WorldWideScience

Sample records for video icon glows

  1. Visual Iconicity Across Sign Languages: Large-Scale Automated Video Analysis of Iconic Articulators and Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östling, Robert; Börstell, Carl; Courtaux, Servane

    2018-01-01

    We use automatic processing of 120,000 sign videos in 31 different sign languages to show a cross-linguistic pattern for two types of iconic form–meaning relationships in the visual modality. First, we demonstrate that the degree of inherent plurality of concepts, based on individual ratings by non-signers, strongly correlates with the number of hands used in the sign forms encoding the same concepts across sign languages. Second, we show that certain concepts are iconically articulated around specific parts of the body, as predicted by the associational intuitions by non-signers. The implications of our results are both theoretical and methodological. With regard to theoretical implications, we corroborate previous research by demonstrating and quantifying, using a much larger material than previously available, the iconic nature of languages in the visual modality. As for the methodological implications, we show how automatic methods are, in fact, useful for performing large-scale analysis of sign language data, to a high level of accuracy, as indicated by our manual error analysis.

  2. GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database: stimuli for research on manners of human locomotion and iconic gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussems, Suzanne; Kwok, Natasha; Kita, Sotaro

    2018-06-01

    Human locomotion is a fundamental class of events, and manners of locomotion (e.g., how the limbs are used to achieve a change of location) are commonly encoded in language and gesture. To our knowledge, there is no openly accessible database containing normed human locomotion stimuli. Therefore, we introduce the GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database, which contains 676 videos of actors performing novel manners of human locomotion (i.e., moving from one location to another in an unusual manner) and videos of a female actor producing iconic gestures that represent these actions. The usefulness of the database was demonstrated across four norming experiments. First, our database contains clear matches and mismatches between iconic gesture videos and action videos. Second, the male actors and female actors whose action videos matched the gestures in the best possible way, perform the same actions in very similar manners and different actions in highly distinct manners. Third, all the actions in the database are distinct from each other. Fourth, adult native English speakers were unable to describe the 26 different actions concisely, indicating that the actions are unusual. This normed stimuli set is useful for experimental psychologists working in the language, gesture, visual perception, categorization, memory, and other related domains.

  3. Iconic memory of icon?

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Dr Siu L.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the present commentary are to show that (1) one important theoretical property of iconic memory is inconsistent with a retinotopic icon, (2) data difficult for the notion of an icon do not necessarily challenge the notion of an iconic store, (3) the iconic store, as a theoretical mechanism, is an ecologically valid one, and (4) the rationale of experimentation is such that the experimental task need not mimic the phenomenon being studied.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amborella trichopoda Amborella_trichopoda_L.png Amborella_trichopoda_NL.png Amborella..._trichopoda_S.png Amborella_trichopoda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+t...richopoda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=13 ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Phaeodactylum tricornutum Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_L.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum..._NL.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_S.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricorn...utum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricorn...utum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=213 ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana Arabidopsis_thaliana_L.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NL.png Arabidopsis_thal...iana_S.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thal...iana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NL http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorg...hum_bicolor_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorg...hum+bicolor&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: fission yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_L.png Schizosaccharomyce...s_pombe_NL.png Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_S.png Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyce...s+pombe&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyce...s+pombe&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=NS

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus corniculatus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus Lotus corniculatus Lotus_corniculatus_L.png Lotus_corniculatus_NL.png Lotus_corn...iculatus_S.png Lotus_corniculatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corn...iculatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available barrel medic Medicago truncatula Medicago_truncatula_L.png Medicago_truncatula_NL.png Medi...cago_truncatula_S.png Medicago_truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medi...cago+truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NL http://biosci...encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila_melanogaster_L.png Drosophila_mela...nogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+jap...onicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  15. Iconic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitt, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments showing that in normal subjects (a) iconic storage occurs primarily in the retina in the photoreceptors and (b) under conditions of dark pre- and postexposure fields, the icon is mainly a rod phenomenon. Draws conclusions based on these experiments, discusses previous work done by others, and attempts to reconcile…

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=3 ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryzias_java...nicus_NL.png Oryzias_javanicus_S.png Oryzias_javanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javan...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=S ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=77 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Trypanosoma brucei [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma_brucei_L.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NL.png Trypanoso...ma_brucei_S.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanoso...ma+brucei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=121 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistoso...ma_japonicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistoso...ma+japonicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistoso...ma+japonicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplas...ma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Planaria Dugesia japonica Platyhelminthes Dugesia_japonica_L.png Dugesia_japonica_NL.png Dugesia_jap...onica_S.png Dugesia_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=124 ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: coelacanth [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Latimeria_chalumnae_L.png Latime...ria_chalumnae_NL.png Latimeria_chalumnae_S.png Latimeria_chalumnae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeri...a+chalumnae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalu...mnae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mandrill Mandrillus sphinx Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Mandrillus_sphinx..._L.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx_S.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NS.png http://biosci...encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: sperm whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cetacea Physeter_macrocephal...us_L.png Physeter_macrocephalus_NL.png Physeter_macrocephalus_S.png Physeter_macrocephal...us_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Elephas_maxim...us_L.png Elephas_maximus_NL.png Elephas_maximus_S.png Elephas_maximus_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maxim...us&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_dromedarius_L.png Camelus_dromedarius_NL.png Camelus_dromedarius_S.png Camelus_dromedarius_...NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camel...us+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese serow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese serow Capricornis crispus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Capricorn...is_crispus_L.png Capricornis_crispus_NL.png Capricornis_crispus_S.png Capricornis_crispus..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricorn...is+crispus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic tapir [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic tapir Tapirus indicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tapirus_indicus_L.png Tapi...rus_indicus_NL.png Tapirus_indicus_S.png Tapirus_indicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+ind...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus..._familiaris_L.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_S.png Canis_lupus_familiari...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: okapi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available okapi Okapia johnstoni Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Okapi...a_johnstoni_L.png Okapia_johnstoni_NL.png Okapia_johnstoni_S.png Okapia_johnstoni_NS.png http://bioscienc...edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapi...a+johnstoni&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnston...i&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephen...si_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=149 ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: fathead minnow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Pimephales_promela...s_L.png Pimephales_promelas_NL.png Pimephales_promelas_S.png Pimephales_promelas_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promela...s&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promela...s&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda_mela...noleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_mela...noleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: white shark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available white shark Carcharodon carcharias Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carcharodon_carcharias_L.png Carcharo...don_carcharias_NL.png Carcharodon_carcharias_S.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NS.png http:/.../biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharo...don+carcharias&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharo...don+carcharias&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available llama Lama glama Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Lama_glama_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glam...a&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  17. Iconics: Icon Evolution in Digitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Thompson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Image manipulation, archiving, and sharing are all critical technological aspects of Western culture and postmodern civilization. Consequently, creation, identification, dissemination, and proliferation of powerful images across media channels today indicate a burgeoning area of information technology. While words alone are capable of conveying adequate information across media channels, the news industry crafts around the dual enterprise of both word and image. Audio-visual supports of these communication devices constituting new media are standard means of rhetorical expressions in acquiring and sharing information in daily life. Overwhelming sensory experiences associated with broadcast media ensure that neither 1 time to study individual factors that render media as iconic, nor 2 interest in interpretation of such dynamics prior to public release. That leads to deeper issues of access, privilege, and motive, yet only through serious scholarly inquiry can we gain understanding of rhetorical roots and expressions of the diverse entities producing media that eventually becomes iconic.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: moss [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens. Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_L.png Physcomitrella_patens..._subsp_patens_NL.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_S.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens...%2e&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t

  19. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Old world swallowtail Papilio machaon Arthropoda Papilio_machaon_L.png Papilio_machaon_NL.png Papilio_machao...n_S.png Papilio_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machao...n&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=47 ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: aye-aye [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Daubentonia_madaga...scariensis_L.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_NL.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_S.png Daubentonia_madagasc...ariensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=S http://bi

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_L.png Diplazium_tomit...aroanum_Masam_NL.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_S.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masa...m_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+java...nica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: African savanna elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available African savanna elephant Loxodonta africana Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Loxodonta_afri...cana_L.png Loxodonta_africana_NL.png Loxodonta_africana_S.png Loxodonta_africana_NS....png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+afric...ana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wild Bactrian camel Camelus ferus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Pacific electric ray [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Torpedo_californica_L.png Torpedo..._californica_NL.png Torpedo_californica_S.png Torpedo_californica_NS.png http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+jap...onicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  11. Beyond Iconic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormans, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Realism remains a prominent topic in game design and industry research; yet, a strong academic case can be made that games are anything, but realistic. This article frames realism in games in semiotic terms as iconic simulation and argues that games can gain expressiveness when they move beyond the current focus on iconic simulation. In parallel…

  12. Smart Icon Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Icons are frequently used in the music classroom to depict concepts in a developmentally appropriate way for students. SmartBoards provide music educators yet another way to share these manipulatives with students. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial to create Smart Icon Cards using the folk song "Lucy Locket."

  13. Iconic decay in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S; Robinson, Benjamin M; Fuller, Rebecca L; Luck, Steven J; Gold, James M

    2011-09-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the information is lost and could thus contribute to the working memory deficit seen in the illness. The current study used a partial report procedure to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia (n = 37) display faster iconic memory decay than matched healthy control participants (n = 28). Six letters, arranged in a circle, were presented for 50 ms. Following a variable delay of 0-1000 ms, a central arrow cue indicated the item to be reported. In both patients and control subjects, recall accuracy decreased with increasing cue delay, reflecting decay of the iconic representation of the stimulus array. Patients displayed impaired memory performance across all cue delays, consistent with an impairment in working memory, but the rate of iconic memory decay did not differ between patients and controls. This provides clear evidence against faster loss of iconic memory representations in schizophrenia, ruling out iconic decay as an underlying source of the working memory impairment in this population. Thus, iconic decay rate can be added to a growing list of unimpaired cognitive building blocks in schizophrenia.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: North Pacific right whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eu...theria/Cetacea Eubalaena_japonica_L.png Eubalaena_japonica_NL.png Eubalaena_japonica_S.png Eubalaena_japonic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NS ...

  15. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  16. Iconic Decay in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Fuller, Rebecca L.; Luck, Steven J.; Gold, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the info...

  17. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_L.png Synecho...cystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis

  19. Seeing iconic gestures while encoding events facilitates children's memory of these events

    OpenAIRE

    Aussems, Suzanne; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-01-01

    An experiment with 72 three-year-olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control co...

  20. Iconic memory requires attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  1. Iconic memory requires attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan ePersuh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change-detection paradigm (Experiment 1 or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2. In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load. However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load, observers’ performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  2. Design and Iconic Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The VW Beetle, Apple, Porsche … many iconic brands have reached their status with groundbreaking designs. But what makes these designs so special? And is it really the design factor that accounts for the overall success of a brand? Dr. Walter de Silva shares with us his thoughts on iconic designs, the design process and the role of design in branding. Open your heart and mind to his extensive experience in developing designs for Volkswagen, Audi and other brands of the Volkswagen Group

  3. Classification of iconic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zrianina, Mariia; Kopf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Iconic images represent an abstract topic and use a presentation that is intuitively understood within a certain cultural context. For example, the abstract topic “global warming” may be represented by a polar bear standing alone on an ice floe. Such images are widely used in media and their automatic classification can help to identify high-level semantic concepts. This paper presents a system for the classification of iconic images. It uses a variation of the Bag of Visual Words approach wi...

  4. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan イメージを差し替えました(添付は旧イメージ) ttamura 2009/04/21 12:50:03 ...

  5. Comment: 215 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 215.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:電子顕微鏡バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:30:03 2010/02/15 15:30:03 ...

  6. GlowPhones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy Robert; Nielsen, Christine Linding; Jakobsen, Frederik Lund

    2017-01-01

    Location-based mobile games often utilize built-in sensors for supporting game experiences tied to the physical world, yet the visual user interface remains constrained to the small high-resolution screen. GlowPhones is a location-based mobile social game using low-resolution displays to augment...... the physical space and move the attention away from the mobile screen. Players explore the physical world and collaborate to overcome challenges relying on the screen glow intensity emitted from the phone’s screen and light flash frequency of the camera flash for navigation. Three game stages explore proxemics...

  7. The Semantic Analysis of Icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Piravivanak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available "Eikon" (Greek word or "Imago" (Latin word signifies a kind of similarity or "likeness". In Plato’s philosophy, this term implies "likeness" of appearance to pattern or symbol. In semantic analysis of icon, which is correlated with Idea, we can find factors such as "perception", "imagination", "likeness", "imitation" (Mimesis, "imaginary ideas", that is, it is not possible to reduce icon to a material picture because it is supported by cultural (symbolic, perceptual and conceptual sources. The process in which an icon is established indicates a special relation between icon and imaginary ideas that is supported by symbolic sources. Then, it is not possible to regard icon as a material picture because icon is an icon of a symbol which is able to play its role visibly in relation to a symbol.

  8. Seeing Iconic Gestures While Encoding Events Facilitates Children's Memory of These Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussems, Suzanne; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-11-08

    An experiment with 72 three-year-olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control conditions. Iconic gestures were categorized based on how much of the actors was represented by the hands (feet, legs, or body). Only iconic hand-as-body gestures boosted actor memory. Thus, seeing iconic gestures while encoding events facilitates children's memory of those aspects of events that are schematically highlighted by gesture. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci...ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:メダカ HNI-Ⅱ系統バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:31:07 2010/02/16 09:53:27 ...

  10. Constructing, Confirming, and Contesting Icons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    link between icons and their appropriations. Three sets of appropriations are analyzed of the iconic imagery of Alan Kurdi, the refugee boy drowning in the Mediterranean in 2015. First, the numerous appropriations circulated under the Twitter hashtag #humanitywashedashore. Based on genre analysis...

  11. Iconic gestures prime related concepts: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying Croon; Coulson, Seana

    2007-02-01

    To assess priming by iconic gestures, we recorded EEG (at 29 scalp sites) in two experiments while adults watched short, soundless videos of spontaneously produced, cospeech iconic gestures followed by related or unrelated probe words. In Experiment 1, participants classified the relatedness between gestures and words. In Experiment 2, they attended to stimuli, and performed an incidental recognition memory test on words presented during the EEG recording session. Event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to the onset of probe words were measured, along with response latencies and word recognition rates. Although word relatedness did not affect reaction times or recognition rates, contextually related probe words elicited less-negative ERPs than did unrelated ones between 300 and 500 msec after stimulus onset (N400) in both experiments. These findings demonstrate sensitivity to semantic relations between iconic gestures and words in brain activity engendered during word comprehension.

  12. The 'icon' of output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bligh, L.N.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Output efficiency (OE) is a well-validated parameter used in the assessment of hydronephrosis. Current analysis on Microdelta appears to produce few low OE values and occasional inability to produce a result. We sought an OE program which gave a reliable response over the full range of values. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether OE results are comparable between two computer systems; (2) a normal range for OE on an ICON; (3) inter-observer reproducibility; and (4) the correlation between the two programs and the residual cortical activity ratio (RCA), an index which assesses tracer washout from the 20 min cortical activity/peak cortical activity. Accordingly, two blinded medical radiation scientists reviewed 41 kidneys (26 native, 15 transplant) and calculated OE for each kidney on the ICON and Microdelta computers The OE on the Microdelta and the ICON had good correspondence (r = 0.6%, SEE = 6.2). The extrapolated normal range for ICON OE was 69-92% (mean 80.9%). The inter-observer reproducibility on the ICON was excellent with a CV of 8.7%. ICON OE and RCA had a strong correlation (r = - 0.77, SEE = 0.09), compared with a weaker correlation for the Microdelta (r = 0.47, SEE = 0.13). Processing on the ICON was almost half that of the Microdelta at 4 min compared with 7 min. We conclude that OE generated by these computer programs has good correlation, an established normal range, excellent interobserver reproducibility, but differing correlation with RCA. The response of the ICON program to low ranges of OE is being investigated further

  13. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid iconic erasure without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, Charles Albert; Reeves, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We report on the erasure of the iconic memory of an array of 12 black letters flashed on a continuously- present white field. Erasure is accomplished by replacing the 16 ms letter array (frame 1) with a blank white frame for 16 ms (frame 2). The letter array returns in frame 3, with from one to six letters missing. Report of the missing letters is accurate without the blank white frame but is impoverished with it, as if interposing the blank erases the icon. Erasure occurs without any obvious luminance masking, 'mud splashes', pattern masking (backward, forward, or metacontrast), lateral masking, or masking by object substitution. Erasure is greatly decreased if the blank is presented one frame earlier or later. We speculate that erasure is due to a rapid reset of the icon produced by an informational mis-match.

  15. Iconic hyperlinks on e-commerce websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong-In; Patterson, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    The proper use of iconic interfaces reduces system complexity and helps users interact with systems more easily. However, due to carelessness, inadequate research, and the web's relatively short history, the icons used on web sites often are ambiguous. Because non-identifiable icons may convey meanings other than those intended, designers must consider whether icons are easily identifiable when creating web sites. In this study, visual icons used on e-business web sites were examined by population stereotypy and categorized into three groups: identifiable, medium, and vague. Representative icons from each group were tested by comparing selection performance in groups of student volunteers, with identifiable and medium icons improving performance. We found that only easily identifiable icons can reduce complexity and increase system usability.

  16. Voluntary eyeblinks disrupt iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E; Irwin, David E

    2006-04-01

    In the present research, we investigated whether eyeblinks interfere with cognitive processing. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a partial-report iconic memory task in which a letter array was presented for 106 msec, followed 50, 150, or 750 msec later by a tone that cued recall of onerow of the array. At a cue delay of 50 msec between array offset and cue onset, letter report accuracy was lower when the participants blinked following array presentation than under no-blink conditions; the participants made more mislocation errors under blink conditions. This result suggests that blinking interferes with the binding of object identity and object position in iconic memory. Experiment 2 demonstrated that interference due to blinks was not due merely to changes in light intensity. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that other motor responses did not interfere with iconic memory. We propose a new phenomenon, cognitive blink suppression, in which blinking inhibits cognitive processing. This phenomenon may be due to neural interference. Blinks reduce activation in area V1, which may interfere with the representation of information in iconic memory.

  17. Iconic Religion in Urban Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, B.; Knott, Kim; Krech, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand current dynamics of religious diversity, a focus on the tangible presence of religion and the co-existence of new and longstanding religious buildings, sites and artifacts in urban spaces is a fruitful starting point. Launching the notion of iconic religion, this introduction

  18. What becomes an icon most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Douglas B

    2003-03-01

    Some brands become icons. Think of Nike, Apple, Harley-Davidson: They're the brands every marketer regards with awe. But they are not built according to the principles of conventional marketing, says Harvard Business School marketing professor Douglas Holt. Iconic brands beat the competition not just by delivering innovative benefits, services, or technologies but by forging a deep connection with the culture. A brand becomes an icon when it offers a compelling myth, a story that can help people resolve tensions in their lives. The deepest source of tension in modern society is the disparity between national ideology and the average citizen's reality. When ideologies shift, myths become even more important, and in America, the most potent myths are depictions of rebels. Mountain Dew has long offered a rebel myth in ads showing exciting, vital men who are far from the ideological model of success. Loyal customers drink the beverage to consume the myth. But Mountain Dew's greatest achievement is that it has retained its iconic power by creating fresh rebel myths to suit the tensions of each era: first the hillbilly, who stood in stark contrast to the organization man of the 1950s and 1960s; then the redneck, who rebelled against the investment bankers and consultants of the 1970s and 1980s; and most recently the slacker, who rejects the values and behaviors that, for the past decade, have marked the successful executive. Holt says marketers can learn from Mountain Dew and other iconic brands if they are willing to move beyond conventional brand management and acquire knowledge and skills they may not have. They must learn to target national contradictions instead of just consumer segments, create myths that make sense of confusing societal changes, and speak with a rebel's voice.

  19. No iconic memory without attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Erol, Muge; Clarke, Jason; Bert, John

    2016-02-01

    The experiments reported extend the findings of our earlier paper, (Mack, Erol, & Clarke, 2015) and allow us to reject Bachmann and Aru's critique of our conclusion (2015) that IM requires attention. They suggested our manipulations, which diverted attention from a letter reporting task in a dual task procedure where the task-cue occurred after the array disappeared, might only have affected access to IM and not the "existence of the phenomenal experience". By further decreasing the probability of reporting letters to only 10% and adding a final trial in which the letter matrix was either completely absent or distorted, we found more than half our subjects were unaware of its absence, or distortion i.e., were inattentionally blind. We take this as powerful evidence against the existence of any phenomenal experience component of iconic memory and consistent with the view that iconic memory demands attention and that conscious perception does as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Malala and the politics of global iconicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The article presents a case analysis of Malala Yousafzai's transformation into a global injustice icon after she was shot in 2012 by the Pakistani Taliban for advocating for girls' right to education. The analysis focuses on the political aspects of this process and is divided into three parts. The first looks at factors that facilitated Malala's iconization as she was undergoing medical treatment and was unable to participate in her iconization. The second part starts when Malala enters the global public sphere and begins to actively contribute to the iconization process. The third part identifies de-iconizing resistance to Malala from Pakistani actors who see her iconization as a symbolic colonization in which Malala has become a vehicle of the West. Theoretically, the article is located within cultural sociology, but expands it in a political and global direction. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  1. Polar exponential sensor arrays unify iconic and Hough space representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The log-polar coordinate system, inherent in both polar exponential sensor arrays and log-polar remapped video imagery, is identical to the coordinate system of its corresponding Hough transform parameter space. The resulting unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computation for line recognition and eliminates the slope quantization problems inherent in the classical Cartesian Hough transform. The geometric organization of the algorithm is more amenable to massively parallel architectures than that of the Cartesian version. The neural architecture of the human visual cortex meets the geometric requirements to execute 'in-place' log-Hough algorithms of the kind described here.

  2. Global Communication with Icons in Environmental Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Heimbürger, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Icons are small signs with fixed meanings. Icons are usually context specific. For example in the context of a hotel, the client can often find icons in hotel room books and safety guides. Scandic Hotel chain, for example, currently provides the manual for its safety system in 14 languages. There are at least two major shortcomings of this system: (1) in emergency or panic situations, it is very difficult to find your own language from the leaflet, and (2) there are no Asian ...

  3. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  4. Common Gamma-ray Glows above Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicole; Smith, David; Dwyer, Joseph; Hazelton, Bryna; Grefenstette, Brian; Lowell, Alex; Splitt, Michael; Lazarus, Steven; Rassoul, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Gamma-ray glows are continuous, long duration gamma- and x-ray emission seen coming from thunderclouds. The Airborne for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) observed 12 gamma-ray glows during its summer 2009 flight campaign over the areas of Colorado and Florida in the United States. For these glows we shall present their spectra, relationship to lightning activity and how their duration and size changes as a function of distance. Gamma-ray glows follow the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) spectrum and have been previously measured from the ground and inside the cloud. ADELE measured most glows as it flew above the screening layer of the cloud. During the brightest glow on August 21, 2009, we can show that we are flying directly into a downward facing relativistic runaway avalanche, indicative of flying between the upper positive and negative screening layer of the cloud. In order to explain the brightness of this glow, RREA with an electric field approaching the limit for relativistic feedback must be occurring. Using all 12 glows, we show that lightning activity diminishes during the onset of the glow. Using this along with the fact that glows occur as the field approaches the level necessary for feedback, we attempt to distinguish between two possibilities: that glows are evidence that RREA with feedback, rather than lightning, is sometimes the primary channel for discharging the cloud, or else that the overall discharging is still controlled by lightning, with glows simply appearing during times when a subsidence of lightning allows the field to rise above the threshold for RREA.

  5. Fallingwater: Preserving an American icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda S. Waggoner

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater is an icon of 20th century architecture. It is undoubtedly one of the most emblematic, best known and most admired buildings in the world. The complex restoration process, which LOGGIA has the honour of including in this issue, has the added virtue that it throws new light on its design and execution. The restoration covers not only compromised structural and aesthetic aspects related to the concrete surfaces of the building but even the environmental management of the whole site, more and more endangered by the large number of visitors received.

  6. Y. Laberge on Jazz Icons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available (Various artists, Jazz Icons: Series 4. Reelin' In The Years Productions and Naxos, 2.108003. Box Set (8 DVDs, 2009, 10 hours. B&W. All regions (no DVD zone. 1. Coleman Hawkins- Live in '62 & '64- (w/ Sweets Edison and Jo Jones 2. Art Blakey- Live in '65- (w/ Freddie Hubbard 3.  Erroll Garner - Live in '63 & '64 4.  Jimmy Smith- Live in '69 5.  Woody Herman- Live in '64 6.  Anita O'Day- Live In '63 & '70 7.  Art Farmer- Live In '64- (w/ Jim Hall 8. Bonus performances, including excerpts...

  7. Iconic Memories Die a Sudden Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S

    2018-06-01

    Iconic memory is characterized by its large storage capacity and brief storage duration, whereas visual working memory is characterized by its small storage capacity. The limited information stored in working memory is often modeled as an all-or-none process in which studied information is either successfully stored or lost completely. This view raises a simple question: If almost all viewed information is stored in iconic memory, yet one second later most of it is completely absent from working memory, what happened to it? Here, I characterized how the precision and capacity of iconic memory changed over time and observed a clear dissociation: Iconic memory suffered from a complete loss of visual items, while the precision of items retained in memory was only marginally affected by the passage of time. These results provide new evidence for the discrete-capacity view of working memory and a new characterization of iconic memory decay.

  8. Numerical analysis of thermoluminescence glow curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Ros, J. M.; Delgado, A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a method for the numerical analysis of complex thermoluminescence glow curves resolving the individual glow peak components. The method employs first order kinetics analytical expressions and is based In a Marquart-Levenberg minimization procedure. A simplified version of this method for thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is also described and specifically developed to operate whit Lithium Fluoride TLD-100. (Author). 36 refs

  9. Glow discharge in singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsyn, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no experimental data on the plasma balance in gas mixtures with a high content of singlet delta oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ). These data can be obtained by studying the parameters of an electric discharge in singlet oxygen produced by a chemical generator. The O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) molecules significantly change the kinetics of electrons and negative ions in plasma. Hence, the discharge conditions at low and high O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentrations are very different. Here, the parameters of the positive column of a glow discharge in a gas flow from a chemical singlet-oxygen generator are studied. It is experimentally shown that, at an O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentration of 50% and at pressures of 1.5 and 2 torr, the electric field required to sustain the discharge is considerably lower than in the case when all of the oxygen molecules are in the ground state. A theoretical model of the glow discharge is proposed whose predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  10. dc glow-discharge cleaning for accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Hseuh, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Average pressure of 1 x 10 -11 torr and vacuum stability are necessary for the successful operation of the proton storage rings such as ISABELLE. Vacuum degassing at high temperature and in situ bake-out will reduce the thermoout-gassing rate of the beam tubes to approx. 10 -13 Tl/cm 2 sec, therefore achieving the required static pressure. The vacuum instability caused by beam-induced ion desorption can be solved by dc glow discharge cleaning. With evidence from this study, the present understanding of glow discharge in a cylindrically symmetric geometry is reviewed. Argon and argon/oxygen mixture serve as plasmas in the glow. The role of oxygen in cleaning the beam tubes during the glow discharge is demonstrated experimentally. Glow discharge cleaning with and without bake-out is also studied

  11. When expectation confounds iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Talis; Aru, Jaan

    2016-10-01

    In response to the methodological criticism (Bachmann & Aru, 2015) of the interpretation of their earlier experimental results (Mack, Erol, & Clarke, 2015) Mack, Erol, Clarke, and Bert (2016) presented new results that they interpret again in favor of the stance that an attention-free phenomenal iconic store does not exist. Here we once more question their conclusions. When their subjects were unexpectedly asked to report the letters instead of the post-cued circles in the 101th trial where letters were actually absent, they likely failed to see the empty display area because prior experience with letters in the preceding trials produced expectancy based illusory experience of letter-like objects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The equations icons of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bais, Sander

    2005-01-01

    For thousands of years mankind has tried to understand nature. Exploring the world on all scales with instruments of ever more ingenuity, we have been able to unravel some of the great mysteries that surround us. While collecting an overwhelming multitude of observational facts, we discovered fundamental laws that govern the structure and evolution of physical reality. We know that nature speaks to us in the language of mathematics. In this language most of our basic understanding of the physical world can be expressed in an unambiguous and concise way. The most artificial language turns out to be the most natural of all. The laws of nature correspond to equations. These equations are the icons of knowledge that mark crucial turning points in our thinking about the world we happen to live in. They form the symbolic representation of most of what we know, and as such constitute an important and robust part of our culture.

  13. Computer Icons and the Art of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, John R.

    1996-01-01

    States that key aspects of "memoria," the ancient Art of Memory, especially its focus on vivid representational images set against distinct backgrounds, can be helpful in creating memorable, universal, and easily retrievable computer icons. (PA)

  14. Is the negative glow plasma of a direct current glow discharge negatively charged?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, E. A.; Saifutdinov, A. I.; Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A classic problem in gas discharge physics is discussed: what is the sign of charge density in the negative glow region of a glow discharge? It is shown that traditional interpretations in text-books on gas discharge physics that states a negative charge of the negative glow plasma are based on analogies with a simple one-dimensional model of discharge. Because the real glow discharges with a positive column are always two-dimensional, the transversal (radial) term in divergence with the electric field can provide a non-monotonic axial profile of charge density in the plasma, while maintaining a positive sign. The numerical calculation of glow discharge is presented, showing a positive space charge in the negative glow under conditions, where a one-dimensional model of the discharge would predict a negative space charge

  15. What makes icons appealing? The role of processing fluency in predicting icon appeal in different task contexts.

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, S.; Reppa, I.; Kulik, J.; Taylor, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although icons appear on almost all interfaces, there is a paucity of research examining the determinants of icon appeal. The experiments reported here examined the icon characteristics determining appeal and the extent to which processing fluency - the subjective ease with which individuals process information - was used as a heuristic to guide appeal evaluations. Participants searched for, and identified, icons in displays. The initial appeal of icons was held constant while ease of process...

  16. Limits to the usability of iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensink, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Human vision briefly retains a trace of a stimulus after it disappears. This trace-iconic memory-is often believed to be a surrogate for the original stimulus, a representational structure that can be used as if the original stimulus were still present. To investigate its nature, a flicker-search paradigm was developed that relied upon a full scan (rather than partial report) of its contents. Results show that for visual search it can indeed act as a surrogate, with little cost for alternating between visible and iconic representations. However, the duration over which it can be used depends on the type of task: some tasks can use iconic memory for at least 240 ms, others for only about 190 ms, while others for no more than about 120 ms. The existence of these different limits suggests that iconic memory may have multiple layers, each corresponding to a particular level of the visual hierarchy. In this view, the inability to use a layer of iconic memory may reflect an inability to maintain feedback connections to the corresponding representation.

  17. Limits to the Usability of Iconic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Rensink

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human vision briefly retains a trace of a stimulus after it disappears. This trace—iconic memory—is often believed to be a surrogate for the original stimulus, a representational structure that can be used as if the original stimulus were still present. To investigate its nature, a flicker-search paradigm was developed that relied upon a full scan (rather than partial report of its contents. Results show that for visual search it can indeed act as a surrogate, with little cost for alternating between visible and iconic representations. However, the duration over which it can be used depends on the type of task: some tasks can use iconic memory for at least 240 ms, others for only about 190 ms, while others for no more than about 120 ms. The existence of these different limits suggests that iconic memory may have multiple layers, each corresponding to a particular level of the visual hierarchy. In this view, the inability to use a layer of iconic memory may reflect an inability to maintain feedback connections to the corresponding representation.

  18. The thermoluminescence glow-curve analysis using GlowFit - the new powerful tool for deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchalska, M.; Bilski, P.

    2005-10-01

    A new computer program, GlowFit, for deconvoluting first-order kinetics thermoluminescence (TL) glow-curves has been developed. A non-linear function describing a single glow-peak is fitted to experimental points using the least squares Levenberg-Marquardt method. The main advantage of GlowFit is in its ability to resolve complex TL glow-curves consisting of strongly overlapping peaks, such as those observed in heavily doped LiF:Mg,Ti (MTT) detectors. This resolution is achieved mainly by setting constraints or by fixing selected parameters. The initial values of the fitted parameters are placed in the so-called pattern files. GlowFit is a Microsoft Windows-operated user-friendly program. Its graphic interface enables easy intuitive manipulation of glow-peaks, at the initial stage (parameter initialization) and at the final stage (manual adjustment) of fitting peak parameters to the glow-curves. The program is freely downloadable from the web site www.ifj.edu.pl/NPP/deconvolution.htm (author)

  19. In-Flight Observation of Gamma Ray Glows by ILDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; van Deursen, A. P. J.; Marisaldi, M.; Ursi, A.; de Boer, A. I.; Bardet, M.; Allasia, C.; Boissin, J.-F.; Flourens, F.; Østgaard, N.

    2017-12-01

    An Airbus A340 aircraft flew over Northern Australia with the In-Flight Lightning Damage Assessment System (ILDAS) installed onboard. A long-duration gamma ray emission was detected. The most intense emission was observed at 12 km altitude and lasted for 20 s. Its intensity was 20 times the background counts, and it was abruptly terminated by a distant lightning flash. In this work we reconstruct the aircraft path and event timeline. The glow-terminating flash triggered a discharge from the aircraft wing that was recorded by a video camera operating onboard. Another count rate increase was observed 6 min later and lasted for 30 s. The lightning activity as reported by ground networks in this region was analyzed. The measured spectra characteristics of the emission were estimated.

  20. Dating of ancient icons from Kiev art collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalyukh, N; van der Plicht, J; Possnert, G; Skripkin, [No Value; Chlenova, L; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    Icon painting in the Ukraine is rooted in the Byzantine culture, after the conversion to the Christian religion. During the medieval epoch, Kiev became the artistic center for highly skilled icon painters. The icons were painted on wooden boards, specially made for this purpose. Historic dating of

  1. Icon arrays help younger children's proportional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Xu, Fei

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the effects of two context variables, presentation format (icon arrays or numerical frequencies) and time limitation (limited or unlimited time), on the proportional reasoning abilities of children aged 7 and 10 years, as well as adults. Participants had to select, between two sets of tokens, the one that offered the highest likelihood of drawing a gold token, that is, the set of elements with the greater proportion of gold tokens. Results show that participants performed better in the unlimited time condition. Moreover, besides a general developmental improvement in accuracy, our results show that younger children performed better when proportions were presented as icon arrays, whereas older children and adults were similarly accurate in the two presentation format conditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is a developmental improvement in proportional reasoning accuracy. Icon arrays facilitate reasoning in adults with low numeracy. What does this study add? Participants were more accurate when they were given more time to make the proportional judgement. Younger children's proportional reasoning was more accurate when they were presented with icon arrays. Proportional reasoning abilities correlate with working memory, approximate number system, and subitizing skills. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Effect of Typeface on Iconic Storage Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Valerie

    Various aspects of iconic memory have been studied in the past. Two tachistoscopic experiments were conducted to examine how legibility of a stimulus affects a subject's ability to recall brief visual presentation. The studies used letter arrays set in four different typefaces (Helvetica, Cooper Black Outline, Electronic, Old English). In the…

  3. Glow plasma jet - experimental study of a transferred atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Mutis, Marlon H; U, Carlos V Pelaez; H, Rafael Cabanzo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental study of a glow plasma jet (GPJ) obtained from a transferred atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) operating at 60 Hz. The characterization of the emission spectra for both electrical discharges is presented and the electrical circuit features for APGD generation are discussed. The potentiality of GPJ as a source of active species for depletion of contaminants in liquid hydrocarbon fractions is also established

  4. Plasma Beam Interaction with Negative glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tayeb, H.A.; El-Gamal, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature coaxial gun has been used to study the effect of the energy spectrum of the ejected plasma on the interaction with negative glow region in a normal glow discharge. The peak discharge current flow between the coaxial electrodes was 5.25 K A as a single pulse with pulse duration of 60 MUs. Investigations are carried out with argon gas at pressure 0.4 Torr. The sheath thickness of the ejected plasma from the coaxial discharge was 6 cm with different densities and energies. The spectrum of electron energy varies between 6 eV and 1 eV, while the electron density varies between 5 x 10 12 cm -3 and 4x10 13 cm -3 . The peak velocity of the ejected plasma was 0. 8 x 10 5 cm sec -1 in the neutral argon atoms. Argon negative glow region used as base plasma has an electron temperature of 2.2 eV and electron density of 6.2 x10 7 cm -3 . It had been found that the velocity of the ejected plasma decreased when it moves in the negative glow region and its mean electron temperature decreased. The results are compared with the theory of beam interaction with cold plasma

  5. Affixes, Austronesian and iconicity in Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Benjamin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Explanations are offered for the puzzling differences between the forms and meanings of the Malay affixes and those of the broader Austronesian affixal system from which they derive. Oral-gesture iconicity is involved in the encoding of meanings that have both language-internal and social significance. The various verbal prefixes can be analysed both historically and iconically as different combinations of (1 a labial series (m , b , p indicating ‘source orientation’ with (2 r ‘iterative’ and (3 ( N ‘process marker’. The full range of forms becomes apparent only if a sufficiently wide range of Malay and Malayic speech-varieties, both ancient and modern, are brought to bear on the discussion. The different meanings and functions associated with the various prefixes are motivated by the different semantic concerns engendered by the social and cultural circumstances peculiar to each of the speech-varieties.

  6. Iconic cuisines, marketing and place promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This chapter looks at how food and drink narratives are utilised to promote and create place identities. By exploring the concepts of heritage branding and constructed historical narratives, it illustrates how iconic cuisines are being employed to promote place and attract consumers. It argues that the marketing process is more than utilising established aspects of heritage cuisines and historical truths, as it is often about creating narratives to meet the evolving needs of destinations and ...

  7. Generic icons – yes or no?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Bedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The information society has become increasingly dependant on programs that are subjected to frequent evolutive, basic and logical changes for a variety of reasons whereas the visual design of the program/program interface mostly remains the same or gets slightly modified. The development of technology has become to such an extent a commonplace that the use of redesigned programs implies icons that are visually acceptable although representing obsolete technologies and that are eventually hard to change due to the habits developed by the program users. The research presents a study into the personal preference as to a particular icon, “Save” for example, and into the perception of the visual identities of today's programs under the circumstance of program icons being not compliant with the technological state-of-the-art. Based on the obtained results, the survey that included students attending web design and media technician courses and ECDL course participants who come in contact with computers and programming tools for the first time should enlighten both teachers and designers of programming interfaces about the way of linking the formal knowledge with a constructivist approach to designing and redesigning programs.

  8. Tools for language: patterned iconicity in sign language nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Carol; Hwang, So-One; Lepic, Ryan; Seegers, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    When naming certain hand-held, man-made tools, American Sign Language (ASL) signers exhibit either of two iconic strategies: a handling strategy, where the hands show holding or grasping an imagined object in action, or an instrument strategy, where the hands represent the shape or a dimension of the object in a typical action. The same strategies are also observed in the gestures of hearing nonsigners identifying pictures of the same set of tools. In this paper, we compare spontaneously created gestures from hearing nonsigning participants to commonly used lexical signs in ASL. Signers and gesturers were asked to respond to pictures of tools and to video vignettes of actions involving the same tools. Nonsigning gesturers overwhelmingly prefer the handling strategy for both the Picture and Video conditions. Nevertheless, they use more instrument forms when identifying tools in pictures, and more handling forms when identifying actions with tools. We found that ASL signers generally favor the instrument strategy when naming tools, but when describing tools being used by an actor, they are significantly more likely to use more handling forms. The finding that both gesturers and signers are more likely to alternate strategies when the stimuli are pictures or video suggests a common cognitive basis for differentiating objects from actions. Furthermore, the presence of a systematic handling/instrument iconic pattern in a sign language demonstrates that a conventionalized sign language exploits the distinction for grammatical purpose, to distinguish nouns and verbs related to tool use. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Propagation of ionizing waves in glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1977-01-01

    Ionizing waves were produced along the positive column of a glow discharge in air by applying an impulse voltage to an electrode at one end of the column. Five photomultipliers and three current-sensing coils were used to observe how the waves were affected by the rise time and the magnitude of the applied impulses and by the electron density in the positive column of the glow discharge. It is shown that the speed of the ionizing waves increases with the slope of the applied impulses and with the preexisting electron density. The electron density is augmented about 100--200 times due to the buildup of ionization at the front of the waves. The theory was developed to explain the property of ionizing waves

  10. Global Communication with Icons : Hotel Safety as an Environmental Context

    OpenAIRE

    Heimbürger, Anneli; Khanom, Sukanya

    2015-01-01

    Icons are small signs with fixed meanings. Icons are usually context specific. For example in the context of a hotel, the client can often find icons in hotel room books and safety guides. Scandic Hotel chain, for example, currently provides the manual for its safety system in 14 languages. There are at least two major shortcomings of this system: (1) in emergency or panic situations, it is very difficult to find your own language from the leaflet, and (2) there are no Asian ...

  11. How iconic gestures enhance communication: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana

    2007-06-01

    EEG was recorded as adults watched short segments of spontaneous discourse in which the speaker's gestures and utterances contained complementary information. Videos were followed by one of four types of picture probes: cross-modal related probes were congruent with both speech and gestures; speech-only related probes were congruent with information in the speech, but not the gesture; and two sorts of unrelated probes were created by pairing each related probe with a different discourse prime. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by picture probes were measured within the time windows of the N300 (250-350 ms post-stimulus) and N400 (350-550 ms post-stimulus). Cross-modal related probes elicited smaller N300 and N400 than speech-only related ones, indicating that pictures were easier to interpret when they corresponded with gestures. N300 and N400 effects were not due to differences in the visual complexity of each probe type, since the same cross-modal and speech-only picture probes elicited N300 and N400 with similar amplitudes when they appeared as unrelated items. These findings extend previous research on gesture comprehension by revealing how iconic co-speech gestures modulate conceptualization, enabling listeners to better represent visuo-spatial aspects of the speaker's meaning.

  12. Electron beam generation in high voltage glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, J.J.; Szapiro, B.; Murray, C.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of intense CW and pulsed electron beams in glow discharges in reviewed. Glow discharge electron guns operate at a pressure of the order of 1 Torr and often have an advantage in applications that require a broad area electron beam in a gaseous atmosphere, such as laser excitation and some aspects of materials processing. Aspects of electron gun design are covered. Diagnostics of the high voltage glow discharges including the electric field distribution mapped by Doppler free laser spectroscopy, and plasma density and electron temperature measurements of the electron yield of different cathode materials under glow discharge conditions are presented

  13. The Shroud of Turin: Relic or icon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, W.S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Shroud of Turin, a linen cloth on which appear the imprints of the front and back of a crucified man, can be historically traced to ca. 1354 A.D. Many believe it to be a true relic of the Passion of Christ. Many others regard it as a fake. This paper suggests a third alternative, that it is an icon dating from the 11th century. If future scientific tests, of which radiocarbon dating will be the most important, support this theory, the Shroud of Turin may well be recognized as one of the masterpieces of Christian art. (orig.)

  14. EMOTION DESIGN OF AN ICONIC (VOLKSWAGEN) CAMPERVAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kagali, Linus

    2014-01-01

    This research looks into the thinking and the process of re-design a piece of automotive icon, the Volkswagen campervan known as T1 or microbus. The campervan re-designed with new visual language, and emotions. The re-designed campervan is intended for the new generation of campers and outdoor seekers, a generation of tech savvy people in a world which is rapidly and gradually changing. The need of understanding the relationship between design and emotions fuelled this design project, bas...

  15. Limits to the Usability of Iconic Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald A. Rensink

    2014-01-01

    Human vision briefly retains a trace of a stimulus after it disappears. This trace—iconic memory—is often believed to be a surrogate for the original stimulus, a representational structure that can be used as if the original stimulus were still present. To investigate its nature, a flicker-search paradigm was developed that relied upon a full scan (rather than partial report) of its contents. Results show that for visual search it can indeed act as a surrogate, with little cost for alterna...

  16. Iconic Gestures as Undervalued Representations during Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Shien; Lee, Yew-Jin; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Iconic gestures that are ubiquitous in speech are integral to human meaning-making. However, few studies have attempted to map out the role of these gestures in science teaching. This paper provides a review of existing literature in everyday communication and education to articulate potential contributions of iconic gestures for science teaching.…

  17. Young Children Create Iconic Gestures to Inform Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Much is known about young children's use of deictic gestures such as pointing. Much less is known about their use of other types of communicative gestures, especially iconic or symbolic gestures. In particular, it is unknown whether children can create iconic gestures on the spot to inform others. Study 1 provided 27-month-olds with the…

  18. Does Iconicity in Pictographs Matter? The Influence of Iconicity and Numeracy on Information Processing, Decision Making, and Liking in an Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzmair, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    Researchers recommend the use of pictographs in medical risk communication to improve people's risk comprehension and decision making. However, it is not yet clear whether the iconicity used in pictographs to convey risk information influences individuals' information processing and comprehension. In an eye-tracking experiment with participants from the general population (N = 188), we examined whether specific types of pictograph icons influence the processing strategy viewers use to extract numerical information. In addition, we examined the effect of iconicity and numeracy on probability estimation, recall, and icon liking. This experiment used a 2 (iconicity: blocks vs. restroom icons) × 2 (scenario: medical vs. nonmedical) between-subject design. Numeracy had a significant effect on information processing strategy, but we found no effect of iconicity or scenario. Results indicated that both icon types enabled high and low numerates to use their default way of processing and extracting the gist of the message from the pictorial risk communication format: high numerates counted icons, whereas low numerates used large-area processing. There was no effect of iconicity in the probability estimation. However, people who saw restroom icons had a higher probability of correctly recalling the exact risk level. Iconicity had no effect on icon liking. Although the effects are small, our findings suggest that person-like restroom icons in pictographs seem to have some advantages for risk communication. Specifically, in nonpersonalized prevention brochures, person-like restroom icons may maintain reader motivation for processing the risk information. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Identifying the warm glow effect in contingent valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.A.L.D.; Schokkaert, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a contingent valuation study designed to investigate the influence of warm glow in willingness to pay (WTP) responses. Interindividual differences in warm glow motivation are measured through a factor analysis, performed on a list of attitudinal items. The

  20. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  1. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI) of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  2. Comprehension of iconic gestures by chimpanzees and human children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Iconic gestures-communicative acts using hand or body movements that resemble their referent-figure prominently in theories of language evolution and development. This study contrasted the abilities of chimpanzees (N=11) and 4-year-old human children (N=24) to comprehend novel iconic gestures. Participants learned to retrieve rewards from apparatuses in two distinct locations, each requiring a different action. In the test, a human adult informed the participant where to go by miming the action needed to obtain the reward. Children used the iconic gestures (more than arbitrary gestures) to locate the reward, whereas chimpanzees did not. Some children also used arbitrary gestures in the same way, but only after they had previously shown comprehension for iconic gestures. Over time, chimpanzees learned to associate iconic gestures with the appropriate location faster than arbitrary gestures, suggesting at least some recognition of the iconicity involved. These results demonstrate the importance of iconicity in referential communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems.

  4. Effects of Iconicity and Semantic Relatedness on Lexical Access in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G.; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Iconicity is a property that pervades the lexicon of many sign languages, including American Sign Language (ASL). Iconic signs exhibit a motivated, nonarbitrary mapping between the form of the sign and its meaning. We investigated whether iconicity enhances semantic priming effects for ASL and whether iconic signs are recognized more quickly than…

  5. The Iconic Chora: A Space of Kenotic Presence and Void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2000-01-01

    and a cognitive theory that have proved incapable of explaining the endurance of the Byzantine scheme of the icon and of its oxymoronic (paradoxical) definition, except through an appeal to primitivism. I will attempt to put forward an alternative reading of the iconic space and show how vision itself......  The purpose of this essay is not exhaustive research concerning the iconic space and vision in Byzantium. Rather, the aim is to reshuffle the texts - from theological statements in defense of the image to liturgical, living ritual - to build up a polemical discourse with a tradition...

  6. Pre-glow phenomenon origin and its scaling for ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.; Skalyga, V.; Zorin, V.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-glow is the multi-charged ion current burst that may occur at the beginning of the beam pulse. Pre-glow effect investigation is one of topical directions of ECR ion sources development at present. Pre-glow is of interest for efficient short-pulsed multicharged ion source creation. Particularly, such source of intense beams of short living radioactive isotopes multi-charged ions is one of key elements in 'Beta-Beam' European project. The use of Pre-glow-generating regime of an ECRIS operation is a promising way of pulsed high-intense multi-charged ion beams production with much shorter edges in comparison with usual operation regime. Numerical simulations made with the updated theoretical model allow authors to propose more physical and intuitive explanations of Pre-glow phenomenon origins. The obtained dependences of Pre-glow characteristics on experimental conditions offer a scaling for a wide range of ECRIS. The propose scaling demonstrates that an ECR source with plasma heating by radiation at frequency of 37 GHz and higher seems to be the most effective in terms of currents, pre-glow intensity and mean ion charge. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  7. Reconstruction of thermally quenched glow curves in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subedi, Bhagawan; Polymeris, George S.; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Pagonis, Vasilis; Kitis, George

    2012-01-01

    The experimentally measured thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of quartz samples are influenced by the presence of the thermal quenching effect, which involves a variation of the luminescence efficiency as a function of temperature. The real shape of the thermally unquenched TL glow curves is completely unknown. In the present work an attempt is made to reconstruct these unquenched glow curves from the quenched experimental data, and for two different types of quartz samples. The reconstruction is based on the values of the thermal quenching parameter W (activation energy) and C (a dimensionless constant), which are known from recent experimental work on these two samples. A computerized glow-curve deconvolution (CGCD) analysis was performed twice for both the reconstructed and the experimental TL glow curves. Special attention was paid to check for consistency between the results of these two independent CGCD analyses. The investigation showed that the reconstruction attempt was successful, and it is concluded that the analysis of reconstructed TL glow curves can provide improved values of the kinetic parameters E, s for the glow peaks of quartz. This also leads to a better evaluation of the half-lives of electron trapping levels used for dosimetry and luminescence dating.

  8. An iconic programming language for sensor-based robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Matthew; Stewart, David B.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe an iconic programming language called Onika for sensor-based robotic systems. Onika is both modular and reconfigurable and can be used with any system architecture and real-time operating system. Onika is also a multi-level programming environment wherein tasks are built by connecting a series of icons which, in turn, can be defined in terms of other icons at the lower levels. Expert users are also allowed to use control block form to define servo tasks. The icons in Onika are both shape and color coded, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, thus providing a form of error control in the development of high level applications.

  9. Iconic and Immediate Memory in Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, G. D.; Janzen, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    As age and grade increased, recall on all tasks increased; subjects in grades three to six were also seen to have a fully developed Iconic Memory, while only sixth graders had a functionally developed Immediate Memory. (KR)

  10. Multiplicity detector using a glow-discharge memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulera, T.; Elola, M.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wiedenbeck, P.

    1981-04-01

    It has been proposed to eliminate the x-y cor relation ambiguities introduced by multiple tracks in a wire chamber by using the chamber itself as a memory. Hits in the chamber itself ignite glow discharges storing the x-y location of the hits in a correlated fashion. Glow ignition may be achieved by employing a multi-step avalanche chamber above a memory gap. Correlation is maintained during readout by successively pulsing each hit wire in one coordinate and sensing transmissions through glows in the other coordinate. Prototypes constructed by the authors are discussed along with the associated high voltage and readout systems

  11. Business Model Innovation: How Iconic Business Models Emerge

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhalkina, T.; Cabantous, L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite ample research on the topic of business model innovation, little is known about the cognitive processes whereby some innovative business models gain the status of iconic representations of particular types of firms. This study addresses the question: How do iconic business models emerge? In other words: How do innovative business models become prototypical exemplars for new categories of firms? We focus on the case of Airbnb, and analyze how six mainstream business media publications ...

  12. The Road to Language Learning Is Not Entirely Iconic: Iconicity, Neighborhood Density, and Frequency Facilitate Acquisition of Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Pyers, Jennie E

    2017-07-01

    Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition. Despite differences in iconicity and phonological structure between signed and spoken language, signing children, like children learning a spoken language, track statistical information about lexical items and their phonological properties and leverage this information to expand their vocabulary.

  13. Radio-frequency glow discharge spectrometry: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, Michael R.; Payling, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of analytical radio frequency glow discharge spectrometry (rf-GDS). The historical foundations of rf-GDS are described, and current knowledge of the fundamental physics of analytical rf glow discharges is discussed. Additionally, instrumentation, methodologies, and applications of rf glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (rf-GDOES) and mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) are reviewed. Although other rf-GDS techniques have appeared [e.g. rf glow discharge atomic absorption spectrophotometry (rf-GDAAS)], the emphasis is placed upon rf-GDOES and rf-GDMS, because they have received by far the most interest from analytical chemical metrologists. This review also provides explanations of some developments that are needed for further progress in the field of analytical rf-GDS

  14. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  15. On the distribution of plasma parameters in RF glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Cheng; Liu Zuli; Liu Donghui; Han Caiyuan.

    1993-01-01

    A self-consistent numerical model based on the two-fluid equations for describing the transport of charged particles in the RF glow discharge is presented. For a plasma generator filled with low-pressure air and parallel-plate electrodes, the model is numerical solved. The space-time distribution of parameters and the spatial distribution of some time-averaged parameters in plasma, which show the physical picture of the RF glow discharge, are obtained

  16. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated “trial-and-error” protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  17. Featured Image: Identifying a Glowing Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    New nebulae are being discovered and classified every day and this false-color image reveals one of the more recent objects of interest. This nebula, IPHASX J210204.7+471015, was recently imaged by the Andalucia Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera mounted on the 2.5-m Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma, Spain. J210204 was initially identified as a possible planetary nebula a remnant left behind at the end of a red giants lifetime. Based on the above imaging, however, a team of authors led by Martn Guerrero (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain) is arguing that this shell of glowing gas was instead expelled around a classical nova. In a classical nova eruption, a white dwarf and its binary companion come very close together, and mass transfers to form a thin atmosphere of hydrogen around the white dwarf. When this hydrogen suddenly ignites in runaway fusion, this outer atmosphere can be expelled, forming a short-lived nova remnant which is what Guerrero and collaborators think were seeing with J210204. If so, this nebula can reveal information about the novathat caused it. To find out more about what the authors learned from this nebula, check out the paper below.CitationMartn A. Guerrero et al 2018 ApJ 857 80. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aab669

  18. Oxygen negative glow: reactive species and emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahli, Khaled

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of a specific type of oxygen plasma created by electron beams (1 keV, 20 mA/cm"2), negative glow of a luminescent discharge in abnormal regime. The objective is to test the qualities of this plasma as source of two 'active' species of oxygen (singlet molecular oxygen and atomic oxygen) which are useful in applications. The experiment mainly bears on the use of VUV (120 to 150 nm) absorption spectroscopy measurements of concentrations of these both species, and on the recording of plasma emissivity space profiles in the visible region (450 to 850 nm). It appears that low concentrations of singlet oxygen definitely exclude this type of discharge for iodine laser applications. On the contrary, concentrations measured for atomic oxygen show it is a good candidate for the oxidation of large surfaces by sheets of beams. The satisfying comparison of emissivity results with a published model confirm the prevailing role of fast electrons, and gives evidence of an important effect of temperature: temperature can reach 1000 K, and this is in agreement with the presented measurement [fr

  19. Transition Icons for Time-Series Visualization and Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Paul V; Baharloo, Raheleh; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Manini, Todd M; Tighe, Patrick J; Rashidi, Parisa

    2018-03-01

    The modern healthcare landscape has seen the rapid emergence of techniques and devices that temporally monitor and record physiological signals. The prevalence of time-series data within the healthcare field necessitates the development of methods that can analyze the data in order to draw meaningful conclusions. Time-series behavior is notoriously difficult to intuitively understand due to its intrinsic high-dimensionality, which is compounded in the case of analyzing groups of time series collected from different patients. Our framework, which we call transition icons, renders common patterns in a visual format useful for understanding the shared behavior within groups of time series. Transition icons are adept at detecting and displaying subtle differences and similarities, e.g., between measurements taken from patients receiving different treatment strategies or stratified by demographics. We introduce various methods that collectively allow for exploratory analysis of groups of time series, while being free of distribution assumptions and including simple heuristics for parameter determination. Our technique extracts discrete transition patterns from symbolic aggregate approXimation representations, and compiles transition frequencies into a bag of patterns constructed for each group. These transition frequencies are normalized and aligned in icon form to intuitively display the underlying patterns. We demonstrate the transition icon technique for two time-series datasets-postoperative pain scores, and hip-worn accelerometer activity counts. We believe transition icons can be an important tool for researchers approaching time-series data, as they give rich and intuitive information about collective time-series behaviors.

  20. Limited capacity for contour curvature in iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji

    2006-06-01

    We measured the difference threshold for contour curvature in iconic memory by using the cued discrimination method. The study stimulus consisting of 2 to 6 curved contours was briefly presented in the fovea, followed by two lines as cues. Subjects discriminated the curvature of two cued curves. The cue delays were 0 msec. and 300 msec. in Exps. 1 and 2, respectively, and 50 msec. before the study offset in Exp. 3. Analysis of data from Exps. 1 and 2 showed that the Weber fraction rose monotonically with the increase in set size. Clear set-size effects indicate that iconic memory has a limited capacity. Moreover, clear set-size effect in Exp. 3 indicates that perception itself has a limited capacity. Larger set-size effects in Exp. 1 than in Exp. 3 suggest that iconic memory after perceptual process has limited capacity. These properties of iconic memory at threshold level are contradictory to the traditional view that iconic memory has a high capacity both at suprathreshold and categorical levels.

  1. Guitar hero: From icon of popular culture to nostalgic self-design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to interpret the transformations of the “guitar hero”, from the icon of popular culture to models of nostalgic selfdesign, meaning transformations from generally recognizable figure in the context of popular culture to mimetic patterns based in medium of contemporary technologies. The phrase “guitar hero”, in its basic meaning represents a specific phenomenon in popular culture and popular music of the second half of the twentieth century. Guitar hero is a performer with skills and appearance that transcends and transforms common patterns of guitar performances, thus creating a new and distinctive form of musical and performative statement. Seen in this way, a guitar hero is close to heroic models of antique and romanticism. On the other hand, contemporary products of cultural industries and the entertainment industry to some extent changed this basic meaning of the phrase “guitar hero”. Creation and popularization of video games like Guitar Hero or Rock Band, as well as the availability of high quality replicas of instruments of “original” guitar heroes, carried the meaning of this phrase more explicit in the field of consumerism, fetishism, and virtualization. Guitar hero in its basic meaning undoubtedly belongs to the history of the twentieth century popular culture. However, his legacy is still very much present. Specific heritage of a guitar hero in contemporary popular culture lies primarily in the dissemination of the original model through the mechanisms of consumer society, and then in the mimetic patterns based in media of contemporary technology. Thanks to these characteristics, the phenomenon of guitar hero was transformed from icon of popular culture to nostalgic self-design over the original model. Whether it is a replica of instruments of guitar hero or empathy in virtual reality of video games as Guitar Hero or Rock Band, guitar hero heritage confirms its place in modern popular culture, despite

  2. Dashboard Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his "Lab Out Loud" blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing…

  3. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  4. Domestic dogs comprehend human communication with iconic signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Juliane; Tempelmann, Sebastian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-11-01

    A key skill in early human development is the ability to comprehend communicative intentions as expressed in both nonlinguistic gestures and language. In the current studies, we confronted domestic dogs (some of whom knew many human 'words') with a task in which they had to infer the intended referent of a human's communicative act via iconic signs--specifically, replicas and photographs. Both trained and untrained dogs successfully used iconic replicas to fetch the desired item, with many doing so from the first trial. Dogs' ability to use photographs in this same situation was less consistent. Because simple matching to sample in experimental contexts typically takes hundreds of trials (and because similarity between iconic sign and target item did not predict success), we propose that dogs' skillful performance in the current task reflects important aspects of the comprehension of human communicative intentions.

  5. Understanding iconic texts from Spanish - literature course in pre - university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialina Ana García Escobio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is presented in this article the development of the skills to understand better, which is one of the essential objectives of the teaching of the mother tongue, that is why to understand the image as iconic sign requires taking its value as a system of meaning, but also to sustain their particular difference in front of the purely denotative structures, especially against the model of all semiotic: the linguistic sign in this process of understandin g is necessary to teach students to decode texts of different codes and place them in more complex communicative situations, that is why the present proposal is new; a way to understand iconic texts, from the teaching of Spanish and Literature in preuniver sity, so that the iconic communication is common for all subjects. It is also assumed the historical and cultural approach from Vigotsky and followers, and the developing didactics presented by Castellanos and others.

  6. Iconic site development and legitimating policies : The changing role of water in Dutch identity discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlouw, Kees

    2014-01-01

    This paper focusses on the role of iconic sites in the legitimation of policies. Traditionally the legitimation of administrations is based on national communities. The undermining of these territorial communities, through globalisation and individualisation, make iconic sites more important to

  7. A study on design guidelines for the icons used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Dhong Ha

    2004-05-01

    In this project, advantages and disadvantages of icons on electronic displays were analyzed, and design procedures, design evaluation principles, and design guidelines for icons on electronic displays were developed. In addition, as design guidelines for special effects applicable to icons on electronic displays, guidelines for color coding, flashing, and 3-dimensional effects were developed. A questionnaire survey was performed to investigate how NPP operators consider methods representing icons on electronic displays (such as colors, dynamic effects, and 3-dimensional effects) compared to methods representing icons by using outlines in the P and ID drawings. NPP operators' preference of the icons designed in accordance with icon design guidelines to the icons without considering the guidelines was also investigated

  8. Semantic distance as a critical factor in icon design for in-car infotainment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Johanna M; Kujala, Tuomo; Jokinen, Jussi P P

    2017-11-01

    In-car infotainment systems require icons that enable fluent cognitive information processing and safe interaction while driving. An important issue is how to find an optimised set of icons for different functions in terms of semantic distance. In an optimised icon set, every icon needs to be semantically as close as possible to the function it visually represents and semantically as far as possible from the other functions represented concurrently. In three experiments (N = 21 each), semantic distances of 19 icons to four menu functions were studied with preference rankings, verbal protocols, and the primed product comparisons method. The results show that the primed product comparisons method can be efficiently utilised for finding an optimised set of icons for time-critical applications out of a larger set of icons. The findings indicate the benefits of the novel methodological perspective into the icon design for safety-critical contexts in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemists’ knowledge object. Formulation, modification and abandonment of iconic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Gallego Badillo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different perspectives in regards to chemistry scientific statute. The category of scientific model was considered to characterize the proposal and development of technological-iconic model. It was necessary to have a look at the time in which the introduction of analogical and symbolic models was indispensable to modify the initial model. It also established the way in which the technological-iconic model can be a didactic foundation to lead secondary students towards Chemistry as one of the natural sciences.

  10. ICON: An artificial intelligence approach to radiologic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swett, H.A.; Miller, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    ICON is a computer system, developed using artificial intelligence techniques, that is designed to help radiologists manage the large body of knowledge needed to perform differential diagnosis in radiology. The system's domain is lung disease in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. The radiologist proposes a diagnostic hypothesis which he or she thinks explains the known clinical and chest radiographic findings. ICON responds with an English-language prose critique that discusses how and why the proposed diagnosis is or is not supported by the clinical literature and suggests further findings or clinical information that might make the diagnosis more secure

  11. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  12. Space structure of the glow discharge with free side boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsenko, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to reveal physical reasons, which are responsible for the formation of space structure of glow type discharge with free side boundary, both in DC and in RF electric fields. By now extensive experimental material have been accumulated in discharge physics. Also many theoretical models have been proposed for describing separate parts of discharge with the cold electrodes (cathode and anode regions, positive column and transition zones - glow luminescence and Farraday's dark space of DC-discharge, electrode regions and plasma column of RF capacitive discharge). As this takes place, the majority of known works are devoted to some one part of gas discharge - positive column, electrode regions, transition zones and so on. At the same time just now we don't know anything about space structure of free, steady-state gas discharge of glow type, as a whole, especially when the pressure p much-gt 1 Torr

  13. Laser ablation/ionization studies in a glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, K.R.; Harrison, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The pin cathode glow discharge is used in the laboratory as an atomization/ionization source for a variety of applications, including solids mass spectrometry. Coupled with a tunable dye laser, the glow discharge may also serve as an atom reservoir for resonance ionization mass spectrometry in which the laser ionizes the discharge sputtered atoms. By tightly focusing the laser onto solid samples, various ablation effects may also be investigated. The laser may be used to generate an ionized plasma which may be directly analyzed by mass spectrometry. Alternatively, the ablated neutral atoms may be used in post-ablation excitation/ionization processes, in this case the glow discharge. The results of these investigations are the basis of this paper

  14. Spectroscopic characterisation of an atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.; Steen, P.G.; Morrow, T.; Graham, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in atmospheric discharges operating in a glow discharge mode i.e. with a spatial and sheath structure similar to that of low pressure glow discharges. Here spectroscopy has been used to characterise an atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD), operating with either dry air, argon or helium gas flowing through the inter-electrode space and with the inter-electrode gap either free or with woven polypropylene or polyester samples present. Emission spectroscopy is used to determine the rotational and vibrational temperature of the nitrogen gas, while electron temperatures are determined from the relative intensities of Ar emission lines. Ozone production is monitored by a simple absorption technique to evaluate its potential in process control

  15. Use of universal functional optimisation for TL glow curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Linh, H.Q.

    1996-01-01

    The effective use of any TL instrument requires an efficient software package to be able to fulfil different tasks required by research and practical applications. One of the standard features of the package used at the NPI Prague is the application of the interactive modular system Universal Functional Optimisation (UFO) for glow curve deconvolution. The whole system has been tested on standard glow curves using different models of the TL process (a single peak described by the Podgorsak approximation, first order kinetics and/or general order kinetics). Calculated values of basic TL parameters (E and s) show a good agreement with the results obtained by other authors. The main advantage of the system is in its modularity that enables flexible changes in the TL model and mathematical procedures of the glow curve analysis. (author)

  16. Extension of spatiotemporal chaos in glow discharge-semiconductor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmet, Marat; Rafatov, Ismail; Fen, Mehmet Onur

    2014-12-01

    Generation of chaos in response systems is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach, [H. D. I. Abarbanel, N. F. Rulkov, and M. M. Sushchik, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4528-4535 (1996)] it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [D. D. Šijačić U. Ebert, and I. Rafatov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 056220 (2004).].

  17. [The glow discharge as an atomization and ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is to summarize the research progress in this project at the University of Florida over the past 13 months. In keeping with the directions of the Federal Demonstration Project, the report will be brief, presenting an overview of the major findings. We have continued the study of the glow discharge, primarily as an ionization source for elemental analysis. Glow discharge interest continues to grow in the analytical chemistry community as evidenced by the number of special symposia at major conferences, by the new researchers entering the field, and by the introduction of new instrumentation. There is little doubt that glow discharge mass spectrometry, for example, is now a major technique in the elemental analysis of solids

  18. Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu. D.; Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas'yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.

  19. Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, Yu. D.; Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas’yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.

  20. Target surface condition during reactive glow discharge sputtering of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depla, D; Haemers, J; Gryse, R De

    2002-01-01

    During reactive glow discharge sputtering of copper in an argon/nitrogen plasma, we noticed an abrupt change of the target voltage and the deposition rate when the nitrogen concentration in the plasma exceeds a critical value. To explain this behaviour, the target surface after reactive glow discharge sputtering was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An experimental arrangement was constructed that allows direct transfer of the glow discharge cathode to the XPS analysis chamber without air exposure. These XPS measurements revealed that several different chemical states of nitrogen are present in the layer that forms on the target surface. The relative concentration of these different states changes when the critical nitrogen concentration in the plasma is exceeded

  1. Extension of spatiotemporal chaos in glow discharge-semiconductor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmet, Marat; Fen, Mehmet Onur; Rafatov, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Generation of chaos in response systems is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach, [H. D. I. Abarbanel, N. F. Rulkov, and M. M. Sushchik, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4528–4535 (1996)] it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [D. D. Šijačić U. Ebert, and I. Rafatov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 056220 (2004).

  2. Video pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Länsitie, Janne; Stevenson, Blair; Männistö, Riku; Karjalainen, Tommi; Karjalainen, Asko

    2016-01-01

    The short film is an introduction to the concept of video pedagogy. The five categories of video pedagogy further elaborate how videos can be used as a part of instruction and learning process. Most pedagogical videos represent more than one category. A video itself doesn’t necessarily define the category – the ways in which the video is used as a part of pedagogical script are more defining factors. What five categories did you find? Did you agree with the categories, or are more...

  3. On the second kinetic order thermoluminescent glow curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Thanh Luong; Nguyen Hao Quang; Hoang Minh Giang

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of thermoluminescent material such as CaF 2 -N and CaSO 4 -Dy with the different grain sizes are investigated in detail using the least square method of fitting. It was found that the activation energy E (or trap depth) and peak temperature T m ax are changed with the elapsed time between the irradiation and read-out for the low temperature glow curve peaks. The similar TL glow curve shapes are obtained for the different CaSO 4 -Dy grain size. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Oxidation of 1020 steel in the abnormal glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zúñiga, J A García; Santos, A Sarmiento; Gómez, E Y Soto

    2017-01-01

    1020 steel is a material very used for surface treatment in the abnormal glow discharge. Because the composition of the gaseous atmosphere has an important influence on the results of plasma treatment, in this work the oxidation process of 1020 steel is verified on the abnormal glow discharge under different concentrations of air (20% to 100%) at temperatures of 600°C and 900°C. For each atmosphere used mass variation is measured during the process of surface oxidation, the structure and microstructure of the oxide film formed is observed and also its mechanical properties through its microhardness. (paper)

  5. Spectroscopy and probe diagnostics of dc spherical glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhovtyansky, V.A.; Nazarenko, V.G.; Syrotyuk, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    Probe and spectroscopic investigations of a spherical glow discharge (GD) were done in nitrogen and argon plasma. There were obtained the distributions of electron temperature and electron density in a discharge gap as well as plasma potential distribution. These results were compared with theoretical ones and the conclusion about their convergence was done in the present study. Particular attention was paid to the anode processes role in the formation of self-organized structure in a spherical glow discharge. It was shown the necessity of taking into account the possibility of the anode potential drop forming in this discharge region

  6. Glow curve characteristics of bulb type thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Feher, I.; Felszerfalvi, J.

    1993-01-01

    TL dosemeter readers are equipped usually with thermocouples connected to the heater unit. This layout can well be applied to stabilize the position of the glow curve as a function of heating-up time. Bulb type TL dosemeters do not have temperature sensors, no possibility for stabilization, which can cause an additional readout error of dose determination. For this reason, the time dependence of glow curves for bulb-type TL dosemeters was measured, and a new microprocessor controlled readout device was developed. (N.T.) 2 refs.; 2 figs

  7. Polar bears: the fate of an icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that

  8. Showcasing Colombia's Native Icons in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJINGDE

    2004-01-01

    THE Object/Colombia Exhibition, the biggest ever held in China, went on display at the Beijing Jintai Art Museum in July of 2003. This exhibition structured as a journey across historic Colombia, featuring five uses of objects as icons: furniture, decorations, containers, clothes, and ritual and games relics, all grouped

  9. Expertise Reversal for Iconic Representations in Science Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Bruce D.; Plass, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive development on the effectiveness of iconic representations in science visualizations was examined. Middle and high school students (N = 186) were given narrated visualizations of two chemistry topics: Kinetic Molecular Theory (Day 1) and Ideal Gas Laws (Day 2). For half of the visualizations, iconic…

  10. Iconic memory for the gist of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jason; Mack, Arien

    2014-11-01

    Does iconic memory contain the gist of multiple scenes? Three experiments were conducted. In the first, four scenes from different basic-level categories were briefly presented in one of two conditions: a cue or a no-cue condition. The cue condition was designed to provide an index of the contents of iconic memory of the display. Subjects were more sensitive to scene gist in the cue condition than in the no-cue condition. In the second, the scenes came from the same basic-level category. We found no difference in sensitivity between the two conditions. In the third, six scenes from different basic level categories were presented in the visual periphery. Subjects were more sensitive to scene gist in the cue condition. These results suggest that scene gist is contained in iconic memory even in the visual periphery; however, iconic representations are not sufficiently detailed to distinguish between scenes coming from the same category. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. the spirituality of andrei rublev's icon of the holy trinity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supposed to read God in the icon's form, colours and figures. How does .... ture of deep blue and dark red in a combination which allows him to create the impression of .... on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that.

  12. Spectroscopic study of an icon painted on wooden panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Sofija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian icon painted on wooden panel analyzed in this work is interesting for art historians because there is no precise information in which workshops it was made or who the author was. Similar icons are often found in churches and monasteries in our region. In order to obtain information about materials used for creation of investigated icon two micro-analytical techniques were used: Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results confirmed presence of following materials: lead-white, vermilion, minium, ultramarine, brown and green earth pigments and silver in combination with yellow organic varnish, which served to an iconographer for gilding. Ground layer was made of calcite. Blue pigment ultramarine was probably used for blue colour as well as for obtaining particulars hues in several parts of the paint layer. This can be important information for further research concerning particular workshop in which the icon was made. Identified materials are typical for Russian iconography of the 19th century. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 177021 i OI 177012

  13. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners’ experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360ms and 410-460ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music. PMID:26161561

  14. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music.

  15. Iconic memory and parietofrontal network: fMRI study using temporal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneyoshi, Ayako; Niimi, Ryosuke; Suetsugu, Tomoko; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2011-08-03

    We investigated the neural basis of iconic memory using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The parietofrontal network of selective attention is reportedly relevant to readout from iconic memory. We adopted a temporal integration task that requires iconic memory but not selective attention. The results showed that the task activated the parietofrontal network, confirming that the network is involved in readout from iconic memory. We further tested a condition in which temporal integration was performed by visual short-term memory but not by iconic memory. However, no brain region revealed higher activation for temporal integration by iconic memory than for temporal integration by visual short-term memory. This result suggested that there is no localized brain region specialized for iconic memory per se.

  16. Partial report and other sampling procedures overestimate the duration of iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman, I B

    1980-03-01

    In three experiments, subjects estimated the duration of a brief visual image (iconic memory) either directly by adjusting onset of a click to offset of the visual image, or indirectly with a Sperling partial report (sampling) procedure. The results indicated that partial report and other sampling procedures may reflect other brief phenomena along with iconic memory. First, the partial report procedure yields a greater estimate of the duration of iconic memory than the more direct click method. Second, the partial report estimate of the duration of iconic memory is affected if the subject is required to simultaneously retain a list of distractor items (memory load), while the click method estimate of the duration of iconic memory is not affected by a memory load. Finally, another sampling procedure based on visual cuing yields different estimates of the duration of iconic memory depending on how many items are cued. It was concluded that partial report and other sampling procedures overestimate the duration of iconic memory.

  17. Velocity persistence of Brownian particles generated in a glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, A.J.; Ho, P.

    1989-01-01

    Quasielastic light scattering from Brownian particles in the rarefied environment of a glow discharge exhibits Gaussianlike intensity correlation functions owing to the long mean free paths of the particles. The shape of the correlation function depends on the particles' average thermal velocity and friction coefficient, which can be related to aggregate mass and structure, and indicates a crossover from kinetic to hydrodynamic behavior

  18. Altruism, warm glow, and charitable giving: Three experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Ottoni-Wilhelm, M.; Verkaik, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key questions in the science of philanthropy is to what extent donations to charity are motivated by altruism – concern for public benefits, including the well-being of recipients – and warm glow – concerns for private benefits, including emotional gratification. To disentangle altruism

  19. Time dependent argon glow discharge treatment of Al-alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The energy dispersive microanalysis by X-rays (EDX) is used to determine ... surface preparation of vacum components and vacuum system of any size. ... In this work, samples of aluminium alloy are treated under dc glow discharge .... (ii) For ałuninium, iron and germanium, relative weight percentage decreases or in-.

  20. Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World): Handbook for Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World) began in Romania in 1995 as a weeklong leadership camp with the purpose of encouraging young women to become active citizens by building their self-esteem and confidence, increasing their self-awareness, and developing their skills in goal-setting, assertiveness, and career and life planning. Since that first…

  1. An algorithm for unified analysis on the thermoluminescence glow curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.S.; Park, C.Y.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to integrally handle excitation by radiation, relaxation and luminescence by thermal or optical stimulation in thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) processes. This algorithm reflects the mutual interaction between traps through a conduction band. Electrons and holes are created by radiation in the beginning, and these electrons move to the trap through the conduction band. These holes move to the recombination center through a valence band. The ratio of the electrons allocated to each trap differs with the recombination probability and these values also relevant to the process of luminescence. Accordingly, the glow curve can be interpreted by taking the rate of electron–hole pairs created by ionizing radiation as a unique initial condition. This method differs from the conventional method of interpreting the measured glow curve with the initial electron concentration allocated to each trap at the end of irradiation. A program using the Visual Studio's C# subsystem was made to realize such a developed algorithm. To verify this algorithm it was applied to LiF:Mg,Cu,Si. The TL glow curve was deconvoluted with a model of five traps, one deep trap and one recombination center (RC). - Highlights: • TL glow curve deconvolution employing interacting model. • Simulation both irradiation and TL readout stages for various dose level. • Application in the identification TL kinetics of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si TLD

  2. New developments in glow discharge optical emission and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Volker; Dorka, Roland; Wilken, Ludger; Wetzig, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes new developments in flow discharge optical emission (GD-OES) and mass spectrometry (GD-MS) at IFW and presents corresponding new applications (analysis of microelectronic multi-layer system by radio frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (RF-GD-OES) and analysis of pure iron by a new Grimm-type GD-MS source)

  3. Silicon solar cells made by ion implantation and glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponpon, J.P.; Siffert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Three different methods of silicon solar cell preparation are considered and investigated: low energy implantation, glow discharge and prebombarded Schottky barriers. The properties of the contact layers realized by these processes are compared in terms of junction depth and sheet resistance. Preliminary results show the usefulness of these techniques for terrestrial solar cell realization [fr

  4. Immersive video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  5. THE STROGANOV OR OLD BELIEVERS’ ICON PAINTING TRADITION IN THE WORKS OF N.S. LESKOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Karsakova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available N.S. Leskov is known to have been a collector of icons and a connoisseur of history and techniques of icon painting. In his work as a writer he made use of his visual impression of icons painted in the old believers' tradition. Unlike modern scholars, when acting as an iconographer, Leskov did not classify old believers' icon painting as a separate trend, subsuming it within the “Stroganov school”. In the 19th century, the Stroganov school icons were distinguished by the mark of the Stroganov family name on the icon's reverse side. Such icons were believed to have been painted in the workshops officially set up by the Stroganov family. “An old believers' school icon” would be the one painted by at a workshop owned by old believers for the use in their prayer rooms or churches. Leskov's opinion on the insoluble link between the Stroganov and old believers' school of icon painting well agreed with the works of I.P. Sakharov the writer was quite familiar with, as well as with the ideas old believers themselves expressed concerning the history and traditions of icon painting. Leskov knew these opinions through communication with icon painters who professed the old belief version of Orthodox Christianity.

  6. Visualization of the NASA ICON mission in 3d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, R. A., Jr.; Immel, T. J.; Miller, N.

    2016-12-01

    The ICON Explorer mission (http://icon.ssl.berkeley.edu) will provide several data products for the atmosphere and ionosphere after its launch in 2017. This project will support the mission by investigating the capability of these tools for visualization of current and predicted observatory characteristics and data acquisition. Visualization of this mission can be accomplished using tools like Google Earth or CesiumJS, as well assistance from Java or Python. Ideally we will bring this visualization into the homes of people without the need of additional software. The path of launching a standalone website, building this environment, and a full toolkit will be discussed. Eventually, the initial work could lead to the addition of a downloadable visualization packages for mission demonstration or science visualization.

  7. Connecting icons, logos and slogans in graphic trademarks

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrožič, Maja

    2016-01-01

    In the public eye the organization is always considered or fully represented by its corporate identity that includes the size of the organization, annual payments, organizational structure, organizational culture, systems owned by the organization, premises, organizational culture, organizational strategy, mission, vision, number of employees etc. Graphic designer when designing graphic trademark by connecting graphic elements (logo, slogan and icon) must take in to consideration all abovemen...

  8. BAROQUE AND ICONIC ECPHRASIS IN GOGOL'S "TARAS BULBA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Viktorovna Kozlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the tools verbalization European Baroque painting techniques and Old icons in the Gogol's story  "Taras Bulba". Narrative functions of implicit ecphrasis investigated in connection problem relatedness Catholicism and Orthodoxy in the minds of Gogol at the beginning of the 1840s.The purpose of the article analyzes the ways of verbalization and features of non-attributed implicit ecphrasis in the second edition of Gogol's "Taras Bulba" reproducing Caravaggio painting style and Old icons.Method or the methodology of work: Among research material are Gogol's "Taras Bulba" in two editions, the European Baroque paintings and ancient Russian icons. Were applied structural-typological, structural, intertextual, hermeneutical methods.Results: We describe the correlation of ecphrasis in Gogol with referents: the paintings of Caravaggio and Honthorst , and Old Russian iconography . Found that ecphrasis descriptions that appear only in the edition of 1842 are not local segments of the text and form the entire text layers, actively organizing narrative, operating plot and composition. Hidden emplisit ecphrasis is the artistic code, extending the semantic space of the text , the text translation tool of religious and philosophical ideas of the author. Valuable contraposition of baroque and iconic ecphrasis in the story reflects not only the author's reflection on the problem of beauty , inner and outer, but also a reflection of their own style.Application area: The results of our study can be used for lectures on the history of Russian literature of the XIX century, the history of Russian and European culture, cultural studies, specialized courses and electives in the problem of interaction between different kinds of art, as well as material for interdisciplinary humanities research, including in school practice teaching literature and art history.

  9. [Automatic adjustment control system for DC glow discharge plasma source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Yong-qing; Li, Xiao-jia; Wang, Hai-zhou; Shi, Ning

    2011-03-01

    There are three important parameters in the DC glow discharge process, the discharge current, discharge voltage and argon pressure in discharge source. These parameters influence each other during glow discharge process. This paper presents an automatic control system for DC glow discharge plasma source. This system collects and controls discharge voltage automatically by adjusting discharge source pressure while the discharge current is constant in the glow discharge process. The design concept, circuit principle and control program of this automatic control system are described. The accuracy is improved by this automatic control system with the method of reducing the complex operations and manual control errors. This system enhances the control accuracy of glow discharge voltage, and reduces the time to reach discharge voltage stability. The glow discharge voltage stability test results with automatic control system are provided as well, the accuracy with automatic control system is better than 1% FS which is improved from 4% FS by manual control. Time to reach discharge voltage stability has been shortened to within 30 s by automatic control from more than 90 s by manual control. Standard samples like middle-low alloy steel and tin bronze have been tested by this automatic control system. The concentration analysis precision has been significantly improved. The RSDs of all the test result are better than 3.5%. In middle-low alloy steel standard sample, the RSD range of concentration test result of Ti, Co and Mn elements is reduced from 3.0%-4.3% by manual control to 1.7%-2.4% by automatic control, and that for S and Mo is also reduced from 5.2%-5.9% to 3.3%-3.5%. In tin bronze standard sample, the RSD range of Sn, Zn and Al elements is reduced from 2.6%-4.4% to 1.0%-2.4%, and that for Si, Ni and Fe is reduced from 6.6%-13.9% to 2.6%-3.5%. The test data is also shown in this paper.

  10. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  11. Video games

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  12. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  13. The road to language learning is iconic: evidence from British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robin L; Vinson, David P; Woll, Bencie; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    An arbitrary link between linguistic form and meaning is generally considered a universal feature of language. However, iconic (i.e., nonarbitrary) mappings between properties of meaning and features of linguistic form are also widely present across languages, especially signed languages. Although recent research has shown a role for sign iconicity in language processing, research on the role of iconicity in sign-language development has been mixed. In this article, we present clear evidence that iconicity plays a role in sign-language acquisition for both the comprehension and production of signs. Signed languages were taken as a starting point because they tend to encode a higher degree of iconic form-meaning mappings in their lexicons than spoken languages do, but our findings are more broadly applicable: Specifically, we hypothesize that iconicity is fundamental to all languages (signed and spoken) and that it serves to bridge the gap between linguistic form and human experience.

  14. Akademisk video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet ...

  15. Dust acoustic waves in a dc glow-discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, V.I.; Nefedov, A.P.; Torchinskii, V.M.; Fortov, V.E.; Khrapak, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The spontaneous excitation of low-frequency oscillations of the macroparticle density in ordered dust structures levitating in standing striations of a dc glow discharge is discovered. It is concluded on the basis of a simplified linear model of an ideal collisionless plasma that the observed instability is caused by the drift motion of ions relative to the dust, which leads to the excitation of dust acoustic oscillations of the plasma

  16. Glow plug ignitor tests in H2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liparulo, N.J.; Olhoeft, J.E.; Paddleford, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    The AEP, TVA and DUKE Electric Power companies, in cooperation with Westinghouse Electric Corporation have defined a testing program to determine the effectiveness of a glow plug hydrogen ignition system. The ignitor's capability was demonstrated for both static and dynamic conditions. Tests were performed with both spray addition and fan induced turbulence. It ignited hydrogen for all tests performed. The results of tests did not differ significantly from similar tests data previously reported. This report presents a discussion of the test results

  17. Diode laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy of glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshick, C. M.; Shaw, R. W.; Jennings, L. W.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Young, J. P.; Ramsey, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diode-laser-excited isotopically-selective optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of uranium metal, oxide and fluoride in a glow discharge (GD) is presented. The technique is useful for determining 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios in these samples. The precision and accuracy of this determination is evaluated, and a study of experimental parameters pertaining to optimization of the measurement is discussed. Application of GD-OGS to other f-transition elements is also described

  18. Diode laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy of glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshick, C.M.; Shaw, R.W.; Post-Zwicker, A., Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The development of diode-laser-excited isotopically-selective optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of uranium metal, oxide and fluoride in a glow discharge (GD) is presented. The technique is useful for determining isotopic ratios of 235 U/( 235 U + 238 U) in the above samples. The precision and accuracy of this determination is evaluated, and a study of experimental parameters pertaining to optimization of he measurement is discussed. Application of the GD-OGS to other f-transition elements is also described

  19. Positional glow curve simulation for thermoluminescent detector (TLD) system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, C.J.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Multi- and thin element dosimeters, variable heating rate schemes, and glow-curve analysis have been employed to improve environmental and personnel dosimetry using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Detailed analysis of the effects of errors and optimization of techniques would be highly desirable. However, an understanding of the relationship between TL light production, light attenuation, and precise heating schemes is made difficult because of experimental challenges involved in measuring positional TL light production and temperature variations as a function of time. This work reports the development of a general-purpose computer code, thermoluminescent detector simulator, TLD-SIM, to simulate the heating of any TLD type using a variety of conventional and experimental heating methods including pulsed focused or unfocused lasers with Gaussian or uniform cross sections, planchet, hot gas, hot finger, optical, infrared, or electrical heating. TLD-SIM has been used to study the impact on the TL light production of varying the input parameters which include: detector composition, heat capacity, heat conductivity, physical size, and density; trapped electron density, the frequency factor of oscillation of electrons in the traps, and trap-conduction band potential energy difference; heating scheme source terms and heat transfer boundary conditions; and TL light scatter and attenuation coefficients. Temperature profiles and glow curves as a function of position time, as well as the corresponding temporally and/or spatially integrated glow values, may be plotted while varying any of the input parameters. Examples illustrating TLD system functions, including glow curve variability, will be presented. The flexible capabilities of TLD-SIM promises to enable improved TLD system design

  20. Glow discharge depth analysis of metallic elements in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berneron, R.

    The glow discharge lamp designed by Grimm gives new possibilities in the optical spectrometry. The plasma produced is a cool emissive source and its advantages are the following: low spectral background, no reabsorption, linear calibration, very stable emission, very high yield. The sputtering produced by ionic bombardment of the sample enables the depth repartition of several elements to be made in the same run [fr

  1. Spectroscopic Study of Electrical Glow Discharges in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, P. G.; Evangelista, M.; Trujillo, C.; Castillo, F.; Rangel, J.

    2006-12-01

    The variation of the power of the light emitted in a Glow Discharge in Gases of low pressure (GDGLP) excited by a DC source was studied. A lack of dependency of the kind of gas used and the pressure it is located at was obtained. This is comparable to the potential drop which takes place in the discharge by inelastic collisions such as ionization, recombination, excitation, relaxation, etc.

  2. The neural correlates of highly iconic structures and topographic discourse in French Sign Language as observed in six hearing native signers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, C; Hervé, P-Y; Petit, L; Zago, L; Vigneau, M; Beaucousin, V; Jobard, G; Mazoyer, B; Mellet, E; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N

    2010-09-01

    "Highly iconic" structures in Sign Language enable a narrator to act, switch characters, describe objects, or report actions in four-dimensions. This group of linguistic structures has no real spoken-language equivalent. Topographical descriptions are also achieved in a sign-language specific manner via the use of signing-space and spatial-classifier signs. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the neural correlates of topographic discourse and highly iconic structures in French Sign Language (LSF) in six hearing native signers, children of deaf adults (CODAs), and six LSF-naïve monolinguals. LSF materials consisted of videos of a lecture excerpt signed without spatially organized discourse or highly iconic structures (Lect LSF), a tale signed using highly iconic structures (Tale LSF), and a topographical description using a diagrammatic format and spatial-classifier signs (Topo LSF). We also presented texts in spoken French (Lect French, Tale French, Topo French) to all participants. With both languages, the Topo texts activated several different regions that are involved in mental navigation and spatial working memory. No specific correlate of LSF spatial discourse was evidenced. The same regions were more activated during Tale LSF than Lect LSF in CODAs, but not in monolinguals, in line with the presence of signing-space structure in both conditions. Motion processing areas and parts of the fusiform gyrus and precuneus were more active during Tale LSF in CODAs; no such effect was observed with French or in LSF-naïve monolinguals. These effects may be associated with perspective-taking and acting during personal transfers. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of the interaction among traps on the shape of thermoluminescence glow curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzo, J.; Santiago, M.; Spano, F.; Lester, M.; Ortega, F.; Molina, P.; Caselli, E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the interaction among traps on the structure of thermoluminescence glow curves has been investigated by generating numerically simulated glow curves for a wide range of trap parameters. The results reported in this paper provide useful insights which assist in the analysis of experimental glow curves. The most important result shows that it is incorrect to assume beforehand that each peak is related to a specific trapping state. The validity of the quasiequilibrium approximation is briefly discussed

  4. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  5. Video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-06-01

    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.

  6. Means of introducing an analyte into liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. Kenneth; Quarles, Jr., Charles Derrick; Russo, Richard E.; Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Carado, Anthony J.

    2017-01-03

    A liquid sampling, atmospheric pressure, glow discharge (LS-APGD) device as well as systems that incorporate the device and methods for using the device and systems are described. The LS-APGD includes a hollow capillary for delivering an electrolyte solution to a glow discharge space. The device also includes a counter electrode in the form of a second hollow capillary that can deliver the analyte into the glow discharge space. A voltage across the electrolyte solution and the counter electrode creates the microplasma within the glow discharge space that interacts with the analyte to move it to a higher energy state (vaporization, excitation, and/or ionization of the analyte).

  7. Combustion aided by a glow plug in diesel engines under cold idling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qile

    2016-01-01

    Glow plugs are widely used to promote the desired cold start and post-cold start combustion characteristics of light duty diesel engines. The importance of the glow plug becomes more apparent when the compression ratio is low. An experimental investigation of combustion initiation and development aided by the glow plug has been carried out on a single cylinder HPCR DI diesel engine with a low compression ratio of 15.5:1. High speed imaging of combustion initiated by the glow plug in a combust...

  8. Detection of negative ions in glow discharge mass spectrometry for analysis of solid specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Molchan, Igor S.; Tauziede, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new method is presented for elemental and molecular analysis of halogen-containing samples by glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry, consisting of detection of negative ions from a pulsed RF glow discharge in argon. Analyte signals are mainly extracted from the afterglow regime...... be used to study the distribution of a tantalum fluoride layer within the anodized tantala layer. Further, comparison is made with data obtained using glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, where elemental fluorine can only be detected using a neon plasma. The ionization mechanisms responsible...... for the formation of negative ions in glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry are briefly discussed....

  9. Detection of irradiated foods by the thermoluminescence. Relationships between the temperature ranges of integrating TL glow curves and TL glow ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Masao; Goto, Michiko; Todoriki, Setsuko; Hagiwara, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Our study demonstrated that the effects of the several temperature ranges for integrating TL glow intensity on the TL glow ratios by using spice-set purchased at a Turkish air port. The spice set had no labeling of irradiation feeds, but nine of 12 spices were judged as irradiated food in this study. Those temperature ranges were defined by evaluating the glow curves of irradiated TLD-100 chip (167-230degC), TLD-100 disc (177-238degC) and Dolomite element (145-258degC). Those are relatively stable and the difference of typical glow peak temperatures of TLD-100 disc in two institutes was less than 2%. On the other hand, those of TLD-100 tip was shift to higher temperature side at about 4degC because of declining of thermal conductance. The temperature ranges defined by TLD-100 were showed that discriminate more clearly between irradiated and nonirradiated spices compared with the full temperature range of TL measurement (70-400degC). With the exception of low glow intensity, background measurement for estimating net glow intensity was not necessary because TL glow ratio was hardly influenced whether the background measured or not. (author)

  10. License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Taxonomy Icon License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2013/3/21 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: Taxon...ative Commons Attribution 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database,

  11. Video Comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Video Comparator is a comparative gage that uses electronic images from two sources, a standard and an unknown. Two matched video cameras are used to obtain the electronic images. The video signals are mixed and displayed on a single video receiver (CRT). The video system is manufactured by ITP of Chatsworth, CA and is a Tele-Microscope II, Model 148. One of the cameras is mounted on a toolmaker's microscope stand and produces a 250X image of a cast. The other camera is mounted on a stand and produces an image of a 250X template. The two video images are mixed in a control box provided by ITP and displayed on a CRT. The template or the cast can be moved to align the desired features. Vertical reference lines are provided on the CRT, and a feature on the cast can be aligned with a line on the CRT screen. The stage containing the casts can be moved using a Boeckleler micrometer equipped with a digital readout, and a second feature aligned with the reference line and the distance moved obtained from the digital display

  12. Type of iconicity matters in the vocabulary development of signing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, G.; Sümer, B.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on signed as well as spoken language shows that the iconic features of the target language might play a role in language development. Here, we ask further whether different types of iconic depictions modulate children's preferences for certain types of sign-referent links during

  13. 75 FR 5637 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Architecture as Icon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Determinations: ``Architecture as Icon: Perception and Representation of Architecture in Byzantine Art'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Architecture as Icon: Perception and Representation of Architecture in Byzantine Art,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of...

  14. What's in a name? The role of graphics, functions, and their interrelationships in icon identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Siné; Isherwood, Sarah

    2009-05-01

    Communication using icons is now commonplace. It is therefore important to understand the processes involved in icon comprehension and the stimulus cues that individuals utilize to facilitate identification. In this study, we examined predictors of icon identification as participants gained experience with icons over a series of learning trials. A dynamic pattern of findings emerged in which the primary predictors of identification changed as learning progressed. In early learning trials, semantic distance (the closeness of the relationship between icon and function) was the best predictor of performance, accounting for up to 55% of the variance observed, whereas familiarity with the function was more important in later trials. Other stimulus characteristics, such as our familiarity with the graphic in the icon and its concreteness, were also found to be important for icon design. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, with particular emphasis on the parallels with picture naming. The icon identification norms from this study may be downloaded from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  15. Cultural Interpretations of the Visual Meaning of Icons and Images Used in North American Web Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Eliot; Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines cross-cultural interpretations of icons and images drawn from US academic websites. Participants from Morocco, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and the USA responded to an online questionnaire containing 18 icons and images representing online functions and information types common on US academic websites. Participants supplied meanings for…

  16. Effects of eye contact and iconic gestures on message retention in human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van E.T.; Torta, E.; Cuijpers, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of iconic gestures and eye contact on message retention in human-robot interaction were investigated in a series of experiments. A humanoid robot gave short verbal messages to participants, accompanied either by iconic gestures or no gestures while making eye contact with the participant

  17. Searching for Signs, Symbols, and Icons: Effects of Time of Day, Visual Complexity, and Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sine; Tyrer, Victoria; Folkard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Searching for icons, symbols, or signs is an integral part of tasks involving computer or radar displays, head-up displays in aircraft, or attending to road traffic signs. Icons therefore need to be designed to optimize search times, taking into account the factors likely to slow down visual search. Three factors likely to adversely affect visual…

  18. The Link between Form and Meaning in British Sign Language: Effects of Iconicity for Phonological Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robin L.; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Signed languages exploit the visual/gestural modality to create iconic expression across a wide range of basic conceptual structures in which the phonetic resources of the language are built up into an analogue of a mental image (Taub, 2001). Previously, we demonstrated a processing advantage when iconic properties of signs were made salient in a…

  19. Thermoluminescence glow curves of irradiated PMMA and low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Koji; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Kumakiri, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Yoshio.

    1985-03-01

    Light emission from polymers is observed when polymers preirradiated with ionizing radiation at low temperature are heated gradually. The light emission is supposedly resulted from recombination of electrons with active centers produced in polymers or from some other processes involving charge transfer, but no definite explanation has been given at present on the thermoluminescent centers. This report describes our studies on the effects of impurities contained in polymers and pressure of ambient gases on the thermoluminescent glow curve of PMMA and low density polyethylene, which are often used for plastic film dosimeters. In the glow curve of PMMA, only one peak was observed at 110 K in an H 2 or He atmosphere at 760 Torr, but the intensity of the peak decreased with decreasing the H 2 or He gas pressure. At 10 -5 Torr H 2 or He atmosphere the peak disappered, and two sharp peaks appeared in the temperature range from 200 to 250 K. On the other hand, in the glow curve of low density polyethylene, three peaks were observed at 120 K, 180 K and 250 K in the presence of H 2 or He gas at 760 Torr. The effects of pressure of ambient gases and impurities in the polyethylene on these peaks indicate that the peak at 120 K is due to luminescent center produced on the surface or just below the surface of the matrix by collision of excited atoms or molecules of gases with polymer molecules, the peak at 120 K is originated from impurities in the matrix, and the peak at 250 0 K corresponds to luminescent center produced in polyethylene matrix. (author)

  20. Study protocol: The Intensive Care Outcome Network ('ICON' study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Vicki S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extended follow-up of survivors of ICU treatment has shown many patients suffer long-term physical and psychological consequences that affect their health-related quality of life. The current lack of rigorous longitudinal studies means that the true prevalence of these physical and psychological problems remains undetermined. Methods/Design The ICON (Intensive Care Outcome Network study is a multi-centre, longitudinal study of survivors of critical illness. Patients will be recruited prior to hospital discharge from 20–30 ICUs in the UK and will be assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months following ICU discharge for health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D; anxiety and depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Civilian Checklist (PCL-C. Postal questionnaires will be used. Discussion The ICON study will create a valuable UK database detailing the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity experienced by patients as they recover from critical illness. Knowledge of the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity in ICU survivors is important because research to generate models of causality, prognosis and treatment effects is dependent on accurate determination of prevalence. The results will also inform economic modelling of the long-term burden of critical illness. Trial Registration ISRCTN69112866

  1. A glittering icon of Fascist femininity: Trebisonda "Ondina" Valla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G

    2001-01-01

    This essay focuses on the second decade of the Italian Fascist regime through its emblematic symbol, Trebisonda 'Ondina' Valla. Valla gained first place in the 80 metre hurdles at the Berlin Olympics of 1936, and became the first world-class female athlete in Italian history, in spite of the generally backward condition of Italian women. In those years, a paternalistic and conservative society deeply discriminated against female participation in not only sport but also other cultural activities. The Catholic Church, medical expertise, eugenics theories and the fascist regime were all opposed to female competitive sport. The Church demanded female morality, modesty and domesticity while, the medical profession recommend only basic physical exercise for female health and motherhood. While promoting the myth of the New Italy as a modern nation, Fascism wished it to be inhabited by a traditional womanhood. Paradoxically, however, Mussolini supported Valla because she epitomized a dynamic fascism and brought Italian Fascism international visibility. The serendipitous value of Valla was that she encouraged young women to attempt to force open the bars of their political cage, and at the same time forced the fascist ideology to reconsider and reconstruct fascist principles in the interest of international propaganda. Thus while Valla was a political instrument of fascist purpose, she was also an agent of female emancipation. She was a political icon that also became a gender icon. In both roles she became a symbol of congratulation but also of confrontation, contradiction and paradox.

  2. Iconic Gestures for Robot Avatars, Recognition and Integration with Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Paul; Leonards, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Co-verbal gestures are an important part of human communication, improving its efficiency and efficacy for information conveyance. One possible means by which such multi-modal communication might be realized remotely is through the use of a tele-operated humanoid robot avatar. Such avatars have been previously shown to enhance social presence and operator salience. We present a motion tracking based tele-operation system for the NAO robot platform that allows direct transmission of speech and gestures produced by the operator. To assess the capabilities of this system for transmitting multi-modal communication, we have conducted a user study that investigated if robot-produced iconic gestures are comprehensible, and are integrated with speech. Robot performed gesture outcomes were compared directly to those for gestures produced by a human actor, using a within participant experimental design. We show that iconic gestures produced by a tele-operated robot are understood by participants when presented alone, almost as well as when produced by a human. More importantly, we show that gestures are integrated with speech when presented as part of a multi-modal communication equally well for human and robot performances. PMID:26925010

  3. NPY2-receptor variation modulates iconic memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Larissa; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Kloster, Eugen; Epplen, Jörg T; Beste, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Sensory memory systems are modality-specific buffers that comprise information about external stimuli, which represent the earliest stage of information processing. While these systems have been the subject of cognitive neuroscience research for decades, little is known about the neurobiological basis of sensory memory. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system and systems influencing glutamatergic neural transmission are important. In the current study we examine if functional promoter variations in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptor gene NPY2R affect iconic memory processes using a partial report paradigm. We found that iconic memory decayed much faster in individuals carrying the rare promoter NPY2R G allele which is associated with increased expression of the Y2 receptor. Possibly this effect is due to altered presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release, known to be modulated by Y2 receptors. Altogether, our results provide evidence that the functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NPY2R promoter gene affect circumscribed processes of early sensory processing, i.e. only the stability of information in sensory memory buffers. This leads us to suggest that especially the stability of information in sensory memory buffers depends on glutamatergic neural transmission and factors modulating glutamatergic turnover. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Reward associations impact both iconic and visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Elisa; Hickey, Clayton; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Reward plays a fundamental role in human behavior. A growing number of studies have shown that stimuli associated with reward become salient and attract attention. The aim of the present study was to extend these results into the investigation of iconic memory and visual working memory. In two experiments we asked participants to perform a visual-search task where different colors of the target stimuli were paired with high or low reward. We then tested whether the pre-established feature-reward association affected performance on a subsequent visual memory task, in which no reward was provided. In this test phase participants viewed arrays of 8 objects, one of which had unique color that could match the color associated with reward during the previous visual-search task. A probe appeared at varying intervals after stimulus offset to identify the to-be-reported item. Our results suggest that reward biases the encoding of visual information such that items characterized by a reward-associated feature interfere with mnemonic representations of other items in the test display. These results extend current knowledge regarding the influence of reward on early cognitive processes, suggesting that feature-reward associations automatically interact with the encoding and storage of visual information, both in iconic memory and visual working memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Iconic Gestures for Robot Avatars, Recognition and Integration with Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Adam Bremner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-verbal gestures are an important part of human communication, improving its efficiency and efficacy for information conveyance. One possible means by which such multi-modal communication might be realised remotely is through the use of a tele-operated humanoid robot avatar. Such avatars have been previously shown to enhance social presence and operator salience. We present a motion tracking based tele-operation system for the NAO robot platform that allows direct transmission of speech and gestures produced by the operator. To assess the capabilities of this system for transmitting multi-modal communication, we have conducted a user study that investigated if robot-produced iconic gestures are comprehensible, and are integrated with speech. Robot performed gesture outcomes were compared directly to those for gestures produced by a human actor, using a within participant experimental design. We show that iconic gestures produced by a tele-operated robot are understood by participants when presented alone, almost as well as when produced by a human. More importantly, we show that gestures are integrated with speech when presented as part of a multi-modal communication equally well for human and robot performances.

  6. Combined dendrochronological and radiocarbon dating of six Russian icons from the 15th-17th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, A. V.; Matskovsky, V. V.; Voronin, K. V.; Solomina, O. N.

    2017-06-01

    The results of dendrochronological and radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of six medieval icons, originating from northern European Russia and painted on wooden panels made from Scots pine, dated to the 15th to 17th centuries are presented. The panels of each icon were studied using dendrochronology. Five to six AMS dates were obtained for four icons. Although five icons were dendro-dated successfully, one failed to be reliably cross-dated with the existing master tree-ring chronologies and it was dated by radiocarbon wiggle-matching. Dendrochronological dating and wiggle-matching of radiocarbon dates allowed us to determine the narrow chronological intervals of icon creation.

  7. The icon of the Holy Virgin Vatopedini with a portrait of Voevoda Ioan Radul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašnić Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author discusses iconography and stylistic characteristic of the icon featuring the Virgin Vatopedini with the Hungarian-Wallachian Voevoda loan Radul. The icon is treasured in the cathedral church of the Holy martyr Demetrios in Bitola. In more recent times, a new layer was painted over the icon, but not so long ago the icon was restored to its original condition. The inscriptions on the icon reveal that the Voevoda was a "new ktetor" of Vatopedi and also testify the painting was completed on November 28, 1502. The representation of the enthroned Virgin with the infant Christ sitting in her lap, flanked by St John Prodromes and the founder, belongs to the iconography of Deesis. Its stylistic features indicate that in most probability it was the work by a Cretan painter from the Ritzos family.

  8. Fatal defect in computerized glow curve deconvolution of thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.

    2001-01-01

    The method of computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) is a powerful tool in the study of thermoluminescence (TL). In a system where the plural trapping levels have the probability of retrapping, the electrons trapped at one level can transfer from this level to another through retrapping via the conduction band during reading TL. However, at present, the method of CGCD has no affect on the electron transition between the trapping levels; this is a fatal defect. It is shown by computer simulation that CGCD using general-order kinetics thus cannot yield the correct trap parameters. (author)

  9. Use of glow discharge in measurement of diffusion profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Guy

    1976-05-01

    The composition of a glow discharge plasma is a good image of the composition of the surface being erroded without fusion. The depth of metal eated away is a linear function of time in 10 to 60μ range, that is too say between 2 and 20 minutes after lightning of the lamp. So measuring the emission of the discharge is function of time gives the diffusion profile of elements either by measuring instantaneous signal or by integrating during short periods of time for weak concentration. Examples of application for diffusion of N 2 and C in steel will be given [fr

  10. Evaluation of the glow curves of a new glass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Nathália S.; Souza, Samara P.; Ferreira, Pâmela Z.; Dantas, Noelio O.; Silva, Anielle C.A.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Carrera, Betzabel N.S.; Watanabe, Shigueo

    2017-01-01

    Thermoluminescence is a dosimetric technique with may be used to personal, clinical, environmental and high doses. In this work a new glass matrix, with nominal composition of 20Li 2 CO 3 .10Al 2 O 3 .25BaO.45B 2 O 3 (mol%), was studied by the thermoluminescence technique. The glow curves was be analyzed, after the irradiation of this glass matrix with high doses. The results showed that this new glass matrix has a temperature peak in 260°C, which is ideal for dosimetry applications. (author)

  11. Diode laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy of glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshick, C.M.; Shaw, R.W.; Jennings, L.W.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diode-laser-excited isotopically-selective optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of uranium metal, oxide and fluoride in a glow discharge (GD) is presented. The technique is useful for determining 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios in these samples. The precision and accuracy of this determination is evaluated, and a study of experimental parameters pertaining to optimization of the measurement is discussed. Application of GD-OGS to other f-transition elements is also described. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Experimental study of spatial distribution of Ar glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.M.; Zhou, T.D.; Pai, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the spatial distribution of Ar glow discharge plasma were experimentally investigated. By means of direct comparisons between theory and experiment, the effects of the variation of gap separation, gas pressure, and electrode radius on the spatial distributions of electron density and electric field were studied. Results indicate that the maximum electron density moves toward the cathode as the gap separation or gas pressure increases while variation of electrode radius produces little effect. Predictions from a theoretical model have been experimentally verified. General agreements between theory and experiment were found to be reasonably good except in the cathode region, where discrepancy exists. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Glow discharge lamp: a light source for optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwanathan, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Nalini, S.; Mahalingam, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A glow discharge lamp based on a modified version of the Grimm design has been fabricated. Its utility as a radiation source for optical emmission spectrography by standardising a method for the analysis of low alloy steels using a set of certified standards from DMRL, Hyderabad, has been demonstrated. A model has been proposed where the sputtering rates of different metals have been correlated with their heats of sublimation, metallic radii and densities. Sputtering rates of ten different metals obtained from literature have been used to test this model, and the correlation appears to be excellent. (author). 19 re fs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  14. The mechanism of nickel ferrite formation by glow discharge effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of various factors on the formation of nickel ferrite by the glow discharge effect has been studied. The ferritization process in the system FeSO4-NiSO4-NaOH-H2O has been studied by the methods of potentiometric titration, measurement of electrical conductivity, residual concentrations and apparent sediment volume. It has been established that the process proceeds in a multistage fashion at pH 11-12 with the formation of polyhydroxo complexes, an intermediate compound and the ferrite formation by its oxidation with active radicals.

  15. Uncertainty of relative sensitivity factors in glow discharge mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2017-10-01

    The concept of the relative sensitivity factors required for the correction of the measured ion beam ratios in pin-cell glow discharge mass spectrometry is examined in detail. We propose a data-driven model for predicting the relative response factors, which relies on a non-linear least squares adjustment and analyte/matrix interchangeability phenomena. The model provides a self-consistent set of response factors for any analyte/matrix combination of any element that appears as either an analyte or matrix in at least one known response factor.

  16. Age-Related Changes in Preschoolers' Ability to Communicate Using Iconic Gestures in the Absence of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasc, Dermina; Miclea, Mircea

    2018-01-01

    Iconic gestures illustrate complex meanings and clarify and enrich the speech they accompany. Little is known, however, about how children use iconic gestures in the absence of speech. In this study, we used a cross-sectional design to investigate how 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 51) communicate using pantomime iconic gestures. Children…

  17. Numerical analysis of thermoluminescence glow curves; Analisis numerico de las cruvas de termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Ros, J M; Delgado, A

    1989-07-01

    This report presents a method for the numerical analysis of complex thermoluminescence glow curves resolving the individual glow peak components. The method employs first order kinetics analytical expressions and is based In a Marquart-Levenberg minimization procedure. A simplified version of this method for thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is also described and specifically developed to operate whit Lithium Fluoride TLD-100. (Author). 36 refs.

  18. Assessing the Warm Glow Effect in Contingent Valuations for Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Jae; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Jung, Eun-Joo

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to present evidence of the warm glow effect in a public library setting. More specifically, it tests whether individual respondents with different values for the warm glow component report different values for their willingness to pay (WTP). The data come from a contingent valuation survey conducted on randomly selected citizens…

  19. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  20. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemo-luminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  1. Video Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George Nauck of ENCORE!!! invented and markets the Advanced Range Performance (ARPM) Video Golf System for measuring the result of a golf swing. After Nauck requested their assistance, Marshall Space Flight Center scientists suggested video and image processing/computing technology, and provided leads on commercial companies that dealt with the pertinent technologies. Nauck contracted with Applied Research Inc. to develop a prototype. The system employs an elevated camera, which sits behind the tee and follows the flight of the ball down range, catching the point of impact and subsequent roll. Instant replay of the video on a PC monitor at the tee allows measurement of the carry and roll. The unit measures distance and deviation from the target line, as well as distance from the target when one is selected. The information serves as an immediate basis for making adjustments or as a record of skill level progress for golfers.

  2. Research on the Plasma Anemometer Based on AC Glow Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new plasma anemometer based on AC glow discharge is designed in this article. Firstly, theoretical analysis of plasma anemometer working principle is introduced to prove the feasibility of the experimental measurement method. Then the experiments are carried out to study the effects of different parameters on the static discharge characteristics of the plasma anemometer system, by which the system optimization methods are obtained. Finally, several groups of appropriate parameters are selected to build the plasma anemometer system based on resistance capacitance coupling negative feedback AC glow discharge, and different airflow speeds are applied to obtain the achievable velocity measurement range. The results show that there is a linear relationship between airflow velocity and discharge current in an allowable error range, which can be applied for airflow velocity measurement. Negative feedback coupling module, which is composed of the coupling resistance and the coupling capacitance, has good effects on improving the system stability. The measurement range of the airflow velocity is significantly increased when the electrode gap is 3 mm, coupling resistance is 470 Ω, and coupling capacitance is 220 pF.

  3. Synthesis of nanoparticles in an atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barankin, M.D.; Creyghton, Y.; Schmidt-Ott, A.

    2006-01-01

    Nanopowders are produced in a low temperature, non-equilibrium plasma jet (APPJ), which produces a glow discharge at atmospheric pressure, for the first time. Amorphous carbon and iron nanoparticles have been synthesized from Acetylene and Ferrocene/H 2 , respectively. High generation rates are achieved from the glow discharge at near-ambient temperature (40-80 deg. C), and rise with increasing plasma power and precursor concentration. Fairly narrow particle size distributions are measured with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an aerosol electrometer (AEM), and are centered around 30-35 nm for carbon and 20-25 nm for iron. Particle characteristics analyzed by TEM and EDX reveal amorphous carbon and iron nanoparticles. The Fe particles are highly oxidized on exposure to air. Comparison of the mobility and micrograph diameters reveal that the particles are hardly agglomerated or unagglomerated. This is ascribed to the unipolar charge on particles in the plasma. The generated particle distributions are examined as a function of process parameters

  4. Shock wave interaction with pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, N.K.; LoCascio, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic shock waves are launched by the spark-discharge of a high voltage capacitor in pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas. The glow discharge section of the shock tube is switched on for a period of less than one second at a time, during which a shock wave is launched starting with a large delay between the plasma switch-on and the shock-launch. In the subsequent runs this delay is decremented in equal time intervals up to the plasma switch-on time. A photo acoustic deflection method sensitive to the density gradient of the shock wave is used to study the propagating shock structure and velocity in the igniting plasma. A similar set of measurements are also performed at the plasma switch-off, in which the delay time is incremented in equal time intervals from the plasma switch-off time until the afterglow plasma fully neutralizes itself into the room-temperature gas. Thus, complete time histories of the shock wave propagation in the igniting plasma, as well as in the afterglow plasma, are produced. In the igniting plasma, the changes in the shock-front velocity and dispersion are found to be a strong non-linear function of delay until a saturation point is reached. On the other hand, in the afterglow plasma the trend has been opposite and reversing towards the room temperature values. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas

  5. Closed form analytic solutions describing glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, S.T.; Guo, X.M.; Zhou, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of an analytic model developed previously [S. T. Pai, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5820 (1992)], an improved version of the model for the description of dc glow discharge plasma was successfully developed. A set of closed form solutions was obtained from the governing equations. The two-dimensional, analytic solutions are functional and completely satisfy the governing equations, the actual boundary conditions, and Maxwell equations. They can be readily used to carry out numerical calculations without the necessity of employing any assumed boundary conditions. Results obtained from the model reveal that as the discharge gap spacing or pressure increases the maximum value in the electron density distribution moves toward the cathode. At a sufficiently large value of gap spacing, the positive column phenomenon begins to appear in the discharge region. The model has the capability of treating the positive column and negative glow as a continuous system without the necessity of studying them separately. The model also predicts a sharp rise of the positive ion density near the cathode and field reversal in the anode region. Variation of the electrode radius produces little effect on the axial spatial distribution of physical quantities studied. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. Electric probe data analysis for glow discharge diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the development and application of digital computations for the analysis of data from an electric probe used for glow discharge diagnostics. The essential physics of the probe/discharge interaction is presented, along with formulations from modern electric probe theory. These results are then digitally implemented by a set of computer programs which both calculate discharge properties of electron temperature and density, and aid in the interpretation of these property estimates. The method of analysis, and the theories selected for implementation, are valid only for low pressure, collisionless sheath, and quiescent discharges where the single electric probe has a much smaller area than the discharge reference electrode. However, certain algorithms are included which, in some cases, can extend the analysis into intermediate pressure regimes. The digital programs' functional capabilities are demonstrated by the analysis of experimental probe data, collected using a laboratory glow discharge. Typical sources of error inherent in the electric probe method are discussed, along with an analysis of error induced by the computational methods of the programs. 27 refs., 49 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Iconicity in the development of picture skills: typical development and implications for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The iconicity of graphic symbols and the iconicity hypothesis are theoretical concepts that have had an impact on the use of augmentative and alternative communication strategies for people with severe intellectual disabilities. This article reviews some of the recent literature on the impact of iconicity on symbol recognition and use by typically developing children and relates those findings to people with severe disability. It seems that although iconicity may have some impact on symbol learning, there are other variables that are likely to be much more important. It is likely that iconicity is not helpful to those learning graphic symbols who have little or no comprehension of spoken language.

  8. OAS :: Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    subscriptions Videos Photos Live Webcast Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Audios Photos Social Media Facebook Twitter Newsletters Press and Communications Department Contact us at Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber

  9. Choosing colors for map display icons using models of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Joshua; Francis, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    We show how to choose colors for icons on maps to minimize search time using predictions of a model of visual search. The model analyzes digital images of a search target (an icon on a map) and a search display (the map containing the icon) and predicts search time as a function of target-distractor color distinctiveness and target eccentricity. We parameterized the model using data from a visual search task and performed a series of optimization tasks to test the model's ability to choose colors for icons to minimize search time across icons. Map display designs made by this procedure were tested experimentally. In a follow-up experiment, we examined the model's flexibility to assign colors in novel search situations. The model fits human performance, performs well on the optimization tasks, and can choose colors for icons on maps with novel stimuli to minimize search time without requiring additional model parameter fitting. Models of visual search can suggest color choices that produce search time reductions for display icons. Designers should consider constructing visual search models as a low-cost method of evaluating color assignments.

  10. Towards iconic language for patient records, drug monographs, guidelines and medical search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Hamek, Saliha; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Kerdelhué, Gaetan; Darmoni, Stefan; Favre, Madeleine; Falcoff, Hector; Simon, Christian; Pereira, Suzanne; Serrot, Elisabeth; Mitouard, Thierry; Hardouin, Etienne; Kergosien, Yannick; Venot, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Practicing physicians have limited time for consulting medical knowledge and records. We have previously shown that using icons instead of text to present drug monographs may allow contraindications and adverse effects to be identified more rapidly and more accurately. These findings were based on the use of an iconic language designed for drug knowledge, providing icons for many medical concepts, including diseases, antecedents, drug classes and tests. In this paper, we describe a new project aimed at extending this iconic language, and exploring the possible applications of these icons in medicine. Based on evaluators' comments, focus groups of physicians and opinions of academic, industrial and associative partners, we propose iconic applications related to patient records, for example summarizing patient conditions, searching for specific clinical documents and helping to code structured data. Other applications involve the presentation of clinical practice guidelines and improving the interface of medical search engines. These new applications could use the same iconic language that was designed for drug knowledge, with a few additional items that respect the logic of the language.

  11. The Pricing Effects of Heritage at an Iconic Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Hudson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Historic hotels are a recognized product type in the lodging industry and may be found in significant numbers throughout the globe. The purpose of this article is to validate the notion that heritage can be an important element of the consumer value proposition for older hotels, by demonstrating that an iconic hotel with a distinct historical identity is able to attain a price premium over newer hotels with comparable operating characteristics. This exploratory study is based on qualitative field research conducted by the author, and quantitative analysis of pricing data that was collected by a regional hotel industry association over a five year period. The author concludes that heritage does indeed have a positive effect on the ability to attain a price premium at historic hotels, especially for leisure travelers.

  12. GREEN TOWERS AND ICONIC DESIGN: Cases from Three Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir M Al-Kodmany

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, massive urbanization, increasingly denser cities and environmental consciousness are pushing architects to build “green” skyscraper. This paper examines the emergence of a notable type of skyscrapers which depart from purely image-driven structures, and emphasizes functionality and energy efficiency. It argues that breathtaking green design and practical clean technology are merged to give birth to green architectural aesthetics. Upon reviewing over 30 towers from various parts of the world, the paper identifies salient green design strategies that provide new iconicity including: structural efficiencies, renewable energy, façade technology, greeneries, and bioclimatic design. Findings suggest that a dynamic synergy among innovative green design strategies, new architectural languages and exciting aesthetics has constituted a trend that is more likely to prevail in the 21st Century.

  13. Euristica del senso. Iconic turn e semiotica dell'immagine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mengoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking cue from the epistolary exchange between Gottfried Boehm and Tom Mitchell, the article explores the relationship between the so-called Bildkritik and the visual semiotics. Rather than focusing on the explicit quotation of semiotic concepts or authors, the paper proposes to examine the heuristic approach to the image that characterizes both the analytical dimension of the Bildkritik and the semiotics of the image developed by the French generative semiotics.Taking into account the immanent approach of both traditions and some key-operators (such as ‘iconic difference’ and ‘sémiotique plastique’, the acknowledgement of an active sense-generating capability of the ‘visual’ will emerge as a common feature.

  14. 2D DC Subnormal Glow Discharge in Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchikhi, A.; Hamid, A.

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional time-dependent fluid model was developed and used to describe a DC subnormal glow discharge in argon with Cartesian geometry. This configuration allows us to take into account the transverse expansion of the discharge. A hydrodynamic fluid model used in this paper is based on the moments of the Boltzmann transport equation. The resultant set of governing equations consists of continuity equations (fluxes and densities) for electrons and ions, an energy equation for electrons, and Poisson's equation. Simulation results are presented for the densities of charged particles, the electric voltage, the electric field, and the electron temperature of the discharge. The results were compared with those obtained in the literature.

  15. Gas Temperature Measurement in a Glow Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloneker, Kenneth; Podder, Nirmol; McCurdy, William E.; Shi, Shi

    2009-10-01

    In this study a relatively inexpensive quartz protected thermocouple is used to measure the gas temperature in the positive column of a glow discharge plasma. For simplicity a K-type thermocouple is used to interpret the gas temperature from the sensor voltage at pressures from 0.5 Torr to 15 Torr and discharge currents from 5 mA to 120 mA. Gas temperature is investigated as a function of the gas pressure at fixed discharge currents and as a function of discharge current at fixed gas pressures in three different gas species (Ar, N2, and He). An infinite cylinder model is used to compute the average gas temperature of the discharge from joule heating and gas thermal conductivity. The model and measurement data agree within 1% to 10% depending on plasma parameters. Data for all three gases have a similar quasi-linear increasing error as compared to the model.

  16. Modeling of Pulsed Direct-Current Glow Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Mu; Zheng Yaru; Fan Yujia; Zhang Nan; Liu Chengsen; Wang Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    A self-consistent model was adopted to study the time evolution of low-voltage pulsed DC glow discharge. The distributions of electric field, ion density and electron density in nitrogen were investigated in our simulation, and the temporal shape of the discharge current was also obtained. Our results show that the dynamic behaviors of the discharge depends strongly on the applied pulse voltage, and the use of higher pulse voltages results in a significantly increase of discharge current and a decrease of discharge delay time. The current-voltage characteristic calculated by adjusting secondary electron emission coefficient for different applied pulse voltage under the gas pressure of 1 Torr is found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Easy to implement diagnostics of a glow dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massines, F.; Segur, P.

    2001-01-01

    It is relatively easier to generate plasma at atmospheric pressure rather than low pressure. In retaliation, due to the short mean free path of different particles, the diagnostics giving microscopic characteristics are more difficult to implement. This, for example, is the case of Langmuir probe or mass spectrometry although solutions have been put forward. Likewise, the strong contribution of the excited state quenching can render optical characterization result interpretation difficult. Nevertheless, there are easy to implement basic diagnostics like optical emission spectroscopy, the ultra rapid photography or the discharge current measurement. A possible approach to get to the microscopic data consists in associating the experimental results with the results of a numerical model. This is the approach undertaken for the study of a glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and is described in the following text in order to illustrate the possibilities of those easy to implement diagnostics supported by the analysis of surfaces having interacted with the plasma

  18. Probiotic Bacteria Induce a ‘Glow of Health’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Christopher; Varian, Bernard J.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this ‘glow of health’ display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary changes mimicking peak health and reproductive fitness characteristic of much younger animals. Eating probiotic yogurt triggered epithelial follicular anagen-phase shift with sebocytogenesis resulting in thick lustrous fur due to a bacteria-triggered interleukin-10-dependent mechanism. Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, when compared with matched controls, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair, a feature that also aligns with fertility in human females. Together these data provide insights into mammalian evolution and novel strategies for integumentary health. PMID:23342023

  19. Composition dependence of glow peak temperature in KCl1-xBrx doped with divalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Salas, R; Aceves, R; RodrIguez-Mijangos, R; Riveros, H G; Duarte, C

    2004-01-01

    Thermoluminescence measurements of β-irradiated Eu 2+ - and Ca 2+ - doped KCl 1-x KBr x solid solutions excited at room temperature have been carried out to identify the effect of composition on the glow peaks. A typical glow peak has been distinguished for each composition. A linear dependence of its temperature on the composition x has been found. These results indicate that for divalent impurity-doped alkali halide solid solutions these glow peak temperatures are mostly dependent on the lattice constant of the host than on the size of the anion or impurity cation

  20. Determination of the plasma impedance of a glow discharge in carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A. S.; Smirnov, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this work an expression for the dynamic resistance of a glow discharge flowing in long tubes is obtained and analyzed. The expression describes the physical processes occurring in the positive column of a glow discharge. The frequency dependences of the active and reactive components as well as the dynamic resistance module for the discharge conditions corresponding to CO2-lasers have been calculated. Based on the simulation results developed a computer program in the C# programming language for modeling the dynamic resistance discharge of glow discharge lasers.

  1. Spreading the cult body on YouTube: A case study of "Telephone" derivative videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Vellar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This case study of spreadability analyzes the Lady Gaga music video "Telephone," which has been appropriated and reworked by YouTube users sharing derivative works online. What properties of the music video stimulate user appropriation? What hybrid audiovisual forms are emerging from its reworking by users? In order to answer these questions, between January and August 2010, I conducted participant observation on Lady Gaga's official social network profiles and collected 70 "Telephone" derivative videos on YouTube. I identified three main categories of video creativity: (1 music (which includes covers, "me singing" videos, music mashups, and choreography; (2 parody (in which YouTube users and comedians humorously imitate Gaga, creating spoofs; and (3 fashion (in which makeup artists and amateurs appropriate the star's image to create makeup and hair tutorials. "Telephone" has become spreadable because it integrates dance music and choreography, costume changes, cinematic references, and product placements that work as textual hooks meaningful to different target markets: live music, dance, chick, and postmodern cinematic cultures. In particular, Gaga is a cult body that explicitly incorporates previous cinematic and pop music icons. Users are stimulated to reenact Gaga's cult body online. On YouTube, spreadability is thus strictly related to the appropriation of cult bodies. Fans, comedians, independent musicians, fashionistas, and pop stars construct their own cult bodies by deliberately borrowing characteristics from previous media icons and reenacting them in online videos in order to fulfill their expressive and professional needs.

  2. Prototyping and testing of a fully autonomous road construction beacon, the iCone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    A revolutionary portable traffic monitoring device is developed, extensively prototyped and thoroughly tested throughout the State of New York as well as several other states. The resulting device, trademarked as the iCone, simplifies the process o...

  3. Message formulation, organization, and navigation schemes for icon-based communication aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupal

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with severe speech and motor impairments rely on assistive communication devices to convey their needs and desires in social, educational, and vocational situations. Users with limited motor control or literacy often choose to use icon-based devices that afford increased speed of message formulation at the cost of fully generative language formulation on letter-based devices. A major challenge with large vocabulary icon-based systems is rate of communication. Message formulation, vocabulary organization, and navigation schemes can be used to mitigate the trade-off between vocabulary size and communication rate. This paper summarizes our research efforts to leverage semantic frame theory, situational context, and rapid serial visual presentation to improve message formulation speed and completeness in our iconCHAT and RSVP iconCHAT systems. Usability data and persisting challenges are discussed.

  4. Icon Painters of the Nizhniy Novgorod Volga Region of the XVII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronicka N. Belyaeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The author considers specificity and basic difficulties of biographies of the icon painters of the Nizhniy Novgorod Volga region of the XVII-th century restore. The data on the masters are cites.

  5. Readout from iconic memory and selective spatial attention involve similar neural processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christian C; Kristjánsson, Arni; Driver, Jon

    2007-10-01

    Iconic memory and spatial attention are often considered separately, but they may have functional similarities. Here we provide functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for some common underlying neural effects. Subjects judged three visual stimuli in one hemifield of a bilateral array comprising six stimuli. The relevant hemifield for partial report was indicated by an auditory cue, administered either before the visual array (precue, spatial attention) or shortly after the array (postcue, iconic memory). Pre- and postcues led to similar activity modulations in lateral occipital cortex contralateral to the cued side. This finding indicates that readout from iconic memory can have some neural effects similar to those of spatial attention. We also found common bilateral activation of a fronto-parietal network for postcue and precue trials. These neuroimaging data suggest that some common neural mechanisms underlie selective spatial attention and readout from iconic memory. Some differences were also found; compared with precues, postcues led to higher activity in the right middle frontal gyrus.

  6. Iconic-Memory Processing of Unfamiliar Stimuli by Retarded and Nonretarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Henry A.; Mosley, James L.

    1979-01-01

    The iconic-memory processing of unfamiliar stimuli by 11 mentally retarded males (mean age 22 years) was undertaken employing a visually cued partial-report procedure and a visual masking procedure. (Author/CL)

  7. ICON, a current model preamplifier in CMOS technology for use with high rate particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Campbell, M.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Jarron, P.; Meddeler, G.; Santiard, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The ICON current mode preamplifier is intended for use in experiments at high rate hadron colliders. The transient response and noise performance have been analyzed. One chip has been made using an ICON circuit with resistive feedback to produce a preamplifier with a peaking time of below 10 ns. This fast preamplifier has a gain of 870 mV/pC and a power dissipation of around 1 mW. Another chip was made which uses the ICON circuit as the front-end to a dual port analog memory. The noise measured is between 2,400 e - and 3,000 e - . An important characteristic of ICON is that it can tolerate a detector leakage current of 10 μA at the DC coupled input. Therefore, it is very suitable for silicon detector systems under severe radiation conditions

  8. Combining Semantic and Lexical Methods for Mapping MedDRA to VCM Icons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Tsopra, Rosy

    2018-01-01

    VCM (Visualization of Concept in Medicine) is an iconic language that represents medical concepts, such as disorders, by icons. VCM has a formal semantics described by an ontology. The icons can be used in medical software for providing a visual summary or enriching texts. However, the use of VCM icons in user interfaces requires to map standard medical terminologies to VCM. Here, we present a method combining semantic and lexical approaches for mapping MedDRA to VCM. The method takes advantage of the hierarchical relations in MedDRA. It also analyzes the groups of lemmas in the term's labels, and relies on a manual mapping of these groups to the concepts in the VCM ontology. We evaluate the method on 50 terms. Finally, we discuss the method and suggest perspectives.

  9. The Effect of Iconic and Beat Gestures on Memory Recall in Greek's First and Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Ioanna Levantinou

    2016-01-01

    Gestures play a major role in comprehension and memory recall due to the fact that aid the efficient channel of the meaning and support listeners’ comprehension and memory. In the present study, the assistance of two kinds of gestures (iconic and beat gestures) is tested in regards to memory and recall. The hypothesis investigated here is whether or not iconic and beat gestures provide assistance in memory and recall in Greek and in Greek speakers’ second language. Two gr...

  10. An icon-based synoptic visualization of fully polarimetric radar data

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, I.H.; Turner, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The visualization of fully polarimetric radar data is hindered by traditional remote sensing methodologies for displaying data due to the large number of parameters per pixel in such data, and the non-scalar nature of variables such as phase difference. In this paper, a new method is described that uses icons instead of image pixels to represent the image data so that polarimetric properties and geographic context can be visualized together. The icons are parameterized using the alpha-entropy...

  11. Fast decay of iconic memory in observers with mild cognitive impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Neuse, James; Madigan, Stephen; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2005-01-01

    In a previous clinical report, unusually fast decay of iconic memory was obtained from a subject who later developed Alzheimer's disease. By using the partial-report paradigm, iconic memory (a form of visual sensory memory) in a group of observers with mild cognitive impairments (MCI) was characterized and compared with that of young college-age adults and older controls. Relatively long stimulus exposures were used for all three groups to ensure that older observers could perceive the stimul...

  12. An icon that everyone wants to click on : an empirical study on the relationship between consumer perceptions and mobile game icon successfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Jylhä, Henrietta

    2017-01-01

    Mobile games market has been touted as the fastest growing gaming sector in the world. Every day thousands of new mobile games are published to join millions of others on app stores. The competition for top grossing mobile games is fierce, and the way a game is represented greatly contributes to its commercial success. When browsing for mobile games, consumers search for an icon they want to click on. However, most mobile games fail to engage consumers who browse past hundreds of icons on app...

  13. Sport Concussion Management Using Facebook: A Feasibility Study of an Innovative Adjunct "iCon".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Schneiders, Anthony G; McCrory, Paul R; Sullivan, S John

    2017-04-01

      Sport concussion is currently the focus of much international attention. Innovative methods to assist athletic trainers in facilitating management after this injury need to be investigated.   To investigate the feasibility of using a Facebook concussion-management program termed iCon (interactive concussion management) to facilitate the safe return to play (RTP) of young persons after sport concussion.   Observational study.   Facebook group containing interactive elements, with moderation and support from trained health care professionals.   Eleven participants (n = 9 men, n = 2 women; range, 18 to 28 years old) completed the study.   The study was conducted over a 3-month period, with participant questionnaires administered preintervention and postintervention. The primary focus was on the qualitative experiences of the participants and the effect of iCon on their RTP. Usage data were also collected.   At the completion of the study, all participants (100%) stated that they would recommend an intervention such as iCon to others. Their supporting quotes all indicated that iCon has the potential to improve the management of concussion among this cohort. Most participants (n = 9, 82%) stated they were better informed with regard to their RTP due to participating in iCon.   This interactive adjunct to traditional concussion management was appreciated among this participant group, which indicates the feasibility of a future, larger study of iCon. Athletic trainers should consider the role that multimedia technologies may play in assisting with the management of sport concussion.

  14. Iconic memory is not a case of attention-free awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Erol, Muge; Clarke, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Whether or not awareness entails attention is a much debated question. Since iconic memory has been generally assumed to be attention-free, it has been considered an important piece of evidence that it does not (Koch & Tsuchiya, 2007). Therefore the question of the role of attention in iconic memory matters. Recent evidence (Persuh, Genzer, & Melara, 2012), suggests that iconic memory does depend on attention. Because of the centrality of iconic memory to this debate, we looked again at the role of attention in iconic memory using a standard whole versus partial report task of letters in a 3×2 matrix. We manipulated attention to the array by coupling it with a second task that was either easy or hard and by manipulating the probability of which task was to be performed on any given trial. When attention was maximally diverted from the matrix, participants were able to report less than a single item, confirming the prior results and supporting the conclusion that iconic memory entails attention. It is not an instance of attention-free awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bishnuprasad Rabha as Cultural Icon of Assam: The Process of Meaning Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parismita Hazarika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term ‘cultural icon’ is generally used to refer to individuals or images, objects, visual sign, monuments, space etc. In semiotics the term ‘icon’ is used to refer to a sign that bears close resemblance to the object that it stands for. Icons are particularly influential signifiers because they are immediately identifiable and carry complex cultural codes in a compact image. In this paper the understanding of ‘cultural icon’ is not limited to semiotics. Following Keyan Tomaselli and David Scott in Cultural Icons (2009, we believe that cultural icons are purposive constructions. An attempt has been made in this paper to analyze the association of ‘desirable’ meanings to a cultural icon (while dropping ‘undesirable’ ones; thus, it is imperative that we look at the changing socio-political contexts behind such purposive constructions. With this in mind, we look at the iconic figure of Bishnuprasad Rabha who has been one of the most revered figures in the cultural history of Assam and has been appropriated as a cultural icon in different discourses of the national life of Assam that has emerged in recent times.

  16. Iconicity as a general property of language: evidence from spoken and signed languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Perniss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Current views about language are dominated by the idea of arbitrary connections between linguistic form and meaning. However, if we look beyond the more familiar Indo-European languages and also include both spoken and signed language modalities, we find that motivated, iconic form-meaning mappings are, in fact, pervasive in language. In this paper, we review the different types of iconic mappings that characterize languages in both modalities, including the predominantly visually iconic mappings in signed languages. Having shown that iconic mapping are present across languages, we then proceed to review evidence showing that language users (signers and speakers exploit iconicity in language processing and language acquisition. While not discounting the presence and importance of arbitrariness in language, we put forward the idea that iconicity need also be recognized as a general property of language, which may serve the function of reducing the gap between linguistic form and conceptual representation to allow the language system to hook up to motor and perceptual experience.

  17. Read-out of emotional information from iconic memory: the longevity of threatening stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has shown that emotional stimuli are more likely than neutral stimuli to be selected by attention, indicating that the processing of emotional information is prioritized. In this study, we examined whether the emotional significance of stimuli influences visual processing already at the level of transient storage of incoming information in iconic memory, before attentional selection takes place. We used a typical iconic memory task in which the delay of a poststimulus cue, indicating which of several visual stimuli has to be reported, was varied. Performance decreased rapidly with increasing cue delay, reflecting the fast decay of information stored in iconic memory. However, although neutral stimulus information and emotional stimulus information were initially equally likely to enter iconic memory, the subsequent decay of the initially stored information was slowed for threatening stimuli, a result indicating that fear-relevant information has prolonged availability for read-out from iconic memory. This finding provides the first evidence that emotional significance already facilitates stimulus processing at the stage of iconic memory.

  18. Video astronomy on the go using video cameras with small telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Author Joseph Ashley explains video astronomy's many benefits in this comprehensive reference guide for amateurs. Video astronomy offers a wonderful way to see objects in far greater detail than is possible through an eyepiece, and the ability to use the modern, entry-level video camera to image deep space objects is a wonderful development for urban astronomers in particular, as it helps sidestep the issue of light pollution. The author addresses both the positive attributes of these cameras for deep space imaging as well as the limitations, such as amp glow. The equipment needed for imaging as well as how it is configured is identified with hook-up diagrams and photographs. Imaging techniques are discussed together with image processing (stacking and image enhancement). Video astronomy has evolved to offer great results and great ease of use, and both novices and more experienced amateurs can use this book to find the set-up that works best for them. Flexible and portable, they open up a whole new way...

  19. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy for accurate and well resolved analysis of coatings and thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wilke, Marcus; Teichert, Gerd; Gemma, Ryota; Pundt, Astrid; Kirchheim, Reiner; Romanus, Henry; Schaaf, Peter

    2011-01-01

    overview on new developments in instrument design for accurate and well resolved thin film analyses is presented. The article focuses on the analytical capabilities of glow discharge optical emission spectrometry in the analysis of metallic coatings

  20. A computerized glow curve analysis (GCA) method for WinREMS thermoluminescent dosimeter data using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, John A.; Rodrigues, Miesher L.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2011-01-01

    A computerized glow curve analysis (GCA) program for handling of thermoluminescence data originating from WinREMS is presented. The MATLAB program fits the glow peaks using the first-order kinetics model. Tested materials are LiF:Mg,Ti, CaF 2 :Dy, CaF 2 :Tm, CaF 2 :Mn, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, and CaSO 4 :Dy, with most having an average figure of merit (FOM) of 1.3% or less, with CaSO 4 :Dy 2.2% or less. Output is a list of fit parameters, peak areas, and graphs for each fit, evaluating each glow curve in 1.5 s or less. - Highlights: → Robust algorithm for performing thermoluminescent dosimeter glow curve analysis. → Written in MATLAB so readily implemented on variety of computers. → Usage of figure of merit demonstrated for six different materials.

  1. Focus: The elusive icon: Einstein, 1905-2005 - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galison, Peter

    2004-12-01

    As Einstein's portrait comes increasingly to resemble an icon, we lose more than detail - his writings and actions lose all reference. This is as true for his physics as it is for his philosophy and his politics; the best of recent work aims to remove Einstein's interventions from the abstract sphere of Delphic pronouncements and to insert them in the stream of real events, real arguments. Politically, this means attending to McCarthyism, Paul Robeson, the Arab-Israeli conflict. Philosophically, it means tying his concerns, for example, to late nineteenth-century neo-Kantian debates and to his own struggles inside science. And where physics is concerned, it means attending both in the narrow to his reponses to others' work and his reactions to this own sometimes misfired early work on, for example, general relativity and to the wider context of technological developments. Einstein remains and will remain a magnet for historians, philosophers, and scientists; the essays assembled here represent a strong sampling - but only a sampling - of a fascinating new generation of work on this perennial figure.

  2. Making Sense of Shakespeare: a Cultural Icon for Contemporary Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Olsson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The works of William Shakespeare are more popular in the 21st century than ever before, Why are theatre and audiences around the globe still drawn to his work? How do they make sense of these texts in ways that resonate with their cosmopolitan, contemporary audiences? This article uses the findings of a study interviewing 35 theatre professionals in Canada, Finland and the United Kingdom to explore these issues. Theoretically and methodologically, it is a bricollage, drawing on a range of approaches including Foucault’s discourse analysis, Hobsbawm’s invented traditions and Dervin’s Sense-Making to understand participants sense-making as an affective, embodied social practice. It argues that attempting to understand the significance of a major cultural icon such as Shakespeare in contemporary cosmopolitan civil society needs to recognise the many meanings, roles and significances that surround him and that this complexity makes it unlikely that any one theoretical lens will prove adequate on its own. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/ccs.v5i3.3640

  3. A Study of Electron Decay in Nitrogen Time After-glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veis, P.; Coitout, H.; Magne, L.; Cernogora, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with electron density measurements in nitrogen time after-glow using hyper frequency resonant cavity. The studied pressures are from the range 9-530 Pa and discharge currents from 20 mA up to 500 mA. Electrons decreases up to the time of 1,4 ms in after-glow depending on pressure, pulse current and pulse duration (Authors)

  4. Study on out-gassing by baking and glow discharge during wall conditioning of vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwen; Wei Weixing; Zhao Yuanqing; He Yanhe; Liao Yikui

    2007-01-01

    The model of out-gassing by baking and glow discharge cleaning (GDC) is set up. The properties of them are studied. Out-gassing by baking is from bulk and it obeys the diffusion equation. Out-gassing of glow discharge cleaning is mainly on surface, it is inducement out-gassing by sputtering. Thus the properties of out-gassing for baking and GDC on the HL-1M tokamak are analyzed. Some empirical formulas are given. (authors)

  5. Fuel hydrogen retention of tungsten and the reduction by inert gas glow discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, T., E-mail: tomhino@qe.eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Kimura, Y. [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu-ken 509-5292 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita-shi 565-0872 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performances of inert gas glow discharges for reduction of fuel hydrogen retention in tungsten were systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the tungsten with rough surface structure, the reduction of fuel hydrogen retention by inert gas discharges is quite small. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deuterium glow discharge is quite useful to reduce the tritium retention in plasma facing walls in fusion reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wall baking with temperature higher than 700-800 K is also useful to reduce the tritium retention in plasma facing walls. - Abstract: Polycrystalline tungsten was exposed to deuterium glow discharge followed by He, Ne or Ar glow discharge. The amount of retained deuterium in the tungsten was measured using residual gas analysis. The amount of desorbed deuterium during the inert gas glow discharge was also measured. The amount of retained deuterium was 2-3 times larger compared with a case of stainless steel. The ratios of desorbed amount of deuterium by He, Ne and Ar glow discharges were 4.6, 3.1 and 2.9%, respectively. These values were one order of magnitude smaller compared with the case of stainless steel. The inert gas glow discharge is not suitable to reduce the fuel hydrogen retention for tungsten walls. However, the wall baking with a temperature higher than 700 K is suitable to reduce the fuel hydrogen retention. It is also shown that the use of deuterium glow discharge is effective to reduce the in-vessel tritium inventory in fusion reactors through the hydrogen isotope exchange.

  6. Analytical investigations of thermoluminescence glow curve on quartz for luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.B.; Hong, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of bleaching and thermoluminescence (TL) response to radiation dose of quartz are importance in luminescence dating. Although such research has been extensively carried out for various types of quartz, most work was performed on the basis of TL intensity integrated for a particular temperature range on the glow curve, without any peak separation. In this study we investigated bleaching by a blue light stimulation and radiation dose behaviour for separated TL glow peaks of quartz, which are thermally stable, by using the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method combined with the T_m–T_s_t_o_p method. The T_m–T_s_t_o_p method indicates that the glow curve of quartz is the superposition of at least seven components (P1–P7) in the temperature range between room temperature and 450 °C. A bleaching experiment for four thermally stable glow peaks (P4–P7) using a blue light stimulation revealed that the bleaching rate of peak P4 exhibits three different exponential decays, whereas the peaks P5, P6 and P7 are bleached with two different exponential decays. After bleaching of 12 h, the TL intensity of peaks P4, P5, P6 and P7 were reduced to approximately 6%, 16%, 26% and 68% of the initial value, respectively. Additionally, in a study of the radiation dose response of the four thermally stable glow peaks, all peaks have a similar pattern, which are well fitted by a single saturating exponential function. - Highlights: • We studied the physical characteristics of the separated TL glow peaks on quartz. • The kinetic parameters of each separated glow peak are evaluated by a CGCD method. • The separated peaks were bleached with two or three exponential decays. • The dose responses for the separated peaks showed a similar growth curve.

  7. TL glow curve analysis of UV, beta and gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports themoluminescence glow curve analysis of UV (ultraviolet, β (beta and γ (gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave. The collected natural sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique and crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula. Surface morphology and particle size was calculated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM study. Effect of annealing temperature on collected lime stone examined by TL glow curve study. The limestone was irradiated by UV radiation (254 nm source and the TL glow curve recorded for different UV exposure time. For beta irradiation Sr90 source was used and is shows intense peak at 256 °C with a shoulder peak at higher temperature range. For gamma radiation Co60 source and TL glow curve recorded for different doses of gamma. The kinetic parameters calculation was performed for different glow curve by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD technique. The chemical composition of natural limestone was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS.

  8. Is this an arc or a glow discharge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkarev, V.F.; Bochkarev, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    A well known criterion for distinguishing an arc discharge from a glow discharge is a low voltage drop (10--30 V) and a high current density that varies from a few tens to 10 6 A/cm 2 depending on arc type. The high current density is an attribute of arcs with cathode spots. The authors report here a study of the mechanism of emission in cathode spot arc where they realized a spotless discharge with a low voltage drop (30--50 V) and a high mean current density (10 4 --10 6 A/cm 2 ). The discharge was initiated between a broad cathode and point anode. The cathode was a smooth tungsten sphere electrode of about 100 μm in diameter. The point anode was made of various materials (Mo, Cu, Cd) with initial radius 1 μm. Before the experiment the cathode was cleaned by heating at 2,000 K at high vacuum (10 -8 Torr). The discharge was initiated by self-breakdown when electrodes under the voltage 200--500 V were brought to close proximity with each other. The cathode-anode spacing d at the moment of breakdown was estimated to be < 1 μm. The discharge current was varied within 1--3 A by changing the applied voltage and impedance of coaxial cable generator. The discharge burned during 100--1,000 ns. After the single discharge the cathode and anode were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The cathode surface exposed to the discharge was smooth, i.e. no erosion pits similar to arc craters were found on the cathode surface. The anode was shortened after discharge by 5--50 μm depending on current, material and cone angle. A high current density and low voltage drop implies that this is an arc discharge, while the cold cathode and the absence f cathode spot trace are pertinent to a dense glow discharge. The mechanism of emission involving secondary electron emission is to be discussed

  9. Thermal mechanism of prepeak formation in Pulsed Glow Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Maxim; Hoffmann, Volker; Steingrobe, Tobias; Buscher, Wolfgang; Engelhard, Carsten; Storey, Andrew; Ray, Steven; Hieftje, Gary

    2012-10-01

    A microsecond Pulsed Glow Discharge (μs PGD) in a Grimm-type source is characterized by the so-called ``prepeak,'' which is a spike in both electrical current and emission intensity at the leading edge of the discharge pulse. The prepeak is followed by synchronized vibrations of the current and the emission. To understand the nature of these phenomena, a microphone was inserted into the discharge chamber. Acoustical waves were detected and found to be in correlation with the measured vibrations. This points to a thermal mechanism for prepeak formation: the gas is heated in the leading edge of the discharge pulse and then expanded. To prove this suggestion, a Monte-Carlo based model was developed to simulate the evolution of Ar concentration, temperature, and flow in time and space. Potentially, the model could be used for gas simulations in a wide range of different applications. Here, the model is incorporated into an existing but modified model of the μs PGD in a Grimm-type plasma excitation source. Results of the simulations confirm that the thermal mechanism is responsible for the formation of the electrical prepeak and the pressure waves.

  10. Study on the onset of DC diaphragm glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xinglong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongmei; Ren, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the DC diaphragm glow discharge (DGD) occurred around the small hole on quartz tube between two submersed graphite electrodes and the onset of DGD was systematically investigated. It was found that critical voltage (V D ) decreased with the increasing conductivity, and then maintained at about 620 V. When the hole diameter increased from 1.0 mm to 2.5 mm, H 2 O 2 formation and AO discoloration in anolyte increased with the increase of the hole diameter. In addition, the effect of electrolyte constituents on H 2 O 2 formation and AO discoloration in anolyte induced by DGD was also studied. The concentration of H 2 O 2 and AO discoloration in anolyte was close in inert electrolyte such as Na 2 SO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 solution. The concentration of H 2 O 2 and AO discoloration rate in Na 2 CO 3 and NaAc solution was lower than those in Na 2 SO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 solution, due to their capture ability for ·OH. However, NaCl showed enhancing effect on AO discoloration, although it consumed a certain amount of H 2 O 2 . The energy efficiencies of AO discoloration and H 2 O 2 formation were also compared with those of other DGD reactor.

  11. Temporal evolution of the after glow plasma conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmeian, A.; Diplasu, C.; Musa, G.; Popescu, I-Iovitz

    2001-01-01

    Due to their exhibited advantages over continuous and RF glows, the pulsed discharges gain more attention in a wide variety of application fields, like film deposition, plasma chemistry, semiconductor processing, etc. For this reason, fast time-resolved experimental methods need to be developed in order to control the main parameters of the high voltage pulsed plasmas. It is well known that electric probes present major advantages over many other diagnostic techniques for studying plasma parameters, but the use of these probes in the high voltage pulsed plasmas encounters enormous difficulties. One of them is the issue of galvanic insulation of the probe during the high voltage pulse. Also, the plasma potential may change rapidly, inducing spurious currents in the probe. Other problems could arise in the afterglow when the probe can exert great influence over the plasma potential by the current that it draws from the plasma. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the determination of the electrical conductivity of the afterglow of the high voltage pulsed discharges, using a low frequency RF plane probe. The application of a small low frequency signal to the plane probe could successfully eliminate all the disadvantages mentioned above. (authors)

  12. Iron nitride films formed in a r. f. glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.L.; O' Keefe, T.J.; James, W.J. (Depts. of Chemistry and Metallurgical Engineering and Graduate Center for Materials Research, Univ. of Missouri-Rolla (United States))

    1992-12-30

    Fe[sub 2]N and Fe[sub 3]N films were deposited on an r.f. glow discharge by introducing Fe(CO)[sub 5] and NH[sub 3] into the reactor. The iron nitride films thus formed exhibited sheet conductivities in the range of 10[sup 2]-10[sup 3] ohm[sup -1] cm[sup -1]. They exhibited microhardness ranging from 578 to 659 kg mm[sup -2] on glass slides. The effects of the deposition temperature and the nature of the substrate material on the structure and composition of the films were investigated. An Fe[sub 4]N layer was formed on iron substrates at 400degC in the plasma nitriding process using NH[sub 3] as the gas source. The Fe[sub 4]N layer exhibited a microhardness of 230 kg mm[sup -2]. The effect of the temperature on the formation of the nitrided layer is discussed. (orig.).

  13. Degradation of Anionic Dye Eosin by Glow Discharge Electrolysis Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jinzhang; Ma Dongping; Guo Xiao; Wang Aixiang; Fu Yan; Wu Jianlin; Yang Wu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the degradation of eosin by using glow discharge electrolysis (GDE). The effects of various parameters on the removal efficiency were studied. It was found that the eosin degradation could be raised considerably by increasing the applied voltage and the initial concentration, or by decreasing pH of the aqueous solution. Fe 2+ ion had an evident accelerating effect on the eosin degradation. The degradation process of eosin obeyed a pseudo-first-order reaction. The relationship between the degradation rate constant k and the reaction temperature T could be expressed by Arrhenius equation with which the apparent activation energy Ea of 14.110 kJ. mol -1 and the pre-exponential factor ko of 2.065x10 -1 min -1 were obtained, too. The determination of hydroxyl radical was carried out by using N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (RNO) as a scavenger. The results showed that the hydroxyl radical plays an important role in the degradation process.

  14. Degradation of Anionic Dye Eosin by Glow Discharge Electrolysis Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinzhang; Ma, Dongping; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Aixiang; Fu, Yan; Wu, Jianlin; Yang, Wu

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the degradation of eosin by using glow discharge electrolysis (GDE). The effects of various parameters on the removal efficiency were studied. It was found that the eosin degradation could be raised considerably by increasing the applied voltage and the initial concentration, or by decreasing pH of the aqueous solution. Fe2+ ion had an evident accelerating effect on the eosin degradation. The degradation process of eosin obeyed a pseudo-first-order reaction. The relationship between the degradation rate constant k and the reaction temperature T could be expressed by Arrhenius equation with which the apparent activation energy Ea of 14.110 kJ. mol-1 and the pre-exponential factor ko of 2.065×10-1 min-1 were obtained, too. The determination of hydroxyl radical was carried out by using N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (RNO) as a scavenger. The results showed that the hydroxyl radical plays an important role in the degradation process.

  15. Bulk plasma properties in the pulsed glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Glen P.; King, Fred L.

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on the spatial and temporal characteristics of a glow discharge plasma operated with power pulses of 5 ms in duration at 25% duty cycle. Interpretation of emission data provides insight into the nature of the plasma at each instant of a typical pulse cycle and at each position in space. Because the bulk plasma properties affect the distribution of excited energy levels of the sputtered atoms, an improved understanding of the plasma affords the ability to select conditions that enhance analytically important emission lines. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the relative populations of excited states for atoms and ions during the initial breakdown, the steady state and the recombining periods of the discharge pulse cycle. The plasma is highly ionizing in nature at the time of breakdown--with lower excited states being overpopulated--before reaching the steady state, or plateau, period, also ionizing in nature. These behaviors arise from a loss of charged particles and photons to the surroundings that shifts the plasma away from Saha and Boltzmann balances during these periods. The post-pulse period typically displays recombining behavior, characterized by population inversion for selected species--except for regions close to the cathode, where electrons and ions are lost by diffusion and are not available for recombination. The sputtered analyte atom emissions closely mimic those of the plasma bath gas, except that their emissions persevere for longer in the recombining after-peak period than do the discharge gas species

  16. Airborne Video Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blask, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...

  17. Images of Marie Curie: How Reputational Entrepreneurs Shape Iconic Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Alaimo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marie Curie holds iconic status both within the scientific community and in the wider cultural imagination and collective memory. The first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize and the only woman to achieve such an honor twice, Curie is widely celebrated as a female pioneer in the sciences and is held up as a model for all, but particularly women, to emulate. She is revered not only as a ground-breaking scientist, but also as a devoted wife and mother who fostered intellectual passion in her own children, one of whom became the second woman to be honored with the Nobel Prize in Science. Echoing Eva Hemmungs Wirten, we argue that the evolution of Curie’s status over time offers an opportunity to use meta-biography to understand the layered nature of her reputation. We draw on Gary Alan Fine’s theory of reputational entrepreneurship to understand her legacy as a product of collective historical memory. Curie’s legacy was not pre-determined by the fact that she was a successful scientist; in fact, she was shunned by the public in France in 1911 after it was revealed that she, a widow, had engaged in an affair with a fellow married scientist. A meta-biographical analysis reveals considerable effort was put into reputation building by her Curie herself, her commercial sponsor, and family members. To ignore the earlier iterations of her reputation is to underestimate the challenges she faced as a woman in male-dominated science and in a society that judged her by a sexual double standard. Meta-biography, in conjunction with theories of intellectual reputation building and collective memory, allows us to unearth the complicated layers of Curie’s story. It also tells us a great deal about the [sexist] society in which Curie and her supporters had to forge her reputation.

  18. Creativity, alcohol and drug abuse: the pop icon Jim Morrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the

  19. Representations of God in Icons. Immanence and Transcendence in Christian Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbasoiu Iulian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human desire to be in a more natural relationship with God, his Creator, caused the former to find different means of communication. In addition to the liturgical expression, materialized in prayer, another way of interaction is represented by the icon. The icon and through the icon, Heaven and earth, God and the members of the triumphant Church and the ones of the militant Church meet and communicate. The iconographic representation of God, symbols, events and holy Persons, gave rise to much controversy in history, which triggered a major conflict in the life of the Church, culminating in the eighth century iconoclastic dispute. The Seventh Ecumenical Council solved this dispute and placed the icon in its natural spiritual position. In the present study we will analyze and contrast how people have understood the freedom of representing the image of God the Father in icons, an issue which caused disputes and reactions due to exaggerations in artistic expression and misunderstandings linked to the limits of such representation. This evolution is considered historically in the Christian world, East and West, which shows either an exaggerated tolerance of representation or an extreme conservatism leading to the prohibition of painting an anthropomorphic image of the Father. We will also study the recommendations of in the textbooks of Christian erminia and we will present examples of Romanian iconographic art.

  20. Comparison of European ICU patients in 2012 (ICON) versus 2002 (SOAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Kotfis, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) study, an observational study conducted in European intensive care units in 2002, and the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit, a survey of intensive care unit patients conducted in 2012. RESULTS: We compared the 3147 patients from the SOAP study with the 4852...... patients from the ICON audit admitted to intensive care units in the same countries as those in the SOAP study. The ICON patients were older (62.5 ± 17.0 vs. 60.6 ± 17.4 years) and had higher severity scores than the SOAP patients. The proportion of patients with sepsis at any time during the intensive...... care unit stay was slightly higher in the ICON study (31.9 vs. 29.6%, p = 0.03). In multilevel analysis, the adjusted odds of ICU mortality were significantly lower for ICON patients than for SOAP patients, particularly in patients with sepsis [OR 0.45 (0.35-0.59), p

  1. Effects of pyrethroid insecticide ICON (lambda cyhalothrin) on reproductive competence of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Ratnayake, S S K; Jayatunga, Y N A

    2002-03-01

    To assess the effect of ICON (trade name of lambda-cyhalothrin) on sexual competence and fertility of male rats. Male rats were gavaged daily for 7 consecutive days with different doses of ICON (63 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) or vehicle (distilled water). Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated at different time points during treatment and post-treatment using receptive females. Treatment had no effect on fertility, but sexual competence was seriously impaired: libido (assessed in terms of pre-coital sexual behaviour, and numbers of mounting, intromission and ejaculation), sexual arousability/motivation (in terms of latencies for mounting, intromission and ejaculation), sexual vigour (judged by frequencies of mounting and intromission or copulatory efficiency). In addition, ICON suppressed intromission ratio, indicating erectile dysfunction. These effects on sexual function had a rapid onset and was reversible. ICON-induced sexual dysfunction was mediated by multiple mechanisms, mainly toxicity, stress, sedation and possibly via GABA and dopaminergic systems. Exposure to ICON may cause sexual dysfunction in male rats.

  2. Comparing Iconic Memory in Children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Nastaran; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali; Hadianfard, Habib; Mohamadi, Norolah; Farid, Daryush; Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh; Sakhvidi, Mohammad Nadi; Hemyari, Camellia

    2013-08-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not process most information due to inattention and loss of the opportunity to save and retrieve information. Therefore, these children experience memory impairment. Although visual memory has been previously studied in children with ADHD, iconic memory in these children has been less evaluated. We aimed to study the possibility of iconic memory impairment in children with ADHD, and compare the results with that of children without ADHD. The experimental group of this study were 6-9 year-old children who referred to the Imam Hosein Clinic and were diagnosed as having ADHD by a psychiatrist during 2011-2012 (n = 30).The subjects were interviewed clinically by a psychologist; and in order to diagnose ADHD, their parents and teachers were asked to complete the child symptom inventory-4 (CSI-4). The comparison group were 6-9 year-old children without ADHD who studied in 1st and 2nd educational district of Yazd (n = 30). Subjects' iconic memory was assessed using an iconic memory task. Repeated measure ANOVA was used for data analysis. Based on the iconic memory test, the mean score of ADHD children was significantly lower than that of children without ADHD (P memory is weaker in children with ADHD, and they have weaker performance than normal children in both visual and auditory symbols at presentation durations of 50 and 100 ms. The performance of ADHD children improves as the stimulation time increases.

  3. Effects of time-temperature profiles on glow curves of germanium-doped optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S. E.; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.; Mohd Noor, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Germanium (Ge) doped silica optical fibres have demonstrated the great potential to be developed as a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter that can be used in various applications in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology, UV dosimetry system and food irradiation industry. Different time-temperature profile (TTP) parameters of the TL reader have been employed by many researchers in various of TL studies. Nevertheless, none of those studies adequately addressed the effects of the reader's preheat temperature and heating rate on the kinetic parameters of the TL glow curve specifically, the Ge-doped silica optical fibres. This research addresses the issue of TTP parameters with special attention to the determination of the kinetic parameters of the glow curve. The glow curve responses were explored and the kinetic parameters were analyzed by the WinGCF software, to show the effect of the preheat temperature and heating rate of the reader on Ge-doped fibre irradiated with 18 Gy of 6 MV photons radiation. The effect of TTP parameters was discussed and compared against the commercial fibre and tailored made fibre of 6 mol% Ge-doped of flat and cylindrical shape. The deconvolution of glow peaks and the kinetic parameters were obtained by the WinGCF software. This enables to fit accurately (1.5%glow curves. A positive, moderate linear relationship exists between the TL response and the heating rate when the specific preheat temperature was used to read commercial fibre (50 °C) and cylindrical fibre (80 °C and 160 °C). It is found that the glow peaks of cylindrical fibre exhibit the highest peak integral as compared to flat and commercial fibres. This study revealed the possible relationship between the reader's TTP parameters and the kinetic parameters of TL glow curves for the commercial and tailored made Ge-doped silica optical fibres.

  4. In-flight observation of long duration gamma-ray glows by aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; (Lex) van Deursen, A. P. J.; de Boer, Alte; Bardet, Michiel; Allasia, Cedric; Boissin, Jean Francois; Ostgaard, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    The Gamma-Ray Glow is a long-lasting (several seconds to minutes) X- and gamma radiation presumably originated from high-electric field of thunderclouds. Such glows were previously observed by aircraft, balloons, and from the ground. When detected on ground with other particles, i.e. electrons and neutrons, they are usually called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). Their measured spectra are often consistent with Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA) mechanism. That is why RREA is a commonly accepted explanation for their existence. The gamma-ray glows are observed to be interrupted by lightning discharge, which terminates the high-electric field region. In January 2016 an Airbus A340 factory test aircraft was performing intentional flights through thunderstorms over Northern Australia. The aircraft was equipped with a dedicated in-flight lightning detection system called ILDAS (http://ildas.nlr.nl). The system also contained two scintillation detectors each with 38x38 mm cylinder LaBr3 crystals. While being at 12 km altitude the system detected a gamma-ray flux enhancement 30 times the background counts. It lasted for 20 seconds and was abruptly terminated by a lightning flash. The flash hit the aircraft and its parameters were recorded with 10 ns sampling time including gamma radiation. Ground-based lightning detection network WWLLN detected 4 strikes in the nearby region, all in association with the same flash. The ILDAS system recorded the time-resolved spectrum of the glow. In 6 minutes, after making a U-turn, the aircraft passed the same glow region. Smaller gamma-ray enhancement was again detected. In this presentation we will show the mapped event timeline including airplane, gamma-ray glow, WWLLN, and cloud data. We will discuss the glow's properties, i.e. intensity and differential spectrum, and its possible origin. This result will also be compared to previously reported observations.

  5. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis and CGCD method for erbium doped CaZrO{sub 3} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Ratnesh, E-mail: 31rati@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Raipur, 493661 (India); Chopra, Seema [Department Physics, G.D Goenka Public School (India)

    2016-05-06

    The manuscript report the synthesis, thermoluminescence study at fixed concentration of Er{sup 3+} (1 mol%) doped CaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. The phosphors were prepared by modified solid state reaction method. The powder sample was characterized by thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve analysis. In TL glow curve the optimized concentration in 1mol% for UV irradiated sample. The kinetic parameters were calculated by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) techniaue. Trapping parameters gives the information of dosimetry loss in prepared phosphor and its usability in environmental monitoring and for personal monitoring. CGCD is the advance tool for analysis of complicated TL glow curves.

  6. Physics and Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Rhett

    2016-05-01

    We currently live in a world filled with videos. There are videos on YouTube, feature movies and even videos recorded with our own cameras and smartphones. These videos present an excellent opportunity to not only explore physical concepts, but also inspire others to investigate physics ideas. With video analysis, we can explore the fantasy world in science-fiction films. We can also look at online videos to determine if they are genuine or fake. Video analysis can be used in the introductory physics lab and it can even be used to explore the make-believe physics embedded in video games. This book covers the basic ideas behind video analysis along with the fundamental physics principles used in video analysis. The book also includes several examples of the unique situations in which video analysis can be used.

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  8. A video authentication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  9. Analysis of soils by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, D.C.; Barshick, C.M.; Smith, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of soils by conventional solution-based techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma and thermal ionization mass spectrometry, is complicated by the need for sample dissolution or the combination of a solids atomizer with an auxiliary ionization source. Since time is an important consideration in waste remediation, there exists a need for a method of rapidly analysing many soil samples with little sample preparation; glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) has the potential to meet this need. Because GDMS is a bulk solids technique, sample preparation is simplified in comparison to other methods. Even with the most difficult samples (geological materials, such as soils and volcanic rock), all that is required is grinding, drying and mixing with a conducting host material prior to electrode formation. As a first test of GDMS for soil analysis, a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) was analysed by direct current GDMS. Fifty-one elements were quantified from a single cathode using ion beam ratios and ''standard'' relative elemental sensitivity factors (RSF). Average errors for the suite of elements were less than a factor of 4 and 1.4 for uncorrected and corrected values, respectively. User-generated RSF values were applied to the analysis of several elements in NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment. In the absence of isobaric interferences, accuracies ranging from 0.6 to 73% were observed, demonstrating the potential of the technique for the determination of many elements. The presence of entrained water and inhomogeneity resulting from cathode preparation is thought to affect matrix-to-matrix reproducibility. While further success depends on developing means of circumventing mass spectral interferences and addressing factors affecting plasma chemistry, the immediate goal of developing a screening method for priority metals in soils was met. (Author)

  10. Whiteboard Icons to Support the Blood-Test Process in an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically......, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process......, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity...

  11. The effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ya-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    This study explored and identified the effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility. A total of 108 participants took part in the experiment. As designed, legibility was measured as a function of the following independent variables: four levels of luminance contrast, sixteen target/background colour combinations, two fonts, and three search times. The results showed that a luminance contrast of 18:1 provided readers with the best legibility. Yellow on black, yellow on blue, and white on blue were the three most legible colour combinations. One of this study's unique findings was that colour combinations may play an even more important role than luminance contrast in the overall legibility of brand icon design. The 12-s search time corresponded with the highest legibility. Arial font was more legible than Times New Roman. These results provide some guidance for brand icon and product advertisement design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The measurement and analysis of electric fields in glow discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J.E.; Doughty, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Interest in glow discharge plasmas has remained high for many decades because of their widespread application as a source of incoherent and coherent light, in plasma processing materials, in pulsed power devices, and in other technologies. Plasma etching of semiconductors and various plasma deposition process emerged as major applications during the 1980s. The technological significance of plasma processing is described in Plasma Processing of Materials. More fundamental work on glow discharges also advanced greatly during the 1980s. For example, substantial progress was made through the use of laser diagnostics to study glow discharges and as a result of the dramatically increased computing power that became available in the 1980s to model glow discharges. Many of the laser diagnostics are described in Radiative Processes in Discharge Plasmas. Kinetic theory models, in particular, became far more sophisticated and realistic during the 1980s. This article is a review of recent work that used optical diagnostics to study electric fields in glow discharge plasmas. Alternative methods for measuring electric electric fields in plasmas include electron beam deflection and electrostatic probes. Optical techniques have important advantages over these methods: They can be used at higher pressures and discharge current densities than electron beam deflection; and they are noninvasive, unlike electrostatic probes. In addition, optical techniques are usually easier to apply in a highly pure system than either of the alternative methods. 46 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab

  13. The role of magnetic energy on plasma localization during the glow discharge under reduced pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the first results of our research on the synergy of fields, electric and magnetic, in the initiation and development of glow discharge under reduced pressure. In the two-electrode system under reduced pressure, the breakdown voltage characterizes a minimum energy input of the electric field to initiate and sustain the glow discharge. The glow discharge enhanced by the magnetic field applied just above the surface of the cathode influences the breakdown voltage decreasing its value. The idea of the experiment was to verify whether the contribution of potential energy of the magnetic field applied around the cathode is sufficiently effective to locate the plasma of glow discharge to the grounded cathode, which, in fact, is the part of a vacuum chamber wall (the anode is positively biased in this case. In our studies, we used the grounded magnetron unit with positively biased anode in order to achieve favorable conditions for the deposition of thin films on fibrous substrates such as fabrics for metallization, assuming that locally applied magnetic field can effectively locate plasma. The results of our studies (Paschen curve with the participation of the magnetic field seem to confirm the validity of the research assumption. What is the most spectacular - the glow discharge was initiated between introduced into the chamber anode and the grounded cathode of magnetron ‘assisted’ by the magnetic field (discharge did not include the area of the anode, which is a part of the magnetron construction.

  14. Changes in the artificial thermoluminescence glow curves of quartz associated with uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochman, M.B.M.; Ypma, P.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Previous laboratory-based studies have shown that quartz thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves change in intensity and shape in response to large radiation doses. Initially, low temperature peaks are sensitized though at gamma doses of greater than 10/sup 5/ - 10/sup 6/ kGy desensitization occurs. This study has examined the change in artificial TL in quartz at various distances from a uranium deposit. Such quartz has been subjected to varying palaeoradiation doses in a natural uranium rich environment. Quartz from an uranium rich environment shows that the 130/sup 0/C glow peak is the dominant glow peak in background radiation environments, though this peak decreases with increasing palaeoradiation dose. At doses greater than 10/sup 5/-10/sup 6/ kGy the 350/sup 0/C glow peak is the dominant glow peak in these quartz samples. An increase in E'/sub 1/ centre concentration also occurs from the least radiation affected sample to the most radiation affected sample. These results suggest that artificial TL is useful in uranium exploration.

  15. On the Specification of Upward-Propagating Tides for ICON Science Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Hagan, Maura E.; England, Scott L.; Liu, Guiping; Gasperini, Federico

    2017-10-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) will provide a physics-based context for the interpretation of ICON measurements. To optimize the realism of the model simulations, ICON wind and temperature measurements near the ˜97 km lower boundary of the TIEGCM will be used to specify the upward-propagating tidal spectrum at this altitude. This will be done by fitting a set of basis functions called Hough Mode Extensions (HMEs) to 27-day mean tidal winds and temperatures between 90 and 105 km altitude and between 12 °S and 42 °N latitude on a day-by-day basis. The current paper assesses the veracity of the HME fitting methodology given the restricted latitude sampling and the UT-longitude sampling afforded by the MIGHTI instrument viewing from the ICON satellite, which will be in a circular 27° inclination orbit. These issues are investigated using the output from a reanalysis-driven global circulation model, which contains realistic variability of the important tidal components, as a mock data set. ICON sampling of the model reveals that the 27-day mean diurnal and semidiurnal tidal components replicate well the 27-day mean tidal components obtained from full synoptic sampling of the model, but the terdiurnal tidal components are not faithfully reproduced. It is also demonstrated that reconstructed tidal components based on HME fitting to the model tides between 12 °S and 42 °N latitude provide good approximations to the major tidal components expected to be encountered during the ICON mission. This is because the constraints provided by fitting both winds and temperatures over the 90-105 km height range are adequate to offset the restricted sampling in latitude. The boundary conditions provided by the methodology described herein will greatly enhance the ability of the TIEGCM to provide a physical framework for interpreting atmosphere-ionosphere coupling in ICON observations

  16. Iconic Destination: a Snapshot of Sustainable Tourism in Pisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries. According to the World Tourism Organization, Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world, with more than 47.7 million tourists a year (2013. At the same time, the increasing number of studies focused on sustainable tourism demonstrates a growing interest about the topic. In addition, practitioners’ attitude is changing and the most important actors of the market are acting in a more sustainable way and developing reports on their eco-friendly performances. Nowadays, the entire supply chain maybe environmentally sustainable. From the reservation to the post-holiday phase, it is possible to select the more eco-friendly suppliers. The main companies operating in the different stages of the process are demonstrating a concrete interest on sustainable development. This new challenge is generated through the information flow between local authorities, private firms and final customers. We propose to make a reflection based on the latter actors’ attitude. Our research aims to investigate the level of sensitivity of tourists about environmental sustainability from two different perspectives: self-evaluation and real purchasing behavior. We conducted a face-to-face survey among tourists in Pisa, in Piazza dei Miracoli, during May 2015. By using a structured questionnaire, we gathered primary data from a sample of 406 respondents. We selected respondents randomly. Pisa is the perfect location to obtain information from several typologies of tourists, with different levels of awareness of sustainable issues. Itis one of the most important tourist destination in Italy and it is an iconic destination recognized worldwide thanks to the attractiveness of the leading tower. The results of our study is a snapshot of the current level of awareness among tourists. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed tourist profiles, their eco-friendly behaviors, their concerns about sustainability

  17. Rare Disease Video Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Bocanegra, Carlos Luis

    2011-01-01

    Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) is a portal web where contains videos from Youtube including all details from 12 channels of Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) es un portal web que contiene los vídeos de Youtube incluyendo todos los detalles de 12 canales de Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) és un portal web que conté els vídeos de Youtube i que inclou tots els detalls de 12 Canals de Youtube.

  18. Symbolic Understanding of Pictures in Low-Functioning Children with Autism: The Effects of Iconicity and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated whether symbolic understanding of pictures in low-functioning children with autism is mediated by iconicity and language. In Experiment 1, participants were taught novel words paired with unfamiliar pictures that varied in iconicity (black-and-white line drawings, greyscale photographs, colour line drawings, colour…

  19. Effects of Iconicity on Requesting with the Picture Exchange Communication System in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Katie; Schlosser, Ralf W.; Luiselli, James K.; Harrington, Caroline; Carter, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Research on graphic symbol learning suggests that symbols with a greater visual resemblance to their referents (greater iconicity) are more easily learned. The iconicity hypothesis has not yet been explored within the intervention protocol of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Within the PECS protocol, participants do not point to a…

  20. Mnemonic Effect of Iconic Gesture and Beat Gesture in Adults and Children: Is Meaning in Gesture Important for Memory Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Chen-Hui, Colin Sim; Wei-Shan, Julie Low

    2012-01-01

    Abundant research has shown that encoding meaningful gesture, such as an iconic gesture, enhances memory. This paper asked whether gesture needs to carry meaning to improve memory recall by comparing the mnemonic effect of meaningful (i.e., iconic gestures) and nonmeaningful gestures (i.e., beat gestures). Beat gestures involve simple motoric…

  1. The End of Days -- Chandra Catches X-ray Glow From Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Through a combination of serendipity and skill, scientists have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to capture a rare glimpse of X-radiation from the early phases of a supernova, one of the most violent events in nature. Although more than a thousand supernovas have been observed by optical astronomers, the early X-ray glow from the explosions has been detected in less than a dozen cases. The Chandra observations were made under the direction of a team of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, led by Walter Lewin and his graduate student, Derek Fox. When combined with simultaneous observations by radio and optical telescopes, the X-ray observations tell about the thickness of the shell that was blown off, its density, its speed, and how much material was shed by the star before it exploded. Chandra observed an X-ray glow from SN1999em with the total power of 50,000 suns. Ten days later it observed the supernova for another nine hours, and found that the X rays had faded to half their previous intensity. The optical luminosity, which had the brightness of 200 million suns, had faded somewhat less. No radio emission was detected at any time. With this information, the MIT group and their colleagues are already piecing together a picture of the catastrophic explosion. Observations by optical astronomers showed that SN1999em was a Type II supernova produced by the collapse of the core of a star ten or more times as massive as the Sun. The intense heat generated in the collapse produces a cataclysmic rebound that sends high speed debris flying outward at speeds in excess of 20 million miles per hour. The debris crashes into matter shed by the former star before the explosion. This awesome collision generates shock waves that heat expanding debris to three million degrees. The X-ray glow from this hot gas was detected by Chandra and gives astrophysicists a better understanding of the dynamics of the explosion, as well as the

  2. Objective aesthetic performance of Icon treatment by deep infiltration: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enamel hypomineralization is characterized by decreased refractive index of the lesion surface as compared to the surrounding sound enamel. Icon® treatment has been recently successfully used for the cosmetic treatment of enamel demineralizations seen in white spot lesions (WSLs and developmental defects of enamel (DDE. On the other hand, cases of molar incisal hypomineralization (MIH, deep lesions of traumatic origin, and those associated with severe fluorosis do not have the same response to this type of treatment. The application of a new deep Icon® infiltrative technique is proposed and the aesthetic results are validated by using a spectrophotometric approach as previously described by our group.

  3. The Sensory Components of High-Capacity Iconic Memory and Visual Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Claire; Pearson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Early visual memory can be split into two primary components: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more “high-level” alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their...

  4. The Use of Iconic Words in Early Child-Parent Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlman, Marcus; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Fein, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the use of iconic words in early conversations between children and caregivers. The longitudinal data include a span of six observations of 35 children-parent dyads in the same semi-structured activity . Our findings show that children’s speech initially has a high proportion ...... are related to individual differences in the children’s cognitive skills. Our findings fit with the hypothesis that iconicity facilitates early word learning and may play an important role in learning to produce new words....

  5. The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Claire eBradley; Claire eBradley; Joel ePearson

    2012-01-01

    Early visual memory can be split into two primary components: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more high-level alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their c...

  6. Presentasi Diri Fashion Icon Hijab Syar€™i Kota Pekanbaru melalui Media Sosial Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Yohana, Nova; Adliandri, Aidil Emmil

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, trend fashion has been reach the Muslim dress that in recent years was ogled by some Indonesian designer. So now appear some trends, one of them is hijab syar€™i. If looking at the phenomenon in social media instagram that show the existence of the people who wear hijab syar€™i, it causes the appearence of the term fashion icon hijab syar€™i. The activities such as review look, endorser, life style trensetter, and dakwah wass also done by fashion icon hijab syar€™i in Pekanbaru. The...

  7. Gas Breakdown of Radio Frequency Glow Discharges in Helium at near Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinkun; Xu Jinzhou; Cui Tongfei; Guo Ying; Zhang Jing; Shi Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was developed for radio frequency glow discharge in helium at near atmospheric pressure, and was employed to study the gas breakdown characteristics in terms of breakdown voltage. The effective secondary electron emission coefficient and the effective electric field for ions were demonstrated to be important for determining the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge at near atmospheric pressure. The constant of A was estimated to be 64±4 cm −1 Torr −1 , which was proportional to the first Townsend coefficient and could be employed to evaluate the gas breakdown voltage. The reduction in the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge with excitation frequency was studied and attributed to the electron trapping effect in the discharge gap

  8. The experience with JET's combined dc/Rf glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, R.J.H.; Andrew, P.; Bryan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The JET Tokamak was fitted with four new electrodes of novel design, each powered from individual computer controlled dc and RF supplies. Details of enhancements and problems from 15 months experience with the system are outlined. Experiments were performed to assess the effect of RF on the glow discharge characteristics, and to establish stable glow at low pressure and high voltage. JET combined RF/dc glow discharge cleaning (GDC) had no significant advantages over pure dc GDC, provided highly stable dc current control was obtained. In fact, the mechanically weak electrode inductor spiral required to allow RF posed a distinct disadvantage. The electrodes were converted to simple plates, following damage caused by halo currents during Tokamak plasma disruptions. The performance of these electrodes was assessed. Future developments in the JET GDC system are outlined. (Author)

  9. Does exclusion of protest zeros and warm-glow bidders cause selection bias in Contingent Valuation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Pouta, Eija

    A great issue of concern in valuation studies is whether respondents provide trustworthy and reliable answers conditional on the perceived information. Respondent may report either a higher than the true Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) due to warm glow or embedding effects or zero WTP which is lower than...... the true WTP due to protest behavior. We conduct a contingent valuation study to estimate the WTP for conserving a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece. We find that 54% of the positive bidders exert warm glow motivations while 29% of all responses can be classified as protest zero bids. We employ three....... Our findings show that removal of warm glow positive bidders does not distort the WTP estimate in any significant way. However, using the same approach for protest zero bidders, we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protest zero responses. Specifically, WTP estimates...

  10. Self-consistent model for pulsed direct-current N2 glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengsen

    2005-01-01

    A self-consistent analysis of a pulsed direct-current (DC) N 2 glow discharge is presented. The model is based on a numerical solution of the continuity equations for electron and ions coupled with Poisson's equation. The spatial-temporal variations of ionic and electronic densities and electric field are obtained. The electric field structure exhibits all the characteristic regions of a typical glow discharge (the cathode fall, the negative glow, and the positive column). Current-voltage characteristics of the discharge can be obtained from the model. The calculated current-voltage results using a constant secondary electron emission coefficient for the gas pressure 133.32 Pa are in reasonable agreement with experiment. (authors)

  11. Computerized glow curve deconvolution of thermoluminescent emission from polyminerals of Jamaica Mexican flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Furetta, C.; Zaragoza, E. Cruz; Reyes, A.

    The aim of this work is to study the main thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of the inorganic polyminerals extracted from dehydrated Jamaica flower or roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) belonging to Malvaceae family of Mexican origin. TL emission properties of the polymineral fraction in powder were studied using the initial rise (IR) method. The complex structure and kinetic parameters of the glow curves have been analysed accurately using the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) assuming an exponential distribution of trapping levels. The extension of the IR method to the case of a continuous and exponential distribution of traps is reported, such as the derivation of the TL glow curve deconvolution functions for continuous trap distribution. CGCD is performed both in the case of frequency factor, s, temperature independent, and in the case with the s function of temperature.

  12. Reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution with DC diaphragm glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Xinglong; Zhou, Minghua; Chen, Zhenhai; Deng, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution with direct current diaphragm glow discharge (DGD). The glow discharge sustained around the hole on a quartz tube which divided the electrolyte cell into two parts. The reduction efficiencies of Cr(VI) under different applied voltages, initial conductivities, hole diameters, hole numbers, initial pH values and initial concentrations were systematically studied. The results showed that the reduction efficiency of Cr(VI) increased with the increase of applied voltage, initial conductivity, hole diameter and hole number. The different initial pH values showed less effects on the reduction of Cr(VI). The reduction efficiency decreased with the increasing initial concentration. In addition, the simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and decolorization of acid orange (AO) with DGD were also fulfilled. Furthermore, the energy efficiency for Cr(VI) reduction with DGD was calculated and compared with those in photocatalysis and other glow discharge reactor

  13. Pre-exponential factor in general order kinetics of thermoluminescence and its influence on glow curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunta, C.M.; Ayta, W.E.F.; Chen, R.; Watanabe, S.

    1997-01-01

    A model of thermoluminescence kinetics based on a physically meaningful approach shows that the glow curve shapes undergo systematic changes with the change of trap occupancy (dose). In terms of the general order kinetics model it means that the kinetic order changes with sample dose. In parallel to the kinetic order, the pre-exponential factor also changes. In contrast to these results the glow curves calculated from the general order kinetics model show that the peak shape remains nearly constant when the trap occupancy is changed. When appropriately defined, the pre-exponential factor also has a fixed value independent of trap occupancy. In these respects the general order kinetics model, though empirical, seems to describe the glow peak behaviour quite successfully. However, regarding the peak temperature the theoretical results both from the physical as well as the empirical model seem to diverge from the experimental observations when the experimentally determined kinetics is non-first order. (author)

  14. Study of plasma characteristics in the cathode regime of a nitrogen glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulis, Alvaro

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the cathode region, cathodic sheath and negative glow, of a nitrogen glow discharge. The author first presents general data regarding glow discharges, a description of the experimental installation, and measurements of discharge balancing. In the next part, he precisely describes spectroscopic methods, and the implementation of diagnoses from an experimental point of view as well as in terms of space resolution. Results are then presented and interpreted. Measurements concern space distributions of excited species, the determination of axial and radial concentrations of nitrogen ions, axial variations of rotational temperatures of the different species and variations of nitrogen ion vibrational temperature. The laser optogalvanic effect on the nitrogen molecular ion is resolved in time, and compared with the result of a theoretical model based on the mobility difference between the different nitrogen ions. Finally, the author compares experimental results on ion profiles along the discharge axis with results obtained with theoretical models [fr

  15. Removal of the codeposited carbon layer using He-O glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, C.L.; Causey, R.A.; Clift, M.; Wampler, W.R.; Cowgill, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine the combination of a He-O glow discharge with heating as a possible technique to remove deuterium from TFTR tiles. Samples were cut from a relatively large area containing a uniform codeposited layer of deuterium and carbon. Auger/SEM was used to generate micrographs of each of the samples. The samples were also examined using Rutherford backscattering to determine the near surface composition. Individual samples were then exposed to a He-O glow discharge while being heated. After the exposure, the samples were returned for Auger/SEM and RBS of the same areas examined prior to the exposure. Comparing the samples before and after exposure revealed that the amount of the codeposited layer removed was significantly less than 1 μm. Removal rates this low would suggest that He-O glow discharge with heating is insufficient to remove the thick layers predicted for ITER in a timely fashion

  16. Time effectiveness of capillary effect improvement of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwen; Wei Weixing; He Yanhe; Zhao Yuanqing; Pan Liyiji; Li Xuemei; Shi Shaodui; Li Guangxin

    2010-01-01

    The time effectiveness of capillary effect improvement of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging was studied. The ramie fabrics were processed in fulfilling with different gas (O 2 , N 2 , Ar) by different parameters (such as pressure,power and time) plasma. The capillary effect of the ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging was tested at different time. The results indicate that the capillary effect of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging has been improved, the improvement of the capillary effect firstly decrease rapidly, then slowly, and become stable after 15 day, it indicate that improvement of the ramie fabrics capillary has good time effectiveness, and the plasma parameter for the best capillary effect improvement of ramie fabric is 100 W and 40 Pa processed 20 min by oxygen plasma. (authors)

  17. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1990-06-26

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  18. Detrapping of tungsten nanoparticles in a direct-current argon glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couëdel, L., E-mail: lenaic.couedel@univ-amu.fr; Kumar, K. Kishor; Arnas, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moléculaires, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2014-12-15

    Nanoparticles are grown from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode in a direct current argon glow discharge. Laser light scattering of a vertical laser sheet going through the plasma reveals that the dust particle cloud is compressed and pushed towards the anode during the discharge. Scanning electron microscopy images of substrates exposed to the plasma for given durations show that dust particles are continuously falling down on the anode during the discharge. These observations are explained by the fact that the electrostatic force at the negative glow-anode sheath boundary cannot balance the ion drag, gravity, and thermophoresis forces for particles of more than a few tens of nanometres in diameter.

  19. The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow over Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    overhead sky glow as a function of distance up to 300 km, from a variety of lamp types, including common gas discharge lamps and several types of LED...distance up to 300 km, from a variety of lamp types, in- cluding common gas discharge lamps and several types of LED lamps . We conclude for both...MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow

  20. Removal of a glowing spot from an image tube using laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    A troublesome problem with the Kron electronograph has been the presence of a white glowing spot on the glass wall of the tube adjacent to the focus electrode. The procedure followed to eliminate the spot was to operate in the dark and apply voltage only to the focused electrode. Ruby laser radiation was unfocused, and its position was shifted on the electrode between laser shots until an effect was observed. This technique for removing the glowing spot should be applicable to other electronic image tubes.

  1. Thermoluminescence glow-curve deconvolution functions for mixed order of kinetics and continuous trap distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitis, G.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    New glow-curve deconvolution functions are proposed for mixed order of kinetics and for continuous-trap distribution. The only free parameters of the presented glow-curve deconvolution functions are the maximum peak intensity (I m ) and the maximum peak temperature (T m ), which can be estimated experimentally together with the activation energy (E). The other free parameter is the activation energy range (ΔE) for the case of the continuous-trap distribution or a constant α for the case of mixed-order kinetics

  2. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1988-04-27

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

  3. The Rose-red Glow of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The vivid red cloud in this new image from ESO's Very Large Telescope is a region of glowing hydrogen surrounding the star cluster NGC 371. This stellar nursery lies in our neighbouring galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The object dominating this image may resemble a pool of spilled blood, but rather than being associated with death, such regions of ionised hydrogen - known as HII regions - are sites of creation with high rates of recent star birth. NGC 371 is an example of this; it is an open cluster surrounded by a nebula. The stars in open clusters all originate from the same diffuse HII region, and over time the majority of the hydrogen is used up by star formation, leaving behind a shell of hydrogen such as the one in this image, along with a cluster of hot young stars. The host galaxy to NGC 371, the Small Magellanic Cloud, is a dwarf galaxy a mere 200 000 light-years away, which makes it one of the closest galaxies to the Milky Way. In addition, the Small Magellanic Cloud contains stars at all stages of their evolution; from the highly luminous young stars found in NGC 371 to supernova remnants of dead stars. These energetic youngsters emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation causing surrounding gas, such as leftover hydrogen from their parent nebula, to light up with a colourful glow that extends for hundreds of light-years in every direction. The phenomenon is depicted beautifully in this image, taken using the FORS1 instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). Open clusters are by no means rare; there are numerous fine examples in our own Milky Way. However, NGC 371 is of particular interest due to the unexpectedly large number of variable stars it contains. These are stars that change in brightness over time. A particularly interesting type of variable star, known as slowly pulsating B stars, can also be used to study the interior of stars through asteroseismology [1], and several of these have been confirmed in this cluster. Variable stars

  4. 3D visualization of ultra-fine ICON climate simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röber, Niklas; Spickermann, Dela; Böttinger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Advances in high performance computing and model development allow the simulation of finer and more detailed climate experiments. The new ICON model is based on an unstructured triangular grid and can be used for a wide range of applications, ranging from global coupled climate simulations down to very detailed and high resolution regional experiments. It consists of an atmospheric and an oceanic component and scales very well for high numbers of cores. This allows us to conduct very detailed climate experiments with ultra-fine resolutions. ICON is jointly developed in partnership with DKRZ by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and the German Weather Service. This presentation discusses our current workflow for analyzing and visualizing this high resolution data. The ICON model has been used for eddy resolving (developed specific plugins for the free available visualization software ParaView and Vapor, which allows us to read and handle that much data. Within ParaView, we can additionally compare prognostic variables with performance data side by side to investigate the performance and scalability of the model. With the simulation running in parallel on several hundred nodes, an equal load balance is imperative. In our presentation we show visualizations of high-resolution ICON oceanographic and HDCP2 atmospheric simulations that were created using ParaView and Vapor. Furthermore we discuss our current efforts to improve our visualization capabilities, thereby exploring the potential of regular in-situ visualization, as well as of in-situ compression / post visualization.

  5. Making Sense of Iconic Symbols: A Study of Preschool Children Conducting a Refuse-Sorting Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Ottosson, Torgny; Beach, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of a larger project focusing upon explanatory illustrations that children encounter in pre- and primary school education. The research questions concerned (a) how preschool children make sense of iconic symbols when placing items of refuse on illustrations of refuse bins in a sorting task and (b) what stumbling blocks they…

  6. Mapping Language to the World: The Role of Iconicity in the Sign Language Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perniss, Pamela; Lu, Jenny C.; Morgan, Gary; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    Most research on the mechanisms underlying referential mapping has assumed that learning occurs in ostensive contexts, where label and referent co-occur, and that form and meaning are linked by arbitrary convention alone. In the present study, we focus on "iconicity" in language, that is, resemblance relationships between form and…

  7. Visual context enhanced. The joint contribution of iconic gestures and visible speech to degraded speech comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijvers, L.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech

  8. Free Space Computation From Stochastic Occupancy Grids Based On Iconic Kalman Filtered Disparity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund, Carsten; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Madsen, Claus B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the free space in a scene as viewed by a vehicle-mounted camera. Using disparity maps from a stereo camera and known camera motion, the disparity maps are first filtered by an iconic Kalman filter, operating on each pixel individually, thereby reducing...

  9. Visual Context Enhanced: The Joint Contribution of Iconic Gestures and Visible Speech to Degraded Speech Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijvers, Linda; Ozyurek, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech comprehension have only been performed separately. Method:…

  10. Understanding the Periodic Table of Elements via Iconic Mapping and Sequential Diagramming: The Roundhouse Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robin E.; Lee, William D.

    2006-01-01

    Roundhouse is a visually creative information-processing tool (J. E. Trowbridge and J. H. Wandersee 1998). The procedure requires learners to construct knowledge using "mindful" connections to replace less effective practices of memorizing fragmented information. Students create observable organization schemes of related ideas and icons in a…

  11. Reconstructing Iconic Experiments in Electrochemistry: Experiences from a History of Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise; Lykknes, Annette; Wittje, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The decomposition of water by electricity, and the voltaic pile as a means of generating electricity, have both held an iconic status in the history of science as well as in the history of science teaching. These experiments featured in chemistry and physics textbooks, as well as in classroom teaching, throughout the nineteenth and twentieth…

  12. Analyzing Student Performance and Attitudes toward Textual versus Iconic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Yang, Mei-Ching

    2009-01-01

    In this study half of 52 sixth graders learned to program in MSWLogo and the other half in Drape. An analysis of students' test scores revealed that Drape (an iconic language) seemed to have a steeper learning curve than MSWLogo (a textual language). However, as students gradually became more familiar with either language, the difference in…

  13. The dynamics of sensory buffers: geometric, spatial, and experience-dependent shaping of iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Martin; Sigman, Mariano

    2008-05-23

    When a stimulus is presented, its sensory trace decays rapidly, lasting for approximately 1000 ms. This brief and labile memory, referred as iconic memory, serves as a buffer before information is transferred to working memory and executive control. Here we explored the effect of different factors--geometric, spatial, and experience--with respect to the access and the maintenance of information in iconic memory and the progressive distortion of this memory. We studied performance in a partial report paradigm, a design wherein recall of only part of a stimulus array is required. Subjects had to report the identity of a letter in a location that was cued in a variable delay after the stimulus onset. Performance decayed exponentially with time, and we studied the different parameters (time constant, zero-delay value, and decay amplitude) as a function of the different factors. We observed that experience (determined by letter frequency) affected the access to iconic memory but not the temporal decay constant. On the contrary, spatial position affected the temporal course of delay. The entropy of the error distribution increased with time reflecting a progressive morphological distortion of the iconic buffer. We discuss our results on the context of a model of information access to executive control and how it is affected by learning and attention.

  14. An Examination of Iconic Memory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Carly A.; Brown, Stephanie M.; Bebko, James M.

    2013-01-01

    "Iconic memory" is the ability to accurately recall a number of items after a very brief visual exposure. Previous research has examined these capabilities in typically developing (TD) children and individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID); however, there is limited research on these abilities in children with Autism Spectrum…

  15. The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Claire; Pearson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    EARLY VISUAL MEMORY CAN BE SPLIT INTO TWO PRIMARY COMPONENTS: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more "high-level" alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their characteristics. Here, we used a purely sensory paradigm to examine visual short-term memory for 10 homogeneous items of three different visual features (color, orientation and motion) across a range of durations from 0 to 6 s. We found that the amount of information stored in iconic memory is smaller for motion than for color or orientation. Performance declined exponentially with longer storage durations and reached chance levels after ∼2 s. Further experiments showed that performance for the 10 items at 1 s was contingent on unperturbed attentional resources. In addition, for orientation stimuli, performance was contingent on the location of stimuli in the visual field, especially for short cue delays. Overall, our results suggest a smooth transition between an automatic, high-capacity, feature-specific sensory-iconic memory, and an effortful "lower-capacity" visual working memory.

  16. The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning and its neural substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Müller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    Vocabulary acquisition represents a major challenge in foreign language learning. Research has demonstrated that gestures accompanying speech have an impact on memory for verbal information in the speakers' mother tongue and, as recently shown, also in foreign language learning. However, the neural basis of this effect remains unclear. In a within-subjects design, we compared learning of novel words coupled with iconic and meaningless gestures. Iconic gestures helped learners to significantly better retain the verbal material over time. After the training, participants' brain activity was registered by means of fMRI while performing a word recognition task. Brain activations to words learned with iconic and with meaningless gestures were contrasted. We found activity in the premotor cortices for words encoded with iconic gestures. In contrast, words encoded with meaningless gestures elicited a network associated with cognitive control. These findings suggest that memory performance for newly learned words is not driven by the motor component as such, but by the motor image that matches an underlying representation of the word's semantics. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Fast decay of iconic memory in observers with mild cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Neuse, James; Madigan, Stephen; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2005-02-01

    In a previous clinical report, unusually fast decay of iconic memory was obtained from a subject who later developed Alzheimer's disease. By using the partial-report paradigm, iconic memory (a form of visual sensory memory) in a group of observers with mild cognitive impairments (MCI) was characterized and compared with that of young college-age adults and older controls. Relatively long stimulus exposures were used for all three groups to ensure that older observers could perceive the stimuli. A set of conventional neuropsychological tests assessed cognitive functions of the MCI and older control groups. We found that iconic memory decayed much faster for observers with MCI than for normal controls, old or young, although the two groups of older observers performed at equivalent levels in precue tests (assay of visibility) and tests cued at long delays (assay of short-term memory). The result suggests that fast decay of iconic memory might be a general characteristic of observers with MCI who are at much higher than average risk of developing Alzheimer's disease later in life.

  18. Orthographic Structure and Reading Experience Affect the Transfer from Iconic to Short Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Lester A.; Spragins, Anne B.

    1974-01-01

    The basic hypothesis of these experiments was that the processing strategy for the transfer of alphabetic material from iconic storage to short-term memory involves a sequential left-to-right factor that develops with increases in experience with reading. (Author)

  19. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  20. The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eBradley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Early visual memory can be split into two primary components: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more high-level alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their characteristics. Here, we used a purely sensory paradigm to examine visual short-term memory for 10 homogeneous items of 3 different visual features (colour, orientation and motion across a range of durations from 0 to 6 seconds. We found that the amount of information stored in iconic memory is smaller for motion than for colour or orientation. Performance declined exponentially with longer storage durations and reached chance levels after ~2 seconds. Further experiments showed that performance for the 10 items at 1 second was contingent on unperturbed attentional resources. In addition, for orientation stimuli, performance was contingent on the location of stimuli in the visual field, especially for short cue delays. Overall, our results suggest a smooth transition between an automatic, high-capacity, feature-specific sensory-iconic memory and an effortful ‘lower-capacity’ visual working memory.

  1. Crustal structure of an exhumed IntraCONtinental Sag (ICONS): the Mekele Basin in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, T. B.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekele Sedimentary Basin (MSB) in Ethiopia is a Paleozoic-Mesozoic IntraCONtinental Sag (ICONS) exposed due to Cenozoic domal and rift flank uplift associated with the Afar mantle plume and Afar Depression (AD). ICONS are formed over stable lithosphere, and in contrast to rift and foreland basins, show circular-elliptical shape in map view, saucer shaped in cross section, and concentric gravity minima. Surface geological features of the MSB have been shown to exhibit geologic characteristics similar to those of other ICONS. We used the World Gravity Map (WGM 2012) data to investigate subsurface-crustal structure of the MSB. We also used 2D power spectrum analysis and inversion of the gravity field to estimate the Moho depth. Our results show the Bouguer anomalies of the WGM 2012 ranges between 130 mGal and - 110 mGal with the highest values within the AD. Despite the effect of the AD on the gravity anomalies, the MSB is characterized by the presence of gravity low anomaly that reaches in places -110 mGal, especially in its western part. The Moho depth estimates, from both spectral analysis and inversion of the gravity data, is between 36 and 40 km depth over most of the western and southern margins of the MSB. However, as the AD is approached, in the eastern margins of the MSB, crustal thickness estimates are highly affected by the anomalously thin and magmatic segment of the AD, and the Moho depth range between 30 and 25 km. Our results are consistent with that of seismic studies in areas far from the MSB, but within the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau where the MSB is located. Those studies have reported an abrupt decrease in Moho depth from 40 km beneath the Northwestern plateau, to 20 km in the adjacent AD. Though the MSB is small (100 kmX100 km) compared to other ICONS, and affected by the neighboring AD, it is characterized by elliptical gravity minima and a relatively thicker crust that gradually thickens away from the rift. In addition, seismic imaging

  2. Iridium Coating Deposited by Double Glow Plasma Technique — Effect of Glow Plasma on Structure of Coating at Single Substrate Edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wangping; Chen Zhaofeng; Liu Yong

    2012-01-01

    Double glow plasma technique has a high deposition rate for preparing iridium coating. However, the glow plasma can influence the structure of the coating at the single substrate edge. In this study, the iridium coating was prepared by double glow plasma on the surface of single niobium substrate. The microstructure of iridium coating at the substrate edge was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The composition of the coating was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. There was a boundary between the coating and the substrate edge. The covered area for the iridium coating at the substrate edge became fewer and fewer from the inner area to the outer flange-area. The bamboo sprout-like particles on the surface of the substrate edge were composed of elemental niobium. The substrate edge was composed of the Nb coating and there was a transition zone between the Ir coating and the Nb coating. The interesting phenomenon of the substrate edge could be attributed to the effects of the bias voltages and the plasma cloud in the deposition chamber. The substrate edge effect could be mitigated or eliminated by adding lots of small niobium plates around the substrate in a deposition process. (plasma technology)

  3. An Analytical Study on an Orthodontic Index: Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkan, Sepide; Pakshir, Hamid Reza; Fattahi, Hamid Reza; Oshagh, Morteza; Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa; Hedayati, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The validity of the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) which is an orthodontic index developed and introduced in 2000 should be studied in different ethnic groups. Purpose The aim of this study was to perform an analysis on the ICON and to verify whether this index is valid for assessing both the need and complexity of orthodontic treatment in Iran. Materials and Method Five orthodontists were asked to score pre-treatment diagnostic records of 100 patients with a uniform distribution of different types of malocclusions determined by Dental Health Component of the Index of Treatment Need. A calibrated examiner also assessed the need for orthodontic treatment and complexity of the cases based on the ICON index as well as the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). 10 days later, 25% of the cases were re-scored by the panel of experts and the calibrated orthodontist. Results The weighted kappa revealed the inter-examiner reliability of the experts to be 0.63 and 0.51 for the need and complexity components, respectively. ROC curve was used to assess the validity of the index. A new cut-off point was adjusted at 35 in lieu of 43 as the suggested cut-off point. This cut-off point showed the highest level of sensitivity and specificity in our society for orthodontic treatment need (0.77 and 0.78, respectively), but it failed to define definite ranges for the complexity of treatment. Conclusion ICON is a valid index in assessing the need for treatment in Iran when the cut-off point is adjusted to 35. As for complexity of treatment, the index is not validated for our society. It seems that ICON is a well-suited substitute for the IOTN index. PMID:26331142

  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork Peer ... me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ANetwork ...

  5. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Provider Directory Donate Resources Links Videos ...

  6. Properties of the positive column of a glow discharge in flowing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, H.; Rocca Serra, J.; Mabru, M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a theoretical model for predicting the effects of gas flow on the properties of the positive column in a glow discharge are presented. A cylindrical discharge at low pressure ( 2 molecules and H atoms produced by the discharge are calculated. Comparison with available experimental data is made

  7. Fluid model of dc glow discharge with nonlocal ionization source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafatov, I R; Bogdanov, E A; Kudryavtsev, A A

    2012-01-01

    We developed and tested a simple hybrid model for a glow discharge, which incorporates nonlocal ionization by fast electrons into the fluid framework. Calculations have been performed for an argon gas. Comparison with the experimental data as well as with the hybrid (particle) and fluid modelling results demonstated good applicability of the proposed model.

  8. Period multiplication and chaotic phenomena in atmospheric dielectric-barrier glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Wang, D. Z.; Kong, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    In this letter, evidence of temporal plasma nonlinearity in which atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharges undergo period multiplication and chaos using a one-dimensional fluid model is reported. Under the conditions conducive for chaotic states, several frequency windows are identified in which period multiplication and secondary bifurcations are observed. Such time-domain nonlinearity is important for controlling instabilities in atmospheric glow discharges

  9. Formation and evolution of the glow-like dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starostin, S.A.; ElSabbagh, M.A.M.; Premkumar, P.A.; Vries, de H.W.; Paffen, R.M.J.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Time resolved process of formation and evolution of the atmospheric pressure glow discharge was studied in the roll-to- roll plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition dielectric barrier discharge reactor operating in helium-free gas mixtures by means of fast ICCD imaging. It was observed that the

  10. Gas phase hydrogen peroxide production in atmospheric pressure glow discharges operating in He - H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasko, C.A.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The gas phase production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a RF atmospheric pressure glow discharge with helium and water vapour has been investigated as a function of the gas flow. It is shown that the production of H2O2 is through the recombination of two OH radicals in a three body collision and the

  11. Peculiarities of glow modes of argon atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharge with isolated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhenov, V.Yu.; Tsiolko, V.V.; Piun, V.M.; Chaplinskiy, R.Yu.; Kuzmichev, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Glow characteristics of capacitive radio frequency discharge with isolated electrodes in low-current α and highcurrent gamma modes are determined experimentally. It is shown that transition from α mode to gamma mode occurs through a phase of coexistence of both modes in different parts of the discharge gap.

  12. Surface analysis of uranyl fluoride layers with a glow discharge lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nel, J.T.; Stander, C.M.; Boehmer, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Surface analysis with a Grimm-type glow discharge lamp was used to analyse uranyl fluoride layers that had formed on a nickel substrate after exposure to UF 6 . Narrow-band optical filters were used to isolate the intensities of three fluorine emission lines. An in-depth profile of layer composition was obtained. (author)

  13. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids...

  14. Anode pattern formation in atmospheric pressure air glow discharges with water anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreycken, T.; Bruggeman, P.J.; Leys, C.

    2009-01-01

    Pattern formation in the anode layer at a water electrode in atmospheric pressure glow discharges in air is studied. With increasing current a sequence of different anode spot structures occurs from a constricted homogeneous spot in the case of small currents to a pattern consisting of small

  15. Source of high-voltage power supply for ozone generators at glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruev, A.A.; Golota, V.I.; Zavada, L.M.; Taran, G.V.

    2000-01-01

    High-voltage power supply source on quasi-resonance inverter base which works at direct current regime is described. This source forms 20 kV voltage with 0 - 10 mA current regulation. It protects the source from current break-downs and feeds ozone generators at glow discharge

  16. Simulation Study of an Extended Density DC Glow Toroidal Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Benitez-Read, J. S.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J. O.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom assigns the DC glow discharge regime to plasma currents below ∼500 mA values, beyond which the discharge falls into the anomalous glow and the turbulent arc regimes. However, we have found evidence that, during toroidal discharges, this barrier can be ostensibly extended up to 800 mA. Thus, a computer simulation has been applied to the evolution of the main electrical characteristics of such a glow discharge plasma in a toroidal vessel in order to design and construct a respective voltage/current controlled source. This should be able to generate a DC plasma in the glow regime with which currents in the range 10-3-100 A can be experimented and 109-1010 cm-3 plasma densities can be achieved to PIII optimization purposes. The plasma is modelled as a voltage-controlled current source able to be turned on whenever the breakdown voltage is reached across the gap between the anode and the vessel wall. The simulation outcome fits well our experimental measurements showing that the plasma current obeys power laws that are dependent on the power current and other control variables such as the gas pressure

  17. I'm sexy and I glow it: female ornamentation in a nocturnal capital breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Juhani; Baudry, Gautier; Candolin, Ulrika; Kaitala, Arja

    2015-10-01

    In many species, males rely on sexual ornaments to attract females. Females, by contrast, rarely produce ornaments. The glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) is an exception where wingless females glow to attract males that fly in search of females. However, little is known about the factors that promote the evolution of female ornaments in a sexual selection context. Here, we investigated if the female ornament of the glow-worm is a signal of fecundity used in male mate choice. In support of this, we found brightness to correlate with female fecundity, and males to prefer brighter dummy females. Thus, the glow emitted by females is a reliable sexual signal of female fecundity. It is likely that male preference for the fecundity-indicating ornament has evolved because of large variation among females in fecundity, and because nocturnal males cannot directly assess female size and fecundity. These results indicate that female ornamentation may evolve in capital breeders (i.e. those in which stored resources are invested in reproduction) when females vary significantly in fecundity and this variation cannot be assessed directly by males. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Video Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...... in which 25 educators as part of a digital fabrication and design program were able to critically reflect on their teaching practice....

  19. Out of sight but not out of mind: the neurophysiology of iconic memory in the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, C; Xiao, D-K; Foldiak, P; Perrett, D I

    2005-05-01

    Iconic memory, the short-lasting visual memory of a briefly flashed stimulus, is an important component of most models of visual perception. Here we investigate what physiological mechanisms underlie this capacity by showing rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequences with and without interstimulus gaps to human observers and macaque monkeys. For gaps of up to 93 ms between consecutive images, human observers and neurones in the temporal cortex of macaque monkeys were found to continue processing a stimulus as if it was still present on the screen. The continued firing of neurones in temporal cortex may therefore underlie iconic memory. Based on these findings, a neurophysiological vision of iconic memory is presented.

  20. The Children's Video Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, Richard V.

    This report examines a growing submarket, the children's video marketplace, which comprises broadcast, cable, and video programming for children 2 to 11 years old. A description of the tremendous growth in the availability and distribution of children's programming is presented, the economics of the children's video marketplace are briefly…

  1. Video Self-Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…

  2. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  3. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  4. Intelligent video surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Belonging to the wider academic field of computer vision, video analytics has aroused a phenomenal surge of interest since the current millennium. Video analytics is intended to solve the problem of the incapability of exploiting video streams in real time for the purpose of detection or anticipation. It involves analyzing the videos using algorithms that detect and track objects of interest over time and that indicate the presence of events or suspect behavior involving these objects.The aims of this book are to highlight the operational attempts of video analytics, to identify possi

  5. Flip Video for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsko, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The full-color guide to shooting great video with the Flip Video camera. The inexpensive Flip Video camera is currently one of the hottest must-have gadgets. It's portable and connects easily to any computer to transfer video you shoot onto your PC or Mac. Although the Flip Video camera comes with a quick-start guide, it lacks a how-to manual, and this full-color book fills that void! Packed with full-color screen shots throughout, Flip Video For Dummies shows you how to shoot the best possible footage in a variety of situations. You'll learn how to transfer video to your computer and then edi

  6. L’ICÔNE : L’IMAGE ET L’INVISIBLE (Icon: The Image and the Invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Cibotaru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An icon is part of the visible world, moreover, of things that are visible in a second degree. It is not only a sensitive thing, but a sensitive image of a sensitive entity. As an eikon, it is located in a platonic sense among the lowest degree of the doxa, and within the lowest degree of the scale of being. However it is not a simple sensitive and illusory representation of God, such as one criticized from a Kantian point of view. The profound sense of an icon lies in its opening towards the invisible. An icon tries to capture the invisible. How is this meeting point of the visible and the invisible entangled? Can an icon really allow us to “see” the invisible or is it only a profanation of the invisible? It is my aim to analyze those questions in the following article.

  7. "I use it when I see it": The role of development and experience in Deaf and hearing children's understanding of iconic gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Rachel W; Pyers, Jennie E

    2017-05-01

    Iconicity is prevalent in gesture and in sign languages, yet the degree to which children recognize and leverage iconicity for early language learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 of the current study, we presented sign-naïve 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds (n=87) with iconic shape gestures and no additional scaffolding to ask whether children can spontaneously map iconic gestures to their referents. Four- and five-year-olds, but not three-year-olds, recognized the referents of iconic shape gestures above chance. Experiment 2 asked whether preschoolers (n=93) show an advantage in fast-mapping iconic gestures compared to arbitrary ones. We found that iconicity played a significant role in supporting 4- and 5-year-olds' ability to learn new gestures presented in an explicit pedagogical context, and a lesser role in 3-year-olds' learning. Using similar tasks in Experiment 3, we found that Deaf preschoolers (n=41) exposed to American Sign Language showed a similar pattern of recognition and learning but starting at an earlier age, suggesting that learning a language with rich iconicity may lead to earlier use of iconicity. These results suggest that sensitivity to iconicity is shaped by experience, and while not fundamental to the earliest stages of language development, is a useful tool once children unlock these form-meaning relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An Icon-Based Synoptic Visualization of Fully Polarimetric Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain H. Woodhouse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of fully polarimetric radar data is hindered by traditional remote sensing methodologies for displaying data due to the large number of parameters per pixel in such data, and the non-scalar nature of variables such as phase difference. In this paper, a new method is described that uses icons instead of image pixels to represent the image data so that polarimetric properties and geographic context can be visualized together. The icons are parameterized using the alpha-entropy decomposition of polarimetric data. The resulting image allows the following five variables to be displayed simultaneously: unpolarized power, alpha angle, polarimetric entropy, anisotropy and orientation angle. Examples are given for both airborne and laboratory-based imaging.

  9. How early do children understand gesture-speech combinations with iconic gestures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Carmen; Williamson, Rebecca; Ozçalişkan, Seyda

    2014-03-01

    Children understand gesture+speech combinations in which a deictic gesture adds new information to the accompanying speech by age 1;6 (Morford & Goldin-Meadow, 1992; 'push'+point at ball). This study explores how early children understand gesture+speech combinations in which an iconic gesture conveys additional information not found in the accompanying speech (e.g., 'read'+BOOK gesture). Our analysis of two- to four-year-old children's responses in a gesture+speech comprehension task showed that children grasp the meaning of iconic co-speech gestures by age three and continue to improve their understanding with age. Overall, our study highlights the important role gesture plays in language comprehension as children learn to unpack increasingly complex communications addressed to them at the early ages.

  10. Standard chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oza, Amit M; Cook, Adrian D; Pfisterer, Jacobus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICON7 trial previously reported improved progression-free survival in women with ovarian cancer with the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy, with the greatest effect in patients at high risk of disease progression. We report the final overall survival results...... of the trial. METHODS: ICON7 was an international, phase 3, open-label, randomised trial undertaken at 263 centres in 11 countries across Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Eligible adult women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer that was either high-risk early-stage disease (International Federation....... This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN91273375. FINDINGS: Between Dec 18, 2006, and Feb 16, 2009, 1528 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive chemotherapy (n=764) or chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (n=764). Median follow-up at the end...

  11. Media Morality and Visual Icons in the Age of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette; Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2016-01-01

    New and social media are increasingly used to raise issues of global justice. Images and texts representing distant suffering in an emotionally charged way involve users of social media in debates about ethical standards and moral responsibility. This raises the question of how social media users...... in fall 2015, which raised questions of distant spectatorship and moral responses with renewed urgency and immediacy. We consider the conditions of collective reception and interpretation of visual icons of human suffering, which became viral through social media in this period. We first situate social...... media reception in the framework for the analysis of moral spectatorship. We secondly explore the link between iconic images and the emergence of so-called impromptu publics of moral spectatorship. As an empirical case, we refer to the performance of reddit discussion groups in confronting the salient...

  12. The iconic memory skills of brain injury survivors and non-brain injured controls after visual scanning training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, J T; Browning, R T; Vantrease, C M; Bittle, S T

    1994-01-01

    Previous research suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in impairment of iconic memory abilities.We would like to acknowledge the contribution of Jeffrey D. Vantrease, who wrote the software program for the Iconic Memory procedure and measurement. This raises serious implications for brain injury rehabilitation. Most cognitive rehabilitation programs do not include iconic memory training. Instead it is common for cognitive rehabilitation programs to focus on attention and concentration skills, memory skills, and visual scanning skills.This study compared the iconic memory skills of brain-injury survivors and control subjects who all reached criterion levels of visual scanning skills. This involved previous training for the brain-injury survivors using popular visual scanning programs that allowed them to visually scan with response time and accuracy within normal limits. Control subjects required only minimal training to reach normal limits criteria. This comparison allows for the dissociation of visual scanning skills and iconic memory skills.The results are discussed in terms of their implications for cognitive rehabilitation and the relationship between visual scanning training and iconic memory skills.

  13. Sensory exploitation and cultural transmission: the late emergence of iconic representations in human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpooten, Jan; Nelissen, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Iconic representations (i.e., figurative imagery and realistic art) only started to appear consistently some 45,000 years ago, although humans have been anatomically modern since 200,000-160,000 years ago. What explains this? Some authors have suggested a neurocognitive change took place, leading to a creative explosion, although this has been contested. Here, we examine the hypothesis that demographic changes caused cultural "cumulative adaptive evolution" and as such the emergence of modern symbolic behavior. This approach usefully explains the evolution of utilitarian skills and tools, and the creation of symbols to identify groups. However, it does not equally effectively explain the evolution of behaviors that may not be directly adaptive, such as the production of iconic representations like figurines and rock art. In order to shed light on their emergence, we propose to combine the above-mentioned cultural hypothesis with the concept of sensory exploitation. The concept essentially states that behavioral traits (in this case iconic art production) which exploit pre-existing sensory sensitivities will evolve if not hindered by costs (i.e., natural selection). In this view, iconic art traditions are evolved by piggy-backing on cumulative adaptive evolution. Since it is to date uncertain whether art has served any adaptive function in human evolution, parsimony demands paying more attention to the primary and a functional mechanism of sensory exploitation as opposed to mechanisms of models based exclusively on secondary benefits (such as Miller's, for instance, in which art is proposed to evolve as a sexual display of fitness).

  14. Guitar hero: From icon of popular culture to nostalgic self-design

    OpenAIRE

    Popadić Milan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to interpret the transformations of the “guitar hero”, from the icon of popular culture to models of nostalgic selfdesign, meaning transformations from generally recognizable figure in the context of popular culture to mimetic patterns based in medium of contemporary technologies. The phrase “guitar hero”, in its basic meaning represents a specific phenomenon in popular culture and popular music of the second half of the twentieth century. Guitar hero is a performer with...

  15. How Iconic Figures Influence Thinking ? : Comparison of University and Lower Secondary Students

    OpenAIRE

    添田, 佳伸; 藤井, 良宜

    1992-01-01

    In learning geometry we often use iconic figures to give children conditions and questions in word problems. But the figure becomes an object of thinking after finishing plaing the role of giving some information. Children think the problem by using the given figure. If figures influence chidren's thinking, a rate of correct answer of each problem must be different according to being presented each figure. ### Thus we investigated the differences of rates of correct answer by using three type...

  16. Comments on how Mack et al. (2015) (do not) see iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Talis; Aru, Jaan

    2015-07-01

    In a recent paper (Mack et al., 2015) the effect of attentional manipulations on partial report performance was investigated. The results were interpreted in favor of the stance that an attention-free phenomenal iconic store does not exist. Therefore, the authors argue that consciousness requires attention. Here we question their conclusions both on the methodological and conceptual grounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D-ICONS Ireland – fulfilling the potential of a rich 3D resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Corns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a partner in the EU co-funded 3D-ICONS project, the Discovery Programme undertook the 3D documentation of some of the most iconic cultural heritage sites in Ireland. This pan-European project aimed to establish a complete pipeline for the production of 3D replicas of archaeological monuments and historic buildings, and to publish the content to Europeana for public access. The list of Irish icons range from wider cultural landscapes to smaller ornately carved stones and includes a wide range of chronological periods: from Neolithic rock art from 2500 BC to Derry's 17th-century fortifications. The primary digitisation methods include airborne laser scanning (ALS, phase-based terrestrial laser scanning (Faro Focus 3D and close range structured light scanning (Artec EVA. These are now mainstream approaches for surveying historic landscapes, structures and objects, generating precise, high-resolution point cloud data, primarily for viewing and interaction in proprietary software applications. The challenge was to convert these complex high-volume datasets into textured 3D models, retaining the geometric integrity of the original data. The article highlights the development of a pipeline to produce a lightweight 3D model that enables the public to interact with a photorealistic model based upon accurate survey and texture data. 3D-ICONS ended in January 2015, but a new website 3dicons.ie was launched to offer continued access to the Irish 3D models and associated content and media generated during the project. The article will consider the impact of this online content, particularly how it has been used as a teaching aid in secondary schools and how this may be extended in the future. It will also demonstrate how content from the project has been remodelled to develop an interactive and immersive experience for the great mound at Knowth, a development in partnership with the operators of the Brú na Bóinne visitor centre.

  18. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Semiotics Of Shape Of Block Notation As Icon Of Planetary Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sumerjana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Block notation has a specific shape; however, its existence and the function of its shape are not recognized and are made to be intangible by its function as a symbol of tapping sound. In general, the basic shape of the block notation looks like an ellipse and is similar to the planetary orbit. Therefore, this present study focuses on the ellipse-shaped block notation as the icon of the planetary orbit. The phenomenological qualitative method was employed to interpret the meaning of the basic shape of the block notation as the icon of planetary orbit. The data were collected through guided interview and library research. The data were analyzed using the semiotic process, meaning that in the first phase the text was analyzed based on the shape structure and in the second phase the text was heuristically analyzed. The result of the study shows that the ellipse-shaped block notation is the planetary orbit whose function changes from the manifest function into the latent one, resulting from the function as the tapping sound value. Keywords: form, notation, icon, orbit, planet

  20. STUDY OF SOME ARCHAEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS USED IN PANEL PAINTING ICONS AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Anamaria Cristache

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authentication of cultural heritage assets is a complex process of scientific investigation which regards obtaining information about: author (painter, the period when it was made, the owners and other data related to the main contexts of their evolution in time (routes travelled. In fact, the identification of specific archaeometric features is aimed, in determining the materials composition and the patina, then the study of artistic techniques and technology used in the making process of a work of art. Latest serves to define the patrimonial elements and the role of the artifact in time. The expertise of old panel painting icons requires an interdisciplinary approach, correlating the artistic style with technique and materials used. In this regard, the specific techniques of microscopy and spectroscopy are very useful tools for determining the composition of structural elements and their deterioration / degradation state. This work presents a comparative study of the paper used in the preparation layer of three icons painted in Russian style. As an analysis techniques were used the micro and macro photography assisted by Optical Microscopy (OM, SEM-EDX and micro-FTIR. Based on the experimental data obtained, it was found that the icons belong to the first half of the 19th century.

  1. Effects of an icon-based menu labelling initiative on consumer food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerins, Claire; Cunningham, Katie; Finucane, Francis M; Gibson, Irene; Jones, Jenni; Kelly, Colette

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an icon-based menu labelling initiative on consumer buying behaviour. This quasi-experimental study recruited a convenience sample of eight food service establishments, all with at least one menu item meeting the heart healthy criteria. Data from sales of all menu items sold over an 8-week period were collated 4 weeks prior to and 4 weeks during the display of information icons related to healthy food choices on menus. The absolute change in menu item sales showed a non-significant trend towards an increase in healthier menu item selections. Furthermore, there was no association between the type of food service establishment and the percentage change in labelled menu item sales. The study did not find a statistically significant influence of the icon-based menu labels on consumer food choice. Given the limited amount of research that examines alternative menu labelling formats in real-world settings, more studies are necessary to confirm these results. Further research is needed to identify the optimal format, content and impact of menu labels on consumer behaviour.

  2. Icons of Just Is: Justice, Suffering, and the Artwork of Samuel Bak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Phillips

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines select paintings by Holocaust survivor and painter Samuel Bak from his recent Just Is series. The essay explores ways Bak’s art bears witness to suffering. He creatively interrogates and reanimates the iconic figure of Lady Justice and the biblical principle of the lex talionis (“eye for an eye” in order to fashion alternative icons fit for an age of atrocity and loss. Bak’s artwork gives visual expression to Theodor Adorno’s view of the precariousness of art after Auschwitz. It is art’s responsibility to attend to the burden of real suffering experiences (the burden of the empirical and to think in contradictions, which renders art both adequate and inadequate in standing up against the injustice of other’s suffering. Through inventive juxtaposition of secular and sacred symbols, Bak displays the paradox of representation after the Holocaust and art’s precarious responsibility giving voice to suffering. Bak fashions visual spaces in which barbarity and beauty coincide and collide. He invites viewers into this space and into dialogue about justice’s standing and promises. Do Bak's remade icons of Just Is lament a permanent loss of justice and peace, or do they point tentatively to possibilities of life lived in a damaged world with an alternative Just Is? Bak’s artwork prompts such vexing questions for his viewers to contemplate and leaves them to decide what must be done.

  3. Vigilance and iconic memory in children at high risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, S R; Locke, J; Hill, S Y

    1997-07-01

    Previous studies report reduced visual event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes in young males at high risk for alcoholism. These findings could involve difficulties at several stages of visual processing. This study was aimed at examining vigilance performance and iconic memory functions in children at high risk or low risk for alcoholism. Sustained vigilance and retrieval from iconic memory were evaluated in 54 (29 male) white children at high risk and 47 (25 male) white children at low risk for developing alcoholism. Children were also grouped according to gender and age (younger: 8-12 years; older: 13-18 years). No differences is visual sensitivity, response criterion or reaction time were associated with risk status on the degraded visual stimulus version of the Continuous Performance Test. For the Span of Apprehension, no differences were found due to risk status when only 1 or 5 distractors were presented, although with 9 distractors a significant effect of risk status was found when it was tested as an interaction with gender and age (decreased accuracy for older high-risk boys compared to older low-risk boys). These findings suggest that ERP deviations are not attributable to stages of visual processing deficits, but represent difficulty involving more complex utilization of information. Implications of these results are that the differences between high- and low-risk children that have been reported previously for visual ERP components (e.g., P300) are not attributable to deficits of attentional or iconic memory mechanisms.

  4. Logo and semiosis: From an icon sign to the Serbian culture symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A logo is most commonly observed as an emblem with intent to be widely recognized as a permanent symbol, or an icon, additionally permitting correlative meanings within a designative context. In the particular example of the Glossary of Serbian culture logo the opportunities of elements of design (coded iconic message, non-coded iconic message and linguistic message have been analyzed with intention to ascertain communication with future users of the Index conveying the desired message not only about specificities of Serbian culture but also its complexity and unifying nature with the global culture. A logo is observed as a multi-parametric code transcending form a concept of artistic design to a “rhetoric figure” in context of presentation and promotion of Serbian culture. While the art of designing, as a discipline, has the objective of artistic modulation, as well as an aesthetic effect, it also, in this case, represents the form of the governmental strategy in communication with others and formation of the cultural identity of its citizens.

  5. Correlation between TL and OSL signals in KMgF3:Ce3+: Bleaching study of individual glow-peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallas, G.I.; Polymeris, G.S.; Afouxenidis, D.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Tsagas, N.F.; Kitis, G.

    2010-01-01

    KMgF 3 :Ce 3+ is an ultra sensitive Thermoluminescence (TL) material with a complex TL and OSL glow-curve structure. The aim of the present work is to attempt a one-to-one correspondence between specific TL glow-peaks and OSL components in KMgF 3 :Ce 3+ . The correlation study involves the deconvolution of the TL curves and the estimation of the bleaching decay constants for individual glow-peaks followed by the deconvolution of the LM-OSL curve using the estimated decay constants. It was found that the bleaching of each individual glow-peak takes place in three different rates; namely in a fast, medium and slow rate.

  6. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  7. Digital Video in Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Is video becoming “the new black” in academia, if so, what are the challenges? The integration of video in research methodology (for collection, analysis) is well-known, but the use of “academic video” for dissemination is relatively new (Eriksson and Sørensen). The focus of this paper is academic......). In the video, I appear (along with other researchers) and two Danish film directors, and excerpts from their film. My challenges included how to edit the academic video and organize the collaborative effort. I consider video editing as a semiotic, transformative process of “reassembling” voices....... In the discussion, I review academic video in terms of relevance and implications for research practice. The theoretical background is social constructivist, combining social semiotics (Kress, van Leeuwen, McCloud), visual anthropology (Banks, Pink) and dialogic theory (Bakhtin). The Bakhtinian notion of “voices...

  8. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  9. Analysis of nickel-base alloys by Grimm-type glow discharge emission and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, N.P.; Strauss, J.A.; Van Maarseveen, I.; Ivanfy, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-base alloys can be analysed as satisfactorily as steels by XRF as well as by the Grimm-type source, in spite of problems caused by element combinations, spectral line overlap and the influence of the structure and heat conduction properties on sputtering in the glow discharge source. This extended abstract briefly discusses the use of Grimm-type glow discharge emission and XRF as techniques for the analysis of nickel-base alloys

  10. Transitions between corona, glow, and spark regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Pai , David ,; Lacoste , Deanna ,; Laux , C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and interelectrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. In particular, the experimental conditions necessary for the glow regime of NRP discharges have been determine...

  11. Anticipated Guilt for Not Helping and Anticipated Warm Glow for Helping Are Differently Impacted by Personal Responsibility to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Arvid; Jungstrand, Amanda Å.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g., guilt) and to approach positive emotions (e.g., warm glow) are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help. Helping scenarios were created and pilot tests established that each helping scenario could be formulated both in a high-responsibility version and in a low-responsibility version. In Study 1 participants read high-responsibility and low-responsibility helping scenarios, and rated either their anticipated guilt if not helping or their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., separate evaluation). Study 2 was similar but here participants rated both their anticipated guilt if not helping and their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., joint evaluation). Anticipated guilt was clearly higher in the high-responsibility versions, but anticipated warm glow was unaffected (in Studies 1a and 1b), or even higher in the low-responsibility versions (Study 2). In Studies 3 (where anticipated guilt and warm glow were evaluated separately) and 4 (where they were evaluated jointly), personal responsibility to help was manipulated within-subjects. Anticipated guilt was again constantly higher in the high-responsibility versions but for many types of responsibility-manipulations, anticipated warm glow was higher in the low-responsibility versions. The results suggest that we anticipate guilt if not fulfilling our responsibility but that we anticipate warm glow primarily when doing over and beyond our responsibility. We argue that future studies investigating motivations for helping

  12. A study on the equivalent electric circuit simulation model of DBD streamer and glow alternate discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J; Zhang, Z T; Xu, S J; Yu, Q X; Yu, Z; Zhao, J S

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulating model of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), structured as an equivalent electric circuit of the streamer and glow discharge generated alternately in DBD. The main parameters of DBD have been established by means of analysing the structural characteristics of a single discharge cell. An electrical comprehensive Simulink /MATLAB model was developed in order to reveal the interaction of the adjacent two discharge cell. A series of simulations was carried out in order to estimate the key structural parameters that affect the alternate streamer and glow discharge mode. The comparison results of experimental and simulate indicate that there exists a close similarity of the current waveforms graphic. Therefore, we can grasp a deep understanding mechanism of the dielectric barrier discharge and optimize the plasma reactor.

  13. Influence of an electric probe on the anode layer of a glow discharge in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, M. D.; Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Akishev, Yu S.

    2018-05-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) numerical model of a DC glow discharge in nitrogen is developed for the case when the electric probe is mounted in the discharge gap. Within this model, calculations are performed for the gas pressure of 50 Torr and discharge current densities of 22 and 90 mA cm‑2. A cylindrical probe 1 mm in diameter is located parallel to the anode at a distance of 5 or 10 mm. The probe potential is varied in a wide range relative to the floating potential. Numerical simulations predict the 2D plasma perturbation pattern induced by the electric probe and the influence of the probe on anode layer characteristics. In particular, conditions are determined under which a region with no glow forms in the anode layer.

  14. On the regime transitions during the formation of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, T; Bogaerts, A; Brok, W J M; Van Dijk, J

    2009-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in helium is a pulsed discharge in nature. If during the electrical current pulse a glow discharge is reached, then this pulse will last only a few microseconds in operating periods of sinusoidal voltage with lengths of about 10 to 100 μs. In this paper we demonstrate that right before a glow discharge is reached, the discharge very closely resembles the commonly assumed Townsend discharge structure, but actually contains some significant differing features and hence should not be considered as a Townsend discharge. In order to clarify this, we present calculation results of high time and space resolution of the pulse formation. The results indicate that indeed a maximum of ionization is formed at the anode, but that the level of ionization remains high and that the electric field at that time is significantly disturbed. Our results also show where this intermediate structure comes from. (fast track communication)

  15. Atomic iodine production in a gas flow by decomposing methyl iodide in a dc glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheyev, P A; Shepelenko, A A; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V

    2002-01-01

    The production of atomic iodine for an oxygen - iodine laser is studied by decomposing methyl iodide in a dc glow discharge in a vortex gas flow. The concentration of iodine atoms in discharge products was measured from the atomic iodine absorption of the radiation of a single-frequency tunable diode laser at a wavelength of 1.315 μm. Atomic iodine concentrations sufficient for the operation of an oxygen - iodine laser were obtained. The concentration of atomic iodine amounted to 3.6 x 10 15 cm -3 for a pressure of the carrying argon gas of 15 Torr. The discharge stabilisation by a vortex gas flow allowed the glow discharge to be sustained in a strongly electronegative halogen-containing gas mixture for pressures up to 20 Torr. (active media)

  16. COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A.; PONTELANDOLFO, J.M.; CASTILLO, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES. Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) need to be about 200 (micro)m thick and 2 mm in diameter. These dimensions are well beyond those currently fabricated on a routine basis. They have investigated fabrication of near NIF scale targets using the depolymerizable mandrel technique. Poly-alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS) mandrels, about 2 mm in diameter, of varying qualities were coated with as much as 125 (micro)m of glow discharge polymer (GDP). The surface finish of the final shells was examined using a variety of techniques. A clear dependence of the modal spectrum of final GDP shell on the quality of the initial PAMS mandrels was observed. isolated features were found to be the greatest cause for a shell not meeting the NIF standard

  17. Direct measurements of particle transport in dc glow discharge dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Many recent experiments in dc glow discharge plasmas have shown that clouds of dust particles can be suspended near the biased electrodes. Once formed, the dust clouds have well defined boundaries while particle motion within the clouds can be quite complex. Because the dust particles in the cloud can remain suspended in the plasma for tens of minutes, it implies that the particles have a low diffusive loss rate and follow closed trajectories within the cloud. In the experiments discussed in this paper, direct measurements of the dust particle velocities are made using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. From the velocity measurements, a reconstruction of the three-dimensional transport of the dust particles is performed. A qualitative model is developed for the closed motion of the dust particles in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma. (orig.)

  18. On the feasibility of inversion methods based on models of urban sky glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolláth, Z.; Kránicz, B.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-wavelength imaging luminance photometry of sky glow provides a huge amount of information on light pollution. However, the understanding of the measured data involves the combination of different processes and data of radiation transfer, atmospheric physics and atmospheric constitution. State-of-the-art numerical radiation transfer models provide the possibility to define an inverse problem to obtain information on the emission intensity distribution of a city and perhaps the physical properties of the atmosphere. We provide numerical tests on the solvability and feasibility of such procedures. - Highlights: • A method of urban sky glow inversion is introduced based on Monte-Carlo calculations. • Imaging photometry can provide enough information for basic inversions. • The inversion technique can be used to construct maps of light pollution. • The inclusion of multiple scattering in the models plays an important role

  19. Electrostatic analyzer for electron and ion energy in glow discharge tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bong Kil Yeon.

    1984-01-01

    The project, the construction and use of an electrostatic energy analyser (Faraday Cup) are described explaining physically its working mechanism. The analyser was used in a glow discharge tube with air and an air-argon mixture. A chapter with the theory of the glow discharge is included. The ion and electron temperatures, the plasma potential and the distribution function for ions and electrons were measured. The electron temperature and plasma potential were also measured using a Langmuir probe and the results show reasonable agreement with the results of the analyser. Good fits of the experimental electron and ion distribution functions were obtained with Maxwellian distributions centered values near the plasma potential. Finally, we discuss the performance of the analyser compared to Langmuir probes. (author) [pt

  20. Inner surface modification of a tube by magnetic glow-arc plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guling; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Wang Jiuli; Feng Wenran; Chen Guangliang; Gu Weichao; Niu Erwu; Fan Songhua; Liu Chizi; Yang Size; Wu Xingfang

    2006-01-01

    A new method named the magnetic glow-arc plasma source ion implantation (MGA-PSII) is proposed for inner surface modification of tubes. In MGA-PSII, under the control of an axial magnetic field, which is generated by an electric coil around the tube sample, glow arc plasma moves spirally into the tube from its two ends. A negative voltage applied on the tube realized its inner surface implantation. Titanium nitride (TiN) films are prepared on the inner surface of a stainless steel tube in diameter 90 mm and length 600 mm. Hardness tests show that the hardness at the tube centre is up to 20 GPa. XRD, XPS and AES analyses demonstrate that good quality of TiN films can be achieved. (authors)

  1. Inner Surface Modification of a Tube by Magnetic Glow-Arc Plasma Source Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gu-Ling; Wang, Jiu-Li; Wu, Xing-Fang; Feng, Wen-Ran; Chen, Guang-Liang; Gu, Wei-Chao; Niu, Er-Wu; Fan, Song-Hua; Liu, Chi-Zi; Yang, Si-Ze

    2006-05-01

    A new method named the magnetic glow-arc plasma source ion implantation (MGA-PSII) is proposed for inner surface modification of tubes. In MGA-PSII, under the control of an axial magnetic field, which is generated by an electric coil around the tube sample, glow arc plasma moves spirally into the tube from its two ends. A negative voltage applied on the tube realized its inner surface implantation. Titanium nitride (TiN) films are prepared on the inner surface of a stainless steel tube in diameter 90 mm and length 600 mm. Hardness tests show that the hardness at the tube centre is up to 20 GPa. XRD, XPS and AES analyses demonstrate that good quality of TiN films can be achieved.

  2. Radiofrequency glow discharge time of flight mass spectrometry: pulsed vs. continuous mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.; Pereiro, R.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Bordel, N.; Tempez, A.; Chapon, P.; Hohl, M.; Michler, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Glow discharge (GD) is a well established tool for the direct analysis of solids. The application field of the original direct current GD, restricted to conductive samples, has been extended by radiofrequency powered GDs that can be applied for conductive and non-conductive samples. Moreover, the introduction of pulsed GD has opened the possibility of applying higher instantaneous powers that can improve the atomization-ionization processes and therefore the sensitivity. Furthermore, pulsed-GD may enable temporal separation of discharge gas species from the sample ions. In this work the analytical performances of radiofrequency and pulsed radiofrequency glow discharges are evaluated by using a time of flight mass analyzer (TOFMS). (author)

  3. Nature and mechanism of blue glow of corundum crystals; new point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonova, T.S.; Zabara, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The photoluminescence and radioluminescence spectra were investigated for corrundum crystals grown by Verneil method with following thermal treatment in different conditions: 1) annealing in oxygen 8p=10 5 Pa, T=1770 K, t=5x10 5 s); 2) vacuum annealing (p=10 -3 Pa, T=2220 K, t=10 5 s); 3) annelaing in high reducing atmosphere. Two kinds of luminescence processes is shown to exist at 415-420 nm. Blue glow with δ ∼ 55 nm (band halfwidth) is due to anion vacancies while glow with δ ∼ 100 nm is caused by titanium ions of valancy 4. mechanisms of mentioned kinds of luminescence and their distinctive features presented. New model of electron transitions in Al 2 O 3 -lattice including anion vacancie for different excitation means is proposed

  4. Analysis of the different zones of glow discharge of ethyl alcohol (C2H6O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C; Reyes, P G; Mulia, J; Castillo, F; Martínez, H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the emission spectroscopy of ethyl alcohol in some regions, also is determine the result elements of the glow discharge, the spectrums were observed in a range of 200 at 1100 nm in the different zones inside of the tube at different distances of 20 and 30 cm. The elements are: in anode region C 6 H 5 (483.02 nm), CHO (519.56 nm) and H 2 (560.47 nm), in the positive column CO 2 + (315.52 y 337.00 nm), O + (357.48 nm), CH + (380.61 nm) and CO + (399.73 nm); in the cathode region we observed O + (391.19 nm), CHOCHO (428.00 nm), CO + (471.12 nm) and H 2 (656.52 nm). C 6 H 5 , CHO y H 2 species occurring in all regions analyzed varying the glow discharge emission intensity.

  5. Photo-preionization stabilized high-pressure glow-discharge lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bergmann, H.M.

    1980-07-01

    Simple nanosecond stabilization and pulsing techniques were developed to excite high-pressure gas-discharge lasers at high overvoltages and high specific power loadings. The techniques were applied to a variety of ultraviolet and visible laser systems employing fast transmission line pulsers and conventional LC generators. The stabilization procedures are evaluated and the parameters which control the geometry and uniformity of the high-pressure glow discharges are investigated. A detailed study of the formation, distribution and spectral characteristics of the fast surface corona discharges is provided. The stabilization and pulsing techniques were used for the corona and glow discharge excitation of high-pressure ultraviolet N 2 lasers. A detailed spectrally- and temporally-resolved study of the gain, fluorescence and energy extraction characteristics of the atmospheric pressure N 2 plasmas is provided

  6. Comparing Iconic Memory in Children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Ahmadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD do not process most information due to inattention and loss of the opportunity to save and retrieve information. Therefore, these children experience memory impairment. Although visual memory has been previously studied in children with ADHD, iconic memory in these children has been less evaluated. We aimed to study the possibility of iconic memory impairment in children with ADHD, and compare the results with that of children without ADHD.Methods: The experimental group of this study were 6-9 year-old children who referred to the Imam Hosein Clinic and were diagnosed as having ADHD by a psychiatrist during 2011-2012 (n=30.The subjects were interviewed clinically by a psychologist; and in order to diagnose ADHD, their parents and teachers were asked to complete the child symptom inventory-4 (CSI-4. The comparison group were 6-9 year-old children without ADHD who studied in 1st and 2nd educational district of Yazd (n=30. Subjects’ iconic memory was assessed using an iconic memory task. Repeated measure ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results:Based on the iconic memory test, the mean score of ADHD children was significantly lower than that of children without ADHD (P˂0.001. Moreover, the performance of the experimental group differed significantly when the duration of the presentation differed from 50 ms to 100 ms as compared to the control group (P˂0.001. The number of correct answers increased in the experimental group as the duration of presentation increased. However, children with ADHD scored less than children without ADHD at 50 ms as well as 100 ms. The means of ADHD children increased as the duration of the presentation increased from 50 ms to 100 ms to 300 ms (P<0.001.Conclusion:Visual memory is weaker in children with ADHD, and they have weaker performance than normal children in both visual and auditory symbols at presentation durations of 50 and 100 ms. The

  7. Transitions between corona, glow, and spark regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2010-05-01

    In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and interelectrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. In particular, the experimental conditions necessary for the glow regime of NRP discharges have been determined, with the notable result that there exists a minimum and maximum gap distance for its existence at a given ambient gas temperature. The minimum gap distance increases with decreasing gas temperature, whereas the maximum does not vary appreciably. To explain the experimental results, an analytical model is developed to explain the corona-to-glow (C-G) and glow-to-spark (G-S) transitions. The C-G transition is analyzed in terms of the avalanche-to-streamer transition and the breakdown field during the conduction phase following the establishment of a conducting channel across the discharge gap. The G-S transition is determined by the thermal ionization instability, and we show analytically that this transition occurs at a certain reduced electric field for the NRP discharges studied here. This model shows that the electrode geometry plays an important role in the existence of the NRP glow regime at a given gas temperature. We derive a criterion for the existence of the NRP glow regime as a function of the ambient gas temperature, pulse repetition frequency, electrode radius of curvature, and interelectrode gap distance.

  8. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  9. Glow discharge processing vs bakeout for aluminum storage ring vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, N.R.; Hoyt, E.W.; Palrang, M.T.; Walker, B.G.

    1977-11-01

    Experiments were carried out on laboratory and prototype scale systems in order to establish the feasibility of argon discharge processing the PEP storage ring aluminum vacuum chambers. Electron-induced desorption rates showed significant reductions following bakeout and/or argon glow discharge treatment (>10 19 ions cm -1 ). Data are presented and discussed in relation to advantages and problems associated with: water removal, argon trapping and subsequent release, electron energy dependence, discharge distribution, and surface plasma chemical effects

  10. Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained atmospheric pressure glow discharge generates enhanced electricity in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Guo, Ting; Wang, Dong; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-01-01

    A Clostridium beijerinckii mutant M13 was derived from C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 by atmospheric pressure glow discharge. C. beijerinckii M13 generated a maximum output power density of 79.2 mW m(-2) and a maximum output voltage of 230 mV in a microbial fuel cell containing 1 g glucose l(-1) as carbon source and 0.15 g methyl viologen l(-1) as an electron carrier.

  11. Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Array by DC Glow Plasma Etching for Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To open the end of carbon nanotubes and make these ends connect with functional carboxyl group, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs arrays was etched by DC glow oxygen-argon plasma. With these open-ended carbon nanotubes array as electrode materials to build supercapacitor, we found that the capacity (32.2 F/g increased significantly than that of pure carbon nanotubes (6.7 F/g.

  12. Cathode fall parameters of a self-sustained normal glow discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipenko, V.I.; Zgirovskii, S.M.; Kirillov, A.A.; Simonchik, L.V.

    2002-01-01

    Results from comprehensive studies of a high-current self-sustained glow discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium are presented. The main parameters of the cathode fall, namely, the electric field profile, cathode fall thickness, current density, gas temperature, and heat flux to the cathode are determined. The results obtained are discussed using one-dimensional models of the cathode fall with allowance for volumetric heat release

  13. Hardening of alloys in glow discharge with the use of pulsed electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipko, M.N.; Pomel'nikova, A.S.; Solunin, A.M.; Solunin, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ex/ternal pulsed electric field on the thickness of a hardened surface layer of a Nd-Fe-B system alloy during chemical heat treatment in a glow discharge is studied. The relationship is established between the hardened layer thickness and the frequency of external electric field which is verified by derived equations for the relation between electron energy and pulsed electric field frequency [ru

  14. Glow-discharge-created electron beams and beam-excited lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Efficiently created glow discharge electron beams have been developed and studied in detail. The beam mode of operation occurs in the abnormal glow adjacent to the glow-to-arc transition regime. In contrast to electron beams generated in high vacuum from thermionic electron emitting sources, this type of discharge creates electrons directly in soft vacuum by secondary electron emission from cold cathode surfaces following the bombardment of the cathode surface by fast ions and neutral atoms. Factors influencing the efficient electron emission from cold cathodes are presented with emphasis on cathode materials. Sintered ceramic-metal cathodes and oxide-coated cathodes are presented, both of which can produce high power, efficiently generated, d.c. electron beams with discharge currents up to 1 amp (∼130 mA/cm 2 ) at volt ages of up to 6 kV. Novel cathode designs and discharge geometries are presented with specific emphasis on both self-focussed beams emitted from circular cathodes and line-source electron beams emitted from rectangular cathodes forming a thin sheet of electrons. Electrostatically focussed line-source electron beams are spatially characterized by experimentally measuring the effect of discharge parameters and cathode design upon the focussed beam width, focal point, and uniformity. This is achieved by scanning a current collecting detector in three dimensions in order to profile the distribution of electron beam current. Discharge electron beams are further characterized by their electron energy distribution. Measured electron flux energy distributions of transmitted beam electrons in the negative glow are compared to theoretical models. The relative effects of elastic and inelastic collisions mechanisms upon both the overall form and detailed structure of the energy distribution are discussed

  15. Boundary Effect of Planar Glow Dielectric Barrier Discharge and Its Influence on the Discharge Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shaowei; Li Lulu; Ouyang Jiting

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in the glow regime in neon has been investigated by experiment and two-dimensional (2D) fluid modeling. The discharge was carried out in a planar DBD system with segmented-electrodes driven by square-wave voltage. The results show that the glow DBD originates in the center of the electrode and expands outward to the electrode edge during each half cycle of the voltage, forming a radial structure. The discharge decays firstly in the inner area but sustains longer in the edge area, showing a reversed discharge area. The discharge cannot completely cover the entire electrode surface, but remains a border of non- or weak discharge. The fluid modeling shows a similar result in agreement with the experiments. The simulations indicate that the electric field in the edge area is distorted due to the boundary effect so that the electric field and charge distribution are different from that in the inner part. The distorted field reduces the longitudinal component near the edge and causes the local field to be lower than that in the center, and hence makes the discharge behindhand. It also induces a transverse field that makes the discharge extend radially outward to the edge. The boundary effect plays an important role in the glow DBD structure. (paper)

  16. Discharge current characteristics as an 'electrical method' for glow discharge plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, M.; Paraschivescu, Alina; Morminches, Anisoara

    2001-01-01

    In its simplest form, the glow discharge can be established by passing an electric current through gas between two electrodes. The gas and the electrodes are contained in an insulating envelope. In many technological applications, and not only, the plasma devices are often treated like a black box. There is a series of external parameters or control variables which can be adjusted to obtain a desired effect, namely, the operating voltage, gas pressure, gas nature, gas flow rate, magnetic field strength and magnetic field configuration, electric field geometry, interelectrode distance, and cathode characteristics. The discharge current can be controlled by each of the above control variables. The core idea of this work is the following: a lot of information about the phenomena from the discharge volume, at electrodes or at the discharge bounding wall surface, can be obtained knowing how the change of one of the control parameters influences the discharge current. The following regimes were analyzed: dark discharges (background ionization, saturation regime, Townsend regime, corona regime), glow discharge (the normal and abnormal discharge) and arc discharge (glow to arc transition, non-thermal arcs, thermal arcs). It was concluded that the nonlinearity in the shape of the discharge current characteristics as a function of an external control parameter, can be correlated with the elementary processes and the dynamics of different space charge structures generated in plasma devices. (authors)

  17. Studies on the Electrical Characteristics of a DC Glow Discharge by Using Langmuir Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaai, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.; Muniandy, S. V.; Smith, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of a DC glow discharge are studied with the aim of determining the suitable parameters for stable operation of the dusty plasma system. The presence of dust particles in plasma significantly alters the charged particle equilibrium in the plasma and leads to various phenomena. Argon plasma produced by DC glow discharge is investigated with a further goal of studying dusty plasma phenomena. The discharge system has two disc-shaped parallel plate electrodes. The electrodes are enclosed in a large cylindrical stainless steel chamber filled with argon gas. Two important physical parameters affecting the condition of the discharge are the gas pressure and the inter-electrode distance. A single Langmuir probe based on the Keithley source meter is used to determine the electron temperature of the positive column. A custom designed probe is employed to determine the potential distribution between the electrodes during the discharge. The I-V characteristic curve and the Langmuir probe measurement are then used to determine the electron energy distribution of the glow discharge plasma.

  18. Particle control in DIII-D with helium glow discharge conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.L.; Taylor, T.S.; Taylor, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Helium glow discharge conditioning of DIII-D is routinely used before every tokamak discharge to desorb hydrogen from the graphite tiles, which are the plasma facing surfaces for the floor, inner wall and top of the vessel. In addition to reducing hydrogen fuelling of the plasma by the graphite surfaces, helium glow discharges are also effective in removing low-Z impurities, primarily in the form of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and this has permitted higher current divertor operation and more rapid recovery from tokamak disruptions. Since the implementation of repetitive helium glow wall conditioning, the parameter space in which tokamak discharges in DIII-D can be obtained has been expanded to include the first observations of limiter H-mode confinement, the Ohmic H-mode with periods of up to 150 ms that are free of edge localized modes, more reliable low q operation with volume averaged beta of up to 9.3%, improved control over locked modes and plasma discharges at lower electron density. (author). 37 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  19. Application of Glow Curve Deconvolution Method to Evaluate Low Dose TLD LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, E; Oetami, H R; Mutiah

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD), especially LiF:Mg, Ti material, is one of the most practical personal dosimeter in known to date. Dose measurement under 100 uGy using TLD reader is very difficult in high precision level. The software application is used to improve the precision of the TLD reader. The objectives of the research is to compare three Tl-glow curve analysis method irradiated in the range between 5 up to 250 uGy. The first method is manual analysis, dose information is obtained from the area under the glow curve between pre selected temperature limits, and background signal is estimated by a second readout following the first readout. The second method is deconvolution method, separating glow curve into four peaks mathematically and dose information is obtained from area of peak 5, and background signal is eliminated computationally. The third method is deconvolution method but the dose is represented by the sum of area of peak 3,4 and 5. The result shown that the sum of peak 3,4 and 5 method can improve reproducibility six times better than manual analysis for dose 20 uGy, the ability to reduce MMD until 10 uGy rather than 60 uGy with manual analysis or 20 uGy with peak 5 area method. In linearity, the sum of peak 3,4 and 5 method yields exactly linear dose response curve over the entire dose range

  20. Micro glow plasma for localized nanostructural modification of carbon nanotube forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, Mirza Saquib us; Xiao, Zhiming; Saleh, Tanveer; Nojeh, Alireza; Takahata, Kenichi [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2016-08-22

    This paper reports the localized selective treatment of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, or CNT forests, for radial size modification of the nanotubes through a micro-scale glow plasma established on the material. An atmospheric-pressure DC glow plasma is shown to be stably sustained on the surface of the CNT forest in argon using micromachined tungsten electrodes with diameters down to 100 μm. Experiments reveal thinning or thickening of the nanotubes under the micro glow depending on the process conditions including discharge current and process time. These thinning and thickening effects in the treated nanotubes are measured to be up to ∼30% and ∼300% in their diameter, respectively, under the tested conditions. The elemental and Raman analyses suggest that the treated region of the CNT forest is pure carbon and maintains a degree of crystallinity. The local plasma treatment process investigated may allow modification of material characteristics in different domains for targeted regions or patterns, potentially aiding custom design of micro-electro-mechanical systems and other emerging devices enabled by the CNT forest.

  1. Low-pressure glow discharges with oscillating electrons in different electrode systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersenev, V.V.; Gavriolv, N.V.; Nikulin, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main applications of low - pressure glow discharges is the development on their basis of charged - particle beam sources. The use of glow discharges with oscillating electrons, which can operate stably in the voltage and pressure range to the left of the left branch of Pashen's curve, shows promise, because the decrease in critical pressure p 0 , below which the discharge operation becomes impossible, in the discharge system of a source promotes an increase in the electrical strength of its accelerating system. This, in its turn, makes possible the expansion of the operation range of accelerating voltages. This experimental investigation of glow discharges in such well - known systems with oscillating electrons, as Hollow Cathode (HC), Penning's System (PS) and Inverse Magnetron (IM), is aimed at revealing the system operating at the lowest pressure. Besides, both common features and peculiarities of discharge operation in these systems are discussed. Though there is an extensive amount of published information covering all the specified discharges, the carrying out of such investigation is justified, since a comparative analysis of results obtained by different authors is hampered by various conditions of their experiments

  2. The impact of molecular emission in compositional depth profiling using Glow Discharge-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtson, Arne

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate and discuss how molecular emission can affect elemental analysis in glow discharge optical emission (GD-OES), particularly in compositional depth profiling (CDP) applications. Older work on molecular emission in glow discharges is briefly reviewed, and the nature of molecular emission spectra described. Work on the influence of hydrogen in the plasma, in particular elevated background due to a continuum spectrum, is discussed. More recent work from sputtering of polymers and other materials with a large content of light elements in a Grimm type source is reviewed, where substantial emission has been observed from several light diatomic molecules (CO, CH, OH, NH, C 2 ). It is discussed how the elevated backgrounds from such molecular emission can lead to significant analytical errors in the form of 'false' depth profile signals of several atomic analytical lines. Results from a recent investigation of molecular emission spectra from mixed gases in a Grimm type glow discharge are presented. An important observation is that dissociation and subsequent recombination processes occur, leading to formation of molecular species not present in the original plasma gas. Experimental work on depth profiling of a polymer coating and a thin silicate film, using a spectrometer equipped with channels for molecular emission lines, is presented. The results confirm that molecular emission gives rise to apparent depth profiles of elements not present in the sample. The possibilities to make adequate corrections for such molecular emission in CDP of organic coatings and very thin films are discussed

  3. Methane Conversion to C2 Hydrocarbons by Abnormal Glow Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wei; Yu Hui; Chen Qi; Yin Yongxiang; Dai Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    Methane conversion to C 2 hydrocarbons has been investigated with the addition of hydrogen in a plasma reactor of abnormal glow discharge at atmospheric pressure. The aim of this experiment is to minimize coke formation and improve discharge stability. The typical conditions in the experiment are 300 ml of total feed flux and 400 W of discharge power. The experimental results show that methane conversion is from 91.6% to 35.2% in mol, acetylene selectivity is from 90.2% to 57.6%, and ethylene selectivity is approximately from 7.8% to 3.6%, where the coke increases gradually along with the increase of CH 4 /H 2 from 2: 8 to 9: 1. A stable discharge for a considerable running time can be obtained only at a lower ratio of CH 4 /H 2 2: 8 or 3: 7. These phenomena indicate that the coke deposition during methane conversion is obviously reduced by adding a large amount of hydrogen during an abnormal glow discharge. A qualitative interpretation is presented, namely, with abundant hydrogen, the possibility that hydrogen molecules are activated to hydrogen radicals is increased with the help of the abnormal glow discharge. These hydrogen radicals react with carbon radicals to form C 2 hydrocarbon products. Therefore, the deposition of coke is restrained

  4. Fit of second order thermoluminescence glow peaks using the logistic distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, V.; Kitis, G.

    2001-01-01

    A new thermoluminescence glow curve deconvolution (GCD) function is introduced which accurately describes second order thermoluminescence (TL) curves. The logistic asymmetric (LA) statistical probability function is used with the function variables being the maximum peak intensity (I m ), the temperature of the maximum peak intensity (T m ) and the LA width parameter a 2 . An analytical expression is derived from which the activation energy E can be calculated as a function of T m and the LA width parameter a 2 with an accuracy of 2% or better. The accuracy of the fit was tested for E values ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 eV, for s values between 10 5 and 10 25 s -1 , and for trap occupation number n 0 /N between 1 and 10 -6 . The goodness of fit of the logistic asymmetric function is described by the Figure of Merit (FOM) which is found to be of the order of 10 -2 . Preliminary results show that the GCD described here can easily be extended to the description of general order TL glow curves by varying the asymmetry parameter of the logistic asymmetric function. It is concluded that the TL kinetic analysis of first, second and general order TL glow curves can be performed with high accuracy and speed by using commercially available statistical packages that incorporate the Weibull and logistic asymmetric functions. (author)

  5. A comparison of hydrogen vs. helium glow discharge effects on fusion device first-wall conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1989-09-01

    Hydrogen- and deuterium-fueled glow discharges are used for the initial conditioning of magnetic fusion device vacuum vessels following evacuation from atmospheric pressure. Hydrogenic glow discharge conditioning (GDC) significantly reduces the near-surface concentration of simple adsorbates, such as H 2 O, CO, and CH 4 , and lowers ion-induced desorption coefficients by typically three orders of magnitude. The time evolution of the residual gas production observed during hydrogen-glow discharge conditioning of the carbon first-wall structure of the TFTR device is similar to the time evolution observed during hydrogen GDC of the initial first-wall configuration in TFTR, which was primarily stainless steel. Recently, helium GDC has been investigated for several wall-conditioning tasks on a number of tokamaks including TFTR. Helium GDC shows negligible impurity removal with stainless steel walls. For impurity conditioning with carbon walls, helium GDC shows significant desorption of H 2 O, CO, and CO 2 ; however, the total desorption yield is limited to the monolayer range. In addition, helium GDC can be used to displace hydrogen isotopes from the near-surface region of carbon first-walls in order to lower hydrogenic retention and recycling. 38 refs., 6 figs

  6. An Investigation of LED Street Lighting's Impact on Sky Glow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kocifaj, Miroslav [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Aube, Martin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lamphar, Hector A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-25

    A significant amount of public attention has recently focused on perceived impacts of converting street lighting from incumbent lamp-based products to LED technology. Much of this attention pertains to the higher content of short wavelength light (commonly referred to as "blue light") of LEDs and its attendant influences on sky glow (a brightening of the night sky that can interfere with astronomical observation and may be associated with a host of other issues). The complexity of this topic leads to common misunderstandings and misperceptions among the public, and for this reason the U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program embarked on a study of sky glow using a well-established astronomical model to investigate some of the primary factors influencing sky glow. This report details the results of the investigation and attempts to present those results in terms accessible to the general lighting community. The report also strives to put the results into a larger context, and help educate interested readers on various topics relevant to the issues being discussed.

  7. Characterization of the large area plane-symmetric low-pressure DC glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtaeva, S.; Gorokhovsky, V.; Myers, S.; Robertson, S.; Shunko, E.; Zembower, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Electron density and temperature as well as nitrogen dissociation degree in the low-pressure (10-50 mTorr) large area plane-symmetric DC glow discharge in Ar-N2 mixtures are studied by probes and spectral methods. Electron density measured by a hairpin probe is in good agreement with that derived from the intensity ratio of the N2 2nd positive system bands IC, 1 - 3/IC, 0 - 2 and from the intensity ratio of argon ions and atom lines IArII/IArI, while Langmuir probe data provides slightly higher values of electron density. Electron density in the low-pressure DC glow discharge varies with the discharge conditions in the limits of 108-1010 cm- 3. The concept of electron temperature can be used in low-pressure glow discharges with reservations. The intensity ratio of (0-0) vibrational bands of N2 1st negative and 2nd positive systems I391.4/I337.1 exhibits the electron temperature of 1.5-2.5 eV when argon fraction in the mixture is higher than nitrogen fraction and this ratio quickly increases with nitrogen fraction up to 10 eV in pure nitrogen. The electron temperature calculated from Langmuir probe I-V characteristics assuming a Maxwellian EEDF, gives Te 0.3-0.4 eV. In-depth analysis of the EEDF using the second derivative of Langmuir probe I-V characteristics shows that in a low-pressure glow discharge the EEDF is non-Maxwellian. The EEDF has two populations of electrons: the main background non-Maxwellian population of ;cold; electrons with the mean electron energy of 0.3-0.4 eV and the small Maxwellian population of ;hot; electrons with the mean electron energy of 1.0-2.5 eV. Estimations show that with electron temperature lower than 1 eV the rate of the direct electron impact ionization of N2 is low and the main mechanism of N2 ionization becomes most likely Penning and associative ionization. In this case, assumptions of the intensity ratio IN2+, 391/IN2, 337 method are violated. In the glow discharge, N2 dissociation degree reaches about 7% with the argon

  8. The Video Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Video games are neither neutral nor harmless but represent very specific social and symbolic constructs. Research on the social content of today's video games reveals that sex bias and gender stereotyping are widely evident throughout the Nintendo games. Violence and aggression also pervade the great majority of the games. (MLF)

  9. SECRETS OF SONG VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the song videos as TV and Internet-genre. In addition, it considers problems of screen images creation depending on the musical form and the text of a songs in connection with relevant principles of accent and phraseological video editing and filming techniques as well as with additional frames and sound elements.

  10. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  11. Videos - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legislative Liaison Small Business Programs Social Media State Websites Videos Featured Videos On Every Front 2:17 Always Ready, Always There National Guard Bureau Diversity and Inclusion Play Button 1:04 National Guard Bureau Diversity and Inclusion The ChalleNGe Ep.5 [Graduation] Play Button 3:51 The

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... member of our patient care team. Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression ...

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  14. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ... *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the ...

  15. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  16. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  17. Online video examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    have large influence on their own teaching, learning and curriculum. The programme offers streamed videos in combination with other learning resources. It is a concept which offers video as pure presentation - video lectures - but also as an instructional tool which gives the students the possibility...... to construct their knowledge, collaboration and communication. In its first years the programme has used Skype video communication for collaboration and communication within and between groups, group members and their facilitators. Also exams have been mediated with the help of Skype and have for all students......, examiners and external examiners been a challenge and opportunity and has brought new knowledge and experience. This paper brings results from a questionnaire focusing on how the students experience the video examination....

  18. Communicating global cardiovascular risk: are icon arrays better than numerical estimates in improving understanding, recall and perception of risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Andrade, Allen D; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Anam, Ramanakumar; Rodriguez, Remberto; Sharit, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Experts recommend that adults have their global cardiovascular risk assessed. We investigated whether icon arrays increase understanding, recall, perception of CVR, and behavioral intent as compared with numerical information. Male outpatient veterans, at an intermediate to high cardiovascular risk participated in a randomized controlled trial of a computer tutorial presenting individualized risk. Message format was presented in 3 formats: percentages, frequencies, and frequencies with icon arrays. We assessed understanding immediately (T1) and recall at 20 min (T2) and 2 weeks (T3) after the intervention. We assessed perceptions of importance/seriousness, intent to adhere, and self-efficacy at T1. Self-reported adherence was assessed at T3. One-hundred and twenty male veterans participated. Age, education, race, health literacy and numeracy were comparable at baseline. There were no differences in understanding at T1 [p = .31] and recall at T3 [p = .10]. Accuracy was inferior with frequencies with icon arrays than percentages or frequencies at T2 [p ≤ .001]. There were no differences in perception of seriousness and importance for heart disease, behavioral intent, self-efficacy, actual adherence and satisfaction. Icon arrays may impair short-term recall of CVR. Icon arrays will not necessarily result in better understanding and recall of medical risk in all patients. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Analysis of glow curves of TL readouts of CaSO4:Dy teflon based TLD badge in semiautomatic TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, S.M.; Sneha, C.; Adtani, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The facility of glow curve storage and recall provided in the reader software is helpful for manual screening of the glow curves; however no further analysis is possible due to absence of numerical TL data at the sampling intervals. In the present study glow curves are digitized by modifying the reader software and then normalized to make them independent of the dose. The normalized glow curves are then analyzed by dividing them into five equal parts on time scale. This method of analysis is used to correlate the variation of total TL counts of the three discs with time elapsed post irradiation

  20. Design and usability study of an iconic user interface to ease information retrieval of medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, Nicolas; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Hamek, Saliha; Hassler, Sylvain; Boog, César; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Venot, Alain; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2014-10-01

    Doc'CISMeF (DC) is a semantic search engine used to find resources in CISMeF-BP, a quality controlled health gateway, which gathers guidelines available on the internet in French. Visualization of Concepts in Medicine (VCM) is an iconic language that may ease information retrieval tasks. This study aimed to describe the creation and evaluation of an interface integrating VCM in DC in order to make this search engine much easier to use. Focus groups were organized to suggest ways to enhance information retrieval tasks using VCM in DC. A VCM interface was created and improved using the ergonomic evaluation approach. 20 physicians were recruited to compare the VCM interface with the non-VCM one. Each evaluator answered two different clinical scenarios in each interface. The ability and time taken to select a relevant resource were recorded and compared. A usability analysis was performed using the System Usability Scale (SUS). The VCM interface contains a filter based on icons, and icons describing each resource according to focus group recommendations. Some ergonomic issues were resolved before evaluation. Use of VCM significantly increased the success of information retrieval tasks (OR=11; 95% CI 1.4 to 507). Nonetheless, it took significantly more time to find a relevant resource with VCM interface (101 vs 65 s; p=0.02). SUS revealed 'good' usability with an average score of 74/100. VCM was successfully implemented in DC as an option. It increased the success rate of information retrieval tasks, despite requiring slightly more time, and was well accepted by end-users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The bay of Cattaro (Kotor school of icon-painting 1680-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on post-Byzantine tradition, eleven painters from five generations of the Dimitrijević-Rafailović family, accompanied by Maksim Tujković, painted several thousand icons and several hundred iconostases between the late seventeenth and the second half of the nineteenth century. They worked in major Orthodox Christian monasteries in Montenegro, Kosovo and Metohija, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Dalmatia, but their works can mostly be found in modest village churches in the Bay of Kotor (Cattaro and on the South Adriatic coast. The decoration of these churches was financially supported by the local population headed by elders. Along with a reconstruction of their biographies and a chronological overview of their major works, this paper seeks to trace stylistic changes in the Bay of Kotor school of icon-painting. While simply varying a thematic repertory established in earlier periods, the painters from the Bay of Kotor were gradually introducing new details and themes adopted from Western European Baroque art under indirect influences coming from the monastery of Hilandar, Corfu, Venice and Russia. This process makes this indigenous school of icon-painting, which spanned almost two centuries, comparable to the work of Serbian traditional religious painters (zografs and illuminators active north of the Sava and Danube rivers after the Great Migration of the Serbs (1690. Despite differences between the two, which resulted from different cultural and historical circumstances in which Serbs lived under Ottoman, Venetian and Habsburg rules, similarities in iconography and style, which were inspired by an urge to counteract proselytic pressures, are considerably more important.

  2. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  3. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  4. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  5. Medical video server construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dańda, Jacek; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Loziak, Krzysztof; Papir, Zdzisław; Sikora, Marek; Watza, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses two implementation options for a Digital Video Library, a repository used for archiving, accessing, and browsing of video medical records. Two crucial issues to be decided on are a video compression format and a video streaming platform. The paper presents numerous decision factors that have to be taken into account. The compression formats being compared are DICOM as a format representative for medical applications, both MPEGs, and several new formats targeted for an IP networking. The comparison includes transmission rates supported, compression rates, and at least options for controlling a compression process. The second part of the paper presents the ISDN technique as a solution for provisioning of tele-consultation services between medical parties that are accessing resources uploaded to a digital video library. There are several backbone techniques (like corporate LANs/WANs, leased lines or even radio/satellite links) available, however, the availability of network resources for hospitals was the prevailing choice criterion pointing to ISDN solutions. Another way to provide access to the Digital Video Library is based on radio frequency domain solutions. The paper describes possibilities of both, wireless and cellular network's data transmission service to be used as a medical video server transport layer. For the cellular net-work based solution two communication techniques are used: Circuit Switched Data and Packet Switched Data.

  6. Occipital nerve stimulation in medically intractable, chronic cluster headache. The ICON study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Teernstra, Onno Pm; Haan, Joost

    2013-01-01

    study is performed. DISCUSSION: The ICON study will show if ONS is an effective preventive therapy for patients suffering medically intractable chronic cluster headache and if there is a difference between high- and low-amplitude stimulation. The innovative design of the study will, for the first time......BACKGROUND: About 10% of cluster headache patients have the chronic form. At least 10% of this chronic group is intractable to or cannot tolerate medical treatment. Open pilot studies suggest that occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) might offer effective prevention in these patients. Controlled...

  7. The icon of defeat: the 7x1 construction by visual plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Cassiano Casagrande

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the 7x1 defeat of the Brazilian team in the football World Cup 2014 by the plasticity of the image. Plastic forces acting on the image analyzed by Villafañe (2000, Arnheim (1988 and Kandinsky (1997 reconstructed the fact itself. The analysis becomes more evident the strategic collaboration of the images used in newspaper front pages, in the formation of the general directions that newspaper text intends and shows the flexibility of the iconic to represent the real through visual elements such as color, point, textures and dimension.

  8. Cells from icons to symbols: molecularizing cell biology in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpente, Norberto

    2011-12-01

    Over centuries cells have been the target of optical and electronic microscopes as well as others technologies, with distinctive types of visual output. Whilst optical technologies produce images 'evident to the eye', the electronic and especially the molecular create images that are more elusive to conceptualization and assessment. My study applies the semiotic approach to the production of images in cell biology to capture the shift from microscopic images to non-traditional visual technologies around 1980. Here I argue that the visual shift that coincides with the growing dominance of molecular biology involves a change from iconic to symbolic forms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient care information systems and physicians: the transition from technology icon to health care instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, W F

    1993-11-01

    We have discussed several important transitions now occurring in PCIS that promise to improve the utility and availability of these systems for the average physician. Charles Babbage developed the first computers as "thinking machines" so that we may extend our ability to grapple with more and more complex problems. If current trends continue, we will finally witness the evolution of patient care computing from information icons of the few to clinical instruments improving the quality of medical decision making and care for all patients.

  10. Smartcuts: how hackers, innovators, and icons accelerate success by Shane Snow

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Ivo Dias de

    2015-01-01

    Recensão crítica da obra de Shane Snow, “Smartcuts: how hackers, innovators, and icons accelerate success” , 2015 I think “Smartcuts” is one of the best 2014 books about success. It is a well-written and thought provoking book that makes you think about success in new ways. If you are stuck in your professional life or other areas of your life, this book can give you excellent advice. The book develops its argument based on scientific studies and a plethora of stories of success (like Jimm...

  11. The icon of defeat: the 7x1 construction by visual plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Magnos Cassiano Casagrande; Fabiano Maggioni

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the 7x1 defeat of the Brazilian team in the football World Cup 2014 by the plasticity of the image. Plastic forces acting on the image analyzed by Villafañe (2000), Arnheim (1988) and Kandinsky (1997) reconstructed the fact itself. The analysis becomes more evident the strategic collaboration of the images used in newspaper front pages, in the formation of the general directions that newspaper text intends and shows the flexibility of the iconic to represent the real th...

  12. 'Iconic' tracking algorithms for high energy physics using the TRAX-I massively parallel processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergombi, G.

    1989-11-01

    TRAX-I, a cost-effective parallel microcomputer, applying Associative String Processor (ASP) architecture with 16 K parallel processing elements, is being built by Aspex Microsystems Ltd. (UK). When applied to the tracking problem of very complex events with several hundred tracks, the large number of processors allows one to dedicate one or more processors to each wire (in MWPC), each pixel (in digitized images from streamer chambers or other visual detectors), or each pad (in TPC) to perform very efficient pattern recognition. Some linear tracking algorithms based on this 'iconic' representation are presented. (orig.)

  13. Camera network video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rameswar; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K.

    2017-05-01

    Networks of vision sensors are deployed in many settings, ranging from security needs to disaster response to environmental monitoring. Many of these setups have hundreds of cameras and tens of thousands of hours of video. The difficulty of analyzing such a massive volume of video data is apparent whenever there is an incident that requires foraging through vast video archives to identify events of interest. As a result, video summarization, that automatically extract a brief yet informative summary of these videos, has attracted intense attention in the recent years. Much progress has been made in developing a variety of ways to summarize a single video in form of a key sequence or video skim. However, generating a summary from a set of videos captured in a multi-camera network still remains as a novel and largely under-addressed problem. In this paper, with the aim of summarizing videos in a camera network, we introduce a novel representative selection approach via joint embedding and capped l21-norm minimization. The objective function is two-fold. The first is to capture the structural relationships of data points in a camera network via an embedding, which helps in characterizing the outliers and also in extracting a diverse set of representatives. The second is to use a capped l21-norm to model the sparsity and to suppress the influence of data outliers in representative selection. We propose to jointly optimize both of the objectives, such that embedding can not only characterize the structure, but also indicate the requirements of sparse representative selection. Extensive experiments on standard multi-camera datasets well demonstrate the efficacy of our method over state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Video frame processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.M.; Agashe, Alok; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides technical description regarding the Video Frame Processor (VFP) developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The instrument provides capture of video images available in CCIR format. Two memory planes each with a capacity of 512 x 512 x 8 bit data enable storage of two video image frames. The stored image can be processed on-line and on-line image subtraction can also be carried out for image comparisons. The VFP is a PC Add-on board and is I/O mapped within the host IBM PC/AT compatible computer. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 19 photographs

  15. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in

  16. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  17. Collaborative Video Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Birgitte; Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Hautopp, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces to what we define as a collaborative video sketching process. This process links various sketching techniques with digital storytelling approaches and creative reflection processes in video productions. Traditionally, sketching has been used by designers across various...... findings: 1) They are based on a collaborative approach. 2) The sketches act as a mean to externalizing hypotheses and assumptions among the participants. Based on our analysis we present an overview of factors involved in collaborative video sketching and shows how the factors relate to steps, where...... the participants: shape, record, review and edit their work, leading the participants to new insights about their work....

  18. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio.......This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...

  19. Iconic Native Culture Cues Inhibit Second Language Production in a Non-immigrant Population: Evidence from Bengali-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Kesaban S; Prasad, Seema G; Mishra, Ramesh K

    2016-01-01

    We examined if iconic pictures belonging to one's native culture interfere with second language production in bilinguals in an object naming task. Bengali-English bilinguals named pictures in both L1 and L2 against iconic cultural images representing Bengali culture or neutral images. Participants named in both "Blocked" and "Mixed" language conditions. In both conditions, participants were significantly slower in naming in English when the background was an iconic Bengali culture picture than a neutral image. These data suggest that native language culture cues lead to activation of the L1 lexicon that competed against L2 words creating an interference. These results provide further support to earlier observations where such culture related interference has been observed in bilingual language production. We discuss the results in the context of cultural influence on the psycholinguistic processes in bilingual object naming.

  20. Irradiation of silver and agar/silver nanoparticles with argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A; El-Maaref, A A; Rawway, Mohammed; Shaaban, Essam R

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation effect of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp on silver and agar/silver nanoparticle samples is studied. The irradiation time dependence of the synthesized silver and agar/silver nanoparticle absorption spectra and their antibacterial effect are studied and compared. In the agar/silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity and the full width at half maximum, FWHM, of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however a decrease of the peak intensity with oxygen glow plasma has been observed. In the silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however, there is no significant change in the FWHM of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band. The SEM results for both samples showed nanoparticle formation with mean size about 50 nm and 40 nm respectively. Throughout the irradiation time with the argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp, the antibacterial activity of several kinds of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been examined.

  1. Analytical Expressions for the Mixed-Order Kinetics Parameters of TL Glow Peaks Based on the two Heating Rates Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Mufeed; Al-Abdullah, Tariq; Khattari, Ziad

    2018-03-24

    The two heating rates method (originally developed for first-order glow peaks) was used for the first time to evaluate the activation energy (E) from glow peaks obeying mixed-order (MO) kinetics. The derived expression for E has an insignificant additional term (on the scale of a few meV) when compared with the first-order case. Hence, the original expression for E using the two heating rates method can be used with excellent accuracy in the case of MO glow peaks. In addition, we derived a simple analytical expression for the MO parameter. The present procedure has the advantage that the MO parameter can now be evaluated using analytical expression instead of using the graphical representation between the geometrical factor and the MO parameter as given by the existing peak shape methods. The applicability of the derived expressions for real samples was demonstrated for the glow curve of Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Mn single crystal. The obtained parameters compare very well with those obtained by glow curve fitting and with the available published data.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties testing of the Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcia Rodrigues; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Delbaere, Kim; Eto, Bianca Yumie; Faria, Maíra Sgobbi; Aoyagi, Giovana Ayumi; Steffens, Daniel; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2018-02-14

    The Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES) is an innovative tool to assess concern of falling that uses pictures as visual cues to provide more complete environmental contexts. Advantages of Icon-FES over previous scales include the addition of more demanding balance-related activities, ability to assess concern about falling in highly functioning older people, and its normal distribution. To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to assess the measurement properties of the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES in a community-dwelling Brazilian older population. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the recommendations of international guidelines. We evaluated the measurement properties (i.e. internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility, standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change, construct validity, ceiling/floor effect, data distribution and discriminative validity), in 100 community-dwelling people aged ≥60 years. The 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES-Brazil showed good internal consistency (alpha and omega >0.70) and excellent intra-rater reproducibility (ICC 2,1 =0.96 and 0.93, respectively). According to the standard error of the measurement and minimal detectable change, the magnitude of change needed to exceed the measurement error and variability were 7.2 and 3.4 points for the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES, respectively. We observed an excellent correlation between both versions of the Icon-FES and Falls Efficacy Scale - International (rho=0.83, pmeasurement properties to evaluate concern about falling among the community-dwelling older population. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Gait, Balance and Falls in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Coping ... Library is an extensive collection of books, fact sheets, videos, podcasts, and more. To get started, use ...

  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords World Language Videos Questions to ask Choosing ... Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation ...

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 8211 info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video English English Arabic Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese ( ...

  6. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

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    Full Text Available ... Care Disease Types FAQ Handout for Patients and Families Is It Right for You How to Get ... For the Media For Clinicians For Policymakers For Family Caregivers Glossary Menu In this section Links Videos ...

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    Full Text Available ... patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing ... Back Community Patient Stories Share Your Story Video Stories Caregivers Milestones Gallery Submit Your Milestone Team ANA Volunteer ...

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    Full Text Available ... Support Groups Is a support group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery ... Support ANetwork Peer Support Program Community Connections Overview Find a Meeting Host a Meeting Volunteer Become a ...

  9. Photos and Videos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observers are required to take photos and/or videos of all incidentally caught sea turtles, marine mammals, seabirds and unusual or rare fish. On the first 3...

  10. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree Parkway Suite 108 ... About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video English English ...

  11. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

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    Full Text Available ... Search Search What Is It Definition Pediatric Palliative Care Disease Types FAQ Handout for Patients and Families ... For Family Caregivers Glossary Resources Browse our palliative care resources below: Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the ...

  12. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree Parkway ... ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video ...

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video English English Arabic Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese ( ...

  14. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

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    Full Text Available ... to your Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts ... to your Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Provider Directory Donate Resources ...

  15. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  16. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

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    Full Text Available ... the Media For Clinicians For Policymakers For Family Caregivers Glossary Menu In this section Links Videos Podcasts ... the Media For Clinicians For Policymakers For Family Caregivers Glossary Resources Browse our palliative care resources below: ...

  17. Boltzmann statistical consideration on the excitation mechanism of iron atomic lines emitted from glow discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2011-01-01

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron atomic lines having excitation energies of 3.3–6.9 eV was investigated in glow discharge plasmas when argon or neon was employed as the plasma gas. The plot did not show a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but showed that the emission lines having higher excitation energies largely deviated from a normal Boltzmann distribution whereas those having low excitation energies (3.3–4.3 eV) well followed it. This result would be derived from an overpopulation among the corresponding energy levels. A probable reason for this is that excitations for the high-lying excited levels would be caused predominantly through a Penning-type collision with the metastable atom of argon or neon, followed by recombination with an electron and then stepwise de-excitations which can populate the excited energy levels just below the ionization limit of iron atom. The non-thermal excitation occurred more actively in the argon plasma rather than the neon plasma, because of a difference in the number density between the argon and the neon metastables. The Boltzmann plots yields important information on the reason why lots of Fe I lines assigned to high-lying excited levels can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas. - Highlights: ► This paper shows the excitation mechanism of Fe I lines from a glow discharge plasma. ► A Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron lines of various excitation levels. ► We find an overpopulation of the high-lying energy levels from the normal distribution. ► It is caused through Penning-type collision of iron atom with argon metastable atom.

  18. Boltzmann statistical consideration on the excitation mechanism of iron atomic lines emitted from glow discharge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2011-11-15

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron atomic lines having excitation energies of 3.3-6.9 eV was investigated in glow discharge plasmas when argon or neon was employed as the plasma gas. The plot did not show a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but showed that the emission lines having higher excitation energies largely deviated from a normal Boltzmann distribution whereas those having low excitation energies (3.3-4.3 eV) well followed it. This result would be derived from an overpopulation among the corresponding energy levels. A probable reason for this is that excitations for the high-lying excited levels would be caused predominantly through a Penning-type collision with the metastable atom of argon or neon, followed by recombination with an electron and then stepwise de-excitations which can populate the excited energy levels just below the ionization limit of iron atom. The non-thermal excitation occurred more actively in the argon plasma rather than the neon plasma, because of a difference in the number density between the argon and the neon metastables. The Boltzmann plots yields important information on the reason why lots of Fe I lines assigned to high-lying excited levels can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper shows the excitation mechanism of Fe I lines from a glow discharge plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron lines of various excitation levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find an overpopulation of the high-lying energy levels from the normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is caused through Penning-type collision of iron atom with argon metastable atom.

  19. The impact of molecular emission in compositional depth profiling using Glow Discharge-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtson, Arne [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, Dr. Kristinas vaeg 48, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: arne.bengtson@kimab.com

    2008-09-15

    The scope of this paper is to investigate and discuss how molecular emission can affect elemental analysis in glow discharge optical emission (GD-OES), particularly in compositional depth profiling (CDP) applications. Older work on molecular emission in glow discharges is briefly reviewed, and the nature of molecular emission spectra described. Work on the influence of hydrogen in the plasma, in particular elevated background due to a continuum spectrum, is discussed. More recent work from sputtering of polymers and other materials with a large content of light elements in a Grimm type source is reviewed, where substantial emission has been observed from several light diatomic molecules (CO, CH, OH, NH, C{sub 2}). It is discussed how the elevated backgrounds from such molecular emission can lead to significant analytical errors in the form of 'false' depth profile signals of several atomic analytical lines. Results from a recent investigation of molecular emission spectra from mixed gases in a Grimm type glow discharge are presented. An important observation is that dissociation and subsequent recombination processes occur, leading to formation of molecular species not present in the original plasma gas. Experimental work on depth profiling of a polymer coating and a thin silicate film, using a spectrometer equipped with channels for molecular emission lines, is presented. The results confirm that molecular emission gives rise to apparent depth profiles of elements not present in the sample. The possibilities to make adequate corrections for such molecular emission in CDP of organic coatings and very thin films are discussed.

  20. Application of Radio-Frequency Plasma Glow Discharge to Removal of Uranium Dioxide from Metal Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that radio-frequency (rf) plasma glow discharge using NF 3 gas is an effective technique for the removal of uranium oxide from metal surfaces. The results of these experiments are analyzed to explain the measured dependence of the UO 2 removal or etch rate on the NF 3 gas pressure and the absorbed power in the plasma. The NF 3 gas pressure in the experiments was varied from 10.8 to 40 Pa, and the deposited power in the plasma was varied from 25 to 210 W. The UO 2 etch rate was strongly dependent on the absorbed power and, to a lesser extent, on the NF 3 pressure and decreased exponentially with immersion time. At 210 W and 17 Pa, all detectable UO 2 in the samples (∼10.6 mg each) was removed at the endpoint, whereas the initial etch rate was ∼3.11 μm/min. When the absorbed power was ≤50 W, however, the etch rate was initially ∼0.5 μg/min and almost zero at the endpoint, with UO 2 only partially etched. This self-limiting etching of UO 2 at low power is attributed to the formation of nonvolatile intermediates UF 2 , UF 3 , UF 4 , UF 5 , UO 2 F, and UO 2 F 2 on the surface. Analysis indicated that the accumulation of UF 6 and, to a lesser extent, O 2 near the surface partially contributed to the exponential decrease in the UO 2 etch rate with immersion time. Unlike fluorination with F 2 gas, etching of UO 2 using rf glow discharge is possible below 663 K. The average etch rates of the amorphous UO 2 in the NF 3 experiments are comparable to the peak values reported in other studies for crystalline UO 2 using CF 4 /O 2 glow discharge performed at ∼150 to 250 K higher sample temperatures