVC and VP9 codecs and viewed on mobile devices. The impairments which can affect video transmission are classified into two broad types depending upon which layer of the TCP/IP model they originated from. Impairments from the network layer are called the network QoS factors, while those from the application layer are called the application/payload QoS factors. Initially we treat the network and application QoS factors separately and find out the 1 : 1 relationship between the respective QoS factors and the corresponding perceived video quality or QoE. The mapping from the QoS to the QoE domain is based upon a decision variable that gives an optimal performance. Next, across each group we choose multiple QoS factors and find out the QoE for such multifactor impaired videos by using an additive, multiplicative, and regressive approach. We refer to these as the integrated network and application QoE, respectively. At the end, we use a multiple regression approach to combine the network and application QoE for building the final model. We also use an Artificial Neural Network approach for building the model and compare its performance with the regressive approach.
This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...
Miller, Marilyn A.
This study addressed the problem of sexism and violence in music videos that present conflict resolutions in domestic violence situations. Research suggests a positive relationship between violence in the home coupled with violence on television and subsequent aggression in individuals. This study examined the effects of this conflict resolution…
Ianeva, Tzvetanka; Boldareva, L.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Cornacchia, Roberto; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.
Our experiments for TRECVID 2004 further investigate the applicability of the so-called “Generative Probabilistic Models to video retrieval��?. TRECVID 2003 results demonstrated that mixture models computed from video shot sequences improve the precision of “query by examples��? results when
Isupova, Olga; Kuzin, Danil; Mihaylova, Lyudmila
Semisupervised and unsupervised systems provide operators with invaluable support and can tremendously reduce the operators' load. In the light of the necessity to process large volumes of video data and provide autonomous decisions, this paper proposes new learning algorithms for activity analysis in video. The activities and behaviors are described by a dynamic topic model. Two novel learning algorithms based on the expectation maximization approach and variational Bayes inference are proposed. Theoretical derivations of the posterior estimates of model parameters are given. The designed learning algorithms are compared with the Gibbs sampling inference scheme introduced earlier in the literature. A detailed comparison of the learning algorithms is presented on real video data. We also propose an anomaly localization procedure, elegantly embedded in the topic modeling framework. It is shown that the developed learning algorithms can achieve 95% success rate. The proposed framework can be applied to a number of areas, including transportation systems, security, and surveillance.
Potter, Michael; Bensch, Alexander; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Linte, Cristian A.
In minimally invasive surgical interventions direct visualization of the target area is often not available. Instead, clinicians rely on images from various sources, along with surgical navigation systems for guidance. These spatial localization and tracking systems function much like the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) that we are all well familiar with. In this work we demonstrate how the video feed from a typical camera, which could mimic a laparoscopic or endoscopic camera used during an interventional procedure, can be used to identify the pose of the camera with respect to the viewed scene and augment the video feed with computer-generated information, such as rendering of internal anatomy not visible beyond the imaged surface, resulting in a simple augmented reality environment. This paper describes the software and hardware environment and methodology for augmenting the real world with virtual models extracted from medical images to provide enhanced visualization beyond the surface view achieved using traditional imaging. Following intrinsic and extrinsic camera calibration, the technique was implemented and demonstrated using a LEGO structure phantom, as well as a 3D-printed patient-specific left atrial phantom. We assessed the quality of the overlay according to fiducial localization, fiducial registration, and target registration errors, as well as the overlay offset error. Using the software extensions we developed in conjunction with common webcams it is possible to achieve tracking accuracy comparable to that seen with significantly more expensive hardware, leading to target registration errors on the order of 2 mm.
Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore
The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.
Neilson, G.; Leeming, T.; Hall, S.
Computer generated video fly-through provides a new method of assessing the visual impact of wind farms. With a PC, software and digital terrain model of the wind farm it is possible to produce videos ranging from wireframe to realistically shaded models. Using computer generated video fly-through visually sensitive corridors can be explored fully, wind turbine rotors can be seen in motion, critical viewpoints can be identified for photomontages and the context of the wind farm appreciated better. This paper describes the techniques of computer generated video fly through and examines its various applications in visual impact assessment of wind farms. (Author)
Hagin, Vincent; Gonzales, Benoît R; Groslambert, Alain
This study assessed whether video self-modeling improves running performance and influences the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate response. Twelve men (M age=26.8 yr., SD=6; M body mass index=22.1 kg.m(-2), SD=1) performed a time to exhaustion running test at 100 percent maximal aerobic velocity while focusing on a video self-modeling loop to synchronize their stride. Compared to the control condition, there was a significant increase of time to exhaustion. Perceived exertion was lower also, but there was no significant change in mean heart rate. In conclusion, the video self-modeling used as a pacer apparently increased endurance by decreasing perceived exertion without affecting the heart rate.
Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Goma, Sergio R.
As network service providers seek to improve customer satisfaction and retention levels, they are increasingly moving from traditional quality of service (QoS) driven delivery models to customer-centred quality of experience (QoE) delivery models. QoS models only consider metrics derived from the network however, QoE models also consider metrics derived from within the video sequence itself. Various spatial and temporal characteristics of a video sequence have been proposed, both individually and in combination, to derive methods of classifying video content either on a continuous scale or as a set of discrete classes. QoE models can be divided into three broad categories, full reference, reduced reference and no-reference models. Due to the need to have the original video available at the client for comparison, full reference metrics are of limited practical value in adaptive real-time video applications. Reduced reference metrics often require metadata to be transmitted with the bitstream, while no-reference metrics typically operate in the decompressed domain at the client side and require significant processing to extract spatial and temporal features. This paper proposes a heuristic, no-reference approach to video content classification which is specific to HEVC encoded bitstreams. The HEVC encoder already makes use of spatial characteristics to determine partitioning of coding units and temporal characteristics to determine the splitting of prediction units. We derive a function which approximates the spatio-temporal characteristics of the video sequence by using the weighted averages of the depth at which the coding unit quadtree is split and the prediction mode decision made by the encoder to estimate spatial and temporal characteristics respectively. Since the video content type of a sequence is determined by using high level information parsed from the video stream, spatio-temporal characteristics are identified without the need for full decoding and can
Biederman, G. B.; Freedman, B.
This paper addresses optimal strategies in teaching essential life and communication skills to children with Down syndrome, autism and other developmental delays. Evidence from the literature concerning the relative efficacy of hand-over-hand (self-modeling) in contrast to passive observational teaching techniques (e.g., video modeling) shows the…
The aim of this study is to compare effectiveness and efficiency of least-to-most prompting and video modeling for teaching pretend play skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. The adapted alternating treatment model, a single-subject design, was used in the study. Three students, one girl and two boys, between the ages of 5-6…
Kang, Yeong Jin; Kim, Geung Hwan; Ju, Gwan Jeong
This book includes introduction table of contents chapter 1 finite element idealization introduction summary of the finite element method equilibrium and compatibility in the finite element solution degrees of freedom symmetry and anti symmetry modeling guidelines local analysis example references chapter 2 static analysis structural geometry finite element models analysis procedure modeling guidelines references chapter 3 dynamic analysis models for dynamic analysis dynamic analysis procedures modeling guidelines and modeling guidelines.