WorldWideScience

Sample records for victory junction gang

  1. Gangs in Central America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare

    2005-01-01

    ... activities of Central American gangs. Citizens in several Central American countries have identified crime and gang violence among the top issues of popular concern, and Honduras and El Salvador have recently enacted tough anti-gang legislation...

  2. The Secret of Future Victories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Copy S of 320 copies AD--A25 0 718 IDA PAPER P-265 3 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gormnan General, USA (Retired) DTIC 05M February 1992 NAY...TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1992 Final--June 1991-January 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Secret of Future Victories C -MDA...8 2N0-102 IDA PAPER P-2653 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gorman General. LUSA (Retired) February 1992 Approved for public release

  3. Gangs in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    buscan-apoyo-para-prevencion-de-violencia- en- el -sa/, (accessed December 10, 2012). 41 Cámara de Comercio e Industria de El Salvador “Propuesta...Gangs in El Salvador by Colonel Luis W. Ortiz Medina El Salvador Army United States Army War College...33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gangs in El Salvador 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  4. Hurtigt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Graversen, Brian; Damgaard, Bodil; Rosdahl, Anders

    hurtigere i job. Det gjaldt for alle grupper af ledige, men effekten var særlig stor for akademikere. Tilsyneladende har mange stærke ledige hurtigt selv fundet et job, for at undgå at deltage i aktiviteterne under den intensive indsats. Svagere ledige synes derimod at være blevet hjulpet i gang af...

  5. Commanders of the Great Victory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Dmitriyevich Borshchov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The honorary title of «commander» as well as the «admiral» is granted to a military or naval figure on the basis of public recognition of his personal contribution to the success of actions. Generals are usually individuals with creative thinking, the ability to foresee the development of military events. Generals usually have such personality traits as a strong will and determination, rich combat experience, credibility and high organizational skills. In an article dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Soviet victory in the Great War examines the experience of formation and practice of the most talent-ed Soviet military leaders.

  6. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  7. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates ...

  8. Community-based gang desistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2018-01-01

    of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way...

  9. DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

    2009-01-01

    Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

  10. Differentiating gang members, gang affiliates and violent men on their psychiatric morbidity and traumatic experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jane L.; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the differences between gang members and gang affiliates;\\ud individuals who associate with gangs, but who are not gang members. Even less is known\\ud about how these groups compare with other violent populations. This study, examined how\\ud gang members, gang affiliates, and violent men, compare on mental health symptoms and\\ud traumatic experiences. Method: Data included a sample of 1,539 adult males, aged 19-34\\ud years, taken from an earlier survey conduct...

  11. Differentiating Gang Members, Gang Affiliates, and Violent Men on Their Psychiatric Morbidity and Traumatic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the differences between gang members and gang affiliates-or those individuals who associate with gangs but are not gang members. Even less is known about how these groups compare with other violent populations. This study examined how gang members, gang affiliates, and violent men compare on mental health symptoms and traumatic experiences. Data included a sample of 1,539 adult males, aged 19 to 34 years, taken from an earlier survey conducted in the United Kingdom. Participants provided informed consent before completing questionnaires and were paid £5 for participation. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare participants' symptoms of psychiatric morbidity and traumatic event exposure. Findings showed that, compared to violent men and gang affiliates, gang members had experienced more severe violence, sexual assaults, and suffered more serious/life-threatening injuries. Compared to violent men, gang members and gang affiliates had made more suicide attempts; had self-harmed more frequently; and had experienced more domestic violence, violence at work, homelessness, stalking, and bankruptcy. Findings further showed a decreasing gradient from gang members to gang affiliates to violent men in symptom levels of anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, pathological gambling, stalking others, and drug and/or alcohol dependence. Depression symptoms were similar across groups. The identified relationship between gang membership, affiliation, and adverse mental health indicates that mental health in gang membership deserves more research attention. Findings also indicate that criminal justice strategies need to consider gang members' mental health more fully, if gang membership is to be appropriately addressed and reduced.

  12. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. ...

  13. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  14. A Pyrrhic victory for the opponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the situation of renewable energies in Switzerland after a popular vote turned down promotional measures in the year 2000. The situation is analysed and the opinions of various leaders of professional associations and political groups are discussed. Comparisons are made between ideas said to evolve from short-term narrow-mindedness and those developed by more visionary corporations and governments. The effect of the negative outcome of the popular vote on research and development and economic development are discussed. The author expresses his opinion that measures will still have to be taken, thus making the opponents' success more of a Pyrrhic sort of victory

  15. Gangs and a global sociological imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alistair; Hagedorn, John M

    2018-02-01

    Across the globe, the phenomenon of youth gangs has become an important and sensitive public issue. In this context, an increasing level of research attention has focused on the development of universalized definitions of gangs in a global context. In this article, we argue that this search for similarity has resulted in a failure to recognize and understand difference. Drawing on an alternative methodology we call a 'global exchange', this article suggests three concepts-homologies of habitus, vectors of difference and transnational reflexivity-that seek to re-engage the sociological imagination in the study of gangs and globalization.

  16. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe.

  17. Report on Gang Violence in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    crime; others, mainly parents, think of gangs as groups of neighborhood kids seeking companionship to brag about their day’s exploits and express...Ghetto Busters JBM (junior Black Mafia) Jersey Road Boys Kool Aid Kids PRP (Puerto Rican Posse) Skinheads 32 Ounce Posse West Side Boys Yellow Jackets...Graffiti BIG Devils Art Gang DAG East Side Crew ESC East Side Hit Squad ECHS Everlasting Writers ELW Fuck You Crew FYC Furious Fighting Crew FFC Go A Head

  18. Automatic gang graffiti recognition and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2017-09-01

    One of the roles of emergency first responders (e.g., police and fire departments) is to prevent and protect against events that can jeopardize the safety and well-being of a community. In the case of criminal gang activity, tools are needed for finding, documenting, and taking the necessary actions to mitigate the problem or issue. We describe an integrated mobile-based system capable of using location-based services, combined with image analysis, to track and analyze gang activity through the acquisition, indexing, and recognition of gang graffiti images. This approach uses image analysis methods for color recognition, image segmentation, and image retrieval and classification. A database of gang graffiti images is described that includes not only the images but also metadata related to the images, such as date and time, geoposition, gang, gang member, colors, and symbols. The user can then query the data in a useful manner. We have implemented these features both as applications for Android and iOS hand-held devices and as a web-based interface.

  19. Copyright case a victory for science publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    An important victory for the financial health and future of scientific journals was won July 23 when Judge Pierre Leval of the Federal District Court in New York handed down his decision on the copyright infringement suit, American Geophysical Union, et al. v. Texaco Inc. Leval ruled that profit-making companies cannot photocopy copyrighted journal articles without permission and without compensating the copyright holder.The class action suit was brought in 1985 by AGU and six other scientific publishers on behalf of 8500 publishers worldwide who make their titles available for legal copying under licenses granted by the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. This licensing system was designed in cooperation with major corporations to facilitate compliance with the 1976 Copyright Act. Although more than 200 companies now use the center, some corporations, such as Texaco, have not. The suit was initiated to force compliance with copyright law. The current decision is very important because it establishes legal precedents on the “fair use” issue.

  20. LA's Gang-Busters--Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Regarded as the nation's gang violence capital, Los Angeles' politicians and law enforcement and school administrators are using knowledge from lost battles to win the war. Solutions include targeting younger children, teaching self-esteem and communication skills, as well as organizing group graffiti cleanups. (SI)

  1. Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

  2. Is America on the Road to Victory in the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Donald S

    2006-01-01

    ...?nation's leaders define victory for this war, that they re-address their view of the capacity and the identity of the enemy and therefore the length of time required to attain victory, and that they...

  3. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  4. Gang homicides - five U.S. cities, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Gang homicides account for a substantial proportion of homicides among youths in some U.S. cities; however, few surveillance systems collect data with the level of detail necessary to gang homicide prevention strategies. To compare characteristics of gang homicides with nongang homicides, CDC analyzed 2003-2008 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) for five cities with high levels of gang homicide. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, consistent with similar previous research, a higher proportion of gang homicides than other homicides involved young adults and adolescents, racial and ethnic minorities, and males. Additionally, the proportion of gang homicides resulting from drug trade/use or with other crimes in progress was consistently low in the five cities, ranging from zero to 25%. Furthermore, this report found that gang homicides were more likely to occur with firearms and in public places, which suggests that gang homicides are quick, retaliatory reactions to ongoing gang-related conflict. These findings provide evidence for the need to prevent gang involvement early in adolescence and to increase youths' capacity to resolve conflict nonviolently.

  5. The Interpersonal Metafunction Analysis of Barack Obama's Victory Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ruijuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper carries on a tentative interpersonal metafunction analysis of Barack Obama's victory speech from the interpersonal metafunction, which aims to help readers understand and evaluate the speech regarding its suitability, thus to provide some guidance for readers to make better speeches. This study has promising implications for speeches as…

  6. Teaching with Documents: Victory Gardens in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Patricia, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)

  7. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D; Karpenko, D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  8. Word Embeddings to Enhance Twitter Gang Member Profile Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Gang affiliates have joined the masses who use social media to share thoughts and actions publicly. Interestingly, they use this public medium to express recent illegal actions, to intimidate others, and to share outrageous images and statements. Agencies able to unearth these profiles may thus be able to anticipate, stop, or hasten the investigation of gang-related crimes. This paper investigates the use of word embeddings to help identify gang members on Twitter. Building on our previous wo...

  9. Magical-religious narratives in gangs. A study on the psychology of the gang member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ordóñez Valverde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of an investigation on the cultural systems that sustain violence within gangs in marginalized neighborhoods of Cali, Colombia. It is about magical and religious beliefs of gang member that surround the episodes of violence, and that allow us to observe aspects of the psychology of the gang member that are functional adaptations to the reality of vendettas and territorial wars, which are intended to give sense and meaning to the tragic events of their lives. The study shows how Santeria was used to seek protection and harm the enemy, and how their ideas of God and the Devil, good and evil, lack of ethics that regulate the relationships with others, and are an expression of a narcissistic defense mechanism. It is concluded that this cultural belief system is an interesting transaction formula between objective social reality and subjective fantasies.

  10. Extending Social Learning Theory to Explain Victimization Among Gang and Ex-Gang Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Analisa

    2018-03-01

    This study is among the first to extend and test social learning theory's ability to understand property and violent victimization. It specifically tests whether aspects of definitions, differential reinforcement, and differential association/modeling can explain the three types of victimization of gang members: actual experience, perception of likelihood, and fear. The sample consists of over 300 male and female gang members incarcerated in jails throughout Florida. The results show that all three types of victimization can be explained by the three aspects of social learning theory.

  11. "Dark Victory" (prognosis negative): The beginnings of neurology on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-04-12

    In "Dark Victory," released in theaters in 1939, the diagnosis and management of a progressive brain tumor was a central part of the screenplay, and this film marked the beginnings of the depiction of neurologic disease in cinema. Bette Davis' cinematic portrayal of a young woman dying from a brain tumor is close to the reality of denial, bargaining, a hope for a cure, and final acceptance. "Dark Victory" includes part of a neurologic examination (funduscopy, testing of strength, testing of stereognosis, and tendon reflexes). The film also alludes to decisions on what to tell the patient (better say nothing) and shows an implausible clinical course (an abrupt peaceful ending). The film is unusual in depicting the presentation of a brain tumor, but the cinematic portrayal of the vicissitudes of living with a brain tumor is often close to reality. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Transition I efficiency and victory in volleyball matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ugrinowitsch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the correlation between Transition Iwith victory in volleyball matches. The 2002 South-American Youth Men's Championship was recorded and the Transition I was analyzed and classified as negative, null or positive. Results of the efficiency in Transition I was calculated using t test for independent samples and compared to the efficiency between teams during each set and matches. Spearman correlation assessed the relationship between efficiency in each set and results of the matches with the final ranking in the championship. The results showed that the winning teams exhibited higher efficiency in Transition I, as well as a positive relationship of higher efficiency in Transition I with all of their results. The higher efficiency in Transition I is related to victory in volleyball matches.

  13. David�s initial Philistine victories according to Josephus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Begg

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bible twice relates, in Samuel 5:17-25/1 Chronicles 14:8-17, David�s initial pair of victories over the Philistines. This essay focuses on a third version of David�s triumphs, i.e. that of Josephus in his Ant 7.70-77, comprising this in detail with its two Biblical parallels (as represented by MT, Codex Vaticanus and the LucianictAntiochene MSS of the LXX, the Targums, and the Vulgate.

  14. Awareness of Deaf Sign Language and Gang Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia; Morgan, Robert L.

    There have been increasing incidents of innocent people who use American Sign Language (ASL) or another form of sign language being victimized by gang violence due to misinterpretation of ASL hand formations. ASL is familiar to learners with a variety of disabilities, particularly those in the deaf community. The problem is that gang members have…

  15. Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

  16. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  17. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  18. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Anand, Sumit; Jain, Sharad Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The Ganges River basin faces severe water challenges related to a mismatch between supply and demand. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months (June-September) of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months (October-May) of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch, which is likely to increase with increasing demand, requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, has long been known as the Ganges Water Machine (GWM). The approach of the GWM for providing such SSS is through additional pumping and depleting of the groundwater resources prior to the onset of the monsoon season and recharging the SSS through monsoon surface runoff. An important condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. The paper shows that the potential unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 124 Bm3 year-1 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase irrigation in the Rabi (November-March) and hot weather (April-May) seasons in India, and the Aman (July-November) and Boro (December-May) seasons in Bangladesh, to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide irrigation to Rabi and the hot weather season in India and the Aman and Boro seasons in Bangladesh to the entire cropped area. However, the potential for realizing the unmet irrigation demand is high only in 7 sub-basins in the northern and eastern parts, is moderate to low in 11 sub-basins in the middle, and has little or no potential in 4 sub

  19. De-securitising and Re-securitising Gang Policies : The Funes Government and Gangs in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079983537; Savenije, W.

    This article analyses the gang policies of the first years of the Funes administration in El Salvador, from June 2.009 until July 2.012.. Using securitisation theory, it explains why the administration returned to an emphasis on extraordinary measures, most of them repressive, to deal with gangs. It

  20. The Effects of Army and Air Force Institutional Theories of Victory on Operation Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    an institutional theory of victory.22 The categorization of rules, norms, and culture is somewhat artificial, but it remains useful for examining...rationality that constitutes an institutional theory of victory using the framework provided by Martel above. Chapter 3 seeks to create an argument...practical action,” but for the purposes of military institutions, this thesis refers to this concept as a theory of victory.125 The institutional

  1. Deportation of Gang Members: Sub-Optimal Solution for Both America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    16 James C. Howell, Arlen Egley, Jr., George E. Tita , and Elizabeth Griffiths, “U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009”, National Gang...Howell, James C., Arlen Egley, Jr., George E. Tita , and Elizabeth Griffiths. “U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009.” National Gang Center

  2. Guidelines for School and Community Cooperation: Implementation on a Gang Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…

  3. Persuasive History: A Critical Comparison of Television's "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheisen, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the television series "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War" and their use in teaching about World War II. Contrasts that war's glorious portrayal in "Victory at Sea" with the more ambiguous presentation of "The World at War." Suggests that students can learn a great deal about war and film itself…

  4. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  5. Modular open RF architecture: extending VICTORY to RF systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Adam; Dirner, Jason; Johnson, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency products spanning multiple functions have become increasingly critical to the warfighter. Military use of the electromagnetic spectrum now includes communications, electronic warfare (EW), intelligence, and mission command systems. Due to the urgent needs of counterinsurgency operations, various quick reaction capabilities (QRCs) have been fielded to enhance warfighter capability. Although these QRCs were highly successfully in their respective missions, they were designed independently resulting in significant challenges when integrated on a common platform. This paper discusses how the Modular Open RF Architecture (MORA) addresses these challenges by defining an open architecture for multifunction missions that decomposes monolithic radio systems into high-level components with welldefined functions and interfaces. The functional decomposition maximizes hardware sharing while minimizing added complexity and cost due to modularization. MORA achieves significant size, weight and power (SWaP) savings by allowing hardware such as power amplifiers and antennas to be shared across systems. By separating signal conditioning from the processing that implements the actual radio application, MORA exposes previously inaccessible architecture points, providing system integrators with the flexibility to insert third-party capabilities to address technical challenges and emerging requirements. MORA leverages the Vehicular Integration for Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR)/EW Interoperability (VICTORY) framework. This paper concludes by discussing how MORA, VICTORY and other standards such as OpenVPX are being leveraged by the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CERDEC) to define a converged architecture enabling rapid technology insertion, interoperability and reduced SWaP.

  6. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Suzy Kim

    2015-01-01

    While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran) during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. T...

  7. Can the Jamaican Security Forces Successfully Reduce the Violent Impact of Gangs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    El Paso , TX: Scholarly Publishers, 2002), 35. 20 Walter Miller is a Professor of Anthropology at Harvard and MIT. From an academic perspective...percenter outlaw motor cycle gangs,” and “neighborhood gangs.” The definitions of these gangs are limited and fall short of describing OCGs. Even if the...Quoted in Lamm-Weiss. Contemporary Gangs: An Organizational Analysis. El Paso , TX: Scholarly Publishers, 2002. Sives, Amanda. “The Historical Roots of

  8. The Victory Disease and the US Army After the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, John

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the US Army after the end of the Cold War, specifically how the "Victory Disease" resulting from winning the Cold War caused a complacency in the US Army which eventually led...

  9. Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, C.; Frost, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis

  10. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  11. Gangs, Migration and Crime; The changing landscape in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decker, S.; van Gemert, F.H.M.; Pyrooz, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of gangs is intertwined with migration. In America, a number of classic studies have reported on the possible causal link between immigration, socio-economic position, social disorganization, and gang formation. More recently in Europe, the impact of migration on gangs reflects a complex

  12. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is how to understand and produce praxis development in the complex and contentious field of street communities of young marginalized men, an area highlighted almost on a daily basis in the Danish media under headlines with terms such as ‘foreigner...... othering of young minority men since the late 1990s, to other societal changes escalating ‘gang-conflicts’ to ‘gang-war’. The article examines how these changes produce new dynamics, tensions and dimensions of binary thinking, which in turn creates new dilemmas in the everyday lives of the people involved...

  13. Delinquency Among Members of Hong Kong Youth Street Gangs: The Role of the Organizational Structures of Gangs and Triad Affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2018-07-01

    This study explores the importance of organizational structures and formal affiliations with the Hong Kong triads to delinquency among youth street gang members in Hong Kong. More specifically, this study examines the relative importance of the number of organizational structures and triad affiliation to patterns of delinquency in a sample of active members of youth street gangs ( N = 201). With the aid of outreach social workers, a convenience sampling method was used to recruit a gender-balanced sample of at-risk youths. Logistic regression analysis of the survey data that was gathered indicated that formal affiliation to Hong Kong triads and the presence of organizational structures significantly increased the odds of delinquency (independently of each other). Suggestions for future research on gang membership and delinquency, with particular reference to the Asian context, are provided.

  14. Mission Impossible? Social Work Practice with Black Urban Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jerry R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of social work practice skills to serve black urban youth gangs. Presents a model for practice which respects youths' right to self-determination and community needs. Model stages discussed include contact, rapport, setting goals, assigning roles, procuring resources, and evaluation. Model applicability is suggested. (NRB)

  15. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focus...... they move between "black" or "coloured" township areas and the "white" suburbs of Cape Town....

  16. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gebo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence.

  17. BULLYING BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS BASED ON GENDER, GANG AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Ayu Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instruments of this study were knowledge questioner, and modified of The Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire in guttman and likert scale. Data analysis used cross tabulation. Result: Data show that adolescents have a good knowledge (93.9% and less (6.1%. Bullying subjects were 93.9% and victims 94.7%. Forms of verbal bullying indicated the subjects (93.1% and victims (92.3%. Bullying subjects majority occurred in males (94.1% and women become victims (96.3%. Numbers of bullying subjects do not have a gang (94.5%, while those with gang as victims (95.2%. There were five adolescents who live in stepfamilies become subjects and victims of bullying. Conclusion: The majority of adolescents have good knowledge about bullying, bullying form the vast majority were verbal bullying with subjects and victims of bullying who occurs in all classes. The majority of bullying subjects do not have a gang, and as the majority of victims have a gang. Almost all adolescents with different family types become subjects and victims of bullying. Therefore, an intensive educational effort and spiritual needs to be done to change the behavior of adolescents to be adolescents with well character.

  18. "Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

  19. The Importance of National Ethos in Military Victories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Lewin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When nations are violently threatened, the choices that they make in order to cope with the challenge of war reflect different alternative possible reactions. They may choose to fiercely fight their battles; they may prefer to surrender, and sometimes the options lay in-between. One puzzle is, therefore, what makes nations fight, and more importantly—what causes them eventually to win or to lose the war. In search for an answer, this study inquires through secondary sources three historical case studies from World War II: Britain, France and Germany, and reviews how each of these major European powers acted throughout the war. After each historical description, the study examines the part that national ethos played in the manner in which each state handled war in moments of crisis. The national ethos of a people is the creed formed from the shared values and traditions through which the nation views its past, present and future; it is the integrating element that defines a nation’s identity and bonds it into a coherent social group. The study reveals how national ethos is intertwined with another phenomenon of social psychology that turns it into a crucial factor in the management of international campaigns: war enthusiasm. Since national ethos is so crucial for the results of the war that a country might lead in order to survive or prosper, it is imperative for decision makers to bear in mind that it is also subject to a process of shaping and reshaping, as the Soviets have proved in relation to their Russian national ethos during World War II. A word of caution, however, is noteworthy: a wide historical perspective shows that even though the right kind of national ethos is essential for winning a war it is far from being enough. Hence national ethos proves, at the end of the day, to be a necessary condition for military victory but certainly not a sufficient one.

  20. THE PATH AND PROMISE OF FATHERHOOD FOR GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Molly; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2009-01-01

    While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one’s family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970

  1. A Social Movement Theory Typology of Gang Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Global Crime Empire (Great Britain: Hodder and Stoughton, 2006), 362. 9 Ori Brafman and Rod A. Beckstrom, The Starfish and the Spider (New York: The... educate , assist, or mentor those 16–22 year-old youths most affected by gang violence. One source of fiscal inequality found in Salinas is in local...of Salinas. Although there is little doubt that a modern library can serve as a beacon for youth education , there is little to suggest that this

  2. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  3. Man-made climatic changes in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Miah M.

    2002-06-01

    Climate data pertaining to the Ganges basin in Bangladesh were analysed to find any climatic changes in the wake of the upstream water diversion by the Farakka Barrage. Whereas the diversions have been continuing from at least 30 international rivers upstream of Bangladesh, the diversion from the Ganges is the best known and has a wider coverage than all other diversions. The diversion reduced the Ganges' discharge through the delta by about 60% from a pre-diversion average value of 1932 m3 s-1, decreased water availability in flood plains, ponds, canals, and ditches by about 50%, dropped the groundwater table, and caused changes in surface features. It took about 5 years of diversions beyond the test run year of 1975 for the environment to react to set 1981 as the baseline year. During the post-baseline era: (1) heating degree days and cooling degree days were respectively 1.33 and 1.44 times more than their counterparts during the pre-baseline era; (2) the summertime and wintertime average temperatures were respectively 1 °C more and 0.5 °C less than the corresponding values during the pre-baseline era; (3) the mode 32 °C of summertime maximum temperatures was 1 °C higher and occurred 414 times more, and the mode 25 °C of wintertime temperature was 1 °C less and occurred 17 times less than the corresponding quantities during the pre-baseline era; (4) the average value of maximum relative humidity has increased by more than 2% and that of minimum relative humidity has dropped by the same amount; (5) the mode 95% and 70% of maximum and minimum relative humidity values have occurred 1322 times and 84 times more respectively than their pre-baseline counterparts; and (6) the frequency for 100 mm or more rainfall and the monthly average rainfalls have dropped by about 50% and 30% respectively. The solution to the climatic changes lies in the restoration of the virgin Ganges flow, dredging of the Ganges and its distributaries to remove shoals and siltation, and re

  4. How groups contest depends on group power and the likelihood that power determines victory and defeat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamans, Elanor; Otten, Sabine; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Spears, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to show that the type of conflict behavior (constructive vs. unconstructive) groups use in conflicts depends on their power position as well as the likelihood that power determines victory and defeat. In an alleged online debate, we created a conflict between two

  5. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  6. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  7. Review: Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Ineke van Kessel; Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden

    2014-01-01

    Review of the Monograph:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 Seiten

  8. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gang Involvement among Immigrant and Refugee Youth: A Developmental Ecological Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M.; Chan, Wing Yi; Latzman, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and refugee youth are at elevated risk for joining gangs, which, in turn, is associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Previous literature on risk and protective factors for immigrant and refugee youth gang involvement has been inconclusive. Applying a developmental ecological systems approach, this study investigated contextual…

  10. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a forensic epidemic? ... creates so much negative impact on the legal outcome. There is a need to provide a holistic support to the victims and to review Nigerian laws on sexual offences for the good of all. Keywords: Gang-Rape, Sexual violence, Forensic, Ep ...

  11. The Impact of Location Alteration on School Attendance of Chicano Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Alan C.

    The study examined whether a change in school site affected the school attendance of 13 male Chicano gang members, 13 to 18 years of age, admitted to a community-based delinquency and gang violence prevention project. Since an active Alternative Studies Program, designed for students with special learning problems or for working students, already…

  12. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  13. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  14. Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

  15. Gangs of Chicago: Perceptions of crime and its effect on the recreation behavior of Latino residents in urban communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika Stodolska; Juan Carlos Acevedo; Kimberly J. Shinew

    2009-01-01

    Perception of safety is an important factor affecting the leisure behavior of Latinos residing in urban neighborhoods. Yet research on how fear of crime and fear of gangs in particular affect leisure of ethnic and racial minorities is underdeveloped. The objectives of this study are to examine how gangs operate in recreation spaces in Latino neighborhoods, how gangs...

  16. Gangs and guilt: Towards a new theory of horror film

    OpenAIRE

    Kord, S. T.

    2016-01-01

    The most basic and unanimous statement made in scholarship on horror films is that horror films are ‘about’ fear: the primary purpose of horror films is to scare viewers. Based on horror films from the 1970s until the present in which child gangs play a significant part, this essay advances a new theory of horror film, namely that horror films primarily seek to elicit not fear but guilt. The analysis focuses on four topics: themes, camera angles, horror’s cinematic casting of ‘abnormality,’ a...

  17. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P

    2014-06-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.

  18. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  19. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Fish from Water Systems of Seomjin-gang (River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Hwang, Min-Ah; No, Kyeong-Woo; Yoon, Ki-Bok; Lim, Hyun-Cheol

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae ( Cs Mc) was examined in freshwater fish from the water systems of Seomjin-gang (River), the Republic of Korea. Total 1,604 fish from 7 local sites of Seomjin-gang were examined by artificial digestion methods. The metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected in 102 (39.8%) out of 256 fish (14 species) from the upper reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Osucheon (22.3% in 6 fish species) in Imsil-gun, and Seomjin-gang (63.9% in 9 fish species) in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do. Their average density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were also found in 132 (48.0%) out of 275 fish (12 spp.) from the middle reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Songdaecheon (58.9% in 4 fish species) in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do, and Seomjin-gang (45.2% in 10 fish species) in Gokseong-gun, Jeollanam-do. Their average density was 21.0 per infected fish. Cs Mc were detected in 77 (56.6%) out of 136 fish (11 species) from the lower reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Seomjin-gang (73.3% in 11 fish species) in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, and Namsancheon (8.6% in 1 fish species) in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Their average density was 64.9 per infected fish. The metacercariae of Metorchis orientalis were also detected in 6 fish species from 4 sites of Seomjin-gang. Conclusively, it has been confirmed that Cs Mc are more or less prevalent in fish from some water systems of Seomjin-gang in Korea.

  20. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  1. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  2. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2013-08-01

    Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed.

  4. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  5. Nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarwal

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha puesto en servicio un nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges, a unos cinco kilómetros aguas abajo de la estación ferroviaria de Mokameh Ghat, del Estado de Bihar, en la India. La obra consta de 14 tramos principales, de unos 120 m, aproximadamente, de luz cada uno, y 4 tramos, dos en cada extremidad, de 30 m de luz, que constituyen un total de 1.820 m de longitud. El puente tiene dos tableros: el superior, de 7,30 m de anchura, destinado a un paso de carretera, y el inferior, convenientemente separado, para el paso de un ferrocarril. Entre la parte inferior del puente y el nivel de aguas se ha dejado una altura libre de 10,50 m para el paso de la navegación fluvial.

  6. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  7. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  8. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Associations between school violence, military connection, and gang membership in California secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Sanchez, Cathia Y; Astor, Ron Avi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found that military-connected students confront many challenges-such as secondary traumatization-that may stem from a parent's deployment and frequent relocations. It is possible that multiple moves and deployments of family service members are associated with military-connected students' gang membership and involvement with school violence behaviors. In this study, a total of 13,484 students completed the core and military modules of the California Healthy Kids Survey. Logistic regressions examined the odds of a student being a member of a gang given their grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school violence behaviors, military-connectedness, changes in schools, and familial deployments. Results indicated that of the nearly 8% of students sampled who reported being in a gang, those with a parent or sibling currently serving in the military reported a higher prevalence rate of gang membership than students with no military connection. Students who reported being in fights or carrying weapons to school were at least twice more likely to be a gang member than students who reported not having been in fights or carrying weapons. Changing schools 4 or more times in a 5-year period and experiencing at least 1 familial deployment were also associated with an increased likelihood of gang membership. The findings of this study offer incentive to further explicate the gang and school violence experiences of military-connected students. This study supports schools in understanding the characteristics of the military-connected students and families they serve so they can implement appropriate interventions to curb gang and school violence behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Problem with Templates: Learning from Organic Gang-Related Violence Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Rodgers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what demobilisation, disarmament, and reintegration (DDR programmes might learn from research on gangs and the problems associated with government-instituted ‘wars on gangs’ putatively aimed at reducing or fighting gang-related violence. It begins by considering interventions associated with the global war on gangs, and compares their underlying premises and practices with those of DDR programmes while highlighting how both are plagued with problems associated with drawing on de-contextualized templates. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research carried out in Nicaragua and South Africa, the article then goes on to explore why individuals leave gangs, focusing in particular on the more organic processes that deplete gangs of their members, as well as the consequences that the different possible occupational trajectories of ex-gang members can have for patterns of violence. These offer a number of potential lessons for DDR programmes, particularly with regard to reducing violence in a realistic and sustainable manner.

  11. Long-term consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-05-01

    We examined the possible public health consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study focusing on the development of positive and problem outcomes. Using propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses, we assessed the effects of adolescent gang membership on illegal behavior, educational and occupational attainment, and physical and mental health at the ages of 27, 30, and 33 years. In comparison with their nongang peers, who had been matched on 23 confounding risk variables known to be related to selection into gang membership, those who had joined a gang in adolescence had poorer outcomes in multiple areas of adult functioning, including higher rates of self-reported crime, receipt of illegal income, incarceration, drug abuse or dependence, poor general health, and welfare receipt and lower rates of high school graduation. The finding that adolescent gang membership has significant consequences in adulthood beyond criminal behavior indicates the public health importance of the development of effective gang prevention programs.

  12. Working With Chinese Triad Youth Gangs: Correct Diagnosis and Strategic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, T Wing; Tam, H L

    2018-02-01

    Across the world, youth workers have been active in helping vulnerable youth groups. In Hong Kong, government-funded youth services are conducted by professional social workers to help vulnerable youths. This article adopted a case study approach to investigate a youth group who committed a murder. Nine murderers and two social workers were interviewed. It aims to uncover the structure and activities of the group and analyse the gang intervention prior to the murder to find out what had gone wrong and identify the lessons that social workers can learn from the murder. Four misconceptions in gang intervention have been identified. First, because of the Triad (Chinese-organised crime) affiliation, this is not just a group of deviant youths but a youth gang. Second, because it is a gang, the social workers should not group them but should instead degroup them to avoid contamination. Third, diagnosis is different from labelling. With the right diagnosis, services can be tailor-made to delabel them. Fourth, when the youths are diagnosed as a gang, outreach work instead of centre work should be provided-social workers should reach out to the gangland to uncover the youths' gang participation and crime involvement.

  13. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  14. SPECT/CT co-registration of nuclear medicine studies and technologists: challenges and victories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A dual modality SPECT/CT gamma camera was installed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Fremantle Hospital, WA in 2000. The challenges were satisfying the requirements of the Radiological Advisory Council of WA with respect to room modifications and presence of a radiographer during CT acquisitions and once installation was complete, learning to operate the camera in dual modality mode. The victories are making CT/SPECT acquisitions a simple and routine procedure and the impact of the co-registered studies in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in our practice. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Equivalent Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, T.L.; ); Semerdzhieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Dushanbe

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic field dependences of critical current are numerically constructed for a long Josephson junction with a shunt- or resistor-type microscopic inhomogeneities and compared to the critical curve of a junction with exponentially varying width. The numerical results show that it is possible to replace the distributed inhomogeneity of a long Josephson junction by an inhomogeneity localized at one of its ends, which has certain technological advantages. It is also shown that the critical curves of junctions with exponentially varying width and inhomogeneities localized at the ends are unaffected by the mixed fluxon-antifluxon distributions of the magnetic flux [ru

  16. Stemming the Growth: Exploring the Risk Factors in Group Membership in Domestic Street Gangs and Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    attempt to explain gang membership and offending and delinquent behavior. New CVE program developers may be able to use these same theories to help...outcome in question—in this case, gang membership. Gang research scholars have discovered a multitude of risk factors that are statistically linked...and offending and delinquent behavior, including cultural diffusion, differential association, social disorganization and strain theory. CVE program

  17. Cognitive Ability and the Division of Labor in Urban Ghettos: Evidence From Gang Activity in U.S. Data

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Alan Seals Jr.

    2011-01-01

    I examine the link between IQ and an individual¡¯s decision to join a gang. Data from the NLSY97 and Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) are used to estimate time-to-first gang participation. Results from a variety of models which account for sibling effects, neighborhood effects, and non-cognitive traits indicate low IQ is a robust predictor of gang participation. However, the PHDCN results reveal gang participation is affected by a person¡¯s relative IQ, with respe...

  18. The USSR Victory in World War II and the Emergence of the Independent Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa M. Efimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victorious ending of the World War 2 on May, 9, 1945, stroke a crushing blow on the military axis Berlin - Rome - Tokyo. The USSR played a decisive role both on European and Asian fronts. Fulfilling its allied duty the Soviet Union entered the war in the Far East on 9 August, 1945 and defeated the Japanese army in Manchuria. This act became a great contribution to liberation of Asian peoples from the Japanese occupation. On the 17 August 1945 the Republic of Indonesia declared its independence. The recognition on the side of international community as well as diplomatic support became\\e vital for the survival of the newly emerged Republic.The Soviet victory together with the allied nations in the Second World War, the new status of the USSR as a superpower, its constant anticolonial stance stimulated former colonies to appeal to the Soviet Union for backing and support. One of the first was the Republic of Indonesia, to which the USSR rendered all kind of help and encourages. The present article which is a result of the study of newly available documents from several recently opened Soviet archives shows the Soviet backing of Indonesia in the UN, its diplomatic recognition, in strengthening of Indonesian status as a sovereign state on the international arena as a whole.

  19. Supramolecular tunneling junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimbush, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a variety of supramolecular tunneling junctions were created. The basis of these junctions was a self-assembled monolayer of heptathioether functionalized ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) formed on an ultra-flat Au surface, i.e., the bottom electrode. This gave a well-defined hexagonally packed

  20. Fragile Victory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-08

    units, in addition to the armored and mechanized divisions north of Kuwait City, comprised the VIII Tank Corps. The goalies , located on the northern... pull the Saudi fat out of an August fire. Utilizing the opposed mechanized movement rates established by the Army’s CACDA Jiffy III War Game, Volume...against an enemy who frequently was unwilling "to pull the trigger". Our national will, untested due to the quick, bloodless nature of the war, probably

  1. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsberg WM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg,1–4 Irene A Doherty,1 Felicia A Browne,1,5 Tracy L Kline,1 Monique G Carry,6 Jerris L Raiford,6 Jeffrey H Herbst6 1Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 2Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 3Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 6Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001. The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04. Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02. Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40], experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5], report emotional abuse from

  2. Gang membership and substance use: guilt as a gendered causal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Donna L; Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2015-03-01

    We examine whether anticipated guilt for substance use is a gendered mechanism underlying the noted enhancement effect of gang membership on illegal drug use. We also demonstrate a method for making stronger causal inferences when assessing mediation in the presence of moderation and time-varying confounding. We estimate a series of inverse propensity weighted models to obtain unbiased estimates of mediation in the presence of confounding of the exposure (i.e., gang membership) and mediator (i.e., anticipated guilt) using three waves of data from a multi-site panel study of a law-related education program for youth ( N =1,113). The onset of gang membership significantly decreased anticipated substance use guilt among both male and female respondents. This reduction was significantly associated with increased frequency of substance use only for female respondents, however, suggesting that gender moderates the mechanism through which gang membership influences substance use. Criminologists are often concerned with identifying causal pathways for antisocial and/or delinquent behavior, but confounders of the exposure, mediator, and outcome often interfere with efforts to assess mediation. Many new approaches have been proposed for strengthening causal inference for mediation effects. After controlling for confounding using inverse propensity weighting, our results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing substance use by current and former female gang members should focus on the normative aspects of these behaviors.

  3. Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V

    2009-07-01

    Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.

  4. Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra

  5. The future in the past: Victory, defeat, and grand strategy in the US, UK, France and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This book argues that victory and defeat in war shape the post-war grand strategies of states, specifically their use of military force and diplomacy. It focuses on the experiences of the belligerent states of the Second World War, and in particular on those of the United States, the United Kingdom,

  6. Raising Barriers to 'Outlaw Motorcycle Gang-Related Events' : Underlining the Difference between Pre-Emption and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Ruitenburg (Teun)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFighting outlaw motorcycle gangs is currently one of the top priorities of many governments around the world. This is due to the notion that outlaw motorcycle gangs do not consist solely of motorcycle enthusiasts. Numerous cases reveal that these clubs, or at least their members, are

  7. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides.

  8. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  9. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…

  10. Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana; Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Osgood, D. Wayne; Carson, Dena C.; Matsuda, Kristy N.

    2011-01-01

    The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe…

  11. Any of them will do: In-group identification, out-group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group-based retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Wenborne, Lisa; Peers, Madeline; Alleyne, Emma; Ellis, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    In non-gang populations, the degree of identification with an in-group and perceptions of out-group entitativity, the perception of an out-group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group-based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group-based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in-group identification, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in-group among juvenile gang and non-gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non-gang) × in-group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three-way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non-gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group-based aggression after controlling for gender, in-group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio-psychological theories of group-based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang-related violence. Aggr. Behav. 41:242-252, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  13. Primary Tunnel Junction Thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future

  14. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  16. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of

  17. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... that the language of the proposed clause be amended to read as follows to reinforce DoD's role in the... Military Sealift Command), and specific procedural guidance for DoD personnel obtaining the background... 247.5. B. Language Inconsistency Comment: DFARS 252.247-7027(a) defines ``riding gang member'' as it...

  18. The movement and implications of the Ganges-Bramhaputra runoff on entering the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers discharge annually approximately 10 sup(2) m sup(3) of freshwater into the Bay of Bengal at its northern end. We propose that the spread of this water, accompaniEd. by mixing with the ambient waters, occurs in three...

  19. Book review: Don Pinnock, Gang town | van der Spuy | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Gang town. Publisher: Tafelberg, Cape Town, 2016. Price: 312. Pages: R196 Availability: Published ISBN: 9780624067894. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  20. Countering Gang Violence: What Small Town Communities Can Learn from the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    city is also home to two of the most notorious Hispanic gangs operating in the US. The Nuestra Familia and the Mexican Mafia have approximately 11...within Salinas until all communities are capable of self-policing. Critical to this mission will be Salinas‟ ability to actually „connect‟ with the

  1. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  2. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  3. Findings from the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…

  4. City Life and Delinquency-Victimization, Fear of Crime and Gang Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Leonard D.; And Others

    Over 500 black and 500 white boys born in 1957 and attending Philadelphia schools were interviewed along with their mothers. The data were analyzed to discover how educational aspirations, social values, quality of life, fear of crime, victimization, family structure, father-son interaction, social attachments, and gang affiliation affected the…

  5. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a…

  6. Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2013-01-01

    Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

  7. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  8. The Ganges and the GAP: An Assessment of Efforts to Clean a Sacred River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Tamminga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the Ganges River in India has been the locus of sacred rites for the Hindus. The religious significance of the Ganges is physically manifested in ghats (stepped landings that form the land-water interface. Besides serving as a site for religious bathing and cremation, the ghats are also tied to people’s livelihoods and are an inseparable part of their daily lives. Today, the increasingly urbanized Ganges basin sustains more than 40 percent of India’s population. At the same time, industrialization and the pressures of a growing population along its banks have contributed to alarming levels of pollution in the river. In 1985, the federal government of India launched the Ganga Action Plan (GAP with the primary objective of cleaning the river. However, characterized by centralized planning and control with little public participation, the GAP had limited impact. In 2011, the government launched yet another clean up program—the National Ganga River Basin Project—with support from the World Bank. In this paper, we take a closer look at the programs to highlight the tenuous relationship between the need for ‘efficient’ management of environmental problems and public participation. Can public participation fit into the technocratic model that is often adopted by environmental programs? What approaches to participation kindle authorship and empowerment among those who share a deep relationship with the river and the ghats? Can religious practices be accommodated within scientific frameworks of adaptive management and resilience? We argue that rethinking the relationship between pollution control programs and participation is crucial for any effort to clean the Ganges, restore its waterfront, and catalyze broader regeneration in the Ganges basin.

  9. Justas, fiestas y protagonismos: Alegrías y placeres en El Victorial de Gutierre Díaz de Games = Jousting, Festivities and Prominence: Joy and Pleasures in Gutierre Díaz de Games’s El Victorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Rábade Obradó

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende analizar cómo se reflejan dos emociones básicas, la alegría y el placer, en una crónica del siglo XV, concretamente El Victorial de Gutierre Díaz de Games. Como se trata de una biografía caballeresca, en sus páginas se plasma una visión particular de las dos citadas emociones. Así, la crónica ofrece un elenco de aquellas circunstancias en las que se suponía que los caballeros estaban en situación de experimentar el placer y la alegría. Esas circunstancias van desde las fiestas cortesanas hasta las victorias en batallas, sin olvidar el amor y la amistad.The purpose of this article is to analyze how two basic emotions like joy and pleasure were expressed in a fifteenth-century chronicle, namely El Victorial by Gutierre Díaz de Games. Since the chronicle is a chivalric biography, its pages highlight a particular vision of joy and pleasure. Consequently, the chronicle offers a variety of circumstances in which knights were meant to experience pleasure and happiness. These circumstances range from court festivities to victories in battles, as well as those involving love and friendship.

  10. Tunable Nitride Josephson Junctions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Rupert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfley, Steven L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolak, Matthaeus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We have developed an ambient temperature, SiO2/Si wafer - scale process for Josephson junctions based on Nb electrodes and Ta x N barriers with tunable electronic properties. The films are fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The electronic properties of the TaxN barriers are controlled by adjusting the nitrogen flow during sputtering. This technology offers a scalable alternative to the more traditional junctions based on AlOx barriers for low - power, high - performance computing.

  11. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    -performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising

  12. Face-body integration of intense emotional expressions of victory and defeat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    Full Text Available Human facial expressions can be recognized rapidly and effortlessly. However, for intense emotions from real life, positive and negative facial expressions are difficult to discriminate and the judgment of facial expressions is biased towards simultaneously perceived body expressions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the neural dynamics involved in the integration of emotional signals from facial and body expressions of victory and defeat. Emotional expressions of professional players were used to create pictures of face-body compounds, with either matched or mismatched emotional expressions in faces and bodies. Behavioral results showed that congruent emotional information of face and body facilitated the recognition of facial expressions. ERP data revealed larger P1 amplitudes for incongruent compared to congruent stimuli. Also, a main effect of body valence on the P1 was observed, with enhanced amplitudes for the stimuli with losing compared to winning bodies. The main effect of body expression was also observed in N170 and N2, with winning bodies producing larger N170/N2 amplitudes. In the later stage, a significant interaction of congruence by body valence was found on the P3 component. Winning bodies elicited lager P3 amplitudes than losing bodies did when face and body conveyed congruent emotional signals. Beyond the knowledge based on prototypical facial and body expressions, the results of this study facilitate us to understand the complexity of emotion evaluation and categorization out of laboratory.

  13. Dataset on Investigating the role of onsite learning in the optimisation of craft gang's productivity in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugulu, Rex Asibuodu; Allen, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    The data presented in this article is an original data on "Investigating the role of onsite learning in the optimisation of craft gang's productivity in the construction industry". This article describes the constraints influencing craft gang's productivity and the influence of onsite learning on the blockwork craft gang's productivity. It also presented the method of data collection, using a semi-structured interview and an observation method to collect data from construction organisations. We provided statistics on the top most important constraints affecting the craft gang's productivity using 3-D Bar charts. In addition, we computed the correlation coefficients and the regression model on the influence of onsite learning on craft gang's productivity using the man-hour as the dependent variable. The relationship between blockwork inputs and cycle numbers was determined at 5% significance level. Finally, we presented data information on the application of the learning curve theory using the unit straight-line model equations and computed the learning rate of the observed craft gang's blockwork repetitive work.

  14. Mediating the Maltreatment-Delinquency Relationship: The Role of Triad Gang Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2018-02-01

    The primary aim of this article is to examine the role of triad affiliation in mediating the relationship between child maltreatment (neglect, punishment, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse) and delinquency among active young gang members in Hong Kong. A sample of 177 gang members aged 12 to 24 was recruited to complete a questionnaire with the assistance of a youth outreach social work team. Neglect was identified as the most common form of maltreatment, followed by emotional abuse, punishment, and sexual abuse. Mediation analyses confirmed that triad affiliation acts as a mediating variable in the child maltreatment-delinquency relationship, except in cases of sexual abuse. Only the relationship between punishment and delinquency was found to be fully mediated by triad affiliation; partial mediation effects were found for neglect and emotional abuse. Recommendations for child protection and youth workers are provided.

  15. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  16. Barcelona and Madrid: Two different realities in the phenomenon of the Latino gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Corral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Latino gangs that have come into existence in Spain represent a potential risk factor for citizens’ security and coexistence. That is the view of security forces and organisations, and it also seems to be the understanding reached by the administrations of the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Madrid, whose actions in the light of this phenomenon are assessed in this work. To this end, the author begins with an analysis of the significance of Latino gangs inSpain, from their origins to their introduction, and carries out a review of their current situation, including their organisation, recruitment, impact and risk for citizen security. Only with suchan analysis can one begin to comprehend the scenario of dangers that will appear in the future, and the police strategy that should be introduced to deal with the phenomenon.

  17. Josephson junctions array resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Oscar; Muppalla, Phani; Mirzaei, Iman; Kirchmair, Gerhard [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the self- and cross-Kerr effect of extended plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains. The chain consists of 1600 individual junctions and we can measure quality factors in excess of 10000. The Kerr effect manifests itself as a frequency shift that depends linearly on the number of photons in a resonant mode. By changing the input power we are able to measure this frequency shift on a single mode (self-kerr). By changing the input power on another mode while measuring the same one, we are able to evaluate the cross-kerr effect. We can measure the cross-Kerr effect by probing the resonance frequency of one mode while exciting another mode of the array with a microwave drive.

  18. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  19. Mareros and pandilleros in Honduras: the reintegration of youth gang members

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the reintegration of youth gang members in Honduras. The aim of this qualitative study is to broaden the knowledge of reintegration processes and programs in one specific country in Central America, namely, Honduras. A sample of fourteen interviews with stakeholders in the field of maras and pandillas has been investigated and the results revealed some similarities between the different methods of reintegration. Our data suggest that a comprehensive process, i...

  20. Development of seasonal flow outlook model for Ganges-Brahmaputra Basins in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sazzad; Haque Khan, Raihanul; Gautum, Dilip Kumar; Karmaker, Ripon; Hossain, Amirul

    2016-10-01

    Bangladesh is crisscrossed by the branches and tributaries of three main river systems, the Ganges, Bramaputra and Meghna (GBM). The temporal variation of water availability of those rivers has an impact on the different water usages such as irrigation, urban water supply, hydropower generation, navigation etc. Thus, seasonal flow outlook can play important role in various aspects of water management. The Flood Forecasting and Warning Center (FFWC) in Bangladesh provides short term and medium term flood forecast, and there is a wide demand from end-users about seasonal flow outlook for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study is to develop a seasonal flow outlook model in Bangladesh based on rainfall forecast. It uses European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal precipitation, temperature forecast to simulate HYDROMAD hydrological model. Present study is limited for Ganges and Brahmaputra River Basins. ARIMA correction is applied to correct the model error. The performance of the model is evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The model result shows good performance with R2 value of 0.78 and NSE of 0.61 for the Brahmaputra River Basin, and R2 value of 0.72 and NSE of 0.59 for the Ganges River Basin for the period of May to July 2015. The result of the study indicates strong potential to make seasonal outlook to be operationalized.

  1. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

    2015-05-01

    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Geomorphology of the Ganges fluvial system in the Himalayan foreland: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sinha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges is one of the largest fluvial systems in the world rising from the loftiest Himalaya and draining into the Bay of Bengal. Together with the Brahmaputra, it also constitutes the largest delta in the world before finally meeting the sea. The Ganges system passes through a variety of terrain from the rugged mountains through the flat alluvial plains and the sea margin, and also transects variable climatic zones. As a result, the processes, landforms and stratigraphy are strikingly different in different zones of the system. This paper attempts to provide an update on our understanding of this very large and diverse system. A global effort has been made in the last few decades, and the research has focused on a variety of themes. The mountainous catchments have attracted attention in view of the extent of glaciation and extensive erosional processes. The alluvial plains of the Ganges symbolizes the life line of one of the world's largest population. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out on the morphology, hydrology including flooding history and sediment transport behaviour of the river system. The alluvial stratigraphy of the large valleys and the interfluves in the plains has provided insight about the sedimentation pattern and response to climate change. The deltaic plain is the final destination of this huge sediment dispersal system before it drains into the sea, and it also records the influence of sea level changes apart from the upstream catchment controls over a period of time.

  3. Functions of Aggression and Delinquency: The Moderating Role of Parent Criminality and Friends' Gang Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Li, Xiang; Chan, Wei Teng

    2016-03-02

    This study examined the relationships between two functions of aggression (i.e., reactive and proactive) and delinquency, including the moderating effects of parent criminality and friends' gang membership, in a sample of 1,027 Singaporean adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 9, with age ranging from 12 to 19 years (M = 14.10, SD = 1.15). Findings suggested that both reactive aggression and proactive aggression significantly and positively predicted delinquency (after controlling for proactive aggression and reactive aggression, respectively), with proactive aggression being a stronger predictor. Friends' gang membership was found to moderate the relationship between reactive aggression and delinquency, and proactive aggression and delinquency, with stronger moderator effects for the latter. Those who were aggressive proactively and who had friends in a gang appear to be impacted most negatively with respect to delinquency. Parent criminality did not moderate these relationships. These findings highlight the need to effectively address the issues of child and adolescent aggression. Also, developing positive peer relations early is crucial for delinquency prevention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Victory Gin Lane. Starvation and Beverages in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Caponi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gin is an ubiquitous presence in the domestic and urban scenery of Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949. For a population mercilessly hungered, it represents a handy and cheap commodity item providing a fluid opportunity for social aggregation. Victory Gin, served “in handless chine mugs” (53, is part of the workers’ staple diet at the Ministry of Truth, and is sold “at ten cents the large nip” from the small bar (actually, “a mere hole in the wall”, 51 in the canteen; served with cloves, it is the “speciality” (79 of that disreputable place which is the Chestnut Tree Café, where Winston Smith once spotted three fallen-out-of-favor members of the Inner Party – Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford – drink it silently after their release from Oceania prison camps (79. As is typical of the fate of spirits in literature, gin also serves as self-medication and can fuel a kind of inner escapism. It is to make the world “look more cheerful” that Winston gulps it down “like a dose of medicine”, and only after the “shock” of swallowing it can he squeeze himself into his alcove and begin his diary (7; gin clears out Winston’s stomach (53, and is the ultima ratio against that prescient “dull ache” in his belly (105; 106 that originates after bumping into “the girl with dark hair” (later: Julia one evening outside Mr. Charrington’s shop.

  5. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  6. Tight junctions and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norimasa; Murata, Masaki; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Chiba, Hideki

    2003-09-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical end of the lateral membrane surface. They have two functions, the barrier (or gate) function and the fence function. The barrier function of tight junctions regulates the passage of ions, water, and various macromolecules, even of cancer cells, through paracellular spaces. The barrier function is thus relevant to edema, jaundice, diarrhea, and blood-borne metastasis. On the other hand, the fence function maintains cell polarity. In other words, tight junctions work as a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell biology, in terms of loss of cell polarity. Of the proteins comprising tight junctions, integral membrane proteins occludin, claudins, and JAMs have been recently discovered. Of these molecules, claudins are exclusively responsible for the formation of tight-junction strands and are connected with the actin cytoskeleton mediated by ZO-1. Thus, both functions of tight junctions are dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton as well as ATP. Mutations in the claudin14 and the claudin16 genes result in hereditary deafness and hereditary hypomagnesemia, respectively. Some pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight-junction function, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases is summarized.

  7. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  8. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; van Son, Veerle; Welker, Keith M; Prasad, Smrithi; Sanfey, Alan G; Smidts, Ale; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that testosterone's behavioral effects may depend on specific aspects of the context and person relevant to social status (win-lose context and trait dominance). We tested the causal influence of testosterone on competitive decisions by combining hormone administration with measures of trait dominance and a newly developed social competition task in which the victory-defeat context was experimentally manipulated, in a sample of 54 female participants. Consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has context- and person-dependent effects on competitive behavior, testosterone increased competitive decisions after victory only among high-dominant individuals but testosterone decreased competitive decisions after defeat across all participants. These results suggest that testosterone flexibly modulates competitive decision-making depending on prior social experience and dominance motivation in the service of enhancing social status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Junction detection and pathway selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alex N.; Lim, Willie Y.; Breul, Harry T.

    1992-02-01

    The ability to detect junctions and make choices among the possible pathways is important for autonomous navigation. In our script-based navigation approach where a journey is specified as a script of high-level instructions, actions are frequently referenced to junctions, e.g., `turn left at the intersection.' In order for the robot to carry out these kind of instructions, it must be able (1) to detect an intersection (i.e., an intersection of pathways), (2) know that there are several possible pathways it can take, and (3) pick the pathway consistent with the high level instruction. In this paper we describe our implementation of the ability to detect junctions in an indoor environment, such as corners, T-junctions and intersections, using sonar. Our approach uses a combination of partial scan of the local environment and recognition of sonar signatures of certain features of the junctions. In the case where the environment is known, we use additional sensor information (such as compass bearings) to help recognize the specific junction. In general, once a junction is detected and its type known, the number of possible pathways can be deduced and the correct pathway selected. Then the appropriate behavior for negotiating the junction is activated.

  10. Mixing in T-junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Wal, S.

    1996-01-01

    The transport processes that are involved in the mixing of two gases in a T-junction mixer are investigated. The turbulent flow field is calculated for the T-junction with the k- turbulence model by FLOW3D. In the mathematical model the transport of species is described with a mixture fraction

  11. Dynamics of Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, P.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of Josephson junction arrays is a topic that lies at the intersection of the fields of nonlinear dynamics and Josephson junction technology. The series arrays considered here consist of several rapidly oscillating Josephson junctions where each junction is coupled equally to every other junction. The purpose of this study is to understand phaselocking and other cooperative dynamics of this system. Previously, little was known about high dimensional nonlinear systems of this sort. Numerical simulations are used to study the dynamics of these arrays. Three distinct types of periodic solutions to the array equations were observed as well as period doubled and chaotic solutions. One of the periodic solutions is the symmetric, in-phase solution where all of the junctions oscillate identically. The other two periodic solutions are symmetry-broken solutions where all of the junction do not oscillate identically. The symmetry-broken solutions are highly degenerate. As many as (N - 1) stable solutions can coexist for an array of N junctions. Understanding the stability of these several solutions and the transitions among them is vital to the design of useful devices

  12. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  13. Differential Heating in the Indian Ocean Differentially Modulates Precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahriar Pervez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  14. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  16. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  17. Construction of pipelines on marshlands during summer months with the aid of gang assembly platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, E P; Girshovich, I I

    1979-05-01

    Because the massive size of conventional pipeline-construction equipment limits its use in swampy areas to winter months, the USSR's SKB Gazstroimashina developed a new system to allow year-round construction activity. The equipment consists of five mobile platforms arranged in series along the pipeline to spread out the load for a lower specific ground pressure than exerted by conventional equipment. Platforms perform the successive functions of emplacement of the pipe lengths, end preparation, welding, cleanup, and insulation. So far, two sets of gang-assembly platforms have been built and are being field-tested.

  18. Drugs, Gangs, Transnational Organized Crime and Malgoverened Spaces in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    including Los Zetas expanded into “ franchises ” in Central America,28 pou- ring new resources into the patchwork of gangs and transport groups in that...html. 39. Randal C. Archibold, “Gangs’ Truce Buys El Salvador a Tenuous Peace,” New York Times, August 27, 2012, http: //www.nytimes.com/2012/08/28...center/press-releases/Pages/tg1733.aspx. 51. Randal C. Archibold, “Gangs’ Truce Buys El Salvador a Tenuous Peace,” New York Times, August 27, 2012, http

  19. Adaptation to changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moors, Eddy J.; Groot, Annemarie; Biemans, Hester; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Huggel, Christian; Wiltshire, Andy; Mathison, Camilla; Ridley, Jeff; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector adaptation measures and policies might be adopted at different spatial scales. The RCM results suggest an increase in mean annual temperature, averaged over the Ganges basin, in the range 1-4 o C over the period from 2000 to 2050, using the SRES A1B forcing scenario. Projections of precipitation indicate that natural variability dominates the climate change signal and there is considerable uncertainty concerning change in regional annual mean precipitation by 2050. The RCMs do suggest an increase in annual mean precipitation in this region to 2050, but lack significant trend. Glaciers in headwater tributary basins of the Ganges appear to be continuing to decline but it is not clear whether meltwater runoff continues to increase. The predicted changes in precipitation and temperature will probably not lead to significant increase in water availability to 2050, but the timing of runoff from snowmelt will likely occur earlier in spring and summer. Water availability is subject to decadal variability, with much uncertainty in the contribution from climate change. Although global social-economic scenarios show trends to urbanization, locally these trends are less evident and in some districts rural population is increasing. Falling groundwater levels in the Ganges plain may prevent expansion of irrigated areas for food supply. Changes in socio-economic development in combination with projected changes in timing of runoff outside the monsoon period will make difficult choices for water managers. Because of the uncertainty in future water availability trends, decreasing vulnerability by augmenting resilience is the preferred way to adapt to climate change. Adaptive policies are

  20. Major identity transformations - movements beyond criminal life and the biker gang environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Empirically the paper illustrates these transitions and transformations with an empirical case of a young man, called Peter, changing his life conduct becoming less of a criminal member of the (biker) gang environment becoming more of a member of academia. The paper explore the action reasons of Peter...... logs, biographical documentaries and life story presentations to reflect identity change, which also becomes reflected part of the moment-movement research. The paper explore the struggles to move beyond marginal positions and how collective processes of recognition and reification might help about...

  1. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  2. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carlson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many

  3. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  4. Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M M

    2001-01-01

    Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been investigated downstream in the basins of the Ganges and its distributaries. A diversion of up to 60% of the Ganges water over 25 yr has caused (i) reduction of water in surface water resources, (ii) increased dependence on ground water, (iii) destruction of the breeding and raising grounds for 109 species of Gangetic fishes and other aquatic species and amphibians, (iv) increased malnutrition, (v) deficiency in soil organic matter content, (vi) change in the agricultural practices, (vii) eradication of inland navigable routes, (viii) outbreak of waterborne diseases, (ix) loss of professions, and (x) obstruction to religious observances and pastimes. Further, arsenopyrites buried in the prebarrage water table have come in contact with air and formed water-soluble compounds of arsenic. Inadequate recharging of ground water hinders the natural cleansing of arsenic, and threatens about 75,000,000 lives who are likely to use water contaminated with up to 2 mg/L of arsenic. Furthermore, the depletion of surface water resources has caused environmental heating and cooling effects. Apart from these effects, sudden releases of water by the barrage during the flood season cause devestating floods. In consideration of such a heavy toll for the areas downstream, strict international rules have to be laid down to preserve the riparian ecosystems.

  5. Seasonal variations in terrestrial gamma radiation along river Ganges and implications to public health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Meher, P.K.; Mishra, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation dose and determination of associated health hazard at river bank is of major importance due to the increasing tourism, bathing festivals and mythological beliefs. Present study was focused on measurement of absorbed dose rates as function of seasonal variation at designated locations along Ganges river in India. Portable dosimeter (plastic scintillation counter) was used for the measurement of absorbed dose rates. Subsequently, annual effective dose (AED) and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated by the standard procedure. Results showed absorbed dose rates for Pre-monsoon ranged from 89.7 ± 4.03 to 115.0 ± 7.81 nSv/h with an average of 105.54 nSv/h. Post-monsoon measurements yielded values from 81.0 ± 7.00 to 105.6 ± 5.75 nSv/h with an average value of 90.8 nSv/h. Calculated average AED for Pre-monsoon period was found to be 0.13 mSv/y. Whereas, 0.11 mSv/y was the AED for the post-monsoon period. Furthermore, the calculated average ELCR values for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon were found to be 0.488 × 10 -3 and 0.418 × 10 -3 , respectively. This study reports significant seasonal variations in the terrestrial gamma radiation doses along the long stretch of Ganges river. (author)

  6. Control rod pattern exchange in a BWR/6 utilizing gang mode withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvil, A.B. Jr.; Aldemir, T.; Hajek, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of checkerboard pattern of alternating inserted and fully withdrawn control rods and the uneven void distribution in boiling water reactor (BWR) cores can cause large burnup gradients even after a short time of operation. To compensate for these effects, power has to be reshaped periodically (typically every two full-power months) by individually manipulating the control rods. During this manipulation process (called the control rod pattern exchange), the core power is reduced to 60% of nominal power by means of flow reduction to limit power swings to tolerable levels and to ensure that fuel thermal limits are not exceeded. A control rod pattern exchange by individual rod manipulation typically takes 4 to 8 h and represents a large cost burden to the utility in terms of reduced system output. The latest generation of BWRs, the BWR/6, possesses the capability to simultaneously move up to four symmetrically located control rods. The rods corresponding to a given gang may have rotational symmetry, mirror symmetry, or a combination of the two. This paper presents a pattern exchange procedure that exploits the capability of gang mode rod withdrawal to reduce the pattern exchange execution time and radial power distribution asymmetry associated with individual rod manipulation. The working model used in the study is the Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1, located in Perry, Ohio, and owned by the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company

  7. A Week Is a Long Time in Politics: The Health Implications of Jeremy Corbyn's UK Labour Party Leadership Victory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Samuel, Alex; Bambra, Clare

    2016-01-01

    For more than 30 years, socialism within the UK Labour Party - which was in government from 1997 to 2010 and is currently the main UK parliamentary opposition - has been in decline. Despite its origins as a party of and for the working class, Labour has become at best a social democratic party with strong neoliberal leanings. However, in the recent leadership election that followed Labour's general election defeat in May 2015, the socialist Jeremy Corbyn confounded all expectations by winning Labour's leadership with a substantial majority. We describe the political context of Corbyn's controversial victory and discuss its potential short- and medium-term impact on England's troubled National Health Service and on the public health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness

  9. The Control of Junction Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Charles

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of spatially-limited (i.e. localized) surface suction on unsteady laminar and turbulent junction flows was performed using hydrogen bubble flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV...

  10. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Georg Hermann

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO x /Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 /Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to π-coupling is observed for a thickness d F =6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  11. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Georg Hermann

    2012-03-04

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO{sub x}/Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18}/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to {pi}-coupling is observed for a thickness d{sub F}=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  12. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  13. Peltier cooling in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Longji; Miao, Ruijiao; Wang, Kun; Thompson, Dakotah; Zotti, Linda Angela; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2018-02-01

    The study of thermoelectricity in molecular junctions is of fundamental interest for the development of various technologies including cooling (refrigeration) and heat-to-electricity conversion1-4. Recent experimental progress in probing the thermopower (Seebeck effect) of molecular junctions5-9 has enabled studies of the relationship between thermoelectricity and molecular structure10,11. However, observations of Peltier cooling in molecular junctions—a critical step for establishing molecular-based refrigeration—have remained inaccessible. Here, we report direct experimental observations of Peltier cooling in molecular junctions. By integrating conducting-probe atomic force microscopy12,13 with custom-fabricated picowatt-resolution calorimetric microdevices, we created an experimental platform that enables the unified characterization of electrical, thermoelectric and energy dissipation characteristics of molecular junctions. Using this platform, we studied gold junctions with prototypical molecules (Au-biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol-Au, Au-terphenyl-4,4''-dithiol-Au and Au-4,4'-bipyridine-Au) and revealed the relationship between heating or cooling and charge transmission characteristics. Our experimental conclusions are supported by self-energy-corrected density functional theory calculations. We expect these advances to stimulate studies of both thermal and thermoelectric transport in molecular junctions where the possibility of extraordinarily efficient energy conversion has been theoretically predicted2-4,14.

  14. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater : Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the

  15. Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association during Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Marvin D.

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique—dual trajectory analysis—to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts. PMID:26748922

  16. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  17. Of pandillas, pirucas, and Pablo Escobar in the barrio : Historical change and continuity in Nicaraguan gang violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodgers, D.; Huhn, S.; Warnecke-Berger, H.

    2017-01-01

    The putatively unprecedented rise to prominence of Central American youth gangs during the past two decades and a half is widely seen to epitomize the critical transformation that the region’s post-Cold War political economy of violence has undergone, moving from being predominantly related to

  18. The role of the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone in supplying barium and 226Ra to the Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Falkner, K.K.; Brown, E.T.; Moore, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system is ranked fourth among world rivers as a source of freshwater to the oceans and is believed to supply more sediment to the ocean than any other; 1.5 x 10 12 kg/yr (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Barium and 226 Ra are typically enriched in waters where sediment-laden rivers enter the ocean. As such, the Ganges-Brahmaputra is likely to produce globally significant barium and 226 Ra fluxes to the ocean. Water samples for barium and 226 Ra were collected within four major channels of the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low sediment and freshwater discharge. The data suggest that in addition to suspended sediments supplied directly from rivers, river sediments deposited during high discharge in mangroves and on islands are desorbing barium and 226 Ra to seawater. The release of barium and 226 Ra from these sediment deposits is out-of-phase with the direct supply of sediments from the rivers. Estimates of the annual fluxes of barium and 226 Ra from the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone were also derived. The fluxes of barium and 226 Ra are 5.3 x 10 8 mol barium/yr and 9.5 x 10 14 dpm radium/yr. The first silicate and phosphate mixing profiles for this system are reported. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Clay mineral distribution in the continental shelf sediments from Krishna to Ganges river mouth, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Ninety six sediment samples (less than 2 mu m fractions) of the eastern continental shelf of India between Ganges in the north and Krishna in the south have been studiEd. by X-ray diffraction. On the basis of nature and abundance of different clay...

  20. Flood Risk Assessment and Forecasting for the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, T. M.; Priya, S.; Young, W.; Avasthi, A.; Clayton, T. D.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Broman, D.; Boehnert, J.; Sampson, K. M.; Kettner, A.; Singh, D.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 South Asia monsoon, torrential rains and catastrophic floods affected more than 45 million people, including 16 million children, across the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basins. The basin is recognized as one of the world's most disaster-prone regions, with severe floods occurring almost annually causing extreme loss of life and property. In light of this vulnerability, the World Bank and collaborators have contributed toward reducing future flood impacts through recent developments to improve operational preparedness for such events, as well as efforts in more general preparedness and resilience building through planning based on detailed risk assessments. With respect to improved event-specific flood preparedness through operational warnings, we discuss a new forecasting system that provides probability-based flood forecasts developed for more than 85 GBM locations. Forecasts are available online, along with near-real-time data maps of rainfall (predicted and actual) and river levels. The new system uses multiple data sets and multiple models to enhance forecasting skill, and provides improved forecasts up to 16 days in advance of the arrival of high waters. These longer lead times provide the opportunity to save both lives and livelihoods. With sufficient advance notice, for example, farmers can harvest a threatened rice crop or move vulnerable livestock to higher ground. Importantly, the forecasts not only predict future water levels but indicate the level of confidence in each forecast. Knowing whether the probability of a danger-level flood is 10 percent or 90 percent helps people to decide what, if any, action to take. With respect to efforts in general preparedness and resilience building, we also present a recent flood risk assessment, and how it provides, for the first time, a numbers-based view of the impacts of different size floods across the Ganges basin. The findings help identify priority areas for tackling flood risks (for

  1. “It’s like we’re just renting over here”: The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D.; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai’i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai’i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression. PMID:19946383

  2. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  3. Hydroclimatic sustainability assessment of changing climate on cholera in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr-Azadani, Fariborz; Khan, Rakibul; Rahimikollu, Javad; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Akanda, Ali; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Jutla, Antarpreet; Colwell, Rita

    2017-10-01

    The association of cholera and climate has been extensively documented. However, determining the effects of changing climate on the occurrence of disease remains a challenge. Bimodal peaks of cholera in Bengal Delta are hypothesized to be linked to asymmetric flow of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Spring cholera is related to intrusion of bacteria-laden coastal seawater during low flow seasons, while autumn cholera results from cross-contamination of water resources when high flows in the rivers cause massive inundation. Coarse resolution of General Circulation Model (GCM) output (usually at 100 - 300 km)cannot be used to evaluate variability at the local scale(10-20 km),hence the goal of this study was to develop a framework that could be used to understand impacts of climate change on occurrence of cholera. Instead of a traditional approach of downscaling precipitation, streamflow of the two rivers was directly linked to GCM outputs, achieving reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.89 for the Ganges and R2 = 0.91 for the Brahmaputra)using machine learning algorithms (Support Vector Regression-Particle Swarm Optimization). Copula methods were used to determine probabilistic risks of cholera under several discharge conditions. Key results, using model outputs from ECHAM5, GFDL, andHadCM3for A1B and A2 scenarios, suggest that the combined low flow of the two rivers may increase in the future, with high flows increasing for first half of this century, decreasing thereafter. Spring and autumn cholera, assuming societal conditions remain constant e.g., at the current rate, may decrease. However significant shifts were noted in the magnitude of river discharge suggesting that cholera dynamics of the delta may well demonstrate an uncertain predictable pattern of occurrence over the next century.

  4. Biological Aspects of the Critically Endangered Fish, Labeo boga in the Ganges River, Northwestern Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.Y.; Jahan, S.; Jewel, M.A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the first complete and inclusive description of some biological parameters including length-frequency distribution (LFD), sex ratio (SR), length-weight relationship (LWR), condition factors (allometric, KA; Fultons, KF; relative, KR and relative weight, WR) and form factor (a3.0) of Labeo boga in the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. Sampling was conducted using traditional fishing gears during April 2011 to March 2012. For each specimen, total length (TL) was measured to the nearest 0.01 cm using digital slide calipers and total body weight (BW) was measured using an electronic balance with 0.01 g accuracy. The LWR was calculated using the expression: W= a Lb, where W is the BW and L is the TL. A total of 211 specimens ranging from 9.78-27.50 cm TL and 10.00 to 276.10 g BW were studied. BW of females was significantly higher than that of males (Mann-Whitney U-test, p>0.001). However the overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from the expected value of 1:1 (X"2 = 0.12, p > 3.00) in males, females and combined gender and there were significant differences in the intercepts but not in the slopes between the sexes of L. boga in the Ganges River. KF of females was significantly higher than that for males (p<0.001). In addition, the Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that the WR did not differ from 100 for males and females in this study indicating good condition of habitat for L. boga. The results of this study would be an effective tool for fishery specialists to initiate early management strategies and regulations for the sustainable management of the remaining stocks of this species within the Padma River and surrounding ecosystems. (author)

  5. Scarcity of Fresh Water Resources in the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, S. B.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Ganges Delta in Bangladesh is a classical example of water insecurity in a transboundary river basin where limitations in quantity, quality and timing of available water is producing disastrous conditions. Two opposite extreme water conditions, i.e., fresh water scarcity and floods are common in this region during dry and wet seasons, respectively. The purpose of this study is to manage fresh water requirement of people and environment considering the seasonal availability of surface water (SW) and ground water (GW). SW availability was analyzed by incoming stream flow including the effects of upstream water diversion, rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration (ET). Flow duration curves (FDC), and rainfall and temperature elasticity are used to assess the change of incoming upstream flow. Groundwater data were collected from 285 piezometers and monitoring wells established by Bangladesh water development board. Variation of groundwater depth shows major withdrawals of GW are mostly concentrated in the north part of the study area. Irrigation is the largest sector of off-stream (irrigation, industrial and domestic) water use which occupies 82% SW and 17% GW of total water consumption. Although domestic water use is entirely depend on GW but arsenic pollution is limiting the GW use. FDC depicts a substantial difference between high flow threshold (20%) and low flow threshold (70%) in the Bangladesh part of Ganges River. A large variation of around 83% is observed for instream water volume between wet and dry seasons. The reduction of upstream fresh water flow increased the extent and intensity of salinity intrusion. Presently GW is also contaminated by saline water. This fresh water scarcity is reducing the livelihood options considerably and indirectly forcing population migration from the delta region. This study provides insight to the changes in hydrology and limitations to freshwater availability enabling better formulation of water resources management in

  6. Transport properties of molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the physical mechanisms that control electron transport and the characteristics of metal-molecule-metal (MMM) junctions is presented. As far as possible, methods and formalisms presented elsewhere to analyze electron transport through molecules are avoided. This title introduces basic concepts—a description of the electron transport through molecular junctions—and briefly describes relevant experimental methods. Theoretical methods commonly used to analyze the electron transport through molecules are presented. Various effects that manifest in the electron transport through MMMs, as well as the basics of density-functional theory and its applications to electronic structure calculations in molecules are presented. Nanoelectronic applications of molecular junctions and similar systems are discussed as well. Molecular electronics is a diverse and rapidly growing field. Transport Properties of Molecular Junctions presents an up-to-date survey of the field suitable for researchers ...

  7. NbN tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegier, J.C.; Vieux-Rochaz, L.; Goniche, M.; Renard, P.; Vabre, M.

    1984-09-01

    All-niobium nitride Josephon junctions have been prepared successfully using a new processing called SNOP: Selective Niobium (nitride) Overlap Process. Such a process involves the ''trilayer'' deposition on the whole wafer before selective patterning of the electrodes by optically controlled dry reactive ion etching. Only two photomask levels are need to define an ''overlap'' or a ''cross-type'' junction with a good accuracy. The properties of the niobium nitride films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering and the surface oxide growth are analysed. The most critical point to obtain high quality and high gap value junctions resides in the early stage of the NbN counterelectrode growth. Some possibilities to overcome such a handicap exist even if the fabrication needs substrate temperatures below 250 0 C

  8. A Contemporary Challenge to State Sovereignty: Gangs and Other Illicit Transnational Criminal Organizations in Central America, El Salvador, Mexico, Jamaica, and Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max G

    2007-01-01

    ... Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs). In this new type of war, national security and sovereignty of affected countries is being impinged every day, and gangs illicit commercial motives are, in fact, becoming an ominous political agenda...

  9. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the

  10. Gravitation at the Josephson Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Atanasov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A geometric potential from the kinetic term of a constrained to a curved hyperplane of space-time quantum superconducting condensate is derived. An energy conservation relation involving the geometric field at every material point in the superconductor is demonstrated. At a Josephson junction the energy conservation relation implies the possibility of transforming electric energy into geometric field energy, that is, curvature of space-time. Experimental procedures to verify that the Josephson junction can act as a voltage-to-curvature converter are discussed.

  11. FROM PLEBISCITE TO REFORM: POLITICAL MOVEMENTS AND FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES TO THE PEACE AGREEMENTS IN COLOMBIA AFTER THE VICTORY OF NO IN THE PLEBISCITO OF 2016

    OpenAIRE

    VICENTE TORRIJOS RIVERA; WALTER ARÉVALO-RAMÍREZ

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the course of the recent negotiations between the Colombian Government and the FARC guerrilla: its historical background that led to the first version of the agreement, its plebiscite procedure, the victory of the “No” and the proposals for modification, to the New version of the peace agreement. From a case of study method and different theoretical approaches, the document analyzes the contributions of different social movements to solidify a better peace ag...

  12. The construction of the gang in British Columbia : Mafioso, gangster, or thug? An examination of the uniqueness of the BC gangster phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Keiron

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the structure, demographics, and history of gangs in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through a social constructionist lens. The purpose of this research is for the reader to consider the current state of gangs in BC as inherently different from other places in the world, to assist in understanding why there may be misconceptions, and to promote the research and implementation of more appropriate context-specific interventions. Building on previous work conducted as a Vanco...

  13. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  14. Current noise in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. The Victory of Anti-Hitler States in the Second World War. The Lend-lease Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Parkhitko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the economic aspect of military cooperation between the USSR and the western Allies (first of all, with the USA and Great Britain during the period of the WW II. The statistic data of the military equipment, sent to the USSR by the Allies through Lend-Lease is compared to the statistics of the Soviet domestic military production during the Great Patriotic War. Also the material and human losses of the USSR and the Allies are compared. As the result of the comparison the crucial military, political and economical input of the USSR in the Victory of Anti-Hitler states in the Second World War is advocated. The goal is also to eliminate the pseudo-historic attempts of denigrating the role of the Soviet Union in the Second World War and even its struggle in the period of the Great Patriotic War. Such attempts are being intensified in the last decades especially in the western countries and their message, in the opinion of the author, is to downplay the role of our country on the international arena as it tends to be in the political conjuncture of the early XXI century.

  16. Death is swallowed up in victory : scenes of death in early Christian art and the emergence of crucifixion iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGowan, Felicity Harley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Christianity, and the instrument of Jesus’ death, the cross, remains the pivotal, and universally recognised, symbol of the Christian Church. Yet pictorial representations of the death of Jesus are conspicuously rare in the earliest Christian art. Moreover, the earliest surviving images of Jesus’ Crucifixion do not depict him dead on the cross, but defiantly alive – a visual interpretation of the event that incorporates both the means of his execution and his subsequent victory over death in the Resurrection. This article examines the iconography of a small ivory plaque, carved in Rome in the early fifth century, whereon the Crucifixion is juxtaposed with the suicide of Jesus’ betrayer, Judas Iscariot (Matthew 27 3:5 to effect a powerful visual interpretation of Jesus’ death. As the earliest surviving visual narration of Jesus’ Crucifixion and Resurrection, the ivory will be shown to preserve critical information regarding the interpretation of Christ’s death in the early Christian church - incorporating symbols and visual motifs from pagan funerary sculpture, while illustrating the development of a specifically Christian visual language for the representation of Jesus’ death.

  17. Death is Swallowed Up in Victory: Scenes of Death in Early Christian Art and the Emergence of Crucifixion Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Harley McGowan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Christianity, and the instrument of Jesus’ death, the cross, remains the pivotal, and universally recognised, symbol of the Christian Church. Yet pictorial representations of the death of Jesus are conspicuously rare in the earliest Christian art. Moreover, the earliest surviving images  of Jesus’ Crucifixion do not depict  him dead on the cross, but defiantly alive – a visual interpretation of the event that incorporates both the means of his execution and his subsequent victory over death in the Resurrection. This article examines the iconography of a small ivory plaque, carved in Rome in the early fifth century, whereon the Crucifixion is juxtaposed with the suicide of Jesus’ betrayer, Judas Iscariot (Matthew 27 3:5 to effect a powerful visual interpretation of Jesus’ death. As the earliest surviving visual narration of Jesus’ Crucifixion and Resurrection, the ivory will be shown to preserve critical information regarding the interpretation of Christ’s death in the early Christian church - incorporating symbols and visual motifs from pagan funerary sculpture, while illustrating the development of a specifically Christian visual language for the representation of Jesus’ death.

  18. Stability of large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Hylke B.; Kronemeijer, Auke J.; Harkema, Jan; van Hal, Paul A.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    The stability of molecular junctions is crucial for any application of molecular electronics. Degradation of molecular junctions when exposed to ambient conditions is regularly observed. In this report the stability of large-area molecular junctions under ambient conditions for more than two years

  19. Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current depe...

  20. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  1. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers (edited by Mickey Sarquis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Science in Our World, Vol. 5. Mickey Sarquis, series editor. Terrific Science Press: Middletown, OH, 1995. xiv + 149 pp. ISBN 1-883822-13-0. Spiral-bound, $13.95. Our familiarity with plastics makes polymers ideal examples of chemicals for discussion in K-12 science classes. Most importantly, polymers can be used as examples of chemicals that are safe to handle and of obvious use to society. The structures of polymers are easily represented by a number of models. These simple models go a long way in explaining the familiar physical properties of plastics. However, the introduction of polymers in the classroom relies on the availability of teaching material, experiments, and demonstrations that illustrate concepts in the current science curriculum. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers, one of the Science in Our World series published by the Center for Chemical Education at Miami University-Middletown (Ohio), will serve as a great resource for teachers interested in providing their students with a series of activities that can be related to their everyday experiences with these ubiquitous chemicals. After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the book presents a series of 23 experiments. The collection of experiments presented here spans illustrations of chemistry, physical properties, analysis, and processing. Each experiment is recommended as either a hands-on activity or demonstration for various grade levels. A guide for the teacher suggests how the experiment can be used to illustrate topics in the science curriculum. The materials required for each activity are listed in detail, with quantities and sources (all materials are available from Flinn Scientific or hardware stores). There are detailed instructions for preparation of each experiment and how to introduce the experiment to students, and step-by-step instructions for activity. Very importantly, safety and disposal issues are clearly presented. Suggestions for cross-curriculum integration are also

  2. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  3. Between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision: fertility, people and earthquakes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gale, J.; McHugh, C. M.; Ferguson, E. K.; Mondal, D. R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    A foreland (Ganges) and a suture (Brahmaputra) river, which both drain the Himalaya, have coalesced to form Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the world's largest. The GBD progrades along the continental margin, coupled with an advancing subduction to collision transition, deforming the delta as it grows. A better understanding of this time-transgressive system is urgent now that humans are increasing their forcing of the system and exposure to environmental hazards. Among these, earthquake risk is rapidly growing as people move from rural settings into expanding cities, creating unprecedented exposure. The megathrust 1950 M8.7 earthquake in Assam occurred during the monsoon and released 10x the annual sediment load, causing progradation at the coast and a pulse of river widening that propagated downstream. The 1762 M8.8(?) along the Arakan coast extended into the shelf of the delta where coastal tsunami deposits have been identified recently. These events bracket a segment with no credible historic megathrust earthquakes, but could affect far more people. Geodetic and geologic data along this 300 km boundary facing the GBD show oblique contraction. The subaerial accretionary prism (Burma Ranges) is up to 250 km wide with a blind thrust front that reaches ½ way across the delta. The GPS convergence rate of 14 mm/y is consistent with large displacements and long interseismic times, which can account for lack of historic ruptures, but also the potential for catastrophic events. Active folds and shallow thrust earthquakes point to an additional threat from upper-plate seismicity. Much of the current seismicity is in the lower-plate and reaches as far west as Dhaka; it may pose an immediate threat. The folds, and the uplift and subsidence patterns also influence the courses of the rivers. North of the delta, the Shillong plateau is a huge basement cored anticline bounded by the north-dipping Dauki thrust fault. 7 mm/y of N-S shortening and 5 km of structural relief here

  4. Land-use change may exacerbate climate change impacts on water resources in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Gina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying how land-use change and climate change affect water resources is a challenge in hydrological science. This work aims to quantify how future projections of land-use and climate change might affect the hydrological response of the Upper Ganges river basin in northern India, which experiences monsoon flooding almost every year. Three different sets of modelling experiments were run using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model (LSM) and covering the period 2000-2035: in the first set, only climate change is taken into account, and JULES was driven by the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) outputs of 21 models, under two representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), whilst land use was held fixed at the year 2010. In the second set, only land-use change is taken into account, and JULES was driven by a time series of 15 future land-use pathways, based on Landsat satellite imagery and the Markov chain simulation, whilst the meteorological boundary conditions were held fixed at years 2000-2005. In the third set, both climate change and land-use change were taken into consideration, as the CMIP5 model outputs were used in conjunction with the 15 future land-use pathways to force JULES. Variations in hydrological variables (stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture) are calculated during the simulation period. Significant changes in the near-future (years 2030-2035) hydrologic fluxes arise under future land-cover and climate change scenarios pointing towards a severe increase in high extremes of flow: the multi-model mean of the 95th percentile of streamflow (Q5) is projected to increase by 63 % under the combined land-use and climate change high emissions scenario (RCP8.5). The changes in all examined hydrological components are greater in the combined land-use and climate change experiment. Results are further presented in a water resources context, aiming to address potential implications of

  5. The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorí, Rogert; Nieto, Raquel; Drumond, Anita; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Gimeno, Luis

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins (IRB, GRB, and BRB respectively) in the South Asian region was investigated. The 3-dimensional model FLEXPART v9.0 was utilized. An important advantage of this model is that it permits the computation of the freshwater budget on air parcel trajectories both backward and forward in time from 0.1 to 1000 hPa in the atmospheric vertical column. The analysis was conducted for the westerly precipitation regime (WPR) (November-April) and the monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR) (May-October) in the period from 1981 to 2015. The main terrestrial and oceanic climatological moisture sources for the IRB, GRB, and BRB and their contribution to precipitation over the basins were identified. For the three basins, the most important moisture sources for precipitation are (i) in the continental regions, the land masses to the west of the basins (in this case called western Asia), the Indian region (IR), and the basin itself, and (ii) from the ocean, the utmost sources being the Indian Ocean (IO) and the Bay of Bengal (BB), and it is remarkable that despite the amount of moisture reaching the Indus and Ganges basins from land sources, the moisture supply from the IO seems to be first associated with the rapid increase or decrease in precipitation over the sources in the MPR. The technique of the composites was used to analyse how the moisture uptake values spatially vary from the sources (the budget of evaporation minus precipitation (E - P) was computed in a backward experiment from the basins) but during the pre-onset and pre-demise dates of the monsoonal rainfall over each basin; this confirmed that over the last days of the monsoon at the basins, the moisture uptake areas decrease in the IO. The Indian region, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the basins themselves are the main sources of moisture responsible for negative (positive) anomalies of moisture contribution to

  6. Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change

  7. Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Bethany M.; Gingrich, Eric C.; Khasawneh, Mazin A.; Loloee, Reza; Pratt, William P., Jr.; Birge, Norman O.

    2015-03-01

    Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials are of interest for both scientific and technological purposes. In principle, either the amplitude of the critical current or superconducting phase shift across the junction can be controlled by the relative magnetization directions of the ferromagnetic layers in the junction. Our approach concentrates on phase control utilizing two junctions in a SQUID geometry. We will report on efforts to control the phase of junctions carrying either spin-singlet or spin-triplet supercurrent for cryogenic memory applications. Supported by Northorp Grumman Corporation and by IARPA under SPAWAR Contract N66001-12-C-2017.

  8. Method of manufacturing Josephson junction integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jillie, D.W. Jr.; Smith, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Josephson junction integrated circuits of the current injection type and magnetically controlled type utilize a superconductive layer that forms both Josephson junction electrode for the Josephson junction devices on the integrated circuit as well as a ground plane for the integrated circuit. Large area Josephson junctions are utilized for effecting contact to lower superconductive layers and islands are formed in superconductive layers to provide isolation between the groudplane function and the Josephson junction electrode function as well as to effect crossovers. A superconductor-barrier-superconductor trilayer patterned by local anodization is also utilized with additional layers formed thereover. Methods of manufacturing the embodiments of the invention are disclosed

  9. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.

  10. Assessment of Environmental Flows for the Rivers of Western Ganges Delta with Special Reference to Indian Sundarban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, T.; Hazra, S.; Ghosh, S.; Barman, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Indian Sundarban, situated on the western tide-dominated part of the Ganges delta was formed by the sedimentation of the Ganges and its tributaries. Freshwater is a scarce resource in the Sundarban though it is traversed by rivers. Most of the rivers of Western Ganges Delta, which used to nourish the Sundarban, have become defunct with the passage of time. To ensure sustainable flow and to enhance the flow-dependent ecosystem services in this region, assessment of environmental flows within the system is required. A pilot assessment of environment flows, supported by IUCN has been carried out in some specific river reaches of Western Ganges Delta under the present study. The holistic Building Block Methodology (BBM) has been modified and used for the assessment of environmental flows. In the modified BBM, three distinctive blocks namely Hydro-Morphology, Ecology and Socio-Economy have been selected and indicators like Ganges Dolphin (Platanista gangetica), Sundari tree (Heritiera fomes) and Hilsa fish (Tenualosa ilisha) etc. have been determined to assess the environmental flows. As the discharge data of the selected rivers are restricted in the public domain, the SWAT model has been run to generate the discharge data of the classified rivers. The Hydraulic model, HEC-RAS has been calibrated in the selected River reaches to assess the habitat availability and its changes for indicator species under different flow condition. The study reveals that River Bhagirathi-Hugli requires 150-427 cumec additional water in monsoon and 850-1127 cumec additional water in post-monsoon months for Hilsa migration, whereas 327-486 cumec additional water in pre-monsoon and dry season and 227-386 cumec additional water in post-monsoon months are required for Dolphin movement. Flow requirement of river Ichhamati has also been estimated under the present study. The total required flow for the Sundarban ecosystem to reduce the salinity level from 30ppt to 14ppt during the dry and pre

  11. Flexible 2D layered material junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabai, R.; Solomenko, A.

    2018-03-01

    Within the framework of the methods of the electron density functional and the ab initio pseudopotential, we have obtained the valence electron density spatial distribution, the densities of electron states, the widths of band gaps, the charges on combined regions, and the Coulomb potentials for graphene-based flexible 2D layered junctions, using author program complex. It is determined that the bending of the 2D layered junctions on the angle α leads to changes in the electronic properties of these junctions. In the graphene/graphane junction, there is clear charge redistribution with different signs in the regions of junctions. The presence in the heterojunctions of charge regions with different signs leads to the formation of potential barriers. The greatest potential jump is in the graphene/fluorographene junction. The greatest value of the band gap width is in the graphene/graphane junction.

  12. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C. W.; Lázár, A. N.; Allan, A.; Adger, W. N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas provide diverse ecosystem services and benefits for their populations. At the same time, deltas are also recognised as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments, with a range of drivers operating at multiple scales, from global climate change and sea-level rise to deltaic-scale subsidence and land cover change. These drivers threaten these ecosystem services, which often provide livelihoods for the poorest communities in these regions. The imperative to maintain ecosystem services presents a development challenge: how to develop deltaic areas in ways that are sustainable and benefit all residents including the most vulnerable. Here we present an integrated framework to analyse changing ecosystem services in deltas and the implications for human well-being, focussing in particular on the provisioning ecosystem services of agriculture, inland and offshore capture fisheries, aquaculture and mangroves that directly support livelihoods. The framework is applied to the world's most populated delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta within Bangladesh. The framework adopts a systemic perspective to represent the principal biophysical and socio-ecological components and their interaction. A range of methods are integrated within a quantitative framework, including biophysical and socio-economic modelling and analyses of governance through scenario development. The approach is iterative, with learning both within the project team and with national policy-making stakeholders. The analysis is used to explore physical and social outcomes for the delta under different scenarios and policy choices. We consider how the approach is transferable to other deltas and potentially other coastal areas.

  13. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand N. Bosmia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  14. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  15. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise.

  17. Future changes in hydro-climatic extremes in the Upper Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaard, René R; Lutz, Arthur F; Nepal, Santosh; Khanal, Sonu; Pradhananga, Saurav; Shrestha, Arun B; Immerzeel, Walter W

    2017-01-01

    Future hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, may pose serious threats for the livelihoods in the upstream domains of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. For this reason, the impacts of climate change on future hydrological extremes is investigated in these river basins. We use a fully-distributed cryospheric-hydrological model to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes and force the model with an ensemble of 8 downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs) that are selected from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model is calibrated on observed daily discharge and geodetic mass balances. The climate forcing and the outputs of the hydrological model are used to evaluate future changes in climatic extremes, and hydrological extremes by focusing on high and low flows. The outcomes show an increase in the magnitude of climatic means and extremes towards the end of the 21st century where climatic extremes tend to increase stronger than climatic means. Future mean discharge and high flow conditions will very likely increase. These increases might mainly be the result of increasing precipitation extremes. To some extent temperature extremes might also contribute to increasing discharge extremes, although this is highly dependent on magnitude of change in temperature extremes. Low flow conditions may occur less frequently, although the uncertainties in low flow projections can be high. The results of this study may contribute to improved understanding on the implications of climate change for the occurrence of future hydrological extremes in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region.

  18. Coupled Landscape and Channel Dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Deltaplain, Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomer, J.; Wilson, C.; Hale, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    In the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) and other tide-dominated systems, periodic flooding of the land surface during the tidal cycle promotes sediment accretion and surface elevation gain over time. However, over the past several decades, anthropogenic modification of the GBD tidal deltaplain through embankment construction has precluded sediment delivery to catchment areas, leading to widespread channel siltation and subsidence in poldered landscapes. Amongst the current discussion on GBD sustainability, the relationship between tidal inundation period and resultant sedimentation in natural and embanked settings remains unclear. Moreover, an evaluation of how riparian sedimentology and stratigraphic architecture changes across the GBD tidal-fluvial spectrum is notably absent, despite its critical importance in assessing geomorphic change in human-impacted transitional environments. To provide local-scale, longitudinal trends of coupled landscape-channel dynamics, an array of surface elevation tables, groundwater piezometers, and sediment traps deployed in natural and embanked settings have been monitored seasonally over a time span of 4 years. This knowledge base will be extended across the GBD tidal-fluvial transition by collecting sediment cores from carefully selected point bars along the Gorai River. Sediments will be analyzed for lithologic, biostratigraphic, and geochemical properties to provide an integrated framework for discerning depositional zones and associated facies assemblages across this complex transitional environment. Preliminary comparisons of accretion and hydroperiod data suggest that inundation duration strongly governs mass accumulation on the intertidal platform, though other factors such as mass extraction from sediment source and vegetation density may play secondary roles.

  19. Future changes in hydro-climatic extremes in the Upper Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René R Wijngaard

    Full Text Available Future hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, may pose serious threats for the livelihoods in the upstream domains of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. For this reason, the impacts of climate change on future hydrological extremes is investigated in these river basins. We use a fully-distributed cryospheric-hydrological model to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes and force the model with an ensemble of 8 downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs that are selected from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model is calibrated on observed daily discharge and geodetic mass balances. The climate forcing and the outputs of the hydrological model are used to evaluate future changes in climatic extremes, and hydrological extremes by focusing on high and low flows. The outcomes show an increase in the magnitude of climatic means and extremes towards the end of the 21st century where climatic extremes tend to increase stronger than climatic means. Future mean discharge and high flow conditions will very likely increase. These increases might mainly be the result of increasing precipitation extremes. To some extent temperature extremes might also contribute to increasing discharge extremes, although this is highly dependent on magnitude of change in temperature extremes. Low flow conditions may occur less frequently, although the uncertainties in low flow projections can be high. The results of this study may contribute to improved understanding on the implications of climate change for the occurrence of future hydrological extremes in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region.

  20. Salvadoran gangs and extortion. Challenges and priorities related to the extortion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years extortion has garnered a somber relevance for society as a whole, aside from the preponderance it already possessed from law enforcement agents and criminal investigators. The generation of income both in cash and in kind destined for criminal structures, particularly amongst gangs/maras, as well as its implications concerning danger levels and future potential, have made the agencies responsible of public security take a closer look at this crime and ensure there is a full comprehensive assessment made regarding the extortion phenomenon. The above, involved looking into this crime’s different forms of execution, existing enabling factors and the different criminal scenarios it fits into; reviewing how police and prosecutors address these offenses, all operative, investigative and legal implications, as well as the results achieved in the fight against it. Nonetheless, extortionremains a challenge, not only for the institutions involved (Police and the Prosecutor’s Office, but also for the key stakeholders and all those responsible of making strategic decisions for the country.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 103-148

  1. Josephson junctions and circle maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, P; Bohr, T; Jensen, M H; Christiansen, P V

    1984-01-01

    The return map of a differential equation for the current driven Josephson junction, or the damped driven pendulum, is shown numerically to be a circle map. Phase locking, noise and hysteresis, can thus be understood in a simple and coherent way. The transition to chaos is related to the development of a cubic inflection point. Recent theoretical results on universal behavior at the transition to chaos can readily be checked experimentally by studying I-V characteristics. 17 references, 1 figure.

  2. Squeezed States in Josephson Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Nori, F.

    1996-03-01

    We have studied quantum fluctuation properties of Josephson junctions in the limit of large Josephson coupling energy and small charging energy, when the eigenstates of the system can be treated as being nearly localized. We have considered(X. Hu and F. Nori, preprints.) a Josephson junction in a variety of situations, e.g., coupled to one or several of the following elements: a capacitor, an inductor (in a superconducting ring), and an applied current source. By solving an effective Shrödinger equation, we have obtained squeezed vacuum (coherent) states as the ground states of a ``free-oscillating'' (linearly-driven) Josephson junction, and calculated the uncertainties of its canonical momentum, charge, and coordinate, phase. We have also shown that the excited states of the various systems we consider are similar to the number states of a simple harmonic oscillator but with different fluctuation properties. Furthermore, we have obtained the time-evolution operators for these systems. These operators can make it easier to calculate the time-dependence of the expectation values and fluctuations of various quantities starting from an arbitrary initial state.

  3. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems

  4. FROM PLEBISCITE TO REFORM: POLITICAL MOVEMENTS AND FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES TO THE PEACE AGREEMENTS IN COLOMBIA AFTER THE VICTORY OF NO IN THE PLEBISCITO OF 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICENTE TORRIJOS RIVERA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyzes the course of the recent negotiations between the Colombian Government and the FARC guerrilla: its historical background that led to the first version of the agreement, its plebiscite procedure, the victory of the “No” and the proposals for modification, to the New version of the peace agreement. From a case of study method and different theoretical approaches, the document analyzes the contributions of different social movements to solidify a better peace agreement and the persistent challenges in its implementation.

  5. The role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution in Beijing during APEC 2014 and Victory Parade 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengfei; Zhu, Tong; Fang, Yanhua; Li, Yingruo; Han, Yiqun; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Wang, Junxia

    2017-11-01

    To control severe air pollution in China, comprehensive pollution control strategies have been implemented throughout the country in recent years. To evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, the influence of meteorological conditions on levels of air pollution needs to be determined. Using the intensive air pollution control strategies implemented during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum in 2014 (APEC 2014) and the 2015 China Victory Day Parade (Victory Parade 2015) as examples, we estimated the role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution levels in Beijing. Atmospheric particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) samples were collected and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO, NOx, and O3) were measured online at a site in Peking University (PKU). To determine the influence of meteorological conditions on the levels of air pollution, we first compared the air pollutant concentrations during days with stable meteorological conditions. However, there were few days with stable meteorological conditions during the Victory Parade. As such, we were unable to estimate the level of emission reduction efforts during this period. Finally, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based only on meteorological parameters was built to predict air pollutant concentrations, which could explain more than 70 % of the variation in air pollutant concentration levels, after incorporating the nonlinear relationships between certain meteorological parameters and the concentrations of air pollutants. Evaluation of the GLM performance revealed that the GLM, even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and, hence, the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 and 28 % to the reduction

  6. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known......) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions....

  7. Geodynamical simulation of the RRF triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wei, D.; Liu, M.; Shi, Y.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Triple junction is the point at which three plate boundaries meet. Three plates at the triple junction form a complex geological tectonics, which is a natural laboratory to study the interactions of plates. This work studies a special triple junction, the oceanic transform fault intersects the collinear ridges with different-spreading rates, which is free of influence of ridge-transform faults and nearby hotspots. First, we build 3-D numerical model of this triple junction used to calculate the stead-state velocity and temperature fields resulting from advective and conductive heat transfer. We discuss in detail the influence of the velocity and temperature fields of the triple junction from viscosity, spreading rate of the ridge. The two sides of the oceanic transform fault are different sensitivities to the two factors. And, the influence of the velocity mainly occurs within 200km of the triple junction. Then, we modify the model by adding a ridge-transform fault to above model and directly use the velocity structure of the Macquarie triple junction. The simulation results show that the temperature at both sides of the oceanic transform fault decreases gradually from the triple junction, but the temperature difference between the two sides is a constant about 200°. And, there is little effect of upwelling velocity away from the triple junction 100km. The model results are compared with observational data. The heat flux and thermal topography along the oceanic transform fault of this model are consistent with the observed data of the Macquarie triple junction. The earthquakes are strike slip distributed along the oceanic transform fault. Their depths are also consistent with the zone of maximum shear stress. This work can help us to understand the interactions of plates of triple junctions and help us with the foundation for the future study of triple junctions.

  8. Hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refai, T.F.; Shehata, L.N.

    1988-09-01

    The resistively and capacitive shunted junction model is used to investigate hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions. Two empirical formulas that relate the hysteresis width and the quasi-particle diffusion length in terms of the junctions electrical parameters, temperature and frequency are obtained. The obtained formulas provide a simple tool to investigate the full potentials of the hysteresis phenomena. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  9. Food and nutrition security trends and challenges in the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnout van Soesbergen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM delta is highly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due to the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. To better understand the impacts of climate and environmental change on food security and nutrition in this delta, this study combines spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS with a standard satellite remotely sensed vegetation greenness index (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, used as a proxy for rice production. The strength of association between NDVI and child nutrition in this tropical mega-delta were tested, showing correlations between two widely used indicators of child malnutrition; stunting and wasting, and deviations from a 10 year mean NDVI (anomalies for rice crop growing seasons – regarded as critical to individual children’s early lives. For children surveyed in 2007 we found that the likelihood of being stunted decreased with increased NDVI as a measure of food production. Similarly, for children surveyed in 2011, the likelihood of being wasted reduced with increased NDVI. However, regression results for stunting in 2011 and wasting in 2007 were not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that NDVI can be regarded as indicative of climatic variability and periods of low food production but is only partly successful as an indicator of climate related impacts on child nutrition in the GBM delta. Furthermore, our study highlights some of the uncertainties and challenges with linking environmental indicators such as the NDVI with household survey data across spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Evaluating order in vertical successions of deltaic Holocene sediments on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Most stratigraphic models are predicated on the presence of cyclicity or some form of order in vertical successions of strata. In spite of this a priori assumption of ordered stratigraphy, rarely are statistical metrics employed to quantify cyclicity in sedimentary packages. The presence or absence of preserved order in vertical sedimentary successions has important implications for the nature of environmental signals that are transmitted into the rock record. We interrogate the Holocene sedimentary archive of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in an effort to explore to what extent fluvio-deltaic deposits exhibit recognizable order. Specifically, we focus on grain size data to evaluate 1.) if stratigraphic order in vertical sedimentary successions can be identified and quantified, and 2.) if there are spatial patterns of stratigraphic order across the GBMD. A runs order metric r is used to identify sequences of coarsening and fining within an extensive borehole network. Observed grain size data are shuffled enough times to generate synthetic "random" stratigraphy, and a Monte Carlo simulation generates 5000 realizations. The distribution of r values from the Monte Carlo are compared to the r metric calculated from observed data to determine how likely the observed metric could be generated by chance. The spatial distribution of order metrics indicates a relationship between areas of enhanced mass extraction and preservation of fluvial successions that scale with modern bar deposits on the Jamuna River. Similarly, probability metrics indicate that vertical successions of grain size data unlikely to have been generated by chance are more likely to be found on distal areas of the delta where 60% of the input mass has been extracted. Combining a mass balance framework with simple statistical metrics has the potential of improving predictions of the stratigraphic architecture and the preservation of ordered vs. disordered signals in the sedimentary record.

  11. Biometrics of the rare fish Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton, 1822 (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae in the Ganges, Northwestern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yeamin Hossain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate biometrics of the Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton, 1822 (R. corsula, including length-weight relationships (LWRs, condition factors (Allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; Relative, KR; Relative weight, WR, and sex ratio and length-frequency distributions in the Ganges (Padma River, Northwestern Bangladesh. Methods: Monthly sampling was conducted using traditional fishing gears during June to August 2012. Total length was measured to the nearest 0.01 cm using digital slide calipers, and total body weight was measured using an electronic balance with 0.01 g accuracy. The LWR was calculated using the expression: W= a×Lb , where the W is the body weight , L is the total length , a and b are the parameters of the regression. Results: A total of 350 specimens ranging from 8.59-15.71 cm in total length and 9.57-32.59 g in body weight were analyzed during this study. The overall sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected value of 1:1 (χ2 =2.57, P>0.05, but there was significant difference in the length-frequency distributions between the sexes (P=0.03. The allometric coefficient b for the LWR indicated negative allometric growth (b≈3.00 in males, female and combined sexes. Results further indicated that KF was not significantly different between the sexes (P=0.57. However, the mean WR of R. corsula showed significant differences from 100 for males (P=0.03 and females (P<0.001 in this study, indicating the imbalance habitat with food availability relative to the presence of predators. Conclusions: This study reported the first description of biometric relationships for R. corsula, which would be useful for the sustainable conservation of this rear fishery in Bangladesh and also neighboring countries.

  12. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  13. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...

  14. Loss models for long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement.......A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement....

  15. Harmonic synchronization in resistively coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.A.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Smith, H.J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The oscillations of two resistively coupled Josephson junctions biased only by a single dc current source are shown to lock harmonically in a 1:2 mode over a significant range of bias current, even when the junctions are identical. The dependence of this locking on both junction and coupling parameters is examined, and it is found that, for this particular two-junction configuration, 1:1 locking can never occur, and also that a minimum coupling coefficient is needed to support harmonic locking. Some issues related to subharmonic locking are also discussed

  16. Superconducting flux qubits with π-junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a fabrication technology of Al/AlO x /Al Josephson junctions on Nb pads. The described technology gives the possibility of combining a variety of Nb-based superconducting circuits, like pi-junction phase-shifters with sub-micron Al/AlO x /Al junctions. Using this approach, we fabricated hybrid Nb/Al flux qubits with and without the SFS-junctions and studied dispersive magnetic field response of these qubits as well as their spectroscopy characteristics.

  17. Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    2003-06-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin.

  18. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, M.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.

    2014-06-01

    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins and might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on basin-scale hydrology by using well-constrained hydrologic modelling has rarely been conducted for GBM basins due to the lack of data for model calibration and validation. In this study, a macro-scale hydrologic model H08 has been applied regionally over the basin at a relatively fine grid resolution (10 km) by integrating the fine-resolution (~0.5 km) DEM data for accurate river networks delineation. The model has been calibrated via analyzing model parameter sensitivity and validated based on a long-term observed daily streamflow data. The impact of climate change on not only the runoff, but also the basin-scale hydrology including evapotranspiration, soil moisture and net radiation have been assessed in this study through three time-slice experiments; present-day (1979-2003), near-future (2015-2039) and far-future (2075-2099) periods. Results shows that, by the end of 21st century (a) the entire GBM basin is projected to be warmed by ~3°C (b) the changes of mean precipitation are projected to be +14.0, +10.4, and +15.2%, and the changes of mean runoff to be +14, +15, and +18% in the Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna basin respectively (c) evapotranspiration is predicted to increase significantly for the entire GBM basins (Brahmaputra: +14.4%, Ganges: +9.4%, Meghna: +8.8%) due to increased net radiation (Brahmaputra: +6%, Ganges: +5.9%, Meghna: +3.3%) as well as warmer air temperature. Changes of hydrologic variables will be larger in dry season (November-April) than that in wet season (May-October). Amongst three basins, Meghna shows the largest hydrological

  19. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Qualitative Analysis on Extremist Groups, Hate Crimes, and Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-15

    White  “There are young teenagers that are in the gangs. Some of these teens do crimes such as theft or trespassing.” —ANG, male, senior...have been forced to eat my meals by myself because of my race and sexual orientation.” — USMCR, male, junior enlisted, Asian  “In [LOCATION] there...senior enlisted, Two or More Races Some comments highlighted hate crimes based on sexual orientation as well as race/ethnicity.  “We have people

  20. Assessing regional climate simulations of the last 30 years (1982-2012) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Awange, Joseph L.; Anyah, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2017-10-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin presents a spatially diverse hydrological regime due to it's complex topography and escalating demand for freshwater resources. This presents a big challenge in applying the current state-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) for climate change impact studies in the GBM River Basin. In this study, several RCM simulations generated by RegCM4.4 and PRECIS are assessed for their seasonal and interannual variations, onset/withdrawal of the Indian monsoon, and long-term trends in precipitation and temperature from 1982 to 2012. The results indicate that in general, RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations appear to reasonably reproduce the mean seasonal distribution of precipitation and temperature across the GBM River Basin, although the two RCMs are integrated over a different domain size. On average, the RegCM4.4 simulations overestimate monsoon precipitation by {˜ }26 and {˜ }5% in the Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin, respectively, while PRECIS simulations underestimate (overestimate) the same by {˜ }7% ({˜ }16%). Both RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations indicate an intense cold bias (up to 10° C) in the Himalayas, and are generally stronger in the RegCM4.4 simulations. Additionally, they tend to produce high precipitation between April and May in the Ganges (RegCM4.4 simulations) and Brahmaputra-Meghna (PRECIS simulations) River Basins, resulting in early onset of the Indian monsoon in the Ganges River Basin. PRECIS simulations exhibit a delayed monsoon withdrawal in the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin. Despite large spatial variations in onset and withdrawal periods across the GBM River Basin, the basin-averaged results agree reasonably well with the observed periods. Although global climate model (GCM) driven simulations are generally poor in representing the interannual variability of precipitation and winter temperature variations, they tend to agree well with observed precipitation anomalies when driven by

  1. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  2. Linker-dependent Junction Formation Probability in Single-Molecule Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Pil Sun; Kim, Taekyeong [HankukUniversity of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We compare the junction formation probabilities of single-molecule junctions with different linker molecules by using a scanning tunneling microscope-based break-junction technique. We found that the junction formation probability varies as SH > SMe > NH2 for the benzene backbone molecule with different types of anchoring groups, through quantitative statistical analysis. These results are attributed to different bonding forces according to the linker groups formed with Au atoms in the electrodes, which is consistent with previous works. Our work allows a better understanding of the contact chemistry in the metal.molecule junction for future molecular electronic devices.

  3. Substitute for Victory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2014-01-01

    measurements have resulted in problematic strategic dialogues between the political decision-makers and the military commands. Larsen makes use of three cases to reach this conclusion, namely the Vietnam War, The first Gulf War, and the war in Afghanistan. In each case he investigates how performance......Why have performance measurements been introduced to the domain of war a number of times in the last century? Have performance measurements reappeared because they possess distinct analytical potentials with regard to strategic decision-making and the planning and execution of military campaigns...... to the battlefield. Political decision makers have used performance measurements to show the progress and success of wars to the media and to the general public. Performance measurements have been used by military commands to improve military operations and to evade political interference. These uses of performance...

  4. What price victory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leopold Scholtz

    very different from its predecessor Operation Desert Storm, 12 years before. The ... future, the crew of the last T-72 decided to run for cover. Spying a .... Esther Schrader & Tyler Marshall: “War shapes up as huge land attack” (Los Angeles ..... Wesley Clark, C-in-C of the Nato forces attacking Yugoslavia in 1999, explained,.

  5. Victory of autonomy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    This book introduces story of an inventor, Jang, Yeong Sil, Screening of Jang, Yeong Sil award and prize-winning companies and titles, which are high flow blend resin by LG chemical company, lithium-ion polymer battery for MP3P by Samsung SDI Inc, tower mounted amplifier by ACE technology Inc, intelligent public access defibrillator by CU medical Inc, contrast enhanced phosphor by LG Inc, solid state drive for auxiliary memory by MTRON storage technology Co. LTD, and Selicion by Samsung fine chemistry, and new era of development of scientific technology.

  6. Agility Into Victory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    This paper will investigate how the three core concepts of command and control agility can increase the chance for a successful outcome in military operations and what elements that should be strengthen within a military organization in order to achieve an agile approach to command and control. T...

  7. A cockroach for victory

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    From 1 – 5 July, CERN had the pleasure of welcoming Céline, Fanny and Ophélia, the three winners of the special EIROforum prize donated by CERN in the EU Competition for Young Scientists 2012 (EUCYS). Between visits to the installations and meetings, the young French women had a memorable week.   Fanny Risbourg, Ophélia Bolmin and Céline Lay (from left to right), alongside their CERN guide, Marc Goulette. The rules of EUCYS, organised by the EU since 1989, require all candidates to have first won a scientific prize in their own country. That’s easily said… and done for these young scientists, who have won two! After coming first in France’s Engineering Science Olympiad in 2011, they then took home the top prize in the C. Génial competition the following year. “It all started three years ago, with our travaux personnels encadrés (supervised project),” Fanny explained...

  8. Cavity syncronisation of underdamped Josephson junction arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbara, P.; Filatrella, G.; Lobb, C.

    2003-01-01

    the junctions in the array and an electromagnetic cavity. Here we show that a model of a one-dimensional array of Josephson junctions coupled to a resonator can produce many features of the coherent be havior above threshold, including coherent radiation of power and the shape of the array current...

  9. Functional anatomy of the human ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, H.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The valve function of the ureterovesical-junction (UVJ) is responsible for protection of the low pressure upper urinary tract from the refluxing of urine from the bladder. Controversy about the microanatomy of the human ureterovesical-junction persists. METHODS: Ten (3 male and 7 female)

  10. Spin, Vibrations and Radiation in Superconducting Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padurariu, C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the theoretical study of superconducting transport in several devices based on superconducting junctions. The important feature of these devices is that the transport properties of the junction are modified by the interaction with another physical system integrated in the

  11. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the

  12. Multiplication in Silicon p-n Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moll, John L.

    1965-01-01

    Multiplication values were measured in the collector junctions of silicon p-n-p and n-p-n transistors before and after bombardment by 1016 neutrons/cm2. Within experimental error there was no change either in junction fields, as deduced from capacitance measurements, or in multiplication values i...

  13. impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... experiment showed a lower dye diffusion distance of Cx46 V44M cells, ... Studies of connexins show that channel gating and permeability .... have found that connexin assembled into gap junction plaques is not soluble in 1% ..... high glucose reduces gap junction activity in microvascular endothelial cells.

  14. impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIJUAN CHEN

    2017-12-20

    Dec 20, 2017 ... showed a lower dye diffusion distance of Cx46 V44M cells, which indicates that the gap junction intercellular ... permeability could be affected by alterations of charged residues of .... bled into gap junction plaques is not soluble in 1% Triton ..... regulation of connexin 43 expression by high glucose reduces.

  15. Fabrication of Josephson Junction without shadow evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Ku, Hsiangsheng; Long, Junling; Pappas, David

    We developed a new method of fabricating Josephson Junction (Al/AlOX/Al) without shadow evaporation. Statistics from room temperature junction resistance and measurement of qubits are presented. Unlike the traditional ``Dolan Bridge'' technique, this method requires two individual lithographies and straight evaporations of Al. Argon RF plasma is used to remove native AlOX after the first evaporation, followed by oxidation and second Al evaporation. Junction resistance measured at room temperature shows linear dependence on Pox (oxidation pressure), √{tox} (oxidation time), and inverse proportional to junction area. We have seen 100% yield of qubits made with this method. This method is promising because it eliminates angle dependence during Junction fabrication, facilitates large scale qubits fabrication.

  16. Overlap junctions for high coherence superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Long, J. L.; Ku, H. S.; Lake, R. E.; Bal, M.; Pappas, D. P.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication of sub-micron Josephson junctions is demonstrated using standard processing techniques for high-coherence, superconducting qubits. These junctions are made in two separate lithography steps with normal-angle evaporation. Most significantly, this work demonstrates that it is possible to achieve high coherence with junctions formed on aluminum surfaces cleaned in situ by Ar plasma before junction oxidation. This method eliminates the angle-dependent shadow masks typically used for small junctions. Therefore, this is conducive to the implementation of typical methods for improving margins and yield using conventional CMOS processing. The current method uses electron-beam lithography and an additive process to define the top and bottom electrodes. Extension of this work to optical lithography and subtractive processes is discussed.

  17. Quantum synchronization effects in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, M.; Kano, T.; Yamada, S.; Okumura, M.; Imamura, T.; Koyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate quantum dynamics of the superconducting phase in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-T c superconductors motivated by a recent experimental observation for the switching rate enhancement in the low temperature quantum regime. We pay attention to only the capacitive coupling between neighboring junctions and perform large-scale simulations for the Schroedinger equation derived from the Hamiltonian considering the capacitive coupling alone. The simulation focuses on an issue whether the switching of a junction induces those of the other junctions or not. The results reveal that the superconducting phase dynamics show synchronous behavior with increasing the quantum character, e.g., decreasing the junction plane area and effectively the temperature. This is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result

  18. Canaries in the coal mine: Interpersonal violence, gang violence, and violent extremism through a public health prevention lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Flavahan, Louise

    2017-08-01

    This paper asks what programmes and policies for preventing violent extremism (also called 'countering violent extremism', or CVE) can learn from the public health violence prevention field. The general answer is that addressing violent extremism within the wider domain of public health violence prevention connects the effort to a relevant field of research, evidence-based policy and programming, and a broader population reach. This answer is reached by examining conceptual alignments between the two fields at both the case-level and the theoretical level. To address extremist violence within the wider reach of violence prevention, having a shared model is seen as a first step. The World Health Organization uses the social-ecological framework for assessing the risk and protective factors for violence and developing effective public-health based programmes. This study illustrates how this model has been used for gang violence prevention and explores overlaps between gang violence prevention and preventing violent extremism. Finally, it provides policy and programme recommendations to align CVE with public health violence prevention.

  19. Understanding the drivers of the future water gap in the Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Wijngaard, R. R.; Biemans, H.; Lutz, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra (IGB) river systems provide water resources for the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors sustaining the lives of about 700 million people. The region is globally a hotspot for climate change as the headwaters of these rivers are fed by melt water from snow and glaciers, both strongly influenced by temperature change. In addition, the hydrology in the region is determined by the monsoon and its future dynamics as a results of climate change remains very uncertain. Simultaneously, the population is projected to grow rapidly over the coming decades, which in combination with strong economic developments, will likely result in a rapid increase in water demand. In this study we attempt to quantify the future water gap in the IGB and attribute this water gap to climate change and socio-economic growth. For the upstream mountainous parts of the basins we use the SPHY model, which is calibrated based on historical streamflow and glacier mass balance data and forced by the latest CMIP5 future climate model data for RCP4.5 and 8.5. Output of this model feeds into the downstream LPJmL model, which allows assessment of downstream climate change impacts and projected changes in water demand as a result of socio-economic developments. The LPJmL model is run for different combinations of RCPs and Shared Socio Economic Pathways (SSPs). Our results show that for the IGB as a whole climate change will increase water availability in the coming decades, due to an overall, albeit uncertain, increase in monsoon precipitation in combination with a sustained melt water supply from the upstream parts of the basins. However, irrespective of the SSP and RCP, the water demand as a result of socio-economic growth is expected to increase extremely fast in the near future and this is likely to be the main adaptation challenge for the IGB as far as water shortages are concerned. Our results also show that regional and temporal variation in the water gap

  20. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  1. Modeling Elevation Equilibrium and Human Adaptation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasich, C. M.; Gilligan, J. M.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.; Wilson, C.

    2017-12-01

    The communities living in the low-lying tidal reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta rely on a system of polders (earthen-embanked landscapes) to prevent against tidal inundation and storm surge. These communities initially thrived as a result of poldering due to the increase in the total arable land, which presently helps sustain a population of 20 million people. However, poldering led to the unintended consequence of reducing water and sediment exchange between the polders and the tidal network, which has resulted in a significant elevation offset of 1-1.5 m relative to that of the natural landscape. This offset causes significant waterlogging which is problematic for rice cultivation. Engineering solutions, such as Tidal River Management (TRM), have been proposed to help alleviate this offset. Previous work suggests with proper implementation of TRM, polder elevations can successfully be reequilibrated to that of the natural elevation on timescales of 5-20 years. However, TRM implementation requires community commitment to allowing controlled tidal inundation. Here, we expand previous numerical simulations of sediment accumulation through field-based constraints of grain size, compaction, and sea level rise. We then model human decision-making for implementation of TRM practices using an agent-based model. Our sediment model employs a mass balance of sediment accumulation as a function of tidal height, suspended sediment concentration, settling velocity, and dry bulk density. We couple this sediment model to an agent-based model of human decision making. We model a hypothetical 500 x 300 m polder community with the lowest elevations in the middle and the highest elevations adjacent to the tidal channels. Landowners assess their risk and profit for future scenarios with and without TRM. All landowner decisions are aggregated and then a community decision is made on whether to implement TRM. Initial findings suggest that basic voting (majority rule) results in

  2. Coastal Dynamics of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, S.; Sousa, D.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we quantify erosional and depositional processes in the coastal zone (including tidal flats and river channels) of the lower Ganges Brahmaputra delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated, Landsat TM, ETM+ & OLI collected since 1988 allows for spatiotemporal (ST) analyses of both natural and anthropogenic processes in the coastal zone on seasonal to interannual time scales. We quantify changes in the coastal zone using 106 cloud-free acquisitions in the area of the 3 Landsat scenes spanning the lower delta. Changes are quantified using multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series and high spatial resolution (2-4 m) imagery post-2000 to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. Because water levels on the lower delta change by several meters on time scales of hours (tides), months (discharge) and years (relative sea level rise), we use a network of 11 tide gauges to distinguish the effects of these changes in the coastal zone imaged by Landsat. Cross spectral analysis of this network of tide gauge records quantifies the dominant periods and relative magnitudes as well as phase of water level variations across these time scales. Tide gauge records are used to identify Landsat scenes acquired at similar water levels as well as the effects of water level on variations in tidal flats. Water level and water leaving radiance are used to map spatiotemporal variations in suspended sediment. Tri-temporal change maps of SVD fractions show progressive changes of coastlines throughout the study period. We find significant change in tidal flats in acquisitions from different tidal heights, alluding to the importance of tidal phase in coastal analyses. Erosion of

  3. Food and Nutrition Security Trends, Determinants and Challenges in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, K.; van Soesbergen, A.; Matthews, Z.; Burgess, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the last 20 years many developing countries have made considerable progress towards improving food security and nutrition. However, progress across countries and dimensions of food security have been uneven. While challenges to food security in the context of environmental and climate changes have been studied widely, limited evidence exists for their implications for food and nutrition security in tropical deltaic regions. Delta areas are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. These include coastal flooding and storm surges, deforestation, changes to river flow patterns and water tables, increased soil salinity and water quality degradation. Due to the large number of people living in deltaic regions and their importance in regional food production, there is a pressing need for a better understanding on how environmental factors affect food security and malnutrition. This study explores the potential impacts and challenges posed by environmental and climate change on food and nutrition security in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. This delta is one of the world's largest delta's draining land from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India and Nepal. The delta makes up around two thirds of the country of Bangladesh, a country facing high levels of child undernutrition, child mortality and a high number of people living under extreme poverty. By combining spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Bangladesh with satellite remote sensing data (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) for relevant growing seasons of rice, the strength of association between this climate related environmental variable and indicators of child nutrition (wasting and stunting) in the delta were evaluated. Our results show that NDVI for the growing season of rice can be used to determine trends in rice production

  4. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement

  5. Resonance Transport of Graphene Nanoribbon T-Shaped Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Lan, Kong; Yong-Jian, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of T-shaped junctions composed of armchair graphene nanoribbons of different widths. Three types of junction geometries are considered. The junction conductance strongly depends on the atomic features of the junction geometry. When the shoulders of the junction have zigzag type edges, sharp conductance resonances usually appear in the low energy region around the Dirac point, and a conductance gap emerges. When the shoulders of the junction have armchair type edges, the conductance resonance behavior is weakened significantly, and the metal-metal-metal junction structures show semimetallic behaviors. The contact resistance also changes notably due to the various interface geometries of the junction

  6. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Yamashita, N.; Taniyasu, S.; Lam, P.K.S.; Sinha, R; Borole, D.V.; Kannan, K.

    and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L sup(-1), was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower...

  7. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  8. Electron optics with ballistic graphene junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaowen

    Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. A pn junction theoretically provides the equivalent of a negative index medium, enabling novel electron optics such as negative refraction and perfect (Veselago) lensing. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap bandstructure admit highly transparent pn junctions by simple electrostatic gating, which cannot be achieved in conventional semiconductors. Robust demonstration of these effects, however, has not been forthcoming. Here we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe propagation across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find perfect agreement with the predicted Snell's law for electrons, including observation of both positive and negative refraction. Resonant transmission across the pn junction provides a direct measurement of the angle dependent transmission coefficient, and we demonstrate good agreement with theory. Comparing experimental data with simulation reveals the crucial role played by the effective junction width, providing guidance for future device design. Efforts toward sharper pn junction and possibility of zero field Veselago lensing will also be discussed. This work is supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporations NRI Center for Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX).

  9. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  10. Shot noise in YBCO bicrystal Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    We measured spectral noise density in YBCO symmetric bicrystal Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates at bias voltages up to 100 mV and T 4.2 K. Normal state resistance of the Josephson junctions, R-N = 20-90 Omega and ICRN up to 2.2 mV have been observed in the experimental samples. Noise...... may explain the experimentally measured linewidth broadening of Josephson oscillations at mm and submm wave frequencies in high-Tc superconducting junctions. Experimental results are discussed in terms of bound states existing at surfaces of d-wave superconducting electrodes....

  11. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect...... the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements...

  12. Parametric frequency conversion in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, F.; Ashihara, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1976-01-01

    Current steps at voltages corresponding to the parametric coupling between an applied r.f. field and junction resonant modes have been observed in long Josephson tunnel junctions in the flux-flow state. The observed periodic variations of the step height due to the applied magnetic field are explained quantitatively by a perturbational analysis using Josephson phase equations. The present study demonstrates that the moving vortex array can serve as a coherent pump wave for signal waves propagating in the barrier region, which indicates, as a result, the possibility of traveling-wave parametric devices with long Josephson tunnel junctions. (author)

  13. Following a Military Defeat of ISIS in Syria and Iraq: What Happens Next after the Military Victory and the Return of Foreign Fighters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Speckhard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the struggle against ISIS and the so-called Islamic State, the United States and its allies continue to achieve significant military victories, as evidenced by the ongoing efforts to liberate the city of Mosul in Iraq. What happens next with the returning or migrating foreign fighters and with whatever remains of ISIS’ influence in the digital battle space where up to this point it has been winning? Evidence of the group inspiring, remotely recruiting and directing attacks in Europe and elsewhere, and its continued ability to attract foreign fighters to the actual battlefield makes it clear that ISIS may be losing the ground war in Syria and Iraq but winning in the other areas, especially in the digital battle space. The authors highlight the importance of creating compelling counter-narratives and products that compete with the prolific ISIS online campaigns.

  14. Relative impact of short-term emissions controls on gas and particle-phase oxidative potential during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Fang, Dongqing; Shang, Jing; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yang; Huo, Peng; Liu, Zhaoying; Schauer, James J.; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2018-06-01

    A field observation focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS) was conducted before, during, and after the 2015 China Victory Day Parade to understand the influence of short-term emissions controls on atmospheric oxidative activity. The hourly average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3, as well as gas and particle-phase ROS, were measured using a series of online instruments. PM2.5 concentrations during control days were significantly lower than non-control days, which directly lead to the "Parade Blue", yet reductions of most gaseous pollutants except SO2 were not so obvious as PM. Similarly, the control measures also led to a great loss of particle-phase ROS throughout the control period, while the reduction of ROS in gas phase was not obvious until the more stringent measures implemented since September 1. Furthermore, only weak positive correlations were observed among ROS and some other measured species, indicating ROS concentrations were affected by a number of comprehensive factors that single marker could not capture. Meanwhile, meteorological condition and regional transportation were also shown to be the minor factors affecting atmospheric oxidizing capacity. The results of this observation mainly revealed the control measures were conducive to reducing particle-related ROS. However, the reduction of gas-phase ROS activity was less effective given the menu of controls employed for the 2015 China Victory Day Parade. Therefore, short-term emissions controls only aimed to PM reduction and visibility improvement will produce the blue sky but will not equivalently reduce the gas-phase ROS. Supplemental control measures will be needed to further reduce gas-phase ROS concentrations.

  15. Tunnel junctions with multiferroic barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Martin; Bibes, Manuel; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fontcuberta, Josep; Barthélémy, Agnès; Fert, Albert

    2007-04-01

    Multiferroics are singular materials that can exhibit simultaneously electric and magnetic orders. Some are ferroelectric and ferromagnetic and provide the opportunity to encode information in electric polarization and magnetization to obtain four logic states. However, such materials are rare and schemes allowing a simple electrical readout of these states have not been demonstrated in the same device. Here, we show that films of La0.1Bi0.9MnO3 (LBMO) are ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, and retain both ferroic properties down to a thickness of 2nm. We have integrated such ultrathin multiferroic films as barriers in spin-filter-type tunnel junctions that exploit the magnetic and ferroelectric degrees of freedom of LBMO. Whereas ferromagnetism permits read operations reminiscent of magnetic random access memories (MRAM), the electrical switching evokes a ferroelectric RAM write operation. Significantly, our device does not require the destructive ferroelectric readout, and therefore represents an advance over the original four-state memory concept based on multiferroics.

  16. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Wen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)

  17. Josephson tunnel junctions in niobium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, Tapio.

    1976-12-01

    A method of fabricating stable Josephson tunnel junctions with reproducible characteristics is described. The junctions have a sandwich structure consisting of a vacuum evaporated niobium film, a niobium oxide layer produced by the glow discharge method and a lead film deposited by vacuum evaporation. Difficulties in producing thin-film Josephson junctions are discussed. Experimental results suggest that the lower critical field of the niobium film is the most essential parameter when evaluating the quality of these junctions. The dependence of the lower critical field on the film thickness and on the Ginzburg-Landau parameter of the film is studied analytically. Comparison with the properties of the evaporated films and with the previous calculations for bulk specimens shows that the presented model is applicable for most of the prepared samples. (author)

  18. Transparency of atom-sized superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van-der-Post, N.; Peters, E.T.; Van Ruitenbeek, J.M.; Yanson, I.K.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the transparency of atom-size superconducting tunnel junctions by comparing experimental values of the normal resistance and Subgap Structure with the theoretical predictions for these phenomena by Landauer's formula and Multiple Andreev Reflection, respectively

  19. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  20. Neutron induced permanent damage in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.P.; Rosen, M.

    1982-01-01

    14 MeV neutron induced permanent changes in the critical current density of Josephson junctions due to displacement damage in the junction barrier are estimated using a worst case model and the binary collision simulation code MARLOWE. No likelihood of single event hard upsets is found in this model. It is estimated that a fluence of 10 18 -10 19 neutrons/cm 2 are required to change the critical current density by 5%

  1. Exotic hadron and string junction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro

    1978-01-01

    Hadron structure is investigated adopting string junction model as a realization of confinement. Besides exotic hadrons (M 4 , B 5 etc.), unconventional hadrons appear. A mass formula for these hadrons is proposed. New selection rule is introduced which requires the covalence of constituent line at hadron vertex. New duality appears due to the freedom of junction, especially in anti BB→anti BB reaction. A possible assignment of exotic and unconventional hadrons to recently observed narrow meson states is presented. (auth.)

  2. Construction of tunable peptide nucleic acid junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Tanghui; He, Liu; Tokura, Yu; Liu, Xin; Wu, Yuzhou; Shi, Zhengshuang

    2018-03-15

    We report here the construction of 3-way and 4-way peptide nucleic acid (PNA) junctions as basic structural units for PNA nanostructuring. The incorporation of amino acid residues into PNA chains makes PNA nanostructures with more structural complexity and architectural flexibility possible, as exemplified by building 3-way PNA junctions with tunable nanopores. Given that PNA nanostructures have good thermal and enzymatic stabilities, they are expected to have broad potential applications in biosensing, drug delivery and bioengineering.

  3. Molecular Diffusion through Cyanobacterial Septal Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Flores, Enrique

    2017-01-03

    Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which intercellular molecular exchange takes place. During the differentiation of N 2 -fixing heterocysts, regulators are transferred between cells. In the diazotrophic filament, vegetative cells that fix CO 2 through oxygenic photosynthesis provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Intercellular molecular transfer has been traced with fluorescent markers, including calcein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and the sucrose analogue esculin, which are observed to move down their concentration gradient. In this work, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays in the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to measure the temperature dependence of intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers. We find that the transfer rate constants are directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This indicates that the "septal junctions" (formerly known as "microplasmodesmata") linking the cells in the filament allow molecular exchange by simple diffusion, without any activated intermediate state. This constitutes a novel mechanism for molecular transfer across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, in addition to previously characterized mechanisms for active transport and facilitated diffusion. Cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to the gap junctions of metazoans. Although bacteria are frequently considered just as unicellular organisms, there are bacteria that behave as true multicellular organisms. The heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which cells communicate. Intercellular molecular exchange is thought to be mediated by septal junctions. Here, we show that intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers in the cyanobacterial filament has the physical properties of simple diffusion. Thus, cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to metazoan gap junctions

  4. Spinal Gap Junction Channels in Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Young Hoon; Youn, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves or the spinal cord is often accompanied by neuropathic pain, which is a complex, chronic pain state. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in the expression and activity of gap junction channels in the spinal cord are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Thus, this review briefly summarizes evidence that regulation of the expression, coupling, and activity of spinal gap junction channels modulates pain signals in neuropathic pain states induced...

  5. Predictability of current and future multi-river discharges: Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Determining river discharge is of critical importance to many societies as they struggle with fresh water supply and risk of flooding. In Bangladesh, floods occur almost every year but with sufficient irregularity to have adverse social and economical consequences. Important goals are to predict the discharge to be used for the optimization of agricultural practices, disaster mitigation and water resource management. The aim of this study is to determine the predictability of river discharge in a number of major rivers on time scale varying from weeks to a century. We investigated predictability considering relationship between SST and discharge. Next, we consider IPCC model projections of river discharge while the models are statistically adjusted against observed discharges. In this study, we consider five rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yangtze, the Blue Nile, and the Murray-Darling Rivers. On seasonal time scales, statistically significant correlations are found between mean monthly equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the summer Ganges discharge with lead times of 2-3 months due to oscillations of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. In addition, there are strong correlations in the southwest and northeast Pacific. These, too, appear to be tied to the ENSO cycle. The Brahmaputra discharge, on the other hand, shows somewhat weaker relationships with tropical SST. Strong lagged correlations relationships are found with SST in the Bay of Bengal but these are the result of very warm SSTs and exceptional Brahmaputra discharge during the summer of 1998. When this year is removed from the time series, relationships weaken everywhere except in the northwestern Pacific for the June discharge and in areas of the central Pacific straddling the equator for the July discharge. The relationships are relative strong, but they are persistent from month to month and suggest that two different and sequential factors influence Brahmaputra

  6. Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.

  7. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  8. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  9. Josephson junctions of multiple superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Oindrila; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman

    2018-05-01

    We study the spectrum of Andreev bound states and Josephson currents across a junction of N superconducting wires which may have s - or p -wave pairing symmetries and develop a scattering matrix based formalism which allows us to address transport across such junctions. For N ≥3 , it is well known that Berry curvature terms contribute to the Josephson currents; we chart out situations where such terms can have relatively large effects. For a system of three s -wave or three p -wave superconductors, we provide analytic expressions for the Andreev bound-state energies and study the Josephson currents in response to a constant voltage applied across one of the wires; we find that the integrated transconductance at zero temperature is quantized to integer multiples of 4 e2/h , where e is the electron charge and h =2 π ℏ is Planck's constant. For a sinusoidal current with frequency ω applied across one of the wires in the junction, we find that Shapiro plateaus appear in the time-averaged voltage across that wire for any rational fractional multiple (in contrast to only integer multiples in junctions of two wires) of 2 e /(ℏ ω ) . We also use our formalism to study junctions of two p -wave and one s -wave wires. We find that the corresponding Andreev bound-state energies depend on the spin of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles; this produces a net magnetic moment in such junctions. The time variation of these magnetic moments may be controlled by an external voltage applied across the junction. We discuss experiments which may test our theory.

  10. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or π coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, π) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-π Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-π junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 . Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T → 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  11. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  12. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments investigated the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very-small-capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson-phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters. The experiments on small-capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the large-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wave function has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias

  13. Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions from the Short to the Long Junction Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenets, I V; Amet, F; Ke, C T; Draelos, A W; Wei, M T; Seredinski, A; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Bomze, Y; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S; Finkelstein, G

    2016-12-02

    We investigate the critical current I_{C} of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, I_{C} is found to scale as ∝exp(-k_{B}T/δE). The extracted energies δE are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T→0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δE (or Δ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes.

  14. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes....... In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing...... the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs...

  15. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.

    2014-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans

  16. Particle detection with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jany, P.

    1990-08-01

    At the Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics of the University of Karlsruhe (TH) and at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe we started to produce superconducting tunnel junctions and to investigate them for their suitability as particle detectors. The required facilities for the production of tunnel junctions and the experimental equipments to carry out experiments with them were erected. Experiments are presented in which radiations of different kinds of particles could successfully be measured with the tunnel junctions produced. At first we succeeded in detectioning light pulses of a laser. In experiments with alpha-particles of an energy of 4,6 MeV the alpha-particles were detected with an energy resolution of 1,1%, and it was shown in specific experiments that the phonons originating from the deposition of energy by an alpha-particle in the substrate can be detected with superconducting tunnel junctions at the surface. On that occasion it turned out that the signals could be separated with respect to their point of origin (tunnel junction, contact leads, substrate). Finally X-rays with an energy of 6 keV were detected with an energy resolution of 8% in a test arrangement that makes use of the so-called trapping effect to read out a larger absorber volume. (orig.) [de

  17. Joint diseases: from connexins to gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Henry J; Qu, Roy W; Genetos, Damian C

    2017-12-19

    Connexons form the basis of hemichannels and gap junctions. They are composed of six tetraspan proteins called connexins. Connexons can function as individual hemichannels, releasing cytosolic factors (such as ATP) into the pericellular environment. Alternatively, two hemichannel connexons from neighbouring cells can come together to form gap junctions, membrane-spanning channels that facilitate cell-cell communication by enabling signalling molecules of approximately 1 kDa to pass from one cell to an adjacent cell. Connexins are expressed in joint tissues including bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle and the synovium. Indicative of their importance as gap junction components, connexins are also known as gap junction proteins, but individual connexin proteins are gaining recognition for their channel-independent roles, which include scaffolding and signalling functions. Considerable evidence indicates that connexons contribute to the function of bone and muscle, but less is known about the function of connexons in other joint tissues. However, the implication that connexins and gap junctional channels might be involved in joint disease, including age-related bone loss, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, emphasizes the need for further research into these areas and highlights the therapeutic potential of connexins.

  18. Terahertz Responses of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High TC Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wu, P. H.; Yamashita, T.

    2001-01-01

    High frequency responses of intrinsic Josephson junctions up to 2.5THz, including the observation of Shapiro steps under various conditions, are reported and discussed in this Letter. The sample was an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions singled out from inside a high T C superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single crystal, with a bow-tie antenna integrated to it. The number of junctions in the array was controllable, the junctions were homogeneous, the distribution of applied irradiation among the junctions was even, and the junctions could synchronously respond to high frequency irradiation

  19. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

  20. The effects of crosscutting before gang-ripping on dimension part yields from no. 1 and 2A common red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1996-01-01

    Mills should have the option to crosscut red oak lumber prior to gang-ripping to remove crook and worthless material and to take advantage of the quality differences between board ends. At least half of No: 1 and 2A Common red oak boards will have end-to-end yield differences of at least 10 percent. Preprocessing will cause a slight decrease in overall yield but will...

  1. Phase-dependent noise in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Forrest; Peotta, Sebastiano; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    In addition to the usual superconducting current, Josephson junctions (JJs) support a phase-dependent conductance related to the retardation effect of tunneling quasi-particles. This introduces a dissipative current with a memory-resistive (memristive) character that should also affect the current noise. By means of the microscopic theory of tunnel junctions we compute the complete current autocorrelation function of a Josephson tunnel junction and show that this memristive component gives rise to both a previously noted phase-dependent thermal noise, and an undescribed non-stationary, phase-dependent dynamic noise. As experiments are approaching ranges in which these effects may be observed, we examine the form and magnitude of these processes. Their phase dependence can be realized experimentally as a hysteresis effect and may be used to probe defects present in JJ based qubits and in other superconducting electronics applications.

  2. Phonon spectroscopy with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions can be used as generators and detectors of monochromatic phonons of frequency larger than 80 GHz, as was first devised by Eisenmenger and Dayem (1967) and Kinder (1972a, 1973). In this report, we intend to give a general outline of this type of spectroscopy and to present the results obtained so far. The basic physics underlying phonon generation and detection are described in chapter I, a wider approach being given in the references therein. In chapter II, the different types of junctions are considered with respect to their use. Chapter III deals with the evaporation technique for the superconducting junctions. The last part of this report is devoted to the results that we have obtained on γ-irradiated LiF, pure Si and Phosphorous implanted Si. In these chapters, the limitations of the spectrometer are brought out and suggestions for further work are given [fr

  3. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  4. Tunnel magnetoresistance in double spin filter junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Alireza

    2003-01-01

    We consider a new type of magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of two ferromagnetic tunnel barriers acting as spin filters (SFs), separated by a nonmagnetic metal (NM) layer. Using the transfer matrix method and the free-electron approximation, the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) on the thickness of the central NM layer, bias voltage and temperature in the double SF junction are studied theoretically. It is shown that the TMR and electron-spin polarization in this structure can reach very large values under suitable conditions. The highest value of the TMR can reach 99%. By an appropriate choice of the thickness of the central NM layer, the degree of spin polarization in this structure will be higher than that of the single SF junctions. These results may be useful in designing future spin-polarized tunnelling devices

  5. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmel, Nico

    2015-07-23

    Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO{sub x} vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially

  6. Electrical analog of a Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that a mathematical description of the phase-coupling of two oscillators synchronized by a phase-lock-loop under the influence of thermal white noise is analogous to that of the phase coupling of two superconductors in a Josephson junction also under the influence of noise. This analogy may be useful in studying threshold instabilities of the Josephson junction in regimes not restricted to the case of large damping. This is of interest because the behavior of the mean voltage near the threshold current can be characterized by critical exponents which resemble those exhibited by an order parameter of a continuous phase transition. As it is possible to couple a collection of oscillators together in a chain, the oscillator analogy may also be useful in exploring the dynamics and statistical mechanics of coupled junctions

  7. Thermionic refrigeration at CNT-CNT junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Pipe, K. P.

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to study carrier energy relaxation following thermionic emission at the junction of two van der Waals bonded single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). An energy-dependent transmission probability gives rise to energy filtering at the junction, which is predicted to increase the average electron transport energy by as much as 0.115 eV, leading to an effective Seebeck coefficient of 386 μV/K. MC results predict a long energy relaxation length (˜8 μm) for hot electrons crossing the junction into the barrier SWCNT. For SWCNTs of optimal length, an analytical transport model is used to show that thermionic cooling can outweigh parasitic heat conduction due to high SWCNT thermal conductivity, leading to a significant cooling capacity (2.4 × 106 W/cm2).

  8. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himmel, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO x vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni 60 Cu 40 vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially a variation of

  9. Fifteen Years (1993–2007 of Surface Freshwater Storage Variability in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Basin Using Multi-Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Salameh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water storage is a key component of the terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical cycles that also plays a major role in water resources management. In this study, surface water storage (SWS variations are estimated at monthly time-scale over 15 years (1993–2007 using a hypsographic approach based on the combination of topographic information from Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP-based Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEM and the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS product in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. The monthly variations of the surface water storage are in good accordance with precipitation from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, river discharges at the outlet of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, and terrestrial water storage (TWS from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE, with correlations higher than 0.85. Surface water storage presents a strong seasonal signal (~496 km3 estimated by GIEMS/ASTER and ~378 km3 by GIEMS/HyMAPs, representing ~51% and ~41% respectively of the total water storage signal and it exhibits a large inter-annual variability with strong negative anomalies during the drought-like conditions of 1994 or strong positive anomalies such as in 1998. This new dataset of SWS is a new, highly valuable source of information for hydrological and climate modeling studies of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin.

  10. Mechanically controllable break junctions for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dong; Jeong, Hyunhak; Lee, Takhee; Mayer, Dirk

    2013-09-20

    A mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) represents a fundamental technique for the investigation of molecular electronic junctions, especially for the study of the electronic properties of single molecules. With unique advantages, the MCBJ technique has provided substantial insight into charge transport processes in molecules. In this review, the techniques for sample fabrication, operation and the various applications of MCBJs are introduced and the history, challenges and future of MCBJs are discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...

  12. Fluctuation of heat current in Josephson junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Virtanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the statistics of heat current between two superconductors at different temperatures connected by a generic weak link. As the electronic heat in superconductors is carried by Bogoliubov quasiparticles, the heat transport fluctuations follow the Levitov–Lesovik relation. We identify the energy-dependent quasiparticle transmission probabilities and discuss the resulting probability density and fluctuation relations of the heat current. We consider multichannel junctions, and find that heat transport in diffusive junctions is unique in that its statistics is independent of the phase difference between the superconductors.

  13. Superconductive junctions for x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, J.B. le; Bruijn, M.P.; Frericks, M.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Houwman, E.P.; Flokstra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Biasing of SIS-junctions for the purpose of high energy resolution x-ray detection is complicated by the presence of a DC Josephson current and AC Josephson current resonances, so that a large magnetic field is normally used for the suppression of these Josephson features. A transimpedance amplifier is proposed for biasing and signal amplification at low magnetic field. X-ray spectroscopy detectors for astronomy require a high detection efficiency in the 0.5-10 keV energy band and a reasonable (∼1 cm 2 ) detector area. Calculations on absorber-junctions combinations which might meet these requirements are presented. (author) 9 refs.; 10 figs

  14. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  15. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased

  16. Gap junctions-guards of excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances...... of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane....

  17. Common features of a vortex structure in long exponentially shaped Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadjiev, T.L.; Semerdjieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the vortex structure in three different models of the long Josephson junction: the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the Josephson junctions with the resistor and the shunt inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. For these three models the critical curves 'critical current-magnetic field' are numerically constructed. We develop the idea of the equivalence of the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the rectangular junction with the distributed inhomogeneity and demonstrate that at some parameters of the shunt and the resistor inhomogeneities in the ends of the junction the corresponding critical curves are very close to the exponentially shaped one

  18. Modulation of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Plume by the Indian Ocean Dipole and Eddies Inferred From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Lee, T.; Gierach, M. M.; Chaitanya, A. V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal receives large amounts of freshwater from the Ganga-Brahmaputra (GB) river during the summer monsoon. The resulting upper-ocean freshening influences seasonal rainfall, cyclones, and biological productivity. Sparse in situ observations and previous modeling studies suggest that the East India Coastal Current (EICC) transports these freshwaters southward after the monsoon as an approximately 200 km wide, 2,000 km long "river in the sea" along the East Indian coast. Sea surface salinity (SSS) from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite provides unprecedented views of this peculiar feature from intraseasonal to interannual timescales. SMAP SSS has a 0.83 correlation and 0.49 rms-difference to 0-5 m in situ measurements. SMAP and in stu data both indicate a SSS standard deviation of ˜0.7 to 1 away from the coast, that rises to 2 pss within 100 km of the coast, providing a very favorable signal-to-noise ratio in coastal areas. SMAP also captures the strong northern BoB, postmonsoon cross-shore SSS contrasts (˜10 pss) measured along ship transects. SMAP data are also consistent with previous modeling results that suggested a modulation of the EICC/GB plume southward extent by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Remote forcing associated with the negative Indian Ocean Dipole in the fall of 2016 indeed caused a stronger EICC and "river in the sea" that extended by approximately 800 km further south than that in 2015 (positive IOD year). The combination of SMAP and altimeter data shows eddies stirring the freshwater plume away from the coast.Plain Language SummaryThe Bay of Bengal receives large quantity of freshwater from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river during the monsoon. The resulting low-salinity sea surface has strong implications for the regional climate and living marine resources. In situ observations are too sparse to provide salinity maps in this basin, even every 3 months. In contrast, the SMAP satellite provides maps at 40 km resolution

  19. Post-glacial climate forcing of surface processes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin and implications for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher J.; Galy, Valier; Galy, Albert; France-Lanord, Christian; Kudrass, Hermann; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2017-11-01

    Climate has been proposed to control both the rate of terrestrial silicate weathering and the export rate of associated sediments and terrestrial organic carbon to river-dominated margins - and thus the rate of sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the coastal ocean - over glacial-interglacial timescales. Focused on the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers, this study presents records of post-glacial changes in basin-scale Indian summer monsoon intensity and vegetation composition based on stable hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic compositions of terrestrial plant wax compounds preserved in the channel-levee system of the Bengal Fan. It then explores the role of these changes in controlling the provenance and degree of chemical weathering of sediments exported by these rivers, and the potential climate feedbacks through organic-carbon burial in the Bengal Fan. An observed 40‰ shift in δD and a 3-4‰ shift in both bulk organic-carbon and plant-wax δ13C values between the late glacial and mid-Holocene, followed by a return to more intermediate values during the late Holocene, correlates well with regional post-glacial paleoclimate records. Sediment provenance proxies (Sr, Nd isotopic compositions) reveal that these changes likely coincided with a subtle focusing of erosion on the southern flank of the Himalayan range during periods of greater monsoon strength and enhanced sediment discharge. However, grain-size-normalized organic-carbon concentrations in the Bengal Fan remained constant through time, despite order-of-magnitude level changes in catchment-scale monsoon precipitation and enhanced chemical weathering (recorded as a gradual increase in K/Si* and detrital carbonate content, and decrease in H2O+/Si*, proxies) throughout the study period. These findings demonstrate a partial decoupling of climate change and silicate weathering during the Holocene and that marine organic-carbon sequestration rates primary reflect rates of physical erosion and sediment export

  20. Atomic-scaled characterization of graphene PN junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Wang, Dennis; Dadgar, Ali; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Pasupathy, Abhay N.

    Graphene p-n junctions are essential devices for studying relativistic Klein tunneling and the Veselago lensing effect in graphene. We have successfully fabricated graphene p-n junctions using both lithographically pre-patterned substrates and the stacking of vertical heterostructures. We then use our 4-probe STM system to characterize the junctions. The ability to carry out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in our STM instrument is essential for us to locate and measure the junction interface. We obtain both the topography and dI/dV spectra at the junction area, from which we track the shift of the graphene chemical potential with position across the junction interface. This allows us to directly measure the spatial width and roughness of the junction and its potential barrier height. We will compare the junction properties of devices fabricated by the aforementioned two methods and discuss their effects on the performance as a Veselago lens.

  1. Structure modeling and mutational analysis of gap junction beta 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Three dimensional (3 D) structure is very useful for understanding biological functions. Gap junction beta 2 (GJB2), human gene encoding for gap junction beta 2 protein is involved in ... Research in deafness became real.

  2. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Tang, Jiang; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum

  3. The consummation of the kingdom of God. Reflections on the final victory of Christ as portrayed in Paul’s first Epistle to the Corinthians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Potgieter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on 1 Corinthians 15:24-28 raise the question whether eschatology should be focused on Christ, or should rather be viewed theocentrically. A study of the mediatory reign of Christ clearly favours the notion of an intermediate kingdom, during which He will subjugate and destroy the “powers” and the enemies of the kingdom. Having achieved the final victory over death itself, the need for an intermediate rule of Christ no longer exists. However, the office of Mediator is unquestionably linked to Christ’s humanity. This again brings to the fore the question whether Christ will retain his human nature after the consummation of his kingdom. Although it remains an open question in Reformed theology whether Christ will relinquish his human nature at the end of this dispensation, it is argued that in the next dispensation He will no longer serve in the office of Mediator, but that He will reign as the Lamb of God in the stature of the eternal Son of God.

  4. Macroscopic Refrigeration Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Peter; O'Neil, Galen; Underwood, Jason; Zhang, Xiaohang; Ullom, Joel

    2014-03-01

    Sub-kelvin temperatures are often a prerequisite for modern scientific experiments, such as quantum information processing, astrophysical missions looking for dark energy signatures and tabletop time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. Existing methods of reaching these temperatures, such as dilution refrigerators, are bulky and costly. In order to increase the accessibility of sub-Kelvin temperatures, we have developed a new method of refrigeration using normal-metal/insulator/superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. NIS junctions cool the electrons in the normal metal since the hottest electrons selectively tunnel from the normal metal into the superconductor. By extending the normal metal onto a thermally isolated membrane, the cold electrons can cool the phonons through the electron-phonon coupling. When these junctions are combined with a pumped 3He system, they provide a potentially inexpensive method of reaching these temperatures. Using only three devices, each with a junction area of approximately 3,500 μm2, we have cooled a 2 cm3 Cu plate from 290 mK to 256 mK. We will present these experimental results along with recent modeling predictions that strongly suggest that further refinements will allow cooling from 300 mK to 120 mK. This work is supported by the NASA APRA program.

  5. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer

    2015-01-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...

  6. Double-barrier junction based dc SQUID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartolomé, M.E.; Brinkman, Alexander; Flokstra, Jakob; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Rogalla, Horst

    2000-01-01

    dc SQUIDs based on double-barrier Nb/Al/AlOx/Al/AlOx/Al/Nb junctions (DBSQs) have been fabricated and tested for the first time. The current–voltage curves have been measured at temperatures down to 1.4 K. The critical current, Ic, dependence on the temperature T is partially described by the

  7. Anatomy of the human atrioventricular junctions revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, R. H.; Ho, S. Y.; Becker, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    There have been suggestions made recently that our understanding of the atrioventricular junctions of the heart is less than adequate, with claims for several new findings concerning the arrangement of the ordinary working myocardium and the specialised pathways for atrioventricular conduction. In

  8. CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs

  9. Axial p-n-junctions in nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C; Shik, A; Byrne, K; Lynall, D; Blumin, M; Saveliev, I; Ruda, H E

    2015-02-27

    The charge distribution and potential profile of p-n-junctions in thin semiconductor nanowires (NWs) were analyzed. The characteristics of screening in one-dimensional systems result in a specific profile with large electric field at the boundary between the n- and p- regions, and long tails with a logarithmic drop in the potential and charge density. As a result of these tails, the junction properties depend sensitively on the geometry of external contacts and its capacity has an anomalously large value and frequency dispersion. In the presence of an external voltage, electrons and holes in the NWs can not be described by constant quasi-Fermi levels, due to small values of the average electric field, mobility, and lifetime of carriers. Thus, instead of the classical Sah-Noice-Shockley theory, the junction current-voltage characteristic was described by an alternative theory suitable for fast generation-recombination and slow diffusion-drift processes. For the non-uniform electric field in the junction, this theory predicts the forward branch of the characteristic to have a non-ideality factor η several times larger than the values 1 < η < 2 from classical theory. Such values of η have been experimentally observed by a number of researchers, as well as in the present work.

  10. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by

  11. Fluxon density waves in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the multiple fluxon dynamics stimulated by an external oscillating force applied at a boundary of a long Josephson junction are presented. The calculated IV characteristics agree well with a recent experimental observation of rf-induced satellite flux-flow steps. The volt...... density waves....

  12. Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1982-01-01

    A detailed numerical study of a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson tunnel junction is compared with experimental measurements on junctions with different L / λJ ratios. The soliton picture is found to apply well on both relatively long (L / λJ=6) and intermediate (L / λJ=2) junctions. We find good...... agreement for the current-voltage characteristics, power output, and for the shape and height of the zero-field steps (ZFS). Two distinct modes of soliton oscillations are observed: (i) a bunched or congealed mode giving rise to the fundamental frequency f1 on all ZFS's and (ii) a "symmetric" mode which...... on the Nth ZFS yields the frequency Nf1 Coexistence of two adjacent frequencies is found on the third ZFS of the longer junction (L / λJ=6) in a narrow range of bias current as also found in the experiments. Small asymmetries in the experimental environment, a weak magnetic field, e.g., is introduced via...

  13. Dissipative current in SIFS Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenko, A.; Kawabata, S.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu; Hekking, F.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (SIFS) tunnel Josephson junctions in the dirty limit, using the quasiclassical theory. We consider the case of a strong tunnel barrier such that the left S layer and the right FS bilayer are decoupled. We calculate quantitatively the

  14. CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs.

  15. The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, A. S.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a new insight into the anti-reflux mechanism of the ureterovesical junction by studying the topographical anatomy of the juxta- and intravesical ureter and its relationship to the surrounding bladder musculature. Fresh pig bladders were fixed, frozen and serially sectioned. Enzyme

  16. Critical current of pure SNS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.A.; Bezzub, O.P.

    1982-01-01

    Boundary conditions at the superconductor-normal metal interface are determined, taking into account the differences in the effective masses and the density of states of the metals constituting the transition and assumed to be pure. The potential barrier of the interface is chosen to be zero. The critical current of the junction is calculated [ru

  17. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...

  18. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jung; Hsu, Ya-Fen

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. Here we study this effect in an excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ϕ0 applied. Such a junction is proposed to take place in the quantum Hall bilayer (QHB) that makes it subtler than in superconductor because of the counterflow of excitonic supercurrent and the interlayer tunneling in QHB. We treat the system theoretically by first mapping it into a pseudospin ferromagnet then describing it by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, the excitonic Josephson junction can possess a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons that resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Interestingly, each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q which is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The resultant current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π are the lowest energy states for small ϕ0. When ϕ0 > π , solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π - 1 take place - the polarity of CPR is then switched.

  19. Constructing carbon nanotube junctions by Ar ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq, Ahmad; Ni Zhichun; Yan Long; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) irradiated by Ar ion beams at elevated temperature were studied. The irradiation-induced defects in CNTs are greatly reduced by elevated temperature. Moreover, the two types of CNT junctions, the crossing junction and the parallel junction, were formed. And the CNT networks may be fabricated by the two types of CNT junctions. The formation process and the corresponding mechanism of CNT networks are discussed.

  20. Absolute migration and the evolution of the Rodriguez triple junction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) is a junction connecting three mid-ocean ridges in the Indian Ocean: the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). The evolution of the RTJ has been studied extensively for the past 10 Ma and the triple junction is believed to ...

  1. Junction depth dependence of breakdown in silicon detector diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, G.A.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Munday, D.J.; Pritchard, T.W.; Robinson, D.; Wilburn, C.D.; Wyllie, K.

    1996-01-01

    The high voltage capability of detector diodes fabricated in the planar process is limited by the high field generated at the edge of the junction.We have fabricated diodes with increased junction depth with respect to our standard process and find a significantly higher breakdown voltage,in reasonable agreement with previous studies of junction breakdown. (orig.)

  2. Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2007-01-01

    A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...... transition, induced by the cavity, to a bunched state....

  3. Phenomenological approach to bistable behavior of Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, K.; Nara, S.; Hamanaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of unbiased Josephson junction with external electromagnetic field in the presence of externally applied uniform magnetic field is theoretically examined by means of phenomenological treatment. It is proposed that an irradiated junction with suitably chosen parameters shows a bistable behavior of voltage across the junction as a function of the radiation intensity

  4. Systematic study of shallow junction formation on germanium substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellings, Geert; Rosseel, Erik; Clarysse, Trudo

    2011-01-01

    Published results on Ge junctions are benchmarked systematically using RS–XJ plots. The electrical activation level required to meet the ITRS targets is calculated. Additionally, new results are presented on shallow furnace-annealed B junctions and shallow laser-annealed As junctions. Co-implanting...

  5. The anatomical locus of T-junction processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirillo, James A

    2009-07-01

    Inhomogeneous surrounds can produce either asymmetrical or symmetrical increment/decrement induction by orienting T-junctions to selectively group a test patch with surrounding regions [Melfi, T., & Schirillo, J. (2000). T-junctions in inhomogeneous surrounds. Vision Research, 40, 3735-3741]. The current experiments aimed to determine where T-junctions are processed by presenting each eye with a different image so that T-junctions exist only in the fused percept. Only minor differences were found between retinal and cortical versus cortical-only conditions, indicating that T-junctions are processed cortically.

  6. Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse......Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...

  7. Phase diagrams of particles with dissimilar patches: X-junctions and Y-junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, J M; Teixeira, P I C

    2012-01-01

    We use Wertheim’s first-order perturbation theory to investigate the phase behaviour and the structure of coexisting fluid phases for a model of patchy particles with dissimilar patches (two patches of type A and f B patches of type B). A patch of type α = {A,B} can bond to a patch of type β = {A,B} in a volume v αβ , thereby decreasing the internal energy by ε αβ . We analyse the range of model parameters where AB bonds, or Y-junctions, are energetically disfavoured (ε AB AA /2) but entropically favoured (v AB ≫ v αα ), and BB bonds, or X-junctions, are energetically favoured (ε BB > 0). We show that, for low values of ε BB /ε AA , the phase diagram has three different regions: (i) close to the critical temperature a low-density liquid composed of long chains and rich in Y-junctions coexists with a vapour of chains; (ii) at intermediate temperatures there is coexistence between a vapour of short chains and a liquid of very long chains with X- and Y-junctions; (iii) at low temperatures an ideal gas coexists with a high-density liquid with all possible AA and BB bonds formed. It is also shown that in region (i) the liquid binodal is reentrant (its density decreases with decreasing temperature) for the lower values of ε BB /ε AA . The existence of these three regions is a consequence of the competition between the formation of X- and Y-junctions: X-junctions are energetically favoured and thus dominate at low temperatures, whereas Y-junctions are entropically favoured and dominate at higher temperatures. (paper)

  8. Single-electron tunnel junction array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likharev, K.K.; Bakhvalov, N.S.; Kazacha, G.S.; Serdyukova, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have carried out an analysis of statics and dynamics of uniform one-dimensional arrays of ultrasmall tunnel junctions. The correlated single-electron tunneling in the junctions of the array results in its behavior qualitatively similar to that of the Josephson transmission line. In particular, external electric fields applied to the array edges can inject single-electron-charged solitons into the array interior. Shape of such soliton and character of its interactions with other solitons and the array edges are very similar to those of the Josephson vortices (sine-Gordon solitons) in the Josephson transmission line. Under certain conditions, a coherent motion of the soliton train along the array is possible, resulting in generation of narrowband SET oscillations with frequency f/sub s/ = /e where is the dc current flowing along the array

  9. Electron transport in doped fullerene molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Milanpreet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    The effect of doping on the electron transport of molecular junctions is analyzed in this paper. The doped fullerene molecules are stringed to two semi-infinite gold electrodes and analyzed at equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions of these device configurations. The contemplation is done using nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF)-density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate its density of states (DOS), transmission coefficient, molecular orbitals, electron density, charge transfer, current, and conductance. We conclude from the elucidated results that Au-C16Li4-Au and Au-C16Ne4-Au devices behave as an ordinary p-n junction diode and a Zener diode, respectively. Moreover, these doped fullerene molecules do not lose their metallic nature when sandwiched between the pair of gold electrodes.

  10. Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, A.; Petricoin, E.F.; Geho, D.H.; Liotta, L.A.; Long, D.P.; Vaisman, I.I.

    2008-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nano electronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.

  11. Electron and Phonon Transport in Molecular Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qian

    Molecular electronics provide the possibility to investigate electron and phonon transport at the smallest imaginable scale, where quantum effects can be investigated and exploited directly in the design. In this thesis, we study both electron transport and phonon transport in molecular junctions....... The system we are interested in here are π-stacked molecules connected with two semi-infinite leads. π-stacked aromatic rings, connected via π-π electronic coupling, provides a rather soft mechanical bridge while maintaining high electronic conductivity. We investigate electron transport...... transmission at the Fermi energy. We propose and analyze a way of using π   stacking to design molecular junctions to control heat transport. We develop a simple model system to identify optimal parameter regimes and then use density functional theory (DFT) to extract model parameters for a number of specific...

  12. Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ling [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Taki, Masato [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Yagi, Futoshi [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T{sub N} SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W{sub N} Toda theories.

  13. Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Ling; Mitev, Vladimir

    2013-10-01

    In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T N SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W N Toda theories.

  14. Fractional flux quanta in Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, E.; Buckenmaier, K.; Gaber, T.; Kemmler, M.; Pfeiffer, J.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R. [Physikalisches Inst. - Experimentalphysik II, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, M.; Kohlstedt, H. [Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology (CNI), Research Centre Juelich (Germany); Siegel, M. [Inst. fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Fractional Josephson vortices may appear in the so-called 0-{kappa} Josephson junctions ({kappa} is an arbitrary number) and carry magnetic flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Their properties are very different from the usual integer fluxons: they are pinned, and often represent the ground state of the system with spontaneous circulating supercurrent. They behave as well controlled macroscopic spins and can be used to construct bits, qubits, tunable photonic crystals and to study the (quantum) physics of spin systems. In this talk we discuss recent advances in 0-{pi} junction technology and present recent experimental results: evidence of the spontaneous flux in the ground state, spectroscopy of the fractional vortex eigenfrequencies and observation of dynamics effects related to the flipping of the fractional vortices. (orig.)

  15. Relaxation oscillation logic in Josephson junction circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    A dc powered, self-resetting Josephson junction logic circuit relying on relaxation oscillations is described. A pair of Josephson junction gates are connected in series, a first shunt is connected in parallel with one of the gates, and a second shunt is connected in parallel with the series combination of gates. The resistance of the shunts and the dc bias current bias the gates so that they are capable of undergoing relaxation oscillations. The first shunt forms an output line whereas the second shunt forms a control loop. The bias current is applied to the gates so that, in the quiescent state, the gate in parallel with the second shunt is at V O, and the other gate is undergoing relaxation oscillations. By controlling the state of the first gate with the current in the output loop of another identical circuit, the invert function is performed

  16. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa(non-herlitz type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhinder, M. A.; Arshad, M. W.; Shabbir, M. I.; Zahoor, M. Y.; Shehzad, W.; Tariq, M.

    2017-01-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a recessively inherited skin blistering disease and is caused due to abnormalities in proteins that hold layers of the skin. Herlitz JEB is the severe form and non-Herlitz JEB is the milder form. This report describes a case of congenitally affected male child aged 5 years, with skin blistering. He has mitten-like hands and soft skin blistering on hands, legs and knees. Symptoms almost disappeared at the age of 3 years but reappeared with increased severity after 6 months. Histopathological examination showed epidermal detachment with intact basal cell layer and sparse infiltrate of lymphocytes with few eosinophils in the dermis. There was no blistering on the moist lining of the mouth and digestive tract. Localized symptoms with less lethality and histopathological examination indicated the presence of non-Herlitz type of JEB. This is the first report which confirms the presence of non-Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Pakistan. (author)

  17. Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (Non-Herlitz Type).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhinder, Munir Ahmad; Arshad, Muhammad Waqar; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Shehzad, Wasim; Tariq, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Imran

    2017-05-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a recessively inherited skin blistering disease and is caused due to abnormalities in proteins that hold layers of the skin. Herlitz JEB is the severe form and non-Herlitz JEB is the milder form. This report describes a case of congenitally affected male child aged 5 years, with skin blistering. He has mitten-like hands and soft skin blistering on hands, legs and knees. Symptoms almost disappeared at the age of 3 years but reappeared with increased severity after 6 months. Histopathological examination showed epidermal detachment with intact basal cell layer and sparse infiltrate of lymphocytes with few eosinophils in the dermis. There was no blistering on the moist lining of the mouth and digestive tract. Localized symptoms with less lethality and histopathological examination indicated the presence of non-Herlitz type of JEB. This is the first report which confirms the presence of non-Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Pakistan.

  18. Defect formation in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordeeva, Anna; Pankratov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    We study numerically a mechanism of vortex formation in a long Josephson junction within the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon model. This mechanism is switched on below the critical temperature. It is shown that the number of fluxons versus velocity of cooling roughly scales according...... to the power law with the exponent of either 0.25 or 0.5 depending on the temperature variation in the critical current density....

  19. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, A.‐M.; Rusbridge, C.; Laitinen‐Vapaavuori, O.; Hielm‐Björkman, A.; Lappalainen, A.K.; Knowler, S.P.; Jokinen, T.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. Objectives: To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neuro...

  20. Nonlinearity in superconductivity and Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarides, N.

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of the Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffers (BCS) theory, the influence of anisotropy on superconducting states are investigated. Crystal anisotropy exists in un-conventional low temperature superconductors as e.g. U 1-x Th x Be 13 and in high temperature superconductors. Starting from a phenomenological pairing interaction of the electrons or holes, the BCS approach is used to derive a set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations for the momentum dependent gap parameter. The emphasis is put on bifurcation phenomena between s-, d-wave and mixed s- and d-wave symmetry and the influence on measurable quantities as the electron specific heat, spin susceptibility and Josephson tunnelling. Pitch-fork and perturbed pitch-fork bifurcations have been found separating s- and d-wave superconducting states from mixed s- and d-wave states. The additional superconducting states give rise to jumps in the electron specific heat below the transition temperature. These jumps are rounded in the case of perturbed pitch-fork bifurcations. An experiment to measure the sign of the interlayer interaction using dc SQUIDS is suggested. The Ambegaokar-Baratoff formalism has been used for calculating the quasiparticle current and the two phase coherent tunnelling currents in a Josephson junction made of anisotropic superconductors. It is shown that anisotropy can lead to a reduction in the product of the normal resistance and the critical current. For low voltages across the junction the usual resistively shunted Josephson model can be used. Finally, bunching in long circular Josephson junctions and suppression of chaos in point junctions have been investigated. (au) 113 refs

  1. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ? 0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numeric...

  2. Channel Capture as a Response to Anthropogenic Modification of a Tidal Landscape: Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Bain, R. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of tidal channel dynamics frequently emphasize "morphologically short" spatial scales (i.e., settings in which the cross-system tidal propagation time is negligible) or idealized single-channel planforms. In contrast, tides in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) propagate more than 100 kilometers inland from the coast through a network of interconnected tidal estuaries, producing complex hydrodynamic behavior that remains poorly understood. Intense anthropogenic modification of the GBMD landscape further complicates tidally-driven, natural delta surface maintenance. Analyzing this system is particularly urgent given the current trend of rising sea level and its associated impacts on coastal communities.We present results from an ongoing field investigation of tidal waveform interaction and mass exchange between the Pussur and Shibsa Rivers, two large macrotidal estuaries in the southwestern GBMD. In the 1960s, construction of earthen embankments ("polders") eliminated regular tidal inundation for a vast region of the tidal platform, shrinking the Shibsa and Pussur basins by an estimated 1000 km2 and 700 km2, respectively. Conservation of mass predicts that a reduction in tidal basin area will decrease peak flow velocities and induce channel siltation; indeed, 100 km2 of secondary channels at the distal end of the tidal range have partly or fully closed in recent decades. The Pussur is likewise rapidly shoaling, restricting navigational access along a major shipping route. However, discharge and bathymetric datasets indicate that the adjacent Shibsa conveys three to four times more water than the Pussur and is actively scouring its bed, contrary to its predicted response to polder construction. Our field measurements are consistent with an ongoing channel capture event in which the Shibsa floods and drains a progressively greater portion of the former Pussur basin, allowing the Shibsa to widen and deepen despite the regional trend of channel

  3. A semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction microwave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Maja; Uilhoorn, Willemijn; Kroll, James; de Jong, Damaz; van Woerkom, David; Nygard, Jesper; Krogstrup, Peter; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    We present measurements of microwave lasing from a single Al/InAs/Al nanowire Josephson junction strongly coupled to a high quality factor superconducting cavity. Application of a DC bias voltage to the Josephson junction results in photon emission into the cavity when the bias voltage is equal to a multiple of the cavity frequency. At large voltage biases, the strong non-linearity of the circuit allows for efficient down conversion of high frequency microwave photons down to multiple photons at the fundamental frequency of the cavity. In this regime, the emission linewidth narrows significantly below the bare cavity linewidth to 50%. The junction-cavity coupling and laser emission can be tuned rapidly via an external gate, making it suitable to be integrated into a scalable qubit architecture as a versatile source of coherent microwave radiation. This work has been supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/OCW), Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), European Research Council (ERC), and Microsoft Corporation Station Q.

  4. Post-flood status of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae in the Koshi River, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for animals by boat from Chatara to the Koshi Barrage including the Triyuga River and on foot along the river banks downstream of Koshi Barrage and along the Mariya River. Standard protocols were followed to record the number of sighted dolphins. A total of 11 dolphins were recorded in the entire 49-km river stretch with an encounter rate of 0.23 dolphins per km. The current result showed an encouraging population of dolphins in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone but the threats for conservation still remain challenging. Close monitoring of dolphins and their habitats involving local communities are required for long term conservation of the river dolphins in Nepal. The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for

  5. Electron Transport through Porphyrin Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi

    The goal of this work is to study the properties that would affect the electron transport through a porphyrin molecular junction. This work contributes to the field of electron transport in molecular junctions in the following 3 aspects. First of all, by carrying out experiments comparing the conductance of the iron (III) porphyrin (protected) and the free base porphyrin (protected), it is confirmed that the molecular energy level broadening and shifting occurs for porphyrin molecules when coupled with the metal electrodes, and this level broadening and shifting plays an important role in the electron transport through molecular junctions. Secondly, by carrying out an in-situ deprotection of the acetyl-protected free base porphyrin molecules, it is found out that the presence of acetyl groups reduces the conductance. Thirdly, by incorporating the Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectrum and the in-situ deprotection prior to formation of molecular junctions, it allows a more precise understanding of the molecules involved in the formation of molecular junctions, and therefore allows an accurate analysis of the conductance histogram. The molecules are prepared by self-assembly and the junctions are formed using a Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) molecular break junction technique. The porphyrin molecules are characterized by MALDI in solution before self-assembly to a gold/mica substrate. The self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of porphyrins on gold are characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) reflection spectroscopy to confirm that the molecules are attached to the substrate. The SAMs are then characterized by Angle-Resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) to determine the thickness and the average molecular orientation of the molecular layer. The electron transport is measured by conductance-displacement (G-S) experiments under a given bias (-0.4V). The conductance value of a single molecule is identified by a statistical analysis

  6. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2011-10-18

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  7. Electromagnetic waves in single- and multi-Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    The terahertz wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junctions is one of recent topics in high T c superconductors. We investigate, by numerical simulation, properties of the electromagnetic waves excited by a constant bias current in the single- and multi-Josephson junctions. Nonlinear equations of phase-differences are solved numerically by treating the effects of the outside electromagnetic fields as dynamical boundary conditions. It is shown that the emitted power of the electromagnetic wave can become large near certain retrapping points of the I-V characteristics. An instability of the inside phase oscillation is related to large amplitude of the oscillatory waves. In the single- (or homogeneous mutli-) Josephson junctions, electromagnetic oscillations can occur either in a form of standing waves (shorter junctions) or by formation of vortex-antivortex pairs (longer junctions). How these two effects affects the behavior of electromagnetic waves in the intrinsic Josephson junctions is discussed

  8. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. I. The autonomous case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The shunted-Josephson-junction model: the parallel combination of a capacitance, a phase-dependent conductance, and an ideal junction element biased by a constant current, is discussed for arbitrary values of the junction parameters. The main objective is to provide a qualitative understanding...... current-voltage curves are presented. The case with a time-dependent monochromatic bias current is treated in a similar fashion in the companion paper....

  9. Magnetic interaction between spatially extended superconducting tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2002-01-01

    A general description of magnetic interactions between superconducting tunnel junctions is given. The description covers a wide range of possible experimental systems, and we explicitly explore two experimentally relevant limits of coupled junctions. One is the limit of junctions with tunneling...... been considered through arrays of superconducting weak links based on semiconductor quantum wells with superconducting electrodes. We use the model to make direct interpretations of the published experiments and thereby propose that long-range magnetic interactions are responsible for the reported...

  10. Critical current fluctuation in a microwave-driven Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ning; Sun Guozhu; Wang Yiwen; Cao Junyu; Yu Yang; Chen Jian; Kang Lin; Xu Weiwei; Han Siyuan; Wu Peiheng

    2007-01-01

    Josephson junction devices are good candidates for quantum computation. A large energy splitting was observed in the spectroscopy of a superconducting Josephson junction. The presence of the critical current fluctuation near the energy splitting indicated coupling between the junction and a two-level system. Furthermore, we find that this fluctuation is microwave dependent. It only appears at certain microwave frequency. This relation suggested that the decoherence of qubits is influenced by the necessary computing operations

  11. ACCIDENT PREDICTION MODELS FOR UNSIGNALISED URBAN JUNCTIONS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed SALIFU, MSc., PhD, MIHT, MGhIE

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide an improved method for safety appraisal in Ghana through the development and application of suitable accident prediction models for unsignalised urban junctions. A case study was designed comprising 91 junctions selected from the two most cosmopolitan cities in Ghana. A wide range of traffic and road data together with the corresponding accident data for each junction for the three-year period 1996-1998 was utilized in the model development p...

  12. Quasiparticle current in superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskij, A.V.; Fistul', M.V.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the quasiparticle current in a superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junction may significantly increase as a result of resonant passage of the quasiparticle along particular trajectories from periodically situated localized centers. A prediction of the theory is that with increasing junction resistance there should be a change from an excessive current to a insufficient current on the current-voltage characteristics (at high voltages). The effect of transparency of the boundaries on resonance tunneling in such junctions is also investigated

  13. Accommodating Grief on Twitter: An Analysis of Expressions of Grief Among Gang Involved Youth on Twitter Using Qualitative Analysis and Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Desmond Upton; MacBeth, Jamie; Schoenebeck, Sarita; Shear, Katherine; McKeown, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    There is a dearth of research investigating youths’ experience of grief and mourning after the death of close friends or family. Even less research has explored the question of how youth use social media sites to engage in the grieving process. This study employs qualitative analysis and natural language processing to examine tweets that follow 2 deaths. First, we conducted a close textual read on a sample of tweets by Gakirah Barnes, a gang-involved teenaged girl in Chicago, and members of her Twitter network, over a 19-day period in 2014 during which 2 significant deaths occurred: that of Raason “Lil B” Shaw and Gakirah’s own death. We leverage the grief literature to understand the way Gakirah and her peers express thoughts, feelings, and behaviors at the time of these deaths. We also present and explain the rich and complex style of online communication among gang-involved youth, one that has been overlooked in prior research. Next, we overview the natural language processing output for expressions of loss and grief in our data set based on qualitative findings and present an error analysis on its output for grief. We conclude with a call for interdisciplinary research that analyzes online and offline behaviors to help understand physical and emotional violence and other problematic behaviors prevalent among marginalized communities. PMID:29636619

  14. Nature of inhomogeneous states in superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, B.I.; Kopnin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting structure which arises in a superconducting film under a strong injection of a current through a tunnel junction is considered. If the current density in the film exceeds the critical Ginzburg-Landau value, an inhomogeneous resistive state with phase-slip centers can arise in it. This state is charcterized by the presence of regions with different chemical potentials of the Cooper pairs. These shifts of the pair chemical potential and the nonuniform structure of the order parameter may account for the so-called multigap states which have been observed experimentally

  15. Towards ferromagnet/superconductor junctions on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakkayil, Shijin Babu

    2015-01-01

    Ever since A. Aspect et al. performed the famous 1982 experiment to prove the violation of Bell's inequality, there have been suggestions to conduct the same experiment in a solid state system. Some of those proposals involve superconductors as the source of entangled electron pair and spin depended interfaces as the optical analogue of polariser/filter. Semiconductors can serve as the best medium for such an experiment due to their long relaxation lengths. So far there are no reports on a ferromagnet/superconductor junctions on a semiconductor even though such junctions has been successfully realised in metallic systems. This thesis reports the successful fabrication of ferromagnet/superconductor junction along with characterising measurements in a perfectly two dimensional zero-gap semiconductor known as graphene. Since it's discovery in 2004, graphene has attracted prodigious interest from both academia and industry due to it's inimitable physical properties: very high mobility, high thermal and electrical conductivity, a high Young's modulus and impermeability. Graphene is also expected to have very long spin relaxation length and high spin life time because of it's low spin orbit coupling. For this reason and since researchers are always looking for novel materials and devices to comply with the high demands for better and faster data storage devices, graphene has emanated as a brand new material system for spin based devices. The very first spin injection and detection in graphene was realised in 2007 and ever since, the focal point of the research has been to improve the spin transport properties. A part of this thesis discusses a new fabrication recipe which has a high yield for successfully contacting graphene with a ferromagnet. A high starting yield for ferromagnetic contacts is a irremissible condition for combining superconducting contacts to the device to fabricate ferromagnet/superconductor junctions. Any fabrication recipe

  16. Powered supports for T-junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Klinggraeff, G.; Bohnes, K.

    1981-04-23

    The hydraulic self advancing support system first introduced at Niederberg colliery for a T-junction between a thin seam and a roadway with porch set supports included nearly all components for underpinning the roadway support closest to the face and for supporting the face end close to the roadway, including the rib-side. It ensures a fixed cycle of operations without the need for improvisation while providing continuous strata control during displacement of units. This support combination has proved itself in underground use. As a result, accident incidence was reduced, the number of breakdowns reduced, made the work easier and reduced the number of shifts needed.

  17. Towards ferromagnet/superconductor junctions on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkayil, Shijin Babu

    2015-07-01

    Ever since A. Aspect et al. performed the famous 1982 experiment to prove the violation of Bell's inequality, there have been suggestions to conduct the same experiment in a solid state system. Some of those proposals involve superconductors as the source of entangled electron pair and spin depended interfaces as the optical analogue of polariser/filter. Semiconductors can serve as the best medium for such an experiment due to their long relaxation lengths. So far there are no reports on a ferromagnet/superconductor junctions on a semiconductor even though such junctions has been successfully realised in metallic systems. This thesis reports the successful fabrication of ferromagnet/superconductor junction along with characterising measurements in a perfectly two dimensional zero-gap semiconductor known as graphene. Since it's discovery in 2004, graphene has attracted prodigious interest from both academia and industry due to it's inimitable physical properties: very high mobility, high thermal and electrical conductivity, a high Young's modulus and impermeability. Graphene is also expected to have very long spin relaxation length and high spin life time because of it's low spin orbit coupling. For this reason and since researchers are always looking for novel materials and devices to comply with the high demands for better and faster data storage devices, graphene has emanated as a brand new material system for spin based devices. The very first spin injection and detection in graphene was realised in 2007 and ever since, the focal point of the research has been to improve the spin transport properties. A part of this thesis discusses a new fabrication recipe which has a high yield for successfully contacting graphene with a ferromagnet. A high starting yield for ferromagnetic contacts is a irremissible condition for combining superconducting contacts to the device to fabricate ferromagnet/superconductor junctions. Any fabrication recipe

  18. Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, Henry

    2001-01-01

    .... We found that: 1) expressing the metastasis suppressing gene BRMS1 in diverse cancer cell lines, including breast and melanoma, restores homotypic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC); 2...

  19. On simulation of local fluxes in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra, Gabriel; Jensen, Anders; Galperin, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We present a pedagogical review of the current density simulation in molecular junction models indicating its advantages and deficiencies in analysis of local junction transport characteristics. In particular, we argue that current density is a universal tool which provides more information than traditionally simulated bond currents, especially when discussing inelastic processes. However, current density simulations are sensitive to the choice of basis and electronic structure method. We note that while discussing the local current conservation in junctions, one has to account for the source term caused by the open character of the system and intra-molecular interactions. Our considerations are illustrated with numerical simulations of a benzenedithiol molecular junction.

  20. Spectrum of resonant plasma oscillations in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the amplitude of the plasma oscillations in the zero-voltage state of a long and narrow Josephson tunnel junction. The calculation is valid for arbitrary normalized junction length and arbitrary bias current. The spectrum of the plasma resonance is found numerically as solutions to an analytical equation. The low-frequency part of the spectrum contains a single resonance, which is known to exist also in the limit of a short and narrow junction. Above a certain cutoff frequency, a series of high-frequency standing wave plasma resonances is excited, a special feature of long Josephson junctions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Field modulation of the critical current in magnetic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blamire, M G; Smiet, C B; Banerjee, N; Robinson, J W A

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current of a simple Josephson junction on the applied magnetic field is well known and, for a rectangular junction, gives rise to the classic ‘Fraunhofer’ modulation with periodic zeros at the fields that introduce a flux quantum into the junction region. Much recent work has been performed on Josephson junctions that contain magnetic layers. The magnetization of such layers introduces additional flux into the junction and, for large junction areas or strong magnetic materials, can significantly distort the modulation of the critical current and strongly suppress the maximum critical current. The growing interest in junctions that induce odd-frequency triplet pairing in a ferromagnet, and the need to make quantitative comparisons with theory, mean that a full understanding of the role of magnetic barriers in controlling the critical current is necessary. This paper analyses the effect of magnetism and various magnetic configurations on Josephson critical currents; the overall treatment applies to junctions of general shape, but the specific cases of square and rectangular junctions are considered. (paper)

  2. Several alternative approaches to the manufacturing of HTS Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Villegier , J.; Boucher , H.; Ghis , A.; Levis , M.; Méchin , Laurence; Moriceau , H.; Pourtier , F.; Vabre , M.; Nicoletti , S.; Correra , L.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we describe comparatively the fabrication and the characterization of various types of HTS Josephson junctions manufactured using different processes : grain boundary junctions have been studied both by the way of junctions on bicrystal substrates and of bi-epitaxial junctions. Ramp-edge types have been elaborated and characterized using mainly N-YBaCuO thin film as a barrier while the trilayer approach has been investigated through a-axis structures. YBaCuO or GdBaCuO supercondu...

  3. ‘Gap Junctions and Cancer: Communicating for 50 Years’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Trond; Mesnil, Marc; Naus, Christian C.; Lampe, Paul D.; Laird, Dale W.

    2017-01-01

    Fifty years ago, tumour cells were found to lack electrical coupling, leading to the hypothesis that loss of direct intercellular communication is commonly associated with cancer onset and progression. Subsequent studies linked this phenomenon to gap junctions composed of connexin proteins. While many studies support the notion that connexins are tumour suppressors, recent evidence suggests that, in some tumour types, they may facilitate specific stages of tumour progression through both junctional and non-junctional signalling pathways. This Timeline article highlights the milestones connecting gap junctions to cancer, and underscores important unanswered questions, controversies and therapeutic opportunities in the field. PMID:27782134

  4. Some chaotic features of intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolahchi, M.R.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Hamdipour, M.; Botha, A.E.; Suzuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions model a high-T c superconductor. ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions can act as a chaotic nonlinear system. ► Chaos could be due to resonance overlap. ► Avoiding parameters that lead to chaos is important for the design of resonators. -- Abstract: We look for chaos in an intrinsically coupled system of Josephson junctions. This study has direct applications for the high-T c resonators which require coherence amongst the junctions

  5. Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout...

  6. Microwave phase locking of Josephson-junction fluxon oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Filatrella, G.

    1990-01-01

    Application of the classic McLaughlin-Scott soliton perturbation theory to a Josephson-junction fluxon subjected to a microwave field that interacts with the fluxon only at the junction boundaries reduces the problem of phase locking of the fluxon oscillation to the study of a two-dimensional fun......Application of the classic McLaughlin-Scott soliton perturbation theory to a Josephson-junction fluxon subjected to a microwave field that interacts with the fluxon only at the junction boundaries reduces the problem of phase locking of the fluxon oscillation to the study of a two...

  7. Junction Potentials Bias Measurements of Ion Exchange Membrane Permselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Flotron, Sophie; Zhu, Shan; Call, Douglas F; Coronell, Orlando

    2018-04-17

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are versatile materials relevant to a variety of water and waste treatment, energy production, and industrial separation processes. The defining characteristic of IEMs is their ability to selectively allow positive or negative ions to permeate, which is referred to as permselectivity. Measured values of permselectivity that equal unity (corresponding to a perfectly selective membrane) or exceed unity (theoretically impossible) have been reported for cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Such nonphysical results call into question our ability to correctly measure this crucial membrane property. Because weighing errors, temperature, and measurement uncertainty have been shown to not explain these anomalous permselectivity results, we hypothesized that a possible explanation are junction potentials that occur at the tips of reference electrodes. In this work, we tested this hypothesis by comparing permselectivity values obtained from bare Ag/AgCl wire electrodes (which have no junction) to values obtained from single-junction reference electrodes containing two different electrolytes. We show that permselectivity values obtained using reference electrodes with junctions were greater than unity for CEMs. In contrast, electrodes without junctions always produced permselectivities lower than unity. Electrodes with junctions also resulted in artificially low permselectivity values for AEMs compared to electrodes without junctions. Thus, we conclude that junctions in reference electrodes introduce two biases into results in the IEM literature: (i) permselectivity values larger than unity for CEMs and (ii) lower permselectivity values for AEMs compared to those for CEMs. These biases can be avoided by using electrodes without a junction.

  8. Pseudomonas fluvialis sp. nov., a novel member of the genus Pseudomonas isolated from the river Ganges, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Sarabjeet Kour; Pal, Deepika; Bisht, Bhawana; Kumar, Narender; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Patil, Prabhu; Sahni, Girish; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan

    2018-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated ASS-1 T , was isolated and identified from a sediment sample of the river Ganges, Allahabad, India. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, formed straw-yellow pigmented colonies, was strictly aerobic, motile with a single polar flagellum, and positive for oxidase and catalase. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1ω7c/ 16 : 1 C16 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain ASS-1 T showed high similarity to Pseudomonas guguanensis CC-G9A T (98.2 %), Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909 T (98.2 %), Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045 T (98.1 %), Pseudomonas indolxydans IPL-1 T (98.1 %) and Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3 T (98.0 %). Analysis of its rpoB and rpoD housekeeping genes confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 93 % with respect to the closest relatives. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA, rpoB, rpoD genes and the whole genome assigned it to the genus Pseudomonas. The results of digital DNA-DNA hybridization based on the genome-to-genome distance calculator and average nucleotide identity revealed low genome relatedness to its close phylogenetic neighbours (below the recommended thresholds of 70 and 95 %, respectively, for species delineation). Strain ASS-1 T also differed from the related strains by some phenotypic characteristics, i.e. growth at pH 5.0 and 42 °C, starch and casein hydrolysis, and citrate utilization. Therefore, based on data obtained from phenotypic and genotypic analysis, it is evident that strain ASS-1 T should be regarded as a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonasfluvialis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ASS-1 T (=KCTC 52437 T =CCM 8778 T ).

  9. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  10. Effect of junction configurations on microdroplet formation in a T-junction microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, F. L.; Miao, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the dynamic formation process of water microdroplets in a silicon oil flow in a T-junction microchannel. Segmented water microdroplets are formed at the junction when the water flow is perpendicularly injected into the silicon oil flow in a straight rectangular microchannel. This study further presents the effects of the water flow inlet geometry on hydrodynamic characteristics of water microdroplet formation. A numerical multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) scheme is coupled to solve the unsteady three-dimensional laminar Navier-Stokes equations to depict the droplet formation phenomena at the junction. Predicted results on the length and generated frequency of the microdroplets agree well with experimental results in a T-junction microchannel with straight and flat inlets (the base model) for both fluid flows. Empirical correlations are reported between the volumetric flow ratio and the dimensionless microdroplet length or dimensionless frequency of droplet generation at a fixed capillary number of 4.7 · 10-3. The results of this study indicate a reduction in the droplet length of approximately 21% if the straight inlet for the water flow is modified to a downstream sudden contraction inlet for the water flow.

  11. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin; Yang, Jianhua Joshua

    2008-11-11

    This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.

  12. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4α-induced epithelial polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4α-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4α led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4α provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization

  13. Dynamics of the Josephson multi-junction system with junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal'osheva, I.; Lewandowski, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the inclusion of junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship in the systems composed of multiple Josephson junctions - results in the appearance of additional system phase states. Numerical simulations and stability considerations confirm that those phase states can be realized in practice. Moreover, spontaneous formation of the grain boundary junctions in high-T c superconductors with non-trivial current-phase relations due to the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter is probable. Switching between the phase states of multiple grain boundary junction systems can lead to additional 1/f noise in high-T c superconductors. (author)

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigations on synchronization in many-junction arrays of HTSC Josephson junctions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, P.; Heinz, E.; Pfuch, A.; Machalett, F.; Krech, W.; Basler, M.

    1996-06-01

    Different many-junction arrays of Josephson junctions were studied theoretically to analyse the mechanisms of synchronization, the influence of internal and external parameters and the maximal allowed spread of parameters for the single junctions. Concepts to realize arrays using standard high-T c superconductor technology were created, e.g. the new arrangement of multijunction superconducting loops (MSL). First experimental results show the relevance of this concept. Intrinsic one-dimensional arrays in thin film technology were prepared as mesas out of Bi or Tl 2212 films. to characterize HTSC Josephson junctions methods based on the analysis of microwave-induced steps were developed. (orig.) [de

  15. Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    We show that, for pertinent values of the fabrication and control parameters, an attractive finite coupling fixed point emerges in the phase diagram of a Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains. The new fixed point arises only when the dimensionless flux f piercing the central loop of the network equals π and, thus, does not break time-reversal invariance; for f≠π, only the strongly coupled fixed point survives as a stable attractive fixed point. Phase slips (instantons) have a crucial role in establishing this transition: we show indeed that, at f=π, a new set of instantons-the W-instantons-comes into play to destabilize the strongly coupled fixed point. Finally, we provide a detailed account of the Josephson current-phase relationship along the arms of the network, near each one of the allowed fixed points. Our results evidence remarkable similarities between the phase diagram accessible to a Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains and the one found in the analysis of quantum Brownian motion on frustrated planar lattices

  16. Edge currents in frustrated Josephson junction ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, A. M.; Santos, F. D. R.; Dias, R. G.

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical study of quasi-1D frustrated Josephson junction ladders with diagonal couplings and open boundary conditions, in the large capacitance limit. We derive a correspondence between the energy of this Josephson junction ladder and the expectation value of the Hamiltonian of an analogous tight-binding model, and show how the overall superconducting state of the chain is equivalent to the minimum energy state of the tight-binding model in the subspace of one-particle states with uniform density. To satisfy the constraint of uniform density, the superconducting state of the ladder is written as a linear combination of the allowed k-states of the tight-binding model with open boundaries. Above a critical value of the parameter t (ratio between the intra-rung and inter-rung Josephson couplings) the ladder spontaneously develops currents at the edges, which spread to the bulk as t is increased until complete coverage is reached. Above a certain value of t, which varies with ladder size (t = 1 for an infinite-sized ladder), the edge currents are destroyed. The value t = 1 corresponds, in the tight-binding model, to the opening of a gap between two bands. We argue that the disappearance of the edge currents with this gap opening is not coincidental, and that this points to a topological origin for these edge current states.

  17. GAP junctional communication in brain secondary organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosone, Camilla; Andreu, Abraham; Echevarria, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown. Among the big family of Cxs, several are expressed in nervous tissue but just a few are expressed in the anterior neural tube of vertebrates. Many efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular bases of Cxs cell biology and how they influence the morphogenetic signal activity produced by brain signaling centers. These centers, orchestrated by transcription factors and morphogenes determine the axial patterning of the mammalian brain during its specification and regionalization. The present review revisits the findings of GJ composed by Cx43 and Cx36 in neural tube patterning and discuss Cx43 putative enrollment in the control of Fgf8 signal activity coming from the well known secondary organizer, the isthmic organizer. © 2016 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  19. Development of superconducting tunnel junction radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Masaki; Kishimoto, Maki; Ukibe, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Nakazawa, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kurakado, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Kenji; Maehata, Keisuke

    1998-07-01

    Study on development of high energy resolution X-ray detector using superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) for radiation detection was conducted for 5 years under cooperation of University of Tokyo group and Kyushu University group by Quantum measurement research group of Advanced fundamental research center of JAERI. As the energy resolution of STJ could be obtained better results than that of Si semiconductor detector told to be actually best at present, this study aimed to actualize an X-ray detector usable for the experimental field and to elucidate radiation detection mechanism due to STJ. The STJ element used for this study was the one developed by Kurakado group of Nippon Steel Corp. As a results, some technical problems were almost resolved, which made some trouble when using the STJ element to detection element of X-ray spectrometer. In order to make the X-ray detector better, it is essential to manufacture a STJ element and develop serial junction type STJ element on the base of optimization of the element structure and selection and single crystallization of new superconducting materials such as Ta and others, activating the research results. (G.K.)

  20. Molecular Diffusion through Cyanobacterial Septal Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Nieves-Morión

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which intercellular molecular exchange takes place. During the differentiation of N2-fixing heterocysts, regulators are transferred between cells. In the diazotrophic filament, vegetative cells that fix CO2 through oxygenic photosynthesis provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Intercellular molecular transfer has been traced with fluorescent markers, including calcein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and the sucrose analogue esculin, which are observed to move down their concentration gradient. In this work, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP assays in the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to measure the temperature dependence of intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers. We find that the transfer rate constants are directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This indicates that the “septal junctions” (formerly known as “microplasmodesmata” linking the cells in the filament allow molecular exchange by simple diffusion, without any activated intermediate state. This constitutes a novel mechanism for molecular transfer across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, in addition to previously characterized mechanisms for active transport and facilitated diffusion. Cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to the gap junctions of metazoans.

  1. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Yeun; Yoon, Sei Mee; Choi, Eun Ju; Lee, Jinu

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibits GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. - Highlights: • In vitro pharmacological studies were performed on FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. • Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in both cell lines. • The inhibitory effect of terbinafine is reversible and dose-dependent. • Treatment of terbinafine does not alter Cx43 phosphorylation or cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration. • Inhibition of squalene epoxidase is not involved in this new effect of terbinafine.

  2. Dynamics of domain wall networks with junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P. P.; Oliveira, J. C. R. E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Menezes, J.; Menezes, R.

    2008-01-01

    We use a combination of analytic tools and an extensive set of the largest and most accurate three-dimensional field theory numerical simulations to study the dynamics of domain wall networks with junctions. We build upon our previous work and consider a class of models which, in the limit of large number N of coupled scalar fields, approaches the so-called ''ideal'' model (in terms of its potential to lead to network frustration). We consider values of N between N=2 and N=20, and a range of cosmological epochs, and we also compare this class of models with other toy models used in the past. In all cases we find compelling evidence for a gradual approach to scaling, strongly supporting our no-frustration conjecture. We also discuss the various possible types of junctions (including cases where there is a hierarchy of them) and their roles in the dynamics of the network. Finally, we provide a cosmological Zel'dovich-type bound on the energy scale of this kind of defect network: it must be lower than 10 keV.

  3. Concept and design of super junction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Wentong; Qiao, Ming; Zhan, Zhenya; Li, Zhaoji

    2018-02-01

    The super junction (SJ) has been recognized as the " milestone” of the power MOSFET, which is the most important innovation concept of the voltage-sustaining layer (VSL). The basic structure of the SJ is a typical junction-type VSL (J-VSL) with the periodic N and P regions. However, the conventional VSL is a typical resistance-type VSL (R-VSL) with only an N or P region. It is a qualitative change of the VSL from the R-VSL to the J-VSL, introducing the bulk depletion to increase the doping concentration and optimize the bulk electric field of the SJ. This paper firstly summarizes the development of the SJ, and then the optimization theory of the SJ is discussed for both the vertical and the lateral devices, including the non-full depletion mode, the minimum specific on-resistance optimization method and the equivalent substrate model. The SJ concept breaks the conventional " silicon limit” relationship of R on∝V B 2.5, showing a quasi-linear relationship of R on∝V B 1.03.

  4. Virus interaction with the apical junctional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Garay, Erika; Lechuga, Susana

    2009-01-01

    In order to infect pathogens must breach the epithelial barriers that separate the organism from the external environment or that cover the internal cavities and ducts of the body. Epithelia seal the passage through the paracellular pathway with the apical junctional complex integrated by tight and adherens junctions. In this review we describe how viruses like coxsackie, swine vesicular disease virus, adenovirus, reovirus, feline calcivirus, herpes viruses 1 and 2, pseudorabies, bovine herpes virus 1, poliovirus and hepatitis C use as cellular receptors integral proteins present at the AJC of epithelial cells. Interaction with these proteins contributes in a significant manner in defining the particular tropism of each virus. Besides these proteins, viruses exhibit a wide range of cellular co-receptors among which proteins present in the basolateral cell surface like integrins are often found. Therefore targeting proteins of the AJC constitutes a strategy that might allow viruses to bypass the physical barrier that blocks their access to receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells.

  5. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Yeun, E-mail: whitewndus@naver.com [College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sei Mee, E-mail: sei_mee@naver.com [College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Integrated OMICS for Biomedical Sciences, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Ju, E-mail: yureas@naver.com [College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jinu, E-mail: jinulee@yonsei.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibits GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. - Highlights: • In vitro pharmacological studies were performed on FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. • Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in both cell lines. • The inhibitory effect of terbinafine is reversible and dose-dependent. • Treatment of terbinafine does not alter Cx43 phosphorylation or cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration. • Inhibition of squalene epoxidase is not involved in this new effect of terbinafine.

  6. Modeling Bloch oscillations in nanoscale Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Heli; Kautz, R. L.; Nam, S. W.; Aumentado, J.

    2018-01-01

    Bloch oscillations in nanoscale Josephson junctions with a Coulomb charging energy comparable to the Josephson coupling energy are explored within the context of a model previously considered by Geigenmüller and Schön that includes Zener tunneling and treats quasiparticle tunneling as an explicit shot-noise process. The dynamics of the junction quasicharge are investigated numerically using both Monte Carlo and ensemble approaches to calculate voltage-current characteristics in the presence of microwaves. We examine in detail the origin of harmonic and subharmonic Bloch steps at dc biases I = (n/m)2ef induced by microwaves of frequency f and consider the optimum parameters for the observation of harmonic (m = 1) steps. We also demonstrate that the GS model allows a detailed semiquantitative fit to experimental voltage-current characteristics previously obtained at the Chalmers University of Technology, confirming and strengthening the interpretation of the observed microwave-induced steps in terms of Bloch oscillations. PMID:29577106

  7. Charge Transport Processes in Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Eugene

    Molecular electronics (ME) has evolved into a rich area of exploration that combines the fields of chemistry, materials, electronic engineering and computational modeling to explore the physics behind electronic conduction at the molecular level. Through studying charge transport properties of single molecules and nanoscale molecular materials the field has gained the potential to bring about new avenues for the miniaturization of electrical components where quantum phenomena are utilized to achieve solid state molecular device functionality. Molecular junctions are platforms that enable these studies and consist of a single molecule or a small group of molecules directly connected to electrodes. The work presented in this thesis has built upon the current understanding of the mechanisms of charge transport in ordered junctions using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular thin films. Donor and acceptor compounds were synthesized and incorporated into SAMs grown on metal substrates then the transport properties were measured with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). In addition to experimentally measured current-voltage (I-V) curves, the transport properties were addressed computationally and modeled theoretically. The key objectives of this project were to 1) investigate the impact of molecular structure on hole and electron charge transport, 2) understand the nature of the charge carriers and their structure-transport properties through long (chemically gated to modulate the transport. These results help advance our understanding of transport behavior in semiconducting molecular thin films, and open opportunities to engineer improved electronic functionality into molecular devices.

  8. Stress analysis of PCV nozzle junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Shoichi; Oikawa, Tsuneo; Hoshino, Seizo

    1976-01-01

    Most of various pressure vessels comprise each one cylindrical shell and one or more nozzles. In this study, in order to analyze the stress in the structures of this type as minutely and exactly as possible, the program for stress analysis by the finite element method was made, which is required for the strength analysis for three-dimensional structures. Especially, the problem of the stress distribution around nozzle junctions was solved theoretically with the program. The program for the analysis developed in this study is provided with various functions, such as the input generator for cylindrical, conical and spherical shells, and plotter, and is very covenient. The accuracy of analysis is very good. The method of analysis and the calculation of the rigidity matrices for the deformation in plane and bending are explained. The result of the stress analysis around the nozzle junctions of a containment vessel with this program was in good agreement with experimental data and the result with SAP-4 code, therefore the propriety of the calculated result with this program was proved. Also calculations were carried out on three cases, namely a flat plate fixed at one end with distributed load, a cylinder fixed at one end with internal pressure, and an I-beam fixed at one end with concentrated load. The calculated results agreed well with theoretical solutions in all cases. (Kako, I.)

  9. Single Molecule Nanoelectrochemistry in Electrical Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Richard J; Higgins, Simon J

    2016-11-15

    It is now possible to reliably measure single molecule conductance in a wide variety of environments including organic liquids, ultrahigh vacuum, water, ionic liquids, and electrolytes. The most commonly used methods deploy scanning probe microscopes, mechanically formed break junctions, or lithographically formed nanogap contacts. Molecules are generally captured between a pair of facing electrodes, and the junction current response is measured as a function of bias voltage. Gating electrodes can also be added so that the electrostatic potential at the molecular bridge can be independently controlled by this third noncontacting electrode. This can also be achieved in an electrolytic environment using a four-electrode bipotentiostatic configuration, which allows independent electrode potential control of the two contacting electrodes. This is commonly realized using an electrochemical STM and enables single molecule electrical characterization as a function of electrode potential and redox state of the molecular bridge. This has emerged as a powerful tool in modern interfacial electrochemistry and nanoelectrochemistry for studying charge transport across single molecules as a function of electrode potential and the electrolytic environments. Such measurements are possible in electrolytes ranging from aqueous buffers to nonaqueous ionic liquids. In this Account, we illustrate a number of examples of single molecule electrical measurements under electrode potential control use a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and demonstrate how these can help in the understanding of charge transport in single molecule junctions. Examples showing charge transport following phase coherent tunneling to incoherent charge hopping across redox active molecular bridges are shown. In the case of bipyridinium (or viologen) molecular wires, it is shown how electrochemical reduction leads to an increase of the single molecule conductance, which is controlled by the liquid electrochemical

  10. Victory celebrations mark 1945 peace

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia vennaskalmistul 8. mail peetud Teises maailmasõjas langenute mälestamistseremooniast võtsid osa ka Läti president Valdis Zatlers, spiiker Solvita Aboltina, kaitseminister Artis Pabriks, riiklike relvajõudude juhataja Raimond Graube ja Riia linnapea Nils Usakovs. 30 000 inimest tähistas Riias 9. mai võidupüha, kohal olid ka Euroopa Parlamendi saadikud Tatjana Zdanoka, Alfreds Rubiks ja Vladimirs Buzajevs

  11. Josephson junctions in high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, C.M.; Lee, T.W.

    1981-01-14

    The invention includes a high T/sub c/ Josephson sperconducting junction as well as the method and apparatus which provides the junction by application of a closely controlled and monitored electrical discharge to a microbridge region connecting two portions of a superconducting film.

  12. Water and suspended sediment division at a stratified tidal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschman, F.A.; Vegt, van der M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Hoekstra, P.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Tidal junctions play a crucial role in the transport of water, salt, and sediment through a delta distributary network. Water, salt and sediment are exchanged at tidal junctions, thereby influencing the transports in the connecting branches and the overall dynamics of the system. This paper

  13. Towards molecular electronics with large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, HB; Blom, PWM; de Leeuw, DM; de Boer, B

    2006-01-01

    Electronic transport through single molecules has been studied extensively by academic(1-8) and industrial(9,10) research groups. Discrete tunnel junctions, or molecular diodes, have been reported using scanning probes(11,12), break junctions(13,14), metallic crossbars(6) and nanopores(8,15). For

  14. Shapiro and parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaafar, Ma A; Shukrinov, Yu M; Foda, A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We compare the current-voltage characteristics for a stack of coupled Josephson junctions under external irradiation calculated in the framework of CCJJ and CCJJ+DC models.

  15. Dynamic Control of Tunneling Conductance in Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Ya-Yi; Zhou Yan; Chew Khian-Hooi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic characteristics of electric polarization P(t) in a ferroelectric junction under ac applied voltage and stress, and calculate the frequency response and the cut-off frequency f 0 , which provides a reference for the upper limit of the working frequency. Our study might be significant for sensor and memory applications of nanodevices based on ferroelectric junctions

  16. Gap junction protein connexin-43 interacts directly with microtubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, B N; Verlaan, I; Hengeveld, T; Janssen, H; Calafat, J; Falk, M M; Moolenaar, W H

    2001-01-01

    Gap junctions are specialized cell-cell junctions that mediate intercellular communication. They are composed of connexin proteins, which form transmembrane channels for small molecules [1, 2]. The C-terminal tail of connexin-43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed connexin member, has been implicated

  17. Water and suspended sediment division at a stratified tidal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschman, F.A.; Vegt, M. van der; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Hoekstra, P.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal junctions play a crucial role in the transport of water, salt, and sediment through a delta distributary network. Water, salt and sediment are exchanged at tidal junctions, thereby influencing the transports in the connecting branches and the overall dynamics of the system. This paper

  18. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2236; MB Docket No. 10-108] Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The staff deletes FM Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction, Iowa, because the record in this...

  19. Vortex dynamics in Josephson ladders with II-junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornev, Victor K.; Klenov, N. V.; Oboznov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Both experimental and numerical studies of a self-frustrated triangular array of pi-junctions are reported. The array of SFS Josephson junctions shows a transition to the pi-state and self-frustration with a decrease in temperature. This manifests itself in a half-period shift of the bias critica...

  20. Effect of surface losses on soliton propagation in Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Pagano, S.

    1986-01-01

    We have explored numerically the effects on soliton propagation of a third order damping term in the modified sine-Gordon equation. In Josephson tunnel junctions such a term corresponds physically to quasiparticle losses within the metal electrodes of the junction. We find that this loss term pla...

  1. Preparation of CN /Carbon Nanotube Intramolecular Junctions by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    intramolecular junctions composed of CNx with a bamboo-like structure and empty hollow carbon nanotubes were observed, ... and excellent thermal and mechanical properties.1,2 In recent .... tion of hexane, and the other segment with a curved compart- ... by an arrow lies at the interface of the junction between 'b' and.

  2. Short chain molecular junctions: Charge transport versus dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, I. Mohamed; Rabinal, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The role of dipole moment of organic molecules on molecular junctions has been studied. • Molecular junctions constituted using propargyl molecules of different dipole moments. • The electronic properties of the molecules were calculated using Gaussian software. • Junctions show varying rectification due to their varying dipole moment and orientation. - Abstract: The investigation of the influence of dipole moment of short chain organic molecules having three carbon atoms varying in end group on silicon surface was carried on. Here, we use three different molecules of propargyl series varying in dipole moment and its orientation to constitute molecular junctions. The charge transport mechanism in metal–molecules–semiconductor (MMS) junction obtained from current–voltage (I–V) characteristics shows the rectification behavior for two junctions whereas the other junction shows a weak rectification. The electronic properties of the molecules were calculated using Gaussian software package. The observed rectification behavior of these junctions is examined and found to be accounted to the orientation of dipole moment and electron cloud density distribution inside the molecules

  3. Triple junction polymer solar cells for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esiner, S.; Eersel, van H.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    A triple junction polymer solar cell in a novel 1 + 2 type configuration provides photoelectrochemical water splitting in its maximum power point at V ˜ 1.70 V with an estimated solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency of 3.1%. The triple junction cell consists of a wide bandgap front cell and

  4. Manufacturing P-N junctions in germanium bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing p-n junctions in Ge so as to facilitate their use as radiation detectors involves forming a body of high purity p-type germanium, diffusing lithium deep into the body, in the absence of electrolytic processes, to form a junction between n-type and p-type germanium greater than 1 mm depth. (UK)

  5. The critical current of point symmetric Josephson tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We disclose some geometrical properties of the critical current field dependence that apply to a large class of Josephson junctions characterized by a point symmetric shape. • The developed theory is valid for any orientation of the applied magnetic field, therefore it allows the determine the consequences of field misalignment in the experimental setups. • We also address that the threshold curves of Josephson tunnel junctions with complex shapes can be expressed as a linear combination of the threshold curves of junctions with simpler point symmetric shapes. - Abstract: The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations. The shape of the junction determines the specific form of the magnetic-field dependence of its Josephson current. Here we address the magnetic diffraction patterns of specially shaped planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations. We focus on a wide ensemble of junctions whose shape is invariant under point reflection. We analyze the implications of this type of isometry and derive the threshold curves of junctions whose shape is the union or the relative complement of two point symmetric plane figures.

  6. Nonlocal Cooper pair splitting in a pSn-junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhorst, M.; Brinkman, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Perfect Cooper pair splitting is proposed, based on crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) in a p-type semiconductor-superconductor-n-type semiconductor (pSn) junction. The ideal splitting is caused by the energy filtering that is enforced by the band structure of the electrodes. The pSn junction is

  7. Fast temporal fluctuations in single-molecule junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Roif; Secker, Daniel; Elbing, Mark; Mayor, Marcel; Weber, Heiko B

    2006-01-01

    The noise within the electrical current through single-molecule junctions is studied cryogenic temperature. The organic sample molecules were contacted with the mechanically controlled break-junction technique. The noise spectra refer to a where only few Lorentzian fluctuators occur in the conductance. The frequency dependence shows qualitative variations from sample to sample.

  8. Godt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Andersen, Kirsten; Bisgaard, Hanne; Carstensen, Susanne

    Bogen er et materiale til undervisning af let øvede brugere - døvblevne, svært hørehæmmede og hørende - i tegnstøttet kommunikation. Materialet er en fortsættelse af ´Godt begyndt´, og gloseforrådet fra ´Godt begyndt´ forudsættes kendt...

  9. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. II. The nonautonomous case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The shunted-Josephson-junction model with a monochromatic ac current drive is discussed employing the qualitative methods of the theory of nonlinear oscillations. As in the preceding paper dealing with the autonomous junction, the model includes a phase-dependent conductance and a shunt capacitance....... The mathematical discussion makes use of the phase-space representation of the solutions to the differential equation. The behavior of the trajectories in phase space is described for different characteristic regions in parameter space and the associated features of the junction IV curve to be expected are pointed...... out. The main objective is to provide a qualitative understanding of the junction behavior, to clarify which kinds of properties may be derived from the shunted-junction model, and to specify the relative arrangement of the important domains in the parameter-space decomposition....

  10. Magnetic field behavior of current steps in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costabile, G.; Cucolo, A.M.; Pace, S.; Parmentier, R.D.; Savo, B.; Vaglio, R.

    1980-01-01

    The zero-field steps, or dc current singularities, in the current-voltage characteristics of long Josephson tunnel junctions, first reported by Chen et al., continue to attract research interest both because their study can provide fundamental information on the dynamics of fluxons in such junctions and because they are accompanied by the emission of microwave radiation from the junction, which may be exploitable in practical oscillator applications. The purpose of this paper is to report some experimental observations of the magnetic field behavior of the steps in junctions fabricated in our Laboratory and to offer a qualitative explanation for this behavior. Measurements have been made both for very long (L >> lambdasub(J)) and for slightly long (L approx. >= lambdasub(J)) junctions with a view toward comparing our results with those of other workers. (orig./WRI)

  11. Two coupled Josephson junctions: dc voltage controlled by biharmonic current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machura, L; Spiechowicz, J; Kostur, M; Łuczka, J

    2012-01-01

    We study transport properties of two Josephson junctions coupled by an external shunt resistance. One of the junctions (say, the first) is driven by an unbiased ac current consisting of two harmonics. The device can rectify the ac current yielding a dc voltage across the first junction. For some values of coupling strength, controlled by an external shunt resistance, a dc voltage across the second junction can be generated. By variation of system parameters such as the relative phase or frequency of two harmonics, one can conveniently manipulate both voltages with high efficiency, e.g. changing the dc voltages across the first and second junctions from positive to negative values and vice versa. (paper)

  12. Visualizing supercurrents in 0-{pi} ferromagnetic Josephson tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Guerlich, Christian; Gaber, Tobias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann [Institute of Solid State Physics, Reserch Center Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    So-called 0 and {pi} Josephson junctions can be treated as having positive and negative critical currents. This implies that the same phase shift applied to a Josephson junction causes counterflow of supercurrents in 0 and in {pi} junctions connected in parallel provided they are short in comparison with Josephson penetration depth {lambda}{sub J}. We have fabricated several 0, {pi}, 0-{pi}, 0-{pi}-0 and 20 x (0-{pi}-) planar superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor Josephson junctions and studied the spatial supercurrent density distribution j{sub s}(x,y) across the junction area using low temperature scanning electron microscopy. At zero magnetic field we clearly see counterflow of the supercurrents in 0 and {pi} regions. The picture also changes consistently in the applied magnetic field.

  13. Response of high Tc superconducting Josephson junction to nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Honglin; Zhang Wanchang; Zhang Xiufeng

    1992-10-01

    The development of nuclear radiation detectors and research on high T c superconducting nuclear radiation detectors are introduced. The emphases are the principle of using thin-film and thick-film Josephson junctions (bridge junction) based on high T c YBCO superconductors to detect nuclear radiation, the fabrication of thin film and thick-film Josephson junction, and response of junction to low energy gamma-rays of 59.5 keV emitted from 241 Am and beta-rays of 546 keV. The results show that a detector for measuring nuclear radiation spectrum made of high T c superconducting thin-film or thick-film, especially, thick-film Josephson junction, certainly can be developed

  14. Spatially resolved detection of mutually locked Josephson junctions in arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, M.; Doderer, T.; Huebener, R.P.; Traeuble, T.; Dolata, R.; Weimann, T.; Niemeyer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual locking due to the internal coupling in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions was investigated. The appearance of Shapiro steps in the current versus voltage curve of a coupled on-chip detector junction is used to indicate coherent oscillations in the array. A highly coherent state is observed for some range of the array bias current. By scanning the array with a low-power electron beam, mutually locked junctions remain locked while the unlocked junctions generate a beam-induced additional voltage drop at the array. This imaging technique allows the detection of the nonlocked or weakly locked Josephson junctions in a (partially) locked array state. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Scattering theory of superconductive tunneling in quantum junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumeiko, V.S.; Bratus', E.N.

    1997-01-01

    A consistent theory of superconductive tunneling in single-mode junctions within a scattering formulation of Bogolyubov-de Gennes quantum mechanics is presented. The dc Josephson effect and dc quasiparticle transport in the voltage-biased junctions are considered. Elastic quasiparticle scattering by the junction determines the equilibrium Josephson current. The origin of Andreev bound states in tunnel junctions and their role in equilibrium Josephson transport are discussed. In contrast, quasiparticle tunneling in voltage-biased junctions is determined by inelastic scattering. A general expression for inelastic scattering amplitudes is derived and the quasiparticle current is calculated at all voltages with emphasis on a discussion of the properties of sub gap tunnel current and the nature of subharmonic gap structure

  16. Functional Molecular Junctions Derived from Double Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sohyeon; Hwang, Eunhee; Cho, Yunhee; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2017-09-25

    Information processing using molecular junctions is becoming more important as devices are miniaturized to the nanoscale. Herein, we report functional molecular junctions derived from double self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) intercalated between soft graphene electrodes. Newly assembled molecular junctions are fabricated by placing a molecular SAM/(top) electrode on another molecular SAM/(bottom) electrode by using a contact-assembly technique. Double SAMs can provide tunneling conjugation across the van der Waals gap between the terminals of each monolayer and exhibit new electrical functions. Robust contact-assembled molecular junctions can act as platforms for the development of equivalent contact molecular junctions between top and bottom electrodes, which can be applied independently to different kinds of molecules to enhance either the structural complexity or the assembly properties of molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering in Molecular Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, Madoka; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-08-18

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy that allows Raman spectroscopy on a single molecular scale. Here, we present a review of SERS from molecular junctions, in which a single molecule or molecules are made to have contact from the top to the bottom of metal surfaces. The molecular junctions are nice platforms for SERS as well as transport measurement. Electronic characterization based on the transport measurements of molecular junctions has been extensively studied for the development of miniaturized electronic devices. Simultaneous SERS and transport measurement of the molecular junctions allow both structural (geometrical) and electronic information on the single molecule scale. The improvement of SERS measurement on molecular junctions open the door toward new nanoscience and nanotechnology in molecular electronics.

  18. Observation of supercurrent in graphene-based Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Libin; Li, Sen; Kang, Ning [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Chuan; Ren, Wencai [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Josephson junctions with a normal metal region sandwiched between two superconductors (S) are known as superconductor- normal-superconductor (SNS) structures. It has attracted significant attention especially when changing the normal metal with graphene, which allow for high tunability with the gate voltage and to study the proximity effect of the massless Dirac fermions. Here we report our work on graphene-based Josephson junction with a new two dimensional superconductor crystal, which grown directly on graphene, as superconducting electrodes. At low temperature, we observer proximity effect induced supercurrent flowing through the junction. The temperature and the magnetic field dependences of the critical current characteristics of the junction are also studied. The critical current exhibits a Fraunhofer-type diffraction pattern against magnetic field. Our experiments provided a new route of fabrication of graphene-based Josephson junction.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K.; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G.; Futter, Martyn N.; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4–4.7 ng L"−"1) and PFBS (< MQL – 10.2 ng L"−"1) among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Prevalence of short-chain PFAS indicates that the effects of PFOA and PFOS substitution are visible in environmental samples from India. The spatial pattern of C_5–C_7 PFCAs co-varied with that of PFOS suggesting similar emission drivers. PFDA and PFNA had much lower concentrations and covaried with PFOA especially in two hotspots downstream of Kanpur and Patna. PFOS and PFOA emissions to the river varied dramatically along the transect (0.20–190 and 0.03–150 g d"−"1, respectively). PFOS emission pattern could be explained by the number of urban residents in the subcatchment (rather than total population). Per-capita emissions were lower than in many developed countries. In groundwater, PFBA (< MQL – 9.2 ng L"−"1) and PFBS (< MQL – 4.9 ng L"−"1) had the highest concentrations among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Concentrations and trends in groundwater were generally similar to those observed in surface water suggesting the aquifer was contaminated by wastewater receiving river water. Daily PFAS exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety

  20. A first look at the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the future delivery of fluvial sediment to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen E; Dunn, Frances E; Nicholls, Robert J; Rahman, Munsur; Riddy, Liam

    2015-09-01

    We employ a climate-driven hydrological water balance and sediment transport model (HydroTrend) to simulate future climate-driven sediment loads flowing into the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The model was parameterised using high-quality topographic data and forced with daily temperature and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations for the period 1971-2100. Three perturbed RCM model runs were selected to quantify the potential range of future climate conditions associated with the SRES A1B scenario. Fluvial sediment delivery rates to the GBM delta associated with these climate data sets are projected to increase under the influence of anthropogenic climate change, albeit with the magnitude of the increase varying across the two catchments. Of the two study basins, the Brahmaputra's fluvial sediment load is predicted to be more sensitive to future climate change. Specifically, by the middle part of the 21(st) century, our model results suggest that sediment loads increase (relative to the 1981-2000 baseline period) over a range of between 16% and 18% (depending on climate model run) for the Ganges, but by between 25% and 28% for the Brahmaputra. The simulated increase in sediment flux emanating from the two catchments further increases towards the end of the 21(st) century, reaching between 34% and 37% for the Ganges and between 52% and 60% for the Brahmaputra by the 2090s. The variability in these changes across the three climate change simulations is small compared to the changes, suggesting they represent a significant increase. The new data obtained in this study offer the first estimate of whether and how anthropogenic climate change may affect the delivery of fluvial sediment to the GBM delta, informing assessments of the future sustainability and resilience of one of the world's most vulnerable mega-deltas. Specifically, such significant increases in future sediment loads could increase the resilience

  1. Microstructure of Josephson junctions: Effect on supercurrent transport in YBCO grain boundary and barrier layer junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.L.; Huang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The electric transport of high-temperature superconductors, such as YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO), can be strongly restricted by the presence of high-angle grain boundaries (GB). This weak-link behavior is governed by the macroscopic GB geometry and the microscopic grain boundary structure and composition at the atomic level. Whereas grain boundaries present a considerable impediment to high current applications of high T c materials, there is considerable commercial interest in exploiting the weak-link-nature of grain boundaries for the design of microelectronic devices, such as superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The Josephson junctions which form the basis of this technology can also be formed by introducing artificial barriers into the superconductor. The authors have examined both types of Josephson junctions by EM techniques in an effort to understand the connection between microstructure/chemistry and electrical transport properties. This knowledge is a valuable resource for the design and production of improved devices

  2. RF assisted switching in magnetic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, R.; Massarotti, D.; Bolginov, V. V.; Ben Hamida, A.; Karelina, L. N.; Miano, A.; Vernik, I. V.; Tafuri, F.; Ryazanov, V. V.; Mukhanov, O. A.; Pepe, G. P.

    2018-04-01

    We test the effect of an external RF field on the switching processes of magnetic Josephson junctions (MJJs) suitable for the realization of fast, scalable cryogenic memories compatible with Single Flux Quantum logic. We show that the combined application of microwaves and magnetic field pulses can improve the performances of the device, increasing the separation between the critical current levels corresponding to logical "0" and "1." The enhancement of the current level separation can be as high as 80% using an optimal set of parameters. We demonstrate that external RF fields can be used as an additional tool to manipulate the memory states, and we expect that this approach may lead to the development of new methods of selecting MJJs and manipulating their states in memory arrays for various applications.

  3. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  4. Quasiparticle dynamics in superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozorezov, A.G.; Brammertz, G.; Hijmering, R.A.; Wigmore, J.K.; Peacock, A.; Martin, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Golubov, A.A.; Rogalla, H.

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJs) used as single photon detectors possess extreme sensitivity and excellent resolving power. However, like many other cryogenic detectors they operate under extremely non-equilibrium conditions. In order to understand the physics of the non-equilibrium, non-stationary state, to interpret experimental data adequately, and to optimize the STJs unique performance, it is necessary to use a fully kinetic approach. We have developed the detailed theory of interactions between quasiparticles (qps) and the two types of phonons, sub-gap and pair-breaking, in STJ photon detectors. We discuss the results of extensive sets of experiments to study the non-equilibrium state in Al-based STJs. For the first time we are capable of explaining all available data systematically using a single set of parameters determined from STJ diagnostics and independent experiments

  5. Field-effect P-N junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, William; Zettl, Alexander

    2015-05-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to field-effect p-n junctions. In one aspect, a device includes an ohmic contact, a semiconductor layer disposed on the ohmic contact, at least one rectifying contact disposed on the semiconductor layer, a gate including a layer disposed on the at least one rectifying contact and the semiconductor layer and a gate contact disposed on the layer. A lateral width of the rectifying contact is less than a semiconductor depletion width of the semiconductor layer. The gate contact is electrically connected to the ohmic contact to create a self-gating feedback loop that is configured to maintain a gate electric field of the gate.

  6. Operating modes of superconducting tunnel junction device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, Keisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    In the Electrotechnical Laboratory, an Nb type superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) device with 200 x 200 sq. micron in area and super high quality was manufactured. By using 55-fe source, response of this large area STJ to X-ray was measured. In this measurement, two action modes with different output wave height from front amplifier were observed. Then, in this study, current-voltage feature of the element in each action mode was analyzed to elucidate a mechanism to form such two action modes. The feature was analyzed by using first order approximate solution on cavity resonance mode of Sine-Gordon equation. From the analytical results, it could be supposed that direction and magnitude of effective magnetic field penetrating into jointed area changed by an induction current effect owing to impressing speed of the magnetic field, which brings two different current-voltage features to make possible to observe two action modes with different pulse wave height. (G.K.)

  7. Electronic transport properties of phenylacetylene molecular junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wen; Cheng Jie; Yan Cui-Xia; Li Hai-Hong; Wang Yong-Juan; Liu De-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Electronic transport properties of a kind of phenylacetylene compound— (4-mercaptophenyl)-phenylacetylene are calculated by the first-principles method in the framework of density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. The molecular junction shows an obvious rectifying behaviour at a bias voltage larger than 1.0 V. The rectification effect is attributed to the asymmetry of the interface contacts. Moreover, at a bias voltage larger than 2.0 V, which is not referred to in a relevant experiment [Fang L, Park J Y, Ma H, Jen A K Y and Salmeron M 2007 Langmuir 23 11522], we find a negative differential resistance phenomenon. The negative differential resistance effect may originate from the change of the delocalization degree of the molecular orbitals induced by the bias. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yeun; Yoon, Sei Mee; Choi, Eun Ju; Lee, Jinu

    2016-09-15

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibits GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pentacene-based photodiode with Schottky junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jiyoul; Hwang, D.K.; Park, C.H.; Kim, S.S.; Im, Seongil

    2004-01-01

    We have fabricated a metal/organic semiconductor Schottky photodiode based on Al/pentacene junction. Since the energy band gap of thin solid pentacene was determined to be 1.82 eV, as characterized by direct absorption spectroscopy, we measured spectral photoresponses on our Schottky photodiode in the monochromatic light illumination range of 325-650 nm applying a reverse bias of -2 V. The main features of photo-response spectra were found to shift from those of direct absorption spectra toward higher photon energies. It is because the direct absorption spectra mainly show exciton level peaks rather than the true highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps while the photo-response spectra clearly represents the true HOMO-LUMO gap. Our photo-response spectra reveal 1.97 eV as the HOMO-LUMO gap

  10. Intercellular coupling mediated by potassium accumulation in peg-and-socket junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigmond, Edward J.; Bardakjian, Berj L.; Thuneberg, Lars

    2000-01-01

    Physiology, peg-and-socket junctions, smooth muscle, boundary element method, coupling, morphology......Physiology, peg-and-socket junctions, smooth muscle, boundary element method, coupling, morphology...

  11. Heated junction thermocouple level measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.; Burger, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level sensing apparatus senses the level of liquid surrounding the apparatus. A plurality of axially spaced sensors are enclosed in a separator tube. The separator tube tends to collapse the level of a two-phase fluid within the separator tube into essentially a liquid phase and a gaseous phase where the collapsed level bears a relationship to the coolant inventory outside the separator tube. The level of the liquid phase is sensed by level sensing apparatus. The separator tube contains inlet-outlet ports near the top and bottom thereof to equalize the liquid level inside and outside the separator tube when the level fluctuates or the water within the separator tube flashes to steam. Each sensor is comprised of a heater, a heated thermocouple junction and an unheated thermocouple junction within an elongated heat conductive housing. The heated portion of housing is enclosed in a splash guard with inlet-outlet ports near the top and bottom to equalize the liquid level inside and outside the splash guardand to eliminate the spurious indications of liquid level change which may arise if water droplets contact the housing in the region of the heater. To prevent steam bubbles entrained in a two-phase fluid cross flow from entering the lateral inlet-outlet ports of the separator tube, the separator tube is enclosed in support tube which may in turn be enclosed in an otherwise unused control element assembly shroud. The lateral inlet-outlet ports of separator tube are axially offset from lateral inlet-outlet ports of support tube at least where support tube is subjected to cross flow. The shroud is open on the bottom and has lateral inlet-outlet ports to facilitate liquid level fluctuations to equalize inside and outside shroud

  12. High Tc Josephson Junctions, SQUIDs and magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1991-01-01

    There has recently been considerable progress in the state-of-the-art of high-T c magnetometers based on dc SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices). This progress is due partly to the development of more manufacturable Josephson junctions, making SQUIDs easier to fabricate, and partly to the development of multiturn flux transformers that convert the high sensitivity of SQUIDs to magnetic flux to a correspondingly high sensitivity to magnetic field. Needless to say, today's high-T c SQUIDs are still considerably less sensitive than their low-T c counterparts, particularly at low frequencies (f) where their level of 1/f noise remains high. Nonetheless, the performance of the high-T c devices has now reached the point where they are adequate for a number of the less demanding applications; furthermore, as we shall see, at least modest improvements in performance are expected in the near future. In this article, the author outlines these various developments. This is far from a comprehensive review of the field, however, and, apart from Sec. 2, he describes largely his own work. He begins in Sec. 2 with an overview of the various types of Josephson junctions that have been investigated, and in Sec. 3, he describes some of the SQUIDs that have been tested, and assess their performance. Section 4 discuss the development of the multilayer structures essential for an interconnect technology, and, in particular, for crossovers and vias. Section 5 shows how this technology enables one to fabricate multiturn flux transformers which, in turn, can be coupled to SQUIDs to make magnetometers. The performance and possible future improvements in these magnetometers are assessed, and some applications mentioned

  13. Ligament augmentation for prevention of proximal junctional kyphosis and proximal junctional failure in adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Deviren, Vedat; Dalle Ore, Cecilia; Scheer, Justin K; Lau, Darryl; Osorio, Joseph A; Nicholls, Fred; Ames, Christopher P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a well-recognized, yet incompletely defined, complication of adult spinal deformity surgery. There is no standardized definition for PJK, but most studies describe PJK as an increase in the proximal junctional angle (PJA) of greater than 10°-20°. Ligament augmentation is a novel strategy for PJK reduction that provides strength to the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and adjacent segments while also reducing junctional stress at those levels. METHODS In this study, ligament augmentation was used in a consecutive series of adult spinal deformity patients at a single institution. Patient demographics, including age; sex; indication for surgery; revision surgery; surgical approach; and use of 3-column osteotomies, vertebroplasty, or hook fixation at the UIV, were collected. The PJA was measured preoperatively and at last follow-up using 36-inch radiographs. Data on change in PJA and need for revision surgery were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with change in PJA and proximal junctional failure (PJF), defined as PJK requiring surgical correction. RESULTS A total of 200 consecutive patients were included: 100 patients before implementation of ligament augmentation and 100 patients after implementation of this technique. The mean age of the ligament augmentation cohort was 66 years, and 67% of patients were women. Over half of these cases (51%) were revision surgeries, with 38% involving a combined anterior or lateral and posterior approach. The mean change in PJA was 6° in the ligament augmentation group compared with 14° in the control group (p historical cohort, ligament augmentation is associated with a significant decrease in PJK and PJF. These data support the implementation of ligament augmentation in surgery for adult spinal deformity, particularly in patients with a high risk of developing PJK and PJF.

  14. Poster - Thur Eve - 57: Craniospinal irradiation with jagged-junction IMRT approach without beam edge matching for field junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F; Ramaseshan, R; Corns, R; Harrop, S; Nuraney, N; Steiner, P; Aldridge, S; Liu, M; Carolan, H; Agranovich, A; Karva, A

    2012-07-01

    Craniospinal irradiation were traditionally treated the central nervous system using two or three adjacent field sets. A intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan (Jagged-Junction IMRT) which overcomes problems associated with field junctions and beam edge matching, improves planning and treatment setup efficiencies with homogenous target dose distribution was developed. Jagged-Junction IMRT was retrospectively planned on three patients with prescription of 36 Gy in 20 fractions and compared to conventional treatment plans. Planning target volume (PTV) included the whole brain and spinal canal to the S3 vertebral level. The plan employed three field sets, each with a unique isocentre. One field set with seven fields treated the cranium. Two field sets treated the spine, each set using three fields. Fields from adjacent sets were overlapped and the optimization process smoothly integrated the dose inside the overlapped junction. For the Jagged-Junction IMRT plans vs conventional technique, average homogeneity index equaled 0.08±0.01 vs 0.12±0.02, and conformity number equaled 0.79±0.01 vs 0.47±0.12. The 95% isodose surface covered (99.5±0.3)% of the PTV vs (98.1±2.0)%. Both Jagged-Junction IMRT plans and the conventional plans had good sparing of the organs at risk. Jagged-Junction IMRT planning provided good dose homogeneity and conformity to the target while maintaining a low dose to the organs at risk. Jagged-Junction IMRT optimization smoothly distributed dose in the junction between field sets. Since there was no beam matching, this treatment technique is less likely to produce hot or cold spots at the junction in contrast to conventional techniques. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition).

  16. Bandes de « microbes » et insécurité à Abidjan/Gangs of “microbes” and insecurity in Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu A. Akadje

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of “microbes” gangs tends to spread throughout the territory of Abidjan district, but especially to increase the number of victims. The objective of this study is to determine the criminal acts perpetrated by the “microbes” and show how this phenomenon is experienced in populations. The methodology is based on desk and field research with the population. The qualitative analysis allowed to highlight crime and insecurity within the population. The results highlighted the fact that the multiple aggressions of “microbes”, both violent and recurrent, led to numerous injuries and even death of the victims. Also, they contributed to the establishment of a feeling of insecurity among the population of Abidjan. Le phénomène des gangs de « microbes » a tendance à s’étendre sur l’ensemble du territoire du district d’Abidjan, mais surtout à accroître le nombre des victimes. L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer les actes criminels perpétrés par les « microbes » et de montrer comment ce phénomène est vécu au sein des populations. La méthodologie est basée sur une recherche documentaire et de terrain auprès des populations. L’analyse qualitative a permis de mettre en évidence la criminalité et le sentiment d’insécurité au sein de la population. Les résultats ont mis en exergue le fait que les multiples agressions des « microbes », à la fois violentes et récurrentes, ont conduit à de nombreux blessés voire décès des victimes. Aussi, ont-ils concouru à l’instauration d’un sentiment d’insécurité au sein des populations abidjanaises.

  17. Advance of Mechanically Controllable Break Junction for Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Xiang, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Molecular electronics stands for the ultimate size of functional elements, keeping up with an unstoppable trend over the past few decades. As a vital component of molecular electronics, single molecular junctions have attracted significant attention from research groups all over the world. Due to its pronounced superiority, the mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ) technique has been widely applied to characterize the dynamic performance of single molecular junctions. This review presents a system analysis for single-molecule junctions and offers an overview of four test-beds for single-molecule junctions, thus offering more insight into the mechanisms of electron transport. We mainly focus on the development of state-of-the-art mechanically controlled break junctions. The three-terminal gated MCBJ approaches are introduced to manipulate the electron transport of molecules, and MCBJs are combined with characterization techniques. Additionally, applications of MCBJs and remarkable properties of single molecules are addressed. Finally, the challenges and perspective for the mechanically controllable break junctions technique are provided.

  18. Contour junctions defined by dynamic image deformations enhance perceptual transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2017-11-01

    The majority of work on the perception of transparency has focused on static images with luminance-defined contour junctions, but recent work has shown that dynamic image sequences with dynamic image deformations also provide information about transparency. The present study demonstrates that when part of a static image is dynamically deformed, contour junctions at which deforming and nondeforming contours are connected facilitate the deformation-based perception of a transparent layer. We found that the impression of a transparent layer was stronger when a dynamically deforming area was adjacent to static nondeforming areas than when presented alone. When contour junctions were not formed at the dynamic-static boundaries, however, the impression of a transparent layer was not facilitated by the presence of static surrounding areas. The effect of the deformation-defined junctions was attenuated when the spatial pattern of luminance contrast at the junctions was inconsistent with the perceived transparency related to luminance contrast, while the effect did not change when the spatial luminance pattern was consistent with it. In addition, the results showed that contour completions across the junctions were required for the perception of a transparent layer. These results indicate that deformation-defined junctions that involve contour completion between deforming and nondeforming regions enhance the perception of a transparent layer, and that the deformation-based perceptual transparency can be promoted by the simultaneous presence of appropriately configured luminance and contrast-other features that can also by themselves produce the sensation of perceiving transparency.

  19. Flicker (1/f) noise in tunnel junction DC SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Clarke, J.; Goubau, W.M.; Martinis, J.M.; Pegrum, C.M.; Van Harlingen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured the spectral density of the 1/f voltage noise in current-biased resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions and dc SQUIDs. A theory in which fluctuations in the temperature give rise to fluctuations in the critical current and hence in the voltage predicts the magnitude of the noise quite accurately for junctions with areas of about 2 x 10 4 μm 2 , but significantly overestimates the noise for junctions with areas of about 6 μm 2 . DC SQUIDs fabricated from these two types of junctions exhibit substantially more 1/f voltage noise than would be predicted from a model in which the noise arises from critical current fluctuations in the junctions. This result was confirmed by an experiment involving two different bias current and flux modulation schemes, which demonstrated that the predominant 1/f voltage noise arises not from critical current fluctuations, but from some unknown source that can be regarded as an apparent 1/f flux noise. Measurements on five different configurations of dc SQUIDs fabricated with thin-film tunnel junctions and with widely varying areas, inductances, and junction capacitances show that the spectral density of the 1/f equivalent flux noise is roughtly constant, within a factor of three of (10 -10 /f)phi 2 0 Hz -1 . It is emphasized that 1/f flux noise may not be the predominant source of 1/f noise in SQUIDS fabricated with other technologies

  20. Ileocolic junction resection in dogs and cats: 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Yordan; Seth, Mayank; Murgia, Daniela; Puig, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    There is limited veterinary literature about dogs or cats with ileocolic junction resection and its long-term follow-up. To evaluate the long-term outcome in a cohort of dogs and cats that underwent resection of the ileocolic junction without extensive (≥50%) small or large bowel resection. Medical records of dogs and cats that had the ileocolic junction resected were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained either by telephone interview or e-mail correspondence with the referring veterinary surgeons. Nine dogs and nine cats were included. The most common cause of ileocolic junction resection was intussusception in dogs (5/9) and neoplasia in cats (6/9). Two dogs with ileocolic junction lymphoma died postoperatively. Only 2 of 15 animals, for which long-term follow-up information was available, had soft stools. However, three dogs with suspected chronic enteropathy required long-term treatment with hypoallergenic diets alone or in combination with medical treatment to avoid the development of diarrhoea. Four of 6 cats with ileocolic junction neoplasia were euthanised as a consequence of progressive disease. Dogs and cats undergoing ileocolic junction resection and surviving the perioperative period may have a good long-term outcome with mild or absent clinical signs but long-term medical management may be required.

  1. Dilute Nitrides For 4-And 6- Junction Space Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, S.; Stammler, E.; Ronsch, S.; Oliva, E.; Schachtner, M.; Siefer, G.; Bett, A. W.; Dimroth, F.

    2011-10-01

    According to simulations the efficiency of conventional, lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells can be strongly increased by the incorporation of additional junctions. In this way the existing excess current of the Germanium bottom cell can be reduced and the voltage of the stack can be increased. In particular, the use of 1.0 eV materials like GaInNAs opens the door for solar cells with significantly improved conversion efficiency. We have investigated the material properties of GaInNAs grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and its impact on the quantum efficiency of solar cells. Furthermore we have developed a GaInNAs subcell with a bandgap energy of 1.0 eV and integrated it into a GaInP/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 4-junction and a AlGaInP/GaInP/AlGaInAs/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 6- junction space solar cell. The material quality of the dilute nitride junction limits the current density of these devices to 9.3 mA/cm2 (AM0). This is not sufficient for a 4-junction cell but may lead to current matched 6- junction devices in the future.

  2. Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beddy, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, in particular Siewert types I and II. This study compared abdominal fat composition in patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma with that in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, and in controls. METHOD: In total, 194 patients (110 with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, 38 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 46 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) and 90 matched control subjects were recruited. The abdominal fat area was assessed using computed tomography (CT), and the total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma had significantly higher TFA and VFA values compared with controls (both P < 0.001), patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.006 respectively) and patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). For junctional tumours, the highest TFA and VFA values were seen in patients with Siewert type I tumours (respectively P = 0.041 and P = 0.033 versus type III; P = 0.332 and P = 0.152 versus type II). CONCLUSION: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, in particular oesophageal and Siewert type I junctional tumours, have greater CT-defined visceral adiposity than patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or controls.

  3. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Electron-beam damaged high-temperature superconductor Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauza, A.J.; Booij, W.E.; Herrmann, K.; Moore, D.F.; Blamire, M.G.; Rudman, D.A.; Vale, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented on the fabrication and characterization of high critical temperature Josephson junctions in thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ produced by the process of focused electron-beam irradiation using 350 keV electrons. The junctions so produced have uniform spatial current densities, can be described in terms of the resistive shunted junction model, and their current densities can be tailored for a given operating temperature. The physical properties of the damaged barrier can be described as a superconducting material of either reduced or zero critical temperature (T c ), which has a length of ∼15nm. The T c reduction is caused primarily by oxygen Frenkel defects in the Cu - O planes. The large beam currents used in the fabrication of the junctions mean that the extent of the barrier is limited by the incident electron-beam diameter, rather than by scattering within the film. The properties of the barrier can be calculated using a superconductor/normal/superconductor (SNS) junction model with no boundary resistance. From the SNS model, we can predict the scaling of the critical current resistance (I c R n ) product and gain insight into the factors controlling the junction properties, T c , and reproducibility. From the measured I c R n scaling data, we can predict the I c R n product of a junction at a given operating temperature with a given current density. I c R n products of ∼2mV can be achieved at 4.2 K. The reproducibility of several junctions in a number of samples can be characterized by the ratio of the maximum-to-minimum critical currents on the same substrate of less than 1.4. Stability over several months has been demonstrated at room and refrigerator temperatures (297 and 281 K) for junctions that have been initially over damaged and then annealed at temperatures ∼380K. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. The cranial-spinal junction in medulloblastoma: does it matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Ashwatha; Jeswani, Sam; Paulino, Arnold C.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Late effects of treatment in children and young adults with medulloblastoma can be influenced by the technique employed in radiating the craniospinal axis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the placement of the cranial-spinal junction has an impact on dose to the cervical spinal cord and surrounding organs. Methods and Materials: Five patients underwent computed tomography (CT) simulation in the prone position for craniospinal irradiation. A dose of 36 Gy was prescribed to the entire neuraxis. The doses to the cervical spinal cord and surrounding organs were calculated using a cranial-spinal junction at the C1-C2 vertebral interspace (high junction) or at the lowest point in the neck, with exclusion of the shoulders in the lateral cranial fields (low junction).The volume of critical organs at risk, as well as dose to these structures using the cranial and spinal field(s) were outlined and calculated using the CMS FOCUS 3-dimensional treatment planning system. Results: The average dose to the cervical spinal cord was 11.9% higher than the prescribed dose with the low junction, and 6.7% higher with the high junction. However, doses to the thyroid gland, mandible, pharynx, and larynx were increased by an average of 29.6%, 75.8%, 70.6%, and 227.7%, respectively, by the use of the high junction compared to the low junction. Conclusion: A higher dose to the cervical spinal cord can be minimized by using a high junction. However, this would be at the cost of substantially increased doses to surrounding organs such as the thyroid gland, mandible, pharynx, and larynx. This can be critical in children and young adults, where hypothyroidism, mandibular hypoplasia, and development of second malignancies may be a late sequela of radiation therapy

  6. Internal resonances in periodically modulated long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper; Ustinov, Alexey V.

    1995-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of long Josephson junctions with a periodic lattice of localized inhomogeneities are studied. The interaction between the moving fluxons and the inhomogeneities causes resonant steps in the IV-curve. Some of these steps are due to a synchronization to resonant...... Fiske modes in the sub-junctions formed between the inhomogeneities. The voltage positions of the resonant steps oscillate as function of the applied magnetic field with a period corresponding to the inclusion of one magnetic flux quantum, Φ0=h/2e, per sub-junction. A qualitative explanation that takes...

  7. Temporal correlations and structural memory effects in break junction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyarkuti, A.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Balogh, Zoltan Imre

    2017-01-01

    that correlations between the opening and subsequent closing traces may indicate structural memory effects in atomic-sized metallic and molecular junctions. Applying these methods on measured and simulated gold metallic contacts as a test system, we show that the surface diffusion induced flattening of the broken......-molecule junctions, we demonstrate pronounced contact memory effects and recovery of the molecule for junctions breaking before atomic chains are formed. However, if chains are pulled the random relaxation of the chain and molecule after rupture prevents opening-closing correlations....

  8. Double-well potential in annular Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaju, P.D.; Kuriakose, V.C.

    2004-01-01

    A double-well potential suitable for quantum-coherent vortex tunnelling can be created in an annular Josephson junction by inserting a microshort in the junction and by applying an in-plane dc magnetic field. Analysis shows that the intensity of the magnetic field determines the depth of the potential well and the strength of the microshort controls the potential barrier height while a dc bias across the junction tilts the potential well. At milli-Kelvin temperatures, the system is expected to behave as a quantum two-level system and may be useful in designing vortex qubits

  9. Steady-state properties of Josephson junctions with direct conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, A.A.; Kupriyanov, M.Y.; Semenov, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    A new criterion for determining the kinetic inductance of Josephson junctions is introduced. The effects of temperature T, the critical temperatures of the superconducting electrodes T/sub c/1 and T/sub c/2, and the weak-link length on the kinetic inductance of ''dirty'' junctions with direct conductivity are analyzed within the framework of the Usadel equations. Numerical calculations show that both a large characteristic voltage and a nearly harmonic dependence of the current on the phase difference of the superconducting-electrode wave functions cannot be obtained by varying the junction parameters

  10. Amorphous molecular junctions produced by ion irradiation on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenxia; Yu Liping; Zhang Wei; Ding Yinfeng; Li Yulan; Han Jiaguang; Zhu Zhiyuan; Xu Hongjie; He Guowei; Chen Yi; Hu Gang

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and molecular dynamics have demonstrated that electron irradiation could create molecular junctions between crossed single-wall carbon nanotubes. Recently molecular dynamics computation predicted that ion irradiation could also join single-walled carbon nanotubes. Employing carbon ion irradiation on multi-walled carbon nanotubes, we find that these nanotubes evolve into amorphous carbon nanowires, more importantly, during the process of which various molecular junctions of amorphous nanowires are formed by welding from crossed carbon nanotubes. It demonstrates that ion-beam irradiation could be an effective way not only for the welding of nanotubes but also for the formation of nanowire junctions

  11. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  12. Ischemic preconditioning protects against gap junctional uncoupling in cardiac myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Rune; Cooper, Marie; Mikalsen, Svein-Ole; Ytrehus, Kirsti

    2004-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning increases the heart's tolerance to a subsequent longer ischemic period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of gap junction communication in simulated preconditioning in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myofibroblasts. Gap junctional intercellular communication was assessed by Lucifer yellow dye transfer. Preconditioning preserved intercellular coupling after prolonged ischemia. An initial reduction in coupling in response to the preconditioning stimulus was also observed. This may protect neighboring cells from damaging substances produced during subsequent regional ischemia in vivo, and may preserve gap junctional communication required for enhanced functional recovery during subsequent reperfusion.

  13. Superconducting proximity effect in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, H; Toyoda, E

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting proximity effect is discussed in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions. The newly-developed theory shows long-range phase-coherent effect which explaines early experimental results of giant magnetoresistance oscillations in an Andreev interferometer. The theory also shows that the proximity correction to the conductance (PCC) has a reentrant behavior as a function of energy. The reentrant behavior is systematically studied in a gated superconductor-semiconductor junction. A negative PCC is observed in the case of a weak coupling between the normal metal and the external reservoir. Phase coherent ac effect is also observed when rf is irradiated to the junction.

  14. Charge transport in single photochromic molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsang; Pietsch, T.; Scheer, Elke; Hellmuth, T.; Pauly, F.; Sysoiev, D.; Huhn, T.; Exner, T.; Groth, U.; Steiner, U.; Erbe, A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently, photoswitchable molecules, i.e. diarylethene, gained significant interest due to their applicability in data storage media, as optical switches, and in novel logic circuits [1]. Diarylethene-derivative molecules are the most promising candidates to design electronic functional elements, because of their excellent thermal stability, high fatigue resistance, and negligible change upon switching [1]. Here, we present the preferential conductance of specifically designed sulfur-free diarylethene molecules [2] bridging the mechanically controlled break-junctions at low temperatures [3]. The molecular energy levels and electrode couplings are obtained by evaluating the current-voltage characteristics using the single-level model [4]. The charge transport mechanism of different types of diarylethene molecules is investigated, and the results are discussed within the framework of novel theoretical predictions. [4pt] [1] M. Del Valle etal., Nat Nanotechnol 2, 176 (2007) S. J. van der Molen etal., Nano. Lett. 9, 76 (2009).[0pt] [2] D. Sysoiev etal., Chem. Eur. J. 17, 6663 (2011).[0pt] [3] Y. Kim etal., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 196804 (2011).[0pt] [4] Y. Kim etal., Nano Lett. 11, 3734 (2011). L. Zotti etal., Small 6, 1529 (2010).

  15. Motor neuron, nerve, and neuromuscular junction disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Papić, Lea; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2011-10-01

    The aim is to review the most relevant findings published during the last year concerning clinical, genetic, pathogenic, and therapeutic advances in motor neuron disease, neuropathies, and neuromuscular junction disorders. Studies on animal and cell models have improved the understanding of how mutated survival motor neuron protein in spinal muscular atrophy governs the pathogenetic processes. New phenotypes of SOD1 mutations have been described. Moreover, animal models enhanced the insight into the pathogenetic background of sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Novel treatment options for motor neuron disease have been described in humans and animal models. Considerable progress has been achieved also in elucidating the genetic background of many forms of inherited neuropathies and high clinical and genetic heterogeneity has been demonstrated. Mutations in MuSK and GFTP1 have been shown to cause new types of congenital myasthenic syndromes. A third type of autoantibodies (Lrp4) has been detected to cause myasthenia gravis. Advances in the clinical and genetic characterization of motor neuron diseases, neuropathies, and neuromuscular transmission defects have important implications on the fundamental understanding, diagnosis, and management of these disorders. Identification of crucial steps of the pathogenetic process may provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. Nuclear radiation detection with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakado, Masahiko

    1984-01-01

    Since the gap energy of superconductors is as small as 1 meV and 1/1000 of that of semiconductors, it is expected that the number of electron-hole pairs produced in superconductors by radiation is several thousands times as many as the pairs in semiconductors. Therefore, high sensitivity and high resolution radiation detectors may be manufactured by using superconductors. A computer simulation of the cascade excitation process of electrons was carried out. The experimental study was performed by using Sn junctions. The variation of transient voltage was measured by the constant current method. The alpha particles from Po-210 were measured, and the generation of quasi particles was confirmed. The relaxation time of signals was measured by using pulsed laser beam. It was found that the superconductors just after the incidence of radiation became nonequilibrium. The typical alpha spectra were obtained by cooling the superconductors to 0.32 K. The detector is still under development. The problem is leakage current. (Kato, T.)

  17. Aeroacoustics of T-junction merging flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, G C Y; Leung, R C K; Tang, S K

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports a numerical study of the aeroacoustics of merging flow at T-junction. The primary focus is to elucidate the acoustic generation by the flow unsteadiness. The study is conducted by performing direct aeroacoustic simulation approach, which solves the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the perfect gas equation of state simultaneously using the conservation element and solution element method. For practical flows, the Reynolds number based on duct width is usually quite high (>10(5)). In order to properly account for the effects of flow turbulence, a large eddy simulation methodology together with a wall modeling derived from the classical logarithm wall law is adopted. The numerical simulations are performed in two dimensions and the acoustic generation physics at different ratios of side-branch to main duct flow velocities VR (=0.5,0.67,1.0,2.0) are studied. Both the levels of unsteady interactions of merging flow structures and the efficiency of acoustic generation are observed to increase with VR. Based on Curle's analogy, the major acoustic source is found to be the fluctuating wall pressure induced by the flow unsteadiness occurred in the downstream branch. A scaling between the wall fluctuating force and the efficiency of the acoustic generation is also derived.

  18. Development of a junction β - spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, A.

    1966-01-01

    A β spectrometry unit using junctions of the silicon surface barrier type has been built. The resolving power of this spectrometer has been studied as well as the influence of a certain number of parameters (temperature, polarization voltage) on its characteristics. A study with this unit of some internal conversion electron spectra ( 113 Sn, 137 Cs, 139 Ce, 195 Au, 207 Bi) has led both to a determination of its characteristics and of an energy calibration, and to the determination of certain internal conversion ratios of these radionuclides. This spectrometer was then used for a study of (5-spectra in particular that of 35 S and 14 C. The calculations and corrections required for the setting-up of Kuries representation are described. The programmes required for the carrying-out of these calculations with an I.B.M. computer are given. It has been verified that Kuries representation for 14 C above 90 keV is in fact linear. The non-linear aspect observed by certain authors is probably due to the 'quality' of the sources used. The Fierz interference term has been determined. The maximum β energies found are respectively: 167 ± 1 keV for 35 S and 155 ± 2 keV for 14 C. (author) [fr

  19. Perturbation treatment of mixing in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinsen, M.T.; Ulrich, B.T.

    1975-01-01

    A current biased, resistively shunted Josephson Junction irradiated at two frequencies is considered. The perturbation technique introduced by Aslamasov and Larkin is used in the calculations, and both signals are treated as perturbations. The second order calculation yields the size of the mixing steps at V/sub +-/ = h(ω 1 +- ω 2 )/2e. As in the case of a single frequency, subharmonic mixing steps are absent. The amplitude of the voltage oscillation at the difference and sum frequencies is shown to be non-zero at all voltages. The microwave resistance is calculated for one frequency ω 2 to third order in the perturbation. There are negative resistance regions near V/sub +-/ (as well as near V 2 = hω 2 /2e). Near V/sub -/, the negative resistance region appears for bias voltage V just above V/sub -/, while near V the region appears for V just below V/sub +/. This means that when an incident frequency mixes with a cavity mode, the mixing step at V/sub -/ will be inverted compared to the cavity step itself

  20. Modeling Bloch oscillations in ultra-small Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Heli; Kautz, Richard; Nam, Sae Woo; Aumentado, Jose

    In a seminal paper, Likharev et al. developed a theory for ultra-small Josephson junctions with Josephson coupling energy (Ej) less than the charging energy (Ec) and showed that such junctions demonstrate Bloch oscillations which could be used to make a fundamental current standard that is a dual of the Josephson volt standard. Here, based on the model of Geigenmüller and Schön, we numerically calculate the current-voltage relationship of such an ultra-small junction which includes various error processes present in a nanoscale Josephson junction such as random quasiparticle tunneling events and Zener tunneling between bands. This model allows us to explore the parameter space to see the effect of each process on the width and height of the Bloch step and serves as a guide to determine whether it is possible to build a quantum current standard of a metrological precision using Bloch oscillations.

  1. Large eddy simulation of a wing-body junction flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sungmin; Emory, Michael; Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    We present numerical simulations of the wing-body junction flow experimentally investigated by Devenport & Simpson (1990). Wall-junction flows are common in engineering applications but relevant flow physics close to the corner region is not well understood. Moreover, performance of turbulence models for the body-junction case is not well characterized. Motivated by the insufficient investigations, we have numerically investigated the case with Reynolds-averaged Naiver-Stokes equation (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The Vreman model applied for the LES and SST k- ω model for the RANS simulation are validated focusing on the ability to predict turbulence statistics near the junction region. Moreover, a sensitivity study of the form of the Vreman model will also be presented. This work is funded under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX11AI41A (Technical Monitor Dr. Stephen Woodruff)

  2. Doping enhanced barrier lowering in graphene-silicon junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintong; Zhang, Lining; Chan, Mansun

    2016-06-01

    Rectifying properties of graphene-semiconductor junctions depend on the Schottky barrier height. We report an enhanced barrier lowering in graphene-Si junction and its essential doping dependence in this paper. The electric field due to ionized charge in n-type Si induces the same type doping in graphene and contributes another Schottky barrier lowering factor on top of the image-force-induced lowering (IFIL). We confirm this graphene-doping-induced lowering (GDIL) based on well reproductions of the measured reverse current of our fabricated graphene-Si junctions by the thermionic emission theory. Excellent matching between the theoretical predictions and the junction data of the doping-concentration dependent barrier lowering serves as another evidence of the GDIL. While both GDIL and IFIL are enhanced with the Si doping, GDIL exceeds IFIL with a threshold doping depending on the as-prepared graphene itself.

  3. Negative tunnel magnetoresistance and spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianfei; Jin Guojun; Ma Yuqiang

    2009-01-01

    We study the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions composed of ferromagnetic graphene (FG) and normal graphene (NG) layers. It is found that the TMR in the FG/NG/FG junction oscillates from positive to negative values with respect to the chemical potential adjusted by the gate voltage in the barrier region when the Fermi level is low enough. Particularly, the conventionally defined TMR in the FG/FG/FG junction oscillates periodically from a positive to negative value with increasing the barrier height at any Fermi level. The spin polarization of the current through the FG/FG/FG junction also has an oscillating behavior with increasing barrier height, whose oscillating amplitude can be modulated by the exchange splitting in the ferromagnetic graphene.

  4. Negative tunnel magnetoresistance and spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianfei; Jin, Guojun; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2009-03-25

    We study the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions composed of ferromagnetic graphene (FG) and normal graphene (NG) layers. It is found that the TMR in the FG/NG/FG junction oscillates from positive to negative values with respect to the chemical potential adjusted by the gate voltage in the barrier region when the Fermi level is low enough. Particularly, the conventionally defined TMR in the FG/FG/FG junction oscillates periodically from a positive to negative value with increasing the barrier height at any Fermi level. The spin polarization of the current through the FG/FG/FG junction also has an oscillating behavior with increasing barrier height, whose oscillating amplitude can be modulated by the exchange splitting in the ferromagnetic graphene.

  5. BPS dynamics of the triple (p,q) string junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, S.-J.; Yee, J.-T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the triple junction of (p,q) strings in type IIB string theory. We probe the tension and mass density of (p,q) strings by studying harmonic fluctuations of the triple junction. We show that they agree perfectly with the BPS formula provided a suitable geometric interpretation of the junction is given. We provide a precise statement of the BPS limit and force-balance property. At weak coupling and sufficiently dense limit, we argue that a (p,q) string embedded in the string network is a 'wiggly string', whose low-energy dynamics can be described via a renormalization group evolved, smooth effective non-relativistic string. We also suggest the possibility that, upon type IIB strings being promoted to the M-theory membrane, there can exist 'evanescent' bound-states at the triple junction in the continuum. (orig.)

  6. Molecular electronics: some views on transport junctions and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Christian; Ratner, Mark A

    2005-06-21

    The field of molecular electronics comprises a fundamental set of issues concerning the electronic response of molecules as parts of a mesoscopic structure and a technology-facing area of science. We will overview some important aspects of these subfields. The most advanced ideas in the field involve the use of molecules as individual logic or memory units and are broadly based on using the quantum state space of the molecule. Current work in molecular electronics usually addresses molecular junction transport, where the molecule acts as a barrier for incoming electrons: This is the fundamental Landauer idea of "conduction as scattering" generalized to molecular junction structures. Another point of view in terms of superexchange as a guiding mechanism for coherent electron transfer through the molecular bridge is discussed. Molecules generally exhibit relatively strong vibronic coupling. The last section of this overview focuses on vibronic effects, including inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, hysteresis in junction charge transport, and negative differential resistance in molecular transport junctions.

  7. Quantitatively accurate calculations of conductance and thermopower of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Thermopower measurements of molecular junctions have recently gained interest as a characterization technique that supplements the more traditional conductance measurements. Here we investigate the electronic conductance and thermopower of benzenediamine (BDA) and benzenedicarbonitrile (BDCN...

  8. Majorana splitting from critical currents in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayao, Jorge; San-Jose, Pablo; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.; Aguado, Ramón; Prada, Elsa

    2017-11-01

    A semiconducting nanowire with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling and coupled to a superconductor can be tuned by an external Zeeman field into a topological phase with Majorana zero modes. Here we theoretically investigate how this exotic topological superconductor phase manifests in Josephson junctions based on such proximitized nanowires. In particular, we focus on critical currents in the short junction limit (LN≪ξ , where LN is the junction length and ξ is the superconducting coherence length) and show that they contain important information about nontrivial topology and Majoranas. This includes signatures of the gap inversion at the topological transition and a unique oscillatory pattern that originates from Majorana interference. Interestingly, this pattern can be modified by tuning the transmission across the junction, thus providing complementary evidence of Majoranas and their energy splittings beyond standard tunnel spectroscopy experiments, while offering further tunability by virtue of the Josephson effect.

  9. A case report of craniovertebral junction intradural extramedullary neurenteric cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari S Vhora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A neurenteric cyst of the craniocervical (CV junction, as a cause of bulbomedullary compression, is very rare. An abnormal communication between the endoderm and neuroectoderm during the third week of embryogenesis may be responsible for its formation. It is a rare spinal condition. The most frequent location is at the lower cervical and higher thoracic spine. Neurenteric cysts of the craniocervical junction are even rarer. We report the case of a CV junction intradural neurenteric cyst. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of our patient demonstrated an intradural extramedullary process of the craniocervical junction. A surgical posterior approach allowed gross total resection of the lesion. The histopathology of the surgical specimen showed that the cyst wall was made up of fibrocollagen walls lined with a partially ciliated columnar epithelium.

  10. Photonic and Quantum Interactions of Atomic-Scale Junctions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, the fundamental quantum and photonic interactions of bimetallic atomic-scale junctions (ASJs) will be explored, with three major space...

  11. Droplet Traffic Control at a simple T junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Pascal; Engl, Wilfried; Colin, Annie; Ajdari, Armand

    2006-03-01

    A basic yet essential element of every traffic flow control is the effect of a junction where the flow is separated into several streams. How do pedestrians, vehicles or blood cells divide when they reach a junction? How does the outcome depend on their density? Similar fundamental questions hold for much simpler systems: in this paper, we have studied the behaviour of periodic trains of water droplets flowing in oil through a channel as they reach a simple, locally symmetric, T junction. Depending on their dilution, we observe that the droplets are either alternately partitioned between both outlets or sorted exclusively into the shortest one. We show that this surprising behaviour results from the hydrodynamic feed-back of drops in the two outlets on the selection process occurring at the junction. Our results offer a first guide for the design and modelling of droplet traffic in complex branched networks, a necessary step towards parallelized droplet-based ``lab-on-chip'' devices.

  12. Mechanical break junctions: enormous information in a nanoscale package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Douglas

    2012-04-24

    Mechanical break junctions, particularly those in which a metal tip is repeatedly moved in and out of contact with a metal film, have provided many insights into electronic conduction at the atomic and molecular scale, most often by averaging over many possible junction configurations. This averaging throws away a great deal of information, and Makk et al. in this issue of ACS Nano demonstrate that, with both simulated and real experimental data, more sophisticated two-dimensional analysis methods can reveal information otherwise obscured in simple histograms. As additional measured quantities come into play in break junction experiments, including thermopower, noise, and optical response, these more sophisticated analytic approaches are likely to become even more powerful. While break junctions are not directly practical for useful electronic devices, they are incredibly valuable tools for unraveling the electronic transport physics relevant for ultrascaled nanoelectronics.

  13. Top 50 most-cited articles on craniovertebral junction surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Alan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Using citation analysis, we have provided a list of the most-cited articles representing important contributions of various authors from many institutions across the world to the field of craniovertebral junction surgery.

  14. Junction temperature estimation for an advanced active power cycling test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, S.

    2015-01-01

    estimation method using on-state VCE for an advanced active power cycling test is proposed. The concept of the advanced power cycling test is explained first. Afterwards the junction temperature estimation method using on-state VCE and current is presented. Further, the method to improve the accuracy...... of the maximum junction temperature estimation is also proposed. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results.......On-state collector-emitter voltage (VCE) is a good indicator to determine the wear-out condition of power device modules. Further, it is a one of the Temperature Sensitive Electrical Parameters (TSEPs) and thus can be used for junction temperature estimation. In this paper, the junction temperature...

  15. Development of High Temperature Superconducting Josephson Junction Device Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    The DuPont program was successful in generating useful knowledge about thallium cuprate materials, photoresist reflow processing, and radiant heater technology though it did not lead to a new junction technology...

  16. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Essex Junction Quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG12-3, Gale, M., Kim. J., and Ruksznis, A., 2012, Bedrock Geologic Map of the essex Junction Quadrangle: Vermont Geological Survey Open File...

  17. Stentless pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in patients with ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. In all,. 42 patients ... of Urology, National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan. Correspondence to ... stentless pyeloplasty in open, laparoscopic, and robotic- assisted ...

  18. Low-Cost Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Cells, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will provide a pathway to dramatically reduce the cost of multi-junction solar cells. The project leverages a TRL6 micropackaging process...

  19. High-efficiency thermal switch based on topological Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Giazotto, Francesco; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2017-02-01

    We propose theoretically a thermal switch operating by the magnetic-flux controlled diffraction of phase-coherent heat currents in a thermally biased Josephson junction based on a two-dimensional topological insulator. For short junctions, the system shows a sharp switching behavior while for long junctions the switching is smooth. Physically, the switching arises from the Doppler shift of the superconducting condensate due to screening currents induced by a magnetic flux. We suggest a possible experimental realization that exhibits a relative temperature change of 40% between the on and off state for realistic parameters. This is a factor of two larger than in recently realized thermal modulators based on conventional superconducting tunnel junctions.

  20. Towards quantum signatures in a swept-bias Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losert, Harald; Vogel, Karl; Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Josephson junctions are one of the best examples for the observation of macroscopic quantum tunneling. The phase difference in a current-biased Josephson junction behaves like the position of a particle in a tilted washboard potential. The escape of this phase-particle corresponds to the voltage switching of the associated junction. Quantum mechanically, the escape from the washboard potential can be explained as tunneling from the ground state, or an excited state. However, it has been shown, that in the case of periodic driving the experimental data for quantum mechanical key features, e.g. Rabi oscillations or energy level quantization, can be reproduced by a completely classical description. Motivated by this discussion, we investigate a swept-bias Josephson junction in the case of a large critical current. In particular, we contrast the switching current distributions resulting from a quantum mechanical and classical description of the time evolution.