WorldWideScience

Sample records for video assessment remote

  1. Remote video assessment for missile launch facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.; Stewart, W.A.

    1995-07-01

    The widely dispersed, unmanned launch facilities (LFs) for land-based ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) currently do not have visual assessment capability for existing intrusion alarms. The security response force currently must assess each alarm on-site. Remote assessment will enhance manpower, safety, and security efforts. Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the USAF Electronic Systems Center to research, recommend, and demonstrate a cost-effective remote video assessment capability at missile LFs. The project`s charter was to provide: system concepts; market survey analysis; technology search recommendations; and operational hardware demonstrations for remote video assessment from a missile LF to a remote security center via a cost-effective transmission medium and without using visible, on-site lighting. The technical challenges of this project were to: analyze various video transmission media and emphasize using the existing missile system copper line which can be as long as 30 miles; accentuate and extremely low-cost system because of the many sites requiring system installation; integrate the video assessment system with the current LF alarm system; and provide video assessment at the remote sites with non-visible lighting.

  2. Comparative population assessments of Nautilus sp. in the Philippines, Australia, Fiji, and American Samoa using baited remote underwater video systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Barord

    Full Text Available The extant species of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda inhabit fore-reef slope environments across a large geographic area of the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. While many aspects of their biology and behavior are now well-documented, uncertainties concerning their current populations and ecological role in the deeper, fore-reef slope environments remain. Given the historical to current day presence of nautilus fisheries at various locales across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a comparative assessment of the current state of nautilus populations is critical to determine whether conservation measures are warranted. We used baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS to make quantitative photographic records as a means of estimating population abundance of Nautilus sp. at sites in the Philippine Islands, American Samoa, Fiji, and along an approximately 125 km transect on the fore reef slope of the Great Barrier Reef from east of Cairns to east of Lizard Island, Australia. Each site was selected based on its geography, historical abundance, and the presence (Philippines or absence (other sites of Nautilus fisheries The results from these observations indicate that there are significantly fewer nautiluses observable with this method in the Philippine Islands site. While there may be multiple possibilities for this difference, the most parsimonious is that the Philippine Islands population has been reduced due to fishing. When compared to historical trap records from the same site the data suggest there have been far more nautiluses at this site in the past. The BRUVS proved to be a valuable tool to measure Nautilus abundance in the deep sea (300-400 m while reducing our overall footprint on the environment.

  3. Assessing Caribbean Shallow and Mesophotic Reef Fish Communities Using Baited-Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Diver-Operated Video (DOV) Survey Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andradi-Brown, Dominic A; Macaya-Solis, Consuelo; Exton, Dan A; Gress, Erika; Wright, Georgina; Rogers, Alex D

    2016-01-01

    Fish surveys form the backbone of reef monitoring and management initiatives throughout the tropics, and understanding patterns in biases between techniques is crucial if outputs are to address key objectives optimally. Often biases are not consistent across natural environmental gradients such as depth, leading to uncertainty in interpretation of results. Recently there has been much interest in mesophotic reefs (reefs from 30-150 m depth) as refuge habitats from fishing pressure, leading to many comparisons of reef fish communities over depth gradients. Here we compare fish communities using stereo-video footage recorded via baited remote underwater video (BRUV) and diver-operated video (DOV) systems on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean. We show inconsistent responses across families, species and trophic groups between methods across the depth gradient. Fish species and family richness were higher using BRUV at both depth ranges, suggesting that BRUV is more appropriate for recording all components of the fish community. Fish length distributions were not different between methods on shallow reefs, yet BRUV recorded more small fish on mesophotic reefs. However, DOV consistently recorded greater relative fish community biomass of herbivores, suggesting that studies focusing on herbivores should consider using DOV. Our results highlight the importance of considering what component of reef fish community researchers and managers are most interested in surveying when deciding which survey technique to use across natural gradients such as depth.

  4. Diversity and composition of demersal fishes along a depth gradient assessed by baited remote underwater stereo-video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zintzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continental slopes are among the steepest environmental gradients on earth. However, they still lack finer quantification and characterisation of their faunal diversity patterns for many parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in fish community structure and diversity along a depth gradient from 50 to 1200 m were studied from replicated stereo baited remote underwater video deployments within each of seven depth zones at three locations in north-eastern New Zealand. Strong, but gradual turnover in the identities of species and community structure was observed with increasing depth. Species richness peaked in shallow depths, followed by a decrease beyond 100 m to a stable average value from 700 to 1200 m. Evenness increased to 700 m depth, followed by a decrease to 1200 m. Average taxonomic distinctness △(+ response was unimodal with a peak at 300 m. The variation in taxonomic distinctness Λ(+ first decreased sharply from 50 to 300 m, then increased beyond 500 m depth, indicating that species from deep samples belonged to more distant taxonomic groups than those from shallow samples. Fishes with northern distributions progressively decreased in their proportional representation with depth whereas those with widespread distributions increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first characterization of diversity patterns for bait-attracted fish species on continental slopes in New Zealand and is an imperative primary step towards development of explanatory and predictive ecological models, as well as being fundamental for the implementation of efficient management and conservation strategies for fishery resources.

  5. Remote video conferencing teaching from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Harold Ogren

    For those of us who are teaching at a university, coming to CERN for a week means that someone else has to be found to teach our course. Recently, thanks to an initiative of CERN's Education Group who in collaboration with the IT department have buit a Remote Video Conference (VC) room for outreach communication with schools, I have been able to test teaching class back home whilst at the same time being at CERN! On Monday October 5, at 16:00, (10:00 at Indiana University), I attempted my first remote class. Of course, I could not do this alone. Back in the main auditorium in the physics Department, Hal Evans and Fred Luehring had rolled in a portable teleconference center, set up lecture demos and started a class computer. At CERN, Knut Bjorkli had the teaching center teleconference screen active, and had also connected to my class website when I arrived. The first day startup was a bit rocky - there were fire wall problems (?) that required that we connect to the Indiana VC unit rather than the other way a...

  6. Telesurgery. Acceptability of compressed video for remote surgical proctoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, J R; Shabot, M M; Phillips, E H; Haines, R F; Grant, T L

    1996-04-01

    To determine the clinical acceptability of various levels of video compression for remote proctoring of laparoscopic surgical procedures. Observational, controlled study. Community-based teaching hospital. Physician and nurse observers. Controlled surgical video scenes were subjected to various levels of data compression for digital transmission and display and shown to participant observers. Clinical acceptability of video scenes after application of video compression. Clinically acceptable video compression was achieved with a 1.25-megabit/second data rate, with the use of odd-screen 43.3:1 Joint Photographic Expert Group compression and a small screen for remote viewing. With proper video compression, remote proctoring of laparoscopic procedures may be performed with standard 1.5-megabit/second telecommunication data lines and services.

  7. Automated Video Quality Assessment for Deep-Sea Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Video provides a rich source of data for geophysical analysis, often supplying detailed information about the environment when other instruments may not. This is especially true of deep-sea environments, where direct visual observations cannot be made. As computer vision techniques improve and volumes of video data increase, automated video analysis is emerging as a practical alternative to labor-intensive manual analysis. Automated techniques can be much more sensitive to video quality than their manual counterparts, so performing quality assessment before doing full analysis is critical to producing valid results.Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories that supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea, including video and still cameras. This network of ocean observatories has produced almost 20,000 hours of video (about 38 hours are recorded each day) and an additional 8,000 hours of logs from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. We begin by surveying some ways in which deep-sea video poses challenges for automated analysis, including: 1. Non-uniform lighting: Single, directional, light sources produce uneven luminance distributions and shadows; remotely operated lighting equipment are also susceptible to technical failures. 2. Particulate noise: Turbidity and marine snow are often present in underwater video; particles in the water column can have sharper focus and higher contrast than the objects of interest due to their proximity to the light source and can also influence the camera's autofocus and auto white-balance routines. 3. Color distortion (low contrast): The rate of absorption of light in water varies by wavelength, and is higher overall than in air, altering apparent colors and lowering the contrast of objects at a distance.We also describe measures under development at ONC for detecting and mitigating

  8. CameraCast: flexible access to remote video sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jiantao; Ganev, Ivan; Schwan, Karsten; Widener, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    New applications like remote surveillance and online environmental or traffic monitoring are making it increasingly important to provide flexible and protected access to remote video sensor devices. Current systems use application-level codes like web-based solutions to provide such access. This requires adherence to user-level APIs provided by such services, access to remote video information through given application-specific service and server topologies, and that the data being captured and distributed is manipulated by third party service codes. CameraCast is a simple, easily used system-level solution to remote video access. It provides a logical device API so that an application can identically operate on local vs. remote video sensor devices, using its own service and server topologies. In addition, the application can take advantage of API enhancements to protect remote video information, using a capability-based model for differential data protection that offers fine grain control over the information made available to specific codes or machines, thereby limiting their ability to violate privacy or security constraints. Experimental evaluations of CameraCast show that the performance of accessing remote video information approximates that of accesses to local devices, given sufficient networking resources. High performance is also attained when protection restrictions are enforced, due to an efficient kernel-level realization of differential data protection.

  9. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Professional Development for Rural and Remote Teachers Using Video Conferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Damian; Prescott, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Teachers in rural and remote schools face many challenges including those relating to distance, isolation and lack of professional development opportunities. This article examines a project where mathematics and science teachers were provided with professional development opportunities via video conferencing to help them use syllabus documents to…

  11. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  12. Towards real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second, demonstrating a trend towards increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process and visualize data in real-time is essential for performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We aim to develop a medical video processing system using an OpenFlow software defined network that is capable of connecting to multiple remote medical facilities and HPC servers.

  13. Toward real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B; Kwartowitz, David M

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and use small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery uses the images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). The video streams generate approximately 360 MB of data per second, demonstrating a trend toward increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process, and visualize data in real time is essential for the performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We have performed image processing algorithms on a high-definition head phantom video (1920 × 1080 pixels) and transferred the video using a message passing interface. The total transfer time is around 53 ms or 19 fps. We will optimize and parallelize these algorithms to reduce the total time to 30 ms.

  14. Designing and remotely testing mobile diabetes video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShazo, Jonathan; Harris, Lynne; Turner, Anne; Pratt, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated game design and usability for three mobile phone video games designed to deliver diabetes education. The games were refined using focus groups. Six people with diabetes participated in the first focus group and five in the second. Following the focus groups, we incorporated the new findings into the game design, and then conducted a field test to evaluate the games in the context in which they would actually be used. Data were collected remotely about game usage by eight people with diabetes. The testers averaged 45 seconds per question and answered an average of 50 total nutrition questions each. They self-reported playing the game for 10-30 min, which coincided with the measured metrics of the game. Mobile games may represent a promising new way to engage the user and deliver relevant educational content.

  15. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  16. Video chat technology to remotely quantify dietary, supplement and medication adherence in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Apolzan, John W; Wright, Courtney; Martin, Corby K

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone. For study 2, a twenty-two-item online survey was sent to a listserv with more than 20 000 unique email addresses of past and present study participants to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. For the dietary adherence tests, monitors detected 86 % of non-adherent events (sensitivity) in-person v. 78 % of events via video chat monitoring (P=0·12), with comparable inter-rater agreement (0·88 v. 0·85; P=0·62). However, for pill-taking, non-adherence trended towards being more easily detected in-person than by video chat (77 v. 60 %; P=0·08), with non-significantly higher inter-rater agreement (0·85 v. 0·69; P=0·21). Survey results from study 2 (n 1076 respondents; ≥5 % response rate) indicated that 86·4 % of study participants had video chatting hardware, 73·3 % were comfortable using the technology and 79·8 % were willing to use it for clinical research. Given the capability of video chat technology to reduce participant burden and outperform other adherence monitoring methods such as dietary self-report and pill counts, video chatting is a novel and promising platform to quantify dietary and pill-taking adherence.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Background Subtraction Algorithms in Remote Scene Videos Captured by MWIR Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guangle; Lei, Tao; Zhong, Jiandan; Jiang, Ping; Jia, Wenwu

    2017-01-01

    Background subtraction (BS) is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in video analysis and tracking systems. It distinguishes the foreground (moving objects) from the video sequences captured by static imaging sensors. Background subtraction in remote scene infrared (IR) video is important and common to lots of fields. This paper provides a Remote Scene IR Dataset captured by our designed medium-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor. Each video sequence in this dataset is identified with specific BS challenges and the pixel-wise ground truth of foreground (FG) for each frame is also provided. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate BS algorithms on this proposed dataset. The overall performance of BS algorithms and the processor/memory requirements were compared. Proper evaluation metrics or criteria were employed to evaluate the capability of each BS algorithm to handle different kinds of BS challenges represented in this dataset. The results and conclusions in this paper provide valid references to develop new BS algorithm for remote scene IR video sequence, and some of them are not only limited to remote scene or IR video sequence but also generic for background subtraction. The Remote Scene IR dataset and the foreground masks detected by each evaluated BS algorithm are available online: https://github.com/JerryYaoGl/BSEvaluationRemoteSceneIR. PMID:28837112

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Background Subtraction Algorithms in Remote Scene Videos Captured by MWIR Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangle Yao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background subtraction (BS is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in video analysis and tracking systems. It distinguishes the foreground (moving objects from the video sequences captured by static imaging sensors. Background subtraction in remote scene infrared (IR video is important and common to lots of fields. This paper provides a Remote Scene IR Dataset captured by our designed medium-wave infrared (MWIR sensor. Each video sequence in this dataset is identified with specific BS challenges and the pixel-wise ground truth of foreground (FG for each frame is also provided. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate BS algorithms on this proposed dataset. The overall performance of BS algorithms and the processor/memory requirements were compared. Proper evaluation metrics or criteria were employed to evaluate the capability of each BS algorithm to handle different kinds of BS challenges represented in this dataset. The results and conclusions in this paper provide valid references to develop new BS algorithm for remote scene IR video sequence, and some of them are not only limited to remote scene or IR video sequence but also generic for background subtraction. The Remote Scene IR dataset and the foreground masks detected by each evaluated BS algorithm are available online: https://github.com/JerryYaoGl/BSEvaluationRemoteSceneIR.

  19. Remote stereoscopic video play platform for naked eyes based on the Android system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Changxin; Sang, Xinzhu; Liu, Jing; Cheng, Mingsheng

    2014-11-01

    As people's life quality have been improved significantly, the traditional 2D video technology can not meet people's urgent desire for a better video quality, which leads to the rapid development of 3D video technology. Simultaneously people want to watch 3D video in portable devices,. For achieving the above purpose, we set up a remote stereoscopic video play platform. The platform consists of a server and clients. The server is used for transmission of different formats of video and the client is responsible for receiving remote video for the next decoding and pixel restructuring. We utilize and improve Live555 as video transmission server. Live555 is a cross-platform open source project which provides solutions for streaming media such as RTSP protocol and supports transmission of multiple video formats. At the receiving end, we use our laboratory own player. The player for Android, which is with all the basic functions as the ordinary players do and able to play normal 2D video, is the basic structure for redevelopment. Also RTSP is implemented into this structure for telecommunication. In order to achieve stereoscopic display, we need to make pixel rearrangement in this player's decoding part. The decoding part is the local code which JNI interface calls so that we can extract video frames more effectively. The video formats that we process are left and right, up and down and nine grids. In the design and development, a large number of key technologies from Android application development have been employed, including a variety of wireless transmission, pixel restructuring and JNI call. By employing these key technologies, the design plan has been finally completed. After some updates and optimizations, the video player can play remote 3D video well anytime and anywhere and meet people's requirement.

  20. Localization of cask and plug remote handling system in ITER using multiple video cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, João, E-mail: jftferreira@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear - Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vale, Alberto [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear - Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, Isabel [Laboratório de Robótica e Sistemas em Engenharia e Ciência - Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Localization of cask and plug remote handling system with video cameras and markers. ► Video cameras already installed on the building for remote operators. ► Fiducial markers glued or painted on cask and plug remote handling system. ► Augmented reality contents on the video streaming as an aid for remote operators. ► Integration with other localization systems for enhanced robustness and precision. -- Abstract: The cask and plug remote handling system (CPRHS) provides the means for the remote transfer of in-vessel components and remote handling equipment between the Hot Cell building and the Tokamak building in ITER. Different CPRHS typologies will be autonomously guided following predefined trajectories. Therefore, the localization of any CPRHS in operation must be continuously known in real time to provide the feedback for the control system and also for the human supervision. This paper proposes a localization system that uses the video streaming captured by the multiple cameras already installed in the ITER scenario to estimate with precision the position and the orientation of any CPRHS. In addition, an augmented reality system can be implemented using the same video streaming and the libraries for the localization system. The proposed localization system was tested in a mock-up scenario with a scale 1:25 of the divertor level of Tokamak building.

  1. The Use of Slow-Scan Video for CME in a Remote Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Earl V.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A slow-scan video system, using regular telephone lines that interconnect the local hospital, five remote communities, and two teaching hospitals in Toronto, was originally used to assist medical diagnosis in a remote area of Ontario. The system is now being used for additional purposes including continuing medical education and medical and…

  2. Remote sensing image compression assessment based on multilevel distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxu; Yang, Kai; Liu, Tingshan; Zhang, Yongfei

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of visual quality is of fundamental importance to remote sensing image compression, especially for image quality assessment and compression algorithm optimization. We exploit the distortion features of optical remote sensing image compression and propose a full-reference image quality metric based on multilevel distortions (MLD), which assesses image quality by calculating distortions of three levels (such as pixel-level, contexture-level, and content-level) between original images and compressed images. Based on this, a multiscale MLD (MMLD) algorithm is designed and it outperforms the other current methods in our testing. In order to validate the performance of our algorithm, a special remote sensing image compression distortion (RICD) database is constructed, involving 250 remote sensing images compressed with different algorithms and various distortions. Experimental results on RICD and Laboratory for Image and Video Engineering databases show that the proposed MMLD algorithm has better consistency with subjective perception values than current state-of-the-art methods in remote sensing image compression assessment, and the objective assessment results can show the distortion features and visual quality of compressed image well. It is suitable to be the evaluation criteria for optical remote sensing image compression.

  3. Attention modeling for video quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to evaluate video quality by balancing two quality components: global quality and local quality. The global quality is a result from subjects allocating their ttention equally to all regions in a frame and all frames n a video. It is evaluated by image quality metrics (IQM) ith...... quality modeling algorithm can improve the performance of image quality metrics on video quality assessment compared to the normal averaged spatiotemporal pooling scheme....... averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in modeling visual attention, which is then integrated into IQMs to calculate the local quality of a video frame...

  4. Development and application of remote video monitoring system for combine harvester based on embedded Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xuelei; Wang, Yuehong; Hu, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Combine harvester usually works in sparsely populated areas with harsh environment. In order to achieve the remote real-time video monitoring of the working state of combine harvester. A remote video monitoring system based on ARM11 and embedded Linux is developed. The system uses USB camera for capturing working state video data of the main parts of combine harvester, including the granary, threshing drum, cab and cut table. Using JPEG image compression standard to compress video data then transferring monitoring screen to remote monitoring center over the network for long-range monitoring and management. At the beginning of this paper it describes the necessity of the design of the system. Then it introduces realization methods of hardware and software briefly. And then it describes detailedly the configuration and compilation of embedded Linux operating system and the compiling and transplanting of video server program are elaborated. At the end of the paper, we carried out equipment installation and commissioning on combine harvester and then tested the system and showed the test results. In the experiment testing, the remote video monitoring system for combine harvester can achieve 30fps with the resolution of 800x600, and the response delay in the public network is about 40ms.

  5. Palliative care professional education via video conference builds confidence to deliver palliative care in rural and remote locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robin A; Fried, Ofra; Lindsay, Daniel

    2014-06-19

    People living in rural and remote locations are disadvantaged in accessing palliative care. This can be attributed to several factors including the role diversity and the low numbers of patients with specific conditions, as well as the difficulties rural health practitioners have in accessing opportunities for professional education. A program of multidisciplinary palliative care video conferences was presented to health practitioners across part of northern Australia in an effort to address this problem. The educational content of the video conferences was developed from participant responses to an educational needs assessment. Following cycles of four consecutive video conferences, 101 participants completed evaluative on-line surveys. The quantitative data were analysed using frequencies and analysis of variance tests with post-hoc analyses where appropriate, and an accessibility and remoteness index was used to classify their practice location. All participants found the content useful regardless of their remoteness from the tertiary centre, their years of experience caring for palliative care patients or the number of patients cared for each year. However, change in confidence to provide palliative care as a result of attending the video conferences was significant across all disciplines, regardless of location. Doctors, medical students and allied health professionals indicated the greatest change in confidence. The provision of professional education about palliative care issues via multidisciplinary video conferencing increased confidence among rural health practitioners, by meeting their identified need for topic and context specific education. This technology also enhanced the networking opportunities between practitioners, providing an avenue of ongoing professional support necessary for maintaining the health workforce in rural and remote areas. However, more attention should be directed to the diverse educational needs of allied health professionals.

  6. Efficiency, satisfaction, and costs for remote video visits following radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, Boyd R; Lightner, Deborah J; Rivera, Marcelino E; Tollefson, Matthew K; Boorjian, Stephen A; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Thompson, R Houston; O'Neil, Daniel A; Hamilton, Rachel L; Gardner, Matthew R; Bundrick, Mary; Jenkins, Sarah M; Pruthi, Sandhya; Frank, Igor; Gettman, Matthew T

    2015-10-01

    Telemedicine in an ambulatory surgical population remains incompletely evaluated. To investigate patient encounters in the outpatient setting using video visit (VV) technology compared to traditional office visits (OVs). From June 2013 to March 2014, 55 prescreened men with a history of prostate cancer were prospectively randomized. VVs, with the patient at home or at work, were included in the outpatient clinic calendar of urologists. Remote VV versus traditional OV. An equivalence analysis was used to assess the primary outcome, visit efficiency as measured by time studies. Secondary outcomes were patient/provider satisfaction and costs. There were 28 VVs and 27 OVs. VVs were equivalent in efficiency to relative to OVs, as measured by patient-provider face time (mean 14.5 vs 14.3min; p=0.96), patient wait time (18.4 vs 13.0min; p=0.20), and total time devoted to care (17.9 vs 17.8min; p=0.97). There were no significant differences in patient perception of visit confidentiality, efficiency, education quality, or overall satisfaction. VVs incurred lower costs, including distance traveled (median 0 vs 95 miles), travel time (0 vs 95min), missed work (0 vs 1 d), and money spent on travel ($0 vs $48; all premote video visits compared to office visits for outpatient consultation with a urologist. Video visits were associated with equivalent efficiency, similar satisfaction, and significantly lower patient costs when compared to office visits. We conclude that video visits may have a future role in health care delivery models. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Student's Video Production as Formative Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Learning assessments are subject of discussions that envolve theoretical and practical approaches. To measure learning in physics by high school students, either qualitatively or quantitatively, is a process in which it should be possible to identify not only the concepts and contents students failed to achieve but also the reasons of the failure. We propose that students' video production offers a very effective formative assessment to teachers: as a formative assessment, it produces information that allows the understanding of where and when the learning process succeeded or failed, of identifying, as a subject or as a group, the defficiencies or misunderstandings related to the theme under analysis and their interpretation by students, and it provides also a different kind of assessment, related to some other life skills, like the ability to carry a project to its conclusion and to work cooperatively. In this paper, we describe the use of videos produced by high school students as an assessment resource. T...

  8. Video-based eye tracking for neuropsychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Sam; Stark, David E

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a video-based eye-tracking method, ideally deployed via a mobile device or laptop-based webcam, as a tool for measuring brain function. Eye movements and pupillary motility are tightly regulated by brain circuits, are subtly perturbed by many disease states, and are measurable using video-based methods. Quantitative measurement of eye movement by readily available webcams may enable early detection and diagnosis, as well as remote/serial monitoring, of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. We successfully extracted computational and semantic features for 14 testing sessions, comprising 42 individual video blocks and approximately 17,000 image frames generated across several days of testing. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of collecting video-based eye-tracking data from a standard webcam in order to assess psychomotor function. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate through systematic analysis of this data set that eye-tracking features (in particular, radial and tangential variance on a circular visual-tracking paradigm) predict performance on well-validated psychomotor tests. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Assessing User Behaviour in News Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, L.; Nguyen, G.; Koelma, D.; Schreiber, A.T.; Worring, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of a study are presented, in which people queried a news archive using an interactive video retrieval system. 242 search sessions by 39 participants on 24 topics were assessed. Before, during and after the study, participants filled in questionnaires about their expectations of a search.

  10. Assessing concept selection for video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, B.; Hofmann, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    We explore the use of benchmarks to address the problem of assessing concept selection in video retrieval systems. Two benchmarks are presented, one created by human association of queries to concepts, the other generated from an extensively tagged collection. They are compared in terms of

  11. Realization on the interactive remote video conference system based on multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To make people at different places participate in the same conference, speak and discuss freely, the interactive remote video conferencing system is designed and realized based on multi-Agent collaboration. FEC (forward error correction and tree P2P technology are firstly used to build a live conference structure to transfer audio and video data; then the branch conference port can participate to speak and discuss through the application of becoming a interactive focus; the introduction of multi-Agent collaboration technology improve the system robustness. The experiments showed that, under normal network conditions, the system can support 350 branch conference node simultaneously to make live broadcasting. The audio and video quality is smooth. It can carry out large-scale remote video conference.

  12. No-reference pixel based video quality assessment for HEVC decoded video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a No-Reference (NR) Video Quality Assessment (VQA) method for videos subject to the distortion given by the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) scheme. The assessment is performed without access to the bitstream. The proposed analysis is based on the transform coefficients...

  13. A Semi-Automatic, Remote-Controlled Video Observation System for Transient Luminous Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, T.; Neubert, T.; Laursen, S.; Rasmussen, I. L.; Soula, S.

    2003-12-01

    In support for global ELF/VLF observations, HF measurements in France, and conjugate photometry/VLF observations in South Africa, we developed and operated a semi-automatic, remotely controlled video system for the observation of middle-atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). Installed at the Pic du Midi Observatory in Southern France, the system was operational during the period from July 18 to September 15, 2003. The video system, based two low-light, non-intensified CCD video cameras, was mounted on top of a motorized pan/tilt unit. The cameras and the pan/tilt unit were controlled over serial links from a local computer, and the video outputs were distributed to a pair of PCI frame grabbers in the computer. This setup allowed remote users to log in and operate the system over the internet. Event detection software provided means of recording and time-stamping single TLE video fields and thus eliminated the need for continuous human monitoring of TLE activity. The computer recorded and analyzed two parallel video streams at the full 50 Hz field rate, while uploading status images, TLE images, and system logs to a remote web server. The system detected more than 130 TLEs - mostly sprites - distributed over 9 active evenings. We have thus demonstrated the feasibility of remote agents for TLE observations, which are likely to find use in future ground-based TLE observation campaigns, or to be installed at remote sites in support for space-borne or other global TLE observation efforts.

  14. A real-time remote video streaming platform for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Gross, Warren J; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is a viable imaging technology in remote and resources-limited areas. Ultrasonography is a user-dependent skill which depends on a high degree of training and hands-on experience. However, there is a limited number of skillful sonographers located in remote areas. In this work, we aim to develop a real-time video streaming platform which allows specialist physicians to remotely monitor ultrasound exams. To this end, an ultrasound stream is captured and transmitted through a wireless network into remote computers, smart-phones and tablets. In addition, the system is equipped with a camera to track the position of the ultrasound probe. The main advantage of our work is using an open source platform for video streaming which gives us more control over streaming parameters than the available commercial products. The transmission delays of the system are evaluated for several ultrasound video resolutions and the results show that ultrasound videos close to the high-definition (HD) resolution can be received and displayed on an Android tablet with the delay of 0.5 seconds which is acceptable for accurate real-time diagnosis.

  15. IndigoVision IP video keeps watch over remote gas facilities in Amazon rainforest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    In Brazil, IndigoVision's complete IP video security technology is being used to remotely monitor automated gas facilities in the Amazon rainforest. Twelve compounds containing millions of dollars of process automation, telemetry, and telecom equipment are spread across many thousands of miles of forest and centrally monitored in Rio de Janeiro using Control Center, the company's Security Management software. The security surveillance project uses a hybrid IP network comprising satellite, fibre optic, and wireless links. In addition to advanced compression technology and bandwidth tuning tools, the IP video system uses Activity Controlled Framerate (ACF), which controls the frame rate of the camera video stream based on the amount of motion in a scene. In the absence of activity, the video is streamed at a minimum framerate, but the moment activity is detected the framerate jumps to the configured maximum. This significantly reduces the amount of bandwidth needed. At each remote facility, fixed analog cameras are connected to transmitter nodules that convert the feed to high-quality digital video for transmission over the IP network. The system also integrates alarms with video surveillance. PIR intruder detectors are connected to the system via digital inputs on the transmitters. Advanced alarm-handling features in the Control Center software process the PIR detector alarms and alert operators to potential intrusions. This improves operator efficiency and incident response. 1 fig.

  16. Remote moving target indication assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test key components of a sensor to be used on remotely piloted vehicles, aircraft, or satellites for the detection of moving vehicles in cluttered backgrounds. The proposed sensor uses modern large-array focal planes to provide multiple infrared observations of moving targets and capable on-board computers to integrate multiple observations to detect moving targets in background clutter. This combination reduces the size, weight, and cost of the sensor to levels that can be flown on many small unmanned platforms. This effort selected the actual components, integrated them into a test bed, tested the performance of the sensor against realistic generated scenes, and designed a proof-of-concept prototype.

  17. Video quality assessment for web content mirroring

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Fei, Kevin; Fernandez, Gustavo A.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Due to the increasing user expectation on watching experience, moving web high quality video streaming content from the small screen in mobile devices to the larger TV screen has become popular. It is crucial to develop video quality metrics to measure the quality change for various devices or network conditions. In this paper, we propose an automated scoring system to quantify user satisfaction. We compare the quality of local videos with the videos transmitted to a TV. Four video quality metrics, namely Image Quality, Rendering Quality, Freeze Time Ratio and Rate of Freeze Events are used to measure video quality change during web content mirroring. To measure image quality and rendering quality, we compare the matched frames between the source video and the destination video using barcode tools. Freeze time ratio and rate of freeze events are measured after extracting video timestamps. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the impact of each objective video quality metric on the subjective user watching experience.

  18. Quality of Experience Assessment of Video Quality in Social Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Laghari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Video sharing on social clouds is popular among the users around the world. High-Definition (HD videos have big file size so the storing in cloud storage and streaming of videos with high quality from cloud to the client are a big problem for service providers. Social clouds compress the videos to save storage and stream over slow networks to provide quality of service (QoS. Compression of video decreases the quality compared to original video and parameters are changed during the online play as well as after download. Degradation of video quality due to compression decreases the quality of experience (QoE level of end users. To assess the QoE of video compression, we conducted subjective (QoE experiments by uploading, sharing, and playing videos from social clouds. Three popular social clouds, Facebook, Tumblr, and Twitter, were selected to upload and play videos online for users. The QoE was recorded by using questionnaire given to users to provide their experience about the video quality they perceive. Results show that Facebook and Twitter compressed HD videos more as compared to other clouds. However, Facebook gives a better quality of compressed videos compared to Twitter. Therefore, users assigned low ratings for Twitter for online video quality compared to Tumblr that provided high-quality online play of videos with less compression.

  19. Design and Smartphone-Based Implementation of a Chaotic Video Communication Scheme via WAN Remote Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuosheng; Yu, Simin; Li, Chengqing; Lü, Jinhu; Wang, Qianxue

    This paper proposes a chaotic secure video remote communication scheme that can perform on real WAN networks, and implements it on a smartphone hardware platform. First, a joint encryption and compression scheme is designed by embedding a chaotic encryption scheme into the MJPG-Streamer source codes. Then, multiuser smartphone communications between the sender and the receiver are implemented via WAN remote transmission. Finally, the transmitted video data are received with the given IP address and port in an Android smartphone. It should be noted that, this is the first time that chaotic video encryption schemes are implemented on such a hardware platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the technical challenges on hardware implementation of secure video communication are successfully solved, reaching a balance amongst sufficient security level, real-time processing of massive video data, and utilization of available resources in the hardware environment. The proposed scheme can serve as a good application example of chaotic secure communications for smartphone and other mobile facilities in the future.

  20. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment by HEVC Codec Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    the transform coefficients, estimates the distortion, and assesses the video quality. The proposed scheme generates VQA features based on Intra coded frames, and then maps features using an Elastic Net to predict subjective video quality. A set of HEVC coded 4K UHD sequences are tested. Results show......This paper proposes a No-Reference (NR) Video Quality Assessment (VQA) method for videos subject to the distortion given by High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). The proposed assessment can be performed either as a BitstreamBased (BB) method or as a Pixel-Based (PB). It extracts or estimates...

  1. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment using MPEG Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for No-Reference (NR) Video Quality Assessment (VQA) for decoded video without access to the bitstream. This is achieved by extracting and pooling features from a NR image quality assessment method used frame by frame. We also present methods to identify the video coding...... and estimate the video coding parameters for MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC which can be used to improve the VQA. The analysis differs from most other video coding analysis methods since it is without access to the bitstream. The results show that our proposed method is competitive with other recent NR VQA methods...

  2. Development of a Wireless Video Transfer System for Remote Control of a Lightweight UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Tosteberg, Joakim; Axelsson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A team of developers from Epsilon AB has developed a lightweight remote controlledquadcopter named Crazyflie. The team wants to allow a pilot to navigate thequadcopter using video from an on-board camera as the only guidance. The masterthesis evaluates the feasibility of mounting a camera module on the quadcopter andstreaming images from the camera to a computer, using the existing quadcopterradio link. Using theoretical calculations and measurements, a set of requirementsthat must be fulfill...

  3. Telehomecare telecommunication framework - from remote patient monitoring to video visits and robot telepresence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Pierre; Letourneau, Dominic; Hamel, Mathieu; Briere, Simon; Corriveau, Helene; Tousignant, Michel; Michaud, Francois

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few years, the number of remote patient monitoring (RPM) products and of videoconferencing systems has exploded. There is also a significant number of research initiatives addressing the use of service robots for assistance in daily living activities. From a technological standpoint, providing telehomecare services is certainly feasible. However, one technological barrier is to have access to a telecommunication platform that can be adapted to address the broad range of specifications and requirements of clinical and telehealth applications. Handling the full spectrum of possibilities requires a telecommunication framework that can transmit vital sign data from patients to clinicians, bidirectional audio-video from a standard computing device, and also multiple video streams and bidirectional transmission of control data. This paper presents a framework that integrates such capabilities. It also illustrates the versatility of the framework by presenting custom-designed devices allowing integration of capabilities ranging from RPM to video visits and robot telepresence.

  4. Exploration and Remote Instrumentation by Students (ERIS): Video Documentation in Undergraduate Ocean Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, M.

    2016-12-01

    Success in the future ability to conduct global ocean research relies on our strategies to teach and train the next generation of ocean scientists. The mission of the Exploration and Remote Instrumentation by Students (ERIS) program at the University of Washington is to enhance undergraduate learning in the design and build process of advanced technologies. The ERIS program introduces the science of applied technology in oceanography through a series of courses that link the design, build, and maintenance of a student implemented underwater cabled observatory. We present a suggested template for a production method of how-to videos focused on capturing and communicating the design and build experience in ocean technology makerspaces. The application of this production method of videos produced by students, for students, creates structured learning opportunities and becomes an archive of online resources for future ocean technologists. Furthermore, video documentation enables students to link their participation in active learning experiences with skills in ocean science, technology and communication.

  5. Display device-adapted video quality-of-experience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Today's viewers consume video content from a variety of connected devices, including smart phones, tablets, notebooks, TVs, and PCs. This imposes significant challenges for managing video traffic efficiently to ensure an acceptable quality-of-experience (QoE) for the end users as the perceptual quality of video content strongly depends on the properties of the display device and the viewing conditions. State-of-the-art full-reference objective video quality assessment algorithms do not take into account the combined impact of display device properties, viewing conditions, and video resolution while performing video quality assessment. We performed a subjective study in order to understand the impact of aforementioned factors on perceptual video QoE. We also propose a full reference video QoE measure, named SSIMplus, that provides real-time prediction of the perceptual quality of a video based on human visual system behaviors, video content characteristics (such as spatial and temporal complexity, and video resolution), display device properties (such as screen size, resolution, and brightness), and viewing conditions (such as viewing distance and angle). Experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art video quality measures in terms of accuracy and speed.

  6. The Impact of Video Compression on Remote Cardiac Pulse Measurement Using Imaging Photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    quality is human subjective perception assessed by a Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Alternatively, video quality may be assessed using one of numerous...cameras. Synchronization of the image capture from the array was achieved using a PCIe-6323 data acquisition card (National Instruments, Austin...large reductions of either video resolution or frame rate did not strongly impact iPPG pulse rate measurements [9]. A balanced approach may yield

  7. Online sparse representation for remote sensing compressed-sensed video sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Kun; Li, Sheng-liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-11-01

    Most recently, an emerging Compressed Sensing (CS) theory has brought a major breakthrough for data acquisition and recovery. It asserts that a signal, which is highly compressible in a known basis, can be reconstructed with high probability through sampling frequency which is well below Nyquist Sampling Frequency. When applying CS to Remote Sensing (RS) Video imaging, it can directly and efficiently acquire compressed image data by randomly projecting original data to obtain linear and non-adaptive measurements. In this paper, with the help of distributed video coding scheme which is a low-complexity technique for resource limited sensors, the frames of a RS video sequence are divided into Key frames (K frames) and Non-Key frames (CS frames). In other words, the input video sequence consists of many groups of pictures (GOPs) and each GOP consists of one K frame followed by several CS frames. Both of them are measured based on block, but at different sampling rates. In this way, the major encoding computation burden will be shifted to the decoder. At the decoder, the Side Information (SI) is generated for the CS frames using traditional Motion-Compensated Interpolation (MCI) technique according to the reconstructed key frames. The over-complete dictionary is trained by dictionary learning methods based on SI. These learning methods include ICA-like, PCA, K-SVD, MOD, etc. Using these dictionaries, the CS frames could be reconstructed according to sparse-land model. In the numerical experiments, the reconstruction performance of ICA algorithm, which is often evaluated by Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), has been made compared with other online sparse representation algorithms. The simulation results show its advantages in reducing reconstruction time and robustness in reconstruction performance when applying ICA algorithm to remote sensing video reconstruction.

  8. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment using Codec Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    A no-reference video quality assessment (VQA) method is presented for videos distorted by H.264/AVC and MPEG-2. The assessment is performed without access to the bit-stream. Instead we analyze and estimate coefficients based on decoded pixels. The approach involves distinguishing between the two...... types of videos, estimating the level of quantization used in the I-frames, and exploiting this information to assess the video quality. In order to do this for H.264/AVC, the distribution of the DCT-coefficients after intra-prediction and deblocking are modeled. To obtain VQA features for H.264/AVC, we...... propose a novel estimation method of the quantization in H.264/AVC videos without bitstream access, which can also be used for Peak Signalto-Noise Ratio (PSNR) estimation. The results from the MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC analysis are mapped to a perceptual measure of video quality by Support Vector Regression...

  9. Crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.

    2014-01-01

    humans are considered to be the most valid method of the as- sessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual pref......- erences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment....

  10. Compliance of surgical hand washing before surgery: Role of remote video surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ambreen; Nausheen, Sidrah

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate and increase the compliance of surgical hand scrubbing with periodic feedback. This study was conducted at the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children, Karachi, Pakistan, from April to July 2014. A remote video auditing system consisting of human auditors was used for visualising surgical hand wash compliance of the surgical team. The equipment, which used motion sensor, was installed in the scrub area wall, visualising the scrub sink only. A clock was displayed for the healthcare professionals to aid in ensuring two-minute hand washing. All surgeons, technicians and surgical assistants were included in the study. Surgical scrubbing was measured during a 4-week period by remote video auditing without feedback and a 12-week period with feedback. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Of the 534 observations, 150(28%) were made during the pre-feedback period and 384(71.9%) during the post-feedback period. During the first 4 weeks, the overall compliance was 22(14.6%). The rate of compliance increased to 310(80.7%) during the 12-week post-feedback period. Video surveillance with feedback for hand washing was found to be an effective tool for measuring hand hygiene and improving compliance.

  11. Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John

    2007-01-01

    Computer video games have become highly interesting to educators and researchers since their sophistication has improved considerably over the last decade. Studies indicate simple video games touting educational benefits are common in classrooms. However, a need for identifying truly useful games for educational purposes exists. This article…

  12. Perceived Quality of Full HD Video - Subjective Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an interest in multimedia services has become a global trend and this trend is still rising. The video quality is a very significant part from the bundle of multimedia services, which leads to a requirement for quality assessment in the video domain. Video quality of a streamed video across IP networks is generally influenced by two factors “transmission link imperfection and efficiency of compression standards. This paper deals with subjective video quality assessment and the impact of the compression standards H.264, H.265 and VP9 on perceived video quality of these compression standards. The evaluation is done for four full HD sequences, the difference of scenes is in the content“ distinction is based on Spatial (SI and Temporal (TI Index of test sequences. Finally, experimental results follow up to 30% bitrate reducing of H.265 and VP9 compared with the reference H.264.

  13. Assessing Visibility of Individual Transmission Errors in Networked Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, subjective video quality is assessed by user experiments involving quality ratings, pairwise comparisons, or rank ordering, based on the overall impression of quality. Less attention has been paid on assessing the visibility of individual defects. However, many practical applications...

  14. Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Miličević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

  15. Secure Internet video conferencing for assessing acute medical problems in a nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M; Schadow, G; Lindbergh, D; Warvel, J; Abernathy, G; Dexter, P; McDonald, C J

    2001-01-01

    Although video-based teleconferencing is becoming more widespread in the medical profession, especially for scheduled consultations, applications for rapid assessment of acute medical problems are rare. Use of such a video system in a nursing facility may be especially beneficial, because physicians are often not immediately available to evaluate patients. We have assembled and tested a portable, wireless conferencing system to prepare for a randomized trial of the system s influence on resource utilization and satisfaction. The system includes a rolling cart with video conferencing hardware and software, a remotely controllable digital camera, light, wireless network, and battery. A semi-automated paging system informs physicians of patient s study status and indications for conferencing. Data transmission occurs wirelessly in the nursing home and then through Internet cables to the physician s home. This provides sufficient bandwidth to support quality motion images. IPsec secures communications. Despite human and technical challenges, this system is affordable and functional.

  16. Enabling Collaboration and Video Assessment: Exposing Trends in Science Preservice Teachers' Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowczak, Mike; Burrows, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a new, free resource for continuous video assessment named YouDemo. The tool enables real time rating of uploaded YouTube videos for use in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and beyond. The authors discuss trends of preservice science teachers' assessments of self- and peer-created videos using…

  17. Direct Observation vs. Video-Based Assessment in Flexible Cystoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnaes-Hansen, Julia; Mahmood, Oria; Bube, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Direct observation in assessment of clinical skills is prone to bias, demands the observer to be present at a certain location at a specific time, and is time-consuming. Video-based assessment could remove the risk of bias, increase flexibility, and reduce the time spent on assessment....... This study investigated if video-based assessment was a reliable tool for cystoscopy and if direct observers were prone to bias compared with video-raters. DESIGN: This study was a blinded observational trial. Twenty medical students and 9 urologists were recorded during 2 cystoscopies and rated by a direct...... observer and subsequently by 2 blinded video-raters on a global rating scale (GRS) for cystoscopy. Both intrarater and interrater reliability were explored. Furthermore, direct observer bias was explored by a paired samples t-test. RESULTS: Intrarater reliability calculated by Pearson's r was 0...

  18. Innovative models for providing clinical pharmacy services to remote locations using clinical video telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdew, Cassie; Erickson, Katie; Litke, Jessica

    2017-07-15

    The use of videoconferencing and other telehealth technologies to expand access to clinical pharmacy services at multiple Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics in rural areas of Alaska and the northwestern United States is described. Beginning in 2014, clinical pharmacy specialists at a regional VA Telehealth Hub based at Boise VA Medical Center in Idaho have provided telehealth services for 16 clinics. In one telehealth model, a pharmacist and other remotely located primary care team members (a medical provider, a medical support assistant, a social worker, and a psychologist) conduct telehealth visits with veterans located at VA clinics, with support provided by clinic-based nursing staff; this model has been used to improve medication management services for veterans in sparsely populated areas. In the second VA telehealth model, a remotely located pharmacist uses telehealth technology to participate in clinical encounters along with primary care team members located at the patient site; this model allows on-demand remote coverage in the event of planned or unplanned absences of clinic-based pharmacists. Since the Telehealth Hub was established, pharmacists have engaged in video encounters and provided other telehealth-based clinical services to more than 1,200 veterans with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and other chronic conditions. Within the VA healthcare system, telehealth technology has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective and well-received means of providing clinical pharmacy services in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrated telehealth system for remote administration of an adult autism assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmanto, Bambang; Pulantara, I Wayan; Schutte, Jamie L; Saptono, Andi; McCue, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    We developed a telehealth system to administer an autism assessment remotely. The remote assessment system integrates videoconferencing, stimuli presentation, recording, image and video presentation, and electronic assessment scoring into an intuitive software platform. This is an advancement over existing technologies used in telemental health, which currently require several devices. The number of children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased dramatically over the past 20 years and is expected to continue to increase in coming years. In general, there are not many clinicians trained in either the diagnosis or treatment of adults with ASD. Given the number of adults with autism in need, a remote assessment system can potentially provide a solution to the lack of trained clinicians. The goal is to make the remote assessment system as close to face-to-face assessment as possible, yet versatile enough to support deployment in underserved areas. The primary challenge to achieving this goal is that the assessment requires social interaction that appears natural and fluid, so the remote system needs to be able to support fluid natural interaction. For this study we developed components to support this type of interaction and integrated these components into a system capable of supporting the entire autistic assessment protocol. We then implemented the system and evaluated the system on real patients. The results suggest that we have achieved our goal in developing a system with high-quality interaction that is easy to use.

  20. Image and video based remote target localization and tracking on smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qia; Lobzhanidze, Alex; Jang, Hyun; Zeng, Wenjun; Shang, Yi; Yang, Jingyu

    2012-06-01

    Smartphones are becoming popular nowadays not only because of its communication functionality but also, more importantly, its powerful sensing and computing capability. In this paper, we describe a novel and accurate image and video based remote target localization and tracking system using the Android smartphones, by leveraging its built-in sensors such as camera, digital compass, GPS, etc. Even though many other distance estimation or localization devices are available, our all-in-one, easy-to-use localization and tracking system on low cost and commodity smartphones is first of its kind. Furthermore, smartphones' exclusive user-friendly interface has been effectively taken advantage of by our system to facilitate low complexity and high accuracy. Our experimental results show that our system works accurately and efficiently.

  1. The Real Time Remote Motion Control of Two Wheeled Mobile Balance Robot by Using Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Unluturk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the motion control of a real time two wheeled balance robot capable of moving back and forward, turning right and left and video streaming via IP (Internet Protocol camera on it. A C++ based visual user interface is created on PC (Personal Computer in order to control of the designed Two Wheeled Mobile Balance Robot (TWMBR. By means of the interface, all controller parameters of the robot can be changed via wireless communication module on it. Moreover, the robot’s tilt angle with respect to time, linear displacement and controller output can be observed simultaneously. Within the robot control interface, the videos from IP camera is transferred into the operator screen via TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol communication protocol. So, the robot can be controlled via arrow keys and visual interface on PC remotely by an operator. Acceleration and gyro sensors are fused by means of a real-time Kalman Filter so that robot can keep its balance in both moving and stable state in the designed system. Thus, an accurate tilt angle control is realized. Classic PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative algorithm is used as robot controller. In conclusion, via IP camera on the robot, the real-time motion control is performed and data diagrams about motion control are obtained.

  2. Content validation of an interprofessional learning video peer assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Gillian; Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Gordon, Christopher J; Chen, Timothy F

    2017-12-16

    Large scale models of interprofessional learning (IPL) where outcomes are assessed are rare within health professional curricula. To date, there is sparse research describing robust assessment strategies to support such activities. We describe the development of an IPL assessment task based on peer rating of a student generated video evidencing collaborative interprofessional practice. We provide content validation evidence of an assessment rubric in the context of large scale IPL. Two established approaches to scale development in an educational setting were combined. A literature review was undertaken to develop a conceptual model of the relevant domains and issues pertaining to assessment of student generated videos within IPL. Starting with a prototype rubric developed from the literature, a series of staff and student workshops were undertaken to integrate expert opinion and user perspectives. Participants assessed five-minute videos produced in a prior pilot IPL activity. Outcomes from each workshop informed the next version of the rubric until agreement was reached on anchoring statements and criteria. At this point the rubric was declared fit to be used in the upcoming mandatory large scale IPL activity. The assessment rubric consisted of four domains: patient issues, interprofessional negotiation; interprofessional management plan in action; and effective use of video medium to engage audience. The first three domains reflected topic content relevant to the underlying construct of interprofessional collaborative practice. The fourth domain was consistent with the broader video assessment literature calling for greater emphasis on creativity in education. We have provided evidence for the content validity of a video-based peer assessment task portraying interprofessional collaborative practice in the context of large-scale IPL activities for healthcare professional students. Further research is needed to establish the reliability of such a scale.

  3. Mobile-Cloud Assisted Video Summarization Framework for Efficient Management of Remote Sensing Data Generated by Wireless Capsule Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Mehmood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use, especially in remote monitoring health-services. However, during the WCE process, the large amount of captured video data demands a significant deal of computation to analyze and retrieve informative video frames. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing task, we present a resource- and bandwidth-aware WCE video summarization framework that extracts the representative keyframes of the WCE video contents by removing redundant and non-informative frames. For redundancy elimination, we use Jeffrey-divergence between color histograms and inter-frame Boolean series-based correlation of color channels. To remove non-informative frames, multi-fractal texture features are extracted to assist the classification using an ensemble-based classifier. Owing to the limited WCE resources, it is impossible for the WCE system to perform computationally intensive video summarization tasks. To resolve computational challenges, mobile-cloud architecture is incorporated, which provides resizable computing capacities by adaptively offloading video summarization tasks between the client and the cloud server. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed framework saves information transmission cost and bandwidth, as well as the valuable time of data analysts in browsing remote sensing data.

  4. Compensating for Type-I Errors in Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunnström, Kjell; Tavakoli, Samira; Søgaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact on compensating for Type-I errors in video quality assessment. A Type-I error is to incorrectly conclude that there is an effect. The risk increases with the number of comparisons that are performed in statistical tests. Type-I errors are an issue often neglected in...... in Quality of Experience and video quality assessment analysis. Examples are given for the analysis of subjective experiments and the evaluation of objective metrics by correlation.......This paper analyzes the impact on compensating for Type-I errors in video quality assessment. A Type-I error is to incorrectly conclude that there is an effect. The risk increases with the number of comparisons that are performed in statistical tests. Type-I errors are an issue often neglected...

  5. Assessment of Watershed Drought Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chataut, S.; Piechota, T.

    2005-12-01

    This paper focuses on drought assessment of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) using remote sensing. Lee's Ferry discharge data for Colorado river in the UCRB and the various Palmer Drought Indices (PDI) such as Palmer Hydrological Drought Indices (PHDI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and Palmer Z Index (ZINDX) for the five climatic divisions of the UCRB for last 100 years will be analyzed to find out the best climatic division in the UCRB for carrying out the further analysis between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from 5 km resolution Advanced Very High Radiometric Radar (AVHRR) data and the various PDI. The multivariate statistical technique called rotated principal component analysis will be carried out in the time series of the NDVI data in order to avoid multicollinearity and to extract the component that significantly explains the variance in the dataset. The corresponding significant principal scores will be correlated with the PDI to derive relationship between the NDVI and PDI. Preliminary analysis has shown that there is significant correlation between the NDVI and the various PDI, which implies that NDVI could be used as an important data source to detect and monitor the drought condition in the UCRB.

  6. Impact of Constant Rate Factor on Objective Video Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of constant rate factor value on the objective video quality assessment using PSNR and SSIM metrics. Compression efficiency of H.264 and H.265 codecs defined by different Constant rate factor (CRF values was tested. The assessment was done for eight types of video sequences depending on content for High Definition (HD, Full HD (FHD and Ultra HD (UHD resolution. Finally, performance of both mentioned codecs with emphasis on compression ratio and efficiency of coding was compared.

  7. Quality Assessment of Compressed Video for Automatic License Plate Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Definition of video quality requirements for video surveillance poses new questions in the area of quality assessment. This paper presents a quality assessment experiment for an automatic license plate recognition scenario. We explore the influence of the compression by H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC...... standards on the recognition performance. We compare logarithmic and logistic functions for quality modeling. Our results show that a logistic function can better describe the dependence of recognition performance on the quality for both compression standards. We observe that automatic license plate...

  8. Streaming Videos in Peer Assessment to Support Training Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chih; Kao, Hue-Ching

    2008-01-01

    A web-based peer assessment system using video streaming technology was implemented to support the training of pre-service teachers. The peer assessment process was synchronized with viewing of peer teaching videos so that comments could be linked to the relevant position on the video. When one viewed a comment, the associated video segment could…

  9. Video Quality Assessment and Machine Learning: Performance and Interpretability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    In this work we compare a simple and a complex Machine Learning (ML) method used for the purpose of Video Quality Assessment (VQA). The simple ML method chosen is the Elastic Net (EN), which is a regularized linear regression model and easier to interpret. The more complex method chosen is Support...

  10. Video Documentaries in the Assessment of Human Geography Field Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudi, Elizabeth; Jons, Heike

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the use of video documentaries in the assessment of human geography field courses. It aims to contribute to recent debates about the role of visual methods for developing active and deep learning in student-centred teaching. Based on four days of group work in Crete, 30 third-year students produced individual…

  11. FaceTime validation study: Low-cost streaming video for cytology adequacy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shweta; Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Roy; Hassell, Lewis

    2016-03-01

    Adequacy assessment for fine-needle aspiration procedures is a standard of care in large medical centers. Although the benefits of this approach include higher adequacy rates with fewer passes, it costs cytopathologist time and affects other clinical responsibilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of mobile video streaming (FaceTime) technology with the help of smartphone adapters attached to microscopes for remote adequacy assessment of cytologic samples. The study consisted of 2 phases: Phase 1 was a retrospective assessment of 25 samples by a primary pathologist with simultaneous streaming to a second pathologist using a smartphone (iPhone/iPad) FaceTime connection. Data on the adequacy of each sample and preliminary diagnoses were recorded. In phase 2, live cases were assessed prospectively by an onsite primary pathologist and by a remote pathologist using an iPhone/iPad-FaceTime connection. The testing phase involved prospective assessment of additional samples with a resident or cytotechnologist as the slide driver. In phase 1, retrospective evaluation of 25 samples yielded considerable agreement (22 of 25 samples; 88%) between onsite and remote adequacy assessments. Three samples (12%) yielded results that did not agree, including 2 samples that were read as adequate in the onsite evaluation that were assessed as indeterminate using FaceTime. In phase 2 and in the testing phase, 14 samples exhibited considerable agreement on both adequacy and preliminary diagnosis (6 samples in phase 2 and 8 samples in the testing phase) and are currently available for reporting. Problems encountered include software version standardization, camera alignment, and (rarely) comprehension of the audio stream. The current data indicate that iPhone/iPad FaceTime technology can be used to perform remote adequacy assessments of fine-needle aspirations and can help save valuable time for pathologists. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content....... This paper proposes a quality model based on the late attention selection theory, assuming that the video quality is perceived via two mechanisms: global and local quality assessment. First we model several visual features influencing the visual attention in quality assessment scenarios to derive...... an attention map using appropriate fusion techniques. The global quality assessment as based on the assumption that viewers allocate their attention equally to the entire visual scene, is modeled by four carefully designed quality features. By employing these same quality features, the local quality model...

  13. Web-based remote video monitoring system implemented using Java technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming

    2012-04-01

    A HTTP based video transmission system has been built upon the p2p(peer to peer) network structure utilizing the Java technologies. This makes the video monitoring available to any host which has been connected to the World Wide Web in any method, including those hosts behind firewalls or in isolated sub-networking. In order to achieve this, a video source peer has been developed, together with the client video playback peer. The video source peer can respond to the video stream request in HTTP protocol. HTTP based pipe communication model is developed to speeding the transmission of video stream data, which has been encoded into fragments using the JPEG codec. To make the system feasible in conveying video streams between arbitrary peers on the web, a HTTP protocol based relay peer is implemented as well. This video monitoring system has been applied in a tele-robotic system as a visual feedback to the operator.

  14. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  15. Medical students¿ assessment of pediatric patients - teaching and evaluation using video cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundWe introduced video-based teaching in pediatrics. We evaluated the impact of a pediatric video program on student performance in assessing pediatric patients presented as video cases. The program consisted of a library of pediatric videos, and inclusion of these in the teaching...

  16. Remote engineering implies a new strategy of assessment?

    OpenAIRE

    Samoila, Cornel; Ursutiu, Doru; Cotfas, Petru

    2007-01-01

    When we spoken about remote engineering as a new methodology used in the cyberspace with the final goal of the teaching/learning improvement and cost sharing, we are obliged to approach all of the process sides. Assessment is one of these sides and there is considered the most powerful tool for illustration, in the qualitative and quantitative ways, the learners responds at educational objectives offered by the remote engineering learning environment. In the present paper the authors have the...

  17. A Video Quality Assessment Method for VoIP Applications Based on User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zedong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Li, Chengcai; Fei, Zesong; Rahim, Tariq

    2017-12-01

    An objective video quality assessment method is proposed to evaluate the video quality in voice over internet protocol (VoIP) applications under network distortion. The fluency and the clarity of videos are two main parts of the factors that affect user experience, thus the method evaluates these two parts to assess the distortions of videos in VoIP applications caused by codec and packet loss. The clarity of the video is measured by calculating block artifacts and frame blurring. Video blocking artifacts are measured by splitting the picture into small blocks and calculating the difference of the pixels around each border while video blurring is measured by getting edge information through Sobel operator, and counting the gradient histogram. Then the video clarity can be measured by a weighted sum of block artifacts score and blurring score using linear regression. The scores are also normalized in order to eliminate the impact of different video contents. The video fluency is calculated by counting the wrong frame in the video. Finally, a weighted sum of video clarity score and video fluency score can represent the quality of the video. The experimental results show that the objective quality scores have a strong correlation with the subjective quality scores, and the algorithm concludes two parts of user experience other than just image quality, which is more comprehensive and it can be used in video quality assessment in VoIP applications.

  18. Operation quality assessment model for video conference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bangshi; Qi, Feng; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Ying; Li, Weijian

    2018-01-01

    Video conference system has become an important support platform for smart grid operation and management, its operation quality is gradually concerning grid enterprise. First, the evaluation indicator system covering network, business and operation maintenance aspects was established on basis of video conference system's operation statistics. Then, the operation quality assessment model combining genetic algorithm with regularized BP neural network was proposed, which outputs operation quality level of the system within a time period and provides company manager with some optimization advice. The simulation results show that the proposed evaluation model offers the advantages of fast convergence and high prediction accuracy in contrast with regularized BP neural network, and its generalization ability is superior to LM-BP neural network and Bayesian BP neural network.

  19. Improving visual skills: II-remote assessment via Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Maureen K; Grisham, J David; Wurm, Janice K; Wurm, William C

    2009-02-01

    Even though poor readers often have poor visual skills, such as binocular coordination and oculomotor control, students' visual skills are rarely assessed. Computer assessments have the potential to assist in identifying students whose visual skills are deficient. This study compared assessments made by an Internet-based computer orthoptics program with those of an on-site vision therapist. Students (N = 41) in grades 1 through 8, reading at least 2 levels below grade, were assessed for visual skill dysfunction (including binocular fusion and tracking ability) by a vision therapist at their school in Wisconsin. The therapist determined whether the student had adequate visual skills based on clinical and behavioral observations. A "remote" investigator located in California determined the adequacy of accommodative facility, tracking, and vergence skills in the same students, based on quantitative progress through the modules of an Internet-based computer orthoptics training program during 3 assessment sessions. The on-site therapist made 33 referrals for possible visual skills training (80%). The remote investigator made 25 referrals (61%), all of which were consistent with referrals made by the on-site therapist; thus, no false-positives occurred when using the remote assessment technique. The 8 additional referrals by the therapist were attributed to the ability to observe student behavior during assessment. Remote assessment of visual skills via an Internet orthoptics program may provide a simple means to detect visual skill problems experienced by poor readers.

  20. Assessment of Teacher Competence Using Video Portfolios: Reliability, Construct Validity, and Consequential Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Hoeksma, Mark; van de Kamp, Marie-Therese; van Duin, Gee

    2011-01-01

    The richness and complexity of video portfolios endanger both the reliability and validity of the assessment of teacher competencies. In a post-graduate teacher education program, the assessment of video portfolios was evaluated for its reliability, construct validity, and consequential validity. Although video portfolio facilitated a reliable and…

  1. A Semi-Automatic, Remote-Controlled Video Observation System for Transient Luminous Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Neubert, Torsten; Laursen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    at the Pic du Midi Observatory in Southern France, the system was operational during the period from July 18 to September 15, 2003. The video system, based two low-light, non-intensified CCD video cameras, was mounted on top of a motorized pan/tilt unit. The cameras and the pan/tilt unit were controlled over...

  2. Panoramic Stereoscopic Video System for Remote-Controlled Robotic Space Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of providing panoramic stereoscopic images for remote-controlled robotic space operations using three...

  3. Researching Human Experience: video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patashnick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.

  4. Panoramic Stereoscopic Video System for Remote-Controlled Robotic Space Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project, the development of a novel panoramic, stereoscopic video system was proposed. The proposed system, which contains no moving parts, uses three-fixed...

  5. GIS and Remote Sensing Based Assessment of Climate Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of climate change are severe in developing countries like Ethiopia where agriculture is the dominant economy. The Remote Sensing and GIS based analysis of climate change impact is crucial to help Ethiopia benefit the most from the technology. This study aims at assessing changes and variations in climatic ...

  6. Satellite remote sensing for water erosion assessment: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.

    2006-01-01

    Water erosion creates negative impacts on agricultural production, infrastructure, and water quality across the world. Regional-scale water erosion assessment is important, but limited by data availability and quality. Satellite remote sensing can contribute through providing spatial data to such

  7. Remote Sensing and GIS Assessment of Flood Vulnerability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lokoja, the Kogi state capital, is located at the Niger-Benue confluence. Hazards erupt when human activities in the confluence area are not properly managed. This article uses the Remote Sensing and GIS technique to assess the flood vulnerability zones of the town using the bench mark minimum and maximum water ...

  8. A Scale to Assess Science Activity Videos (SASAV): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Yilmaz; Bakirci, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an assessment scale for science activity videos that can be used to determine qualified science activity videos that can fulfill the objectives of activity based science education, help teachers to evaluate any science activity videos and decide whether to include into science learning process. The subjects…

  9. An Interactive Assessment Framework for Visual Engagement: Statistical Analysis of a TEDx Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to assess the visual engagement of the video lectures. This analysis can be useful for the presenter and student to find out the overall visual attention of the videos. For this purpose, a new algorithm and data collection module are developed. Videos can be transformed into a dataset with the help of data collection module. The…

  10. Using underwater video imaging as an assessment tool for coastal condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an effort to monitor ecological conditions in nearshore habitats, from 2009-2012 underwater videos were captured at over 400 locations throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study focuses on developing a video rating system and assessing video images. This ratin...

  11. Assessing irrigation performance by using remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandara, K.M.P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Performance indicators, performance assessment, diagnostic approach, SEBAL, target level, grain yield, water productivity, error estimation, spatio-temporal resolution.

    In

  12. Measures of behavioral function predict duration of video game play: Utilization of the Video Game Functional Assessment - Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Frank D; Griffiths, Mark D; Sprong, Matthew E; Lloyd, Daniel P; Sullivan, Ryan M; Upton, Thomas D

    2017-12-01

    Background Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was introduced in the DSM-5 as a way of identifying and diagnosing problematic video game play. However, the use of the diagnosis is constrained, as it shares criteria with other addictive orders (e.g., pathological gambling). Aims Further work is required to better understand IGD. One potential avenue of investigation is IGD's relationship to the primary reinforcing behavioral functions. This study explores the relationship between duration of video game play and the reinforcing behavioral functions that may motivate or maintain video gaming. Methods A total of 499 video game players began the online survey, with complete data from 453 participants (85% white and 28% female), were analyzed. Individuals were placed into five groups based on self-reported hours of video gaming per week, and completed the Video Game Functional Assessment - Revised (VGFA-R). Results The results demonstrated the escape and social attention function were significant in predicting duration of video game play, whereas sensory and tangible were not significant. Conclusion Future implications of the VGFA-R and behaviorally based research are discussed.

  13. Pre-conceptual Design Assessment of DEMO Remote Maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Loving, A; Sykes, N; Iglesias, D; Coleman, M; Thomas, J; Harman, J; Fischer, U; Sanz, J; Siuko, M; Mittwollen, M; others,

    2013-01-01

    EDFA, as part of the Power Plant Physics and Technology programme, has been working on the pre-conceptual design of a Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO). As part of this programme, a review of the remote maintenance strategy considered maintenance solutions compatible with expected environmental conditions, whilst showing potential for meeting the plant availability targets. A key finding was that, for practical purposes, the expected radiation levels prohibit the use of complex remote handling operations to replace the first wall. In 2012/13, these remote maintenance activities were further extended, providing an insight into the requirements, constraints and challenges. In particular, the assessment of blanket and divertor maintenance, in light of the expected radiation conditions and availability, has elaborated the need for a very different approach from that of ITER. This activity has produced some very informative virtual reality simulations of the blanket segments and pipe removal that are exceptionally ...

  14. Remote sensing for hurricane Andrew impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Stennis Space Center personnel flew a Learjet equipped with instrumentation designed to acquire imagery in many spectral bands into areas most damaged by Hurricane Andrew. The calibrated airborne multispectral scanner (CAMS), a NASA-developed sensor, and a Zeiss camera acquired images of these areas. The information derived from the imagery was used to assist Florida officials in assessing the devastation caused by the hurricane. The imagery provided the relief teams with an assessment of the debris covering roads and highways so cleanup plans could be prioritized. The imagery also mapped the level of damage in residential and commercial areas of southern Florida and provided maps of beaches and land cover for determination of beach loss and vegetation damage, particularly the mangrove population. Stennis Space Center personnel demonstrated the ability to respond quickly and the value of such response in an emergency situation. The digital imagery from the CAMS can be processed, analyzed, and developed into products for field crews faster than conventional photography. The resulting information is versatile and allows for rapid updating and editing. Stennis Space Center and state officials worked diligently to compile information to complete analyses of the hurricane's impact.

  15. An Assessment of Streaming Video In Web-based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofield, Jay L.

    Streaming video used as an augmentation in Web-based instruction was investigated to: (1) determine if demographic characteristics would lead to significantly different beliefs about the use and perceived effectiveness of streaming video, and (2) whether or not there are characteristics of streaming video that would lead to beliefs about the…

  16. Crowdsourcing earthquake damage assessment using remote sensing imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gill

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of recent work on using crowdsourced analysis of remote sensing imagery, particularly high-resolution aerial imagery, to provide rapid, reliable assessments of damage caused by earthquakes and potentially other disasters. The initial effort examined online imagery taken after the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A more recent response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake led to the formation of an international consortium: the Global Earth Observation Catastrophe Assessment Network (GEO-CAN. The success of GEO-CAN in contributing to the official damage assessments made by the Government of Haiti, the United Nations, and the World Bank led to further development of a web-based interface. A current initiative in Christchurch, New Zealand, is underway where remote sensing experts are analyzing satellite imagery, geotechnical engineers are marking liquefaction areas, and structural engineers are identifying building damage. The current site includes online training to improve the accuracy of the assessments and make it possible for even novice users to contribute to the crowdsourced solution. The paper discusses lessons learned from these initiatives and presents a way forward for using crowdsourced remote sensing as a tool for rapid assessment of damage caused by natural disasters around the world.

  17. Selecting the video frequency bandwidth for a remote-sensing opto-electronic scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, H.; Oertel, D.

    1980-10-01

    The present analysis deals with the influence of the videochannel harmonic response characteristic of a push-broom scanner on the spatial transmission function and the signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown that when detector noise is prevalent, the video frequency bandwidth influences both the transmission function and the SNR, but influences only the transmission function when the photonoise prevails.

  18. Use of a UAV-mounted video camera to assess feeding behavior of Raramuri Criollo cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in use of unmanned aerial vehicles in science has increased in recent years. It is predicted that they will be a preferred remote sensing platform for applications that inform sustainable rangeland management in the future. The objective of this study was to determine whether UAV video moni...

  19. Learner-centred feedback using remote assessment of clinical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Kneebone; Fernando Bello; Debra Nestel; Neville Mooney; Andrew Codling; Faranak Yadollahi; Tanya Tierney; David Wilcockson; Ara Darzi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Imperial College Feedback and Assessment System (ICFAS) and explores its feasibility in supporting the learning of practical clinical procedures. ICFAS is an innovative combination of existing technologies which brings together video recording, networked mobile computers (laptop and handheld) and content management software. The aim is to observe, record, assess and provide feedback on multiple simulated encounters. We have developed ICFAS within the framework of our Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI) (Kneebone et al. 2006a,b), providing a technology-based 'feedback space' for maximizing educational value.

  20. Remote assessment of stroke using the iPhone 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric R; Smith, Bryan; Ido, Moges; Frankel, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is underused in the treatment of ischemic stroke in rural hospitals, due to a lack of local stroke expertise. Telemedicine solutions for stroke are a level I, class A recommendation when a vascular neurologist is absent. However, current solutions require exorbitant startup costs, which are prohibitive for the rural hospitals in which they are needed most. This study demonstrates the efficacy of using the relatively inexpensive iPhone 4 in telestroke management. Twenty patients with stroke were assessed at the bedside using an iPhone 4, and each examination was directed remotely on another iPhone 4. Both the physician performing the bedside exam and the remote physician calculated a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score for each patient. Each physician was blinded to the other's NIHSS score. In the 20 patients assessed, NIHSS scores ranged from 0 to 22. Interrater reliability assessed using the κ statistic demonstrated excellent agreement in 10 items (level of consciousness, month and age, visual fields, right motor arm, left motor arm, right motor leg, left motor leg, sensation, language, and neglect), moderate agreement in 3 items (gaze, facial palsy, and dysarthria), and poor agreement in 1 item (ataxia). Total NIHSS scores obtained remotely and at bedside showed an excellent level of agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.98). Our findings indicate that the iPhone 4 is an economical mobile solution that can be used to assess stroke patients remotely with high fidelity and can be readily incorporated into a telestroke network. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  1. HAITI EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT: REVIEW OF THE REMOTE SENSING ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boccardo

    2012-08-01

    In a few days several map products based on the aforementioned analysis were delivered to end users: a review of the different types and purposes of this products will be provided and discussed. An assessment of the thematic accuracy of remotely sensed based products will be carried out on the basis of a review of the several available studies focused on this issue, including the main outcomes of a validation based on a comparison with in-situ data performed by the authors.

  2. Remote video registration of seals at Rødsand seal sanctuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edren, Susi M.C.; Teilmann, J.; Dietz, R.

    This report describes the preliminary use of a remote-controlled webbased camera system in the Rødsand seal sanctuary. The camera system powered by solar and wind energy is designed to operate under extreme weather conditions. Live images and still photos are transmitted to a land station, from...

  3. Comparison of Video and In-person Free Flap Assessment following Head and Neck Free Tissue Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, A Sean; Seth, Rahul; Heaton, Chase; Wang, Steven J; Knott, P Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Objective Compare the efficiency of remote telehealth flap assessments with traditional in-person flap assessments. Study Design Observational study with retrospective review. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Subjects and Methods All patients undergoing head and neck free tissue transfer were included in the study. All patients whose surgery was performed at hospital A underwent an in-person flap check overnight. Those at hospital B received a remote flap assessment. The primary outcome was total time spent performing the midnight flap assessment, including travel time. Data were gathered prospectively using an online survey. Results Sixty consecutive patients met inclusion criteria. On the night of the surgery, 31 had an in-person flap check while 29 had a video telehealth flap check. There were no partial or total flap losses or take-backs resulting from the flap checks. Mean (SD) times for in-person and remote assessments were 34 (16) minutes (range, 10-60 minutes) and 13 (8) minutes (range, 5-35 minutes), respectively ( P streaming technology in the delivery of complex care to patients distant from their care provider.

  4. Standardizing Quality Assessment of Fused Remotely Sensed Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.; Moellmann, J.; Fries, K.

    2017-09-01

    The multitude of available operational remote sensing satellites led to the development of many image fusion techniques to provide high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution images. The comparison of different techniques is necessary to obtain an optimized image for the different applications of remote sensing. There are two approaches in assessing image quality: 1. Quantitatively by visual interpretation and 2. Quantitatively using image quality indices. However an objective comparison is difficult due to the fact that a visual assessment is always subject and a quantitative assessment is done by different criteria. Depending on the criteria and indices the result varies. Therefore it is necessary to standardize both processes (qualitative and quantitative assessment) in order to allow an objective image fusion quality evaluation. Various studies have been conducted at the University of Osnabrueck (UOS) to establish a standardized process to objectively compare fused image quality. First established image fusion quality assessment protocols, i.e. Quality with No Reference (QNR) and Khan's protocol, were compared on varies fusion experiments. Second the process of visual quality assessment was structured and standardized with the aim to provide an evaluation protocol. This manuscript reports on the results of the comparison and provides recommendations for future research.

  5. Assessment of teacher competence using video portfolios: reliability, construct validity and consequential validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W.; Hoeksma, M.; van de Kamp, M.-T.; van Duin, G.

    2011-01-01

    The richness and complexity of video portfolios endanger both the reliability and validity of the assessment of teacher competencies. In a post-graduate teacher education program, the assessment of video portfolios was evaluated for its reliability, construct validity, and consequential validity.

  6. Use of Digital Video to Assess Orientation and Mobility Observational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zimmerman, George J.; Fox, Lynn A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the observational skills in orientation and mobility (O&M) of nine university students and nine certified O&M specialists using a digital video assessment. The students differed from the O&M specialists in their stylistic observations and the details of their responses. Implications for the improvement of video assessments are…

  7. Assessment of YouTube videos as a source of information on medication use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Craig; Interrante, Julia D; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Frey, Meghan T; Broussard, Cheryl S; Godoshian, Valerie J; Lewis, Courtney; Polen, Kara N D; Garcia, Amanda P; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    When making decisions about medication use in pregnancy, women consult many information sources, including the Internet. The aim of this study was to assess the content of publicly accessible YouTube videos that discuss medication use in pregnancy. Using 2023 distinct combinations of search terms related to medications and pregnancy, we extracted metadata from YouTube videos using a YouTube video Application Programming Interface. Relevant videos were defined as those with a medication search term and a pregnancy-related search term in either the video title or description. We viewed relevant videos and abstracted content from each video into a database. We documented whether videos implied each medication to be "safe" or "unsafe" in pregnancy and compared that assessment with the medication's Teratogen Information System (TERIS) rating. After viewing 651 videos, 314 videos with information about medication use in pregnancy were available for the final analyses. The majority of videos were from law firms (67%), television segments (10%), or physicians (8%). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most common medication class named (225 videos, 72%), and 88% of videos about SSRIs indicated that they were unsafe for use in pregnancy. However, the TERIS ratings for medication products in this class range from "unlikely" to "minimal" teratogenic risk. For the majority of medications, current YouTube video content does not adequately reflect what is known about the safety of their use in pregnancy and should be interpreted cautiously. However, YouTube could serve as a platform for communicating evidence-based medication safety information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

  9. Video compression and DICOM proxies for remote viewing of DICOM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Elahe; Sheinin, Vadim; Paulovicks, Brent; Jagmohan, Ashish

    2009-02-01

    Digital medical images are rapidly growing in size and volume. A typical study includes multiple image "slices." These images have a special format and a communication protocol referred to as DICOM (Digital Imaging Communications in Medicine). Storing, retrieving, and viewing these images are handled by DICOM-enabled systems. DICOM images are stored in central repository servers called PACS (Picture Archival and Communication Systems). Remote viewing stations are DICOM-enabled applications that can query the PACS servers and retrieve the DICOM images for viewing. Modern medical images are quite large, reaching as much as 1 GB per file. When the viewing station is connected to the PACS server via a high-bandwidth local LAN, downloading of the images is relatively efficient and does not cause significant wasted time for physicians. Problems arise when the viewing station is located in a remote facility that has a low-bandwidth link to the PACS server. If the link between the PACS and remote facility is in the range of 1 Mbit/sec, downloading medical images is very slow. To overcome this problem, medical images are compressed to reduce the size for transmission. This paper describes a method of compression that maintains diagnostic quality of images while significantly reducing the volume to be transmitted, without any change to the existing PACS servers and viewer software, and without requiring any change in the way doctors retrieve and view images today.

  10. Assessment of H.264 video compression on automated face recognition performance in surveillance and mobile video scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klare, Brendan; Burge, Mark

    2010-04-01

    We assess the impact of the H.264 video codec on the match performance of automated face recognition in surveillance and mobile video applications. A set of two hundred access control (90 pixel inter-pupilary distance) and distance surveillance (45 pixel inter-pupilary distance) videos taken under non-ideal imaging and facial recognition (e.g., pose, illumination, and expression) conditions were matched using two commercial face recognition engines in the studies. The first study evaluated automated face recognition performance on access control and distance surveillance videos at CIF and VGA resolutions using the H.264 baseline profile at nine bitrates rates ranging from 8kbs to 2048kbs. In our experiments, video signals were able to be compressed up to 128kbs before a significant drop face recognition performance occurred. The second study evaluated automated face recognition on mobile devices at QCIF, iPhone, and Android resolutions for each of the H.264 PDA profiles. Rank one match performance, cumulative match scores, and failure to enroll rates are reported.

  11. Summarization of Surveillance Video Sequences Using Face Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rahmati, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Constant working surveillance cameras in public places, such as airports and banks, produce huge amount of video data. Faces in such videos can be extracted in real time. However, most of these detected faces are either redundant or useless. Redundant information adds computational costs to facial...

  12. Using statistical analysis and artificial intelligence tools for automatic assessment of video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekobo Akoa, Brice; Simeu, Emmanuel; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two novel approaches to Video Quality Assessment (VQA). Both approaches attempt to develop video evaluation techniques capable of replacing human judgment when rating video quality in subjective experiments. The underlying study consists of selecting fundamental quality metrics based on Human Visual System (HVS) models and using artificial intelligence solutions as well as advanced statistical analysis. This new combination enables suitable video quality ratings while taking as input multiple quality metrics. The first method uses a neural network based machine learning process. The second method consists in evaluating the video quality assessment using non-linear regression model. The efficiency of the proposed methods is demonstrated by comparing their results with those of existing work done on synthetic video artifacts. The results obtained by each method are compared with scores from a database resulting from subjective experiments.

  13. Using web services to realize remote hearing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianchu; Wan, Yongbo; Givens, Gregg D

    2010-02-01

    Internet-based tele-audiology is expected to relieve the dilemma between the lack of resources and high demand of audiological care services. This paper presents a web services based, distributed pure-tone hearing assessment system that improves accessibility of traditionally underserved groups to audiology care. The system employs browser-server network architecture to connect patients to audiology specialists through a web server where all application software is hosted. Software on the server is designed with a three-tier approach which makes the system scalable to include other audiological services. Hearing test data are stored in a standard database and can potentially be integrated into established electronic medical records. On the remote patient side, off-the-shelf audiometers are adopted. The Internet connection of these audiometers can be flexibly configured either with or without a computer. Two aspects of the system were tested: (1) the clinical effectiveness of the system: double-blinded experiments were conducted to assess hearing ability of 30 subjects and paired t-tests were utilized to compare assessment results from the remote approach and the conventional setup; and (2) to analyze the system bandwidth requirements, data traffic among the server, the audiometer, and the audiologist terminal was examined with a network monitoring software (wireshark). Paired t-test results have demonstrated that the remote hearing assessment is equivalent in effectiveness to its conventional counterparts at all tested frequencies (P values are in the range of [0.12, 0.94]), and the bandwidth required by the system is less than 1 Mbps, falling within the capacity of average commercial Internet service subscription. The project developed a remote hearing assessment system based on services on a web server. The system minimizes hardware and software requirements on the audiologist's computer and can be realized with regular Internet service subscription. Patient

  14. Insertion of impairments in test video sequences for quality assessment based on psychovisual characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    López Velasco, Juan Pedro; Rodrigo Ferrán, Juan Antonio; Jiménez Bermejo, David; Menendez Garcia, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Assessing video quality is a complex task. While most pixel-based metrics do not present enough correlation between objective and subjective results, algorithms need to correspond to human perception when analyzing quality in a video sequence. For analyzing the perceived quality derived from concrete video artifacts in determined region of interest we present a novel methodology for generating test sequences which allow the analysis of impact of each individual distortion. Through results obt...

  15. Quality Assessment of Adaptive Bitrate Videos using Image Metrics and Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Brunnström, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming is widely used for distribution of videos over the internet. In this work, we investigate how well we can predict the quality of such videos using well-known image metrics, information about the bitrate levels, and a relatively simple machine learning method....... Quality assessment of ABR videos is a hard problem, but our initial results are promising. We obtain a Spearman rank order correlation of 0.88 using content-independent cross-validation....

  16. Some insights on grassland health assessment based on remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2015-01-29

    Grassland ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems, which naturally occurs on all continents excluding Antarctica and provides both ecological and economic functions. The deterioration of natural grassland has been attracting many grassland researchers to monitor the grassland condition and dynamics for decades. Remote sensing techniques, which are advanced in dealing with the scale constraints of ecological research and provide temporal information, become a powerful approach of grassland ecosystem monitoring. So far, grassland health monitoring studies have mostly focused on different areas, for example, productivity evaluation, classification, vegetation dynamics, livestock carrying capacity, grazing intensity, natural disaster detecting, fire, climate change, coverage assessment and soil erosion. However, the grassland ecosystem is a complex system which is formed by soil, vegetation, wildlife and atmosphere. Thus, it is time to consider the grassland ecosystem as an entity synthetically and establish an integrated grassland health monitoring system to combine different aspects of the complex grassland ecosystem. In this review, current grassland health monitoring methods, including rangeland health assessment, ecosystem health assessment and grassland monitoring by remote sensing from different aspects, are discussed along with the future directions of grassland health assessment.

  17. Some Insights on Grassland Health Assessment Based on Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassland ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems, which naturally occurs on all continents excluding Antarctica and provides both ecological and economic functions. The deterioration of natural grassland has been attracting many grassland researchers to monitor the grassland condition and dynamics for decades. Remote sensing techniques, which are advanced in dealing with the scale constraints of ecological research and provide temporal information, become a powerful approach of grassland ecosystem monitoring. So far, grassland health monitoring studies have mostly focused on different areas, for example, productivity evaluation, classification, vegetation dynamics, livestock carrying capacity, grazing intensity, natural disaster detecting, fire, climate change, coverage assessment and soil erosion. However, the grassland ecosystem is a complex system which is formed by soil, vegetation, wildlife and atmosphere. Thus, it is time to consider the grassland ecosystem as an entity synthetically and establish an integrated grassland health monitoring system to combine different aspects of the complex grassland ecosystem. In this review, current grassland health monitoring methods, including rangeland health assessment, ecosystem health assessment and grassland monitoring by remote sensing from different aspects, are discussed along with the future directions of grassland health assessment.

  18. Evaluation of intrusion sensors and video assessment in areas of restricted passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, C.E.; Ringler, C.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses an evaluation of intrusion sensors and video assessment in areas of restricted passage. The discussion focuses on applications of sensors and video assessment in suspended ceilings and air ducts. It also includes current and proposed requirements for intrusion detection and assessment. Detection and nuisance alarm characteristics of selected sensors as well as assessment capabilities of low-cost board cameras were included in the evaluation.

  19. Using industry ROV videos to assess fish associations with subsea pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. L.; Partridge, J. C.; Bond, T.; Birt, M. J.; Bornt, K. R.; Langlois, T. J.

    2017-06-01

    Remote Operated Vehicles are routinely used to undertake inspection and maintenance activities of underwater pipelines in north-west Australia. In doing so, many terabytes of geo-referenced underwater video are collected at depths, and on a scale usually unobtainable for ecological research. We assessed fish diversity and abundance from existing ROV videos collected along 2-3 km sections of two pipelines in north-west Australia, one at 60-80 m water depth and the other at 120-130 m. A total of 5962 individual fish from 92 species and 42 families were observed. Both pipelines were characterised by a high abundance of commercially important fishes including: snappers (Lutjanidae) and groupers (Epinephelidae). The presence of thousands of unidentifiable larval fish, in addition to juveniles, sub-adults and adults suggests that the pipelines may be enhancing, rather than simply attracting, fish stocks. The prevalence and high complexity of sponges on the shallower pipeline and of deepwater corals on the deeper pipeline had a strong positive correlation with the fish abundance. These habitats likely offer a significant food source and refuge for fish, but also for invertebrates upon which fish feed. A greater diversity on the shallower pipeline, and a higher abundance of fishes on both pipelines, were associated with unsupported pipeline sections (spans) and many species appeared to be utilising pipeline spans as refuges. This study is a first look at the potential value of subsea pipelines for fishes on the north-west shelf. While the results suggest that these sections of pipeline appear to offer significant habitat that supports diverse and important commercially fished species, further work, including off-pipeline surveys on the natural seafloor, are required to determine conclusively the ecological value of pipelines and thereby inform discussions regarding the ecological implications of pipeline decommissioning.

  20. Live versus Video Observations: Comparing the Reliability and Validity of Two Methods of Assessing Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W.; Johnson, Price; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Carlis, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    When conducting classroom observations, researchers are often confronted with the decision of whether to conduct observations live or by using pre-recorded video. The present study focuses on comparing and contrasting observations of live and video administrations of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-PreK (CLASS-PreK). Associations between…

  1. Enhancing the Assessment Experience: Improving Student Perceptions, Engagement and Understanding Using Online Video Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John; Turner, Will

    2016-01-01

    Individualised video screencasts with accompanying narration were used to provide assessment feedback to a large number (n = 299) of first-year Bachelor of Education students at Edith Cowan University in Western Australia. An anonymous online survey revealed that nearly three times as many respondents (61%) preferred video feedback to written…

  2. Capabilities Assessment and Employment Recommendations for Full Motion Video Optical Navigation Exploitation (FMV-ONE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ...coordinates, it can spell victory or defeat for a unit whose mission hangs on that information. Understanding that the current process was created in...tested across the spectrum of Remote Video Terminals (RVT) available within the Marine Corps and DOD, writ large. Various functional communities

  3. Assessing Video Presentations as Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Marion; Henry, Laurence; Perret, Audrey; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine; George, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of video presentations of natural landscapes on European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris) stereotypic behaviours (SBs) and other abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs) and to evaluate the impact of past experience by comparing wild-caught and hand-reared starlings' reactions. Ten wild-caught and five hand-reared starlings were presented 1-hour videos of landscapes twice a day for five successive days, while a control group of eight wild-caught and four hand-reared starlings was presented a grey screen for the same amount of time. The analysis of the starlings' behaviour revealed that the video presentations of landscapes appeared to have a positive but limited and experience-dependent effect on starlings' SBs and other ARBs compared to the controls. Indeed, whereas video presentations seemed to modulate high rates of SBs and ARBs, they did not appear to be enriching enough to prevent the emergence or the development of SBs and ARBs in an impoverished environment. They even appeared to promote a particular type of SB (somersaulting) that is thought to be linked to escape motivation. The fact that this effect was observed in hand-reared starlings suggests that videos of landscapes could elicit motivation to escape even in birds that never experienced outdoor life. These results highlight the importance of investigating stereotypic behaviour both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to provide crucial clues on animal welfare. PMID:24827457

  4. Atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound video encoding, wireless transmission, and quality assessment using H.264.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayides, A; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Loizou, C P; Pantziaris, M; Pitsillides, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    We propose a unifying framework for efficient encoding, transmission, and quality assessment of atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound video. The approach is based on a spatially varying encoding scheme, where video-slice quantization parameters are varied as a function of diagnostic significance. Video slices are automatically set based on a segmentation algorithm. They are then encoded using a modified version of H.264/AVC flexible macroblock ordering (FMO) technique that allows variable quality slice encoding and redundant slices (RSs) for resilience over error-prone transmission channels. We evaluate our scheme on a representative collection of ten ultrasound videos of the carotid artery for packet loss rates up to 30%. Extensive simulations incorporating three FMO encoding methods, different quantization parameters, and different packet loss scenarios are investigated. Quality assessment is based on a new clinical rating system that provides independent evaluations of the different parts of the video (subjective). We also use objective video-quality assessment metrics and estimate their correlation to the clinical quality assessment of plaque type. We find that some objective quality assessment measures computed over the plaque video slices gave very good correlations to mean opinion scores (MOSs). Here, MOSs were computed using two medical experts. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves enhanced performance in noisy environments, while at the same time achieving significant bandwidth demands reductions, providing transmission over 3G (and beyond) wireless networks.

  5. Quality assessment for wireless capsule endoscopy videos compressed via HEVC: From diagnostic quality to visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad Arslan; Usman, Muhammad Rehan; Shin, Soo Young

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining the quality of medical images and videos is an essential part of the e-services provided by the healthcare sector. The convergence of modern communication systems and the healthcare industry necessitates the provision of better quality of service and experience by the service provider. Recent inclusion and standardization of the high efficiency video coder (HEVC) has made it possible for medical data to be compressed and transmitted over wireless networks with minimal compromise of the quality. Quality evaluation and assessment of these medical videos transmitted over wireless networks is another important research area that requires further exploration and attention. In this paper, we have conducted an in-depth study of video quality assessment for compressed wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) videos. Our study includes the performance evaluation of several state-of-the-art objective video quality metrics in terms of determining the quality of compressed WCE videos. Subjective video quality experiments were conducted with the assistance of experts and non-experts in order to predict the diagnostic and visual quality of these medical videos, respectively. The evaluation of the metrics is based on three major performance metrics that include, correlation between the subjective and objective scores, relative statistical performance and computation time. Results show that the metrics information fidelity criterion (IFC), visual information fidelity-(VIF) and especially pixel based VIF stand out as best performing metrics. Furthermore, our paper reports the performance of HEVC compression on medical videos and according to the results, it performs optimally in preserving the diagnostic and visual quality of WCE videos at Quantization Parameter (QP) values of up to 35 and 37 respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Forest structural assessment using remote sensing technologies: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Natal and MONDI Business Paper have recently embarked on a remote sensing cooperative. The primary focus of this cooperative is to explore the potential benefits associated with using remote sensing for forestry-related activities.

  7. New methodical approach to the assessment of video record which is used when training of judoists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Ananchenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to offer a new methodical approach for the assessment of video record which is used when training of judoists. Material & Methods: the assessment of video record, which is used in the course of training of judoists, was carried out in the research; the poll of 23 masters of sports of Ukraine and masters of sports of international class. Results: flexibility of a new methodical approach for the video record assessment is proved. Methodical approach assumes the use of unique mathematical apparatus – methods of pair comparisons and arrangement of priorities. It can be used for the assessment of video films for judoists of the various skill level, age, physical parameters for individual training of certain judoists at the correct selection of parameters of comparison. Conclusions: the use of the given methodical approach will promote the increase of efficiency of the competitive activity and coach's work, will allow judoists to reach high levels of individual skill.

  8. Evaluation of Home Health Care Devices: Remote Usability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortum, Philip; Peres, S Camille

    2015-06-05

    An increasing amount of health care is now performed in a home setting, away from the hospital. While there is growing anecdotal evidence about the difficulty patients and caregivers have using increasingly complex health care devices in the home, there has been little systematic scientific study to quantify the global nature of home health care device usability in the field. Research has tended to focus on a handful of devices, making it difficult to gain a broad view of the usability of home-care devices in general. The objective of this paper is to describe a remote usability assessment method using the System Usability Scale (SUS), and to report on the usability of a broad range of health care devices using this metric. A total of 271 participants selected and rated up to 10 home health care devices of their choice using the SUS, which scores usability from 0 (unusable) to 100 (highly usable). Participants rated a total of 455 devices in their own home without an experimenter present. Usability scores ranged from 98 (oxygen masks) to 59 (home hormone test kits). An analysis conducted on devices that had at least 10 ratings showed that the effect of device on SUS scores was significant (Pusability of these devices was on the low end when compared with other commonly used items in the home, such as microwave ovens and telephones. A large database of usability scores for home health care devices collected using this remote methodology would be beneficial for physicians, patients, and their caregivers.

  9. Remote high-definition rotating video enables fast spatial survey of marine underwater macrofauna and habitats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelletier, Dominique; Leleu, Kévin; Mallet, Delphine; Mou-Tham, Gérard; Hervé, Gilles; Boureau, Matthieu; Guilpart, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Observing spatial and temporal variations of marine biodiversity from non-destructive techniques is central for understanding ecosystem resilience, and for monitoring and assessing conservation strategies, e.g...

  10. Remote Digital Preoperative Assessments for Cleft Lip and Palate May Improve Clinical and Economic Impact in Global Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher; Campbell, Jacob; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; McCormack, Susan; Silverman, Richard; Lalikos, Janice; Babigian, Alan; Castiglione, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Reconstructive surgical care can play a vital role in the resource-poor settings of low- and middle-income countries. Telemedicine platforms can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of surgical care. The purpose of this study is to determine whether remote digital video evaluations are reliable in the context of a short-term plastic surgical intervention. The setting for this study was a district hospital located in Latacunga, Ecuador. Participants were 27 consecutive patients who presented for operative repair of cleft lip and palate. We calculated kappa coefficients for reliability between in-person and remote digital video assessments for the classification of cleft lip and palate between two separate craniofacial surgeons. We hypothesized that the technology would be a reliable method of preoperative assessment for cleft disease. Of the 27 (81.4%) participants, 22 received operative treatment for their cleft disorder. Mean age was 11.1 ± 8.3 years. Patients presented with a spectrum of disorders, including cleft lip (24 of 27, 88.9%), cleft palate (19 of 27, 70.4%), and alveolar cleft (19 of 27, 70.4%). We found a 95.7% agreement between observers for cleft lip with substantial reliability (κ = .78, P cleft palate, with a moderate interrater reliability (κ = .55, P = .01). We found only a 47.8% agreement between observers for alveolar cleft with a nonsignificant, weak kappa agreement (κ = .06, P = .74). Remote digital assessments are a reliable way to preoperatively diagnose cleft lip and palate in the context of short-term plastic surgical interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Future work will evaluate the potential for real-time, telemedicine assessments to reduce cost and improve clinical effectiveness in global plastic surgery.

  11. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  12. Assessing the Early Characteristics of Autistic Disorder Using Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Young, Robyn; Williamson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The behaviours of infants were observed using home videos, in an attempt to identify social difficulties characteristic of infants with autistic disorder. Three groups of infants were analysed: 15 infants who had later been diagnosed with autism, 15 infants who had a developmental or language delay, and 15 typically developing infants. Social…

  13. Immersive video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  14. Effects That Facebook-Based Online Peer Assessment with Micro-Teaching Videos Can Have on Attitudes toward Peer Assessment and Perceived Learning from Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects that Facebook-based online peer assessment with micro-teaching videos can have on attitudes toward peer assessment and perceived learning from peer assessment. The study recruited a sample of 31 university students who were enrolled in a teacher-training course. Using assessees' microteaching videos, the…

  15. Is Tickling Torture? Assessing Welfare towards Slow Lorises (Nycticebus spp.) within Web 2.0 Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekaris, K Anne I; Musing, Louisa; Vazquez, Asier Gil; Donati, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Videos, memes and images of pet slow lorises have become increasingly popular on the Internet. Although some video sites allow viewers to tag material as 'animal cruelty', no site has yet acknowledged the presence of cruelty in slow loris videos. We examined 100 online videos to assess whether they violated the 'five freedoms' of animal welfare and whether presence or absence of these conditions contributed to the number of thumbs up and views received by the videos. We found that all 100 videos showed at least 1 condition known as negative for lorises, indicating absence of the necessary freedom; 4% showed only 1 condition, but in nearly one third (31.3%) all 5 chosen criteria were present, including human contact (57%), daylight (87%), signs of stress/ill health (53%), unnatural environment (91%) and isolation from conspecifics (77%). The public were more likely to like videos where a slow loris was kept in the light or displayed signs of stress. Recent work on primates has shown that imagery of primates in a human context can cause viewers to perceive them as less threatened. Prevalence of a positive public opinion of such videos is a real threat towards awareness of the conservation crisis faced by slow lorises. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Video education for critical care nurses to assess pain with a behavioural pain assessment tool: A descriptive comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Annika; Pudas-Tähkä, Sanna-Mari; Salanterä, Sanna; Axelin, Anna

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of video education on critical care nurses' knowledge and skills in using a behavioural pain assessment tool for intensive care patients and to explore the nurses' experiences with video education. Forty-eight nurses in one intensive care unit watched an educational video on the use of the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool, then assessed pain in two patients with the tool and took a knowledge test. The researcher made parallel pain assessments. Interrater reliability of patients' pain assessment between nurses and the researcher was determined to examine nurses' skills in using the tool after education. Twenty nurses were interviewed about their experiences with the video education. Interviews were analysed with deductive thematic analysis. The knowledge test scores indicated that the nurses learned the principles of how to use the tool. The interrater reliability of pain assessments reached a moderate level of agreement during the painful procedure, with a weighted kappa coefficient value of 0.48, CL [0.37, 0.58]. The nurses perceived video education positively, but requested additional interaction. Video education is useful in teaching the principles of using a pain assessment tool. Additional clinical training is required for nurses to reach adequate skills in using the tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An integrable, web-based solution for easy assessment of video-recorded performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Todsen, Tobias; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of clinical competencies by direct observation is problematic for two main reasons the identity of the examinee influences the assessment scores, and direct observation demands experts at the exact location and the exact time. Recording the performance can overcome these problems......; however, managing video recordings and assessment sheets is troublesome and may lead to missing or incorrect data. Currently, no existing software solution can provide a local solution for the management of videos and assessments but this is necessary as assessment scores are confidential information......, and access to this information should be restricted to select personnel. A local software solution may also ease the need for customization to local needs and integration into existing user databases or project management software. We developed an integrable web-based solution for easy assessment of video...

  18. Subjective quality assessment of an adaptive video streaming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Shahid, Muhammad; Garcia, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increased popularity and high usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) techniques, various studies have been carried out in this area which generally focused on the technical enhancement of HAS technology and applications. However, a lack of common HAS standard led to multiple proprietary approaches which have been developed by major Internet companies. In the emerging MPEG-DASH standard the packagings of the video content and HTTP syntax have been standardized; but all the details of the adaptation behavior are left to the client implementation. Nevertheless, to design an adaptation algorithm which optimizes the viewing experience of the enduser, the multimedia service providers need to know about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. Taking this into account, the objective of this experiment was to study the QoE of a HAS-based video broadcast model. The experiment has been carried out through a subjective study of the end user response to various possible clients' behavior for changing the video quality taking different QoE-influence factors into account. The experimental conclusions have made a good insight into the QoE of different adaptation schemes which can be exploited by HAS clients for designing the adaptation algorithms.

  19. Low-cost uncalibrated video-based tool for tridimensional reconstruction oriented to assessment of chronic wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Leslie; Treuillet, Sylvie; Valencia, Braulio; Llanos, Alejandro; Castañeda, Benjamín.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds are a major problem worldwide which mainly affects to the geriatric population or patients with limited mobility. In tropical countries, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis(CL)s is also a cause for chronic wounds,being endemic in Peru in the 75% of the country. Therefore, the monitoring of these wounds represents a big challenge due to the remote location of the patients. This papers aims to develop a low-cost user-friendly technique to obtain a 3D reconstruction for chronic wounds oriented to clinical monitoring and assessment. The video is taken using a commercial hand-held video camera without the need of a rig. The algorithm has been specially designed for skin wounds which have certain characteristics in texture where techniques used in regular SFM applications with undefined edges wouldn't work. In addition, the technique has been developed using open source libraries. The 3D cloud point estimated allows the computation of metrics as volume, depth, superficial area which recently have been used by CL specialists showing good results in clinical assessment. Initial results in cork phantoms and CL wounds show an average distance error of less than 1mm when compared against models obtained with a industrial 3D laser scanner.

  20. Assessing Video Games to Improve Driving Skills: A Literature Review and Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sue, Damian; Ray, Pradeep; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Vichitvanichphong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Background For individuals, especially older adults, playing video games is a promising tool for improving their driving skills. The ease of use, wide availability, and interactivity of gaming consoles make them an attractive simulation tool. Objective The objective of this study was to look at the feasibility and effects of installing video game consoles in the homes of individuals looking to improve their driving skills. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the eff...

  1. Toward a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: a systematic review of psychometric assessment tools

    OpenAIRE

    King, DL; Haagsma, MC; Delfabbro, PH; Gradisar, MS; Griffiths, MD

    2013-01-01

    Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to Cicchetti (1994) and Groth- Marnat’s (2009) criteria and guidelines for sound \\ud psychometric assessment. A total of 63 quantitative studies, including eighteen instruments and representing 58,415 ...

  2. Using remotely sensed data to construct and assess forest attribute maps and related spatial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Warren B. Cohen; Erik Naesset; Stephen V. Stehman; Erkki O. Tomppo

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous advances in the construction and assessment of forest attribute maps and related spatial products have been realized in recent years, partly as a result of the use of remotely sensed data as an information source. This review focuses on the current state of techniques for the construction and assessment of remote sensing-based maps and addresses five topic...

  3. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment Model for Distortion Caused by Packet Loss in the Real-Time Mobile Video Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet loss will make severe errors due to the corruption of related video data. For most video streams, because the predictive coding structures are employed, the transmission errors in one frame will not only cause decoding failure of itself at the receiver side, but also propagate to its subsequent frames along the motion prediction path, which will bring a significant degradation of end-to-end video quality. To quantify the effects of packet loss on video quality, a no-reference objective quality assessment model is presented in this paper. Considering the fact that the degradation of video quality significantly relies on the video content, the temporal complexity is estimated to reflect the varying characteristic of video content, using the macroblocks with different motion activities in each frame. Then, the quality of the frame affected by the reference frame loss, by error propagation, or by both of them is evaluated, respectively. Utilizing a two-level temporal pooling scheme, the video quality is finally obtained. Extensive experimental results show that the video quality estimated by the proposed method matches well with the subjective quality.

  4. Predicting personal preferences in subjective video quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari

    2017-01-01

    the characteristics of each test sample are represented by a set of parameters, and the individual preferences are represented by weights for the parameters. According to the validation experiment performed on public visual quality databases annotated with raw individual scores, the proposed model can predict......In this paper, we study the problem of predicting the visual quality of a specific test sample (e.g. a video clip) experienced by a specific user, based on the ratings by other users for the same sample and the same user for other samples. A simple linear model and algorithm is presented, where...

  5. 77 FR 47383 - Annual Assessment of the Status of Competition in the Market for the Delivery of Video Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... COMMISSION Annual Assessment of the Status of Competition in the Market for the Delivery of Video Programming... annually to Congress on the status of competition in markets for the delivery of video programming. This... delivery of video programming for the Commission's Fifteenth Report (15th Report). The 15th Report will...

  6. Formation and assessment of a novel surgical video atlas for thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpada, Sandip P; Hsueh, Wayne D; Newman, Seth B; Gibber, Marc J

    2017-01-01

    Within surgery, interactive media have previously been used to educate medical students and residents. Here, we develop and assess the efficacy of a novel surgical video atlas in teaching surgically relevant head and neck anatomy to medical students. A total thyroidectomy was recorded intraoperatively and subsequently narrated to develop a video atlas. Medical students were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. One group was assigned to the video atlas, while the other was supplied with a traditional textbook atlas. Both groups underwent pre- and post- tests to evaluate anatomical knowledge and satisfaction. Thirty-seven students completed the study, with 18 students in the experimental group and 19 students as control. In the video atlas arm, mean pre and post-test scores were 57.2% and 84.5%, respectively. In the traditional textbook arm, the mean pre- and post-test scores were 55.3% and 76.51%, respectively. Students with the video atlas had a mean post-test score 8.07% points higher than those without (p = .035). Overall, students were significantly more satisfied with the surgical video atlas than with the standard traditional textbook. A surgical video atlas was shown to more effectively teach head and neck anatomy to medical students compared to standard textbook atlases.

  7. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper; Jensen, Maria Anna Bruunsgaard; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøll; Nygaard, Ulrikka; Poulsen, Anja; Sørensen, Jette Led; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-04-01

    Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. A total of 81% of the students reported having seen a child with asthma in the daily clinic. In contrast, respiratory syncytial virus infection was only seen by 20%. Students' self-reported confidence in the assessment of paediatric patients increased after the video case library was made available: Before the intervention, 41% (57/138) of the students reported confidence at a score of 5-7 on a seven-point Likert scale. This increased to 64% (186/289) (p students judged the impact of video cases to be high (score 5-7 on a seven-point Likert scale) and after the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. The University of Copenhagen funded the study. not relevant.

  8. Video self-assessment of basic suturing and knot tying skills by novice trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinin; Tiemann, Debbie; Michael Brunt, L

    2013-01-01

    Self-assessment is important to learning but few studies have utilized video self-assessment of basic surgical skills. We compared a video self-assessment of suturing and knot tying skills by novice trainees to the assessment by a senior attending surgeon. Sixteen senior medical students and 7 beginner surgical interns were video-recorded while performing five suturing and knot tying tasks. All videos were analyzed using an objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) metrics (1-5 scale; 1 = novice, 5 = expert). Video self-assessment was carried out within 4 weeks of an instructional session and subsequently by one senior surgery instructor (blinded to the individual). Both a Global score and total combined OSATS scores were analyzed. Total possible OSATS scores were: interrupted suture-30, subcuticular closure-30, one and two-handed knot tying-25 each, tying in a restricted space 20; maximum combined score-130 points). Confidence levels in performing the tasks pre-test and the value of video self-assessment were rated on a 1-5 Likert scale (1 = low and 5 = high). Data are mean±SD and statistical significance was evaluated using Friedman's test. Self-assessment scoring was significantly higher than the assessment by a senior instructor for three tasks by global score and all five tasks by combined OSATS score (self-assessment 71.8±16.7 vs attending assessment 56.7±11.0, p = 0.007). Mean self-assessment Global scores ranged from 2.5 to 2.8 for all tasks performed compared to 1.8-2.3 for attending surgeon assessment (pvideo self-assessment was rated as a highly valuable (mean 4.3±0.8) component to skills training. Novice trainees over-estimate their basic technical skills performance compared to the assessment by a senior surgeon. Video self-assessment may be a valuable addition to a pre-residency and surgical internship preparatory curriculum in basic suturing and knot tying. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published

  9. Video calls from lay bystanders to dispatch centers - risk assessment of information security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, Stein R; Hasvold, Per; Henriksen, Eva

    2011-09-30

    Video calls from mobile phones can improve communication during medical emergencies. Lay bystanders can be instructed and supervised by health professionals at Emergency Medical Communication Centers. Before implementation of video mobile calls in emergencies, issues of information security should be addressed. Information security was assessed for risk, based on the information security standard ISO/IEC 27005:2008. A multi-professional team used structured brainstorming to find threats to the information security aspects confidentiality, quality, integrity, and availability. Twenty security threats of different risk levels were identified and analyzed. Solutions were proposed to reduce the risk level. Given proper implementation, we found no risks to information security that would advocate against the use of video calls between lay bystanders and Emergency Medical Communication Centers. The identified threats should be used as input to formal requirements when planning and implementing video calls from mobile phones for these call centers.

  10. Influence of Bit Depth on Subjective Video Quality Assessment for High Resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of bit depth on the subjective video quality assessment. To achieve this goal, eight video sequences, each representing a different content prototype, were analysed. Subjective evaluation was performed using the ACR method. The analysed video sequences were encoded to 8 and 10-bit bit depth. Two most used compression standards H.264 and H.265 were evaluated with 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 Mbps bitrate in Full HD and UHD resolution. Finally, the perceived quality of both compression standards using the subjective tests with emphasis on bit-depth was compared. From the results we can state, that the practical application of 10-bit bit depth is not appropriate for Full HD resolution in the range of bitrate from 1 to 15 Mbps, for Ultra HD resolution, it is appropriate only for videos encoded by H.265/HEVC compression standard.

  11. Video calls from lay bystanders to dispatch centers - risk assessment of information security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasvold Per

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Video calls from mobile phones can improve communication during medical emergencies. Lay bystanders can be instructed and supervised by health professionals at Emergency Medical Communication Centers. Before implementation of video mobile calls in emergencies, issues of information security should be addressed. Methods Information security was assessed for risk, based on the information security standard ISO/IEC 27005:2008. A multi-professional team used structured brainstorming to find threats to the information security aspects confidentiality, quality, integrity, and availability. Results Twenty security threats of different risk levels were identified and analyzed. Solutions were proposed to reduce the risk level. Conclusions Given proper implementation, we found no risks to information security that would advocate against the use of video calls between lay bystanders and Emergency Medical Communication Centers. The identified threats should be used as input to formal requirements when planning and implementing video calls from mobile phones for these call centers.

  12. Medical students' assessment of pediatric patients - teaching and evaluation using video cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Greisen, Gorm Ole

    2014-11-13

    We introduced video-based teaching in pediatrics. We evaluated the impact of a pediatric video program on student performance in assessing pediatric patients presented as video cases. The program consisted of a library of pediatric videos, and inclusion of these in the teaching and examination for pediatric medicine. Medical students on a pediatric clerkship at the University of Copenhagen assessed eight short pediatric video cases during autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Two independent observers evaluated a subset of records in a pilot study. A blind evaluation was made of the written records of 37 students before, and 58 students after, the introduction of the program using a Rubric score with four domains. The intraobserver interclass correlation coefficient was 0.94 and the interobserver interclass correlation was 0.71(n=25). The students' mean total Rubric score in spring 2012 (7.0) was significantly higher (ppediatric patients presented as video cases after the introduction of the program. The impact on real-life situations remains to be established.

  13. Measuring classroom management expertise (CME of teachers: A video-based assessment approach and statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes König

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at developing and exploring a novel video-based assessment that captures classroom management expertise (CME of teachers and for which statistical results are provided. CME measurement is conceptualized by using four video clips that refer to typical classroom management situations in which teachers are heavily challenged (involving the challenges to manage transitions, instructional time, student behavior, and instructional feedback and by applying three cognitive demands posed on respondents when responding to test items related to the video clips (accuracy of perception, holistic perception, and justification of action. Research questions are raised regarding reliability, testlet effects (related to the four video clips applied for measurement, intercorrelations of cognitive demands, and criterion-related validity of the instrument. Evidence is provided that (1 using a video-based assessment CME can be measured in a reliable way, (2 the CME total score represents a general ability that is only slightly influenced by testlet effects related to the four video clips, (3 the three cognitive demands conceptualized for the measurement of CME are highly intercorrelated, and (4 the CME measure is positively correlated with declarative-conceptual general pedagogical knowledge (medium effect size, whereas it shows only small size correlations with non-cognitive teacher variables.

  14. Subjective Quality Assessment of H.264/AVC Video Streaming with Packet Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naccari Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of video quality assessment relies on the availability of subjective scores, collected by means of experiments in which groups of people are asked to rate the quality of video sequences. The availability of subjective scores is fundamental to enable validation and comparative benchmarking of the objective algorithms that try to predict human perception of video quality by automatically analyzing the video sequences, in a way to support reproducible and reliable research results. In this paper, a publicly available database of subjective quality scores and corrupted video sequences is described. The scores refer to 156 sequences at CIF and 4CIF spatial resolutions, encoded with H.264/AVC and corrupted by simulating the transmission over an error-prone network. The subjective evaluation has been performed by 40 subjects at the premises of two academic institutions, in standard-compliant controlled environments. In order to support reproducible research in the field of full-reference, reduced-reference, and no-reference video quality assessment algorithms, both the uncompressed files and the H.264/AVC bitstreams, as well as the packet loss patterns, have been made available to the research community.

  15. Remote sensing assessment of carbon storage by urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Muhamad, N.; Kang, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    Urban forests play a crucial role in mitigating global warming by absorbing excessive CO2 emissions due to transportation, industry and house hold activities in the urban environment. In this study we have assessed the role of trees in an urban forest, (Mutiara Rini) located within the Iskandar Development region in south Johor, Malaysia. We first estimated the above ground biomass/carbon stock of the trees using allometric equations and biometric data (diameter at breast height of trees) collected in the field. We used remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) to develop an empirical relationship between VI and carbon stock. We used five different VIs derived from a very high resolution World View-2 satellite data. Results show that model by [1] and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index are correlated well (R2 = 0.72) via a power model. We applied the model to the entire study area to obtain carbon stock of urban forest. The average carbon stock in the urban forest (mostly consisting of Dipterocarp species) is ~70 t C ha-1. Results of this study can be used by the Iskandar Regional Development Authority to better manage vegetation in the urban environment to establish a low carbon city in this region.

  16. IMAGE QUATY ASSESSMENT FOR VHR REMOTE SENSING IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data from remote sensing images are widely used for characterizing land use and land cover at present. With the increasing availability of very high resolution (VHR remote sensing images, the remote sensing image classification becomes more and more important for information extraction. The VHR remote sensing images are rich in details, but high within-class variance as well as low between-class variance make the classification of ground cover a difficult task. What’s more, some related studies show that the quality of VHR remote sensing images also has a great influence on the ability of the automatic image classification. Therefore, the research that how to select the appropriate VHR remote sensing images to meet the application of classification is of great significance. In this context, the factors of VHR remote sensing image classification ability are discussed and some indices are selected for describing the image quality and the image classification ability objectively. Then, we explore the relationship of the indices of image quality and image classification ability under a specific classification framework. The results of the experiments show that these image quality indices are not effective for indicating the image classification ability directly. However, according to the image quality metrics, we can still propose some suggestion for the application of classification.

  17. Remote Sensing of Bioindicators for Forest Health Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn Carlisle

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on forest health in Mediterranean type climates in California, USA and Catalonia, Spain were investigated using a combination of remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and field studies focused on sensitive bioindicator conifer species and ambient ozone monitoring. For the field validation of impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health, the Ozone Injury Index (OII) was applied to the bioindicator species Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, and Pinus uncinata. Combining these three tools, it was possible to build meaningful ecological models covering large areas to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic interactions which affect forest health. Regression models predicting ozone injury improved considerably when incorporating ozone exposure with GIS related to plant water status, including water availability and water usage, as a proxies for estimating the stomatal conductance and ozone uptake R2=0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2=0.36, p < 0.001 in Yosemite and R2=0.33, p = 0.007 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in California). Individual OII components in Catalonia were modeled with improved success compared to the original full OII, in particular visible chlorotic mottling (R2=0.60, p < 0.001). The visual chlorotic mottling component of the OII was the most strongly correlated to remote sensing indices, in particular the photochemical reflectance index (PRI; R2=0.28, p=0.0044 for OIIVI-amount and R 2=0.33 and p=0.0016 for OIIVI -severity). Regression models assessing ozone injury to conifers using imaging spectroscopy techniques also improved when incorporating the GIS proxies of stomatal conductance (R 2=0.59, p<0.0001 for OII in California and R2=0.68, p<0.0001 for OIIVI in Catalonia). Finally, taking advantage of a time series of ambient ozone monitoring in Catalonia, it was found that all models improved when incorporating the cumulative exposure to ozone over a period of three years (R2=0.56, p

  18. Assessing the Content of YouTube Videos in Educating Patients Regarding Common Imaging Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Won, Eugene; Doshi, Ankur M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the content of currently available YouTube videos seeking to educate patients regarding commonly performed imaging examinations. After initial testing of possible search terms, the first two pages of YouTube search results for "CT scan," "MRI," "ultrasound patient," "PET scan," and "mammogram" were reviewed to identify educational patient videos created by health organizations. Sixty-three included videos were viewed and assessed for a range of features. Average views per video were highest for MRI (293,362) and mammography (151,664). Twenty-seven percent of videos used a nontraditional format (eg, animation, song, humor). All videos (100.0%) depicted a patient undergoing the examination, 84.1% a technologist, and 20.6% a radiologist; 69.8% mentioned examination lengths, 65.1% potential pain/discomfort, 41.3% potential radiation, 36.5% a radiology report/results, 27.0% the radiologist's role in interpretation, and 13.3% laboratory work. For CT, 68.8% mentioned intravenous contrast and 37.5% mentioned contrast safety. For MRI, 93.8% mentioned claustrophobia, 87.5% noise, 75.0% need to sit still, 68.8% metal safety, 50.0% intravenous contrast, and 0.0% contrast safety. For ultrasound, 85.7% mentioned use of gel. For PET, 92.3% mentioned radiotracer injection, 61.5% fasting, and 46.2% diabetic precautions. For mammography, unrobing, avoiding deodorant, and possible additional images were all mentioned by 63.6%; dense breasts were mentioned by 0.0%. Educational patient videos on YouTube regarding common imaging examinations received high public interest and may provide a valuable patient resource. Videos most consistently provided information detailing the examination experience and less consistently provided safety information or described the presence and role of the radiologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the early characteristics of autistic disorder using video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Young, Robyn; Williamson, Paul

    2007-02-01

    The behaviours of infants were observed using home videos, in an attempt to identify social difficulties characteristic of infants with autistic disorder. Three groups of infants were analysed: 15 infants who had later been diagnosed with autism, 15 infants who had a developmental or language delay, and 15 typically developing infants. Social behaviours were coded using both quantitative and qualitative measures. The principal discriminating items between the groups were found to be 'peer interest', 'gaze aversion', 'anticipatory postures', and 'proto-declarative showing'. The results suggest that these children later diagnosed with autism are clinically distinct from their peers before the age of two years, and that there are clearly observable behaviours which are important predictors of autistic disorder in pre-verbal children.

  20. Assessing Fish and Motile Fauna around Offshore Windfarms Using Stereo Baited Video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Griffin

    Full Text Available There remains limited knowledge of how offshore windfarm developments influence fish assemblages, particularly at a local scale around the turbine structures. Considering the existing levels of anthropogenic pressures on coastal fish populations it is becoming increasingly important for developers and environmental regulators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing fish assemblages. Improving our ability to assess such fish populations in close proximity to structures will assist in increasing this knowledge. In the present study we provide the first trial use of Baited Remote Underwater Stereo-Video systems (stereo BRUVs for the quantification of motile fauna in close proximity to offshore wind turbines. The study was conducted in the Irish Sea and finds the technique to be a viable means of assessing the motile fauna of such environments. The present study found a mixture of species including bottom dwellers, motile crustaceans and large predatory fish. The majority of taxa observed were found to be immature individuals with few adult individuals recorded. The most abundant species were the angular crab (Goneplax rhomboides and the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula. Of note in this study was the generally low abundance and diversity of taxa recorded across all samples, we hypothesise that this reflects the generally poor state of the local fauna of the Irish Sea. The faunal assemblages sampled in close proximity to turbines were observed to alter with increasing distance from the structure, species more characteristic of hard bottom environments were in abundance at the turbines (e.g. Homarus gammarus, Cancer pagarus, Scyliorhinus spp. and those further away more characteristic of soft bottoms (e.g. Norwegian Lobster. This study highlights the need for the environmental impacts of offshore renewables on motile fauna to be assessed using targeted and appropriate tools. Stereo BRUVs provide one of those

  1. Assessing Fish and Motile Fauna around Offshore Windfarms Using Stereo Baited Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ross A; Robinson, Gary J; West, Ashley; Gloyne-Phillips, Ian T; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2016-01-01

    There remains limited knowledge of how offshore windfarm developments influence fish assemblages, particularly at a local scale around the turbine structures. Considering the existing levels of anthropogenic pressures on coastal fish populations it is becoming increasingly important for developers and environmental regulators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing fish assemblages. Improving our ability to assess such fish populations in close proximity to structures will assist in increasing this knowledge. In the present study we provide the first trial use of Baited Remote Underwater Stereo-Video systems (stereo BRUVs) for the quantification of motile fauna in close proximity to offshore wind turbines. The study was conducted in the Irish Sea and finds the technique to be a viable means of assessing the motile fauna of such environments. The present study found a mixture of species including bottom dwellers, motile crustaceans and large predatory fish. The majority of taxa observed were found to be immature individuals with few adult individuals recorded. The most abundant species were the angular crab (Goneplax rhomboides) and the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). Of note in this study was the generally low abundance and diversity of taxa recorded across all samples, we hypothesise that this reflects the generally poor state of the local fauna of the Irish Sea. The faunal assemblages sampled in close proximity to turbines were observed to alter with increasing distance from the structure, species more characteristic of hard bottom environments were in abundance at the turbines (e.g. Homarus gammarus, Cancer pagarus, Scyliorhinus spp.) and those further away more characteristic of soft bottoms (e.g. Norwegian Lobster). This study highlights the need for the environmental impacts of offshore renewables on motile fauna to be assessed using targeted and appropriate tools. Stereo BRUVs provide one of those tools, but like

  2. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data for Regulatory Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of the needs that NASA can use for the remote sensing of water quality. The goal of this project is to provide information for decision-making activities (water quality standards) using remotely sensed/satellite based water quality data from MODIS and Landsat data.

  3. Applying HAZOP analysis in assessing remote handling compatibility of ITER port plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisings, L. P. M.; van Til, S.; Magielsen, A. J.; Ronden, D. M. S.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Heemskerk, C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) methodology in assessing the criticality of remote handling maintenance activities on port plugs in the ITER Hot Cell facility. As part of the ECHUL consortium, the remote handling team at the DIFFER Institute is

  4. Regional assessment of lake water clarity using satellite remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. SKOLE

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake water clarity as measured by Secchi disk transparency (SDT is a cost-effective measure of water quality. However, in regions where there are thousands of lakes, sampling even a small proportion of those lakes for SDT year after year is cost prohibitive. Remote sensing has the potential to be a powerful tool for assessing lake clarity over large spatial scales. The overall objective of our study was to examine whether Landsat-7 ETM+ could be used to measure water clarity across a large range of lakes. Our specific objectives were to: 1 develop a regression model to estimate SDT from Landsat data calibrated using 93 lakes in Michigan, U.S.A., and to 2 examine how the distribution of SDT across the 93 calibration lakes influenced the model. Our calibration dataset included a large number of lakes with a wide range of SDT values that captured the summer statewide distribution of SDT values in Michigan. Our regression model had a much lower r2 value than previously published studies conducted on smaller datasets. To examine the importance of the distribution of calibration data, we simulated a calibration dataset with a different SDT distribution by sub-sampling the original dataset to match the distribution of previous studies. The sub-sampled dataset had a much higher percentage of lakes with shallow water clarity, and the resulting regression model had a much higher r2 value than our original model. Our study shows that the use of Landsat to measure water clarity is sensitive to the distribution of water clarity used in the calibration set.

  5. Research on assessment and improvement method of remote sensing image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Hua, Nian; Yu, Yanbo; Zhao, Zhanping

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing image quality assessment and improvement is an important part of image processing. Generally, the use of compressive sampling theory in remote sensing imaging system can compress images while sampling which can improve efficiency. A method of two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is proposed to reconstruct the remote sensing image to improve the quality of the compressed image in this paper, which contain the useful information of image and can restrain the noise. Then, remote sensing image quality influence factors are analyzed, and the evaluation parameters for quantitative evaluation are introduced. On this basis, the quality of the reconstructed images is evaluated and the different factors influence on the reconstruction is analyzed, providing meaningful referential data for enhancing the quality of remote sensing images. The experiment results show that evaluation results fit human visual feature, and the method proposed have good application value in the field of remote sensing image processing.

  6. Assessment of remote maintenance technologies and their potential application in the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, C.T.; Meacham, S.A.; Peishel, F.L.

    1988-10-01

    The 40 plus years of remote operating experience in nuclear facilities are summarized, with emphasis on the evolution and capabilities of the remote systems. Current commercially available systems and major development activities are described. The advanced servomanipulator is described, which represents new remote technology that has been developed for the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy and that can significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. Also based upon past ORNL experience with remote facilities for reprocessing fuel, the guidelines and concepts that are utilized in the design, fabrication, and remote operation of mechanical process equipment and facilities are outlined. The currently available remote handling systems that can be applied, in various combinations, to large-volume in-cell operations are described, and requirements for waste storage facilities are reviewed. A basic trade-off analysis of these remote systems considering waste plant requirements is given. Justification is given for selecting the overhead crane/servomanipulator-based maintenance concept as the option most desirable for future waste processing plant in-cell maintenance. The Robotics/Remote Handling workshop that was implemented by the Office of Storage and Transportation System during the period that this assessment was being performed, helped focus the remaining time allocated to this effort on the future implementation of an overall program plan using a total systems approach. The concluding recommendation of this assessment is that this Robotics/Remote Handling program plan be developed and implemented as soon as possible. 43 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Subjective Video Quality Assessment of H.265 Compression Standard for Full HD Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Uhrina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently increasing interest in multimedia services leads to requirements for quality assessment, especially in the video domain. There are many factors that influence the video quality. Compression technology and transmission link imperfection can be considered as the main ones. This paper deals with the assessment of the impact of H.265/HEVC compression standard on the video quality using subjective metrics. The evaluation is done for two types of sequences with Full HD resolution depending on content. The paper is divided as follows. In the first part of the article, a short characteristic of the H.265/HEVC compression standard is written. In the second part, the subjective video quality methods used in our experiments are described. The last part of this article deals with the measurements and experimental results. They showed that quality of sequences coded between 5 and 7 Mbps is for observers sufficient, so there is no need for providers to use higher bitrates in streaming than this threshold. These results are part of a new model that is still being created and will be used for predicting the video quality in networks based on IP.

  8. Video Head Impulse Tests with a Remote Camera System: Normative Values of Semicircular Canal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Gain in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvette R. Wiener-Vacher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The video head impulse test (VHIT is widely used to identify semicircular canal function impairments in adults. But classical VHIT testing systems attach goggles tightly to the head, which is not tolerated by infants. Remote video detection of head and eye movements resolves this issue and, here, we report VHIT protocols and normative values for children. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain was measured for all canals of 303 healthy subjects, including 274 children (aged 2.6 months–15 years and 26 adults (aged 16–67. We used the Synapsys® (Marseilles, France VHIT Ulmer system whose remote camera measures head and eye movements. HITs were performed at high velocities. Testing typically lasts 5–10 min. In infants as young as 3 months old, VHIT yielded good inter-measure replicability. VOR gain increases rapidly until about the age of 6 years (with variation among canals, then progresses more slowly to reach adult values by the age of 16. Values are more variable among very young children and for the vertical canals, but showed no difference for right versus left head rotations. Normative values of VOR gain are presented to help detect vestibular impairment in patients. VHIT testing prior to cochlear implants could help prevent total vestibular loss and the resulting grave impairments of motor and cognitive development in patients with residual unilateral vestibular function.

  9. Students' Perceptions on Using Different Listening Assessment Methods: Audio-Only and Video Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Norazean; Muhammad, Ahmad Mazli; Ganapathy, Nurul Nadiah Dewi Faizul; Khairuddin, Zulaikha; Othman, Salwa

    2017-01-01

    The importance and usefulness of incorporating video media elements to teach listening have become part of the general understanding and commonplace in the academia nowadays (Alonso, 2013; Macwan, 2015; Garcia, 2012). Hence, it is of vital importance that students are taught effectively and assessed accordingly on their listening skills. The…

  10. Assessing Perceptions of Interpersonal Behavior with a Video-Based Situational Judgment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovich, Juliya; Seybert, Jacob; Martin-Raugh, Michelle; Naemi, Bobby; Vega, Ronald P.; Roberts, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate appraisal of others' behavior is critical for the production of skilled interpersonal behavior. We used an ecologically valid methodology, a video-based situational judgment test with true-false items, to assess the accuracy with which students (N = 947) perceive the interpersonal behavior of actors involved in workplace situations.…

  11. Using Web-Based Video as an Assessment Tool for Student Performance in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew; Fredricks, Susan; Dudkin, Elizabeth; Kistler, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    This article shows the potential for using video responses to specific questions as part of the assessment process in an organic chemistry class. These exercises have been used with a postbaccalaureate cohort of 40 students, learning in an online environment, over a period of four years. A second cohort of 25 second-year students taking the…

  12. Assessing Nonverbal Communication Skills through Video Recording and Debriefing of Clinical Skill Simulation Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinerichs, Scott; Cattano, Nicole M.; Morrison, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Nonverbal communication (NVC) skills are a critical component to clinician interactions with patients, and no research exists on the investigation of athletic training students' nonverbal communication skills. Video recording and debriefing have been identified as methods to assess and educate students' NVC skills in other allied health…

  13. Video Review in Self-Assessment of Pharmacy Students' Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, Lucio R.; Das, Rolee Pathak

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a student self-assessment activity of a video-recorded counseling session and evaluate its impact on student self-perceptions of specific communication skills. This activity was incorporated into a core-communications course within the third professional year of a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. Student…

  14. Validation of 24-hour ambulatory gait assessment in Parkinson's disease with simultaneous video observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilda Valentina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in motor disturbances that can impact normal gait. Although PD initially responds well to pharmacological treatment, as the disease progresses efficacy often fluctuates over the course of the day, and clinical management would benefit from long-term objective measures of gait. We have previously described a small device worn on the shank that uses acceleration and angular velocity sensors to calculate stride length and identify freezing of gait in PD patients. In this study we extend validation of the gait monitor to 24-h using simultaneous video observation of PD patients. Methods A sleep laboratory was adapted to perform 24-hr video monitoring of patients while wearing the device. Continuous video monitoring of a sleep lab, hallway, kitchen and conference room was performed using a 4-camera security system and recorded to hard disk. Subjects (3 wore the gait monitor on the left shank (just above the ankle for a 24-h period beginning around 5 pm in the evening. Accuracy of stride length measures were assessed at the beginning and end of the 24-h epoch. Two independent observers rated the video logs to identify when subjects were walking or lying down. Results The mean error in stride length at the start of recording was 0.05 m (SD 0 and at the conclusion of the 24 h epoch was 0.06 m (SD 0.026. There was full agreement between observer coding of the video logs and the output from the gait monitor software; that is, for every video observation of the subject walking there was a corresponding pulse in the monitor data that indicated gait. Conclusions The accuracy of ambulatory stride length measurement was maintained over the 24-h period, and there was 100% agreement between the autonomous detection of locomotion by the gait monitor and video observation.

  15. Assessing video games to improve driving skills: a literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Damian; Ray, Pradeep; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Vichitvanichphong, Suchada

    2014-08-07

    For individuals, especially older adults, playing video games is a promising tool for improving their driving skills. The ease of use, wide availability, and interactivity of gaming consoles make them an attractive simulation tool. The objective of this study was to look at the feasibility and effects of installing video game consoles in the homes of individuals looking to improve their driving skills. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the effect of playing video games on improving driving skills. An observatory study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using an Xbox 360 Kinect console for improving driving skills. Twenty-nine articles, which discuss the implementation of video games in improving driving skills were found in literature. On our study, it was found the Xbox 360 with Kinect is capable of improving physical and mental activities. Xbox Video games were introduced to engage players in physical, visual and cognitive activities including endurance, postural sway, reaction time, eyesight, eye movement, attention and concentration, difficulties with orientation, and semantic fluency. However, manual dexterity, visuo-spatial perception and binocular vision could not be addressed by these games. It was observed that Xbox Kinect (by incorporating Kinect sensor facilities) combines physical, visual and cognitive engagement of players. These results were consistent with those from the literature review. From the research that has been carried out, we can conclude that video game consoles are a viable solution for improving user's physical and mental state. In future we propose to carry a thorough evaluation of the effects of video games on driving skills in elderly people.

  16. Assessing the potential of remote sensing to discriminate invasive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of remote sensing to discriminate Seriphium plumosum from grass using a field spectrometer data was investigated in this study. Analysis focused on wavelength regions that showed potential of discriminating S. plumosum from grass which were determined from global pair spectral comparison between S.

  17. Assessing the accuracy of remote sensing techniques in vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at exploring different remote sensing (RS) techniques for quantitatively measuring vegetation and bare soil fractions in dune ecosystems along the Kenyan coast. The accurate measurements of field samples are required by Kenya Wildlife for environmental monitoring. The current methodology for ...

  18. Recent advances in remote sensing and geoinformation processing for land degradation assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Roeder, Achim

    2009-01-01

    Acknowledgements Contributors Achim Röder & Joachim Hill, Remote sensing and geoinformation processing in land degradation assessment-an introduction Part 1 Setting the scene: principles in remote sensing and spatial scene modelling for land degradation assessmentEric F. Lambin, Helmut Geist, James F. Reynolds & D. Mark Stafford-Smith, Coupled human-environment system approaches to desertification: Linking people to pixels Susan L. Ustin, Alacia Palacios-Orueta, Michael L. Whiting, Stéphane Jacquemoud & Lin Li, Remote sensing based assessm

  19. Development and assessment of a chemistry-based computer video game as a learning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Kermin Joel

    The chemistry-based computer video game is a multidisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and computer graphics and technology fields developed to explore the use of video games as a possible learning tool. This innovative approach aims to integrate elements of commercial video game and authentic chemistry context environments into a learning experience through gameplay. The project consists of three areas: development, assessment, and implementation. However, the foci of this study were the development and assessment of the computer video game including possible learning outcomes and game design elements. A chemistry-based game using a mixed genre of a single player first-person game embedded with action-adventure and puzzle components was developed to determine if students' level of understanding of chemistry concepts change after gameplay intervention. Three phases have been completed to assess students' understanding of chemistry concepts prior and after gameplay intervention. Two main assessment instruments (pre/post open-ended content survey and individual semi-structured interviews) were used to assess student understanding of concepts. In addition, game design elements were evaluated for future development phases. Preliminary analyses of the interview data suggest that students were able to understand most of the chemistry challenges presented in the game and the game served as a review for previously learned concepts as well as a way to apply such previous knowledge. To guarantee a better understanding of the chemistry concepts, additions such as debriefing and feedback about the content presented in the game seem to be needed. The use of visuals in the game to represent chemical processes, game genre, and game idea appear to be the game design elements that students like the most about the current computer video game.

  20. Objective Video Quality Assessment Based on Machine Learning for Underwater Scientific Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Roldán, José-Miguel; Luque-Nieto, Miguel-Ángel; Poncela, Javier; Otero, Pablo

    2017-03-23

    Video services are meant to be a fundamental tool in the development of oceanic research. The current technology for underwater networks (UWNs) imposes strong constraints in the transmission capacity since only a severely limited bitrate is available. However, previous studies have shown that the quality of experience (QoE) is enough for ocean scientists to consider the service useful, although the perceived quality can change significantly for small ranges of variation of video parameters. In this context, objective video quality assessment (VQA) methods become essential in network planning and real time quality adaptation fields. This paper presents two specialized models for objective VQA, designed to match the special requirements of UWNs. The models are built upon machine learning techniques and trained with actual user data gathered from subjective tests. Our performance analysis shows how both of them can successfully estimate quality as a mean opinion score (MOS) value and, for the second model, even compute a distribution function for user scores.

  1. Video-based self-assessment: implementation and evaluation in an undergraduate nursing course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, M S; Son, Y J; Kim, Y S; Park, J H

    2009-08-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of video-based self-assessment on the ability of nursing students to accurately measure vital signs, their communication skills, and their satisfaction. This research was conducted between March 2007 and June 2007 as a quasi-experimental control-group, pretest-posttest design. The study population was composed of 40 second-year student nurses who enrolled in a fundamentals of nursing course of a college of nursing, Ajou University in Korea. Results of the research indicate that there was a statistically significant difference in exam scores for assessing long-term memory video-review group demonstrating higher scores. Student satisfaction was also significantly higher in the video-review group than in the control group. These results may suggest video-based self-assessment is a beneficial and effective instructional method of training undergraduate nursing students to develop awareness of their strengths and weaknesses, and to improve their clinical and communication skills.

  2. Toward a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: a systematic review of psychometric assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Haagsma, Maria C; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-04-01

    Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to Cicchetti (1994) and Groth-Marnat's (2009) criteria and guidelines for sound psychometric assessment. A total of 63 quantitative studies, including eighteen instruments and representing 58,415 participants, were evaluated. Results indicated that reviewed instrumentation may be broadly characterized as inconsistent. Strengths of available measures include: (i) short length and ease of scoring, (ii) excellent internal consistency and convergent validity, and (iii) potentially adequate data for development of standardized norms for adolescent populations. However, key limitations included: (a) inconsistent coverage of core addiction indicators, (b) varying cut-off scores to indicate clinical status, (c) a lack of a temporal dimension, (d) untested or inconsistent dimensionality, and (e) inadequate data on predictive validity and inter-rater reliability. An emerging consensus suggests that pathological video-gaming is commonly defined by (1) withdrawal, (2) loss of control, and (3) conflict. It is concluded that a unified approach to assessment of pathological video-gaming is needed. A synthesis of extant research efforts by meta-analysis may be difficult in the context of several divergent approaches to assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel no-reference objective stereoscopic video quality assessment method based on visual saliency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyan; Zhao, Wei; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qin

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a no-reference objective stereoscopic video quality assessment method with the motivation that making the effect of objective experiments close to that of subjective way. We believe that the image regions with different visual salient degree should not have the same weights when designing an assessment metric. Therefore, we firstly use GBVS algorithm to each frame pairs and separate both the left and right viewing images into the regions with strong, general and week saliency. Besides, local feature information like blockiness, zero-crossing and depth are extracted and combined with a mathematical model to calculate a quality assessment score. Regions with different salient degree are assigned with different weights in the mathematical model. Experiment results demonstrate the superiority of our method compared with the existed state-of-the-art no-reference objective Stereoscopic video quality assessment methods.

  4. Advances in Remote Respiratory Assessments for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroi, Sidney; McNamara, Renae J; McKenzie, David K; Gandevia, Simon; Brodie, Matthew A

    2017-10-30

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality. Advances in remote technologies and telemedicine provide new ways to monitor respiratory function and improve chronic disease management. However, telemedicine does not always include remote respiratory assessments, and the current state of knowledge for people with COPD has not been evaluated. Systematically review the use of remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD, including the following questions: What devices have been used? Can acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) be predicted by using remote devices? Do remote respiratory assessments improve health-related outcomes? The review protocol was registered (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016049333). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COMPENDEX databases were searched for studies that included remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD. A narrative synthesis was then conducted by two reviewers according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Forced expiratory volume assessed daily by using a spirometer was the most common modality. Other measurements included resting respiratory rate, respiratory sounds, and end-tidal carbon dioxide level. Remote assessments had high user satisfaction. Benefits included early detection of AECOPD, improved health-related outcomes, and the ability to replace hospital care with a virtual ward. Remote respiratory assessments are feasible and when combined with sufficient organizational backup can improve health-related outcomes in some but not all cohorts. Future research should focus on the early detection, intervention, and rehabilitation for AECOPD in high-risk people who have limited access to best care and investigate continuous as well as intermittent monitoring.

  5. Peer assessment of student-produced mechanics lab report videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Scott S.; Aiken, John M.; Lin, Shih-Yin; Greco, Edwin F.; Alicea-Muñoz, Emily; Schatz, Michael F.

    2017-12-01

    We examine changes in students' rating behavior during a semester-long sequence of peer evaluation laboratory exercises in an introductory mechanics course. We perform a quantitative analysis of the ratings given by students to peers' physics lab reports, and conduct interviews with students. We find that peers persistently assign higher ratings to lab reports than do experts, that peers begin the semester by giving high ratings most frequently and end the semester with frequent middle ratings, and that peers go through the semester without much change in the frequency of low ratings. We then use student interviews to develop a model for student engagement with peer assessment. This model is based on two competing influences which appear to shape peer evaluation behavior: a strong disinclination to give poor ratings with a complementary preference to give high ratings when in doubt, and an attempt to develop an expertlike criticality when assessing peers' work.

  6. Task-oriented quality assessment and adaptation in real-time mission critical video streaming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    In recent years video traffic has become the dominant application on the Internet with global year-on-year increases in video-oriented consumer services. Driven by improved bandwidth in both mobile and fixed networks, steadily reducing hardware costs and the development of new technologies, many existing and new classes of commercial and industrial video applications are now being upgraded or emerging. Some of the use cases for these applications include areas such as public and private security monitoring for loss prevention or intruder detection, industrial process monitoring and critical infrastructure monitoring. The use of video is becoming commonplace in defence, security, commercial, industrial, educational and health contexts. Towards optimal performances, the design or optimisation in each of these applications should be context aware and task oriented with the characteristics of the video stream (frame rate, spatial resolution, bandwidth etc.) chosen to match the use case requirements. For example, in the security domain, a task-oriented consideration may be that higher resolution video would be required to identify an intruder than to simply detect his presence. Whilst in the same case, contextual factors such as the requirement to transmit over a resource-limited wireless link, may impose constraints on the selection of optimum task-oriented parameters. This paper presents a novel, conceptually simple and easily implemented method of assessing video quality relative to its suitability for a particular task and dynamically adapting videos streams during transmission to ensure that the task can be successfully completed. Firstly we defined two principle classes of tasks: recognition tasks and event detection tasks. These task classes are further subdivided into a set of task-related profiles, each of which is associated with a set of taskoriented attributes (minimum spatial resolution, minimum frame rate etc.). For example, in the detection class

  7. Assessment of Infrared Remote Chemical Sensing Systems with Numeric Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, H.; McVey, B.; Schmitt, M.

    1998-11-01

    A general approach to the evaluation of remote chemical sensors is described that can be used to provide evaluation of the chemical detection in a particular chemical scenario. It will be used to make comparisons of a CO{sub 2} laser differential absorption lidar sensor and a passive thermal FTIR sensor. The focus of the study will be to evaluate the advantage of the FTIR sensor's increased spectral coverage and number of frequency channels.

  8. EVA: laparoscopic instrument tracking based on Endoscopic Video Analysis for psychomotor skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Lamata, Pablo; Fernández, Alvaro; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Jansen, Frank Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-03-01

    The EVA (Endoscopic Video Analysis) tracking system is a new system for extracting motions of laparoscopic instruments based on nonobtrusive video tracking. The feasibility of using EVA in laparoscopic settings has been tested in a box trainer setup. EVA makes use of an algorithm that employs information of the laparoscopic instrument's shaft edges in the image, the instrument's insertion point, and the camera's optical center to track the three-dimensional position of the instrument tip. A validation study of EVA comprised a comparison of the measurements achieved with EVA and the TrEndo tracking system. To this end, 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts) were asked to perform a peg transfer task in a box trainer. Ten motion-based metrics were used to assess their performance. Construct validation of the EVA has been obtained for seven motion-based metrics. Concurrent validation revealed that there is a strong correlation between the results obtained by EVA and the TrEndo for metrics, such as path length (ρ = 0.97), average speed (ρ = 0.94), or economy of volume (ρ = 0.85), proving the viability of EVA. EVA has been successfully validated in a box trainer setup, showing the potential of endoscopic video analysis to assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills. The results encourage further implementation of video tracking in training setups and image-guided surgery.

  9. Challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penelope Morgan; Robert E. Keane; Gregory K. Dillon; Theresa B. Jain; Andrew T. Hudak; Eva C. Karau; Pamela G. Sikkink; Zachery A. Holden; Eva K. Strand

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of ecological change after fires have burned forests and rangelands is important if we are to understand, predict and measure fire effects. We highlight the challenges in effective assessment of fire and burn severity in the field and using both remote sensing and simulation models. We draw on diverse recent research for guidance on assessing...

  10. The effects of self-assessment and supervisor feedback on residents' patient-education competency using videoed outpatient consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouda, Jan C; van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effects of residents' communication self-assessment and supervisor feedback on residents' communication-competency awareness, on their patient-education competency, and on their patients' opinion. The program consisted of the implementation of a communication self-assessment and feedback process using videoed outpatient consultations (video-CAF). Residents wrote down communication learning objectives during the instruction and after each video-CAF session. Residents' patient-education competency was assessed by trained raters, using the CELI instrument. Participating patients completed a questionnaire about the contact with their physician. Forty-four residents and 21 supervisors participated in 87 video-CAF sessions. After their first video-CAF session, residents wrote down more learning objectives addressing their control and rapport skills and their listening skills. Video-CAF participation improved residents' patient-education competency, but only in their control and rapport skills. Video-CAF participation had no effect on patients' opinion. Video-CAF appears to be a feasible procedure and might be effective in improving residents' patient-education competency in clinical practice. Video-CAF could fill the existing deficiency of communication training in residency programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bathyal demersal fishes of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone region (49°-54°N) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: III. Results from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) video transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Thomas D.; Alt, Claudia H. S.; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Priede, Imants G.

    2013-12-01

    Demersal fish were assessed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) video transects at sites to the NE, NW (54°N), SE and SW (49°N) of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) at ca. 2500 m depth on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. At each site, three different slope categories (flat, 10° slope and >30° slope) were sampled with four transects, each surveying 2000 m3 of suprabenthic water. This resulted in 12 high-definition video transects at every site, covering a total of 24,000 m3 suprabenthic water. Six species were observed; which was fewer than in surveys using baited landers (19 species) and trawls (26 species) in the same area. Bathysaurus ferox, Halosauropsis macrochir, Antimora rostrata and Polyacanthonotus challengeri did not vary in density between sites, while Coryphaenoides brevibarbis and Coryphaenoides armatus were significantly more abundant at the northern sites; the latter supporting findings using baited landers. The halosaur H. macrochir was the only species affected by slope. The majority of observed fish showed no reaction to one or more of the stimuli produced by the ROV, however burst swimming was observed at least once in all species except B. ferox. The most abundant species, C. brevibarbis, was particularly affected by the presence of the ROV.

  12. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  13. Assessing soil carbon stocks under pastures through orbital remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Gyula Julius Szakács

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of world food and energy supply increases the threat of global warming due to higher greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural activity. Therefore, it is widely admitted that agriculture must establish a new paradigm in terms of environmental sustainability that incorporate techniques for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This article addresses to the scientific demand to estimate in a fast and inexpensive manner current and potential soil organic carbon (SOC stocks in degraded pastures, using remote sensing techniques. Four pastures on sandy soils under Brazilian Cerrado vegetation in São Paulo state were chosen due to their SOC sequestration potential, which was characterized for the soil depth 0-50 cm. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was performed between SOC and Leaf Area Index (LAI measured in the field (LAIfield and derived by satellite (LAIsatellite as well as SOC and pasture reflectance in six spectra from 450 nm - 2350 nm, using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ sensor of satellite Landsat 7. A high correlation between SOC and LAIfield (R² = 0.9804 and LAIsatellite (R² = 0.9812 was verified. The suitability of satellite derived LAI for SOC determination leads to the assumption, that orbital remote sensing is a very promising SOC estimation technique from regional to global scale.

  14. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    having seen a child with asthma in the daily clinic. In contrast, respiratory syncytial virus infection was only seen by 20%. Students' self-reported confidence in the assessment of paediatric patients increased after the video case library was made available: Before the intervention, 41% (57....../138) of the students reported confidence at a score of 5-7 on a seven-point Likert scale. This increased to 64% (186/289) (p

  15. Wave-climate assessment by satellite remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barstow, S.; Krogstad, H.E. [SINTEF, Trodheim (Norway)

    1995-10-01

    Satellite remote sensing based on radar altimetry and the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be used for accurate ocean-wave climatology globally. The altimeter provides significant wave height and wind speed whereas SAR in principle gives the full wave spectrum. Over the next few years, altimeter-derived wave heights will become the basic data sources for open-ocean statistics and SAR, in combination with results from global wave models, will provide the corresponding directional statistics. In addition, SAR may be used for studying wave conditions in near coastal areas. In the Norwegian Sea and elsewhere, real-time SAT and altimeter data are now being used operationally for forecasting and assimilation into numerical wave models.

  16. Remote in vivo stress assessment of aquatic animals with microencapsulated biomarkers for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Bedulina, Daria; Baduev, Boris; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Meglinski, Igor; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Remote in vivo scanning of physiological parameters is a major trend in the development of new tools for the fields of medicine and animal physiology. For this purpose, a variety of implantable optical micro- and nanosensors have been designed for potential medical applications. At the same time, the important area of environmental sciences has been neglected in the development of techniques for remote physiological measurements. In the field of environmental monitoring and related research, there is a constant demand for new effective and quick techniques for the stress assessment of aquatic animals, and the development of proper methods for remote physiological measurements in vivo may significantly increase the precision and throughput of analyses in this field. In the present study, we apply pH-sensitive microencapsulated biomarkers to remotely monitor the pH of haemolymph in vivo in endemic amphipods from Lake Baikal, and we compare the suitability of this technique for stress assessment with that of common biochemical methods. For the first time, we demonstrate the possibility of remotely detecting a change in a physiological parameter in an aquatic organism under ecologically relevant stressful conditions and show the applicability of techniques using microencapsulated biomarkers for remote physiological measurements in environmental monitoring.

  17. In Situ/Remote Sensing Integration to Assess Forest Health—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pause

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For mapping, quantifying and monitoring regional and global forest health, satellite remote sensing provides fundamental data for the observation of spatial and temporal forest patterns and processes. While new remote-sensing technologies are able to detect forest data in high quality and large quantity, operational applications are still limited by deficits of in situ verification. In situ sampling data as input is required in order to add value to physical imaging remote sensing observations and possibilities to interlink the forest health assessment with biotic and abiotic factors. Numerous methods on how to link remote sensing and in situ data have been presented in the scientific literature using e.g. empirical and physical-based models. In situ data differs in type, quality and quantity between case studies. The irregular subsets of in situ data availability limit the exploitation of available satellite remote sensing data. To achieve a broad implementation of satellite remote sensing data in forest monitoring and management, a standardization of in situ data, workflows and products is essential and necessary for user acceptance. The key focus of the review is a discussion of concept and is designed to bridge gaps of understanding between forestry and remote sensing science community. Methodological approaches for in situ/remote-sensing implementation are organized and evaluated with respect to qualifying for forest monitoring. Research gaps and recommendations for standardization of remote-sensing based products are discussed. Concluding the importance of outstanding organizational work to provide a legally accepted framework for new information products in forestry are highlighted.

  18. Objective Video Quality Assessment of Direct Recording and Datavideo HDR-40 Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofia Andreana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital Video Recorder (DVR is a digital video recorder with hard drive storage media. When the capacity of the hard disk runs out. It will provide information to users and if there is no response, it will be overwritten automatically and the data will be lost. The main focus of this paper is to enable recording directly connected to a computer editor. The output of both systems (DVR and Direct Recording will be compared with an objective assessment using the Mean Square Error (MSE and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR parameter. The results showed that the average value of MSE Direct Recording dB 797.8556108, 137.4346100 DVR MSE dB and the average value of PSNR Direct Recording and DVR PSNR dB 19.5942333 27.0914258 dB. This indicates that the DVR has a much better output quality than Direct Recording.

  19. The Use of Eye Tracking in Research on Video-Based Second Language (L2) Listening Assessment: A Comparison of Context Videos and Content Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Investigating how visuals affect test takers' performance on video-based L2 listening tests has been the focus of many recent studies. While most existing research has been based on test scores and self-reported verbal data, few studies have examined test takers' viewing behavior (Ockey, 2007; Wagner, 2007, 2010a). To address this gap, in the…

  20. Ecological environment assessment based on Remote Sensing in Zhengzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hengliang; Zhang, Baowei; Bai, Yunfei; He, Xiaohui

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the ecological environmental quality of Zhengzhou city was evaluated and analysed by images of Landsat series of 1997, 2006 and 2014 based on the weights by using principal component analysis to determine the green degree, humidity, dryness and heat of the 4 indicators, using remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) evaluation model. The results showed that in 1997-2014, the ecological environment quality in Zhengzhou city was generally decreased, and the mean RSEI decreased from 0.553 to 0.401; the improving the ecological environment of the region was mainly distributed in the surrounding Zhengzhou City, accounted for only 23.86% of the total area; ecological and environmental deterioration in the region was mainly distributed around the built-up area in the city of Zhengzhou, accounting for 52.10% of the total area. The quality of the ecological environment in the study area was greatly affected by urban expansion, and its ecological environment quality was on the downward trend. The city’s ecological environment needed to be further strengthened.

  1. Feasibility and reliability of remote assessment of PALS psychomotor skills via interactive videoconferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Douglas L; Molsberry, Dianne M

    2009-03-01

    This study determined inter-rater agreement between skill assessments provided by on-site PALS evaluators with ratings from evaluators at a remote site viewing the same skill performance over a videoconferencing network. Judgments about feasibility of remote evaluation were also obtained from the evaluators and PALS course participants. Two remote and two on-site instructors independently rated performance of 27 course participants who performed cardiac and shock/respiratory emergency core cases. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Feasibility was assessed with surveys of evaluators and course participants. Core cases were under the direction of the remote evaluators. The ICC for overall agreement on pass/fail decisions was 0.997 for the cardiac cases and 0.998 for the shock/respiratory cases. Perfect agreement was reached on 52 of 54 pass/fail decisions. Across all evaluators, all core cases, and all participants, 2584 ratings of individual skill criteria were provided, of which 21 (0.8%) were ratings in which a single evaluator disagreed with the other three evaluators. No trends emerged for location of the disagreeing evaluator. Survey responses indicated that remote evaluation was acceptable and feasible to course participants and to the evaluators. Videoconferencing technology was shown to provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for PALS evaluators at-a-distance from course participants to agree with ratings of on-site evaluators.

  2. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management: Highway impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An existing section of M-14 freeway constructed in 1964 and a potential extension from Ann Arbor to Plymouth, Michigan provided an opportunity for investigating the potential uses of remote sensing techniques in providing projective information needed for assessing the impact of highway construction. Remote sensing data included multispectral scanner imagery and aerial photography. Only minor effects on vegetation, soils, and land use were found to have occurred in the existing corridor. Adverse changes expected to take place in the corridor proposed for extension of the freeway can be minimized by proper design of drainage ditches and attention to good construction practices. Remote sensing can be used to collect and present many types of data useful for highway impact assessment on land use, vegetation categories and species, soil properties and hydrologic characteristics.

  3. A new remote hazard and risk assessment framework for glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, David R.; McKinney, Daene C.; Lala, Jonathan M.; Byers, Alton C.; Watson, C. Scott

    2016-08-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) pose a significant threat to downstream communities and infrastructure due to their potential to rapidly unleash stored lake water. The most common triggers of these GLOFs are mass movement entering the lake and/or the self-destruction of the terminal moraine due to hydrostatic pressures or a buried ice core. This study initially uses previous qualitative and quantitative assessments to understand the hazards associated with eight glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya that are widely considered to be highly dangerous. The previous assessments yield conflicting classifications with respect to each glacial lake, which spurred the development of a new holistic, reproducible, and objective approach based solely on remotely sensed data. This remote hazard assessment analyzes mass movement entering the lake, the stability of the moraine, and lake growth in conjunction with a geometric GLOF to determine the downstream impacts such that the present and future risk associated with each glacial lake may be quantified. The new approach is developed within a hazard, risk, and management action framework with the aim that this remote assessment may guide future field campaigns, modeling efforts, and ultimately risk-mitigation strategies. The remote assessment was found to provide valuable information regarding the hazards faced by each glacial lake and results were discussed within the context of the current state of knowledge to help guide future efforts.

  4. The role of satellite remote sensing in structured ecosystem risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas J; Keith, David A; Bland, Lucie M; Ferrari, Renata; Lyons, Mitchell B; Lucas, Richard; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Nicholson, Emily

    2018-04-01

    The current set of global conservation targets requires methods for monitoring the changing status of ecosystems. Protocols for ecosystem risk assessment are uniquely suited to this task, providing objective syntheses of a wide range of data to estimate the likelihood of ecosystem collapse. Satellite remote sensing can deliver ecologically relevant, long-term datasets suitable for analysing changes in ecosystem area, structure and function at temporal and spatial scales relevant to risk assessment protocols. However, there is considerable uncertainty about how to select and effectively utilise remotely sensed variables for risk assessment. Here, we review the use of satellite remote sensing for assessing spatial and functional changes of ecosystems, with the aim of providing guidance on the use of these data in ecosystem risk assessment. We suggest that decisions on the use of satellite remote sensing should be made a priori and deductively with the assistance of conceptual ecosystem models that identify the primary indicators representing the dynamics of a focal ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using video games to combine learning and assessment in mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Juha Mikael Kiili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One problem with most education systems is that learning and (summative assessment are generally treated as quite separate things in schools. We argue that video games can provide an opportunity to combine these processes in an engaging and effective way. The present study focuses on investigating the effectiveness and the assessment power of two different mathematics video games, Semideus and Wuzzit Trouble. In the current study, we validated the Semideus game as a rational number test instrument. We used it as a pre- and a post-test for a three-hour intervention in which we studied the effectiveness of Wuzzit Trouble, a game built on whole number arithmetic and designed to enhance mathematical thinking and problem solving skills. The results showed that (1 games can be used to assess mathematical knowledge validly, and (2 even short game-based interventions can be very effective. Based on the results, we argue that game-based assessment can create a more complete picture of mathematical knowledge than simply measuring students' accuracy, providing indicators of student misconceptions and conceptual change processes

  6. Remote sensing approach for hydrologic assessments of complex lake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhang, Kon Joon

    Lake studies play an important role in understanding water management, ecology, climatology, etc. because most of earth processes are strongly related to water dynamics. Because the studies have only used on-site gage readings, it is almost impossible to access individual lakes and to evaluate regional scale hydrology as a whole system. Especially in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America has millions of potholes and lakes. Measuring lake levels in this region is one of the critical issues in hydrology or other related sciences and applications. The remote sensing approach with the Geographic Information System (GIS) technique could be used to overcome the difficulty associated with on-site measurements. In this study, the SRTM data was used as a main topographic dataset because the dataset provides accurate and consistent elevation data on a worldwide basis. The first chapter introduced the whole idea of this study. In the second chapter, the elevation values of the C-band SRTM 30-meter DEM were compared with point-wise elevations from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry for Otter Tail County, MN. The accuracy of SRTM DEM was measured as a function of land cover and geomorphologic characteristics. The typical mean vertical difference between the SRTM DEM and ICESat elevations in this study was determined for each classified land use type and the data properties were investigated. Also, the feasibility of using SRTM data for hydrologic applications, especially in a region of low relief exemplified by the Otter Tail basin in Minnesota, was examined in Chapter 3. For measuring lake levels, several lake-level estimation techniques using image processing and feature detection were tested with the Landsat imagery and SRTM data and the efficiency of the techniques were evaluated in Chapter 4. Lastly, the power law distribution of lake was simulated in Chapter 5. For the simulation, one-dimensional fractal landscapes were

  7. Theoretical Foundations of Remote Sensing for Glacier Assessment and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michael P.; Bush, Andrew B. G.; Furfaro, Roberto; Gillespie, Alan R.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Haritashya, Umesh K.; Shroder, John F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The international scientific community is actively engaged in assessing ice sheet and alpine glacier fluctuations at a variety of scales. The availability of stereoscopic, multitemporal, and multispectral satellite imagery from the optical wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum has greatly increased our ability to assess glaciological conditions and map the cryosphere. There are, however, important issues and limitations associated with accurate satellite information extraction and mapping, as well as new opportunities for assessment and mapping that are all rooted in understanding the fundamentals of the radiation transfer cascade. We address the primary radiation transfer components, relate them to glacier dynamics and mapping, and summarize the analytical approaches that permit transformation of spectral variation into thematic and quantitative parameters. We also discuss the integration of satellite-derived information into numerical modeling approaches to facilitate understandings of glacier dynamics and causal mechanisms.

  8. Utility of remotely sensed imagery for assessing the impact of salvage logging after forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; Andrew T. Hudak; Brian Austin; Robert J. Liebermann

    2012-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery provides a useful tool for land managers to assess the extent and severity of post-wildfire salvage logging disturbance. This investigation uses high resolution QuickBird and National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery to map soil exposure after ground-based salvage operations. Three wildfires with varying post-fire salvage activities...

  9. Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh B. Lentile; Zachary A. Holden; Alistair M. S. Smith; Michael J. Falkowski; Andrew T. Hudak; Penelope Morgan; Sarah A. Lewis; Paul E. Gessler; Nate C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous...

  10. Flood warnings, flood disaster assessments, and flood hazard reduction: the roles of orbital remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Anderson, E.; Nghiem, S. V.; Caquard, S.; Shabaneh, T. B.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction.

  11. Post-hurricane forest damage assessment using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wang; J.J. Qu; X. Hao; Y. Liu; J.A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    This study developed a rapid assessment algorithm for post-hurricane forest damage estimation using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. The performance of five commonly used vegetation indices as post-hurricane forest damage indicators was investigated through statistical analysis. The Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) was...

  12. Remote sensing and geochemistry techniques for the assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza

    SRK Report, 2013. Draft Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the Proposed Development of an Energy Recovery Plant at the Samancor Chrome Middelburg Ferrochrome Plant, Middelburg. SRK Project Number: 408836. Sutherland, R.A. 2000. Bed sediment associated trace metals in an urban stream Oahu. Hawaii.

  13. High resolution remote sensing for reducing uncertainties in urban forest carbon offset life cycle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Jan; Lakes, Tobia

    2017-10-04

    Urban forests reduce greenhouse gas emissions by storing and sequestering considerable amounts of carbon. However, few studies have considered the local scale of urban forests to effectively evaluate their potential long-term carbon offset. The lack of precise, consistent and up-to-date forest details is challenging for long-term prognoses. Therefore, this review aims to identify uncertainties in urban forest carbon offset assessment and discuss the extent to which such uncertainties can be reduced by recent progress in high resolution remote sensing. We do this by performing an extensive literature review and a case study combining remote sensing and life cycle assessment of urban forest carbon offset in Berlin, Germany. Recent progress in high resolution remote sensing and methods is adequate for delivering more precise details on the urban tree canopy, individual tree metrics, species, and age structures compared to conventional land use/cover class approaches. These area-wide consistent details can update life cycle inventories for more precise future prognoses. Additional improvements in classification accuracy can be achieved by a higher number of features derived from remote sensing data of increasing resolution, but first studies on this subject indicated that a smart selection of features already provides sufficient data that avoids redundancies and enables more efficient data processing. Our case study from Berlin could use remotely sensed individual tree species as consistent inventory of a life cycle assessment. However, a lack of growth, mortality and planting data forced us to make assumptions, therefore creating uncertainty in the long-term prognoses. Regarding temporal changes and reliable long-term estimates, more attention is required to detect changes of gradual growth, pruning and abrupt changes in tree planting and mortality. As such, precise long-term urban ecological monitoring using high resolution remote sensing should be intensified

  14. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the remote manipulator system FMEA/CIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangorra, F.; Grasmeder, R. F.; Montgomery, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were than compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. The results of that comparison for the Orbiter RMS hardware are documented. The IOA product for the RMS analysis consisted of 604 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 458 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 45 FMEAs and 321 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all but 154 FMEAs which caused differences in 137 CIL items.

  15. Assessing forest resources in Denmark using wall-to-wall remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes

    then be applied to estimate resources on both small and large scales. Numerous studies have investigated the possibilities of using remote sensing data for forest monitoring at plot or single tree levels. However, experience of estimating these properties for larger areas, for example regional or country...... assessments, is lacking. In this thesis wall-to-wall remote sensing data (from aerial images, airborne LiDAR, and space-borne SAR) were combined with ground reference data (from NFI plots and tree species experiments) to build and evaluate models estimating properties such as basal area, timber volume......, the thesis extends the application of remote sensing methods to estimate important variables with relevance to water catchment management....

  16. Digital video recordings for training, assessment, and revalidation of surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Magos, Adam

    2010-10-01

    Surgical training is undergoing drastic changes, and new strategies should be adopted to keep quality standards. The authors review and advocate the use of surgical recordings as a useful complement to current training, assessment, and revalidation modalities. For trainees, such recordings would promote quality-based and competence-based surgical training and allow for self-evaluation. Video logbooks could be used to aid interaction between trainer and trainee, and facilitate formative assessment. Recordings of surgery could also be integrated into trainees' portfolios and regular assessments. Finally, such recordings could make surgeons' revalidation more sensible. The routine use of records of surgical procedures could become an integral component of the standard of care. This would have been an unattractive suggestion until recently, as analogue recording techniques are inconvenient, cumbersome, and time consuming. Today, however, with the advent of inexpensive digital technologies, such a concept is realistic and is likely to improve patient care.

  17. Toward feasible, valid, and reliable video-based assessments of technical surgical skills in the operating room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, R.; Grantcharov, T.; Moorthy, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility, validity, inter-rater, and intertest reliability of 4 previously published video-based rating scales, for technical skills assessment on a benchmark laparoscopic procedure. Summary Background Data: Assessment of technical skills is crucial to the demonstra......Objective: To determine the feasibility, validity, inter-rater, and intertest reliability of 4 previously published video-based rating scales, for technical skills assessment on a benchmark laparoscopic procedure. Summary Background Data: Assessment of technical skills is crucial...... patients within 2 Academic Surgical Departments. All patients had a diagnosis of biliary colic. Surgical technical skills were rated posthoc in a blinded manner by 2 experienced observers on 4 video-based rating scales. The different scales used had been developed to assess generic or procedure...

  18. Video processing of remote sensor data applied to uranium exploration in Wyoming. [Roll-front U deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, R.A.; Marrs, R.W.; Crockell, F.

    1979-06-30

    LANDSAT satellite imagery and aerial photography can be used to map areas of altered sandstone associated with roll-front uranium deposits. Image data must be enhanced so that alteration spectral contrasts can be seen, and video image processing is a fast, low-cost, and efficient tool. For LANDSAT data, the 7/4 ratio produces the best enhancement of altered sandstone. The 6/4 ratio is most effective for color infrared aerial photography. Geochemical and mineralogical associations occur in unaltered, altered, and ore roll-front zones. Samples from Pumpkin Buttes show that iron is the primary coloring agent which makes alteration visually detectable. Eh and pH changes associated with passage of a roll front cause oxidation of magnetite and pyrite to hematite, goethite, and limonite in the host sandstone, thereby producing the alteration. Statistical analysis show that the detectability of geochemical and color zonation in host sands is weakened by soil-forming processes. Alteration can only be mapped in areas of thin soil cover and moderate to sparse vegetative cover.

  19. DESERT ECOSYSTEMS: MAPPING, MONITORING & ASSESSMENT USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Arya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desert ecosystems are unique but fragile ecosystems , mostly vulnerable to a variety of degradational processes like water erosion, vegetal degradation, salinity, wind erosion , water logging etc. Some researchers consider desertification to be a process of change, while others view it as the end result of a process of change. There is an urgent need to arrest the process of desertification and combat land degradation. Under the auspices of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad has undertaken the task of mapping, monitoring and assessment of desertification carrying out pilot project in hot and cold desert regions in drylands on 1:50,000 scale followed by systematic Desertification Status Mappaing (DSM of India on 1:500,000 scale.

  20. Water quality assessment at Omerli Dam using remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparslan, Erhan; Aydöner, Cihangir; Tufekci, Vildan; Tüfekci, Hüseyin

    2007-12-01

    Water quality at Omerli Dam, which is a vital potable water resource of Istanbul City, Turkey was assessed using the first four bands of Landsat 7-ETM satellite data, acquired in May 2001 and water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a, suspended solid matter, secchi disk and total phosphate measured at several measurement stations at Omerli Dam during satellite image acquisition time and archived at the Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology laboratory of the Marmara Research Center, where this study was carried out. Establishing a relationship between this data, and the pixel reflectance values in the satellite image, chlorophyll-a, suspended solid matter, secchi disk and total phosphate maps were produced for the Omerli Dam.

  1. Use of baited remote underwater video (BRUV) and motion analysis for studying the impacts of underwater noise upon free ranging fish and implications for marine energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Louise; Pérez-Domínguez, Rafael; Elliott, Michael

    2016-11-15

    Free-ranging individual fish were observed using a baited remote underwater video (BRUV) system during sound playback experiments. This paper reports on test trials exploring BRUV design parameters, image analysis and practical experimental designs. Three marine species were exposed to playback noise, provided as examples of behavioural responses to impulsive sound at 163-171dB re 1μPa (peak-to-peak SPL) and continuous sound of 142.7dB re 1μPa (RMS, SPL), exhibiting directional changes and accelerations. The methods described here indicate the efficacy of BRUV to examine behaviour of free-ranging species to noise playback, rather than using confinement. Given the increasing concern about the effects of water-borne noise, for example its inclusion within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and the lack of empirical evidence in setting thresholds, this paper discusses the use of BRUV, and short term behavioural changes, in supporting population level marine noise management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wave Energy Resources Assessment for the China Sea Based on Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junmin; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Yong; Fabrice, Collard

    2014-11-01

    Wave energy is a type of significant renewable energy of ocean. In order to exploit this promising energy, it is necessary to have a full apprehension of its distribution. Remote sensing is a novel method for ocean wave observations. In this paper, based on 2009-2013 AVISO multi-satellites merged altimeter data by CNES&CLS and ESA ENVISAT ASAR observed wave field, assessment of wave energy resources were carried out. We select the South China Sea and the sea area around the Yangtze Estuary in the East China Sea as examples. Some factors about wave energy were calculated to assess the distribution of wave energy in these areas. The results show that it is effective and feasible to evaluate wave energy resources by altimeter and SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) data. We can carry out wave observations and wave energy assessment better by the combination of remote sensing data and wave model simulation.

  3. Using virtual reality simulation to assess competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2017-01-01

    for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. METHODS: Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim(®)) and introduced to the steps of the procedure...... % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices......BACKGROUND: The societies of thoracic surgery are working to incorporate simulation and competency-based assessment into specialty training. One challenge is the development of a simulation-based test, which can be used as an assessment tool. The study objective was to establish validity evidence...

  4. Establishing the reliability of rhesus macaque social network assessment from video observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric; Mitchell, Thomas A J; Walum, Hasse; Brooks, Jenna M; Heitz, Thomas R; Young, Larry J; Parr, Lisa A

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the properties of a social environment is important for understanding the dynamics of social relationships. Understanding such dynamics is relevant for multiple fields, ranging from animal behaviour to social and cognitive neuroscience. To quantify social environment properties, recent studies have incorporated social network analysis. Social network analysis quantifies both the global and local properties of a social environment, such as social network efficiency and the roles played by specific individuals, respectively. Despite the plethora of studies incorporating social network analysis, methods to determine the amount of data necessary to derive reliable social networks are still being developed. Determining the amount of data necessary for a reliable network is critical for measuring changes in the social environment, for example following an experimental manipulation, and therefore may be critical for using social network analysis to statistically assess social behaviour. In this paper, we extend methods for measuring error in acquired data and for determining the amount of data necessary to generate reliable social networks. We derived social networks from a group of 10 male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, for three behaviours: spatial proximity, grooming and mounting. Behaviours were coded using a video observation technique, where video cameras recorded the compound where the 10 macaques resided. We collected, coded and used 10 h of video data to construct these networks. Using the methods described here, we found in our data that 1 h of spatial proximity observations produced reliable social networks. However, this may not be true for other studies due to differences in data acquisition. Our results have broad implications for measuring and predicting the amount of error in any social network, regardless of species.

  5. Establishing the reliability of rhesus macaque social network assessment from video observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric; Mitchell, Thomas A. J.; Walum, Hasse; Brooks, Jenna M.; Heitz, Thomas R.; Young, Larry J.; Parr, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the properties of a social environment is important for understanding the dynamics of social relationships. Understanding such dynamics is relevant for multiple fields, ranging from animal behaviour to social and cognitive neuroscience. To quantify social environment properties, recent studies have incorporated social network analysis. Social network analysis quantifies both the global and local properties of a social environment, such as social network efficiency and the roles played by specific individuals, respectively. Despite the plethora of studies incorporating social network analysis, methods to determine the amount of data necessary to derive reliable social networks are still being developed. Determining the amount of data necessary for a reliable network is critical for measuring changes in the social environment, for example following an experimental manipulation, and therefore may be critical for using social network analysis to statistically assess social behaviour. In this paper, we extend methods for measuring error in acquired data and for determining the amount of data necessary to generate reliable social networks. We derived social networks from a group of 10 male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, for three behaviours: spatial proximity, grooming and mounting. Behaviours were coded using a video observation technique, where video cameras recorded the compound where the 10 macaques resided. We collected, coded and used 10 h of video data to construct these networks. Using the methods described here, we found in our data that 1 h of spatial proximity observations produced reliable social networks. However, this may not be true for other studies due to differences in data acquisition. Our results have broad implications for measuring and predicting the amount of error in any social network, regardless of species. PMID:26392632

  6. Spectral properties of subarctic plants for remote ecosystem assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Elena; Tutubalina, Olga; Rees, Gareth; Zimin, Mikhail; Mikheeva, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Multispectral and hyperspectral satellite images are increasingly used to identify properties of vegetation, its state, dynamics and productivity. Arctic vegetation is sensitive to changing habitat conditions related to both natural causes (in particular climatic trends), and human impact (both direct and indirect, e.g. associated with air, soil and water pollution). Change in the state of individual plants and of vegetation cover in general enables their use as indicators of natural and anthropogenic processes, manifested in satellite images through change of their spectral reflectance properties. These processes can be studied by identifying significant links between spectral properties of objects in satellite images and corresponding properties of plants, recorded in situ. We focus on the spectral signatures of subarctic plants dominating treeline ecotone ecosystems to assess the feasibility of mapping the spatial structure and dynamics of vegetation using multispectral and hyperspectral satellite imagery. Our model objects are tundra plants and ecosystems in both natural and technogenically disturbed environments in the central part of the Kola Peninsula, Russia. We conducted ground spectroradiometry with two spectroradiometers: ASD FieldSpec 3 Hi-res (350-2500 nm range with resolution from 3 to 10 nm) and SkyeInstruments SpectroSense 2+ (bands centred at 480, 550, 680, 840 nm, 50-130 nm wide) for samples of different species: Betula pubescens S.L., B. tortuosa, Picea abies, Betula nana, Ledum palustre, Vaccinium uligimosum, V. myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Cetraria islandica (L), Flavocetraria nivalis (Cetraria nivalis), Alectoria ochroleuca, Cladonia arbuscula S.L., Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium Shreberi. The results demonstrate the ability of green vegetation to selectively reflect solar radiation, depending on the species composition and state of the plants. Our results will be included in a spectral library of northern plants

  7. Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carteret, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the {open_quotes}Shelter{close_quotes} was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems.

  8. A blinded assessment of video quality in wearable technology for telementoring in open surgery: the Google Glass experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Daniel A; Phitayakorn, Roy; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Meireles, Ozanan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of telementoring is to recreate face-to-face encounters with a digital presence. Open-surgery telementoring is limited by lack of surgeon's point-of-view cameras. Google Glass is a wearable computer that looks like a pair of glasses but is equipped with wireless connectivity, a camera, and viewing screen for video conferencing. This study aimed to assess the safety of using Google Glass by assessing the video quality of a telementoring session. Thirty-four (n = 34) surgeons at a single institution were surveyed and blindly compared via video captured with Google Glass versus an Apple iPhone 5 during the open cholecystectomy portion of a Whipple. Surgeons were asked to evaluate the quality of the video and its adequacy for safe use in telementoring. Thirty-four of 107 invited surgical attendings (32%) responded to the anonymous survey. A total of 50% rated the Google Glass video as fair with the other 50% rating it as bad to poor. A total of 52.9% of respondents rated the Apple iPhone video as good. A significantly greater proportion of respondents felt Google Glass video quality was inadequate for telementoring versus the Apple iPhone's (82.4 vs 26.5%, p Google Glass provides a great breadth of functionality as a wearable device with two-way communication capabilities, current hardware limitations prevent its use as a telementoring device in surgery as the video quality is inadequate for safe telementoring. As the device is still in initial phases of development, future iterations or competitor devices may provide a better telementoring application for wearable devices.

  9. Development and Assessment of a Chemistry-Based Computer Video Game as a Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Kermin Joel

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry-based computer video game is a multidisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and computer graphics and technology fields developed to explore the use of video games as a possible learning tool. This innovative approach aims to integrate elements of commercial video game and authentic chemistry context environments into a learning…

  10. Neurosurgical Skills Assessment: Measuring Technical Proficiency in Neurosurgery Residents Through Intraoperative Video Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkiss, Christopher A; Philemond, Steven; Lee, James; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Holloway, Terrell D; Moore, Maximillian M; Costa, Anthony B; Gordon, Errol L; Bederson, Joshua B

    2016-05-01

    Although technical skills are fundamental in neurosurgery, there is little agreement on how to describe, measure, or compare skills among surgeons. The primary goal of this study was to develop a quantitative grading scale for technical surgical performance that distinguishes operator skill when graded by domain experts (residents, attendings, and nonsurgeons). Scores provided by raters should be highly reliable with respect to scores from other observers. Neurosurgery residents were fitted with a head-mounted video camera while performing craniotomies under attending supervision. Seven videos, 1 from each postgraduate year (PGY) level (1-7), were anonymized and scored by 16 attendings, 8 residents, and 7 nonsurgeons using a grading scale. Seven skills were graded: incision, efficiency of instrument use, cauterization, tissue handling, drilling/craniotomy, confidence, and training level. A strong correlation was found between skills score and PGY year (P Technical skills of neurosurgery residents recorded during craniotomy can be measured with high interrater reliability. Surgeons and nonsurgeons alike readily distinguish different skill levels. This type of assessment could be used to coach residents, to track performance over time, and potentially to compare skill levels. Developing an objective tool to evaluate surgical performance would be useful in several areas of neurosurgery education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Remotely Sensed Information for Near Real-Time Landslide Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of remotely sensed precipitation and surface products provides a unique opportunity to explore how landslide susceptibility and hazard assessment may be approached at larger spatial scales with higher resolution remote sensing products. A prototype global landslide hazard assessment framework has been developed to evaluate how landslide susceptibility and satellite-derived precipitation estimates can be used to identify potential landslide conditions in near-real time. Preliminary analysis of this algorithm suggests that forecasting errors are geographically variable due to the resolution and accuracy of the current susceptibility map and the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates. This research is currently working to improve the algorithm through considering higher spatial and temporal resolution landslide susceptibility information and testing different rainfall triggering thresholds, antecedent rainfall scenarios, and various surface products at regional and global scales.

  12. Soil salinity mapping and hydrological drought indices assessment in arid environments based on remote sensing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation indices are mostly described as crop water derivatives. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the oldest remote sensing applications that is widely used to evaluate crop vigor directly and crop water relationships indirectly. Recently, several NDVI derivatives were exclusively used to assess crop water relationships. Four hydrological drought indices are examined in the current research study. The water supply vegetation index (WSVI), the soi...

  13. A Framework for the Assessment of Temporal Artifacts in Medium Frame-Rate Binary Video Halftones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Hamood-Ur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Display of a video having a higher number of bits per pixel than that available on the display device requires quantization prior to display. Video halftoning performs this quantization so as to reduce visibility of certain artifacts. In many cases, visibility of one set of artifacts is decreased at the expense of increasing the visibility of another set. In this paper, we focus on two key temporal artifacts, flicker and dirty-window-effect, in binary video halftones. We quantify the visibility of these two artifacts when the video halftone is displayed at medium frame rates (15 to 30 frames per second. We propose new video halftoning methods to reduce visibility of these artifacts. The proposed contributions are (1 an enhanced measure of perceived flicker, (2 a new measure of perceived dirty-window-effect, (3 a new video halftoning method to reduce flicker, and (4 a new video halftoning method to reduce dirty-window-effect.

  14. Assessing the Interdisciplinary Use of Socioeconomic and Remote Sensing Data in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.; Schumacher, J.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely sensed data are widely used in Earth science research and applications not just to improve understanding of natural systems but also to elucidate interactions between natural and human systems and to model and predict human impacts on the environment, whether planned or unplanned. It is therefore often necessary for both remote sensing and socioeconomic data to be used together in both Earth science and social science research, for example in modeling past, present, and future land cover change, in assessing societal vulnerability to geophysical and climatological hazards, in measuring the human health impacts of air and water pollution, or in developing improved approaches to managing water, ecological, and other resources. The NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) was established as part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to facilitate access to and use of socioeconomic data in conjunction with remote sensing data in both research and applications. SEDAC provides access both to socioeconomic data that have been transformed into forms more readily usable by Earth scientists and other users, and to integrated datasets that incorporate both socioeconomic and remote sensing data. SEDAC data have been cited in at least 2,000 scientific papers covering a wide range of scientific disciplines and problem areas. In many cases, SEDAC data are cited in these papers along with other remote sensing datasets available from NASA or other sources. However, such citations do not necessarily indicate significant, integrated use of SEDAC and remote sensing data. To assess the level and type of integrated data use, we analyze a selection of recent SEDAC data citations in Earth science journals to characterize the ways in which SEDAC data have been used in the underlying research project and the paper itself. Papers were selected based on the presence of a SEDAC data citation and one or more keywords related to a remote

  15. Research on remote sensing assessment technology for porphyry copper in south of Arequipa province of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rihong; Li, Zhizhong; Cheng, Xiufa; Zhao, Yuling

    2014-05-01

    been carried out by using man-machine interactive remote sensing interpretation technology, and then in connection with the metallogenic geological characteristics, the mine indicating information such as ore-controlling structure, source rocks and ore-hosted rocks of PCD were achieved in the study area. Finally, a comprehensive assessment for mineral exploration by remote sensing in the study area is accomplished and five favorable area for mineral exploration by remote sensing is delineated, based on the remote sensing mine-indicating information such as linear and circular-shaped ore-controlling structures, source rocks and ore-hosted rocks, argillic-and phyllic- altered and propylitization altered minerals assemblages.

  16. Using GoPro to Give Video-Assisted Operative Feedback for Surgery Residents: A Feasibility and Utility Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maureen D; Abelson, Jonathan S; O'Mahoney, Paul; Bagautdinov, Iskander; Yeo, Heather; Watkins, Anthony C

    2017-08-21

    As an adjunct to simulation-based teaching, laparoscopic video-based surgical coaching has been an effective tool to augment surgical education. However, the wide use of video review in open surgery has been limited primarily due to technological and logistical challenges. The aims of our study were to (1) evaluate perceptions of general surgery (GS) residents on video-assisted operative instruction and (2) conduct a pilot study using a head-mounted GoPro in conjunction with the operative performance rating system to assess feasibility of providing video review to enhance operative feedback during open procedures. GS residents were anonymously surveyed to evaluate their perceptions of oral and written operative feedback and use of video-based operative resources. We then conducted a pilot study of 10 GS residents to assess the utility and feasibility of using a GoPro to record resident performance of an arteriovenous fistula creation with an attending surgeon. Categorical variables were analyzed using the chi-square test. Academic, tertiary medical center. GS residents and faculty. A total of 59 GS residents were anonymously surveyed (response rate = 65.5%). A total of 40% (n = 24) of residents reported that structured evaluations rarely or never provided meaningful feedback. When feedback was received, 55% (n = 32) residents reported that it was only rarely or sometimes in regard to their operative skills. There was no significant difference in surveyed responses among junior postgraduate year (PGY 1-2), senior (PGY 3-4), or chief residents (PGY-5). A total of 80% (n = 8) of residents found the use of GoPro video review very or extremely useful for education; they also deemed video review more useful for operative feedback than written or communicative feedback. An overwhelming majority (90%, n = 9) felt that video review would lead to improved technical skills, wanted to review the video with the attending surgeon for further feedback, and desired expansion of

  17. Potential of Using Remote Sensing Techniques for Global Assessment of Water Footprint of Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Romaguera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has long been a useful tool in global applications, since it provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information. This paper discusses the potential of using these techniques in the research field of water management, particularly for ‘Water Footprint’ (WF studies. The WF of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage, respectively. In this paper evapotranspiration, precipitation, water storage, runoff and land use are identified as key variables to potentially be estimated by remote sensing and used for WF assessment. A mass water balance is proposed to calculate the volume of irrigation applied, and green and blue WF are obtained from the green and blue evapotranspiration components. The source of remote sensing data is described and a simplified example is included, which uses evapotranspiration estimates from the geostationary satellite Meteosat 9 and precipitation estimates obtained with the Climatic Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH. The combination of data in this approach brings several limitations with respect to discrepancies in spatial and temporal resolution and data availability, which are discussed in detail. This work provides new tools for global WF assessment and represents an innovative approach to global irrigation mapping, enabling the estimation of green and blue water use.

  18. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. CONCLUSION: A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value...... in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 81% of the students reported...... for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  19. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 81% of the students reported...... for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION...... the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. CONCLUSION: A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value...

  20. Health assessment and risk mitigation of railroad networks exposed to natural hazards using commercial remote sensing and spatial information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The overarching goal of this project was to integrate data from commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) technologies to create a novel data-driven decision making framework that empowers the railroad industry to monitor, assess, an...

  1. A Framework for the Assessment of Temporal Artifacts in Medium Frame-Rate Binary Video Halftones

    OpenAIRE

    Hamood-Ur Rehman; Evans, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Display of a video having a higher number of bits per pixel than that available on the display device requires quantization prior to display. Video halftoning performs this quantization so as to reduce visibility of certain artifacts. In many cases, visibility of one set of artifacts is decreased at the expense of increasing the visibility of another set. In this paper, we focus on two key temporal artifacts, flicker and dirty-window-effect, in binary video halftones. We quantify the visibil...

  2. Enhanced video display and navigation for networked streaming video and networked video playlists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sachin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present an automatic enhanced video display and navigation capability for networked streaming video and networked video playlists. Our proposed method uses Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) as presentation language and Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) as network remote control protocol to automatically generate a "enhanced video strip" display for easy navigation. We propose and describe two approaches - a smart client approach and a smart server approach. We also describe a prototype system implementation of our proposed approach.

  3. Academic Uses of Video Games: A Qualitative Assessment of Research and Teaching Needs at a Large Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Shannon L.; Neeser, Amy E.; Bishoff, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Academic libraries develop collections and services for scholars who use video games in teaching and research. However, there are no assessments of related information and technology needs. The authors conducted 30 semi-structured interviews to gather data about these needs and understand how the University of Minnesota Libraries can facilitate…

  4. Correlation between two-dimensional video analysis and subjective assessment in evaluating knee control among elite female team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    . The present study investigated the correlation between a two-dimensional (2D) video analysis and subjective assessment performed by one physiotherapist in evaluating knee control. We also tested the correlation between three simple clinical tests using both methods. A cohort of 186 female elite team handball...

  5. The reliability and validity of video analysis for the assessment of the clinical signs of concussion in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of identifying clinical signs of concussion using video analysis in Australian football. Prospective cohort study. All impacts and collisions potentially resulting in a concussion were identified during 2012 and 2013 Australian Football League seasons. Consensus definitions were developed for clinical signs associated with concussion. For intra- and inter-rater reliability analysis, two experienced clinicians independently assessed 102 randomly selected videos on two occasions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated based on the diagnosis provided by team medical staff. 212 incidents resulting in possible concussion were identified in 414 Australian Football League games. The intra-rater reliability of the video-based identification of signs associated with concussion was good to excellent. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for impact seizure, slow to get up, motor incoordination, ragdoll appearance (2 of 4 analyses), clutching at head and facial injury. Inter-rater reliability for loss of responsiveness and blank and vacant look was only fair and did not reach statistical significance. The feature with the highest sensitivity was slow to get up (87%), but this sign had a low specificity (19%). Other video signs had a high specificity but low sensitivity. Blank and vacant look (100%) and motor incoordination (81%) had the highest positive predictive value. Video analysis may be a useful adjunct to the side-line assessment of a possible concussion. Video analysis however should not replace the need for a thorough multimodal clinical assessment. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Remote intelligent Brunnstrom assessment system for upper limb rehabilitation for post-stroke based on extreme learning machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Yu, Lei; Fu, Jianming; Fang, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    In order to realize an individualized and specialized rehabilitation assessment of remoteness and intelligence, we set up a remote intelligent assessment system of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. By using the remote rehabilitation training sensors and client data sampling software, we collected and uploaded the gesture data from a patient's forearm and upper arm during rehabilitation training to database of the server. Then a remote intelligent assessment system, which had been developed based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm and Brunnstrom stage assessment standard, was used to evaluate the gesture data. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed method, a group of 23 stroke patients, whose upper limb movement functions were in different recovery stages, and 4 healthy people, whose upper limb movement functions were normal, were recruited to finish the same training task. The results showed that, compared to that of the experienced rehabilitation expert who used the Brunnstrom stage standard table, the accuracy of the proposed remote Brunnstrom intelligent assessment system can reach a higher level, as 92.1%. The practical effects of surgery have proved that the proposed system could realize the intelligent assessment of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients remotely, and it could also make the rehabilitation of the post-stroke patients at home or in a community care center possible.

  7. Using a Standardized Video-Based Assessment in a University Teacher Education Program to Examine Preservice Teachers Knowledge Related to Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Peter D.; Hessberg, Kevin; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; DeCoster, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    The Video Assessment of Interactions and Learning (VAIL), a video-based assessment of teacher understanding of effective teaching strategies and behaviors, was administered to preservice teachers. Descriptive and regression analyzes were conducted to examine trends among participants and identify predictors at the individual level and program…

  8. "I Forgot I Wasn't Saving the World": The Use of Formative and Summative Assessment in Instructional Video Games for Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lookadoo, Kathryn L.; Bostwick, Eryn N.; Ralston, Ryan; Elizondo, Francisco Javier; Wilson, Scott; Shaw, Tarren J.; Jensen, Matthew L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of formative and summative assessment in instructional video games on student learning and engagement. A 2 (formative feedback: present vs absent) × 2 (summative feedback: present vs absent) factorial design with an offset control (recorded lecture) was conducted to explore the impacts of assessment in video games. A…

  9. Use of point-of-sale data to assess food and nutrient quality in remote stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Liddle, Robyn; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-07-01

    To examine the feasibility of using point-of-sale data to assess dietary quality of food sales in remote stores. A multi-site cross-sectional assessment of food and nutrient composition of food sales. Point-of-sale data were linked to Australian Food and Nutrient Data and compared across study sites and with nutrient requirements. Remote Aboriginal Australia. Six stores. Point-of-sale data were readily available and provided a low-cost, efficient and objective assessment of food and nutrient sales. Similar patterns in macronutrient distribution, food expenditure and key food sources of nutrients were observed across stores. In all stores, beverages, cereal and cereal products, and meat and meat products comprised approximately half of food sales (range 49–57 %). Fruit and vegetable sales comprised 10.4 (SD 1.9) % on average. Carbohydrate contributed 54.4 (SD 3.0) % to energy; protein 13.5 (SD 1.1) %; total sugars 28.9 (SD 4.3) %; and the contribution of total saturated fat to energy ranged from 11.0 to 14.4% across stores. Mg, Ca, K and fibre were limiting nutrients, and Na was four to five times higher than the midpoint of the average intake range. Relatively few foods were major sources of nutrients. Point-of-sale data enabled an assessment of dietary quality within stores and across stores with no burden on communities and at no cost, other than time required for analysis and reporting. Similar food spending patterns and nutrient profiles were observed across the six stores. This suggests potential in using point-of-sale data to monitor and evaluate dietary quality in remote Australian communities.

  10. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts

  11. Physician assessment and management of complex colon polyps: a multicenter video-based survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Aadam, A; Wani, Sachin; Kahi, Charles; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Oh, Young; Edmundowicz, Steven; Peng, Jie; Rademaker, Alfred; Patel, Swati; Kushnir, Vladimir; Venu, Mukund; Soetikno, Roy; Keswani, Rajesh N

    2014-09-01

    The management of complex colorectal polyps varies in practice. Accurate descriptions of the endoscopic appearance by using a standardized classification system (Paris classification) and size for complex colon polyps may guide subsequent providers regarding curative endoscopic resection vs. need for surgery. The accuracy of this assessment is not well defined. Furthermore, the factors associated with decisions for endoscopic vs. surgical management are unclear. To characterize the accuracy of physician assessment of polyp morphology, size, and suspicion for malignancy among physician subspecialists performing colonoscopy and colon surgery. In addition, we aimed to assess the influence of these polyp characteristics as well as physician type and patient demographics on recommendations for endoscopic vs. surgical resection of complex colorectal polyps. An online video-based survey was sent to gastroenterologists (GIs) and gastrointestinal surgeons affiliated with six tertiary academic centers. The survey consisted of high-definition video clips (30-60 s) of six complex colorectal polyps (one malignant) and clinical histories. Respondents were blinded to histology. Respondents were queried regarding polyp characteristics, suspicion for malignancy, and recommendations for resection. The survey response rate was 154/317 (49%). Seventy-eight percent of respondents were attending physicians (91 GIs and 29 surgeons) and 22% were GI trainees. Sixteen percent of respondents self-identified as specialists in complex polypectomy. Accurate estimation of polyp size was poor (28.4%) with moderate interobserver agreement (k=0.52). Accuracy for Paris classification was 47.5%, also with moderate interobserver agreement (k=0.48). Specialists in complex polypectomy were most accurate, whereas surgeons were the least accurate in assigning Paris classification (66.0 vs. 28.7%, Ppolyp morphology (polypoid vs. nonpolypoid), polyp location (right vs. left colon), or patient ASA class. In

  12. Enhancing Communication of Climate Impacts Assessments: Examples of Local Stories, Animations and Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive climate impacts assessments are important vehicles for conveying salient information to the public and policy makers. However, over the last few decades communication of this important information has been hampered for a number of reasons. Firstly, we have a rapidly changing social media landscape, where there are fewer opportunities for in-depth treatment of issues. To compete in this arena, climate information needs to be packaged in sound bites, and much of the nuance and complexity may be lost. Secondly, scientific literacy among the general U.S. population is not particularly high, which creates a barrier to understanding and limits the audiences that can be reached. Thirdly, climate science has been undermined by misinformation over many years often funded by fossil fuel interests. While this latter obstacle is clearly diminishing - largely in the face of evidence from the undeniable climate impacts that are already being seen by communities - there has been much confusion generated to date. Despite the fact that 97% of active climate scientists agree that the planet is warming as a result of human greenhouse gas emission, only 42% of the U.S. population agrees (Pew Research, 2013). In the face of these challenges, much of the work that the Union of Concerned Scientists does to translate climate impacts assessments has shifted to visuals, animations, and videos that people can relate to and connect with more readily. In this session we will share some of the general design features, discuss target audiences, and outline production limitations of several local stories involving videos and animations, as well as present some recent infographics. One example of this work are case studies that focus on sea level rise and involve a local personality who can speak to climate impacts at the community level. We understand the power of visual images and stories in creating messages that stick, and we use this in designing animations that explain the

  13. Video-task assessment of learning and memory in Macaques (Macaca mulatta) - Effects of stimulus movement on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of stimulus movement on learning, transfer, matching, and short-term memory performance were assessed with 2 monkeys using a video-task paradigm in which the animals responded to computer-generated images by manipulating a joystick. Performance on tests of learning set, transfer index, matching to sample, and delayed matching to sample in the video-task paradigm was comparable to that obtained in previous investigations using the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus. Additionally, learning, transfer, and matching were reliably and significantly better when the stimuli or discriminanda moved than when the stimuli were stationary. External manipulations such as stimulus movement may increase attention to the demands of a task, which in turn should increase the efficiency of learning. These findings have implications for the investigation of learning in other populations, as well as for the application of the video-task paradigm to comparative study.

  14. Towards a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: A systematic review of psychometric assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, Daniel L.; Haagsma, M.C.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Gradisar, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of “Internet Use Disorder”, is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to

  15. Toward a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: a systematic review of psychometric assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, D.L.; Haagsma, M.C.; Delfabbro, P.H.; Gradisar, M.; Griffiths, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to

  16. Some technical notes on using UAV-based remote sensing for post disaster assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhmana, Catur Aries; Andaru, Ruli

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is located in an area prone to disasters, which are various kinds of natural disasters happen. In disaster management, the geoinformation data are needed to be able to evaluate the impact area. The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-Based remote sensing technology is a good choice to produce a high spatial resolution of less than 15 cm, while the current resolution of the satellite imagery is still greater than 50 cm. This paper shows some technical notes that should be considered when using UAV-Based remote sensing system in post disaster for rapid assessment. Some cases are Aceh Earthquake in years 2013 for seeing infrastructure damages, Banjarnegara landslide in year 2014 for seeing the impact; and Kelud volcano eruption in year 2014 for seeing the impact and volumetric material calculation. The UAV-Based remote sensing system should be able to produce the Orthophoto image that can provide capabilities for visual interpretation the individual damage objects, and the changes situation. Meanwhile the DEM (digital Elevation model) product can derive terrain topography, and volumetric calculation with accuracy 3-5 pixel or sub-meter also. The UAV platform should be able for working remotely and autonomously in dangerous area and limited infrastructures. In mountainous or volcano area, an unconventional flight plan should implemented. Unfortunately, not all impact can be seen from above such as wall crack, some parcel boundaries, and many objects that covered by others higher object. The previous existing geoinformation data are also needed to be able to evaluate the change detection automatically.

  17. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION......INTRODUCTION: Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course...... the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. CONCLUSION: A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value...

  18. Remote Sensing-Based Characterization of Settlement Structures for Assessing Local Potential of District Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nast

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, heating of houses and commercial areas is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. When considering the drastic impact of an increasing emission of greenhouse gases as well as the finiteness of fossil resources, the usage of efficient and renewable energy generation technologies has to be increased. In this context, small-scale heating networks are an important technical component, which enable the efficient and sustainable usage of various heat generation technologies. This paper investigates how the potential of district heating for different settlement structures can be assessed. In particular, we analyze in which way remote sensing and GIS data can assist the planning of optimized heat allocation systems. In order to identify the best suited locations, a spatial model is defined to assess the potential for small district heating networks. Within the spatial model, the local heat demand and the economic costs of the necessary heat allocation infrastructure are compared. Therefore, a first and major step is the detailed characterization of the settlement structure by means of remote sensing data. The method is developed on the basis of a test area in the town of Oberhaching in the South of Germany. The results are validated through detailed in situ data sets and demonstrate that the model facilitates both the calculation of the required input parameters and an accurate assessment of the district heating potential. The described method can be transferred to other investigation areas with a larger spatial extent. The study underlines the range of applications for remote sensing-based analyses with respect to energy-related planning issues.

  19. Assessing forest resources in Denmark using wall-to-wall remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes

    Forests act as a multifunctional, natural, renewable resource, and thus play an important role for many different stakeholders. They are not only providers of wood resources, but also fulfil functions such as providing a buffer from noise, habitat for fauna, contributing to air and water quality...... to regional, private owners or the local forest administrators may collect information about their forests by sampling or complete enumeration. This information is usually used for forest management decisions, but is unsuited for assessment of regional forest resources. On a regional to countrywide scale......, the thesis extends the application of remote sensing methods to estimate important variables with relevance to water catchment management....

  20. ASSESSING LAND COVER CHANGES CAUSED BY GRANITE QUARRYING USING REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Moeletsi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dimension stone quarrying in the area between Rustenburg and Brits in the North West Province of South Africa has been in existence for over 70 decades. The unique characteristics of the granite deposits in South Africa resulted in making the country a global producer of the granite rocks. This led to intensified quarrying activities between Rustenburg and Brits town. However, this surface mining method, has a potential to impact the environment in a negative way causing loss in vegetation, depletion of natural resources, loss of scenic beauty and contamination of surface water resources. To assess the land cover changes caused by granite quarrying activities, remotely sensed data in the form of Landsat images between 1998 and 2015 were used. Supervised classification was used to create maps. Accuracy assessment using Google EarthTM as a reference data yielded an overall accuracy of 78 %. The post classification change detection method was used to assess land cover changes within the granite quarries. Granite quarries increased by 1174.86 ha while formation of quarry lakes increased to 5.3 ha over the 17-year period. Vegetation cover decreased by 1308 ha in area while 18.3 ha bare land was lost during the same period. This study demonstrated the utility of remote sensing to detect changes in land cover within granite quarries.

  1. Remote monitoring as a tool in condition assessment of a highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Onoufriou, Toula; Milis, Marios; Kareklas, George

    2016-08-01

    The deterioration of civil infrastructure and their subsequent maintenance is a significant problem for the responsible managing authorities. The ideal scenario is to detect deterioration and/or structural problems at early stages so that the maintenance cost is kept low and the safety of the infrastructure remains undisputed. The current inspection regimes implemented mostly via visual inspection are planned at specific intervals but are not always executed on time due to shortcomings in expert personnel and finance. However the introduction of technological advances in the assessment of infrastructures provides the tools to alleviate this problem. This study describes the assessment of a highway RC bridge's structural condition using remote structural health monitoring. A monitoring plan is implemented focusing on strain measurements; as strain is a parameter influenced by the environmental conditions supplementary data are provided from temperature and wind sensors. The data are acquired using wired sensors (deployed at specific locations) which are connected to a wireless sensor unit installed at the bridge. This WSN application enables the transmission of the raw data from the field to the office for processing and evaluation. The processed data are then used to assess the condition of the bridge. This case study, which is part of an undergoing RPF research project, illustrates that remote monitoring can alleviate the problem of missing structural inspections. Additionally, shows its potential to be the main part of a fully automated smart procedure of obtaining structural data, processed them and trigger an alarm when certain undesirable conditions are met.

  2. Assessment of Active Video Gaming Using Adapted Controllers by Individuals With Physical Disabilities: A Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; McCroskey, Justin; Thirumalai, Mohanraj

    2017-06-16

    Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions. However, many current AVGs are inaccessible or offer limited play options for individuals who are unable to stand, have balance issues, poor motor control, or cannot use their lower body to perform game activities. Making AVGs accessible to people with disabilities offers an innovative approach to overcoming various barriers to participation in physical activity. Our aim was to compare the effect of off-the-shelf and adapted game controllers on quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video gaming in persons with physical disabilities, specifically those with mobility impairments (ie, unable to stand, balance issues, poor motor control, unable to use lower extremity for gameplay). The gaming controllers to be evaluated include off-the-shelf and adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat. Participants (10-60 years old) came to the laboratory a total of three times. During the first visit, participants completed a functional assessment and became familiar with the equipment and games to be played. For the functional assessment, participants performed 18 functional movement tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. They also answered a series of questions from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions measurement tools, to provide a personal perspective regarding their own functional ability. For Visit 2, metabolic data were

  3. Real-Time Assessment of Robot Performance During Remote Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Fong, Terrence; Milam, Tod; Pacis, Estrellina; Utz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    To ensure that robots are used effectively for exploration missions, it is important to assess their performance during operations. We are investigating the definition and computation of performance metrics for assessing remote robotic operations in real-time. Our approach is to monitor data streams from robots, compute performance metrics, and provide Web-based displays of these metrics for assessing robot performance during operations. We evaluated our approach for measuring robot performance with the K10 rovers from NASA Ames Research Center during a field test at Moses Lake Sand Dunes (WA) in June 2008. In this paper we present the results of evaluating our software for robot performance and discuss our conclusions from this evaluation for future robot operations.

  4. Using virtual reality simulation to assess competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Konge, Lars

    2017-06-01

    The societies of thoracic surgery are working to incorporate simulation and competency-based assessment into specialty training. One challenge is the development of a simulation-based test, which can be used as an assessment tool. The study objective was to establish validity evidence for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim ® ) and introduced to the steps of the procedure for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy. The participants performed two VATS lobectomies on the simulator with a 5-min break between attempts. Nineteen pre-defined simulator metrics were recorded. Fifty-three participants from nine different countries were included. High internal consistency was found for the metrics with Cronbach's alpha coefficient for standardized items of 0.91. Significant test-retest reliability was found for 15 of the metrics (p-values 50 VATS lobectomies performed). A pass/fail level defined as approximately one standard deviation from the mean metric scores for experienced surgeons passed none of the novices (0 % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices and experienced surgeons and pass/fail criteria for the test were set with acceptable consequences. This test can be used as a first step in assessing thoracic surgery trainees' VATS lobectomy competency.

  5. Agreement Between Face-to-Face and Free Software Video Analysis for Assessing Hamstring Flexibility in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral-Muñoz, José A; Esteban-Moreno, Bernabé; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cobo, Manuel J; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of agreement between face-to-face hamstring flexibility measurements and free software video analysis in adolescents. Reduced hamstring flexibility is common in adolescents (75% of boys and 35% of girls aged 10). The length of the hamstring muscle has an important role in both the effectiveness and the efficiency of basic human movements, and reduced hamstring flexibility is related to various musculoskeletal conditions. There are various approaches to measuring hamstring flexibility with high reliability; the most commonly used approaches in the scientific literature are the sit-and-reach test, hip joint angle (HJA), and active knee extension. The assessment of hamstring flexibility using video analysis could help with adolescent flexibility follow-up. Fifty-four adolescents from a local school participated in a descriptive study of repeated measures using a crossover design. Active knee extension and HJA were measured with an inclinometer and were simultaneously recorded with a video camera. Each video was downloaded to a computer and subsequently analyzed using Kinovea 0.8.15, a free software application for movement analysis. All outcome measures showed reliability estimates with α > 0.90. The lowest reliability was obtained for HJA (α = 0.91). The preliminary findings support the use of a free software tool for assessing hamstring flexibility, offering health professionals a useful tool for adolescent flexibility follow-up.

  6. Assessment of Carbon Stocks in the Topsoil Using Random Forest and Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsung; Grunwald, Sabine

    2016-11-01

    Wetland soils are able to exhibit both consumption and production of greenhouse gases, and they play an important role in the regulation of the global carbon (C) cycle. Still, it is challenging to accurately evaluate the actual amount of C stored in wetlands. The incorporation of remote sensing data into digital soil models has great potential to assess C stocks in wetland soils. Our objectives were (i) to develop C stock prediction models utilizing remote sensing images and environmental ancillary data, (ii) to identify the prime environmental predictor variables that explain the spatial distribution of soil C, and (iii) to assess the amount of C stored in the top 20-cm soils of a prominent nutrient-enriched wetland. We collected a total of 108 soil cores at two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) in the Water Conservation Area 2A, FL. We developed random forest models to predict soil C stocks using field observation data, environmental ancillary data, and spectral data derived from remote sensing images, including Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (spatial resolution: 10 m), Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (30 m), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (250 m). The random forest models showed high performance to predict C stocks, and variable importance revealed that hydrology was the major environmental factor explaining the spatial distribution of soil C stocks in Water Conservation Area 2A. Our results showed that this area stores about 4.2 Tg (4.2 Mt) of C in the top 20-cm soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. The accuracy and reproducibility of video assessment in the pitch-side management of concussion in elite rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G W; Kemp, S P T; Raftery, M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the accuracy and reliability of side-line video review of head impact events to aid identification of concussion in elite sport. Diagnostic accuracy and inter-rater agreement study. Immediate care, match day and team doctors involved in the 2015 Rugby Union World Cup viewed 20 video clips showing broadcaster's footage of head impact events occurring during elite Rugby matches. Subjects subsequently recorded whether any criteria warranting permanent removal from play or medical room head injury assessment were present. The accuracy of these ratings were compared to consensus expert opinion by calculating mean sensitivity and specificity across raters. The reproducibility of doctor's decisions was additionally assessed using raw agreement and Gwets AC1 chance corrected agreement coefficient. Forty rugby medicine doctors were included in the study. Compared to the expert reference standard overall sensitivity and specificity of doctors decisions were 77.5% (95% CI 73.1-81.5%) and 53.3% (95% CI 48.2-58.2%) respectively. Overall there was raw agreement of 67.8% (95% CI 57.9-77.7%) between doctors across all video clips. Chance corrected Gwets AC1 agreement coefficient was 0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.62), indicating fair agreement. Rugby World Cup doctors' demonstrated moderate accuracy and fair reproducibility in head injury event decision making when assessing video clips of head impact events. The use of real-time video may improve the identification, decision making and management of concussion in elite sports. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ImmuneQuest: Assessment of a Video Game as a Supplement to an Undergraduate Immunology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L. Raimondi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of immunology, particularly in this day and age, is an integral aspect of the training of future biologists, especially health professionals. Unfortunately, many students lose interest in or lack true comprehension of immunology due to the jargon of the field, preventing them from gaining a true conceptual understanding that is essential to all biological learning. To that end, a new video game, ImmuneQuest, has been developed that allows undergraduate students to “be” cells in the immune system, finding and attacking pathogens, while answering questions to earn additional abilities. The ultimate goal of ImmuneQuest is to allow students to understand how the major cells in the immune system work together to fight disease, rather than focusing on them as separate entities as is more commonly done in lecture material. This work provides the first assessment of ImmuneQuest in an upper-level immunology course. Students had significant gains in learning of information presented in ImmuneQuest compared with information discussed in lecture only. Furthermore, while students found the game “frustrating” at times, they agreed that the game aided their learning and recommended it for future courses. Taken together, these results suggest that ImmuneQuest appears to be a useful tool to supplement lecture material and increase student learning and comprehension.

  9. On subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming via crowdsourcing and laboratory based experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Shahid, Muhammad; Pokhrel, Jeevan

    2017-01-01

    Video streaming services are offered over the Internet and since the service providers do not have full control over the network conditions all the way to the end user, streaming technologies have been developed to maintain the quality of service in these varying network conditions i.e. so called...... adaptive video streaming. In order to cater for users' Quality of Experience (QoE) requirements, HTTP based adaptive streaming solutions of video services have become popular. However, the keys to ensure the users a good QoE with this technology is still not completely understood. User QoE feedback...

  10. "I Forgot I Wasn't Saving the World": the Use of Formative and Summative Assessment in Instructional Video Games for Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lookadoo, Kathryn L.; Bostwick, Eryn N.; Ralston, Ryan; Elizondo, Francisco Javier; Wilson, Scott; Shaw, Tarren J.; Jensen, Matthew L.

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the role of formative and summative assessment in instructional video games on student learning and engagement. A 2 (formative feedback: present vs absent) × 2 (summative feedback: present vs absent) factorial design with an offset control (recorded lecture) was conducted to explore the impacts of assessment in video games. A total of 172 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of four instructional video game conditions or the control. Results found that knowledge significantly increased from the pretest for players in all game conditions. Participants in summative assessment conditions learned more than players without summative assessment. In terms of engagement outcomes, formative assessment conditions did not significantly produce better learning engagement outcomes than conditions without formative assessment. However, summative assessment conditions were associated with higher temporal disassociation than non-summative conditions. Implications for future instructional video game development and testing are discussed in the paper.

  11. "I Forgot I Wasn't Saving the World": the Use of Formative and Summative Assessment in Instructional Video Games for Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lookadoo, Kathryn L.; Bostwick, Eryn N.; Ralston, Ryan; Elizondo, Francisco Javier; Wilson, Scott; Shaw, Tarren J.; Jensen, Matthew L.

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the role of formative and summative assessment in instructional video games on student learning and engagement. A 2 (formative feedback: present vs absent) × 2 (summative feedback: present vs absent) factorial design with an offset control (recorded lecture) was conducted to explore the impacts of assessment in video games. A total of 172 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of four instructional video game conditions or the control. Results found that knowledge significantly increased from the pretest for players in all game conditions. Participants in summative assessment conditions learned more than players without summative assessment. In terms of engagement outcomes, formative assessment conditions did not significantly produce better learning engagement outcomes than conditions without formative assessment. However, summative assessment conditions were associated with higher temporal disassociation than non-summative conditions. Implications for future instructional video game development and testing are discussed in the paper.

  12. The reliability of digital imaging in the remote assessment of wounds: defining a standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert X; Bain, Michael A; Wasser, Thomas E; Wilson, Eric; Okunski, Walter J

    2006-04-01

    Telemedicine has been used for remote management of many medical problems. Given the ever-expanding demands to provide increasing service with increasingly limited resources, quality care and practice efficiency can be enhanced by telemedicine. This study was undertaken to explore the reliability of wound assessment using computer-transmitted digital imagery compared with a traditional bedside evaluation and also to assess its potential role in healthcare delivery. In the hospital setting, rounding vascular surgeons and a surgical resident evaluated the wounds on the service. A digital photograph was obtained with a 3.3 megapixel camera, and a wound-assessment tool was completed. A plastic surgery attending then reviewed the images at a later date and completed the same data tool. Wounds were rated for eschar, exposed bone, cellulitis, purulence, swelling, granulation tissue, granulation color, and depth using a standardized data collection tool. kappa statistics were computed for all variables, between raters. There were 2 phases of the study. In both phases, there was 100% agreement by the rounding physicians that the digital image was representative of the wound. Phase 1 agreement between evaluators was moderate to almost perfect, as demonstrated by kappa values (range, 0.50-0.87). In phase 2, all variable kappa values were rated as almost perfect, except the ability to evaluate depth of the wound to the millimeter, which was rated as substantial. The ability to accurately evaluate a wound on the basis of a digital image is possible. However, it requires training of participants and is facilitated by use of an assessment tool. With these caveats, evaluation of wounds using digital images is equivalent to bedside examination. This technology can improve practice efficiency, provide needed expertise at remote sites, and is an acceptable alternative method of wound assessment.

  13. Assessment of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Analyzing the Impact of Human Trampling on Alpine Swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Kycko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourist traffic has been observed to cause changes in vegetation cover, particularly in alpine areas. These changes can be monitored using remote-sensing methods. This paper presents an analysis of the condition of the dominant sward species surrounding the most frequented alpine tourist trails in the Tatra National Park, one of the most visited natural mountain parks in Poland and a UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve. Hyperspectral measurements of interactions between the electromagnetic spectrum and the morphology and physiology of plants were presented. The spectral properties of plants and remote-sensing vegetation indices could be used at a later date for monitoring, for example from the air. The results identified the species' sensitivity and resistance to trampling and allowed an assessment of their physiological condition. Differences were observed in the conditions of trampled and control plants. The alpine swards in the Tatra National Park were assessed as being in good condition, with only small areas located close to the most popular trails showing damage. The proposed method for analyzing the condition of alpine swards could be a useful tool for the future management of protected areas.

  14. Quality assessment of remote sensing image registration — analysis and testing of control point residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiten, H. J.; van Putten, B.

    The need for data integration for providing multi-image and up-to-date geo-information requires a careful quality assessment of image registration. This paper deals with remote sensing scanning images to be registered by a least-squares polynomial trend model transformation, under the supposition that plane coordinate systems of master and slave are sufficient. A threefold basic hypothesis and four model assumptions are posed holding that in the 'ideal' case the residuals after execution of the transformation are showing only the random component of the transformation. In addition to some earlier published quantitative measures and two statistical tests, in this paper it is proposed to analyze the geometrical behaviour of the so-called 'plot of centred residual pairs' with respect to possible deviations from the hypothesis of randomness of the residuals. In this line the Ajne test and the Moore test, common in circular biology, look for the existence of a 'preference axis'. Furthermore, the Spearman rank correlation test is proposed as another method to detect possible structure which can be left after the transformation. The use of these tests and the distinct effects are demonstrated by means of some examples. It is concluded that the implementation of the proposed tests in addition to other possibilities of testing and analysis, deepens the insight in an actual registration case and improves the quality assessment of remote sensing image registration in general.

  15. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course...... in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 81% of the students reported...... for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  16. Assessment of Urban Plantation Climate-Regulating Function based on Remote Sensing Data (Case Study Moscow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlerskiy, Robert

    2010-05-01

    A variety of active surfaces in combination with various building levels forms a specific urban mode of atmospheric turbulence. The spatial combination of green plantings, asphalt and building defines a temperature and wind mode, and creates various air circulation systems. Influence of spatial structure and buildings height on a wind mode of urban territories is full enough studied in town-planning. Assessment of the input to formation of urban climate of surfaces with various heat capacity and, vegetation is not developed. This assessment can be based on the multispectral remote sensing data which contain information on energetic surface condition. Multispectral data development make possible a calculation of the basic energetic characteristics of surfaces: input and absorption of solar energy, energy consumption on evapotranspiration, thermal scattering and accumulation, a heat flux and temperature of surface. This technique gives a possibility to estimate a thermal mode of surface at various spatial scales. In world practice urban landscapes condition estimation based on remote data (Urban Remote Sensing) is underdeveloped, and focused, mainly, on temperature and heat flux estimation. For energetic characteristics estimation for Moscow territory we use Landsat 5 TM and 7 ETM + remote sensing data for three terms in the vegetational season: May (26/05/2003), July (21/07/2003), August (17/08/2007), with the spatial resolution 30х30 m for 6 channels in a short-wave range and 60х60 m - for the thermal channel. Mean values of calculated temperatures have been compared to daily temperatures on a municipal meteorological station. The calculated energetic characteristics have been analyzed to estimate independent factors which determine their spatial variation. Basing on the estimated factors we classify surface, and allocate surface types with a various temperature and energetic mode. Next we calculate mean values of energetic characteristics to each type. Type

  17. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    /138) of the students reported confidence at a score of 5-7 on a seven-point Likert scale. This increased to 64% (186/289) (p Likert scale) and after...... in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 81% of the students reported...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE TOOLS TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS AND QUALITY OF CAR SERVICE ENTERPRISES WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kozlovskiy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is updated development problem of remote tools to assess the effectiveness and work quality of the corporate car service enterprises. This paper presents the author’s methodology of activity estimation car service enterprises based on corporate information reflecting the report on the production activities of the service company. Specialized information system has been developed and implemented based on the proposed methodology. Specialized information system is the analytical tool for assessing the activities of enterprises the brand network of car service, for one of the largest national carmakers. The aim of research is development and realization of a monitoring system for certain areas of the car service work that significantly affect the quality process of the maintenance service. In addition, the paper is devoted to solving urgent issues of collection and processing of real data on warranty defects of cars.

  19. Lights, camera…citizen science: assessing the effectiveness of smartphone-based video training in invasive plant identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Starr

    Full Text Available The rapid growth and increasing popularity of smartphone technology is putting sophisticated data-collection tools in the hands of more and more citizens. This has exciting implications for the expanding field of citizen science. With smartphone-based applications (apps, it is now increasingly practical to remotely acquire high quality citizen-submitted data at a fraction of the cost of a traditional study. Yet, one impediment to citizen science projects is the question of how to train participants. The traditional "in-person" training model, while effective, can be cost prohibitive as the spatial scale of a project increases. To explore possible solutions, we analyze three training models: 1 in-person, 2 app-based video, and 3 app-based text/images in the context of invasive plant identification in Massachusetts. Encouragingly, we find that participants who received video training were as successful at invasive plant identification as those trained in-person, while those receiving just text/images were less successful. This finding has implications for a variety of citizen science projects that need alternative methods to effectively train participants when in-person training is impractical.

  20. Metrics for assessing the reliability of a telemedicine remote monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charness, Neil; Fox, Mark; Papadopoulos, Amy; Crump, Cindy

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to assess using new metrics the reliability of a real-time health monitoring system in homes of older adults. The "MobileCare Monitor" system was installed into the homes of nine older adults >75 years of age for a 2-week period. The system consisted of a wireless wristwatch-based monitoring system containing sensors for location, temperature, and impacts and a "panic" button that was connected through a mesh network to third-party wireless devices (blood pressure cuff, pulse oximeter, weight scale, and a survey-administering device). To assess system reliability, daily phone calls instructed participants to conduct system tests and reminded them to fill out surveys and daily diaries. Phone reports and participant diary entries were checked against data received at a secure server. Reliability metrics assessed overall system reliability, data concurrence, study effectiveness, and system usability. Except for the pulse oximeter, system reliability metrics varied between 73% and 92%. Data concurrence for proximal and distal readings exceeded 88%. System usability following the pulse oximeter firmware update varied between 82% and 97%. An estimate of watch-wearing adherence within the home was quite high, about 80%, although given the inability to assess watch-wearing when a participant left the house, adherence likely exceeded the 10 h/day requested time. In total, 3,436 of 3,906 potential measurements were obtained, indicating a study effectiveness of 88%. The system was quite effective in providing accurate remote health data. The different system reliability measures identify important error sources in remote monitoring systems.

  1. EXPLICIT: a feasibility study of remote expert elicitation in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Bogdan; Peters, Jaime; Hyde, Christopher; Stein, Ken

    2017-09-04

    Expert opinion is often sought to complement available information needed to inform model-based economic evaluations in health technology assessments. In this context, we define expert elicitation as the process of encoding expert opinion on a quantity of interest, together with associated uncertainty, as a probability distribution. When availability for face-to-face expert elicitation with a facilitator is limited, elicitation can be conducted remotely, overcoming challenges of finding an appropriate time to meet the expert and allowing access to experts situated too far away for practical face-to-face sessions. However, distance elicitation is associated with reduced response rates and limited assistance for the expert during the elicitation session. The aim of this study was to inform the development of a remote elicitation tool by exploring the influence of mode of elicitation on elicited beliefs. An Excel-based tool (EXPLICIT) was developed to assist the elicitation session, including the preparation of the expert and recording of their responses. General practitioners (GPs) were invited to provide expert opinion about population alcohol consumption behaviours. They were randomised to complete the elicitation by either a face-to-face meeting or email. EXPLICIT was used in the elicitation sessions for both arms. Fifteen GPs completed the elicitation session. Those conducted by email were longer than the face-to-face sessions (13 min 30 s vs 10 min 26 s, p = 0.1) and the email-elicited estimates contained less uncertainty. However, the resulting aggregated distributions were comparable. EXPLICIT was useful in both facilitating the elicitation task and in obtaining expert opinion from experts via email. The findings support the opinion that remote, self-administered elicitation is a viable approach within the constraints of HTA to inform policy making, although poor response rates may be observed and additional time for individual sessions may be required.

  2. The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-01-01

    A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Comparing apples and oranges: assessment of the relative video quality in the presence of different types of distortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Ulrich; Korhonen, Jari; You, Junyong

    2011-01-01

    Video quality assessment is essential for the performance analysis of visual communication applications. Objective metrics can be used for estimating the relative quality differences, but they typically give reliable results only if the compared videos contain similar types of quality distortion...... well different objective quality metrics estimate the relative subjective quality levels for content with different types of quality distortions. Our conclusion is that none of the studied objective metrics works reliably for assessing the co-impact of compression artifacts and transmission errors...... on the subjective quality. Nevertheless, we have observed that the objective metrics' tendency to either over- or underestimate the perceived impact of transmission errors has a high correlation with the spatial and temporal activity levels of the content. Therefore, our results can be useful for improving...

  4. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2013-04-01

    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  5. Dissemination of Earth Remote Sensing Data for Use in the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Camp, Parks; McGrath, Kevin; Bell, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    The National Weather Service has developed the Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT), an application for smartphones and tablets that allows for the collection, geolocation, and aggregation of various damage indicators that are collected during storm surveys. The DAT supports the often labor-intensive process where meteorologists venture into the storm-affected area, allowing them to acquire geotagged photos of the observed damage while also assigning estimated EF-scale categories based upon their observations. Once the data are collected, the DAT infrastructure aggregates the observations into a server that allows other meteorologists to perform quality control and other analysis steps before completing their survey and making the resulting data available to the public. In addition to in-person observations, Earth remote sensing from operational, polar-orbiting satellites can support the damage assessment process by identifying portions of damage tracks that may be missed due to road limitations, access to private property, or time constraints. Products resulting from change detection techniques can identify damage to vegetation and the land surface, aiding in the survey process. In addition, higher resolution commercial imagery can corroborate ground-based surveys by examining higher-resolution commercial imagery. As part of an ongoing collaboration, NASA and NOAA are working to integrate near real-time Earth remote sensing observations into the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit. This presentation will highlight recent developments in a streamlined approach for disseminating Earth remote sensing data via web mapping services and a new menu interface that has been integrated within the DAT. A review of current and future products will be provided, including products derived from MODIS and VIIRS for preliminary track identification, along with conduits for higher-resolution Landsat, ASTER, and commercial imagery as they become available. In addition to tornado damage

  6. Open-source telemedicine platform for wireless medical video communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayides, A; Eleftheriou, I; Pantziaris, M

    2013-01-01

    An m-health system for real-time wireless communication of medical video based on open-source software is presented. The objective is to deliver a low-cost telemedicine platform which will allow for reliable remote diagnosis m-health applications such as emergency incidents, mass population screening, and medical education purposes. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated using five atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound videos. The videos are encoded at the clinically acquired resolution, in addition to lower, QCIF, and CIF resolutions, at different bitrates, and four different encoding structures. Commercially available wireless local area network (WLAN) and 3.5G high-speed packet access (HSPA) wireless channels are used to validate the developed platform. Objective video quality assessment is based on PSNR ratings, following calibration using the variable frame delay (VFD) algorithm that removes temporal mismatch between original and received videos. Clinical evaluation is based on atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound video assessment protocol. Experimental results show that adequate diagnostic quality wireless medical video communications are realized using the designed telemedicine platform. HSPA cellular networks provide for ultrasound video transmission at the acquired resolution, while VFD algorithm utilization bridges objective and subjective ratings.

  7. Open-Source Telemedicine Platform for Wireless Medical Video Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panayides

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An m-health system for real-time wireless communication of medical video based on open-source software is presented. The objective is to deliver a low-cost telemedicine platform which will allow for reliable remote diagnosis m-health applications such as emergency incidents, mass population screening, and medical education purposes. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated using five atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound videos. The videos are encoded at the clinically acquired resolution, in addition to lower, QCIF, and CIF resolutions, at different bitrates, and four different encoding structures. Commercially available wireless local area network (WLAN and 3.5G high-speed packet access (HSPA wireless channels are used to validate the developed platform. Objective video quality assessment is based on PSNR ratings, following calibration using the variable frame delay (VFD algorithm that removes temporal mismatch between original and received videos. Clinical evaluation is based on atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound video assessment protocol. Experimental results show that adequate diagnostic quality wireless medical video communications are realized using the designed telemedicine platform. HSPA cellular networks provide for ultrasound video transmission at the acquired resolution, while VFD algorithm utilization bridges objective and subjective ratings.

  8. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the EPD and C/remote manipulator system FMEA/CIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. W.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C)/Remote Manipulator System (RMS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA analysis of the EPD and C/RMS hardware initially generated 345 failure mode worksheets and identified 117 Potential Critical Items (PCIs) before starting the assessment process. These analysis results were compared to the proposed NASA Post 51-L baseline of 132 FMEAs and 66 CIL items.

  9. Point Counts Underestimate the Importance of Arctic Foxes as Avian Nest Predators: Evidence from Remote Video Cameras in Arctic Alaskan Oil Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph R. Liebezeit; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We used video cameras to identify nest predators at active shorebird and passerine nests and conducted point count surveys separately to determine species richness and detection frequency of potential...

  10. An innovative approach for assessing the ergonomic risks of lifting tasks using a video motion capture system

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rhoda M.

    2006-01-01

    Human Systems Integration Report Low back pain (LBP) and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can lead to employee absenteeism, sick leave, and permanent disability. Over the years, much work has been done in examining physical exposure to ergonomic risks. The current research presents a new approach for assessing WMSD risk during lifting related tasks that combines traditional observational methods with video recording methods. One particular application area, the Future Com...

  11. Using a Bedside Video-assisted Test Tube Test to Assess Stoma Viability: A Report of 4 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sarwat; Turner, Keli; Shah, Paulesh; Diaz, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Mucosal discoloration of an intestinal stoma may indicate self-limited venous congestion or necrosis necessitating operative revision. A common bedside technique to assess stoma viability is the "test tube test". A clear tube is inserted into the stoma and a hand-held light is used to assess the color of the stoma. A technique (video-assisted test tube test [VATTT]) developed by the authors utilizes a standard video bronchoscope inserted into a clear plastic blood collection tube to visually inspect and assess the mucosa. This technique was evaluated in 4 patients (age range 49-72 years, all critically ill) with a discolored stoma after emergency surgery. In each case, physical exam revealed ischemic mucosa at the surface either immediately after surgery or after worsening hypotension weeks later. Serial test tube test assessments were ambiguous when trying to assess deeper mucosa. The VATTT assessment showed viable pink mucosa beneath the surface and until the fascia was revealed in 3 patients. One (1) patient had mucosal ischemia down to the fascia, which prompted operative revision of the stoma. The new stoma was assessed with a VATTT and was viable for the entire length of the stoma. VATTT provided an enhanced, magnified, and clearer way to visually assess stoma viability in the postoperative period that can be performed at the bedside with no adverse events. It may prevent unnecessary relaparotomy or enable earlier diagnosis of deep ostomy necrosis. Validity and reliability studies are warranted.

  12. The reliability and criterion validity of 2D video assessment of single leg squat and hop landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee; Alenezi, Faisal; Alzhrani, Msaad; Alrayani, Hasan; Jones, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to assess the intra-tester, within and between day reliability of measurement of hip adduction (HADD) and frontal plane projection angles (FPPA) during single leg squat (SLS) and single leg landing (SLL) using 2D video and the validity of these measurements against those found during 3D motion capture. 15 healthy subjects had their SLS and SLL assessed using 3D motion capture and video analysis. Inter-tester reliability for both SLS and SLL when measuring FPPA and HADD show excellent correlations (ICC2,1 0.97-0.99). Within and between day assessment of SLS and SLL showed good to excellent correlations for both variables (ICC3,1 0.72-91). 2D FPPA measures were found to have good correlation with knee abduction angle in 3-D (r=0.79, p=0.008) during SLS, and also to knee abduction moment (r=0.65, p=0.009). 2D HADD showed very good correlation with 3D HADD during SLS (r=0.81, p=0.001), and a good correlation during SLL (r=0.62, p=0.013). All other associations were weak (r<0.4). This study suggests that 2D video kinematics have a reasonable association to what is being measured with 3D motion capture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards remote assessment and screening of acute abdominal pain using only a smartphone with native accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David R; Weiss, Alexander; Rollins, Margo R; Lam, Wilbur A

    2017-10-06

    Smartphone-based telehealth holds the promise of shifting healthcare from the clinic to the home, but the inability for clinicians to conduct remote palpation, or touching, a key component of the physical exam, remains a major limitation. This is exemplified in the assessment of acute abdominal pain, in which a physician's palpation determines if a patient's pain is life-threatening requiring emergency intervention/surgery or due to some less-urgent cause. In a step towards virtual physical examinations, we developed and report for the first time a "touch-capable" mHealth technology that enables a patient's own hands to serve as remote surrogates for the physician's in the screening of acute abdominal pain. Leveraging only a smartphone with its native accelerometers, our system guides a patient through an exact probing motion that precisely matches the palpation motion set by the physician. An integrated feedback algorithm, with 95% sensitivity and specificity, enabled 81% of tested patients to match a physician abdominal palpation curve with worldwide.

  14. Water quality monitoring and assessment of an urban Mediterranean lake facilitated by remote sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markogianni, V; Dimitriou, E; Karaouzas, I

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of water quality is a major problem worldwide and often leads to serious environmental impacts and concerns about public health. In this study, the water quality monitoring and assessment of the Koumoundourou Lake, a brackish urban shallow lake located in the northeastern part of Elefsis Bay (Greece), were evaluated. A number of water quality parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a concentration) were analyzed in water samples collected bimonthly over a 1-year period from five stations throughout the lake. Moreover, biological quality elements were analysed seasonally over the 1-year period (benthic fauna). Statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the water quality of the lake and distinguish sources of variation measured in the samples. Furthermore, the chemical and trophic status of the lake was evaluated according to the most widely applicable classification schemes. Satellite images of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper were used in order for algorithms to be developed and calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The trophic status of the lake was characterized as oligotrophic based on phosphorus and as mesotrophic-eutrophic based on Chl-a concentrations. The results of the remote sensing application indicated a relatively high coefficient of determination (R (2)) among point sampling results and the remotely sensed data, which implies that the selected algorithm is reliable and could be used for the monitoring of Chl-a concentration in the particular water body when no field data are available.

  15. Deployment of remote advanced electrocardiography for improved cardiovascular risk assessment in career firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon; Batalin, Maxim A; Smith, Denise; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-07-01

    Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high temperature environments, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to deploy and explore the feasibility of the resting "advanced" 12-lead electrocardiogram (A-ECG) as a remote firefighter risk assessment tool for improved assessment of cardiac risk. Conventional 12-lead resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) were collected for 5 min by using high-fidelity PC-based ECG hardware and software while subjects (n=21) rested comfortably. Raw data from the ECG system were securely transported via a secure network to a server where they were archived and processed. Authorized personnel performed both conventional ECG and A-ECG analyses from each digital recording, generating A-ECG "scores" in a blinded fashion. A separate cohort of firefighters (n=6) was trained to administer the A-ECG and rated the system's usability and frequency of technical problems. Of the 21 uniformed personnel who completed testing, only 1 had a positive A-ECG score for coronary artery disease, which was subsequently confirmed by a cardiologist. All other subjects were classified as healthy by A-ECG. Firefighters trained to administer the A-ECG responded favorably in rating the usability of the system. We have demonstrated that a new technology, A-ECG, can be deployed for remote firefighter risk assessment being performed by firefighters themselves and interpreted centrally. This simple, time- and cost-effective approach can help identify individuals potentially at increased risk for line-of-duty death due to underlying cardiovascular disease.

  16. Validity and applicability of a video-based animated tool to assess mobility in elderly Latin American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Oliveira, Bruna Silva; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Rejeski, W Jack; Marsh, Anthony P; Ip, Edward H; Barnard, Ryan T; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2014-10-01

    To assess the reliability and the validity of Portuguese- and Spanish-translated versions of the video-based short-form Mobility Assessment Tool in assessing self-reported mobility, and to provide evidence for the applicability of these videos in elderly Latin American populations as a complement to physical performance measures. The sample consisted of 300 elderly participants (150 from Brazil, 150 from Colombia) recruited at neighborhood social centers. Mobility was assessed with the Mobility Assessment Tool, and compared with the Short Physical Performance Battery score and self-reported functional limitations. Reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations among mobility assessment tools and health, and sociodemographic variables. A significant gradient of increasing Mobility Assessment Tool score with better physical function was observed for both self-reported and objective measures, and in each city. Associations between self-reported mobility and health were strong, and significant. Mobility Assessment Tool scores were lower in women at both sites. Intraclass correlation coefficients of the Mobility Assessment Tool were 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.90-0.97) in Brazil and 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.91) in Colombia. Mobility Assessment Tool scores were lower in Manizales than in Natal after adjustment by Short Physical Performance Battery, self-rated health and sex. These results provide evidence for high reliability and good validity of the Mobility Assessment Tool in its Spanish and Portuguese versions used in Latin American populations. In addition, the Mobility Assessment Tool can detect mobility differences related to environmental features that cannot be captured by objective performance measures. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Monitoring and Assessment of Military Installation Land Condition under Training Disturbance Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Santosh

    Various military training activities are conducted in more than 11.3 million hectares of land (> 5,500 training sites) in the United States (U.S.). These training activities directly and indirectly degrade the land. Land degradation can impede continuous military training. In order to sustain long term training missions and Army combat readiness, the environmental conditions of the military installations need to be carefully monitored and assessed. Furthermore, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the U.S. Army Regulation 200-2 require the DoD to minimize the environmental impacts of training and document the environmental consequences of their actions. To achieve these objectives, the Department of Army initiated an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) program to manage training lands through assessing their environmental requirements and establishing policies and procedures to achieve optimum, sustainable use of training lands. One of the programs under ITAM, Range and Training Land Assessment (RTLA) was established to collect field-based data for monitoring installation's environmental condition. Due to high cost and inefficiencies involved in the collection of field data, the RTLA program was stopped in several military installations. Therefore, there has been a strong need to develop an efficient and low cost remote sensing based methodology for assessing and monitoring land conditions of military installations. It is also important to make a long-term assessment of installation land condition for understanding cumulative impacts of continuous military training activities. Additionally, it is unclear that compared to non-military land condition, to what extent military training activities have led to the degradation of land condition for military installations. The first paper of this dissertation developed a soil erosion relevant and image derived cover factor (ICF) based on linear spectral mixture (LSM) analysis to assess and

  18. Interactive virtual mock-ups for Remote Handling compatibility assessment of heavy components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhout, J. van, E-mail: j.vanoosterhout@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Koning, J.F. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk 6 (Netherlands); Ronden, D.M.S.; Baar, M. de [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Specific ITER components require RHCA on hardware mock-ups. •Hardware mock-ups are expensive and have a long lead time. •Interactive Virtual Reality mock-ups are readily available and easily adapted. •This paper analysis and proposes improvements to simulator capabilities. -- Abstract: ITER standards Tesini (2009) require hardware mock-ups to validate the Remote Handling (RH) compatibility of RH class 1- and critical class 2-components. Full-scale mock-ups of large ITER components are expensive, have a long lead time and lose their relevance in case of design changes. Interactive Virtual Reality simulations with real time rigid body dynamics and contact interaction allow for RH Compatibility Assessment during the design iterations. This paper explores the use of interactive virtual mock-ups to analyze the RH compatibility of heavy component handling and maintenance. It infers generic maintenance operations from the analysis and proposes improvements to the simulator capabilities.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  20. The Fargo Map Test: a standardized method for assessing remote memory for visuospatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, W W

    1988-01-01

    At present, there is no standardized method for assessing remote memory (RM) for visuospatial information in humans. The Fargo Map Test (FMT) uses knowledge of the locations of geographical features in regions of the country in which subjects currently live and formerly resided to provide a measure of this aspect of RM. Two different formats of the FMT have been developed, which differ in their demands for fine motor skill, ease of scoring, and in the amount and nature of geographical knowledge that can be measured. Preliminary findings suggest that both formats are equally sensitive to the influences of gender and age in normal subjects. Furthermore, knowledge of the geography of regions of prior residence appears to be stable over a period of at least 15 years.

  1. VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPY: A TOOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF SMALL BOWEL TRANSIT TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza A Hejazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is a procedure that uses a wireless camera to take pictures of the gastrointestinal tract. A wireless motility capsule (WMC of a similar size has been developed, which measures pH, pressure, and temperature, and can be used to assess regional and total gastrointestinal transit times. VCE could also potentially be used as a tool for measuring small bowel transit time (SBTT.Methods: This study was designed to obtain SBTT from VCE and compare it with historical data generated by WMC. Gastric transit time (GTT was also measured. Patients were included if the indication for VCE was either iron deficiency anemia (IDA or overt obscure GI bleed (OOGIB and they did not have any known motility disorder. Results from VCE were also compared in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients. Results: There were a total of 147 VCE studies performed, including 42 for OOGIB and 105 for IDA. Median GTT and SBTT were 0.3 and 3.6 hours, respectively. The overall median GTT and SBTT were 0.3 and 3.6 hours, respectively, in the IDA group compared with 0.3 and 3.4 hours in the OOGIB group. When compared with WMC, the GTT and SBTT were significantly faster in both groups (GTT: 3.6 hours and SBTT: 4.6 hours. The median GTT and SBTT were not significantly different in diabetics versus non-diabetics: (GTT: 17.5 vs. 18.0 minutes (P=0.86 and SBTT: 3.9 hours (237 minutes vs. 3.8 hours (230 minutes, respectively (P=0.90.Conclusion: SBTT as measured using VCE is not significantly different in OOGIB compared with IDA. Both GTT and SBTT are significantly faster as assessed by VCE, which is initiated in the fasting state, compared with WMC measurement, which is initiated after a standard meal. In summary, VCE could potentially be used for measuring SBTT in the fasting state.

  2. Dynamic drought risk assessment using crop model and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Su, Z.; Lv, J.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Drought risk assessment is of great significance to reduce the loss of agricultural drought and ensure food security. The normally drought risk assessment method is to evaluate its exposure to the hazard and the vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage for a specific region, which is a static evaluation method. The Dynamic Drought Risk Assessment (DDRA) is to estimate the drought risk according to the crop growth and water stress conditions in real time. In this study, a DDRA method using crop model and remote sensing techniques was proposed. The crop model we employed is DeNitrification and DeComposition (DNDC) model. The drought risk was quantified by the yield losses predicted by the crop model in a scenario-based method. The crop model was re-calibrated to improve the performance by the Leaf Area Index (LAI) retrieved from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. And the in-situ station-based crop model was extended to assess the regional drought risk by integrating crop planted mapping. The crop planted area was extracted with extended CPPI method from MODIS data. This study was implemented and validated on maize crop in Liaoning province, China.

  3. An automated method for analysis of microcirculation videos for accurate assessment of tissue perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Sumeyra U

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging of the human microcirculation in real-time has the potential to detect injuries and illnesses that disturb the microcirculation at earlier stages and may improve the efficacy of resuscitation. Despite advanced imaging techniques to monitor the microcirculation, there are currently no tools for the near real-time analysis of the videos produced by these imaging systems. An automated system tool that can extract microvasculature information and monitor changes in tissue perfusion quantitatively might be invaluable as a diagnostic and therapeutic endpoint for resuscitation. Methods The experimental algorithm automatically extracts microvascular network and quantitatively measures changes in the microcirculation. There are two main parts in the algorithm: video processing and vessel segmentation. Microcirculatory videos are first stabilized in a video processing step to remove motion artifacts. In the vessel segmentation process, the microvascular network is extracted using multiple level thresholding and pixel verification techniques. Threshold levels are selected using histogram information of a set of training video recordings. Pixel-by-pixel differences are calculated throughout the frames to identify active blood vessels and capillaries with flow. Results Sublingual microcirculatory videos are recorded from anesthetized swine at baseline and during hemorrhage using a hand-held Side-stream Dark Field (SDF imaging device to track changes in the microvasculature during hemorrhage. Automatically segmented vessels in the recordings are analyzed visually and the functional capillary density (FCD values calculated by the algorithm are compared for both health baseline and hemorrhagic conditions. These results were compared to independently made FCD measurements using a well-known semi-automated method. Results of the fully automated algorithm demonstrated a significant decrease of FCD values. Similar, but more variable FCD

  4. Assessment of soil-vegetation cover condition in river basins applying remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Petrosian, Janna; Shirkin, Leonid; Repkin, Roman

    2017-04-01

    Constant observation of vegetation and soil cover is one of the key issues of river basins ecologic monitoring. Lately remotely determining vegetation indices have been used for this purpose alongside with terrestrial data. It is necessary to consider that observation objects have been continuously changing and these changes are comprehensive and depend on temporal and dimensional parameters. Remote sensing data, embracing vast areas and reflecting various interrelations, allow excluding accidental and short-term changes though concentrating on the transformation of the observed river basin ecosystem environmental condition. The research objective is to assess spatial - temporal peculiarities and the dynamics of soil-vegetation condition of the Klyazma basin as whole and minor river basins within the area. Research objects are located in the centre of European Russia. Data used in our research include both statistic and published data, characterizing soil-vegetation cover of the area, space images («Landsat» ETM+ etc.) Research methods. 1. Dynamics analysis NDVI (Normalized difference vegetation index) 2. Remote data have been correlated to terrestrial measurement results of phytomass reserve, phytoproductivity, soil fertility characteristics, crop capacity (http://biodat.ru) 3. For the digital processing of space images software Erdas Imagine has been used, GIS analysis has been carried out applying Arc GIS. NDVI computation for each image pixel helped to map general condition of the Klyazma vegetation cover and to determine geographic ranges without vegetation or with depressed vegetation. For instance high vegetation index geographic range has been defined which corresponded to Vladimir Opolye characterized with the most fertile grey forest soil in the region. Comparative assessment of soil vegetation cover of minor river basins within the Klyazma basin, judging by the terrestrial data, revealed its better condition in the Koloksha basin which is also located

  5. Qualitative Assessment of the Condition of Tatarstan Medieval Fortified Settlements Under the Data of Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainullin Iskander I.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern condition of the archaeological monuments of the Republic of Tatarstan as an essential manmade part of the cultural landscape. According to UNESCO directive, the “cultural landscape” is considered not only as a result of cooperation between man and nature, but also as a natural and cultural territorial complex with a structural and functional integrity developing in specific physical and geographical, cultural and historical conditions. Medieval fortified settlements with a system of defensive fortifications which are easily identified on the basis of remote sensing data were selected as research subjects. The identification and evaluation of monument destruction risks are a priority in the investigation of cultural heritage sites. Due to the fact that most of the monuments are located on the banks of minor rivers, the primary task of investigation was the assessment of the risk of their destruction as a result of natural (dangerous exogenous processes. The second objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in the destruction of archaeological sites. One of the main utilized techniques is the search and analysis of archival and modern remote sensing data. This approach allows to correct settlement shapes, confirm their sizes and location in the landscape, thus resolving the issue of updating the information on cultural heritage sites. For the first time in the Tatarstan Republic, investigation results will allow to determine the past and current changes in the condition of the monuments and conduct a quantitative assessment of the risks of their destruction prior to the determination of priority regions for the performance of salvage and rescue excavations.

  6. Application of Remote Sensing to Assess the Impact of Short Term Climate Variability on Coastal Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Menzel, W. Paul; Huh, Oscar K.; Walker, Nan D.; Rouse, Lawrence J.; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin and Louisiana State University have teamed to study the forcing of winter season cold frontal wind systems on sediment distribution patterns and geomorphology in the Louisiana coastal zone. Wind systems associated with cold fronts have been shown to modify coastal circulation and resuspend sediments along the microtidal Louisiana coast. The assessment includes quantifying the influence of cumulative winter season atmospheric forcing (through surface wind observations) from year to year in response to short term climate variability, such as El Nino events. A correlation between winter cyclone frequency and the strength of El Nino events has been suggested. The atmospheric forcing data are being correlated to geomorphic measurements along western Louisiana's prograding muddy coast. Remote sensing data is being used to map and track sediment distribution patterns for various wind conditions. Transferring a suspended sediment concentration (SSC) algorithm to EOS MODIS observations will enable estimates of SSC in case 2 waters over the global domain. Progress in Year 1 of this study has included data collection and analysis of wind observations for atmospheric forcing characterization, a field activity (TX-2001) to collect in situ water samples with co-incident remote sensing measurements from the NASA ER-2 based MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and the EOS Terra based MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, aerial photography and of sediment burial pipe field measurements along the prograding muddy Chenier Plain coast of western Louisiana for documenting coastal change in that dynamic region, and routine collection of MODIS 250 in resolution data for monitoring coastal sediment patterns. The data sets are being used in a process to transfer an SSC estimation algorithm to the MODIS platform. Work is underway on assessing coastal transport for the winter 2000-01 season. Water level data for use in a Geomorphic Impact

  7. Provocative Video Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caglio, Agnese

    This paper presents the use of ”provocative videos”, as a tool to support and deepen findings from ethnographic investigation on the theme of remote videocommunication. The videos acted as a resource to also investigate potential for novel technologies supporting continuous connection between...

  8. Assessing stimulus control and promoting generalization via video modeling when teaching social responses to children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, JoAnna; Lerman, Dorothea C; Lechago, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    We taught social responses to young children with autism using an adult as the recipient of the social interaction and then assessed generalization of performance to adults and peers who had not participated in the training. Although the participants' performance was similar across adults, responding was less consistent with peers, and a subsequent probe suggested that the recipient of the social behavior (adults vs. peers) controlled responding. We then evaluated the effects of having participants observe a video of a peer engaged in the targeted social behavior with another peer who provided reinforcement for the social response. Results suggested that certain irrelevant stimuli (adult vs. peer recipient) were more likely to exert stimulus control over responding than others (setting, materials) and that video viewing was an efficient way to promote generalization to peers. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  10. Delivering Diagnostic Quality Video over Mobile Wireless Networks for Telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira P. Rao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In real-time remote diagnosis of emergency medical events, mobility can be enabled by wireless video communications. However, clinical use of this potential advance will depend on definitive and compelling demonstrations of the reliability of diagnostic quality video. Because the medical domain has its own fidelity criteria, it is important to incorporate diagnostic video quality criteria into any video compression system design. To this end, we used flexible algorithms for region-of-interest (ROI video compression and obtained feedback from medical experts to develop criteria for diagnostically lossless (DL quality. The design of the system occurred in three steps-measurement of bit rate at which DL quality is achieved through evaluation of videos by medical experts, incorporation of that information into a flexible video encoder through the notion of encoder states, and an encoder state update option based on a built-in quality criterion. Medical experts then evaluated our system for the diagnostic quality of the video, allowing us to verify that it is possible to realize DL quality in the ROI at practical communication data transfer rates, enabling mobile medical assessment over bit-rate limited wireless channels. This work lays the scientific foundation for additional validation through prototyped technology, field testing, and clinical trials.

  11. Was that CT? Assessing Computational Thinking Patterns through Video-Based Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Krista Sekeres

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate student understanding and application of computational thinking patterns to novel situations. Over 500 students, who had just designed and programmed a Frogger-style game using the AgentSheets platform, responded to a newly developed video-prompt survey instrument administered in the Fall 2010 semester.…

  12. Psychophysiological Assessment Of Fear Experience In Response To Sound During Computer Video Gameplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garner, Tom Alexander; Grimshaw, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The potential value of a looping biometric feedback system as a key component of adaptive computer video games is significant. Psychophysiological measures are essential to the development of an automated emotion recognition program, capable of interpreting physiological data into models of affect...... is the primary affective stimuli....

  13. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  14. The Video Head Impulse Test to Assess the Efficacy of Vestibular Implants in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinand, Nils; Van de Berg, Raymond; Cavuscens, Samuel; Ranieri, Maurizio; Schneider, Erich; Lucieer, Floor; Kingma, Herman; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Pérez Fornos, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether it is possible to restore the high-frequency angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) in patients suffering from a severe bilateral vestibulopathy (BV) and implanted with a vestibular implant prototype. Three patients (S1–3) participated in the study. They received a prototype vestibular implant with one to three electrode branches implanted in the proximity of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Five electrodes were available for electrical stimulation: one implanted in proximity of the left posterior ampullary nerve in S1, one in the left lateral and another one in the superior ampullary nerves in S2, and one in the right lateral and another one in the superior ampullary nerves in S3. The high-frequency aVOR was assessed using the video head impulse test (EyeSeeCam; EyeSeeTec, Munich, Germany), while motion-modulated electrical stimulation was delivered via one of the implanted vestibular electrodes at a time. aVOR gains were compared to control measurements obtained in the same patients when the device was not activated. In three out of the five tested electrodes the aVOR gain increased monotonically with increased stimulation strength when head impulses were delivered in the plane of the implanted canal. In these cases, gains ranging from 0.4 to values above 1 were measured. A “reversed” aVOR could also be generated when inversed stimulation paradigms were used. In most cases, the gain for excitatory head impulses was superior to that recorded for inhibitory head impulses, consistent with unilateral vestibular stimulation. Improvements of aVOR gain were generally accompanied by a concomitant decrease of corrective saccades, providing additional evidence of an effective aVOR. High inter-electrode and inter-subject variability were observed. These results, together with previous research, demonstrate that it is possible to restore the aVOR in a broad frequency range using motion

  15. Classification of lower extremity movement patterns based on visual assessment: reliability and correlation with 2-dimensional video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Steger-May, Karen; Koh, Christine; Royer, Nat K; Graci, Valentina; Salsich, Gretchen B

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal movement patterns have been implicated in lower extremity injury. Reliable, valid, and easily implemented assessment methods are needed to examine existing musculoskeletal disorders and investigate predictive factors for lower extremity injury. To determine the reliability of experienced and novice testers in making visual assessments of lower extremity movement patterns and to characterize the construct validity of the visual assessments. Cross-sectional study. University athletic department and research laboratory. Convenience sample of 30 undergraduate and graduate students who regularly participate in athletics (age = 19.3 ± 4.5 years). Testers were 2 experienced physical therapists and 1 novice postdoctoral fellow (nonclinician). We took videos of 30 athletes performing the single-legged squat. Three testers observed the videos on 2 occasions and classified the lower extremity movement as dynamic valgus, no change, or dynamic varus. The classification was based on the estimated change in frontal-plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee from single-legged stance to maximum single-legged squat depth. The actual FPPA change was measured quantitatively. We used percentage agreement and weighted κ to examine tester reliability and to determine construct validity of the visual assessment. The κ values for intratester and intertester reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.90, indicating substantial to excellent reliability. Percentage agreement between the visual assessment and the quantitative FPPA change category was 90%, with a κ value of 0.85. Visual assessments were made reliably by experienced and novice testers. Additionally, movement-pattern categories based on visual assessments were in excellent agreement with objective methods to measure FPPA change. Therefore, visual assessments can be used in the clinic to assess movement patterns associated with musculoskeletal disorders and in large epidemiologic studies to assess the association between lower

  16. Remote Monitoring of Chronic Diseases: A Landscape Assessment of Policies in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rojahn

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring (RM is defined as the surveillance of device-transmitted outpatient data. RM is expected to enable better management of chronic diseases. The objective of this research was to identify public policies concerning RM in four European countries.Searches of the medical literature, the Internet, and Ministry of Health websites for the United Kingdom (UK, Germany, Italy, and Spain were performed in order to identify RM policies for chronic diseases, including end stage renal disease (ESRD, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD, diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. Searches were first performed in Q1 2014 and updated in Q4 2015. In addition, in depth interviews were conducted with payers/policymakers in each country. Information was obtained on existing policies, disease areas and RM services covered and level of reimbursement, other incentives such as quality indicators, past/current assessments of RM technologies, diseases perceived to benefit most from RM, and concerns about RM.Policies on RM and/or telemedicine were identified in all four countries. Pilot projects (mostly in diabetes, COPD, and/or heart failure existed or were planned in most countries. Perceived value of RM was moderate to high, with the highest rating given for heart failure. Interviewees expressed concerns about sharing of medical information, and the need for capital investment. Patients recently discharged from hospital, and patients living remotely, or with serious and/or complicated diseases, were believed to be the most likely to benefit from RM. Formal reimbursement is scarce, but more commonly available for patients with heart failure.In the four European countries surveyed, RM has attracted considerable interest for its potential to increase the efficiency of healthcare for chronic diseases. Although rare at this moment, incentives to use RM technology are likely to increase in the near future as the body of evidence of clinical and

  17. Remote programming of cochlear implants: a telecommunications model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElveen, John T; Blackburn, Erin L; Green, J Douglas; McLear, Patrick W; Thimsen, Donald J; Wilson, Blake S

    2010-09-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of remote programming for cochlear implants. Retrospective review of the cochlear implant performance for patients who had undergone mapping and programming of their cochlear implant via remote connection through the Internet. Postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for 7 patients who had undergone remote mapping and programming of their cochlear implant were compared with the mean scores of 7 patients who had been programmed by the same audiologist over a 12-month period. Times required for remote and direct programming were also compared. The quality of the Internet connection was assessed using standardized measures. Remote programming was performed via a virtual private network with a separate software program used for video and audio linkage. All 7 patients were programmed successfully via remote connectivity. No untoward patient experiences were encountered. No statistically significant differences could be found in comparing postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for patients who had undergone remote programming versus a similar group of patients who had their cochlear implant programmed directly. Remote programming did not require a significantly longer programming time for the audiologist with these 7 patients. Remote programming of a cochlear implant can be performed safely without any deterioration in the quality of the programming. This ability to remotely program cochlear implant patients gives the potential to extend cochlear implantation to underserved areas in the United States and elsewhere.

  18. An evaluation of remote sensing derived soil pH and average spring groundwater table for ecological assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H.D.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Kooistra, L.; van Amerongen, J.J.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological assessments such as species distribution modelling and benchmarking site quality towards regulations often rely on full spatial coverage information of site factors such as soil acidity, moisture regime or nutrient availability. To determine if remote sensing (RS) is a viable alternative

  19. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asnera; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweeded

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  20. Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Paul Breckenridge

    2007-05-01

    Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be

  1. Prognostic Significance of Remote Myocardium Alterations Assessed by Quantitative Noncontrast T1 Mapping in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstadler, Sebastian J; Stiermaier, Thomas; Liebetrau, Johanna; Fuernau, Georg; Eitel, Charlotte; de Waha, Suzanne; Desch, Steffen; Reil, Jan-Christian; Pöss, Janine; Metzler, Bernhard; Lücke, Christian; Gutberlet, Matthias; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger; Eitel, Ingo

    2017-06-09

    This study assessed the prognostic significance of remote zone native T1 alterations for the prediction of clinical events in a population with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and compared it with conventional markers of infarct severity. The exact role and incremental prognostic relevance of remote myocardium native T1 mapping alterations assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) after STEMI remains unclear. We included 255 consecutive patients with STEMI who were reperfused within 12 h after symptom onset. CMR core laboratory analysis was performed to assess left ventricular (LV) function, standard infarct characteristics, and native T1 values of the remote, noninfarcted myocardium. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, reinfarction, and new congestive heart failure within 6 months (major adverse cardiac events [MACE]). Patients with increased remote zone native T1 values (>1,129 ms) had significantly larger infarcts (p = 0.012), less myocardial salvage (p = 0.002), and more pronounced LV dysfunction (p = 0.011). In multivariable analysis, remote zone native T1 was independently associated with MACE after adjusting for clinical risk factors (p = 0.001) or other CMR variables (p = 0.007). In C-statistics, native T1 of remote myocardium provided incremental prognostic information beyond clinical risk factors, LV ejection fraction, and other markers of infarct severity (all p infarct size, and myocardial salvage index) led to net reclassification improvement of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.46 to 1.17; p Myocardial Damage in STEMI [LIPSIA-COND]; NCT02158468). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Recommendations to enhance constructivist-based learning in Interprofessional Education using video-based self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Uta; Schulze, Christine; Schindler, Claudia; Wick, Katharina; Schwartze, Dominique; Veit, Andrea; Smolenski, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is crucial to the optimization of patient care. This paper aims to provide recommendations for implementing an innovative constructivist educational concept with the core element of video-based self-assessment. A course for students in medicine, physiotherapy, and nursing was developed through interprofessional, cross-institutional collaboration. The course consisted of drawing on prior knowledge about the work done by each professional group in regard to a specific clinical scenario and an interprofessional treatment situation, filming a role play of this treatment situation, and a structured self-assessment of the role play. We evaluated the preparation and implementation of the three courses conducted thus far. Concrete recommendations for implementation were made based on evaluation sheets (students), open discussions (tutors, instructors, institutions) and recorded meeting minutes (project managers, project participants). Basic recommendations for implementation include: selecting appropriate criteria for self-assessment and a simulated situation that offers members of each professional group an equal opportunity to act in the role play. In terms of administrative implementation we recommend early coordination among the professions and educational institutions regarding the target groups, scheduling and attendance policy to ensure participant recruitment across all professions. Procedural planning should include developing teaching materials, such as the case vignette and treatment scenario, and providing technical equipment that can be operated intuitively in order to ensure efficient recording. These recommendations serve as an aid for implementing an innovative constructivist educational concept with video-based self-assessment at its core.

  3. Easy To Use Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis for Landslide Risk Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Dibs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many countries throughout the world suffered from the natural risks, they cause a large damage in property and loss in human lives, we cannot prevent the occurring of these hazards but, it is possible to reduce their affect in saving human lives and reducing the damage in properties. Several methodologies have been conducted to predict the suitable model for landslide assessment. The susceptibility maps of landslide hazard generated by combining the remote sensed data with the capability of GIS (geographic information system. We discussed different type of algorithms and factors for modeling the prediction of landslide risk assessment such as SVM (support vector machine, DT (decision tree, ANFIS (adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system, AHP (analytic hierarchy process, ANN (artificial neural network, probability frequency of landslides occurrence factors model and empirical model. The study evaluated various parameters that are responsible for landslide occurrence and the weighting for each parameter and its importance to probable of landslide activity. AHP method, Weights of evidence model, and back propagation method have been applied for weighting the factors.  We found that using ANN algorithm with more than ten factors will give high accuracy result especially if the validation performs by field surveys data.

  4. Using video-annotation software to identify interactions in group therapies for schizophrenia: assessing reliability and associations with outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Stavros; Akther, Syeda Ferhana; Abdul-Basit, Muhammad; McCabe, Rosemarie; Priebe, Stefan

    2017-02-10

    Research has shown that interactions in group therapies for people with schizophrenia are associated with a reduction in negative symptoms. However, it is unclear which specific interactions in groups are linked with these improvements. The aims of this exploratory study were to i) develop and test the reliability of using video-annotation software to measure interactions in group therapies in schizophrenia and ii) explore the relationship between interactions in group therapies for schizophrenia with clinically relevant changes in negative symptoms. Video-annotation software was used to annotate interactions from participants selected across nine video-recorded out-patient therapy groups (N = 81). Using the Individual Group Member Interpersonal Process Scale, interactions were coded from participants who demonstrated either a clinically significant improvement (N = 9) or no change (N = 8) in negative symptoms at the end of therapy. Interactions were measured from the first and last sessions of attendance (>25 h of therapy). Inter-rater reliability between two independent raters was measured. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the frequency of interactive behaviors and changes in negative symptoms, assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Of the 1275 statements that were annotated using ELAN, 1191 (93%) had sufficient audio and visual quality to be coded using the Individual Group Member Interpersonal Process Scale. Rater-agreement was high across all interaction categories (>95% average agreement). A higher frequency of self-initiated statements measured in the first session was associated with improvements in negative symptoms. The frequency of questions and giving advice measured in the first session of attendance was associated with improvements in negative symptoms; although this was only a trend. Video-annotation software can be used to reliably identify interactive behaviors in groups

  5. Developing methods for assessing abundance and distribution of European oysters (Ostrea edulis using towed video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Thorngren

    Full Text Available Due to large-scale habitat losses and increasing pressures, benthic habitats in general, and perhaps oyster beds in particular, are commonly in decline and severely threatened on regional and global scales. Appropriate and cost-efficient methods for mapping and monitoring of the distribution, abundance and quality of remaining oyster populations are fundamental for sustainable management and conservation of these habitats and their associated values. Towed video has emerged as a promising method for surveying benthic communities in a both non-destructive and cost-efficient way. Here we examine its use as a tool for quantification and monitoring of oyster populations by (i analysing how well abundances can be estimated and how living Ostrea edulis individuals can be distinguished from dead ones, (ii estimating the variability within and among observers as well as the spatial variability at a number of scales, and finally (iii evaluating the precision of estimated abundances under different scenarios for monitoring. Overall, the results show that the can be used to quantify abundance and occurrence of Ostrea edulis in heterogeneous environments. There was a strong correlation between abundances determined in the field and abundances estimated by video-analyses (r2 = 0.93, even though video analyses underestimated the total abundance of living oysters by 20%. Additionally, the method was largely repeatable within and among observers and revealed no evident bias in identification of living and dead oysters. We also concluded that the spatial variability was an order of magnitude larger than that due to observer errors. Subsequent modelling of precision showed that the total area sampled was the main determinant of precision and provided general method for determining precision. This study provides a thorough validation of the application of towed video on quantitative estimations of live oysters. The results suggest that the method can indeed be

  6. Using Student Video Cases to Assess Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Engineering Teaching Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Tejaswini; Wendell, Kristen

    2017-10-01

    Our study addresses the need for new approaches to prepare novice elementary teachers to teach both science and engineering, and for new tools to measure how well those approaches are working. This in particular would inform the teacher educators of the extent to which novice teachers are developing expertise in facilitating their students' engineering design work. One important dimension to measure is novice teachers' abilities to notice the substance of student thinking and to respond in productive ways. This teacher noticing is particularly important in science and engineering education, where students' initial, idiosyncratic ideas and practices influence the likelihood that particular instructional strategies will help them learn. This paper describes evidence of validity and reliability for the Video Case Diagnosis (VCD) task, a new instrument for measuring pre-service elementary teachers' engineering teaching responsiveness. To complete the VCD, participants view a 6-min video episode of children solving an engineering design problem, describe in writing what they notice about the students' science ideas and engineering practices, and propose how a teacher could productively respond to the students. The rubric for scoring VCD responses allowed two independent scorers to achieve inter-rater reliability. Content analysis of the video episode, systematic review of literature on science and engineering practices, and solicitation of external expert educator responses establish content validity for VCD. Field test results with three different participant groups who have different levels of engineering education experience offer evidence of construct validity.

  7. Fusion of Remote Sensing and Non-Authoritative Data for Flood Disaster and Transportation Infrastructure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnebele, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    Flooding is the most frequently occurring natural hazard on Earth; with catastrophic, large scale floods causing immense damage to people, property, and the environment. Over the past 20 years, remote sensing has become the standard technique for flood identification because of its ability to offer synoptic coverage. Unfortunately, remote sensing…

  8. A systematic framework for Monte Carlo simulation of remote sensing errors map in carbon assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Healey; P. Patterson; S. Urbanski

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed observations can provide unique perspective on how management and natural disturbance affect carbon stocks in forests. However, integration of these observations into formal decision support will rely upon improved uncertainty accounting. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations offer a practical, empirical method of accounting for potential remote sensing errors...

  9. The use of soil moisture - remote sensing products for large-scale groundwater modeling and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities of using spaceborne remote sensing for large-scale groundwater modeling are explored. We focus on a soil moisture product called European Remote Sensing Soil Water Index (ERS SWI, Wagner et al., 1999) - representing the upper profile soil moisture. As a test-bed, we

  10. Assessment of soil salinity problems in agricultural areas through spatial and temporal remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elwahed, Mohammed Saifeldeen

    This study is aimed at addressing the capability of using remote sensing data in detecting and tracking soil salinization variability using a series of experimental methodologies. In a controlled experiment, the spectral reflectance changes associated with salt crust formation on soil surfaces were tracked in order to detect the optimum moisture levels for salinity detection and recognize the influence of soil texture on salinity-induced spectral changes. In another experiment, lettuce plants were utilized to assess plant biophysical responses to moderate salinity levels with canopy-level reflectance data. An FR-ASD spectrometer was used to collect reflectance data in the 400-2500 nm spectral region. Finally, MODIS satellite data were employed to analyze the temporal profiles of selected high (8-11 dS/m), moderate (4-6 dS/m) and none (1-3 dS/m), salt affected sites in the Nile Delta, Egypt. The analyses of spectral data revealed that the use of remote sensing data to discriminate salinity levels in soils is highly affected by moisture content and texture. At low moisture contents, salts have high reflectance in the VIS-NIR spectral region but low reflectance in SWIR region. Spectral ambiguity with soil salinity was found across soil texture types. Significant relationships were found between plant chlorophyll content and the REP index (R2 = 0.97), and dry biomass with SAVI values (R2 = 0.94) under different salinity treatments. The spectral vegetation indices (VI's), SAVI and REP, and water indices (WI's) were found to be effective in discriminating between plants growing under moderate conditions of soil salinity and a non-saline condition. The combination between VI's and WI's was found to be useful in improving the ability to assess salinity stressed plants from non-stressed plants. Finally, MODIS results showed separability between canopy seasonal growth under high saline (HS) and non-saline (NS) conditions based on phenology. Canopies growing under HS

  11. Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids specifically remote static pulse systems on the welfare of domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jonathan; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel; Casey, Rachel; Blackwell, Emily; Van Driel, Katja; Lines, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed the welfare of dogs trained with pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse collar systems (e-collars). Previous work has focused on a very limited number of devices in a very limited range of contexts and the evidence of the impact of such devices on dog's overall quality of life is inconclusive. Project AW1402 aimed to assess the physical characteristics of the e-collars and the physiological, behavioural and psychological consequences of their use in dog trai...

  12. A Multidisciplinary Assessment of Remote Myocardial Fibrosis After Reperfused Myocardial Infarction in Swine and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervas, Arantxa; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Gavara, Jose; Monmeneu, Jose V; de Dios, Elena; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Perez-Sole, Nerea; Perez, Itziar; Monleon, Daniel; Morales, Jose M; Minana, Gema; Nunez, Julio; Bonanad, Clara; Diaz, Ana; Vila, Jose M; Chorro, Francisco J; Bodi, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    In extensive nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI), remote fibrosis has been documented. Early reperfusion by primary angioplasty represents the gold standard method to minimize the extension of the infarction. We aimed to ascertain whether fibrosis also affects remote regions in reperfused MI in swine and patients. Swine were subjected to a transient occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by 1-week or 1-month reperfusion. Collagen content in the remote area macroscopically, microscopically, by magnetic resonance microimaging, and at the molecular level was similar to controls. In patients with previous MI, samples from autopsies displayed a significant increase in collagen content only in the infarct region. In patients with previous MI submitted to cardiac magnetic resonance-T1 mapping, the extracellular volume fraction in remote segments was similar to that for controls. In all scenarios, the remote region did not show a significant increase of collagen content in comparison with controls.

  13. Velopharyngeal incompetence in patients with cleft palate, flexible video pharyngoscopy and perceptual speech assessment: a correlational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Kurien, M; Gupta, A K; Mathews, S S; Albert, R R; Tychicus, D

    2014-11-01

    To assess the role of video endoscopy in evaluating velopharyngeal incompetence and investigate a possible relationship between velopharyngeal incompetence type and speech defect in cleft palate patients. A prospective study of 28 pre- or post-operative cleft palate patients with speech defects who attended Plastic Surgery-Cleft Palate and ENT out-patient clinics was performed. The velar defect type was determined using a flexible endoscope and findings were video recorded. Speech pathology was assessed using the cleft palate audit protocol for speech. A significant, clinically relevant relationship was noted between the perceived characteristics of hypernasality and velopharyngeal insufficiency type. Hypernasal speech was a definite clinical indicator of velopharyngeal incompetence, and the type 1 velopharyngeal defect was most common. Type 1 velopharyngeal coronal-type dysfunction was strongly associated with hypernasality (p cleft palate patients, it is important that surgical correction of the defect and achieving velopharyngeal competency for speech are performed simultaneously. Pre-operative velopharyngeal endoscopy with speech assessment will define the anatomical and functional bases for velopharyngeal correction and assist in planning and tailoring the pharyngeal flap.

  14. Recommendations to enhance constructivist-based learning in Interprofessional Education using video-based self-assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahmen, Uta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interprofessional collaboration is crucial to the optimization of patient care.Aim: This paper aims to provide recommendations for implementing an innovative constructivist educational concept with the core element of video-based self-assessment.Methodology: A course for students in medicine, physiotherapy, and nursing was developed through interprofessional, cross-institutional collaboration. The course consisted of We evaluated the preparation and implementation of the three courses conducted thus far. Concrete recommendations for implementation were made based on evaluation sheets (students, open discussions (tutors, instructors, institutions and recorded meeting minutes (project managers, project participants.Results: Basic recommendations for implementation include: selecting appropriate criteria for self-assessment and a simulated situation that offers members of each professional group an equal opportunity to act in the role play. In terms of administrative implementation we recommend early coordination among the professions and educational institutions regarding the target groups, scheduling and attendance policy to ensure participant recruitment across all professions. Procedural planning should include developing teaching materials, such as the case vignette and treatment scenario, and providing technical equipment that can be operated intuitively in order to ensure efficient recording.Conclusion: These recommendations serve as an aid for implementing an innovative constructivist educational concept with video-based self-assessment at its core.

  15. Assessing reference evapotranspiration at regional scale based on remote sensing, weather forecast and GIS tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Cuesta, J. M.; Cruz-Blanco, M.; Santos, C.; Lorite, I. J.

    2017-03-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key component in efficient water management, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. However, accurate ETo assessment at the regional scale is complicated by the limited number of weather stations and the strict requirements in terms of their location and surrounding physical conditions for the collection of valid weather data. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, new approaches based on the use of remote sensing techniques and weather forecast tools have been proposed. Use of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF) tool and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have allowed the design and development of innovative approaches for ETo assessment, which are especially useful for areas lacking available weather data from weather stations. Thus, by identifying the best-performing interpolation approaches (such as the Thin Plate Splines, TPS) and by developing new approaches (such as the use of data from the most similar weather station, TS, or spatially distributed correction factors, CITS), errors as low as 1.1% were achieved for ETo assessment. Spatial and temporal analyses reveal that the generated errors were smaller during spring and summer as well as in homogenous topographic areas. The proposed approaches not only enabled accurate calculations of seasonal and daily ETo values, but also contributed to the development of a useful methodology for evaluating the optimum number of weather stations to be integrated into a weather station network and the appropriateness of their locations. In addition to ETo, other variables included in weather forecast datasets (such as temperature or rainfall) could be evaluated using the same innovative methodology proposed in this study.

  16. Carbon Stock Assessment Using Remote Sensing and Forest Inventory Data in Savannakhet, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phutchard Vicharnakorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Savannakhet Province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR, is a small area that is connected to Thailand, other areas of Lao PDR, and Vietnam via road No. 9. This province has been increasingly affected by carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted from the transport corridors that have been developed across the region. To determine the effect of the CO2 increases caused by deforestation and emissions, the total above-ground biomass (AGB and carbon stocks for different land-cover types were assessed. This study estimated the AGB and carbon stocks (t/ha of vegetation and soil using standard sampling techniques and allometric equations. Overall, 81 plots, each measuring 1600 m2, were established to represent samples from dry evergreen forest (DEF, mixed deciduous forest (MDF, dry dipterocarp forest (DDF, disturbed forest (DF, and paddy fields (PFi. In each plot, the diameter at breast height (DBH and height (H of the overstory trees were measured. Soil samples (composite n = 2 were collected at depths of 0–30 cm. Soil carbon was assessed using the soil depth, soil bulk density, and carbon content. Remote sensing (RS; Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM image was used for land-cover classification and development of the AGB estimation model. The relationships between the AGB and RS data (e.g., single TM band, various vegetation indices (VIs, and elevation were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the total carbon stock assessments from the ground data showed that the MDF site had the highest value, followed by the DEF, DDF, DF, and PFi sites. The RS data showed that the MDF site had the highest area coverage, followed by the DDF, PFi, DF, and DEF sites. The results indicated significant relationships between the AGB and RS data. The strongest correlation was found for the PFi site, followed by the MDF, DDF, DEF, and DF sites.

  17. Assessing Crop Conditions through the Use of Remote Sensing and Agricultural and Radar Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, A. W. D.; McDonald, K. C.; Winter, J.

    2016-12-01

    California and The Central Valley are presently experiencing one of that region's worst, persistent droughts on record. Due to the drought, the majority of the agricultural regions located in the Central Valley have faced reduced surface water allocations, negatively impacting crop production and the socioeconomics of the region. As a result of these effects, there has been an increased incentive to consider new ways to maximize agricultural water use efficiency. Recent advances in remote sensing and agricultural modelling provide the ability to improve agricultural management for end users to better understand field conditions, allowing the users to make informed decisions on irrigation timing and amounts. Our research explores the effectiveness of Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer Cropping Systems Model (DSSAT-CSM) in simulating wheat, corn, and rice for water year 2015 in Yolo County, California. This will be accomplished through the evaluation of multi-temporal C-band radar backscatter from the Sentinel-1 satellite and the Michigan's microwave canopy scattering model (MIMICS) to simulate Sentinel-1 radar for each crop type based on vegetation structure outputs from DSSAT-CSM. By linking Sentinel-1 and MIMICS to DSSAT-CSM, we create a verified model for agricultural monitoring that can potentially support the assessment of conditions within agricultural fields. This would allow growers to optimize use of limited water supplies through informed water management practices, improving crop conditions and yield in a water stressed region.

  18. Radar remote sensing for levee health assessment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Jones, C. E.; Dudas, J.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Levees and dikes form extensive flood protection infrastructure that often also serve critical water conveyance functions. We have studied the use of radar remote sensing for providing health assessment of levees, focusing on California's levee system. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which lies directly east of San Francisco Bay, is an area comprised of tidal marshland and reclaimed land in the form of ~60 islands surrounded by 1700 km of levees. Improved knowledge of subsidence across the region is needed to maintain the integrity of the Delta levee system, which protects the integrity and quality of the state's primary water supply. The western Delta is particularly critical because levee failure in this area would rapidly draw water of high salinity content into the channels conveying the fresh water supply. Here we report on a study that uses radar interferometry to measure the spatially and temporally varied levee movement and subsidence in the area, focusing particularly on Sherman Island, the westernmost island of the Delta. We use data from NASA's L-band (23.79 cm) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) collected at 6-week average interval from July 2009 through the current day. We show preliminary results for localized movement on and near the levees and for island-scale subsidence and discuss the techniques used for these measurements and how they could contribute to emergency response.

  19. Soil salinity mapping and hydrological drought indices assessment in arid environments based on remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2017-03-01

    Vegetation indices are mostly described as crop water derivatives. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the oldest remote sensing applications that is widely used to evaluate crop vigor directly and crop water relationships indirectly. Recently, several NDVI derivatives were exclusively used to assess crop water relationships. Four hydrological drought indices are examined in the current research study. The water supply vegetation index (WSVI), the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), the moisture stress index (MSI) and the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) are implemented in the current study as an indirect tool to map the effect of different soil salinity levels on crop water stress in arid environments. In arid environments, such as Saudi Arabia, water resources are under pressure, especially groundwater levels. Groundwater wells are rapidly depleted due to the heavy abstraction of the reserved water. Heavy abstractions of groundwater, which exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases, are powered by high evaporation rates in the designated study area because of the long days of extremely hot summer. Landsat 8 OLI data were extensively used in the current research to obtain several vegetation indices in response to soil salinity in Wadi ad-Dawasir. Principal component analyses (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses are complementary tools used to understand the regression pattern of the hydrological drought indices in the designated study area.

  20. Assessment of the state of urban ecosystems on the basis of remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, I. N.; Borisochkina, T. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2013-04-01

    The results of the soil-ecological monitoring of the Novovladykino (Moscow) key site are presented. The monitoring included the interpretation of aerospace information collected in 2000 and 2010, terrestrial route observations, and mapping of the key site. The data obtained confirm the possibility to use the remote sensing information in the investigation of urban ecosystems and to recognize the arboreal vegetation, shrubs, and lawn grass in images. The approximate identification of the tree species; the assessment of the state of the green belts and the natural, anthropogenic, and technogenic soils and their complexes; the identification of the overcompacted, mechanically destroyed, and sealed soils under the waterproof and permeable surface horizons are also possible. The determination of the species composition of the trees in small groups, the poor state of the individual trees and small groves, and the causes of the changes in the state of the green belts and polluted areas turned out to be impossible. Additional field and laboratory investigations were performed in order to verify and refine information obtained from the satellite images.

  1. Remote sensing for the geobotanical and biogeochemical assessment of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, J.; Chesley, M.; Lancaster, J.; Mouat, D.

    1993-01-01

    Under Contract Number DE-AC08-90NV10845, the DOE has funded the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to examine several aspects of remote sensing, specifically with respect to how its use might help support Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) activities at DOE sites located throughout the country. This report represents partial fulfillment of DRI`s obligations under that contract and includes a review of relevant literature associated with remote sensing studies and our evaluation and recommendation as to the applicability of various remote sensing techniques for DOE needs. With respect to DOE ERWM activities, remote sensing may be broadly defined as collecting information about a target without actually being in physical contact with the object. As the common platforms for remote sensing observations are aircraft and satellites, there exists the possibility to rapidly and efficiently collect information over DOE sites that would allow for the identification and monitoring of contamination related to present and past activities. As DOE sites cover areas ranging from tens to hundreds of square miles, remote sensing may provide an effective, efficient, and economical method in support of ERWM activities. For this review, remote sensing has been limited to methods that employ electromagnetic (EM) energy as the means of detecting and measuring target characteristics.

  2. Assessment of the Potential of UAV Video Image Analysis for Planning Irrigation Needs of Golf Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto-Jesús Perea-Moreno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Golf courses can be considered as precision agriculture, as being a playing surface, their appearance is of vital importance. Areas with good weather tend to have low rainfall. Therefore, the water management of golf courses in these climates is a crucial issue due to the high water demand of turfgrass. Golf courses are rapidly transitioning to reuse water, e.g., the municipalities in the USA are providing price incentives or mandate the use of reuse water for irrigation purposes; in Europe this is mandatory. So, knowing the turfgrass surfaces of a large area can help plan the treated sewage effluent needs. Recycled water is usually of poor quality, thus it is crucial to check the real turfgrass surface in order to be able to plan the global irrigation needs using this type of water. In this way, the irrigation of golf courses does not detract from the natural water resources of the area. The aim of this paper is to propose a new methodology for analysing geometric patterns of video data acquired from UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using a new Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM algorithm. A case study concerning maintained turfgrass, especially for golf courses, has been developed. It shows very good results, better than 98% in the confusion matrix. The results obtained in this study represent a first step toward video imagery classification. In summary, technical progress in computing power and software has shown that video imagery is one of the most promising environmental data acquisition techniques available today. This rapid classification of turfgrass can play an important role for planning water management.

  3. Assessing the relationship between environmental factors and malaria vector breeding sites in Swaziland using multi-scale remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabelo Nick Dlamini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many entomological studies have analyzed remotely sensed data to assess the relationship between malaria vector distribution and the associated environmental factors. However, the high cost of remotely sensed products with high spatial resolution has often resulted in analyses being conducted at coarse scales using open-source, archived remotely sensed data. In the present study, spatial prediction of potential breeding sites based on multi-scale remotely sensed information in conjunction with entomological data with special reference to presence or absence of larvae was realized. Selected water bodies were tested for mosquito larvae using the larva scooping method, and the results were compared with data on land cover, rainfall, land surface temperature (LST and altitude presented with high spatial resolution. To assess which environmental factors best predict larval presence or absence, Decision Tree methodology and logistic regression techniques were applied. Both approaches showed that some environmental predictors can reliably distinguish between the two alternatives (existence and non-existence of larvae. For example, the results suggest that larvae are mainly present in very small water pools related to human activities, such as subsistence farming that were also found to be the major determinant for vector breeding. Rainfall, LST and altitude, on the other hand, were less useful as a basis for mapping the distribution of breeding sites. In conclusion, we found that models linking presence of larvae with high-resolution land use have good predictive ability of identifying potential breeding sites.

  4. Knowledge-Based Detection and Assessment of Damaged Roads Using Post-Disaster High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Road damage detection and assessment from high-resolution remote sensing image is critical for natural disaster investigation and disaster relief. In a disaster context, the pairing of pre-disaster and post-disaster road data for change detection and assessment is difficult to achieve due to the mismatch of different data sources, especially for rural areas where the pre-disaster data (i.e., remote sensing imagery or vector map are hard to obtain. In this study, a knowledge-based method for road damage detection and assessment solely from post-disaster high-resolution remote sensing image is proposed. The road centerline is firstly extracted based on the preset road seed points. Then, features such as road brightness, standard deviation, rectangularity, and aspect ratio are selected to form a knowledge model. Finally, under the guidance of the road centerline, the post-disaster roads are extracted and the damaged roads are detected by applying the knowledge model. In order to quantitatively assess the damage degree, damage assessment indicators with their corresponding standard of damage grade are also proposed. The newly developed method is evaluated using a WorldView-1 image over Wenchuan, China acquired three days after the earthquake on 15 May 2008. The results show that the producer’s accuracy (PA and user’s accuracy (UA reached about 90% and 85%, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is effective for road damage detection and assessment. This approach also significantly reduces the need for pre-disaster remote sensing data.

  5. Reliable assessment of general surgeons' non-technical skills based on video-recordings of patient simulated scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanager, Lene; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Dieckmann, Peter; Konge, Lars; Rosenberg, Jacob; Oestergaard, Doris

    2013-11-01

    Nontechnical skills are essential for safe and efficient surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an assessment tool for surgeons' nontechnical skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk (NOTSSdk), and the effect of rater training. A 1-day course was conducted for 15 general surgeons in which they rated surgeons' nontechnical skills in 9 video recordings of scenarios simulating real intraoperative situations. Data were gathered from 2 sessions separated by a 4-hour training session. Interrater reliability was high for both pretraining ratings (Cronbach's α = .97) and posttraining ratings (Cronbach's α = .98). There was no statistically significant development in assessment skills. The D study showed that 2 untrained raters or 1 trained rater was needed to obtain generalizability coefficients >.80. The high pretraining interrater reliability indicates that videos were easy to rate and Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk easy to use. This implies that Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk (NOTSSdk) could be an important tool in surgical training, potentially improving safety and quality for surgical patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Remote Sensing for Risk Assessment of Via Iulia Augusta in Albenga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meerbeek, Lore; Barazzetti, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    Today, the field of cultural heritage faces many challenges: cultural heritage is always at risk and heritage recording can be time-consuming and result in low accuracy. These challenges were visible during the risk assessment of Via Iulia Augusta in Albenga (Liguria, Italy). The traces of Via Iulia Augusta, a former Roman Road, connect several cultural heritage resources in Albenga's landscape. The cultural significance of these heritage sites is at risk. Threats and disturbances related to humans, development, site management, nature and climate were observed during the onsite visit. These impacts can be sudden or part of a very slow process, resulting in reduced values on cultural, social, economic and ecological level. Nature and climate (change) in Albenga impact the heritage sites the most. Water-related problems such as flooding and surface runoff have always been present in Albenga, but the amount seems to increase year by year due to global warming and is supposed to become even more critical in the future. The first step towards a risk management plan is recording and documenting these cultural heritage sites at risk. Heritage recording provides valuable documentation of the primary source, the cultural heritage itself. The produced ground plans, elevations, sections and details are the most important primary information source for every research. However, the size and complexity of the cultural heritage, the required accuracy and the time span could have a negative influence on heritage recording and documentation. This paper demonstrates the potential of remote sensing techniques for cultural heritage at risk. On site surveys with GPS, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and photo camera gave reliable information of the heritage resources and its state of conservation. WorldView-2 Satellite images, extracted at different time periods, gave insight in the evolution of the cultural landscape in Albenga. This information resulted in several conclusions. First of all

  7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIDEO ANALYSIS IS COMPARABLE TO 3D MOTION CAPTURE IN LOWER EXTREMITY MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Stacy A; Marshall, Ashley N; Resch, Jacob E; Saliba, Susan A

    2017-04-01

    Although 3D motion capture is considered the "gold standard" for recording and analyzing kinematics, 2D video analysis may be a more reasonable, inexpensive, and portable option for kinematic assessment during pre-participation screenings. Few studies have compared quantitative measurements of lower extremity functional tasks between 2D and 3D. To compare kinematic measurements of the trunk and lower extremity in the frontal and sagittal planes between 2D video camera and 3D motion capture analyses obtained concurrently during a SLS. Descriptive laboratory study. Twenty-six healthy, recreationally active adults volunteered to participate. Participants performed three trials of the single leg squat on each limb, which were recorded simultaneously by three 2D video cameras and a 3D motion capture system. Dependent variables analyzed were joint displacement at the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle in the frontal and sagittal planes during the task compared to single leg quiet standing. Dependent variables exhibited moderate to strong correlations between the two measures in the sagittal plane ( r  = 0.51-.093), and a poor correlation at the knee in the frontal plane ( r  = 0.308) at ( p  ≤ 0.05) All other dependent variables revealed non-significant results between the two measures. Bland-Altman plots revealed strong agreement in the average mean difference in the amount of joint displacement between 2D and 3D in the sagittal plane (trunk = 1.68 º, hip = 2.60 º, knee = 0.74 º, and ankle = 3.12 º). Agreement in the frontal plane was good (trunk = 7.92 °, hip = -8.72 º, knee = -6.62 º, and ankle = 3.03 °). Moderate to strong relationships were observed between 2D video camera and 3D motion capture analyses at all joints in the sagittal plane, and the average mean difference was comparable to the standard error of measure with goniometry. The results suggest that despite the lack of precision and ability to

  8. Assessing Caribbean Shallow and Mesophotic Reef Fish Communities Using Baited-Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Diver-Operated Video (DOV) Survey Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andradi-Brown, Dominic A; Macaya-Solis, Consuelo; Exton, Dan A; Gress, Erika; Wright, Georgina; Rogers, Alex D

    2016-01-01

    .... Recently there has been much interest in mesophotic reefs (reefs from 30-150 m depth) as refuge habitats from fishing pressure, leading to many comparisons of reef fish communities over depth gradients...

  9. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  10. Integration of Teaching Processes and Learning Assessment in the Prefrontal Cortex during a Video Game Teaching-learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Mori, Takayuki; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Human teaching is a social interaction that supports reciprocal and dynamical feedback between the teacher and the student. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a region of particular interest due to its demonstrated role in social interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the PFC activity simultaneously in two individuals playing the role of a teacher and student in a video game teaching-learning task. For that, we used two wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices in order to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive interactions between teachers and students. Fifteen teacher-student pairs in total (N = 30) participated in this study. Each teacher was instructed to teach the video game to their student partner, without speaking. The PFC activity was simultaneously evaluated in both participants using a wearable 16-channel NIRS system during the video game teaching-learning task. Two sessions, each including a triplet of a 30-s teaching-learning task, were performed in order to evaluate changes in PFC activity after advancement of teaching-learning state. Changes in the teachers' left PFC activity between the first and second session positively correlated with those observed in students (r = 0.694, p = 0.004). Moreover, among teachers, multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between the left PFC activity and the assessment gap between one's own teaching and the student's understanding (β = 0.649, p = 0.009). Activity in the left PFC changed synchronously in both teachers and students after advancement of the teaching-learning state. The left PFC of teachers may be involved in integrating information regarding one's own teaching process and the student's learning state. The present observations indicate that simultaneous recording and analysis of brain activity data during teacher-student interactions may be useful in the field of educational neuroscience.

  11. Proposal of a Video-recording System for the Assessment of Bell's Palsy: Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, Simonetta; Marinozzi, Franco; Atturo, Francesca; Bini, Fabiano; Marchelletta, Silvia; Barbara, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    To propose a new objective video-recording procedure to assess and monitor over time the severity of facial nerve palsy. No objective methods for facial palsy (FP) assessment are universally accepted. The face of subjects presenting with different degrees of facial nerve deficit, as measured by the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system, was videotaped after positioning, at specific points, 10 gray circular markers made of a retroreflective material. Video-recording included the resting position and six ordered facial movements. Editing and data elaboration was performed using a software instructed to assess marker distances. From the differences of the marker distances between the two sides was then extracted a score. The higher the FP degree, the higher the score registered during each movement. The statistical significance differed during the various movements between the different FP degrees, being uniform when closing the eyes gently; whereas when wrinkling the nose, there was no difference between the HB grade III and IV groups and, when smiling, no difference was evidenced between the HB grade IV and V groups.The global range index, which represents the overall degree of FP, was between 6.2 and 7.9 in the normal subjects (HB grade I); between 10.6 and 18.91 in HB grade II; between 22.19 and 33.06 in HB grade III; between 38.61 and 49.75 in HB grade IV; and between 50.97 and 66.88 in HB grade V. The proposed objective methodology could provide numerical data that correspond to the different degrees of FP, as assessed by the subjective HB grading system. These data can in addition be used singularly to score selected areas of the paralyzed face when recovery occurs with a different timing in the different face regions.

  12. 61214++++','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="+++++https://jual.nipissingu.ca/wp-content/uploads/sites/25/2014/06/v61214.m4v">61214++++">Jailed - Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron CULBERT

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As the public education system in Northern Ontario continues to take a downward spiral, a plethora of secondary school students are being placed in an alternative educational environment. Juxtaposing the two educational settings reveals very similar methods and characteristics of educating our youth as opposed to using a truly alternative approach to education. This video reviews the relationship between public education and alternative education in a remote Northern Ontario setting. It is my belief that the traditional methods of teaching are not appropriate in educating at risk students in alternative schools. Paper and pencil worksheets do not motivate these students to learn and succeed. Alternative education should emphasize experiential learning, a just in time curriculum based on every unique individual and the students true passion for everyday life. Cameron Culbert was born on February 3rd, 1977 in North Bay, Ontario. His teenage years were split between attending public school and his willed curriculum on the ski hill. Culbert spent 10 years (1996-2002 & 2006-2010 competing for Canada as an alpine ski racer. His passion for teaching and coaching began as an athlete and has now transferred into the classroom and the community. As a graduate of Nipissing University (BA, BEd, MEd. Camerons research interests are alternative education, physical education and technology in the classroom. Currently Cameron is an active educator and coach in Northern Ontario.

  13. Transana Qualitative Video and Audio Analysis Software as a Tool for Teaching Intellectual Assessment Skills to Graduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, S. Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the author's experience using qualitative video and audio analysis, most notably through use of the Transana qualitative video and audio analysis software program, as an alternative method for teaching IQ administration skills to students in a graduate psychology program. Qualitative video and audio analysis may be useful for…

  14. Drought monitoring and assessment: Remote sensing and modeling approaches for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Budde, Michael; Young, Claudia; Rowland, James; Verdin, James

    2015-01-01

    Drought monitoring is an essential component of drought risk management. It is usually carried out using drought indices/indicators that are continuous functions of rainfall and other hydrometeorological variables. This chapter presents a few examples of how remote sensing and hydrologic modeling techniques are being used to generate a suite of drought monitoring indicators at dekadal (10-day), monthly, seasonal, and annual time scales for several selected regions around the world. Satellite-based rainfall estimates are being used to produce drought indicators such as standardized precipitation index, dryness indicators, and start of season analysis. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is being used to monitor vegetation condition. Several satellite data products are combined using agrohydrologic models to produce multiple short- and long-term indicators of droughts. All the data sets are being produced and updated in near-real time to provide information about the onset, progression, extent, and intensity of drought conditions. The data and products produced are available for download from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) data portal at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov. The availability of timely information and products support the decision-making processes in drought-related hazard assessment, monitoring, and management with the FEWS NET. The drought-hazard monitoring approach perfected by the U.S. Geological Survey for FEWS NET through the integration of satellite data and hydrologic modeling can form the basis for similar decision support systems. Such systems can operationally produce reliable and useful regional information that is relevant for local, district-level decision making.

  15. Regional scale soil salinity assessment using remote sensing based environmental factors and vegetation indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ligang; Ma, Fenglan; Li, Jiadan; Gu, Qing; Yang, Shengtian; Ding, Jianli

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation, specifically soil salinization has rendered large areas of China west sterile and unproductive while diminishing the productivity of adjacent lands and other areas where salting is less severe. Up to now despite decades of research in soil mapping, few accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial extent and variability of soil salinity are available for large geographic regions. This study explores the po-tentials of assessing soil salinity via linear and random forest modeling of remote sensing based environmental factors and indirect indicators. A case study is presented for the arid oases of Tarim and Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China using time series land surface temperature (LST), evapotranspiration (ET), TRMM precipitation (TRM), DEM product and vegetation indexes as well as their second order products. In par-ticular, the location of the oasis, the best feature sets, different salinity degrees and modeling approaches were fully examined. All constructed models were evaluated for their fit to the whole data set and their performance in a leave-one-field-out spatial cross-validation. In addition, the Kruskal-Wallis rank test was adopted for the statis-tical comparison of different models. Overall, the random forest model outperformed the linear model for the two basins, all salinity degrees and datasets. As for feature set, LST and ET were consistently identified to be the most important factors for two ba-sins while the contribution of vegetation indexes vary with location. What's more, models performances are promising for the salinity ranges that are most relevant to agricultural productivity.

  16. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  17. Integration of Centrifuge Testing in Undergraduate Geotechnical Engineering Education at Remote Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shamy, Usama; Abdoun, Tarek; McMartin, Flora; Pando, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a pilot study aimed at developing, implementing, and assessing an educational module that integrates remote major research instrumentation into undergraduate classes. Specifically, this study employs Internet Web-based technologies to allow for real-time video monitoring and execution of cutting-edge experiments. The…

  18. An Economic Assessment Model of Rural and Remote Satellite Hemodialysis Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Ferguson

    Full Text Available Kidney Failure is epidemic in many remote communities in Canada. In-centre hemodialysis is provided within these settings in satellite hemodialysis units. The key cost drivers of this program have not been fully described. Such information is important in informing the design of programs aimed at optimizing efficiency in providing dialysis and preventative chronic kidney disease care in remote communities.We constructed a cost model based on data derived from 16 of Manitoba, Canada's remote satellite units. We included all costs for operation of the unit, transportation, treatment, and capital costs. All costs were presented in 2013 Canadian dollars.The annual per-patient cost of providing hemodialysis in the satellite units ranged from $80,372 to $215,918 per patient, per year. The median per patient, per year cost was $99,888 (IQR $89,057-$122,640. Primary cost drivers were capital costs related to construction, human resource expenses, and expenses for return to tertiary care centres for health care. Costs related to transport considerably increased estimates in units that required plane or helicopter transfers.Satellite hemodialysis units in remote areas are more expensive on a per-patient basis than hospital hemodialysis and satellite hemodialysis available in urban areas. In some rural, remote locations, better value for money may reside in local surveillance and prevention programs in addition support for home dialysis therapies over construction of new satellite hemodialysis units.

  19. Assessment of Climate Impact Changes on Forest Vegetation Dynamics by Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temper-ature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of climate and anthropogenic changes impacts and a key parameter for understanding and modelling vegetation-climate in-teractions. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vege-tation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homo-geneous area, cloud-free and not affected by atmospheric and geometric effects and variations in sensor characteristics (calibration, spectral responses). Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI satellite images with the Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series algorithm. A climate indicator (CI) was created from meteorological data (precipitation over net radiation). The relationships between the vegetation dynamics and the CI have been determined spatially and temporally. The driest test regions prove to be the most sensitive to climate impact. The spatial and temporal patterns of the mean NDVI are the same, while they are partially different for the seasonal difference. The aim of this paper was to quantify this impact over a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter extracted from IKONOS and LANDSAT TM and

  20. Satellite remote sensing assessment of climate impact on forest vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M.

    2009-04-01

    Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of impacts of climate and anthropogenic changes and a key parameter for understanding and modelling vegetation-climate interactions. Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temperature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homogeneous area, cloud-free and not affected by atmospheric and geometric effects and variations in sensor characteristics (calibration, spectral responses). Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI satellite images with the Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series algorithm. A climate indicator (CI) was created from meteorological data (precipitation over net radiation). The relationships between the vegetation dynamics and the CI have been determined spatially and temporally. The driest test regions prove to be the most sensitive to climate impact. The spatial and temporal patterns of the mean NDVI are the same, while they are partially different for the seasonal difference. The aim of this paper was to quantify this impact over a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter extracted from IKONOS and LANDSAT TM and

  1. Soil Degradation Assessment in North Nile Delta Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nahry, A. H.; Ibraheim, M. M.; El Baroudy, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims at monitoring soil degradation process within the last two decades in the northern part of Nile Delta. The investigated area lies between longitudes 31° 00- & 31° 15- E and latitudes 31° 00' & 31° 37' N., covering an area of about 161760 feddans. Detecting soil degradation and recognizing its various types is a necessity to take the practical measures for combating it as well as conserving and keeping the agricultural soil healthy. Land degradation was assessed by adopting new approach through the integration of GLASOD/FAO approach and Remote Sensing / GIS techniques .The main types of human induced soil degradation that observed in the studied area are salinity, alkalinity (sodicity), compaction and water logging .On the other hand water erosion because of sea rise is assessed. The obtained data showed that, areas that were affected by compaction increment have been spatially enlarged by 40.9 % and those affected by compaction decrease have been spatially reduced by 22.6 % of the total area ,meanwhile areas that have been unchanged were estimated by 36.5% of the total area. The areas that were affected by water logging increase have been spatially enlarged by 52.2 % and those affected by water logging decrease have been spatially reduced by 10.1 % of the total area, meanwhile the areas which have been unchanged were represented by 37.7 % of the total area. Areas that were affected by salinity increase have been spatially enlarged by 31.4 % of the total area and those affected by salinity decrease have been reduced by 43.3 % of the total area. An area represented by 25.2 % of the total area has been unchanged. Alkalinization (sodicity) was expressed by the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP).Areas that were affected by sodicity increase have been spatially enlarged by 33.7 %, meanwhile those affected by sodicity decrease have been spatially reduced by 33.6 % of the total area. An area represented by 32.6 % of the total area has been

  2. Computer-facilitated assessment of disaster preparedness for remote hospitals in a long-distance, virtual tabletop drill model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Brian; Silverberg, Mark; Roblin, Patricia; Adelaine, John; Valesky, Walter; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2011-06-01

    Emergency preparedness experts generally are based at academic or governmental institutions. A mechanism for experts to remotely facilitate a distant hospital's disaster readiness is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and examine the feasibility of an Internet-based software tool to assess disaster preparedness for remote hospitals using a long-distance, virtual, tabletop drill. An Internet-based system that remotely acquires information and analyzes disaster preparedness for hospitals at a distance in a virtual, tabletop drill model was piloted. Nine hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa designated as receiving institutions for the 2010 FIFA World Cup Games and its organizers, utilized the system over a 10-week period. At one-week intervals, the system e-mailed each hospital's leadership a description of a stadium disaster and instructed them to login to the system and answer questions relating to their hospital's state of readiness. A total of 169 questions were posed relating to operational and surge capacities, communication, equipment, major incident planning, public relations, staff safety, hospital supplies, and security in each hospital. The system was used to analyze answers and generate a real-time grid that reflected readiness as a percent for each hospital in each of the above categories. It also created individualized recommendations of how to improve preparedness for each hospital. To assess feasibility of such a system, the end users' compliance and response times were examined. Overall, compliance was excellent with an aggregate response rate of 98%. The mean response interval, defined as the time elapsed between sending a stimuli and receiving a response, was eight days (95% CI = 8-9 days). A web-based data acquisition system using a virtual, tabletop drill to remotely facilitate assessment of disaster preparedness is efficient and feasible. Weekly reinforcement for disaster preparedness resulted in strong compliance.

  3. In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemeyer, Hannah; Shellock, Frank G; Ahn, Christina Y

    2014-04-01

    A patient with a breast tissue expander may require a diagnostic assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To ensure patient safety, this type of implant must undergo in vitro MRI testing using proper techniques. Therefore, this investigation evaluated MRI issues (i.e., magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts) at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port. A breast tissue expander with a remote port (Integra Breast Tissue Expander, Model 3612-06 with Standard Remote Port, PMT Corporation, Chanhassen, MN) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions (translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was evaluated by placing the implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom and MRI was performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9-W/kg. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted and GRE pulse sequences. Magnetic field interactions were not substantial and, thus, will not pose a hazard to a patient in a 3-Tesla or less MRI environment. The highest temperature rise was 1.7°C, which is physiologically inconsequential. Artifacts were large in relation to the remote port and metal connector of the implant but will only present problems if the MR imaging area of interest is where these components are located. A patient with this breast tissue expander with a remote port may safely undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less under the conditions used for this investigation. These findings are the first reported at 3-Tesla for a tissue expander. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Content-aware video quality assessment: predicting human perception of quality using peak signal to noise ratio and spatial/temporal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, B.; Niño-Castañeda, J.; Platiša, L.; Philips, W.

    2015-03-01

    Since the end-user of video-based systems is often a human observer, prediction of human perception of quality (HPoQ) is an important task for increasing the user satisfaction. Despite the large variety of objective video quality measures, one problem is the lack of generalizability. This is mainly due to the strong dependency between HPoQ and video content. Although this problem is well-known, few existing methods directly account for the influence of video content on HPoQ. This paper propose a new method to predict HPoQ by using simple distortion measures and introducing video content features in their computation. Our methodology is based on analyzing the level of spatio-temporal activity and combining HPoQ content related parameters with simple distortion measures. Our results show that even very simple distortion measures such as PSNR and simple spatio-temporal activity measures lead to good results. Results over four different public video quality databases show that the proposed methodology, while faster and simpler, is competitive with current state-of-the-art methods, i.e., correlations between objective and subjective assessment higher than 80% and it is only two times slower than PSNR.

  5. Regional Water Balance Based on Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration and Irrigation: An Assessment of the Haihe Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal planning and management of the limited water resources for maximum productivity in agriculture requires quantifying the irrigation applied at a regional scale. However, most efforts involving remote sensing applications in assessing large-scale irrigation applied (IA have focused on supplying spatial variables for crop models or studying evapotranspiration (ET inversions, rather than directly building a remote sensing data-based model to estimate IA. In this study, based on remote sensing data, an IA estimation model together with an ET calculation model (ETWatch is set up to simulate the spatial distribution of IA in the Haihe Plain of northern China. We have verified this as an effective approach for the simulation of regional IA, being more reflective of regional characteristics and of higher resolution compared to single site-specific results. The results show that annual ET varies from 527 mm to 679 mm and IA varies from 166 mm to 289 mm, with average values of 602 mm and 225 mm, respectively, from 2002 to 2007. We confirm that the region along the Taihang Mountain in Hebei Plain has serious water resource sustainability problems, even while receiving water from the South-North Water Transfer (SNWT project. This is due to the region’s intensive agricultural production and declining groundwater tables. Water-saving technologies, including more timely and accurate geo-specific IA assessments, may help reduce this threat.

  6. Rapid, Quantitative Assessment of Submerged Cultural Resource Degradation Using Repeat Video Surveys and Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, J. R.; Zant, C. N.; Gulley, J. D.; Thomsen, T. L.

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring, managing and preserving submerged cultural resources (SCR) such as shipwrecks can involve time consuming detailed physical surveys, expensive side-scan sonar surveys, the study of photomosaics and even photogrammetric analysis. In some cases, surveys of SCR have produced 3D models, though these models have not typically been used to document patterns of site degradation over time. In this study, we report a novel approach for quantifying degradation and changes to SCR that relies on diver-acquired video surveys, generation of 3D models from data acquired at different points in time using structure from motion, and differencing of these models. We focus our study on the shipwreck S.S. Wisconsin, which is located roughly 10.2 km southeast of Kenosha, Wisconsin, in Lake Michigan. We created two digital elevation models of the shipwreck using surveys performed during the summers of 2006 and 2015 and differenced these models to map spatial changes within the wreck. Using orthomosaics and difference map data, we identified a change in degradation patterns. Degradation was anecdotally believed to be caused by inward collapse, but maps indicated a pattern of outward collapse of the hull structure, which has resulted in large scale shifting of material in the central upper deck. In addition, comparison of the orthomosaics with the difference map clearly shows movement of objects, degradation of smaller pieces and in some locations, an increase in colonization of mussels.

  7. APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE UJUK MOUNTAIN BOREAL FORESTS (THE TYVA REPUBLIC, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulermaa B. Kuular

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some issues related to assessment and monitoring of forests insouthern Siberia. This study aims to evaluate the response of southern boreal forests to climate warming at local scale. Estimating the impacts of climate change on mountain boreal forests requires a more complete accounting of tree growth/climate interaction. We used both remote sensing and field data. Field measurements were made from the upper to lower timberline of dark deciduous forest in 2005 and 2012. The remote sensing datasets were generated from LANDSAT scenes of different dates (19.08.1988, 25.06.1992 and 18.08.2011. For estimation of forests changes, we used values of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio.

  8. Multi-modal assessment of neurovascular coupling during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion using remote middle cerebral artery occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutherland, Brad A; Fordsmann, Jonas C; Martin, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Hyperacute changes in cerebral blood flow during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion are important determinants of injury. Cerebral blood flow is regulated by neurovascular coupling, and disruption of neurovascular coupling contributes to brain plasticity and repair problems. However, it is unknown....... Male Wistar rats were subjected to remote middle cerebral artery occlusion, where a long filament was advanced intraluminally through a guide cannula in the common carotid artery. Transcallosal stimulation evoked increases in blood flow, tissue oxygenation and neuronal activity, which were diminished...... that neurovascular dysfunction was not sustained. These data show for the first time that the rat remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model coupled with transcallosal stimulation provides a novel method for continuous assessment of hyperacute neurovascular coupling changes during ischaemia and reperfusion...

  9. Assessment of the use of remotely sensed rainfall products for runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research is to compare the performance of SWAT model using rainfall input data from remotely sensed and ground measured data for Gilgel abbay catchment. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that SWAT model yields good results for the satellite rainfall input data when compared to in ...

  10. Potential of using remote sensing techniques for global assessment of water footprint of crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera Albentosa, M.R.; Romaguera, Mireia; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Su, Zhongbo; Krol, Martinus S.; Salama, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing has long been a useful tool in global applications, since it provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information. This paper discusses the potential of using these techniques in the research field of water management, particularly for ‘Water Footprint’ (WF)

  11. Temporal Forest Change Detection and Forest Health Assessment using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'acob, Norsuzila; Mohd Azize, Aziean Binti; Anis Mahmon, Nur; Laily Yusof, Azita; Farhana Azmi, Nor; Mustafa, Norfazira

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the detection of Angsi and Berembun Reserve Forest change for years 1996 and 2013. Forest is an important part of our ecosystem. The main function is to absorb carbon oxide and produce oxygen in their cycle of photosynthesis to maintain a balance and healthy atmosphere. However, forest changes as time changes. Some changes are necessary as to give way for economic growth. Nevertheless, it is important to monitor forest change so that deforestation and development can be planned and the balance of ecosystem is still preserved. It is important because there are number of unfavorable effects of deforestation that include environmental and economic such as erosion of soil, loss of biodiversity and climate change. The forest change detection can be studied with reference of several satellite images using remote sensing application. Forest change detection is best done with remote sensing due to large and remote study area. The objective of this project is to detect forest change over time and to compare forest health indicated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using remote sensing and image processing. The forest under study shows depletion of forest area by 12% and 100% increment of deforestation activities. The NDVI value which is associated with the forest health also shows 13% of reduction.

  12. Remote sensing of ecosystem vulnerability: Assessing climate-vegetation-livestock interactions in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Hong, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Stock breeding is a major economic sector of Mongolia, supporting unique cultural and social identity. In spite of its long history, contemporary pastoralism increases interventions on climate-vegetation interactions substantially, which results in negative feedbacks to livestock sector. This presentation draws an attention how natural processes of climate and vegetation interact with livestock dynamics. Massive loss of livestock and wildlife animal during winter seasons (dzud) is an endemic climatic disaster in the Central Asia grasslands but the mechanisms are not well understood yet. Recent national-wide sever Dzud occurred during 2009-2010 winter in Mongolia. The dzud mechanisms were investigated by developing a schematic mechanism model on climate-vegetation-livestock interactions and applying it for quantitative statistical analysis. Various remote sensing products were integrated to prepare the status and process variables of the schematic model, including daily temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and primary production and biomass for a period from 2003 to 2010. At a lower level of administration (i.e., 'soum' generally larger than 1000 km2), stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find significant factors of inter-annual livestock change. As results, linear regression models were successfully produced at 70% of soums. Summer and winter variables appeared equally important in controlling livestock dynamics. The primary factor of each soum showed certain regional patterns incident well with climate severity and foraging resource availability (e.g. temperature in north, dryness in south, and NDVI in middle). Regional pattern of herbaceous biodiversity depends on both climate and disturbance (i.e. fire and grazing) gradients but the livestock grazing effect appeared localized normally within 1.5 km from livestock shelter or wells. At a local-scale (i.e. family level smaller than 100 km2), species composition seems to provide useful

  13. The Implications of Fire Management in the Andean Paramo: A Preliminary Assessment Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Borrelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The upper ranges of the northern Andes are characterized by unique Neotropical, high altitude ecosystems known as paramos. These tundra-like grasslands are widely recognized by the scientific community for their biodiversity and their important ecosystem services for the local human population. Despite their remoteness, limited accessibility for humans and waterlogged soils, paramos are highly flammable ecosystems. They are constantly under the influence of seasonal biomass burning mostly caused by humans. Nevertheless, little is known about the spatial extent of these fires, their regime and the resulting ecological impacts. This paper presents a thorough mapping and analysis of the fires in one of the world’s largest paramo, namely the “Complejo de Páramos” of Cruz Verde-Sumapaz in the Eastern mountain range of the Andes (Colombia. Landsat TM/ETM+ and MODIS imagery from 2001 to 2013 was used to map and analyze the spatial distribution of fires and their intra- and inter-annual variability. Moreover, a logistic regression model analysis was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the dynamics of the paramo fires can be related to human pressures. The resulting map shows that the burned paramo areas account for 57,179.8 hectares, of which 50% (28,604.3 hectares are located within the Sumapaz National Park. The findings show that the fire season mainly occurs from January to March. The accuracy assessment carried out using a confusion matrix based on 20 reference burned areas shows values of 90.1% (producer accuracy for the mapped burned areas with a Kappa Index of Agreement (KIA of 0.746. The results of the logistic regression model suggest a significant predictive relevance of the variables road distance (0.55 ROC (receiver operating characteristic and slope gradient (0.53 ROC, indicating that the higher the probability of fire occurrence, the smaller the distance to the road and the higher the probability of more gentle slopes. The paper

  14. Infrared thermal remote sensing for soil salinity assessment on landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivushkin, Konstantin; Bartholomeus, Harm; Bregt, Arnold K.; Pulatov, Alim; Bui, Elisabeth N.; Wilford, John

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is considered as one of the most severe land degradation aspects. An increased soil salt level inhibits growth and development of crops. Therefore, up to date soil salinity information is vital for appropriate management practices and reclamation strategies. This information is required at increasing spatial and temporal resolution for appropriate management adaptations. Conventional soil sampling and associated laboratory analyses are slow, expensive, and often cannot deliver the temporal and spatial resolution required. The change of canopy temperature is one of the stress indicators in plants. Its behaviour in response to salt stress on individual plant level is well studied in laboratory and greenhouse experiments, but its potential for landscape scale studies using remote sensing techniques is not investigated yet. In our study, possibilities of satellite thermography for landscape scale soil salinity assessment of cropped areas were studied. The performance of satellite thermography is compared with other approaches that have been used before, like Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The study areas were Syrdarya province of Uzbekistan and four study areas in four Australian states namely, Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland and New South Wales. The diversity of the study areas allowed us to analyse behaviour of canopy temperature of different crops (wheat, cotton, barley) and different agriculture practices (rain fed and irrigated). MODIS and Landsat TM multiannual satellite images were used to measure canopy temperature. As ground truth for Uzbekistan study area we used a provincial soil salinity map. For the Australian study areas we used the EC map for the whole country. ANOVA was used to analyse relations between the soil salinity maps and canopy temperature, NDVI, EVI. Time series graphs were created to analyse the dynamics of the indicators during the growing season. The results

  15. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data in the Development and Implementation of Estuarine and Coastal Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren; Ellis, Chris; Lehrter, John; Hagy, Jim; Schaeffer, Blake

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the project are to provide information from satellite remote sensing to support numeric nutrient criteria development and to determine data processing methods and data quality requirements to support nutrient criteria development and implementation. The approach is to identify water quality indicators that are used by decision makers to assess water quality and that are related to optical properties of the water; to develop remotely sensed data products based on algorithms relating remote sensing imagery to field-based observations of indicator values; to develop methods to assess estuarine water quality, including trends, spatial and temporal variability, and seasonality; and to develop tools to assist in the development and implementation of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria. Additional slides present process, criteria development, typical data sources and analyses for criteria process, the power of remote sensing data for the process, examples from Pensacola Bay, spatial and temporal variability, pixel matchups, remote sensing validation, remote sensing in coastal waters, requirements for remotely sensed data products, and needs assessment. An additional presentation examines group engagement and information collection. Topics include needs assessment purpose and objectives, understanding water quality decision making, determining information requirements, and next steps.

  16. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p.

  17. Assessing Wetland Hydroperiod and Soil Moisture With Remote Sensing: A Demonstration for the NASA Plum Brook Station Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Colin; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura; Endres, Sarah; Battaglia, Michael; Shuchman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Primary Goal: Assist with the evaluation and measuring of wetlands hydroperiod at the PlumBrook Station using multi-source remote sensing data as part of a larger effort on projecting climate change-related impacts on the station's wetland ecosystems. MTRI expanded on the multi-source remote sensing capabilities to help estimate and measure hydroperiod and the relative soil moisture of wetlands at NASA's Plum Brook Station. Multi-source remote sensing capabilities are useful in estimating and measuring hydroperiod and relative soil moisture of wetlands. This is important as a changing regional climate has several potential risks for wetland ecosystem function. The year two analysis built on the first year of the project by acquiring and analyzing remote sensing data for additional dates and types of imagery, combined with focused field work. Five deliverables were planned and completed: 1) Show the relative length of hydroperiod using available remote sensing datasets 2) Date linked table of wetlands extent over time for all feasible non-forested wetlands 3) Utilize LIDAR data to measure topographic height above sea level of all wetlands, wetland to catchment area radio, slope of wetlands, and other useful variables 4) A demonstration of how analyzed results from multiple remote sensing data sources can help with wetlands vulnerability assessment 5) A MTRI style report summarizing year 2 results. This report serves as a descriptive summary of our completion of these our deliverables. Additionally, two formal meetings were held with Larry Liou and Amanda Sprinzl to provide project updates and receive direction on outputs. These were held on 2/26/15 and 9/17/15 at the Plum Brook Station. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique used to identify dominant spatial and temporal backscatter signatures. PCA reduces the information contained in the temporal dataset to the first few new Principal Component (PC) images. Some advantages of PCA

  18. Digital video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.

  19. Land desertification monitoring and assessment in Yulin of Northwest China using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Chen, Zhengyi; Zhu, Boqin; Luo, Xiuyue; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Nie, Yueping

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop techniques for assessing and analysing land desertification in Yulin of Northwest China, as a typical monitoring region through the use of remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS). The methodology included the use of Landsat TM data from 1987, 1996 and 2006, supplemented by aerial photos in 1960, topographic maps, field work and use of other existing data. From this, land cover, the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), farmland, woodland and grassland maps at 1:100,000 were prepared for land desertification monitoring in the area. In the study, all data was entered into a GIS using ILWIS software to perform land desertification monitoring. The results indicate that land desertification in the area has been developing rapidly during the past 40 years. Although land desertification has to some extent been controlled in the area by planting grasses and trees, the issue of land desertification is still serious. The study also demonstrates an example of why the integration of remote sensing with GIS is critical for the monitoring of environmental changes in arid and semi-arid regions, e.g. in land desertification monitoring in the Yulin pilot area. However, land desertification monitoring using remote sensing and GIS still needs to be continued and also refined for the purpose of long-term monitoring and the management of fragile ecosystems in the area.

  20. Efficacy of Endoscopic Fluorescein Video Angiography in Aneurysm Surgery-Novel and Innovative Assessment of Vascular Blood Flow in the Dead Angles of the Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Kanemaru, Kazuya; Ogiwara, Masakazu; Yagi, Takashi; Wakai, Takuma; Fukumoto, Yuichiro

    2017-08-01

    In aneurysm surgery, assessment of the blood flow around the aneurysm is crucial. Recently, intraoperative fluorescence video angiography has been widely adopted for this purpose. However, the observation field of this procedure is limited to the microscopic view, and it is difficult to visualize blood flow obscured by the skull base anatomy, parent arteries, and aneurysm. To demonstrate the efficacy of a new small-caliber endoscopic fluorescence video angiography system employing sodium fluorescein in aneurysm surgery for the first time. Eighteen patients with 18 cerebral aneurysms were enrolled in this study. Both microscopic fluorescence angiography and endoscopic fluorescein video angiography were performed before and after clip placement. Endoscopic fluorescein video angiography provided bright fluorescence imaging even with a 2.7-mm-diameter endoscope and clearly revealed blood flow within the vessels in the dead angle areas of the microscope in all 18 aneurysms. Consequently, it revealed information about aneurysmal occlusion and perforator patency in 15 aneurysms (83.3%) that was not obtainable with microscopic fluorescence video angiography. Furthermore, only endoscopic video angiography detected the incomplete clipping in 2 aneurysms and the occlusion of the perforating branches in 3 aneurysms, which led to the reapplication of clips in 2 aneurysms. The innovative endoscopic fluorescein video angiography system we developed features a small-caliber endoscope and bright fluorescence images. Because it reveals blood flow in the dead angle areas of the microscope, this novel system could contribute to the safety and long-term effectiveness of aneurysm surgery even in a narrow operative field.

  1. Preliminary Findings of Inflight Icing Field Test to Support Icing Remote Sensing Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael; Reehorst, Andrew; Serke, Dave

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology has recently been extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize a vertical pointing cloud radar, a multifrequency microwave radiometer with azimuth and elevation pointing, and a NEXRAD radar. The new terminal area icing remote sensing system processes the data streams from these instruments to derive temperature, liquid water content, and cloud droplet size for each examined point in space. These data are then combined to ultimately provide icing hazard classification along defined approach paths into an airport.

  2. Use of multispectral satellite remote sensing to assess mixing of suspended sediment downstream of large river confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Greenberg, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Although past work has noted that contrasts in turbidity often are detectable on remotely sensed images of rivers downstream from confluences, no systematic methodology has been developed for assessing mixing over distance of confluent flows with differing surficial suspended sediment concentrations (SSSC). In contrast to field measurements of mixing below confluences, satellite remote-sensing can provide detailed information on spatial distributions of SSSC over long distances. This paper presents a methodology that uses remote-sensing data to estimate spatial patterns of SSSC downstream of confluences along large rivers and to determine changes in the amount of mixing over distance from confluences. The method develops a calibrated Random Forest (RF) model by relating training SSSC data from river gaging stations to derived spectral indices for the pixels corresponding to gaging-station locations. The calibrated model is then used to predict SSSC values for every river pixel in a remotely sensed image, which provides the basis for mapping of spatial variability in SSSCs along the river. The pixel data are used to estimate average surficial values of SSSC at cross sections spaced uniformly along the river. Based on the cross-section data, a mixing metric is computed for each cross section. The spatial pattern of change in this metric over distance can be used to define rates and length scales of surficial mixing of suspended sediment downstream of a confluence. This type of information is useful for exploring the potential influence of various controlling factors on mixing downstream of confluences, for evaluating how mixing in a river system varies over time and space, and for determining how these variations influence water quality and ecological conditions along the river.

  3. Assessing degradation across a land-use gradient in the Kruger National Park area using advanced remote sensing modalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Onmental Change in SOuth afriCa98 RANGELANDS Assessing degradation across a land-use gradient in the Kruger National Park area using advanced remote sensing modalities Jan A.N. van Aardt Renaud Mathieu Moses Cho Konrad J. Wessels Barend Erasmus Gregory... of contrasting land uses on ecosystems along a land-use gradient, from the Kruger National Park (conserved area) to private game reserves (managed for eco-tourism) and former homeland areas (subsistence livelihoods) in the Lowveld (Figure 3.29). Local...

  4. Using Shoreline Video Assessment for coastal planning and restoration in the context of climate change in Kien Giang, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Russell, Michael; Brown, Sharon; Dart, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Kien Giang, bordering Cambodia in the Mekong River Delta, is one of the two most vulnerable provinces in the region to coastal erosion and flooding. Coastal protection can conflict with current land use and economic development activities. The conditions of the mangrove forest and mainland coastline of the Kien Giang province were assessed using the Shoreline Video Assessment Method (SVAM) backed up with information from satellite images. Half of the 206 km Kien Giang coastline has been eroded or is being eroded. Protective mangrove forests naturally occurred in 74% of the coastline but have been under threat from illegal cutting, erosion and coastal retreat. Accurate information on the state of the coastline and mangrove forest health provided invaluable data for developing a new coastal rehabilitation plan to guard against future sea level rise. In contrast to the current boundary management of land and natural resources, this plan divided the provincial coastline into 19 sections based on the landscape condition and exposure to erosion. Priority strategic actions for erosion management, mangrove restoration and sustainable livelihood development for local communities for each section of coast were developed based on an integrated cross sectoral approach and practical experience in the Conservation and Development of the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve Project.

  5. Assessment Of Morphometric Characteristics Of Karwadi-Nandapur Micro Watershed Using Remote Sensing And Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Patil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study area is Karwadi-Nandapur watershed is a micro watershed which falls in the Kayadhu river watershed in Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Using the remotely sensed images of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite P6 IRS P6 Linear Imaging Self Scanner IIILISS III images captured in October 2010 and November 2011 having resolution of 23.5m X 23.5m and images from Google Earth Pro of study area were used and cartosat satellites. Map of India with scale 11500000 and soil maps of India were used for the experimental study. The thematic maps like drainage map land use and land cover map soil maps and contour map were prepared adopting the PCI Geomatica10.0 software. The geographical information systems GIS analysis was made for the said themes using the Arc GIS ArcMap10.0. The Karwadi- Nandapur watershed was found to be the third order basin. The present study aims to assess the morphometric characteristics of the watershed basin and it has been assessed by applying GIS techniques. Strahlers method has been employed to assess the fluvial characteristics of the study watershed. Each morphometric characteristic is considered as a single parameter and knowledge based weight age has been assigned by considering its role in soil erosion. The morphometric properties determined for this watershed as a whole and for each watershed will be useful for the efficient planning of water harvesting and groundwater projects on watershed basis.

  6. Remote presence proctoring by using a wireless remote-control videoconferencing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C Daniel; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-06-01

    Remote presence in an operating room to allow an experienced surgeon to proctor a surgeon has been promised through robotics and telesurgery solutions. Although several such systems have been developed and commercialized, little progress has been made using telesurgery for anything more than live demonstrations of surgery. This pilot project explored the use of a new videoconferencing capability to determine if it offers advantages over existing systems. The video conferencing system used is a PC-based system with a flat screen monitor and an attached camera that is then mounted on a remotely controlled platform. This device is controlled from a remotely placed PC-based videoconferencing system computer outfitted with a joystick. Using the public Internet and a wireless router at the client site, a surgeon at the control station can manipulate the videoconferencing system. Controls include navigating the unit around the room and moving the flat screen/camera portion like a head looking up/down and right/left. This system (InTouch Medical, Santa Barbara, CA) was used to proctor medical students during an anatomy class cadaver dissection. The ability of the remote surgeon to effectively monitor the students' dissections and direct their activities was assessed subjectively by students and surgeon. This device was very effective at providing a controllable and interactive presence in the anatomy lab. Students felt they were interacting with a person rather than a video screen and quickly forgot that the surgeon was not in the room. The ability to move the device within the environment rather than just observe the environment from multiple fixed camera angles gave the surgeon a similar feel of true presence. A remote-controlled videoconferencing system provides a more real experience for both student and proctor. Future development of such a device could greatly facilitate progress in implementation of remote presence proctoring.

  7. Feed-Forward: Students Gaining More from Assessment via Deeper Engagement in Video-Recorded Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen; Barry, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Presentation feedback can be limited in its feed-forward value, as students do not have their actual presentation available for review whilst reflecting upon the feedback. This study reports on students' perceptions of the learning and feed-forward value of an oral presentation assessment. Students self-marked their performance immediately after…

  8. How to capture growth? Video narratives as an instrument for assessment in teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.

    2009-01-01

    Portfolios are widely used as instruments for assessment in initial teacher education courses. They are claimed to present a comprehensive picture of student teachers' knowledge and performance. But what type of evidence is needed to safely say that an aspiring teacher has not only grasped essential

  9. An assessment of the effectiveness of high definition cameras as remote monitoring tools for dolphin ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Paiva, Estênio; Salgado-Kent, Chandra; Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Parnum, Iain; McCauley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Research involving marine mammals often requires costly field programs. This paper assessed whether the benefits of using cameras outweighs the implications of having personnel performing marine mammal detection in the field. The efficacy of video and still cameras to detect Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the Fremantle Harbour (Western Australia) was evaluated, with consideration on how environmental conditions affect detectability. The cameras were set on a tower in the Fremantle Port channel and videos were perused at 1.75 times the normal speed. Images from the cameras were used to estimate position of dolphins at the water's surface. Dolphin detections ranged from 5.6 m to 463.3 m for the video camera, and from 10.8 m to 347.8 m for the still camera. Detection range showed to be satisfactory when compared to distances at which dolphins would be detected by field observers. The relative effect of environmental conditions on detectability was considered by fitting a Generalised Estimation Equations (GEEs) model with Beaufort, level of glare and their interactions as predictors and a temporal auto-correlation structure. The best fit model indicated level of glare had an effect, with more intense periods of glare corresponding to lower occurrences of observed dolphins. However this effect was not large (-0.264) and the parameter estimate was associated with a large standard error (0.113). The limited field of view was the main restraint in that cameras can be only applied to detections of animals observed rather than counts of individuals. However, the use of cameras was effective for long term monitoring of occurrence of dolphins, outweighing the costs and reducing the health and safety risks to field personal. This study showed that cameras could be effectively implemented onshore for research such as studying changes in habitat use in response to development and construction activities.

  10. An assessment of the effectiveness of high definition cameras as remote monitoring tools for dolphin ecology studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estênio Guimarães Paiva

    Full Text Available Research involving marine mammals often requires costly field programs. This paper assessed whether the benefits of using cameras outweighs the implications of having personnel performing marine mammal detection in the field. The efficacy of video and still cameras to detect Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus in the Fremantle Harbour (Western Australia was evaluated, with consideration on how environmental conditions affect detectability. The cameras were set on a tower in the Fremantle Port channel and videos were perused at 1.75 times the normal speed. Images from the cameras were used to estimate position of dolphins at the water's surface. Dolphin detections ranged from 5.6 m to 463.3 m for the video camera, and from 10.8 m to 347.8 m for the still camera. Detection range showed to be satisfactory when compared to distances at which dolphins would be detected by field observers. The relative effect of environmental conditions on detectability was considered by fitting a Generalised Estimation Equations (GEEs model with Beaufort, level of glare and their interactions as predictors and a temporal auto-correlation structure. The best fit model indicated level of glare had an effect, with more intense periods of glare corresponding to lower occurrences of observed dolphins. However this effect was not large (-0.264 and the parameter estimate was associated with a large standard error (0.113. The limited field of view was the main restraint in that cameras can be only applied to detections of animals observed rather than counts of individuals. However, the use of cameras was effective for long term monitoring of occurrence of dolphins, outweighing the costs and reducing the health and safety risks to field personal. This study showed that cameras could be effectively implemented onshore for research such as studying changes in habitat use in response to development and construction activities.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of transportation projects: An analysis using an integrated GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Mohamed Anwar

    Transportation projects will have impact on the environment. The general environmental pollution and damage caused by roads is closely associated with the level of economic activity. Although Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are dependent on geo-spatial information in order to make an assessment, there are no rules per se how to conduct an environmental assessment. Also, the particular objective of each assessment is dictated case-by-case, based on what information and analyses are required. The conventional way of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study is a time consuming process because it has large number of dependent and independent variables which have to be taken into account, which also have different consequences. With the emergence of satellite remote sensing technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this research presents a new framework for the analysis phase of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for transportation projects based on the integration between remote sensing technology, geographic information systems, and spatial modeling. By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, the framework analyzes comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around the road and its impact on the environment. This framework is expected to: (1) improve the quality of the decision making process, (2) be applied both to urban and inter-urban projects, regardless of transport mode, and (3) present the data and make the appropriate analysis to support the decision of the decision-makers and allow them to present these data to the public hearings in a simple manner. Case studies, transportation projects in the State of Florida, were analyzed to illustrate the use of the decision support framework and demonstrate its capabilities. This cohesive and integrated system will facilitate rational decisions through cost effective coordination of environmental information and data management that can be tailored to

  12. Speak fast, use jargon, and don't repeat yourself: a randomized trial assessing the effectiveness of online videos to supplement emergency department discharge instructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Atzema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergency department discharge instructions are variably understood by patients, and in the setting of emergency department crowding, innovations are needed to counteract shortened interaction times with the physician. We evaluated the effect of viewing an online video of diagnosis-specific discharge instructions on patient comprehension and recall of instructions. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial conducted between November 2011 and January 2012, we randomized emergency department patients who were discharged with one of 38 diagnoses to either view (after they left the emergency department a vetted online video of diagnosis-specific discharge instructions, or to usual care. Patients were subsequently contacted by telephone and asked three standardized questions about their discharge instructions; one point was awarded for each correct answer. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, differences between groups were assessed using univariate testing, and with logistic regression that accounted for clustering on managing physician. A secondary outcome measure was patient satisfaction with the videos, on a 10-point scale. RESULTS: Among 133 patients enrolled, mean age was 46.1 (s.d.D. 21.5 and 55% were female. Patients in the video group had 19% higher mean scores (2.5, s.d. 0.7 than patients in the control group (2.1, s.d. 0.8 (p=0.002. After adjustment for patient age, sex, first language, triage acuity score, and clustering, the odds of achieving a fully correct score (3 out of 3 were 3.5 (95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2 times higher in the video group, compared to the control group. Among those who viewed the videos, median rating of the videos was 10 (IQR 8 to 10. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center trial, patients who viewed an online video of their discharge instructions scored higher on their understanding of key concepts around their diagnosis and subsequent care. Those who viewed the videos found them to

  13. Multispectral assessment of skin malformations using a modified video-microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekina, A.; Diebele, I.; Rubins, U.; Zaharans, J.; Derjabo, A.; Spigulis, J.

    2012-10-01

    A simplified method is proposed for alternative clinical diagnostics of skin malformations. A modified digital microscope, additionally equipped with a fourcolour LED (450 nm, 545 nm, 660 nm and 940 nm) subsequent illumination system, was applied for assessment of skin cancerous lesions and cutaneous inflammations. Multispectral image analysis was performed to map distributions of skin erythema index, bilirubin index, melanoma/nevus differentiation parameter, and fluorescence indicator. The skin malformation monitoring has shown that it is possible to differentiate melanoma from other pathologies.

  14. Hyperspectral remote sensing to assess the water status, biomass, and yield of maize cultivars under salinity and water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Elsayed

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Spectral remote sensing offers the potential to provide more information for making better-informed management decisions at the crop canopy level in real time. In contrast, the traditional methods for irrigation management are generally time-consuming, and numerous observations are required to characterize them. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of hyperspectral reflectance measurements of remote sensing technique for salinity and water stress condition. For this, the spectral indices of 5 maize cultivars were tested to assess canopy water content (CWC, canopy water mass (CWM, biomass fresh weight (BFW, biomass dry weight (BDW, cob yield (CY, and grain yield (GY under full irrigation, full irrigation with salinity levels, and the interaction between full irrigation with salinity levels and water stress treatments. The results showed that the 3 water spectral indices (R970 − R900/(R970 + R900, (R970 − R880/(R970 + R880, and (R970 − R920/(R970 + R920 showed close and highly significant associations with the mentioned measured parameters, and coefficients of determination reached up to R2 = 0.73*** in 2013. The model of spectral reflectance index (R970 − R900/(R970 + R900 of the hyperspectral passive reflectance sensor presented good performance to predict the CY, GY, and CWC compared to CWM, BFW, and BDW under full irrigation with salinity levels and the interaction between full irrigation with salinity levels and water stress treatments. In conclusion, the use of spectral remote sensing may open an avenue in irrigation management for fast, high-throughput assessments of water status, biomass, and yield of maize cultivars under salinity and water stress conditions.

  15. Assessing the performance of remotely-sensed flooding indicators and their potential contribution to early warning for leptospirosis in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledien, Julia; Sorn, Sopheak; Hem, Sopheak; Huy, Rekol; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Cappelle, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing can contribute to early warning for diseases with environmental drivers, such as flooding for leptospirosis. In this study we assessed whether and which remotely-sensed flooding indicator could be used in Cambodia to study any disease for which flooding has already been identified as an important driver, using leptospirosis as a case study. The performance of six potential flooding indicators was assessed by ground truthing. The Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to estimate the Risk Ratio (RR) of being infected by leptospirosis when exposed to floods it detected, in particular during the rainy season. Chi-square tests were also calculated. Another variable-the time elapsed since the first flooding of the year-was created using MNDWI values and was also included as explanatory variable in a generalized linear model (GLM) and in a boosted regression tree model (BRT) of leptospirosis infections, along with other explanatory variables. Interestingly, MNDWI thresholds for both detecting water and predicting the risk of leptospirosis seroconversion were independently evaluated at -0.3. Value of MNDWI greater than -0.3 was significantly related to leptospirosis infection (RR = 1.61 [1.10-1.52]; χ2 = 5.64, p-value = 0.02, especially during the rainy season (RR = 2.03 [1.25-3.28]; χ2 = 8.15, p-value = 0.004). Time since the first flooding of the year was a significant risk factor in our GLM model (p-value = 0.042). These results suggest that MNDWI may be useful as a risk indicator in an early warning remote sensing tool for flood-driven diseases like leptospirosis in South East Asia.

  16. Assessing the performance of remotely-sensed flooding indicators and their potential contribution to early warning for leptospirosis in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ledien

    Full Text Available Remote sensing can contribute to early warning for diseases with environmental drivers, such as flooding for leptospirosis. In this study we assessed whether and which remotely-sensed flooding indicator could be used in Cambodia to study any disease for which flooding has already been identified as an important driver, using leptospirosis as a case study. The performance of six potential flooding indicators was assessed by ground truthing. The Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI was used to estimate the Risk Ratio (RR of being infected by leptospirosis when exposed to floods it detected, in particular during the rainy season. Chi-square tests were also calculated. Another variable-the time elapsed since the first flooding of the year-was created using MNDWI values and was also included as explanatory variable in a generalized linear model (GLM and in a boosted regression tree model (BRT of leptospirosis infections, along with other explanatory variables. Interestingly, MNDWI thresholds for both detecting water and predicting the risk of leptospirosis seroconversion were independently evaluated at -0.3. Value of MNDWI greater than -0.3 was significantly related to leptospirosis infection (RR = 1.61 [1.10-1.52]; χ2 = 5.64, p-value = 0.02, especially during the rainy season (RR = 2.03 [1.25-3.28]; χ2 = 8.15, p-value = 0.004. Time since the first flooding of the year was a significant risk factor in our GLM model (p-value = 0.042. These results suggest that MNDWI may be useful as a risk indicator in an early warning remote sensing tool for flood-driven diseases like leptospirosis in South East Asia.

  17. Assessing the terrestrial water balance in South America using multi-satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Moreira, Adriana; Ruhoff, Anderson; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Severo Correa, Dairan

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological cycle components of the terrestrial water cycle have been estimated with increasingly accuracy through remotely-sensed data, from regional to continental scales and in different time intervals. In this paper, we evaluated the water balance closure using remote sensing data in 28 large basins in South America for the period from 2003 to 2014. We used observed discharge (Q) data, precipitation (P) data from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B43 version 7) with spatial resolution 0.25°, evapotranspiration (ET) data from MOD16, with spatial resolution of 0.05° and terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimations from the Gravity Recovery and climate Experiment (GRACE), with spatial resolution of 300 km. To evaluate the water budget closure, we used the simplified continuity equation (dS/dt=P-ET-Q) at monthly time-scales to analyse the water storage change in time (dS/dt), comparing the results to the TWS change from GRACE. Our results indicate that the water storage change dS/dt computed from remote sensing products showed significant correlations with the terrestrial water storage from GRACE. We found correlations higher than 0.70 in 14 basins, mostly in large basins located in the north of South America (with tropical wet and tropical dry climates), whilst lower correlations were found in Southern Brazil and in smaller basins (usually with subtropical climates). Lastly, we computed the correlation between dS/dt from GRACE and P, ET and Q. Precipitation was the hydrological component that showed better correlations, with 19 basins yielding a correlation higher than 0.70, suggesting that precipitation has a strong influence of the terrestrial water storage in those basins. Discharge measurements also yielded a very good agreement, with correlations higher than 0.63 in almost all basins. Despite the water balance closure based on remote sensing data still remains a challenge due to large biases and uncertainties in the precipitation

  18. Video games

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  19. Development of the Metropolitan Water Availability Index (MWAI) and short-term assessment with multi-scale remote sensing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Goodrich, James A; Daranpob, Ammarin

    2010-06-01

    Global climate change will influence environmental conditions including temperature, surface radiation, soil moisture, and sea level, and it will also significantly impact regional-scale hydrologic processes such as evapotranspiration (ET), precipitation, runoff, and snowmelt. The quantity and quality of water available for drinking and other domestic usage is also likely to be affected by changes in these processes. Consequently, it is necessary to assess and reflect upon the challenges ahead for water infrastructure and the general public in metropolitan regions. One approach to the problem is to use index-based assessment, forecasting and planning. The drought indices previously developed were not developed for domestic water supplies, and thus are insufficient for the purpose of such an assessment. This paper aims to propose and develop a "Metropolitan Water Availability Index (MWAI)" to assess the status of both the quantity and quality of available potable water sources diverted from the hydrologic cycle in a metropolitan region. In this approach, the accessible water may be expressed as volume per month or week (i.e., m(3)/month or m(3)/week) relative to a prescribed historical record, and such a trend analysis may result in final MWAI values ranging from -1 to +1 for regional water management decision making. The MWAI computation uses data and information from both historical point measurements and spatial remote-sensing based monitoring. Variables such as precipitation, river discharge, and water quality changes at drinking water plant intakes at specific locations are past "point" measurements in MWAI calculations. On the other hand, remote sensing provides information on both spatial and temporal distributions of key variables. Examples of remote-sensing images and sensor network technologies are in-situ sensor networks, ground-based radar, air-borne aircraft, and even space-borne satellites. A case study in Tampa Bay, Florida is described to demonstrate

  20. The Optimiser: monitoring and improving switching delays in video conferencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Gunkel (Simon); A.J. Jansen (Jack); I. Kegel; D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractWith the growing popularity of video communication systems, more people are using group video chat, rather than only one-to-one video calls. In such multi-party sessions, remote participants compete for the available screen space and bandwidth. A common solution is showing the current

  1. Video conference teaching at an Open Distance Learning (ODL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Video conference-based education is the use of communication technology to provide education from a central site to remote distant education sites using live interactive audio-video communication. The purpose of the study was to describe the factors that influenced attendance of the Health Services Management's video ...

  2. Assessing the Effectiveness of Gravitational Wave Outreach Video Games in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jonathan

    Students and faculty at the Gravitational Wave Group in Birmingham, UK developed a remake of the classic 1972 game of Pong. Black Hole Pong was developed to be used in events such as science fairs as a way to engage children and pique interest in black holes. I present the results of a study which assesses the utility of Black Hole Pong and its successors in raising awareness of gravitational wave research, and in fostering conceptual understanding of astrophysics and gravity. Of particular interest in this study is potential use in high school science classrooms during astrophysics units.

  3. Assessment of short-term variability in human spontaneous blink rate during video observation with or without head / chin support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to assess the variability of spontaneous blink rate (SBR) with and without a chin and forehead support. Forty-eight healthy non-contact lens wearers, aged from 20 to 39 years, had five-minute video recordings made under ambient lighting of 350 to 400 lux, while directing their gaze to a distant target at head height. Half the subjects (group 1) were seated resting against the chair head rest and the other half (group 2) seated but with chin and forehead at a slitlamp. The first 35 blinks were analysed in detail. As assessed over five minutes, 35 to 111 blinks were counted, with SBR between 6.9 and 21.8 blinks per min (average 13.9 per min). Over the initial 35 blinks, the average momentary SBR values (calculated from the inter-blink intervals) averaged 24.8 blinks per minute in group 1 and 19.3 blinks per minute in group 2 (not significantly different, p = 0.273) but a statistically significant (p blinks in group 2. The variability in momentary SBR values, as assessed from successive blinks, had coefficient of variation (COV) values of 80 and 78 per cent, respectively over 35 blinks. Averaged spontaneous blink rates over short time periods (that is, five minutes) should be suitable to compare various experimental paradigms but if very short periods are used (for example one minute or less), then there could be significant time-related changes, especially when a subject is seated with chin and forehead support. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  4. Endoscopic indocyanine green video angiography in aneurysm surgery: an innovative method for intraoperative assessment of blood flow in vasculature hidden from microscopic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yoshihisa; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Senbokuya, Nobuo; Kato, Tatsuya; Kanemaru, Kazuya; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Horikoshi, Toru

    2012-08-01

    Recently, intraoperative fluorescence video angiography using indocyanine green (ICG) has been widely used in aneurysm surgery. This is a simple and useful method to confirm complete occlusion of the aneurysm lumen and preservation of blood flow in the arteries around the aneurysm. However, the observation field of ICG video angiography is limited under a microscope, making it difficult to confirm the flow in the arteries behind the parent arteries or aneurysm. The authors developed a new technique of intraoperative endoscopic ICG video angiography to assess the blood flow in perforating arteries hidden by the parent arteries or aneurysm. The endoscope emits excitation light with a wavelength of approximately 800 nm, and video images were obtained through a cut filter. The authors used this ICG fluorescence endoscope in treating 3 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms. During clip placement, the endoscope was inserted to confirm aneurysm occlusion. Then, ICG was intravenously administered, and the fluorescence in the vessels was observed via the endoscope as well as under the microscope. The blood flow in the perforating arteries was clearly identified, and no procedural complication occurred. The authors conclude that the technique is very useful and facilitates intraoperative real-time assessment of the patency of perforating arteries behind parent arteries or aneurysms.

  5. Online instructional anatomy videos: Student usage, self-efficacy, and performance in upper limb regional anatomy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfield, Tracey; Colthorpe, Kay; Ainscough, Louise

    2017-12-04

    Allied health professionals concur that a sound knowledge of practical gross anatomy is vital for the clinician, however, human anatomy courses in allied health programs have been identified as high-risk for attrition and failure. While anatomists and clinicians agree that learning anatomy via human cadaveric instruction is the preferred method, students vary in their reaction to the cadaveric learning experience and have differing levels of anatomy self-efficacy. This study investigated whether student self-efficacy had an effect on student usage of supplemental instructional videos and whether the use of videos had an impact on student self-efficacy and/or learning. Anatomy self-efficacy differed based on gender and prior performance. Student usage of the videos varied widely and students with lower self-efficacy were more inclined to use the resources. The provision of the videos did not improve overall cohort performance as compared to a historical cohort, however, those students that accessed all video sets experienced a greater normalized learning gain compared to students that used none or one of the four sets of videos. Student reports and usage patterns indicate that the videos were primarily used for practical class preparation and revision. Potentially, the videos represent a passive mode of teaching whereas active learning has been demonstrated to result in greater learning gains. Adapting the videos into interactive tutorials which will provide opportunity for feedback and the development of students' self-evaluation may be more appropriate. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Sampling Simulations for Assessing the Accuracy of U.S. Agricultural Crop Mapping from Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Linnea; Yadav, Kamini; Congalton, Russell G.

    2017-04-01

    Providing adequate food and water for a growing, global population continues to be a major challenge. Mapping and monitoring crops are useful tools for estimating the extent of crop productivity. GFSAD30 (Global Food Security Analysis Data at 30m) is a program, funded by NASA, that is producing global cropland maps by using field measurements and remote sensing images. This program studies 8 major crop types, and includes information on cropland area/extent, if crops are irrigated or rainfed, and the cropping intensities. Using results from the US and the extensive reference data available, CDL (USDA Crop Data Layer), we will experiment with various sampling simulations to determine optimal sampling for thematic map accuracy assessment. These simulations will include varying the sampling unit, the sampling strategy, and the sample number. Results of these simulations will allow us to recommend assessment approaches to handle different cropping scenarios.

  7. Displaying 3D radiation dose on endoscopic video for therapeutic assessment and surgical guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jimmy; Hope, Andrew J.; Cho, B. C. John; Sharpe, Michael B.; Dickie, Colleen I.; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Jaffray, David A.; Weersink, Robert A.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a method to register and display 3D parametric data, in particular radiation dose, on two-dimensional endoscopic images. This registration of radiation dose to endoscopic or optical imaging may be valuable in assessment of normal tissue response to radiation, and visualization of radiated tissues in patients receiving post-radiation surgery. Electromagnetic sensors embedded in a flexible endoscope were used to track the position and orientation of the endoscope allowing registration of 2D endoscopic images to CT volumetric images and radiation doses planned with respect to these images. A surface was rendered from the CT image based on the air/tissue threshold, creating a virtual endoscopic view analogous to the real endoscopic view. Radiation dose at the surface or at known depth below the surface was assigned to each segment of the virtual surface. Dose could be displayed as either a colorwash on this surface or surface isodose lines. By assigning transparency levels to each surface segment based on dose or isoline location, the virtual dose display was overlaid onto the real endoscope image. Spatial accuracy of the dose display was tested using a cylindrical phantom with a treatment plan created for the phantom that matched dose levels with grid lines on the phantom surface. The accuracy of the dose display in these phantoms was 0.8-0.99 mm. To demonstrate clinical feasibility of this approach, the dose display was also tested on clinical data of a patient with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy, with estimated display accuracy of ˜2-3 mm. The utility of the dose display for registration of radiation dose information to the surgical field was further demonstrated in a mock sarcoma case using a leg phantom. With direct overlay of radiation dose on endoscopic imaging, tissue toxicities and tumor response in endoluminal organs can be directly correlated with the actual tissue dose, offering a more nuanced assessment of normal tissue

  8. Assessment of blind source separation techniques for video-based cardiac pulse extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Daniel; Trumpp, Alexander; Gaetjen, Frederik; Rasche, Stefan; Matschke, Klaus; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Blind source separation (BSS) aims at separating useful signal content from distortions. In the contactless acquisition of vital signs by means of the camera-based photoplethysmogram (cbPPG), BSS has evolved the most widely used approach to extract the cardiac pulse. Despite its frequent application, there is no consensus about the optimal usage of BSS and its general benefit. This contribution investigates the performance of BSS to enhance the cardiac pulse from cbPPGs in dependency to varying input data characteristics. The BSS input conditions are controlled by an automated spatial preselection routine of regions of interest. Input data of different characteristics (wavelength, dominant frequency, and signal quality) from 18 postoperative cardiovascular patients are processed with standard BSS techniques, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). The effect of BSS is assessed by the spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the cardiac pulse. The preselection of cbPPGs, appears beneficial providing higher SNR compared to standard cbPPGs. Both, PCA and ICA yielded better outcomes by using monochrome inputs (green wavelength) instead of inputs of different wavelengths. PCA outperforms ICA for more homogeneous input signals. Moreover, for high input SNR, the application of ICA using standard contrast is likely to decrease the SNR.

  9. Extreme nursing: a qualitative assessment of nurse retention in a remote setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deValpine, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have practiced in Bristol Bay, Alaska, since 1896. Practice opportunities are defined by institutional structures and systems; and the geography, climate, and history of remote South-west 'bush' Alaska. The Native Alaskan culture as experienced through nurses' practice, community relations, and in several cases, marriages, shapes their lives as well. The purposes of this qualitative study are three-fold: (1) to ensure the unique stories of bush Alaska nurses are preserved and told; (2) to foster a strong bush nursing tradition; and (3) to inform recruitment, hiring, and retention practices in remote settings. Ten of 14 long-term retained (>15 years) nurses still living in Bristol Bay were interviewed using a semi-structured format, based on three broad interview questions: (1) Why did you come to Bristol Bay?; (2) If you ever wanted to leave, what motivated you to stay?; and (3) What do you feel are your greatest accomplishments here? Extensive probing and dialogue was employed to develop participants' conversation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded for qualitative content analysis of ideas and thematic analysis. To preserve authenticity and enhance fidelity, nurses' verbatim statements are reported at length, illustrating ideas and themes. Analysis of transcripts revealed seven ideas common to all 10 long-term retained nurse's experience in the bush: family, culture, hardship, nursing practice, fish, motivations and community. Religion or spirituality was also a common idea, but not universal. A racism code was derived to illuminate less articulated ideas from the nurses' conversation. Long-term retained bush nurses share three characteristics useful to successful recruitment and retention efforts: they have (1) a strong sense of adventure, (2) an independent outlook regarding family growth and development, and (3) a deep appreciation of Native Alaskan culture and lifestyle. In summary they advise nurses who wish to practice and stay in the

  10. Probabilistic Assessment of Soil Moisture using C-band Quad-polarized Remote Sensing Data from RISAT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Manali; Suman, Mayank; Das, Sarit Kumar; Maity, Rajib

    2017-04-01

    Information on spatio-temporal distribution of surface Soil Moisture Content (SMC) is essential in several hydrological, meteorological and agricultural applications. There has been increasing importance of microwave active remote sensing data for large-scale estimation of surface SMC because of its ability to monitor spatial and temporal variation of surface SMC at regional, continental and global scale at a reasonably fine spatial and temporal resolution. The use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is highly potential for catchment-scale applications due to high spatial resolution (˜10-20 m) both for vegetated and bare soil surface as well as because of its all-weather and day and night characteristics. However, one prime disadvantage of SAR is that their signal is subjective to SMC along with Land Use Land Cover (LULC) and surface roughness conditions, making the retrieval of SMC from SAR data an "ill-posed" problem. Moreover, the quantification of uncertainty due to inappropriate surface roughness characterization, soil texture, inversion techniques etc. even in the latest established retrieval methods, is little explored. This paper reports a recently developed method to estimate the surface SMC with probabilistic assessment of uncertainty associated with the estimation (Pal et al., 2016). Quad-polarized SAR data from Radar Imaging Satellite1 (RISAT1), launched in 2012 by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and information on LULC regarding bareland and vegetated land (IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, In Press, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2016.2623378. Zribi, M., Baghdadi, N., Holah, N., and Fafin, O., (2005)."New methodology for soil surface moisture estimation and its application to ENVISAT-ASAR multi-incidence data inversion." Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 96, nos. 3-4, pp. 485-496.

  11. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from 2000 (NODC Accession 0000728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2000 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  12. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  13. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from year 1999 (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  14. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2000 (NODC Accession 0000728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2000 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  15. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP):Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  16. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  17. Video Transect Images (1999) from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  18. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  19. Technology assessment of high pulse energy CO(2) lasers for remote sensing from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. V.; Brockman, P.; Schryer, D. R.; Miller, I. M.; Bair, C. H.; Sidney, B. D.; Wood, G. M.; Upchurch, B. T.; Brown, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments and needs for research to extend the lifetime and optimize the configuration of CO2 laser systems for satellite based on remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities and trace gases are reviewed. The CO2 laser systems for operational satellite application will require lifetimes which exceed 1 year. Progress in the development of efficient low temperature catalysts and gas mixture modifications for extending the lifetime of high pulse energy closed cycle common and rare isotope CO2 lasers and of sealed CW CO2 lasers is reviewed. Several CO2 laser configurations are under development to meet the requirements including: unstable resonators, master oscillator power amplifiers and telescopic stable resonators, using UV or E-beam preionization. Progress in the systems is reviewed and tradeoffs in the system parameters are discussed.

  20. Assessing the impacts of local knowledge and technology on climate change vulnerability in remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Christopher; Alessa, Lilian; Altaweel, Mark; Kliskey, Andrew; Lammers, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The introduction of new technologies into small remote communities can alter how individuals acquire knowledge about their surrounding environment. This is especially true when technologies that satisfy basic needs, such as freshwater use, create a distance (i.e., diminishing exposure) between individuals and their environment. However, such distancing can potentially be countered by the transfer of local knowledge between community members and from one generation to the next. The objective of this study is to simulate by way of agent-based modeling the tensions between technology-induced distancing and local knowledge that are exerted on community vulnerability to climate change. A model is developed that simulates how a collection of individual perceptions about changes to climatic-related variables manifest into community perceptions, how perceptions are influenced by the movement away from traditional resource use, and how the transmission of knowledge mitigates the potentially adverse effects of technology-induced distancing. The model is implemented utilizing climate and social data for two remote communities located on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska. The agent-based model simulates a set of scenarios that depict different ways in which these communities may potentially engage with their natural resources, utilize knowledge transfer, and develop perceptions of how the local climate is different from previous years. A loosely-coupled pan-arctic climate model simulates changes monthly changes to climatic variables. The discrepancy between the perceptions derived from the agent-based model and the projections simulated by the climate model represent community vulnerability. The results demonstrate how demographics, the communication of knowledge and the types of 'knowledge-providers' influence community perception about changes to their local climate.

  1. LAI Measurement With Hemispherical Photographs At Variable Conditions For Assessment Of Remotely Sensed Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas K.; Stavridou, Domna; Strati, Stavroula; Monachou, Styliani; Silleos, Nikolaos

    2013-12-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of a plant canopy is defined as its leaf area per unit of ground area. It is an important input parameter for several studies related to water, gases and energy exchange on the Earth surface, and several algorithms have been developed to estimate LAI from remotely sensed images. Nevertheless, in-situ estimations are required for the development and validation of these algorithms, which is often the most costly part of a project. Various source of errors during acquisition or analysis of digital hemispherical canopy photography have been reported, such as exposure and evenness of sky lighting. Several instructions have been found in literature, however some seem arbitrarily related to the automatic exposure of the camera, and further investigation is needed to achieve standards. The aim of this work is to identify a procedure for in-situ hemispherical lens photography and processing that guarantees comparable measurements across variable acquisition conditions, in order to be used as validation of remotely sensed LAI maps. The experimental design is based on the assumption that LAI should be constant in a site throughout the day, and in various cloud conditions. The effect of variable illumination conditions has been examined with taking bihourly time-series of hemispherical photos at the exact same locations, under the same canopy conditions. Two calibration techniques were tested to minimize the effect of clear vs. overcast sky. Finally, two computer software specialized in hemispherical photos processing were used. Results suggest that calibration using the sky lighting is a good means for repeatability of observations under closed canopies. Also, CAN-EYE and HEMISFER software are capable of processing large numbers of hemispherical photographs accurately. The resulting in-situ LAI measurements were used to validate LAI maps from various satellites: ENVISAT MERIS, Terra MODIS, and SPOT VEGETATION.

  2. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  3. Using Open Access Satellite Data Alongside Ground Based Remote Sensing: An Assessment, with Case Studies from Egypt’s Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Parcak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will assess the most recently available open access high-resolution optical satellite data (0.3 m–0.6 m and its detection of buried ancient features versus ground based remote sensing tools. It also discusses the importance of CORONA satellite data to evaluate landscape changes over the past 50 years surrounding sites. The study concentrates on Egypt’s Nile Delta, which is threatened by rising sea and water tables and urbanization. Many ancient coastal sites will be lost in the next few decades, thus this paper emphasizes the need to map them before they disappear. It shows that high resolution satellites can sometimes provide the same general picture on ancient sites in the Egyptian Nile Delta as ground based remote sensing, with relatively sandier sedimentary and degrading tell environments, during periods of rainfall, and higher groundwater conditions. Research results also suggest potential solutions for rapid mapping of threatened Delta sites, and urge a collaborative global effort to maps them before they disappear.

  4. Qualitative assessment of the medieval fortifications condition with the use of remote sensing data (Republic of Tatarstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainullin, Iskander I.; Khomyakov, Petr V.; Sitdikov, Airat G.; Usmanov, Bulat M.

    2017-09-01

    Archaeological monuments are an essential part of the cultural landscape. According to UNESCO directive, the "cultural landscape" is understood not simply as a result of joint creativity of man and nature, but as a purposefully formed natural and cultural territorial complex, which has structural, functional integrity, developing in specific physical and geographical, cultural and historical conditions. This article discusses the modern condition of the archaeological monuments of the Republic of Tatarstan, as a manmade part of the cultural landscape. Fortified settlements, with the system of defensive fortifications, were selected as the objects of study, as they are easily identified by remote sensing data. Identification and evaluation of monuments destruction risks is a priority in the study of medieval settlements. Due to the fact, that most of monuments is located on the small rivers banks, the first task of our study was to assess the risk of their destruction by natural processes. The second objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in archaeological sites destruction. One of the main used methods is archival and modern remote sensing data analysis that also made able to correct the form of study settlements in comparison with existing plans, as well their size and location in the landscape. The results of research will help to identify trends in the monuments state and quantify the risks of their destruction.

  5. Assessing Forest Cover Dynamics and Forest Perception in the Atlantic Forest of Paraguay, Combining Remote Sensing and Household Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Da Ponte

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Parana Atlantic Forest (BAAPA in Paraguay is one of the most threatened tropical forests in the world. The rapid growth of deforestation has resulted in the loss of 91% of its original cover. Numerous efforts have been made to halt deforestation activities, however farmers’ perception towards the forest and its benefits has not been considered either in studies conducted so far or by policy makers. This research provides the first multi-temporal analysis of the dynamics of the forest within the BAAPA region on the one hand, and assesses the way farmers perceive the forest and how this influences forest conservation at the farm level on the other. Remote sensing data acquired from Landsat images from 1999 to 2016 were used to measure the extent of the forest cover and deforestation rates over 17 years. Farmers’ influence on the dynamics of the forest was evaluated by combining earth observation data and household survey results conducted in the BAAPA region in 2016. Outcomes obtained in this study demonstrate a total loss in forest cover of 7500 km2. Deforestation rates in protected areas were determined by management regimes. The combination of household level and remote sensing data demonstrated that forest dynamics at the farm level is influenced by farm type, the level of dependency/use of forest benefits and the level of education of forest owners. An understanding of the social value awarded to the forest is a relevant contribution towards preserving natural resources.

  6. Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

    2013-09-01

    Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

  7. EVALUATING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF BREACHES ALONG THE EMBANKMENTS OF INDUS RIVER DURING FLOOD 2010 USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

  8. Assessing recent and remote associative olfactory memory in rats using the social transmission of food preference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessières, Benjamin; Nicole, Olivier; Bontempi, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    Rats have the ability to learn about potential food sources by sampling their odors on the breath of conspecifics. Although this ethologically based social behavior has been transposed to the laboratory to probe nonspatial associative olfactory memory, only a few studies have taken full advantage of its unique features to examine the organization of recently and remotely acquired information. We provide a set of standardized procedures and technical refinements that are particularly useful in achieving this goal while minimizing confounding factors. These procedures, built upon a three-stage protocol (odor exposure, social interaction and preference test), are designed to optimize performance across variable retention delays, thus enabling the reliable assessment of recent and remote memory, and underlying processes, including encoding, consolidation, retrieval and forgetting. The different variants of the social transmission of food preference paradigm, which take a few days to several weeks to perform, make it an attractive and versatile tool that can be coupled to many applications in CNS research. The paradigm can be easily implemented in a typical rodent facility by personnel with standard animal behavioral expertise.

  9. Use of airborne remote sensing to detect riverside Brassica rapa to aid in risk assessment of transgenic crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Luisa M.; Mason, David C.; Allainguillaume, Joel; Wilkinson, Mike J.

    2009-11-01

    High resolution descriptions of plant distribution have utility for many ecological applications but are especially useful for predictive modeling of gene flow from transgenic crops. Difficulty lies in the extrapolation errors that occur when limited ground survey data are scaled up to the landscape or national level. This problem is epitomized by the wide confidence limits generated in a previous attempt to describe the national abundance of riverside Brassica rapa (a wild relative of cultivated rapeseed) across the United Kingdom. Here, we assess the value of airborne remote sensing to locate B. rapa over large areas and so reduce the need for extrapolation. We describe results from flights over the river Nene in England acquired using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) imagery, together with ground truth data. It proved possible to detect 97% of flowering B. rapa on the basis of spectral profiles. This included all stands of plants that occupied >2m square (>5 plants), which were detected using single-pixel classification. It also included very small populations (rapa was coupled with a rather large false positive rate (43%). The latter could be reduced by using the image detections to target fieldwork to confirm species identity, or by acquiring additional remote sensing data such as laser altimetry or multitemporal imagery.

  10. Use of telemedicine in the remote programming of cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Angel; Rodriguez, Carina; Martinez-Beneyto, Paz; Perez, Daniel; Gault, Alexandre; Falcon, Juan Carlos; Boyle, Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Remote cochlear implant (CI) programming is a viable, safe, user-friendly and cost-effective procedure, equivalent to standard programming in terms of efficacy and user's perception, which can complement the standard procedures. The potential benefits of this technique are outlined. We assessed the technical viability, risks and difficulties of remote CI programming; and evaluated the benefits for the user comparing the standard on-site CI programming versus the remote CI programming. The Remote Programming System (RPS) basically consists of completing the habitual programming protocol in a regular CI centre, assisted by local staff, although guided by a remote expert, who programs the CI device using a remote programming station that takes control of the local station through the Internet. A randomized prospective study has been designed with the appropriate controls comparing RPS to the standard on-site CI programming. Study subjects were implanted adults with a HiRes 90K(R) CI with post-lingual onset of profound deafness and 4-12 weeks of device use. Subjects underwent two daily CI programming sessions either remote or standard, on 4 programming days separated by 3 month intervals. A total of 12 remote and 12 standard sessions were completed. To compare both CI programming modes we analysed: program parameters, subjects' auditory progress, subjects' perceptions of the CI programming sessions, and technical aspects, risks and difficulties of remote CI programming. Control of the local station from the remote station was carried out successfully and remote programming sessions were achieved completely and without incidents. Remote and standard program parameters were compared and no significant differences were found between the groups. The performance evaluated in subjects who had been using either standard or remote programs for 3 months showed no significant difference. Subjects were satisfied with both the remote and standard sessions. Safety was proven by

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  13. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  15. Presence in Video-Mediated Interactions: Case Studies at CSIRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Leila

    Although telepresence and a sense of connectedness with others are frequently mentioned in media space studies, as far as we know, none of these studies report attempts at assessing this critical aspect of user experience. While some attempts have been made to measure presence in virtual reality or augmented reality, (a comprehensive review of existing measures is available in Baren and Ijsselsteijn [2004]), very little work has been reported in measuring presence in video-mediated collaboration systems. Traditional studies of video-mediated collaboration have mostly focused their evaluation on measures of task performance and user satisfaction. Videoconferencing systems can be seen as a type of media space; they rely on technologies of audio, video, and computing put together to create an environment extending the embodied mind. This chapter reports on a set of video-mediated collaboration studies conducted at CSIRO in which different aspects of presence are being investigated. The first study reports the sense of physical presence a specialist doctor experiences when engaged in a remote consultation of a patient using the virtual critical care unit (Alem et al., 2006). The Viccu system is an “always-on” system connecting two hospitals (Li et al., 2006). The presence measure focuses on the extent to which users of videoconferencing systems feel physically present in the remote location. The second study reports the sense of social presence users experience when playing a game of charades with remote partners using a video conference link (Kougianous et al., 2006). In this study the presence measure focuses on the extent to which users feel connected with their remote partners. The third study reports the sense of copresence users experience when building collaboratively a piece of Lego toy (Melo and Alem, 2007). The sense of copresence is the extent to which users feel present with their remote partner. In this final study the sense of copresence is

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. Spectral characteristics and feature selection of satellite remote sensing data for climate and anthropogenic changes assessment in Bucharest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Tautan, Marina; Miclos, Sorin; Cristescu, Luminita; Carstea, Elfrida; Baschir, Laurentiu

    2010-05-01

    Urban systems play a vital role in social and economic development in all countries. Their environmental changes can be investigated on different spatial and temporal scales. Urban and peri-urban environment dynamics is of great interest for future planning and decision making as well as in frame of local and regional changes. Changes in urban land cover include changes in biotic diversity, actual and potential primary productivity, soil quality, runoff, and sedimentation rates, and cannot be well understood without the knowledge of land use change that drives them. The study focuses on the assessment of environmental features changes for Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data. Rational feature selection from the varieties of spectral channels in the optical wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum (VIS and NIR) is very important for effective analysis and information extraction of remote sensing data. Based on comprehensively analyses of the spectral characteristics of remote sensing data is possibly to derive environmental changes in urban areas. The information quantity contained in a band is an important parameter in evaluating the band. The deviation and entropy are often used to show information amount. Feature selection is one of the most important steps in recognition and classification of remote sensing images. Therefore, it is necessary to select features before classification. The optimal features are those that can be used to distinguish objects easily and correctly. Three factors—the information quantity of bands, the correlation between bands and the spectral characteristic (e.g. absorption specialty) of classified objects in test area Bucharest have been considered in our study. As, the spectral characteristic of an object is influenced by many factors, being difficult to define optimal feature parameters to distinguish all the objects in a whole area, a method of multi-level feature selection

  2. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  3. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  4. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program: Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program -- Final Report. Part 1: The lower atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooman, T.P. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Exploratory Systems Technology Dept.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents work done between FY91 and FY95 for the lower atmospheric portion of the joint Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP) within the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The work focused on (1) developing new measurement capabilities and (2) measuring atmospheric heating in a well-defined layer and then relating it to cloud properties an water vapor content. Seven new instruments were develop3ed for use with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs) as the host platform for flux, radiance, cloud, and water vapor measurements. Four major field campaigns were undertaken to use these new as well as existing instruments to make critically needed atmospheric measurements. Scientific results include the profiling of clear sky fluxes from near surface to 14 km and the strong indication of cloudy atmosphere absorption of solar radiation considerably greater than predicted by extant models.

  5. Drought footprint on European ecosystems between 1999 and 2010 assessed by remotely sensed vegetation phenology and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivits, Eva; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Drought affects more people than any other natural disaster but there is little understanding of how ecosystems react to droughts. This study jointly analyzed spatio-temporal changes of drought patterns with vegetation phenology and productivity changes between 1999 and 2010 in major European...... bioclimatic zones. The Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used as drought indicator whereas changes in growing season length and vegetation productivity were assessed using remote sensing time-series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Drought spatio...... on ecosystem and land cover. Northern and Mediterranean ecosystems proved to be more resilient to droughts in terms of vegetation phenology and productivity developments. Western Atlantic regions and Eastern Europe showed strong agglomerations of decreased productivity and shorter vegetation growing season...

  6. Assessing hospital disaster preparedness: a comparison of an on-site survey, directly observed drill performance, and video analysis of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Amy H; Langford, Vinette; Lewis, Roger J

    2008-09-01

    There is currently no validated method for assessing hospital disaster preparedness. We determine the degree of correlation between the results of 3 methods for assessing hospital disaster preparedness: administration of an on-site survey, drill observation using a structured evaluation tool, and video analysis of team performance in the hospital incident command center. This was a prospective, observational study conducted during a regional disaster drill, comparing the results from an on-site survey, a structured disaster drill evaluation tool, and a video analysis of teamwork, performed at 6 911-receiving hospitals in Los Angeles County, CA. The on-site survey was conducted separately from the drill and assessed hospital disaster plan structure, vendor agreements, modes of communication, medical and surgical supplies, involvement of law enforcement, mutual aid agreements with other facilities, drills and training, surge capacity, decontamination capability, and pharmaceutical stockpiles. The drill evaluation tool, developed by Johns Hopkins University under contract from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was used to assess various aspects of drill performance, such as the availability of the hospital disaster plan, the geographic configuration of the incident command center, whether drill participants were identifiable, whether the noise level interfered with effective communication, and how often key information (eg, number of available staffed floor, intensive care, and isolation beds; number of arriving victims; expected triage level of victims; number of potential discharges) was received by the incident command center. Teamwork behaviors in the incident command center were quantitatively assessed, using the MedTeams analysis of the video recordings obtained during the disaster drill. Spearman rank correlations of the results between pair-wise groupings of the 3 assessment methods were calculated. The 3 evaluation methods demonstrated

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF SHADOW ENHANCED URBAN REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY OF A COMPLEX CITY – HONG KONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Wan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Large portions of shadowed areas in satellite images of urban areas can affect the accuracy of classification and thus reduce an image's effectiveness in urban remote sensing applications. This is particularly acute in cities such as Hong Kong where dense high-rise buildings cast many long shadows across a variety of different surface types. One solution to this problem is to enhance shadowed areas so their spectral range becomes closer to their corresponding non-shadowed areas. Shadowed areas were automatically selected and two techniques, Gamma correction and Linear Correlation Correction, were applied to three study sites of a 2.4 m Quickbird image. The selected study sites represent typical urban types of Hong Kong, ranging from high-rise commercial to low-rise residential areas. The shadow detection algorithm is based on the spectral shape index and its limitation is discussed. The histograms of the corresponding non-shadowed areas, the original and the enhanced shadow areas are used to compare the spectral range. The results show that the enhanced areas, in band ratios such as NDVI, show greater similarity after enhancement, but they also look darker than the non-shadowed areas. Where continuous shadowed areas such as in commercial areas, the spectral range cannot be restored.

  8. Remote Sensing Data for Coastal Zone Vulnerability Assessment- the Bay of Algiers Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabehi, Walid; Guerfi, Mokhtar; Mahi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Like many of South Mediterranean coastlines, the Algerian coastal zone and Algiers' bay specifically, is one of the most vulnerable zone. Because of the natural pressures occurring in the region such as earthquake, tsunami risk, erosion / accretion, marine intrusion, etc. Combined with other anthropogenic factors as urban sprawl, pollution, loss of biodiversity and economic value etc... A high degradation of this coastline is noticeable despite all the protection measures brought to these zones, which have sometimes increased its vulnerability.The aim of this work is to generate the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) map related to erosion and flooding. This index, created by Gornitz & White (1990), was particularly focused on "physical parameters of the coast" [3], Then it was improved by McLaughlin & Cooper (2010), who added a socio-economical approach by calculating parameters like demography, land use...etc. The index is obtained by integrating in a GIS, different vulnerability factors of the coastal area.. Many relevant parameters were derived from remote sensing, combined with other data; they are analyzed with a Multicriteria method after being grouped in three sub- indexes; coastal physical characteristics, coastal forcing and socioeconomic factors, in order to produce the CVI.

  9. Land cover classification and economic assessment of citrus groves using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rahul J.; Gebelein, Jennifer L.

    The citrus industry has the second largest impact on Florida's economy, following tourism. Estimation of citrus area coverage and annual forecasts of Florida's citrus production are currently dependent on labor-intensive interpretation of aerial photographs. Remotely sensed data from satellites has been widely applied in agricultural yield estimation and cropland management. Satellite data can potentially be obtained throughout the year, making it especially suitable for the detection of land cover change in agriculture and horticulture, plant health status, soil and moisture conditions, and effects of crop management practices. In this study, we analyzed land cover of citrus crops in Florida using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery from the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF). We hypothesized that an interdisciplinary approach combining citrus production (economic) data with citrus land cover area per county would yield a correlation between observable spectral reflectance throughout the year, and the fiscal impact of citrus on local economies. While the data from official sources based on aerial photography were positively correlated, there were serious discrepancies between agriculture census data and satellite-derived cropland area using medium-resolution satellite imagery. If these discrepancies can be resolved by using imagery of higher spatial resolution, a stronger correlation would be observed for citrus production based on satellite data. This would allow us to predict the economic impact of citrus from satellite-derived spectral data analysis to determine final crop harvests.

  10. Remote Assessment of Cultural Heritage Environments with Wireless Sensor Array Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henoc Agbota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  11. Remote assessment of cultural heritage environments with wireless sensor array networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell, John E; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-05-19

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  12. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  13. Video consultation use by Australian general practitioners: video vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwa, Moyez; Meng, Xingqiong

    2013-06-19

    There is unequal access to health care in Australia, particularly for the one-third of the population living in remote and rural areas. Video consultations delivered via the Internet present an opportunity to provide medical services to those who are underserviced, but this is not currently routine practice in Australia. There are advantages and shortcomings to using video consultations for diagnosis, and general practitioners (GPs) have varying opinions regarding their efficacy. The aim of this Internet-based study was to explore the attitudes of Australian GPs toward video consultation by using a range of patient scenarios presenting different clinical problems. Overall, 102 GPs were invited to view 6 video vignettes featuring patients presenting with acute and chronic illnesses. For each vignette, they were asked to offer a differential diagnosis and to complete a survey based on the theory of planned behavior documenting their views on the value of a video consultation. A total of 47 GPs participated in the study. The participants were younger than Australian GPs based on national data, and more likely to be working in a larger practice. Most participants (72%-100%) agreed on the differential diagnosis in all video scenarios. Approximately one-third of the study participants were positive about video consultations, one-third were ambivalent, and one-third were against them. In all, 91% opposed conducting a video consultation for the patient with symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction. Inability to examine the patient was most frequently cited as the reason for not conducting a video consultation. Australian GPs who were favorably inclined toward video consultations were more likely to work in larger practices, and were more established GPs, especially in rural areas. The survey results also suggest that the deployment of video technology will need to focus on follow-up consultations. Patients with minor self-limiting illnesses and those with medical

  14. Regional landslide susceptibility assessment using multi-stage remote sensing data along the coastal range highway in northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Fang; Huang, Wei-Kai; Chang, Yu-Lin; Chi, Shu-Yeong; Liao, Wu-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Typhoons Megi (2010) and Saola (2012) brought torrential rainfall which triggered regional landslides and flooding hazards along Provincial Highway No. 9 in northeastern Taiwan. To reduce property loss and saving lives, this study combines multi-hazard susceptibility assessment with environmental geology map a rock mass rating system (RMR), remote sensing analysis, and micro-topography interpretation to develop an integrated landslide hazard assessment approach and reflect the intrinsic state of slopeland from the past toward the future. First, the degree of hazard as indicated by historical landslides was used to determine many landslide regions in the past. Secondly, geo-mechanical classification of rock outcroppings was performed by in-situ investigation along the vulnerable road sections. Finally, a high-resolution digital elevation model was extracted from airborne LiDAR and multi-temporal remote sensing images which was analyzed to discover possible catastrophic landslide hotspot shortly. The results of the analysis showed that 37% of the road sections in the study area were highly susceptible to landslide hazards. The spatial distribution of the road sections revealed that those characterized by high susceptibility were located near the boundaries of fault zones and in areas of lithologic dissimilarity. Headward erosion of gullies and concave-shaped topographic features had an adverse effect and was the dominant factor triggering landslides. Regional landslide reactivation on this coastal highway are almost related to the past landslide region based on hazard statistics. The final results of field validation demonstrated that an accuracy of 91% could be achieved for forecasting geohazard followed by intense rainfall events and typhoons.

  15. Assessment of Various Remote Sensing Technologies in Biomass and Nitrogen Content Estimation Using AN Agricultural Test Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsi, R.; Viljanen, N.; Kaivosoja, J.; Hakala, T.; Pandžić, M.; Markelin, L.; Honkavaara, E.

    2017-10-01

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging is usually acquired by satellite and aircraft platforms. Recently, miniaturized hyperspectral 2D frame cameras have showed great potential to precise agriculture estimations and they are feasible to combine with lightweight platforms, such as drones. Drone platform is a flexible tool for remote sensing applications with environment and agriculture. The assessment and comparison of different platforms such as satellite, aircraft and drones with different sensors, such as hyperspectral and RGB cameras is an important task in order to understand the potential of the data provided by these equipment and to select the most appropriate according to the user applications and requirements. In this context, open and permanent test fields are very significant and helpful experimental environment, since they provide a comparative data for different platforms, sensors and users, allowing multi-temporal analyses as well. Objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of an open permanent test field in context of precision agriculture. Satellite (Sentinel-2), aircraft and drones with hyperspectral and RGB cameras were assessed in this study to estimate biomass, using linear regression models and in-situ samples. Spectral data and 3D information were used and compared in different combinations to investigate the quality of the models. The biomass estimation accuracies using linear regression models were better than 90 % for the drone based datasets. The results showed that the use of spectral and 3D features together improved the estimation model. However, estimation of nitrogen content was less accurate with the evaluated remote sensing sensors. The open and permanent test field showed to be suitable to provide an accurate and reliable reference data for the commercial users and farmers.

  16. Lessons Learned in the Integration of Earth Remote Sensing Data within the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.; McGrath, K.; Bell, J. R.; Cole, T.; Meyer, P. J.; Burks, J.; Camp, P.; Angle, K.

    2016-12-01

    Following the occurrence of a suspected or known tornado, meteorologists with NOAA's National Weather Service are tasked with performing a detailed ground survey to map the impacts of the tornado, identify specific damage indicators, and link those damage indicators to the Enhanced Fujita scale as an estimate of the intensity of the tornado at various points along the damage path. Over the past few years, NOAA/NWS meteorologists have developed the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT), a smartphone and web based application to support the collection of damage information, editing of the damage survey, and final publication. This allows meteorologists in the field to sample the damage track, collect geotagged photos with notations of damage areas, and aggregation of the information to provide a more detailed survey whereas previous efforts may have been limited to start and end locations, maximum width, and maximum intensity. To support these damage assessment efforts, various Earth remote sensing data sets were incorporated into the DAT to support survey efforts, following preliminary activities using remote sensing to support select NOAA/NWS field offices following the widespread outbreak of tornadoes that occurred in the southeastern United States on April 27, 2011. These efforts included the collection of various products in collaboration with multiple federal agencies and commercial providers, with particular emphasis upon the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, hosting and sharing of these products through geospatial platforms, partnerships with forecasters to better understand their needs, and the development and delivery of training materials. This presentation will provide an overview of the project along with strengths and weaknesses, opportunities for future work and improvements, and best practices learned during the "research to applications" process supported by the NASA Applied Sciences: Disasters program.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF VARIOUS REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOMASS AND NITROGEN CONTENT ESTIMATION USING AN AGRICULTURAL TEST FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Näsi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging is usually acquired by satellite and aircraft platforms. Recently, miniaturized hyperspectral 2D frame cameras have showed great potential to precise agriculture estimations and they are feasible to combine with lightweight platforms, such as drones. Drone platform is a flexible tool for remote sensing applications with environment and agriculture. The assessment and comparison of different platforms such as satellite, aircraft and drones with different sensors, such as hyperspectral and RGB cameras is an important task in order to understand the potential of the data provided by these equipment and to select the most appropriate according to the user applications and requirements. In this context, open and permanent test fields are very significant and helpful experimental environment, since they provide a comparative data for different platforms, sensors and users, allowing multi-temporal analyses as well. Objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of an open permanent test field in context of precision agriculture. Satellite (Sentinel-2, aircraft and drones with hyperspectral and RGB cameras were assessed in this study to estimate biomass, using linear regression models and in-situ samples. Spectral data and 3D information were used and compared in different combinations to investigate the quality of the models. The biomass estimation accuracies using linear regression models were better than 90 % for the drone based datasets. The results showed that the use of spectral and 3D features together improved the estimation model. However, estimation of nitrogen content was less accurate with the evaluated remote sensing sensors. The open and permanent test field showed to be suitable to provide an accurate and reliable reference data for the commercial users and farmers.

  18. Methodological approach for assessing the economic impact of forest fires using MODIS remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Juan Ramón Molina Martínez; Miguel Castillo Soto

    2013-01-01

    Assessing areas affected by forest fires requires comprehensive studies covering a wide range of analyzes. From an economic standpoint, assessing the affected area in monetary terms is crucial. Determining the degree of loss in the value of natural resources, both those of a tangible and intangible nature, enables knowing the residual value remaining after a fire, i.e...

  19. Infrastructure assessment for disaster management using multi-sensor and multi-temporal remote sensing imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butenuth, Matthias; Frey, Daniel; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new assessment system is presented to evaluate infrastructure objects such as roads after natural disasters in near-realtime. A particular aim is the exploitation of multi-sensorial and multi-temporal imagery together with further {GIS-}data in a comprehensive assessment framework...

  20. Assessing grapevine canopy health in the Texas Hill Country with remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Adam J.

    Vineyards are typically managed uniformly over space, although known spatial variation exists in the performance of vines within and across vineyard blocks. Identifying spatial variability in crop performance at a large scale (one or a few vineyard blocks) is useful to vineyard managers wishing to address such variation by enacting separate management plans for differing areas of performance. Zonal management and the institution of precision viticultural practices (i.e. use of GIS and remote sensing techniques to study this spatial variation) has proven profitable for a number of reasons, namely zonal harvesting based on zone performance. This dissertation implements cutting-edge, practical, and low-cost equipment and techniques, specifically an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), digital cameras, and Structure from Motion (SfM), to identify spatial variation in grapevine canopy vigor at a vineyard in the Texas Hill Country American Viticultural Area. Three research objectives were addressed in this dissertation including: (1) the setup and implementation of a practical imaging system and processing methodology (digital cameras and a UAV) to produce very high spatial resolution orthophotomosaics of vineyards with visible and near-infrared bands, (2) observation of spatial and temporal variation in grapevine canopy vigor that can aid in improving vineyard management practice, and (3) development of a three-dimensional method for visualizing and quantifying vineyard canopy density. Results concluded that the low-cost tools and techniques outlined in this study provided a practical means by which to identify spatial variation in canopy vigor at the study vineyard. Of the three methods used to identify this variation, spectrally-based (NDVI), planimetrically-based (canopy extent), and three-dimensionally-derived (SfM point clouds), the latter two were most successful and would be recommended for future use. Most importantly, due to the low cost of the technology used to

  1. Assessing the Downstream Impact of the Integrated Use of Socioeconomic and Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.; Schumacher, J.

    2014-12-01

    The interdisciplinary use of data from multiple disciplines to address both research and applied problems has received increasing attention in the sciences, but understanding remains limited on the specific modalities of data use and their impact not only in enabling new research insights but also in facilitating the application of research to societal problems. In our previous work, we used citation analysis to investigate the use of data from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) and identify the extent of interdisciplinary use, based on the subject classifications of citing journals. We also proposed and tested a taxonomy of data integration and use on a selection of peer-reviewed scientific articles that cited both remote sensing data and socioeconomic data from SEDAC. We extend both of these analyses here. We analyze the interdisciplinary use of SEDAC data over a seven-year period including the types and topical areas of application observed. We also explore the degree to which different types of data integration and use are leading to further "downstream" research and applications, and if objective measures can be developed using bibliometric methods to quantify downstream use and impact in meaningful ways. These methods include both traditional citation analysis and searches of the informal literature and online resources. Better understanding of how disparate data and information has been utilized to address new interdisciplinary problems will help the data user and provider communities improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their efforts. It should also provide justification for further investments in linking different data resources and networks across scientific fields, in methods of interdisciplinary data integration, and in application of integrated data to societal problems.

  2. Assessing groundwater accessibility in the Kharga Basin, Egypt: A remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Shawna; Byrnes, Jeffrey; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Laó Dávila, Daniel A.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Atya, Magdy A.

    2017-12-01

    We used multi-map analysis of remote sensing and ancillary data to identify potentially accessible sites for groundwater resources in the Kharga Basin in the Western Desert of Egypt. This basin is dominated by Cretaceous sandstone formations and extends within the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer. It is dissected by N-S and E-W trending faults, possibly acting as conduits for upward migration of groundwater. Analysis of paleo-drainage using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data shows that the Kharga was a closed basin that might have been the site of a paleo-lake. Lake water recharged the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer during the wetter Holocene time. We generated the following layers for the multi-map analysis: (1) Fracture density map from the interpretation of Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI), SRTM DEM, and RADARSAT data. (2) Thermal Inertia (TI) map (for moisture content imaging) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. (3) Hydraulic conductivity map from mapping lithological units using the Landsat OLI and previously published data. (4) Aquifer thickness map from previously published data. We quantitatively ranked the Kharga Basin by considering that regions of high fracture density, high TI, thicker aquifer, and high hydraulic conductivity have higher potential for groundwater accessibility. Our analysis shows that part of the southern Kharga Basin is suitable for groundwater extraction. This region is where N-S and E-W trending faults intersect, has relatively high TI and it is underlain by thick aquifer. However, the suitability of this region for groundwater use will be reduced significantly when considering the changes in land suitability and economic depth to groundwater extraction in the next 50 years.

  3. Remote Monitoring of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Assessing Clinical and Economic Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Dilip; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Becker, Stefan; D'Alonzo, Silvia; Mehrotra, Raj; Wong, Leslie; McLeod, Kim; Danek, Judy; Gellens, Mary; Kudelka, Todd; Sloand, James A; Laplante, Suzanne

    2017-10-12

    For chronic kidney disease patients who progress to end-stage renal disease, survival is dependent on renal replacement therapy in the form of kidney transplantation or chronic dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis (PD), which can be performed at home, is both more convenient and less costly than hemodialysis that requires three 4-h visits per week to the dialysis facility and complicated equipment. Remote therapy management (RTM), technologies that collect medical information and transmit it to healthcare providers for patient management, has the potential to improve the outcomes of patients receiving automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) at home. Estimate through a simulation study the potential impact of RTM on APD patients use of healthcare resources and costs in the United States, Germany, and Italy. Twelve APD patient profiles were developed to reflect potential clinical scenarios of APD therapy. Two versions of each profile were created to simulate healthcare resource use, one assuming use of RTM and one with no RTM. Eleven APD teams (one nephrologist, one nurse) estimated resources that would be used. Results from U.S., German, and Italian clinicians found that RTM could avoid use of 59, 49, and 16 resources over the 12 profiles, respectively. Estimated reduced utilization across the three countries ranged from one to two hospitalizations, one to four home visits, two to five emergency room visits, and four to eight unplanned clinic visits. Total savings across all scenarios were $23,364 in the United States, $11,477 in Germany, and $7,088 in Italy. In a simulated environment, early intervention enabled by RTM reduced healthcare resource utilization and associated costs.

  4. Economical Video Monitoring of Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B. C.; Paine, G.; Rubenstein, L. D.; Parham, O. Bruce, Jr.; Graves, W.; Bradley, C.

    1986-01-01

    Data compression allows video signals to be transmitted economically on telephone circuits. Telephone lines transmit television signals to remote traffic-control center. Lines also carry command signals from center to TV camera and compressor at highway site. Video system with television cameras positioned at critical points on highways allows traffic controllers to determine visually, almost immediately, exact cause of traffic-flow disruption; e.g., accidents, breakdowns, or spills, almost immediately. Controllers can then dispatch appropriate emergency services and alert motorists to minimize traffic backups.

  5. Standardizing training for psoriasis measures: effectiveness of an online training video on Psoriasis Area and Severity Index assessment by physician and patient raters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Parsi, Kory; Schupp, Clayton W; Mease, Philip J; Duffin, Kristina C

    2013-05-01

    Because the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) is the most commonly used and validated disease severity measure for clinical trials, it is imperative to standardize training to ensure reliability in PASI scoring for accurate assessment of disease severity. To evaluate whether an online PASI training video improves scoring accuracy among patients with psoriasis and physicians on first exposure to PASI. This equivalency study compared PASI assessment performed by patients and PASI-naive physicians with that of PASI-experienced physicians at baseline and after standardized video training. The study was conducted from March 15, 2011, to September 1, 2011. Outpatient psoriasis clinic at University of California, Davis. Forty-two psoriasis patients and 14 PASI-naive physicians participated in the study. The scores from 12 dermatologists experienced in PASI evaluation were used as the criterion standard against which other scores were compared. Aggregate and component PASI scores from image sets corresponding to mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis. After viewing the training video, PASI-naive physicians produced equivalent scores for all components of PASI; patients provided equivalent scores for most PASI components, with the exception of area scores for moderate-to-severe psoriasis images. After the online video training, the PASI-naive physicians and patients exhibited improved accuracy in assigning total PASI scores for mild (Mean(experienced physician) - Mean(PASI-naive physician): 1.2; Mean(experienced physician) - Mean(patient): -2.1), moderate (Mean(experienced physician) - Mean(PASI-naive physician): 0; Mean(experienced physician) - Mean(patient): -5.7), and severe (Mean(experienced physician) - Mean(PASI-naive physician): -5.1; Mean(experienced physician) - Mean(patient): -10.4) psoriasis, respectively. Use of an online PASI training video represents an effective tool in improving accuracy in PASI scoring by both health care professionals and patients

  6. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  7. CRED REA Benthic Parameter Assessment at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Point-count surveys at 50-cm intervals were conducted along 2 consecutively placed, 25m line transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9...

  8. CRED REA Benthic Parameter Assessment at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Point-count surveys at 50-cm intervals were conducted along 2 consecutively placed, 25m line transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4...

  9. CRED REA Benthic Parameter Assessment at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Point-count surveys at 50-cm intervals were conducted along 2 consecutively placed, 25m line transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6...

  10. CRED REA Benthic Parameter Assessment at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Point-count surveys at 50-cm intervals were conducted along 2 consecutively placed, 25m line transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5...

  11. Diagnosis of regional evaporation by remote sensing to support irrigation performance assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Wal, van der T.; Visser, T.N.M.

    1996-01-01

    Performance assessment indicators, being functions of evaporation, are useful tools to evaluate the actual functioning of an irrigation system. The spatial variability of evaporation in large irrigation schemes makes its determination with conventional point measurements almost impossible. A new

  12. Using Remote Sensing and Radar Meteorological Data to Support Watershed Assessments Comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorological (MET) data required by watershed assessments comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) traditionally have been provided by land-based weather (gauge) stations, although these data may not be the most appropriate for adequate spatial and temporal resolution...

  13. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 5 sites at Howland in the...

  14. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 6 sites at Johnston Atoll in the...

  15. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 1 site at Baker in the Pacific...

  16. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and suicidal behavior on a video/EEG telemetry unit: the need for psychiatric assessment and screening for suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Struck, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Patients with epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) have an increased prevalence of psychiatric illness and risk for suicidal ideation/suicidal behavior/suicide compared with the general population. Recent literature suggests that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used to treat epilepsy, pain, and psychiatric disorders increase the risk of suicide and that this increased risk may be AED selective. This case analyzes a suicide attempt on a video/EEG telemetry unit. Specific risk factors associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors pertinent to this case are reviewed: epilepsy, multiple psychiatric diagnoses including affective disorder, AEDs, PNES, prior medically serious suicide attempt, and suicide attempt within the past month. Specific psychometric rating scales to screen for both psychiatric illness and suicide risk and psychiatric assessment should be integral components of the evaluation and treatment of patients on video/EEG telemetry units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Video surveillance system based on MPEG-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Zhang, Guoping; Yang, Zongkai

    2008-03-01

    Multimedia technology and networks protocol are the basic technology of the video surveillance system. A network remote video surveillance system based on MPEG-4 video coding standards is designed and implemented in this paper. The advantages of the MPEG-4 are analyzed in detail in the surveillance field, and then the real-time protocol and real-time control protocol (RTP/RTCP) are chosen as the networks transmission protocol. The whole system includes video coding control module, playing back module, network transmission module and network receiver module The scheme of management, control and storage about video data are discussed. The DirectShow technology is used to playback video data. The transmission scheme of digital video processing in networks, RTP packaging of MPEG-4 video stream is discussed. The receiver scheme of video date and mechanism of buffer are discussed. The most of the functions are archived by software, except that the video coding control module is achieved by hardware. The experiment results show that it provides good video quality and has the real-time performance. This system can be applied into wide fields.

  18. Video Data Compression Study for Remote Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    instrumentation required to implement these frame- to frame techniques, the project monktor requested we terminate the emphasls on frame-to-frane methods...dimensional PCNM proceo • alcke, In te tfollowing di.;,•ssion, the s.ystum ,iperatiLc.n iet’’ out!;.n. lb,’flhnif Ohnt, without loss u" gonerality, th. L

  19. GTRI Remote Monitoring System: Training and Operational Needs Assessment Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Debra E.; Fox, Sorcha

    2012-04-20

    The mission of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA's) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is to identify, secure, recover and facilitate the disposition of vulnerable nuclear and high-risk radioactive materials around the world that pose a threat to the United States and the international community. The GTRI's unique mission to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide directly addresses recommendations of the 9/11 Commission1, and is a vital part of the President's National Security Strategy and the Global Initiative. The GTRI Remote Monitoring System (RMS) is a standalone security system that includes radiation and tamper alarms, and CCTV; which can be transmitted securely over the Internet to multiple on-site and off-site locations. Through our experiences during installation of the system at 162 sites, plus feedback received from Alarm Response Training course participants, site input to project teams and analysis of trouble calls; indications were that current system training was lacking and inconsistent. A survey was undertaken to gather information from RMS users across the nation, to evaluate the current level of training and determine what if any improvements needed to be made. Additional questions were focused on the operation of the RMS software. The training survey was initially sent electronically to 245 users at the RMS sites and achieved a 37.6% return rate. Analysis of the resulting data revealed that 34.6% of the respondents had not received training or were unsure if they had, despite the fact that vendor engineers provide training at installation of the system. Any training received was referred to as minimal, and brief, not documented, and nothing in writing. 63.7% of respondents said they were either not at all prepared or only somewhat prepared to use the RMS software required to effectively operate the

  20. Water Resource Assessment in KRS Reservoir Using Remote Sensing and GIS Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manubabu, V. H.; Gouda, K. C.; Bhat, N.; Reddy, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the recent time the fresh water resource becomes very important because of various reasons like population growth, pollution, over exploitation of the ground water resources etc. As there is no efficient and proper measures for recharging ground water exists and also the climatological impacts on water resources like global warming exacerbating water shortages, growing populations and rising demand for freshwater in agriculture, industry, and energy production. There is a need and challenging task for analyzing the future changes in regional water availability and it is also very much necessary to asses and predict the fresh water present in a lake or reservoir to make better decision making in the optimal usage of surface water. In the present study is intended to provide a practical discussion of methodology that deals with how to asses and predict amount of surface water available in the future using Remote Sensing(RS) data , Geographical Information System(GIS) techniques, and GCM (Global Circulation Model). Basically the study emphasized over one of the biggest reservoir i.e. the Krishna Raja Sagara (KRS) reservoir situated in the state of Karnataka in India. Multispectral satellite images like IRS LISS III and Landsat L8 from different open source web portals like NRSC-Bhuvan and NASA Earth Explorer respectively are used for the present analysis. The multispectral satellite images are used to identify the temporal changes of the water quantity in the reservoir for the period 2000 to 2014. Also the water volume are being calculated using Advances Space born Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global DEM over the reservoir basin. The hydro meteorological parameters are also studied using multi-source observed data and the empirical water budget models for the reservoir in terms of rainfall, temperature, run off, water inflow and outflow etc. are being developed and analyzed. Statistical analysis are also carried out to quantify the relation

  1. Morphology, structure, composition and build-up processes of the active channel-mouth lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan with inputs from remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) multibeam and video surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennielou, Bernard; Droz, Laurence; Babonneau, Nathalie; Jacq, Céline; Bonnel, Cédric; Picot, Marie; Le Saout, Morgane; Saout, Yohan; Bez, Martine; Savoye, Bruno; Olu, Karine; Rabouille, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    The detailed structure and composition of turbiditic channel-mouth lobes is still largely unknown because they commonly lie at abyssal water depths, are very thin and are therefore beyond the resolution of hull-mound acoustic tools. The morphology, structure and composition of the Congo turbiditic channel-mouth lobe complex (90×40 km; 2525 km2) were investigated with hull-mounted swath bathymetry, air gun seismics, 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler, sediment piston cores and also with high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and video acquired with a Remote Operating Vehicle (ROV). The lobe complex lies 760 km off the Congo River mouth in the Angola abyssal plain between 4740 and 5030 m deep. It is active and is fed by turbidity currents that deposit several centimetres of sediment per century. The lobe complex is subdivided into five lobes that have prograded. The lobes are dominantly muddy. Sand represents ca. 13% of the deposits and is restricted to the feeding channel and distributaries. The overall lobe body is composed of thin muddy to silty turbidites. The whole lobe complex is characterized by in situ mass wasting (slumps, debrites). The 1-m-resolution bathymetry shows pervasive slidings and block avalanches on the edges of the feeding channel and the channel mouth indicating that sliding occurs early and continuously in the lobe build-up. Mass wasting is interpreted as a consequence of very-high accumulation rates, over-steepening and erosion along the channels and is therefore an intrinsic process of lobe building. The bifurcation of feeding channels is probably triggered when the gradient in the distributaries at the top of a lobe becomes flat and when turbidity currents find their way on the higher gradient on the lobe side. It may also be triggered by mass wasting on the lobe side. When a new lobe develops, the abandoned lobes continue to collect significant turbiditic deposits from the feeding channel spillover, so that the whole lobe complex remains active. A

  2. How Universal Is the Relationship between Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices and Crop Leaf Area Index? A Global Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghui Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is a key variable that bridges remote sensing observations to the quantification of agroecosystem processes. In this study, we assessed the universality of the relationships between crop LAI and remotely sensed Vegetation Indices (VIs. We first compiled a global dataset of 1459 in situ quality-controlled crop LAI measurements and collected Landsat satellite images to derive five different VIs including Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, two versions of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and EVI2, and Green Chlorophyll Index (CIGreen. Based on this dataset, we developed global LAI-VI relationships for each crop type and VI using symbolic regression and Theil-Sen (TS robust estimator. Results suggest that the global LAI-VI relationships are statistically significant, crop-specific, and mostly non-linear. These relationships explain more than half of the total variance in ground LAI observations (R2 > 0.5, and provide LAI estimates with RMSE below 1.2 m2/m2. Among the five VIs, EVI/EVI2 are the most effective, and the crop-specific LAI-EVI and LAI-EVI2 relationships constructed by TS, are robust when tested by three independent validation datasets of varied spatial scales. While the heterogeneity of agricultural landscapes leads to a diverse set of local LAI-VI relationships, the relationships provided here represent global universality on an average basis, allowing the generation of large-scale spatial-explicit LAI maps. This study contributes to the operationalization of large-area crop modeling and, by extension, has relevance to both fundamental and applied agroecosystem research.

  3. Developing a climatological / hydrological baseline for climate change impact assessment in a remote mountain region - an example from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, N.; Huggel, C.; Calanca, P.; Diaz, A.; Jonas, T.; Konzelmann, T.; Lagos, P.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.; Zappa, M.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in the availability of fresh water caused by climatic changes will become a major issue in the coming years and decades. In this context, regions presently depending on water from retreating mountain glaciers are particularly vulnerable. In many parts of the Andes for example, people already suffer from the impacts of reduced glacier run off. Therefore, the development and implementation of adequate adaptation measures is an urgent need. To better understand the impact of climate change on water resources in the Andean region, a new research program (PACC - Programa de Adaptación al Cambio Climático en el Perú) between Peru and Switzerland has recently been launched by SDC (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). As a first step, a scientific baseline relative to climatology, hydrology, agriculture and natural disasters will be developed on a regional scale for the Departments of Cusco and Apurimac in close cooperation with partners from Universities and governmental institutions as well as NGOs in Peru. A reliable data baseline is a must for the development of adaptation measures that can effectively cope with the risks induced by climate change. The realization of this task in remote mountain regions, where observational data are generally sparse, however, is challenging. Temporal and spatial gaps must be filled using indirect methods such as re-analyses, remote sensing and interpolation techniques. For future scenarios, the use of climate model output along with statistical and dynamical downscaling is indicated. This contribution will present and discuss approaches and possible concepts to tackle the challenges in a Peruvian context. In addition, first experiences will be reported particularly on cross-disciplinary issues that naturally emerge from the integrative perspective needed in climate change impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies.

  4. The Role Teachers' Expectations and Value Assessments of Video Games Play in Their Adopting and Integrating Them into Their Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Robert F.; McDaniel, Rudy

    2011-01-01

    Video games have become an essential part of the way people play and learn. While an increasing number of people are using games to learn in informal environments, their acceptance in the classroom as an instructional activity has been mixed. Successes in informal learning have caused supporters to falsely believe that implementing them into the…

  5. Exploring the Use of Video-Conferencing Technology in the Assessment of Spoken Language: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; Inoue, Chihiro; Berry, Vivien; Galaczi, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    This research explores how Internet-based video-conferencing technology can be used to deliver and conduct a speaking test, and what similarities and differences can be discerned between the standard and computer-mediated face-to-face modes. The context of the study is a high-stakes speaking test, and the motivation for the research is the need…

  6. AH-64D Apache Longbow/Video from UAS for Interoperability Teaming Level II (VUIT-2) Aircrew Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Thermite computer to process received video for presentation on the crewmember-selected multipurpose display (MPD); keyboard style control that permits the...direction of the 1-15th ground commander. 4. Service Support: a) Ammunition load is 300 rounds of 30mm, 12 rockets and 8 Hellfires. b) Fuel is

  7. Assessing problematic video gaming using the theory of planned behavior: a longitudinal study of Dutch young people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, M.C.; King, Daniel L.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Peters, O.

    2013-01-01

    Although excessive video gaming has been linked to a range of psychological problems in young people, there have been few systematic attempts to conceptualize problem gaming using established psychological theory. The aim of this study was to examine problematic game use (PGU) using the Theory of

  8. Potential of video cameras in assessing event and seasonal coastline behaviour: Grand Popo, Benin (Gulf of Guinea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abessolo Ondoa, G.; Almar, R.; Kestenare, E.; Bahini, A.; Houngue, G-H.; Jouanno, J; Du Penhoat, Y.; Castelle, B.; Melet, A.; Meyssignac, B.; Anthony, E.J.; Laibi, R.; Alory, G.; Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explore the potential of a nearshore video system to obtain a long-term estimation of coastal variables (shoreline, beach slope, sea level elevation and wave forcing) at Grand Popo beach, Benin, West Africa, from March 2013 to February 2015. We first present a validation of the

  9. Assessing problematic video gaming using the Theory of Planned Behavior: A longitudinal study of Dutch young people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, M.C.; King, D.L.; Pieterse, M.E.; Peters, O.

    2013-01-01

    Although excessive video gaming has been linked to a range of psychological problems in young people, there have been few systematic attempts to conceptualize problem gaming using established psychological theory. The aim of this study was to examine problematic game use (PGU) using the Theory of

  10. Use of an unmanned aerial vehicle-mounted video camera to assess feeding behavior of Raramuri Criollo cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the feasibility of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) video monitoring to predict intake of discrete food items of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo non-nursing beef cows. Thirty-five cows were released into a 405-m2 rectangular dry lot, either in pairs (pilot tests) or individually (...

  11. Assessing Problematic Video Gaming Using the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Dutch Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, Maria C.; King, Daniel L.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Peters, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Although excessive video gaming has been linked to a range of psychological problems in young people, there have been few systematic attempts to conceptualize problem gaming using established psychological theory. The aim of this study was to examine problematic game use (PGU) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A two-wave, six-month…

  12. Multisensor fusion remote sensing technology for assessing multitemporal responses in ecohydrological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin

    ) satellite imagery as previously developed was used. Eight commonly used vegetation indices were calculated from the reflectance obtained from Landsat 5 TM satellite images. The vegetation indices were individually used to classify vegetation cover in association with genetic programming algorithm. The soil moisture and vegetation indices were integrated into Landsat TM images based on a pre-pixel channel approach for riparian classification. Two different classification algorithms were used including genetic programming, and a combination of ISODATA and maximum likelihood supervised classification. The white box feature of genetic programming revealed the comparative advantage of all input parameters. The GP algorithm yielded more than 90% accuracy, based on unseen ground data, using vegetation index and Landsat reflectance band 1, 2, 3, and 4. The detection of changes in the buffer zone was proved to be technically feasible with high accuracy. Overall, the development of the RICAL algorithm may lead to the formulation of more effective management strategies for the handling of non-point source pollution control, bird habitat monitoring, and grazing and live stock management in the future. Geo-environmental information amassed in this study includes soil permeability, surface temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). With the aid of a remote sensing-based GIP analysis, only five locations out of more than 800 candidate sites were selected by the spatial analysis, and then confirmed by a field investigation. The methodology developed in this remote sensing-based GIP analysis will significantly advance the state-of-the-art technology in optimum arrangement/distribution of water sensor platforms for maximum sensing coverage and information-extraction capacity. To more efficiently use the limited amount of water or to resourcefully provide adequate time for flood warning, the results have led us to seek

  13. Assessing relative soil moisture with remote sensing data: theory, experimental validation, and application to drought monitoring over the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Yacob, A.; Wen, J.; Roerink, G.J.; He, Y.; Gao, B.; Boogaard, H.; Diepen, van C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Based on physical consideration of land surface energy balance, a theory is proposed for assessing relative soil moisture in the rooting depth with remote sensing data. The basis of the theory is the derivation of relative soil moisture in the rooting zone which is theoretically shown to be

  14. Video Malware - Behavioral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeepsinh Dodia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The counts of malware attacks exploiting the internet increasing day by day and has become a serious threat. The latest malware spreading out through the media players embedded using the video clip of funny in nature to lure the end users. Once it is executed and installed then the behavior of the malware is in the malware authors hand. The spread of the malware emulates through Internet USB drives sharing of the files and folders can be anything which makes presence concealed. The funny video named as it connected to the film celebrity where the malware variant was collected from the laptop of the terror outfit organization .It runs in the backend which it contains malicious code which steals the user sensitive information like banking credentials username amp password and send it to the remote host user called command amp control. The stealed data is directed to the email encapsulated in the malicious code. The potential malware will spread through the USB and other devices .In summary the analysis reveals the presence of malicious code in executable video file and its behavior.

  15. The Remote Observing Working Group for the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, A. S.; Pravec, P.; Thomas, C. A.; Thirouin, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Green, S.; Licandro, J.; Sickafoose, A. A.; Erasmus, N.; Howell, E. S.; Osip, D.; Thomas-Osip, J.; Moskovitz, N.; Scheirich, P.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Richardson, D. C.; Polishook, D.; Ryan, W. H.; Busch, M. W.

    2017-09-01

    The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) is a joint US-European mission concept designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of an kinetic impactor for planetary defense. Ground-based observing is a key component to AIDA and critical for its success. We present the observing campaign we have been conducting of the asteroid Didymos, the AIDA target, and plans for future work.

  16. Remote sensing based ecosystem state assessment in the Sandveld region, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available validation approach that focuses on 10 ecosystem-relevant visually assessed parameters which, when combined, produce a score out of 10 as well. The approach was tested in the South African Sandveld region using a SPOT 5 image from 2009 and a Landsat 7 ETM...

  17. Assessment of Biogenic Terpenoid Emission Inventories in Asia using Remotely Sensed Spatial and Temporal Surrogate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. K.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Among biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) species, the most comprehensively studied species are isoprene and monoterpene (terpenoid) due to their significant impacts on global and regional total VOC emission budget and ozone and aerosol formation mechanisms. Biogenic terpenoid emission inventories have been often assessed on a global basis and consistently available on model grid system units to support climate and chemical transport modeling. However, little of these have been assessed based on the political units such as countries and provinces. On the basis of political boundaries in Asia, we assembled and compared a large number of terpenoid emission estimates including currently published or reported sources. We assessed these terpenoid emission estimates in the context of the spatial and temporal consistency. Since the biogenic terpenoid emission inventories commonly use leaf biomass density, solar radiation and temperature as driving variables, we used the MODIS Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets as surrogates to correlate with the terpenoid emission estimates in Asia. Based on our current assessment, we will discuss about the current status of the biogenic terpenoid emission inventories in Asia.

  18. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  19. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011)

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio

    2015-04-14

    We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax) predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa) were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic) may also affect on land degradation.

  20. Assessing the damage of Chelmo Mount, Poland: a remote sensing perspective analyzing and interpreting ALS and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyrko, Mikolaj; Ruciński, Dominik

    2015-06-01

    In our paper we would like to present a remote sensing perspective on damage assessment of a hill-fort from central Poland, which is a listed site. The lime stone from this hill is known for its quality and has been excavated from at least medieval time. Due to poorly performed walking prospections the extent of the site has been faultily drawn and the whole extent of the site has been detected. Although most of it is being protected by and natural-archaeological reserve, some part are still being quarried. The goal of our study was to assess the damage done to the landscape of the Chełmo Mount. In our research we will investigate two types of data: very high resolution satellite imagery and LiDAR data (and its derivatives). Supervised classification and thematic change detection applied on archival satellite imagery enabled us to evaluate the progression of quarry in time. The DTM derived from LiDAR data, brought us the possibility to mark the potential outline of the site and the area to be protected as well as a 3D insight in to the damage done to the landscape itself.