WorldWideScience

Sample records for victorian legislative framework

  1. Regulatory control, legislation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The legislation and regulations, a regulatory authority to authorise and inspect the regulated activities and to enforce the legislation and regulations, sufficient financial and man-power resources are the essential parts of a national infrastructure to implement the Basic Safety Standards. The legal framework consists of legislation (Act passed by Parliament) and the regulations (framed by the government and endorsed by the Parliament). This paper is primarily deals with the the legal framework set up in India for atomic energy activities

  2. The European legislative framework for audit committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    In 2014 the European Union reformed the regulatory framework of statutory audits in Directive 2014/56/EC and Regulation (EU) Nr. 537/2014. Part of the new legislation addresses the composition and responsibilities of the audit committee of public-interest entities. This contribution studies the

  3. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shall present a detailed and critical review of the legislative and institutional framework of environmental protection and pollution control in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria; it shall conclude with some recommendations for a better, more efficient and effective environmental protection and pollution control regime ...

  4. Legislative Framework Required for Africa's M-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa......This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa...

  5. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  6. A Critique of the Key Legislative Framework Guiding Civil Liberties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key legislative framework presented in this paper is within the areas of media and access to information, individual rights and freedoms, as well as legislation pertaining to the conduct of elections. In some cases, colonial legislation that politicians claimed to have repealed was reincarnated, as the post-colonial dispensation ...

  7. Legislative and regulatory framework of radioactive waste management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper intent is to present an update on the Romanian legislative and regulatory framework in the area of radioactive waste management. Based on the experiences gained by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control in the past years, the recent legislative initiatives related to the coherent radwaste management policy at the national level are presented. (author)

  8. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  9. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raguzin Igor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  10. The Effects of the Revised CPPNM on Legislative Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Shim, Hye-Won; Chang, Sun-Young; Lee, Jong-Uk

    2006-01-01

    A Diplomatic Conference was held last July at Vienna of Austria and adopted an important Convention in physical protection field. The Convention is the revised Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. A State Party to the revised CPPNM has obligation to meet the Convention. Since the Amendment to CPPNM is expected to enter into force in near future, there is an urgent need to prepare for implementing the international obligation. Thus, it is important to assess the effect of the revised Convention on national legislative and regulatory framework to govern physical protection of domestic nuclear material and facilities. The objective of this paper is to perform comparative assessment between new provisions of the revised Convention and national law in order to prepare for the implementation of the international norm

  11. The Legislative Framework Regarding Bullying In South African Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Laas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that has the potential to impact on children not only physically but also psychologically. In South Africa countless children fall victim to bullying, harassment and abuse at schools. A myriad of constitutional rights are infringed upon when bullying occurs, and the problem is escalating. The Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011 was signed and accepted into law on the 27th of April 2013. This new Act may grant relief to victims of bullying inter alia by providing for protection orders, and therefore adds to the legislative framework available to victims. However, in terms of bullying in schools, the parties to these incidents are minors and therefore a critical analysis is necessary with regard to the rights of the victim and the offender. In this context the relationship and interaction between the Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011, the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis.

  12. Legislative framework on establishing emergency response plan in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Valcic, I.; Biscan, R.

    2000-01-01

    To give an overview of the legislative framework, which defined emergency planning in Croatia in the case of a nuclear accident, it's necessary to look at all international recommendations and obligations and the national legislation, acts and regulations. It has to be emphasized that Croatia signed three international conventions in this field, and by that took over some responsibilities and obligations. Beside that, it is also in Croatian interest to follow the recommendations of international institutions such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA standards and technical documents). On the other hand, national legislation in this field consists of several laws, which cover nuclear safety measures, governmental organization, natural disasters and acts (decree, decisions) of responsible authority for emergency planning in the case of a nuclear accident (Ministry of Economy). This paper presents an overview of the international and Croatian legislation which influenced the emergency planning in the case of a nuclear accident. (author)

  13. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  14. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  15. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  16. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (Trade governed by nuclear energy legislation; Trade governed by radiation protection legislation; Trade governed by export/import control legislation); 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Ministerial Level (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; Ministry of Trade and Industry; Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Other Ministries); B. Subsidiary Level: (The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA; The Norwegian Nuclear Emergency Organisation); 2. Public and Semi-Public Agencies - Institute for Energy Technology - IFE

  17. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Framework: 1. General; 2. Mining; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency measures); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. General Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health; Minister of Labour; Other Ministers competent); 2. Advisory bodies (Higher Health Council)

  18. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  19. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities - National Radiation Laboratory - NRL; 2. Advisory bodies - Radiation Protection Advisory Council; 3. Public and semi-public agencies - Research institutes

  20. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health and Social Security; Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute)

  1. New framework for the new era the legislative change in the Japanese utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myoi, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    The on-going amendment activity to the legislative framework of the Japanese electric utility industry is discussed. A new strategy for the Japanese utility industry is necessary to meet the challenges in the future. Flexibility and mobility are becoming more important in order to overcome the problems ahead, and the new framework for the industry has to be harmonious with these characteristics. A bill to amend the Japanese Utility Industry Law, is under discussion in the Japanese Parliament. One aspect of the bill is the change in business regulation policy which is expected to increase competition in the industry. A new pricing policy, also a feature of the bill, will contribute to load leveling and an improvement of the load factor in Japanese power companies. (author)

  2. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava; Nasvit, Oleg; German, Olga

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  3. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava (Private Consultants (Ukraine)); Nasvit, Oleg (National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)); German, Olga (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  4. Legislative framework and regulatory requirements for the introduction of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha-Vinh, Phuong

    1975-01-01

    The adoption of appropriate legislation is to be considered as a prerequisite to the introduction of nuclear power in view of the issues that need to be regulated. Preparatory steps should be started at the earliest stage in conjunction with the planning of nuclear power projects. The primary objectives of a licensing scheme are to ensure safety, public health and environmental protection as well as financial protection for third parties in case of nuclear incident. For licensing purposes, a legislative framework and regulatory determinations are required. Within such a framework and pursuant to such regulatory determinations, the elaboration of safety standards, rules, guides and enforcement procedures is to be considered of paramount importance. To this end a number of international recommendations and advisory material prepared by the IAEA provide useful guidance. A licensing process would normally be split into several stages relating to site approval, construction permit, pre-operational tests, and operating licence, each stage being subject to safety assessments and reviews as determined by regulations. Financial protection against nuclear damage has also to be insured. A special regime of nuclear liability has been established by international conventions, based on the principle of strict liability of the operator of a nuclear installation. As a result of such channelling of liability to him, his liability is limited in amount and time. This liability system has the dual purpose of ensuring appropriate protection for potential victims and of relieving the nuclear industry from unlimited liability risks, which would impede practical applications of atomic energy. For the elaboration of nuclear legislation and specialized regulations the Agency's advisory services have proved to be of help to countries embarking on a nuclear power programme. (author)

  5. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects (The Environmental Code, Environmental impact statement, Permit under the Environmental Code)); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiological protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability (The Nuclear Liability Act; Chernobyl legislation); II. Institutional Framework: 1. Ministries with responsibilities concerning nuclear activities (Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications; Ministry of Justice; Ministry of Foreign Affairs); 2. Swedish Radiation Safety Authority

  6. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction (Licensing system; Offences, compliance and enforcement; Regulatory documents; Other relevant legislation); 2. Mining regime; 3. Nuclear substances and radiation devices; 4. Nuclear facilities; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment (Exports, Other imports); 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Governor in council; Minister of natural resources; Other Ministerial authorities; Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (National Research Council - NRC; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council; Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. - AECL)

  7. Considerations of nano-QSAR/QSPR models for nanopesticide risk assessment within the European legislative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Juan José; Sevilla-Morán, Beatriz; López-Goti, Carmen; Alonso-Prados, José Luis; Sandín-España, Pilar

    2018-09-01

    The European market for pesticides is currently legislated through the well-developed Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. This regulation promotes the competitiveness of European agriculture, recognizing the necessity of safe pesticides for human and animal health and the environment to protect crops against pests, diseases and weeds. In this sense, nanotechnology can provide a tremendous opportunity to achieve a more rational use of pesticides. However, the lack of information regarding nanopesticides and their fate and behavior in the environment and their effects on human and animal health is inhibiting rapid nanopesticide incorporation into European Union agriculture. This review analyzes the recent state of knowledge on nanopesticide risk assessment, highlighting the challenges that need to be overcame to accelerate the arrival of these new tools for plant protection to European agricultural professionals. Novel nano-Quantitative Structure-Activity/Structure-Property Relationship (nano-QSAR/QSPR) tools for risk assessment are analyzed, including modeling methods and validation procedures towards the potential of these computational instruments to meet the current requirements for authorization of nanoformulations. Future trends on these issues, of pressing importance within the context of the current European pesticide legislative framework, are also discussed. Standard protocols to make high-quality and well-described datasets for the series of related but differently sized nanoparticles/nanopesticides are required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Sospedra, Isabel; Baladía, Eduard; Arranz, Laura; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2017-11-08

    The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1) Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2) Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3) Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids.

  9. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1 Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2 Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3 Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids.

  10. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Laura; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1) Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2) Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3) Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids. PMID:29117104

  11. Legislative and policy frameworks for basic services: A South African comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlako Choma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common course that equitable access to water and sanitation must be accordingly and primarily regarded as criteria for the realization of other several human rights, such as the right to life, dignity, health, food, adequate standard of living and education. Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is essential to the enjoyment of safety and environment that is not hazardous to human health. The lack of water and sanitation does not only hinder access to other available rights, but also magnifies the vulnerability of women, girls and people with disabilities. Water and sanitation services are of outmost important to the health and wellbeing of all people. South Africa is operating under one of the most outstanding legislative and policy frameworks for basic services in the world, including the Constitutional right of access to sufficient water and right to basic sanitation.

  12. Legislative frameworks and educational practices on gender related violence and youth in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biglia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we wish to systematize and present to an international audience the state of the arts in preventive practices aimed at young people in the field of gender violence and an accompanying policy framework in the specific context of Catalonian society. This article is the result of the research we are carrying out in the Gap Project for training professionals working with the youth around gender violence. We will justify at the onset the extreme importance of this topic by presenting some evidence of the grave situation for young people on this issue. We shall then continue with a critical contextualization of state legislation in order to proceed to highlight the differences and similarities of other regional proposals. We end our presentation by critically analyzing a selection of preventive resources directed to the youth as developed in the Catalonian context.

  13. Building a stronger framework of nuclear law. The IAEA's legislative assistance services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA is publishing a Handbook on Nuclear Law which will provide IAEA Member States with a new resource for assessing the adequacy of their national legal frameworks governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; and practical guidance for governments in efforts to enhance their laws and regulations, in harmonizing them with internationally recognized standards, and in meeting their obligations under relevant international instruments. The Handbook responds to the growing demand from many national governments for assistance in the development of nuclear legislation and the need to harmonize their own legal and institutional arrangements with international standards. It also presents concise and authoritative instructional materials for teaching professionals (lawyers, scientists, engineers, health and radiation protection workers, government administrators) on the basic elements of a sound framework for managing and regulating nuclear energy. The Handbook is organized into five general parts: Part I provides a general overview of key concepts in the field: nuclear energy law and the legislative process; the regulatory authority; and the fundamental regulatory activities of licensing, inspection and enforcement. Part II deals with radiation protection. Part Ill covers various subjects arising from nuclear and radiation safety: radiation sources, nuclear installations, emergency preparedness and response, mining and milling, transportation, and waste and spent fuel. Part IV addresses the topic of nuclear liability and coverage. Part V moves to non-proliferation and security related subjects: safeguards, export and import controls, and physical protection. The Handbook also reflects and refers to the extensive range of IAEA Safety Standards covering all fields relevant to peaceful nuclear technology

  14. Childhood in Victorian Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, B.

    2017-01-01

    As the Victorian period began, literary depictions of childhood were influenced from two main directions. On the one hand, there was the figure of the idealized Romantic child, typically conceived as naturally innocent and close to God, most famously in Wordsworth’s poem “Ode: Intimations of

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Trade and Industry - KTM; Ministry of Social Affairs and Health; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of Foreign Affairs); 2. Advisory bodies (Advisory Committee on Nuclear Energy; Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK; State Nuclear Waste Management Fund)

  16. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Fissionable materials, ores, radioactive materials and equipment (Fissionable materials and ores; Radioactive materials and equipment); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public; Protection of individuals undergoing medical exposure); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment; Minister for Economic Affairs; Minister for Social Affairs and Employment; Minister for Health, Welfare and Sports; Minister for Finance; Minister for Foreign Affairs); 2. Advisory body - Health Council of the Netherlands; 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG; Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste - COVRA)

  17. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Licensing; Registration and monitoring of nuclear materials and radioactive sources; High activity sources); 4. Nuclear facilities (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiological protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (The President of the National Atomic Energy Agency - Prezes Panstwowej Agencji Atomistyki (President of the PAA); Minister of Health; Minister of the Environment); 2. Advisory bodies (Council for Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection); 3. Public and semi-public bodies (Radioactive Waste Management Plant); 4. Research institutes (Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection; National Centre for Nuclear Research; Institute of Nuclear Physics; Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology; Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion)

  18. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Inspection, including Nuclear Safety; Emergency Response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiological Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic - UJD; Ministry of Health; Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of Economy; Ministry of Labour and National Labour Inspectorate); 2. Public and Semi-Public Agencies

  19. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (Radiation protection standards; Emergency response); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government; Minister for Agriculture and Food; Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources; Minister for Finance; Minister for Health and Children; Minister for Defence); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; Food Safety Authority of Ireland)

  20. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I) - General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Bilateral safeguards agreements; International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Agreement; The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty Act; The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Act; The Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II) - Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for Health and Ageing; Minister for Foreign Affairs; Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts; Minister for, Resources, Energy and Tourism); 2. Advisory bodies (Radiation Health and Safety Advisory Council; Advisory Committees); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA); Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO); Supervising Scientist)

  1. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Prime Minister; Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources; Ministry of Health; Ministry of the Environment and Forestry); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority - TAEK; General Directorate for Mineral Research and Exploration - MTA; ETI Mine Works General Management; Turkish Electric Generation and Transmission Corporation - TEAS; Turkish Electricity Distribution Corporation - TEDAS)

  2. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trading in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Safeguards and non-proliferation; Physical protection); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade - MITYC; Ministry of the Interior - MIR; Ministry of Economy and the Exchequer - MEH; Ministry of the Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs - MARM); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Nuclear Safety Council - CSN; Centre for Energy-related, Environmental and Technological Research - CIEMAT; National Energy Commission - CNE; 3. Public capital companies (Enusa Industrias Avanzadas, s.a. - ENUSA; Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, s.a. - ENRESA)

  3. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Cabinet Office; Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry - METI; Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport - MLIT; Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - MEXT); 2. Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission - AEC; Nuclear Safety Commission - NSC; Radiation Council; Special Committee on Energy Policy; Other advisory bodies); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA)

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear items and spent fuel (Ionising radiation sources; Nuclear items; Spent fuel); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response; Decommissioning); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (State Office for Nuclear Safety - SUJB; Ministry of Industry and Trade; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of the Environment); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (CEZ, a.s.; National Radiation Protection Institute - NRPI; Radioactive Waste Repository Authority - RAWRA; Diamo; Nuclear Physics Institute - NPI; National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection; Nuclear Research Institute Rez, a.s. - NRI)

  5. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; 11. Nuclear terrorism; II. Institutional Framework - The federal government: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Energy; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Labour and Social Security; Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources; Ministry of Communications and Transport); 2. Public and semi-public agencies: (National Nuclear Safety and Safeguards Commission; National Nuclear Research Institute)

  6. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Health; Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education; Ministry of Economy and Innovation; Ministry of Environment and Territorial Planning; Other authorities); 2. Advisory bodies (Independent Commission for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - CIPRSN; National Radiation Protection Commission - CNPCR; National Commission for Radiological Emergencies - CNER; Other advisory bodies); 3. Public and semi-public agencies

  7. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Safeguards for nuclear material; 7. Radiation protection; 8. Radioactive waste management; 9. Nuclear security; 10. Transport; 11. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration - SNSA; Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration - SRPA); 2. Advisory bodies; 3. Public and semi-public agencies; 4. Technical support organisations - approved experts

  8. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Atomic Energy Co-ordination Council; Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority - HAEA; Minister for Health; Minister for Local Government and Regional Development and Minister for Justice and Law Enforcement; Minister for Agriculture and Rural Development; Minister for Economy and Transport; Minister of Environment Protection and Water Management; Minister for Defence; Minister for Education; President of the Hungarian Mining and Geological Authority; Governmental Co-ordination Committee); 2. Advisory bodies (Scientific Board); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Institute for Electric Power Research - VEIKI; Atomic Energy Research Institute - AEKI; Institute of Isotopes; Department of Physical Chemistry of the University of Pannon; Hungarian Power Companies Ltd - MVM Zrt.)

  9. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health; Minister for the Environment/Minister of Transport and Energy; Minister of Justice; Minister of Defence; National Board of Health; Emergency Management Agency); 2. Advisory bodies (The Danish Ministry of Energy, Supply and Climate and the Danish Energy Agency); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Risoe National Laboratory)

  10. Improved sectoral legislation, rules which define the administrative audit framework in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. І. Томіна

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the scope of the audit and its stable functioning is directly related to the level of efficiency of its administrative and legal support. The introduction of market economy in Ukraine accompanied by the development of these types of entities that protect the interests of users of financial and other economic information. Auditing as one of the types of business ensures the implementation of such a form of non-state financial control, which is to review accounting and financial statements of different enterprises and different activities in terms of their reliability and compliance with the law. To implement effective public policy in auditing activity necessary to improve its administrative and legal framework, to which we have included the following elements: a system of special legislation authorized public authorities, their legal status, the relationship between them and the powerful mechanism of influence on the relevant social relations. Researchers, lawyers focused on the analysis of domestic legislation addressing the theoretical issues of audit works based on domestic and Russian scientists in the field of finance. The purpose of the article is that based on the analysis of domestic and foreign scientific, journalistic sources and industry domestic law to investigate the nature of audit, analyze the current state of administrative and legal support audit activities and to formulate proposals for its improvement through the introduction of changes to the industry legislation and practice. Auditing plays an important in the functioning of the market economy, is one of the important elements that guarantee stability and confidence of individuals and entities by reducing a variety of financial and economic risks. Thus, the formation mechanism of legal and organizational audit regulation in Ukraine has a leverage creating safeguards against the unpredictability of market players, which forms the general financial and

  11. The legislative and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Mitchel Otieno; Ochola, Francis Okumu; Onyango, Allan Odhiambo; Mbaria, James Mucunu; Gakuya, Daniel Waweru; Kanja, Laetitia Wakonyu; Kiama, Stephen Gitahi; Onyango, Mary Atieno

    2017-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is an integral component of primary healthcare in Kenya. This is because the infrastructural health setup in the country is inadequate in catering for all the medical needs of the population. This particularly holds true in the rural areas where many rural folk rely on products of herbal origin to offset their healthcare needs. More often than not these products are an elaborate cacophony of several different substances of biological origin and thus need personnel adept in their preparation. Sadly, due to loopholes in legislation and regulation, quacks have a field day in the practice. Moreover, the process of planting, harvesting, preparation and storage of herbs and related products dictates that a significant number of people will ultimately be involved in the whole process. This is likely to set the stage for manipulation and compromise of the safety, quality and efficacy of these products. This state of affairs appears unabated especially in the context of the current legal and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. Not only are these laws inadequate, they are shrouded in ambiguity, open to interpretation and the authorities mandated to implement them often end up performing duplicate roles. The aim of this review is to critique the legal and regulatory provisions governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. In conclusion, laws and regulations meant to control herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya are wanting. Clear and definitive legislation on herbal medicine use and practice coupled with effective implementation by mandated institutions will go a long way in inspiring confidence to all stakeholders of herbal medicine. PMID:29629018

  12. The legislative and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Mitchel Otieno; Ochola, Francis Okumu; Onyango, Allan Odhiambo; Mbaria, James Mucunu; Gakuya, Daniel Waweru; Kanja, Laetitia Wakonyu; Kiama, Stephen Gitahi; Onyango, Mary Atieno

    2017-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is an integral component of primary healthcare in Kenya. This is because the infrastructural health setup in the country is inadequate in catering for all the medical needs of the population. This particularly holds true in the rural areas where many rural folk rely on products of herbal origin to offset their healthcare needs. More often than not these products are an elaborate cacophony of several different substances of biological origin and thus need personnel adept in their preparation. Sadly, due to loopholes in legislation and regulation, quacks have a field day in the practice. Moreover, the process of planting, harvesting, preparation and storage of herbs and related products dictates that a significant number of people will ultimately be involved in the whole process. This is likely to set the stage for manipulation and compromise of the safety, quality and efficacy of these products. This state of affairs appears unabated especially in the context of the current legal and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. Not only are these laws inadequate, they are shrouded in ambiguity, open to interpretation and the authorities mandated to implement them often end up performing duplicate roles. The aim of this review is to critique the legal and regulatory provisions governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. In conclusion, laws and regulations meant to control herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya are wanting. Clear and definitive legislation on herbal medicine use and practice coupled with effective implementation by mandated institutions will go a long way in inspiring confidence to all stakeholders of herbal medicine.

  13. Bastards, Baby Farmers, and Social Control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Pearman, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the development and enactment of legislation between 1834 and 1897 which sought to deal with the problems associated with the support of the bastard child. This Victorian legislation, reflecting a new paradigm of state intervention, represents the first example, apart from the obvious case of the criminal law, that eventually authorised in 1897 state encroachment into the domestic home. The thesis is divided into three main parts.\\ud \\ud In the first part, I examine the P...

  14. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Nuclear fuels; Radioactive substances and equipment generating ionising radiation); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; 11. Environmental protection; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Federal Council; Federal Assembly; Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications - DETEC; Federal Office of Energy - SFOE; Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate - IFSN; Federal Department of Home Affairs - FDHA; Federal Office of Public Health - FOPH; State Secretariat for Education and Research - SER; Other authorities); 2. Advisory bodies (Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission - KNS; Federal Commission for Radiological Protection and Monitoring of the Radioactivity in the Environment; Federal Emergency Organisation on Radioactivity); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Paul-Scherrer Institute - PSI; Fund for the decommissioning of nuclear installations and for the waste disposal; National Co-operative for the

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Department of Trade and Industry - DTI; Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Secretary of State for Health; Secretary of State for Transport; Secretary of State for Education); 2. Advisory Bodies (Medical Research Council - MRC; Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA; Health and Safety Commission and Executive - HSC/HSE; National Radiological Protection Board - NRPB; Environment Agencies; British Nuclear Fuels plc. - BNFL; Amersham International plc.; The National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. - NNC; United Kingdom Nirex Ltd.; Magnox Electric plc.; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Scottish Electricity Generator Companies; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Regional Electricity Companies in England and Wales)

  16. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Nuclear facilities (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Decommissioning); 4. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 5. Radiological protection; 6. Radioactive waste management; 7. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and physical protection of nuclear material (International aspects; National control and security measures); 8. Transport; 9. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC; Federal Public Service for Home Affairs; Federal Public Service for Economy, SME's, Self-Employed and Energy; Federal Public Service for Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue; Federal Public Service for Defence; Federal Public Service for Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Co-operation; Federal Public Planning Service for Science Policy); 2. Advisory bodies (Scientific Council for Ionizing Radiation of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control; Superior Health Council; Superior Council for Safety, Hygiene and Enhancement of Workplaces; Advisory Committee for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Commission for Electricity and Gas Regulation - CREG)

  17. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment (General provisions; Patents); 6. Radiation Protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public; Protection of the environment); 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Interdepartmental Committee for Economic Planning; Nuclear Safety Agency; Prime Minister; Minister for Economic Development; Minister for Labour and Social Security; Minister for Health; Minister for the Environment; Minister for the Interior; Minister for Transport and Navigation; Minister for Foreign Trade (now incorporated in Ministry for Economic Development); Minister for Education; Treasury Minister; Minister for Universities and for Scientific and Technical Research; Minister for Foreign Affairs; State Advocate General); 2. Advisory bodies (Inter-ministerial Council for Consultation and Co-ordination; Coordinating Committee for Radiation Protection of Workers and the Public; Regional and Provincial Commissions for Public Health Protection

  18. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I) - General Regulatory Regime - General Outline: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II) - Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Federal Authorities - Bund (The Federal Chancellery; The Federal Minister for Women's Affairs and Consumer Protection; The Federal Minister of the Interior; The Federal Minister for Economic Affairs; The Federal Minister of Finance; The Federal Minister of Labour, Health and Social Affairs; The Federal Minister of Science and Transport; The Federal Minister of Justice; The Federal Minister for the Environment; The Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs) B. Regional Authorities - Laender; C. District Authorities - Bezirksverwaltungsbehorden; 2. Advisory Bodies (Forum for Nuclear Questions, Radiation Protection Commission - SSK); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (The Seibersdorf Austrian Research Centre; The Graz Nuclear Institute; The Nuclear Institute of the Austrian Universities; The Institute of Risk Research, University of Vienna)

  19. Legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania, starting with the basic Law 111/1996 on the Safe Deployment of Nuclear Activities, and its amendments in 1998 and 2006 and the general nuclear safety regulation, which is in agreement with the international regulation. Regarding the medical exposure, jointly the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Ministry of Public Health issued in 2002 a separate regulation, which was published in the Official Gazette Part I No. 446 bis in 25 June 2002 and represents the transposition of the European Directive 97/43/EURATOM of 30 June 1997 on health protection on individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure, and repealing Directive 84/466/EURATOM. Following this document, several specific regulations on radiation protection of the patients were approved by the Ministry of Public Health. Some practical problems already arise, particularly due to the lack of medical physics departments in hospitals. (author)

  20. When Was the Nineteenth Century Where? Whither Victorian Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Finn

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Whilst acknowledging the usefulness of the descriptor ‘Victorian' to the work of social historians, this essay argues that a proper account of modernity, and of the Victorians' positioning within it, can only be apprehended by taking a longer view, be it within the framework of a long nineteenth or a long twentieth century. Finally, though, Finn argues that chronology is less important than the disciplinary and geographical boundaries of the field. The question should not be ‘when was the Victorian era?' but also ‘ where was it?' Interdisciplinarity, Britain's place in Europe, and the problems of empire are the three issues that Finn deems should be at the forefront of Victorian Studies in the twenty-first century.

  1. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Special nuclear material; Source material; By-product material; Agreement state programmes); 4. Nuclear installations (Initial licensing; Operation and inspection, including nuclear safety; Operating licence renewal; Decommissioning; Emergency response); 5. Radiological protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public); 6. Radioactive waste management (High-level waste; Low-level waste; Disposal at sea; Uranium mill tailings; Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - FUSRAP); 7. Non-proliferation and exports (Exports of source material, special nuclear material, production or utilisation facilities and sensitive nuclear technology; Exports of components; Exports of by-product material; Exports and imports of radiation sources; Conduct resulting in the termination of exports or economic assistance; Subsequent arrangements; Technology exports; Information and restricted data); 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC; Department of Energy - DOE; Department of Labor - DOL; Department of Transportation - DOT; Environmental Protection Agency - EPA); 2. Public and semi-public agencies: A. Cabinet-level departments (Department of

  2. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Definitions; Licensing requirements); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing regime; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Surveillance of installations and activities); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (General; Principal elements of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; Additional radiation protection norms); 7. Radioactive waste management (Atomic Energy Act 2002; Radiation Protection Ordinance; International obligations); 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Non-proliferation regime; Physical protection regime); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities: Federal authorities (Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Minister for Education and Research, Federal Minister of Finance, Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs, Federal Minister for Economy and Technology, Federal Minister of Defence, Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS, Federal Office of Economics and Export Control); Authorities of the Laender; 2. Advisory bodies (Reactor Safety Commission - RSK; Radiation Protection Commission - SSK; Disposal Commission - ESK; Nuclear Technology

  3. Introduction: Victorian Theatricalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dobson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After a barrage of manipulative fan-letters from Sir Merton and Annie Russell-Cotes, Sir Henry Irving, titan of the Victorian stage and the first actor to be knighted, eventually came to stay, briefly, at East Cliff Hall in Bournemouth. A peculiar but attractive compound of Scots baronial castle, Italian villa, French château and Bournemouth seaside bungalow, complete with lavish Art Nouveau interiors and a fountain in the entrance lobby, the house was always designed in and of itself as a dramatic location and was also intended as a magnet for theatrical celebrities. Sir Merton and Annie amply stuffed it with nineteenth-century British paintings, miscellaneous sculptures, and souvenirs of their extensive overseas holidays. Today the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum remains the late Victorian treasure house par excellence, and I can imagine few more vivid short-cuts into the culture and mindset of the late nineteenth-century haute bourgeoisie than an afternoon spent marvelling at the tons of accumulated trophies and bibelots cluttering its rooms or the acres of tastefully-exposed nipples adorning its walls. What the Russell-Cotes Museum also makes clear, even at its gloomiest, is the key place of drama in the Victorian imagination. After Irving's death in 1905, the Russell-Cotes bought many of Irving's personal effects at auction. Adding these to their existing collection of Irving memorabilia and other theatrical paintings and souvenirs, they converted the bedroom in which Irving had stayed into a permanent shrine to his memory. The Henry Irving Room would make an ideal introduction to most of the contents of this volume.

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Framework: 1. General (The French nuclear power programme and its main players; French nuclear law); 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Nuclear Equipment (Regulatory diversity; Radioactive sources; Medical activities); 4. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (Basic nuclear installations - INB; Tax on basic nuclear installations, Additional taxes, Funding nuclear costs; Installations classified for environmental protection purposes (ICPE) using radioactive substances; Nuclear pressure equipment - ESPN; Defence-related nuclear installations and activities - IANID; Emergency plans); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (General provisions; Patents); 6. Radiation protection (Protection of the public; Protection of workers; Radiation protection inspectors; Labour inspectors; Protection of individuals in a radiological emergency); 7. Radioactive Waste Management (General regulations; Radioactive waste regulations; Discharge of effluents); 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Materials not used for the nuclear deterrent; Materials used for the nuclear deterrent); 9. Transport (Licensing and notification regime: Transport of radioactive materials, Transport of nuclear materials, Transport of radioactive substances between member states of the European Union; Methods of transport: Land transport, Sea transport, Air transport, Transport by post); 10

  5. A legislative framework for the safety of nuclear installations in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kus, S.; Emmerechts, S.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time since the inception of the European Community in 1957 and after two previously unsuccessful attempts, on 25 June 2009 the Council of the European Union adopted European-wide, binding requirements on nuclear safety. The goal of the 'Council Directive establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations' ('the Directive') is to maintain and to promote the continuous improvement of nuclear safety and to ensure that a high level of nuclear safety is provided by EU member states to protect workers and the general public against the dangers arising from nuclear installations. The Directive is based on the IAEA Safety Fundamentals and the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The 27 member states of the Community are required to bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with the Directive by 22 July 2011. The Directive applies to a range of nuclear installations that is wider than the one adopted in the Convention on Nuclear Safety.9 The Directive applies to any civilian nuclear installation, defined as: a) an enrichment plant, nuclear fuel fabrication plant, nuclear power plant, reprocessing plant, research reactor facility, spent fuel storage facility; and b) storage facilities for radioactive waste that are on the same site and are directly related to nuclear installations listed under point a). The Directive is without doubt a milestone in international and regional law making in the field of nuclear law, not so much because of its content but because of the supranational nature of European law and the powers of EU institutions. Member states have long resisted the Directive because of the powers which it delegates to the European Commission, and more importantly, to the European Court of Justice. The Commission, as the guardian of the treaties and the measures taken by the institutions, ensures that EU legislation is applied correctly by the member states. It can start

  6. Nuclear legislation analytical study. Regulatory and institutional framework for nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study is the second update of the 1995 edition of a series of analytical studies on nuclear legislation in OECD member countries, prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) with the co-operation of the countries concerned. It is organised on the basis of a standardised format for all countries, thus facilitating the comparison of information. This study deals with national legislations concerning nuclear third party liability and other aspects of nuclear laws (transport, radiation protection, trade, radioactive waste management, public and semi-public agencies...). The 1997 update consists of replacement chapters for Australia, France, Germany, Korea, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In addition, there are completely new chapters for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. (A.L.B.)

  7. Legal Framework of Franchise Agreement Compared to the Legislation Status in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    رشاد نعمان العامري

    2017-01-01

    Franchise is a modern style created as a need for trade to increase projects size. It differs from the authorization to use the trademark because the latter only requires licensing of the licensee's trademark, unlike the Franchise contract, in which it goes beyond the need to convey technical knowledge from Franchisor to Franchisee. In Yemen, Franchise has not received any private legal legislation till the moment, necessitating applying contract articles, contracts general principles and som...

  8. Copyright, Crime and Computers: New Legislative Frameworks for Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Urbas, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers intellectual property rights (IPR) enforcement from the perspective of criminal law, and in particular, drawing on recent Australian legislative reforms concerning copyright, cybercrime, covert investigations, mutual assistance and extradition, prosecution and sentencing options, as well as proceeds of crime recovery. The complex interaction of these laws suggests that the field of IPR enforcement offers numerous investigative, prosecutorial and judicial options beyond ...

  9. Emergence of occupational medicine in Victorian times1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Lee, W. R. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 118-124. Emergence of occupational medicine in Victorian times. The events surrounding the establishment and development of legislation to protect the health of people at work in Victorian times are already well documented. This paper deals with some other aspects of the development of occupational medicine. Medical opinions at the time did not always see the misuse of child labour as due simply to avaricious mill owners, but in part due to the parents and in part to the workmen subcontractors. The establishment of the certifying surgeons is briefly reviewed and their coming together to form an association in 1868 may be related to questions about the need for medical certificates of age which were being requested by the many factory owners brought under factory legislation for the first time in 1864 and 1867. The plight of injured workmen and their dependents was early recognized, although it was late in the Victorian era before any statutory provision was made for them. The idea of linking compensation with preventive measures came to the fore in 1845 when some Manchester doctors, later supported by Edwin Chadwick, examined the workings at the Woodhead railway tunnel across the Pennines. When compensation legislation was passed some half a century later the idea was lost, and to this day compensation for and prevention of industrial injury and disease remain separated. The change of industrial diseases from a medical curiosity to a problem requiring State intervention is traced over the latter part of the Victorian era. The whole piecemeal pattern illustrating the precept that `social problems come first, social philosophy after' has persisted until the far-reaching changes in health and safety legislation of the present day. PMID:4267346

  10. Legal Framework of Franchise Agreement Compared to the Legislation Status in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رشاد نعمان العامري

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is a modern style created as a need for trade to increase projects size. It differs from the authorization to use the trademark because the latter only requires licensing of the licensee's trademark, unlike the Franchise contract, in which it goes beyond the need to convey technical knowledge from Franchisor to Franchisee. In Yemen, Franchise has not received any private legal legislation till the moment, necessitating applying contract articles, contracts general principles and some provisions embodied in the texts of other laws that are suitable to be applied to some of its issues and provisions, in addition to what is inspired by provisions in foreign laws. This study aimed to distinguish franchise agreement from similar contracts that have become common in the commercial field; to identify important legal and practical problems facing franchise agreement as well as suggest solutions to address such problems; and to propose regulatory principles that can be used by the Yemeni legislator in the future when enacting laws that govern franchise agreement. To achieve these objectives, the study followed a descriptive analytical method. The study concludes that the franchise agreement has not received any special legal legislation in Yemen so far; and also the franchise agreement is characterized by a complex nature and has special features. Keywords: Franchise, Trade mark, Technical knowledge, Franchisor, Franchisee.

  11. Nuclear legislation: analytical study. Regulatory and institutional framework for nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Australia' s basic legislation in the nuclear field consists in five Acts passed by the Federal Parliament. These Acts are as follow: the South Pacific nuclear free zone treaty Act; the nuclear non-proliferation act; the Australian nuclear science and technology organisation act; the Australian nuclear science and technology organisation amendment act; the radiation protection and nuclear safety act. The two first Acts were prompted by the need for domestic legislation to implement Australia 's international obligations. The third arose from a long-standing recognition that the Atomic energy Act was inappropriate as the legislative basis for the activities of Australia 's national nuclear organisation. For its part the fourth Act introduced some necessary changes into the Australian nuclear science and technology organisation Act. Finally, the fifth act establishes a regime to regulate the operation of nuclear installations and the management of radiation sources, where the activities are undertaken by Commonwealth entities. Each of these Acts is discussed in more details in this work. (N.C.)

  12. Legislative and regulatory framework on the safety of radioactive waste management in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastchiev, G.

    2000-01-01

    There are six nuclear power units in operation in Bulgaria. Over 2000 sites use sources of ionizing radiation. NPP radioactive waste is stored on-site and the institutional waste was disposed of at the Novi han repository until 1994. Bulgaria signed the Joint Convention in 1998 and is to ratify it until the end of 1999. A plan on preparation of the country for the obligations following the forthcoming ratification was developed and has been implemented. A National Strategy on SNF and RAW was developed, as well as a Comprehensive Legislative Programme in this field. Emphasis is put on the strengthening the regulatory body, improvement of the supervision and control activities. (author)

  13. Proposed ethical guidelines and legislative framework for permitting gestational surrogacy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin

    2007-09-01

    Gestational surrogacy is currently banned in Singapore but is much debated. Some ethical guidelines and legislation for permitting gestational surrogacy in Singapore are proposed and discussed including: (i) review and approval of gestational surrogacy by the Ministry of Health on a case-by-case basis; (ii) stringent guidelines for gonadotrophin stimulation, IVF and ICSI procedures in 'traditional' surrogacy; (iii) restriction of gestational surrogates to parous married women with stable family relationships; (iv) exclusion of foreign women from acting as gestational surrogates, except for close relatives of the recipient couple; (v) reimbursement and/or compensation of gestational surrogates based on the direct expenses model; (vi) exclusion of medical professionals from surrogate recruitment and reimbursement; (vii) the surrogacy contract must make it legally binding for the prospective recipient couple to accept the child, even if it is born with congenital deformities; (viii) stringent guidelines for combining surrogacy with egg donation from a third woman, who is neither the social nor gestational mother. Policymakers in Singapore should conduct a public referendum on the legalization of gestational surrogacy and actively consult the views of healthcare professionals, religious and community leaders, as well as the general public, before reaching any decision.

  14. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In Greece, there are no nuclear power plants and nuclear energy is not considered as an option in the foreseeable future. There is, however, one nuclear research reactor (in extended shutdown since 2014) and one sub-critical assembly. Radioactive waste originating from medicine, research and industry is classified as low level. Although there is no framework act dealing comprehensively with the different aspects of nuclear energy, there are various laws, decrees and regulations of a more specific nature governing several aspects of nuclear activities. This paper gives information on the general regulatory regime (mining regime, radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment, nuclear installations (licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety, emergency response, trade in nuclear materials and equipment, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear security, transport, nuclear third party liability) and on the institutional framework with the regulatory and supervisory authorities (Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE))

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The NEA has updated, in coordination with the Permanent Delegation of Japan to the OECD, the report on the Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities in Japan. This country report provides comprehensive information on the regulatory and institutional framework governing nuclear activities in Japan. It provides a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. Content: I - General Regulatory Regime: Introduction; Mining regime; Radioactive substances and equipment; Nuclear installations (Reactor Regulation, Emergency response); Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; Radiological protection; Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safeguards and nuclear security; Transport; Nuclear third party liability. II - Institutional Framework: Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Cabinet Office, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), The Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)); Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Reactor Safety Examination Committee, Nuclear Fuel Safety Examination Committee, Radiation Council, Other advisory bodies); Public and semi-public agencies (Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation (NDF), Nuclear Waste Management Organisation (NUMO))

  16. The EU Legislative Framework Against Money Laundering and Terrorist Finance:A Critical Analysis in the Light of Evolving Global Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, William; Mitsilegas, Valsamis

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of the EU anti-money laundering legislative framework (which in recent years has also included measures to counter terrorist finance), by focusing in particular on recent legislation such as the third money laundering Directive and the Regulation on controls of cash entering the EU, both adopted in 2005. The analysis highlights the relationship between these instruments and international initiatives in the field (in particular FATF standards), and addresses...

  17. Victorian Era: An Interdisciplinary Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildart, Donna Mae; And Others

    Seventh grade students studied the Victorian period using a 4-6 week interdisciplinary unit that integrated language arts, mathematics, art, science, social studies, music, home economics, parents, and business into the program. The main goals were to help students understand the importance of all curriculum subjects; comprehend how subjects are…

  18. Virtual Victorians networks, connections, technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Alfano, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Exploring how scholars use digital resources to reconstruct the 19th century, this volume probes key issues in the intersection of digital humanities and history. Part I examines the potential of online research tools for literary scholarship while Part II outlines a prehistory of digital virtuality by exploring specific Victorian cultural forms.

  19. Key players and legislative framework relative to radioactive materials and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birraux, C.

    2011-01-01

    While French industry as a whole appears to have bowed slightly under increasing pressure from the competition in an international economic arena that is becoming more and more open and diverse, France's nuclear industry has firmly held onto its position as world leader, secured during the seventies and eighties. This is the result of sustained national investment in research to constantly improve the performance and safety of the solutions deployed; it is also due to the dynamism of the companies involved, which have successfully developed their international base while maintaining a firm national foothold; it is also due to a consistent commitment on the part of the public authorities, which have provided sound guidelines, while placing greater emphasis on transparency and giving structure to crucial dialogue with the public. France is also one of the first countries that has developed a nuclear power programme, to have set up an organisation, a framework and a coherent strategy regarding the management of all its radioactive waste. (author)

  20. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection) (Protection of workers; Protection of the public); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Education, Science and Technology, including the Nuclear Energy Bureau; Minister of Knowledge Economy); 2. Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission; Atomic Energy Safety Commission); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI; Korean Institute for Nuclear Safety - KINS; Korean Electric Power Company - KEPCO; Korean Hydro and Nuclear Power - KHNP)

  1. The new french legislative framework in the gas sector resulting from the law of the 3 january 2003 ''gas: the turning of the liberalization opens up new horizons''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the law project adopted by the Parliament the 19 december 2002 concerning the gas market liberalization, the author (D. Maillard) explains the law project objectives and general context, the stakes and the content of the new french legislative framework, the access freedom to the gas market, the new regulator of the market and the new obligations of the gas utilities. (A.L.B.)

  2. Education Imports and Exports in the Framework of the World Trade Organization and Adjustments of Education Legislation and Policy Making in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansheng, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Commitments on trade in education services constitute a vital part of China's promises after securing World Trade Organization (WTO) membership. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the forms of educational imports and exports in the framework of WTO and examines the Chinese government's efforts to adjust education legislation and policy…

  3. Violence and law in Victorian England

    OpenAIRE

    ALEXANDROVA A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to show the correlation between violence and law during the Victorian era. In order to achieve this goal it was necessary to answer the question Were the Victorians right to think that crime was in decline? taking into account statistics. The most conspicuous characteristics of criminal law in the Victorian period and the brief scheme of all the stages a criminal had to undergo are described in this paper.

  4. An analysis framework for characterizing and explaining development of EIA legislation in developing countries-Illustrated for Georgia, Ghana and Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: akolhoff@eia.nl [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Actors in the field of international development co-operation supporting the development of EIA legislation in developing countries often do not achieve the results envisaged. The performance of EIA in these countries often remains weak. One reason, we assume, is that often those actors support the establishment of overly ambitious EIA legislation that cannot achieve its objectives in the light of constraining contexts. To provide more effective support we need to better understand the enabling and constraining contextual factors that influence the development of EIA legislation and to which support actors should align itself. In this article a new analysis framework for classifying, characterizing and explaining the development of EIA legislation is described, measured in terms of ambition levels. Ambitions are defined as intentions the EIA authorities aim to fulfill, expressed in formal EIA legislation. Three country cases, Yemen, Georgia and Ghana are used to illustrate the usefulness of our framework and as a first test to refine the framework. We have formulated the following five hypotheses that complement and refine our analysis framework. One, EIA legislation may develop multilinearly in terms of ambition levels. Two, ambitions in EIA legislation seem to be influenced to a great extent by the power and capacity of, on the one hand, the environmental authorities supporting EIA and, on the other hand, the sector authorities hindering the development of EIA. Three, the political system is the most important context factor influencing the rules of policy-making and the power of the different actors involved. Four, the importance of context factors on the development of ambitions is dependent on the phase of EIA system development. Five, some ambitions seem to be influenced by particular factors; for instance the ambitions for the object of study seem to be influenced by the level of environmental awareness of the sector ministries and parliament. The analysis

  5. The victorian ethos of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2005-01-01

    The Victorian Age was the culmination of changes in the political, social, scientific, theological and cultural spheres throughout Europe. Darwin's newly elaborated evolutionary idea was the pivot for social Darwinism, a theory based on the gradual movement of the species toward greater self-awareness and strength. Shaw described this process in his play Man and Superman. Freud also utilized the concept in his libido theory. Horney interpreted the process as a psychic response to the intense societal pressures to succeed. A linkage of interdependence and progression of these ideas emerges as the world continues to evolve.

  6. Advance statements in the new Victorian Mental Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Sudeep

    2015-06-01

    There is growing recognition of the utility of advance statements in the area of mental health. The definition of advance statements and procedure for making and varying advance statements under the Victorian legislation is described. The implications for psychiatrists, mental health tribunals and the process should the psychiatrist vary their decision from that made in the advance statement are discussed. Advance statements being enshrined in legislation is another step in the direction of recovery-oriented service provision for persons with mental illness. The challenge for services will be to develop systems and processes that promote increased uptake of these instruments to empower persons with mental illness to participate in their treatment. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder

  8. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  9. Legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Legislative and supervision-related framework (reviews of structure of supervisory bodies; legislation; state supervision in the nuclear safety area, and state supervision in the area of health protection against radiation are given); (2) Operator's responsibility

  10. An analysing framework for characterizing and explaining development of EIA legislation in developing countries - illustrated for Georgia, Ghana and Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolhoff, A.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Actors in the field of international development co-operation supporting the development of EIA legislation in developing countries often do not achieve the results envisaged. The performance of EIA in these countries often remains weak. One reason, we assume, is that often those actors support the

  11. Constructing medical social authority on dress in Victorian Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    During the late-Victorian period, campaigns to "reform" middle-class women's dress were grounded in discourses on health, eugenics, declining birth rates, comfort, and aesthetics. In Britain, the United States and Germany, organized "dress reform" movements emerged in the latter half of the 19th century, while in Canada the campaign was led primarily by physicians through public health education. This article explores the discussion on women's dress in public health literature in Canadian circulation between 1860-1900 and interprets findings within a feminist poststructuralist framework that posits the understanding of women's bodies and gender regulation to be central to knowledge construction on women's dress.

  12. Nuclear legislation. Analytical study. Regulatory and Institutional framework for nuclear activities in OECD Member countries. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical studies of the major aspects of nuclear legislation in OECD Member countries and is published in two volumes. This Volume I of the study is a revision and an expansion of a 1969 study concerning the organisation and general regime governing nuclear activities. The national studies were prepared, to the extent possible, following a standard plan for all countries to facilitate information retrieval and comparison. (NEA) [fr

  13. Nuclear legislation analytical study. Regulatory and institutional framework for nuclear activities in OECD member countries. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical studies of the major aspects of nuclear legislation in OECD Member countries and is published in two volumes. This volume II of the study is a revision and an expansion of a 1969 study concerning the organisation and general regime governing nuclear activities. The national studies were prepared, to the extent possible, following a standard plan for all countries to facilitate information retrieval and comparison. This volume also contains tables of international conventions of relevance to the nuclear field. (NEA) [fr

  14. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.

  15. Two Books on the Victorian Interest in Hellenism

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980s there appeared two books about the Victorian attitude towards the ancient Greeks, or about how the Victorians felt about incorporated the ancient Greek culture. The two books are Richard Jenkyn, The Victorians and Ancient Greece (Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980) and Frank M. Turner, The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984). Although they deal with the same subject, their approaches toward the subject are quite different from ...

  16. The Victorian gas market: debunking the myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwade, T

    2001-01-01

    The Victorian wholesale gas spot market has operated effectively and trouble-free for over two years. VENCorp's Executive Manager of Energy Markets, reflects on the market experiences to date, and argues that Victoria's physical pipeline system characteristics require its market to be 'different' from those in the other States in Australia. The Victorian gas transmission system in not predominantly comprised of a single point-to-point pipeline; it is rather a 'meshed' network, with multiple point of supply. Gas flow on substantial sections of the transmission pipeline can be bi-directional, depending on market and demand conditions. Consequently, Victoria's wholesale spot market has been designed to address operational and market issues due to the physical characteristics of the Victorian gas pipeline system

  17. [The surveillance of occupational risks. Problems and perspectives of the recent legislative framework after the national preliminary survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, A; Di Marzio, D; Binazzi, Alessandra; Napoli, G; Businelli, A; Crema, M; di Leone, G; Ferrari, D; Ferraris, F; Galli, P; Latini, L; Masucci, A; Quercia, A; Stopponi, Roberta; Vianello, L; Scarselli, A; Massari, Stefania; Iavicoli, S

    2010-01-01

    Legislation in Italy concerning health, safety and prevention at the workplace recently established a new data communication standard The findings are reported of a specific survey on 18 Local Health Units (ASL) over the entire Italian territory, aimed at identifying the critical points in data management and analyze the available information. The occupational health physician for each company must collect and transmit information on the number of workers submitted to health surveillance protocols to the Local Health Unit. Information must be divided by risk factor and gender Local health Units then transmit the data to the Regions and finally to the Italian National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL). A sample of 22.977 companies was studied, providing information on about 410,009 workers undergoing health surveillance protocols. Carrying or moving heavy loads, exposure to noise, VDU and chemical substances were the most frequent risk factors. The difference between genders was significant in risk allocation, with exposures to VDU and biological agents prevalently among females. The information thus collected suffered from a lack of data organization and completeness in the sample under study, but nevertheless provides preliminary evidence of a map of occupational risks on a national basis, confirming the potential for the new law (D.Lgs 81/2008) to investigate health safety and prevention at the workplace.

  18. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY: A LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON LEGISLATIONS AND TESTING MECHANISM FOR ASEAN PRODUCT SAFETY DIRECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sagoff Alsagoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1967 ASEAN has advanced in great leaps in the economic sector luring new member states into its pact. From a mere five member states (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines ASEAN has today managed to entice five other neighbouring states (Brunei 1984, Vietnam 1995, Laos & Myanmar 1997, Cambodia 1999 into its pact transforming itself into union of ten member states with a consumer population expected to exceed 600 million people. In order to ensure sustainability amid global challenges, member states have engrossed ASEAN Charter in 2007 with a view of creating an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 that is robust, competitive and sustainable. At this juncture, ASEAN has to realize that like any trade liberalization initiatives, goods moved readily and freely throughout the free-trade area that is facilitated by a lucrative non-barrier tariffs incentives. This vision of a single market which creates a frontier without borders can prove to be advantageous to member states only if they have the required vehicle that is able to overcome the drawback of its progression through harmonization and synchronization efforts that is effective and successful. Like everything else, every advantage has some disadvantages attached to it. This article will address important determining factors that are crucial in the development and scope of proposed ASEAN Product Safety Directive including reviewing relevant determining factors such as regional stability, consumer protection legislations and standard and testing agencies of which one without the other will be incomplete. The proposals suggested in this article will strengthen and unite ASEAN in overcoming unsafe product issues at ASEAN level.

  19. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, Nicoleta; Tediosi, Alice; Ciffroy, Philippe; Altenpohl, Annette; Brochot, Céline; Verdonck, Frederik; Ferrari, Federico; Giubilato, Elisa; Capri, Ettore; Fait, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals • Coupling environmental exposure and pharmacokinetic models • MERLIN-expo as a higher tier exposure tool • MERLIN-expo potential application in EU chemical regulations • EU legislations and policies related to risk assessment and management of chemicals

  20. The development and implementation of family and child welfare system legislation in the frameworks of contemporary family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic picture of Serbia over the last few decades has featured a negative trend, particularly fueled by the negative aspects of the transition process and adjustment to the new models of life functioning, and therefore the harmonization of family relationships is seriously undermined by the increased number of divorces, single-parent families and delayed parenthood. The research has confirmed that the parents opted for a larger number of children under the changed circumstances should relate to the government to take greater responsibility in this area. Programs do not necessarily have to be of material nature. They may include a variety of content-creative measures aimed at increasing the birth rate and the quality of family life by activating various discussions in the local community. National measures that would contribute to a harmonious family life are associated with an increased level of security, extended work of preschool institutions in order to harmonize work and family life and the introduction of discounts on equipment and clothing for the preschool children. In addition to reproductive functions, other functions of the family are: psychological, educational and socializing over the last decade (particularly after the introduction of compulsory pre-school program, which has led to the transformation of active strategies of the state and legislation in this regard and acceptance of the principle of lifelong learning in which preschool foundation plays a crucial role in the adaptation of compulsory education by providing equal starting conditions for all children. The existence of new forms of institutions such as family centers with a differentiated system of services (consulting, information, educational should compensate deficiencies of the existing system only on the basis of social protection embodied in the social welfare centers, which are available mostly in cases of pre-existing problems.

  1. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.suciu@unicatt.it [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Tediosi, Alice [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Ciffroy, Philippe [Electricité de France (EDF) R& D, National Hydraulic and Environment Laboratory, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Altenpohl, Annette [Österreichisches Normungsinstitut/Austrian Standards Institute, Heinestraße 38, 1020 Wien (Austria); Brochot, Céline [INERIS, Parc ALATA, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Verdonck, Frederik [ARCHE cvba, Liefkensstraat 35d, 9032 Gent-Wondelgem (Belgium); Ferrari, Federico [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Giubilato, Elisa [University Ca Foscari Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venice (Italy); Capri, Ettore [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Fait, Gabriella [EFSA, via Carlo Magno 1/a, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals • Coupling environmental exposure and pharmacokinetic models • MERLIN-expo as a higher tier exposure tool • MERLIN-expo potential application in EU chemical regulations • EU legislations and policies related to risk assessment and management of chemicals.

  2. Female Researchers in Neo-Victorian Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Ming Tammy Ho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neo-Victorian novelists sometimes use postgraduate students – trainee academics – who research nineteenth-century writers as protagonists. This article discusses four neo-Victorian novels, Lloyd Jones’s Mister Pip (2006, Justine Picardie’s Daphne (2008, A.N. Wilson’s A Jealous Ghost (2005 and Scarlett Thomas’s The End of Mr Y (2006, in which female postgraduate students take the centre stage. In Victorian literature, which mirrors the gender bias in the academic world and in society at large at that time, most scholars are male. The contemporary writers’ choice of female trainee academics is worth investigating as it speaks to the visibly changed gender make-up of contemporary academia. However, this utopian situation is complicated by the fact that the writers have chosen to frustrate the characters’ entry into the world of scholarship by having them leave the university environment altogether before the end of the novel. The fact that these females all choose to depart the university forms a contrast with notions of the university found in Victorian novels, in which leaving or not attending university might have detrimental effects on the characters.

  3. EDUCATION AND THE VICTORIAN MIND OF ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELLSWORTH, EDWARD W.

    THE RELATION OF THE ATTITUDES OF LEADING PUBLIC MEN IN BRITAIN CONCERNING LARGE-SCALE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY TO THE GENERAL PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE IN THE VICTORIAN PERIOD WAS STUDIED. THE EDUCATIONAL IDEOLOGIES OF BENJAMIN DISRAELI, WILLIAM E. GLADSTONE, LORD JOHN RUSSELL, AND WILLIAM LOVETT WERE ASCERTAINED. ADULT EDUCATION IN 19TH-CENTURY BRITAIN…

  4. Feminist Thinking on Education in Victorian England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the conversations that took place between women's rights advocates on the subject of female education. The relationship between Victorian feminism and educational reform was a complex one, and historians have long argued over whether campaigns for women's schools and colleges can be termed "feminist". This article…

  5. Streaming for Mathematics in Victorian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Streaming (or ability grouping) for mathematics learning is a contentious issue. It can also be considered an issue of equity or social justice as some students may be adversely affected by the practice. Currently, the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) does not appear to have clear guidelines on streaming.…

  6. Gothic pedagogy and Victorian reform treatises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Grace

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the work of bodily affect in three Victorian reform treatises about the industrial working classes: Kay's The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes Employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester, Chadwick's Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, and Engels's The Condition of the Working Class in England. Employing a gothic technology that graphically illustrates and appeals to the sensations, these treatises provide a striking instance of the extent to which Victorian attempts at social reform were routed through the visceral, sensible knowledge of the body. Since, however, the gothic tends toward the excessive, a second crucial feature of its technology entails the arousal of conflicting sensations that problematize class relations.

  7. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  8. Eve and the Madonna in Victorian Art

    OpenAIRE

    Dungan, Bebhinn

    2012-01-01

    Full version unavailable due to 3rd party copyright restrictions. Full version unavailable due to 3rd party copyright restrictions. Full version unavailable due to 3rd party copyright restrictions. Full version unavailable due to 3rd party copyright restrictions. Full version unavailable due to 3rd party copyright restrictions. Abstract This study identifies and addresses representations of Eve and the Madonna exhibited at seven well-known London venues during the Victorian...

  9. Organic viticulture and wine-making: development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework. Deliverable: D 2.7 Public report about first round qualitative consumer research and market needs

    OpenAIRE

    Stolz, Hanna; Schmid, Otto

    2007-01-01

    This survey of consumers’ perceptions and expectations regarding organic wine and viticulture in the selected case study countries of Italy (IT), France (FR), Germany (DE) and Switzerland (CH) was conducted within the framework of the EU research project ORWINE (Organic viticulture and wine-making: development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework). The objectives of the study were to investigat...

  10. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  11. Death and Violence in Some Victorian School Reading Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeorge, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Examines British and American 19th-century classroom readers and their treatment of death. Quantitatively analyzes several series, using a computer database for each volume. Finds that school readers reflected the Victorians' preoccupation with death and helped socialize children into the Victorian sense that death was ever at hand. (PA)

  12. The transit of Venus enterprise in Victorian Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliff, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    In nineteenth century, the British Government spent money measuring the distance between the earth and the sun using observations of the transit of Venus. This book presents a narrative of the two Victorian transit programmes. It draws out their cultural significance and explores the nature of 'big science' in late-Victorian Britain.

  13. Gender prejudice in the Victorian Era: an elucidation of Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The more intriguing character of the Victorian society was that women bore the brunt of the society's inequality, injustice and unfairness. This paper examines British history with the intent of exposing the variables that shaped and defined the Victorian era consciousness, especially the collective perspective about gender ...

  14. Corporate ownership and control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  15. Victorian Government pushes cogeneration for SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Government of Victoria is very keen to have the boiler technology installed across the state's small to medium enterprises. If only a 10 per cent of the Victorian small to medium enterprises market for new boilers installed the new technology, the potential energy savings could reach over 210,000 GJ. This technology is fairly common in Europe. In the last few years it has been introduced to the Australian market, and it is cheaper than the European models and also it is more efficient at recovering heat

  16. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Abilova, Vafa; Alkan, Ali; Asanin, Bogdan; de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Besovic, Zeljka; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Bucsics, Anna; Davidescu, Michal; De Weerdt, Elfi; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa; Fürst, Jurij; Gaga, Mina; Gailīte, Elma; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Gürpınar, Emre U.; Hankó, Balázs; Hargaden, Vincent; Hotvedt, Tor A.; Hoxha, Iris; Huys, Isabelle; Inotai, Andras; Jakupi, Arianit; Jenzer, Helena; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Makridaki, Despina; Malaj, Admir; Margus, Kertu; Marković-Peković, Vanda; Miljković, Nenad; de Miranda, João L.; Primožič, Stanislav; Rajinac, Dragana; Schwartz, David G.; Šebesta, Robin; Simoens, Steven; Slaby, Juraj; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Tesar, Tomas; Tzimis, Leonidas; Warmińska, Ewa; Godman, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages. The

  17. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  18. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  19. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON THE POLICY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stîngaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the administrative capacity of institutions in the regional development starts from the analysis of the existing framework for the implementation of regional politics in Romania and studies the extent to what the structures and competencies were regionally enlarged as to contribute in the regional development. The basic hypothesis considered for such analysis had in view the fact that the differences recorded with respect to the implementation capacity of the regional development policy are caused by the various levels of the administrative capacity of the national, regional and local institutions existent in Romania. Although the regional development activity is, both centrally and regionally, dominated by the Regional Operational Programmme 2007-2013 (ROP implementation, significant activity also exists outside the ROP, but only regionally. The regional strategies incorporate to a great extent the strategic objectives established nationally, being coordinated with the national financing instruments for economic, social and territorial development. The undertaking degree of responsibilities regarding the objectives fulfillment of the regional development policy is relatively low both regionally and locally, and the main indicator which contributes in sustaining this conclusion is the absence of an adequate level regarding the property holding on certain strategies and also the methodological lack of strategies. Nationally, the current activity of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism in the field of regional development totally overlaps the management activity of ROP. The management of structural funds 2007-2013 granted through ROP deals with various situations in which, due to the fact that the Law of regional development remained behind the legislation for the structural instruments implementation in Romania, additional resources are necessary to be granted in order to be found solutions through other types of

  20. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  1. The Neo-Victorian Novel, 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The final decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first witnessed a surge of published novels with direct and indirect connection to the Victorian era, at a time when a focus on the new millenium might have been expected. This proliferation of what came to be termed 'neo-Victorian novels' shows no sign of abating and has now given rise to scholarly research on the subject. The principal aim of this thesis is to examine the rise of the neo-Victorian novel during ...

  2. The natural theology of Victorian industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Nick

    2015-03-01

    As clergymen in Britain celebrated the Great Exhibition in the summer of 1851 and drew appropriate moral lessons, there was widespread agreement that the triumphs of industry on display represented the fulfilment of God's will. The basic assumption was that overcoming God's curse on Adam had been possible only through sustained hard work - industry in the early Victorian sense - and that this imperative work ethic had always been God's intention for mankind. In elaborating the details, preachers combined the British tradition of natural theology with the Scottish Enlightenment's progressive science of man to paint a picture of the slow recovery of man from the Fall through his own industry. This was the very story of civilization itself, with God the driving force. The celebrants were quite clear that it was divine providence that had ordained the greatness of Great Britain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pedagogic Knowledge and the Victorian Era Anglo-American Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Marianne A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the expected knowledge base of British Victorian elementary teachers in the rational and scientific study of pedagogy and didactics. Concludes comparative research has revealed prevalence of similar pedagogic discourse in Great Britain and North American schools. (KDR)

  4. Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)

  5. Legislative coalitions with incomplete information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Laver, Michael

    2017-03-14

    In most parliamentary democracies, proportional representation electoral rules mean that no single party controls a majority of seats in the legislature. This in turn means that the formation of majority legislative coalitions in such settings is of critical political importance. Conventional approaches to modeling the formation of such legislative coalitions typically make the "common knowledge" assumption that the preferences of all politicians are public information. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework to investigate which legislative coalitions form when politicians' policy preferences are private information, not known with certainty by the other politicians with whom they are negotiating over what policies to implement. The model we develop has distinctive implications. It suggests that legislative coalitions should typically be either of the center left or the center right. In other words our model, distinctively, predicts only center-left or center-right policy coalitions, not coalitions comprising the median party plus parties both to its left and to its right.

  6. Walking Victorian Spitalfields with Israel Zangwill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Valman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Zangwill’s Spitalfields, a mobile app with content curated, written, and produced by Nadia Valman, Soda Ltd (developer and the Jewish Museum, London (archive collaborator. The app uses Israel Zangwill’s novel 'Children of the Ghetto' (1892 as a walking guide to the Jewish immigrant subculture of Victorian Spitalfields, east London, which the novel describes at a moment of critical change. Zangwill’s Spitalfields exploits the app’s potential for bringing together a range of digital sources including archive photographs, museum objects, and oral history recordings with the user’s observations of the physical environment, to produce an experience that is both immersive and multivocal. Mobile digital technology has provided a new interpretive context for the Jewish Museum’s collection, and animated previously unmarked monuments in Spitalfields. By drawing on the user’s experience of walking in present-day Spitalfields, the app also intervenes into a historiography increasingly shaped by nostalgia.

  7. Introduction: Victorian Fiction and the Material Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Mills

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available How should we deal with the ‘stuff' in books? This is the question addressed in the lead articles of the Spring 2008 issue of 19, all of which focus on some aspect of the material in relation to Victorian fiction. Gas, rocks, jewellery, automata and the entire contents of houses are examined in essays that explore the material imagination of Dickens, Hardy, George Eliot and Thackeray, among others. Moving forward from the previous edition, which different types of collected object, here contributors examine how the material is brought into collision with literature. The phrase 'material imagination' can be traced to the work of Gaston Bachelard who identifies two types of imagination, the formal and the material. Whereas the former focuses on surfaces and the visual perception of images, the latter consists of '…this amazing need for penetration which, going beyond the attractions of the imagination of forms, thinks matter, dreams in it, lives in it, or, in other words, materializes the imaginary'. As Bachelard suggests, the material imagination involves more than just a focus on the representation of objects and the contributions to this edition explore such wide ranging subjects as the gender politics of ownership, dispossession, the body as object, the politics of collecting and display and the dichotomy between the material and immaterial. In addition, this edition features a forum on digitisation and materiality. We are particularly pleased to be able to make use of 19's digital publishing format to further debates about digital media. In the forum, five contributors respond to a series of questions about the nature of the virtual object. All five have worked or are working on nineteenth-century digitisation projects so they are uniquely placed to consider issues surrounding representation and the nature of digital space.

  8. Oxidization Is a Feminist Issue: Acidity, Canonicity, and Popular Victorian Female Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Argues for the study of popular female authors of the Victorian era on two grounds: (1) issues concerning Victorian female writers are relevant to problems in Victorian literary scholarship and to discussions about the relationship between literary theory and feminism; and (2) their works were printed on acid paper. (TB)

  9. Utilisation of ART in single women and lesbian couples since the 2010 change in Victorian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Emily; Weston, Gareth

    2014-10-01

    Enactment of the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act (Vic) 2008 in January 2010 allowed single persons and same sex couples in Victoria to access reproductive treatments. A retrospective cohort analysis of Monash IVF patients was conducted to identify trends in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) use amongst single women and lesbian couples after January 2010. A 102.8% increase in the utilisation of ART was observed amongst the single women group and a 248.8% increase in the lesbian couple population. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... of a rationalization process, incl., a road map, recommending that there should be 7 universities in Moldova: 3 regional universities and 4 universities in Chisinau (capital); following the principle of clear demarcation between state regulation and institutional university autonomy, specifies universities powers...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  11. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation

  12. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  13. The new Victorians: The joys of scientific correspondence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    1989-01-01

    'My dear Hooker,' wrote Charles Darwin to Joseph Hooker on 6 March 1844, 'I will not lose a post in guarding you against what I am afraid is . . . labour in vain.' This urgent warning went by post, because Darwin had no option: he had no telephone. What the Victorians did have, however, was a

  14. The Economic Benefits of Political Connections in Late Victorian Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2011-01-01

    The late-Victorian era was characteristed by especially close links between politicians and firms in the UK. Roughly half of all members of Parliament served as company directors, many as directors of multiple firms. We analyze 467 British companies over the period 1895 to 1904 to investigate the

  15. The Victorian Age: A Teacher's Guide. Heritage Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Maurie

    This teaching guide accompanies a videocassette for teaching about the Victorian Era in the United States through the study of homes from that period. The teaching unit can be adopted for students in grades 4 through 12 and can also be used in college classes and in adult education. Skills are identified to help students interpret their physical…

  16. Predicting human height by Victorian and genomic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.V. Struchalin (Maksim); N.M. Belonogova (Nadezhda); T.I. Axenovich (Tatiana); M.N. Weedon (Michael); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); B.A. Oostra (Ben); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); P.M. Borodin (Pavel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that 'when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average height of the two parents, ... is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54

  17. Chemistry in Victorian Detective Fiction: "A Race with the Sun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    The late-Victorian era provided aficionados of detective fiction with an abundance of short stories belonging to this literary genre. Many of these works contained some aspect of chemistry, either in the execution of a crime or in the identification of the perpetrator. In the example discussed in this article, the gas-phase reaction of hydrogen…

  18. Viewpoint: Transatlantic Scholarship on Victorian Literature and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Armstrong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This viewpoint offers a comparison of recent British and American criticism of Victorian literature and culture, encompassing Dickens, Tennyson, the epic and ethical criticism. Discussion centres on recent studies by Sally Ledger, Rosemarie Bodenheimer, Cornelia Pearsall, Kirstie Blair, Simon Dentith, Herbert Tucker, Andrew Miller and Mike Sanders.

  19. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  20. The economic benefits of political connections in late Victorian Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2013-01-01

    The late Victorian era was characterized by close links between politicians and firms in the United Kingdom, with up to half of all members of Parliament serving as company directors. We analyze 467 British companies over the period 1895 to 1904. An analysis of election results shows that the

  1. Victorian Certificate of Education: Mathematics, Science and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Peter J.; Leder, Gilah C.; Forgasz, Helen J.

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in participation and performance at "high stakes" examinations have received much public attention, which has often focused on mathematics and science subjects. This paper describes the innovative forms of assessment introduced into mathematics and science subjects within the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE)…

  2. The Romanian legislative framework for protection of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrate tetrapodes potentially affected by activities for exploitation of wind-resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÖRÖK Zsolt

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian legislation nominates for variosus conservative statuses the following terrestrial or freshwater tetrapode species which should be included in the analyses of teh studies on the potential negative impact of wind-turbines and related infrastructures or activities: 11 species of amphibians, 16 species of reptiles, 273 species of birds and 38 species of mammals that have “strictly protected species” status (according to ActNo. 13 / 1993, which enforces the Bern Convention on conservation of wildlife; 7 species of amphibians, 5 species ofreptiles, 94 species of birds and 31 species of mammals that have “protected species” status (according to the same ActNo. 13 / 1993; 6 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 54 species of mammals of which protection needs designaton of Special Areas of Conservation (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007; 11 species of amphibians, 18 species of reptiles, 48 species of mammals having “Species of Community Interest that need strictprotection” status (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007; 6 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 67 species of birds and 6 species of mammals that have “Species of National Interest that need strict protection” status (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007. At least 122 species of birds are nominated among the species of which protection needs designaton of Special Protection Areas (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007, 112migratory waterbird species are protected by Act No. 89 / 2000, 20 migratory birds are considered as being treathened on European level (Act no. 13 / 1998 and 267 species have “unfavourable status on European level” (Act no. 13 / 1998. All 30 bat species are protected by Act No. 90 / 2000, and 25 species are also nominated in Act No. 13 / 1993 (that enforces the Bonn Convention on migratory species.

  3. A preliminary assessment of the Normative Framework regulating MAR schemes in Europe: the EU Directives and their Implementation in nine National Legislations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo E. Bonfanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of MAR schemes within the European Union is not a new phenomenon, on the contrary it dates back to the beginning of the XIX century. Despite being widely adopted and currently the object of extensive studies, this tool is not soundly regulated and so far very little research has been conducted on the normative framework regulating MAR at the regional and at the national level. This paper draws upon the findings of a Report which represents one of the deliverables identified by MARSOL, a EU FP7 project launched in December 2013 that aims at demonstrating that MAR shall be regarded as a viable approach to address the predicted water shortages over the long term. Through a survey which involved a number of national experts, the researchers involved in the drafting of the Report have collected relevant data concerning the national legal frameworks of nine EU countries that adopt MAR schemes. The results of the questionnaire have been processed using a qualitative and comparative approach and have been duly included in the legal analysis, which covers the implementation at the national level of the two EU Directives relevant for MAR Schemes, i.e. the Water Framework Directive and its “daughter”, the Groundwater Directive. This paper shall be considered as the outcome of a preliminary investigation which covered only a limited number of European countries, it is expected that the research will be carried out as to include a larger number of EU Member States (MSs, alongside the most relevant extra EU countries.

  4. Use of drug-eluting stents in Victorian public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bryan P; Ajani, Andrew E; Duffy, Stephen J; New, Gishel; Horrigan, Mark; Szto, Gregory; Walton, Antony; Eccleston, David; Lefkovits, Jeffery; Black, Alexander; Sebastian, Martin; Brennan, Angela L; Reid, Christopher M; Clark, David J

    2006-10-02

    We aimed to assess the pattern of use of drug-eluting stents (DESs) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in Victorian public hospitals. Prospective study comparing the use of one or more DESs versus bare-metal stents (BMSs) only, in consecutive patients undergoing 2428 PCIs with stent implantation from 1 April 2004 to 31 December 2005 at seven Victorian public hospitals. Adherence to current Victorian Department of Human Services guidelines which recommend DES use in patients with high-risk features for restenosis (diabetes, small vessels, long lesions, in-stent restenotic lesions, chronic total occlusions and bifurcation lesions). Of the 2428 PCIs performed, at least one DES was implanted in 1101 (45.3%) and BMSs only were implanted in 1327 (54.7%). In 87.7% (966/1101) of PCI with DESs, there was at least one criterion for high risk of restenosis. DESs were more likely to be used in patients with diabetes (risk ratio [RR], 2.45; 95% CI, 2.02-2.97), small vessels (RR, 3.35; 95%CI, 2.35-4.76), long lesions (RR, 3.87; 95% CI, 3.23-4.65), in-stent restenotic lesions (RR, 3.98; 95%CI, 2.67-6.06), chronic total occlusions (RR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.51-2.88) and bifurcation lesions (RR, 2.23; 95%CI, 1.57-3.17). However, 66.2% (1608/2428) of all PCIs were in patients eligible for DESs according to Victorian guidelines, and in 39.9% (642/1608) of these PCIs, a BMS was used. In Victorian public hospitals, DESs have been largely reserved for patients at high risk of restenosis in accordance with Department of Human Services guidelines. However, many patients with high-risk criteria for restenosis did not receive DESs. Greater use of DESs in these patients may improve outcomes by reducing the need for repeat revascularisation.

  5. How could health information be improved? Recommended actions from the Victorian Consultation on Health Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sophie J; Sofra, Tanya A

    2017-03-07

    Objective Health literacy is on the policy agenda. Accessible, high-quality health information is a major component of health literacy. Health information materials include print, electronic or other media-based information enabling people to understand health and make health-related decisions. The aim of the present study was to present the findings and recommended actions as they relate to health information of the Victorian Consultation on Health Literacy. Methods Notes and submissions from the 2014 Victorian Consultation workshops and submissions were analysed thematically and a report prepared with input from an advisory committee. Results Health information needs to improve and recommendations are grouped into two overarching themes. First, the quality of information needs to be increased and this can be done by developing a principle-based framework to inform updating guidance for information production, formulating standards to raise quality and improving the systems for delivering information to people. Second, there needs to be a focus on users of health information. Recommendation actions were for information that promoted active participation in health encounters, resources to encourage critical users of health information and increased availability of information tailored to population diversity. Conclusion A framework to improve health information would underpin the efforts to meet literacy needs in a more consistent way, improving standards and ultimately increasing the participation by consumers and carers in health decision making and self-management. What is known about the topic? Health information is a critical component of the concept of health literacy. Poorer health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes across a range of measures. Improving access to and the use of quality sources of health information is an important strategy for meeting the health literacy needs of the population. In recent years, health services and

  6. The Occurrence of Paraffin and Other Petroleum Waxes in the Marine Environment: A Review of the Current Legislative Framework and Shipping Operational Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Suaria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the various materials that make up marine debris, lumps of petroleum waxes such as paraffin and microcrystalline wax, are regularly found on beaches worldwide, although not included in the current definition of marine litter. Ingestion by marine organisms is occasionally documented in the scientific literature and mass beaching events are frequently reported along the European coasts, with obvious detrimental consequences to the local communities that have to manage the clean-up and disposal of this substance. According to Annex II of the MARPOL regulation, petroleum waxes are classified as “high viscosity, solidifying, and persistent floating products,” whose discharge at sea of tank-washing residues is strictly regulated, but currently permitted within certain limits. Starting from the description of a large stranding event occurred along the Italian coasts in 2017, we review the existing knowledge and regulatory framework and urge the relevant authorities to address this issue, showing that wax pollution is creating evident damages to the European coastal municipalities. Pending further investigations on the potential hazard that this kind of pollution is posing to marine ecosystems, we suggest a careful and more stringent revision of the policies regulating discharges of these products at sea.

  7. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  8. Form and deformity: the trouble with Victorian pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Christopher Todd

    2010-01-01

    This essay explores the Victorian debate about the place of pockets in men's and women's clothing. By studying the representation of men as naturally pocketed creatures and the general denial of useful pockets to middle-class women, the essay demonstrates the tenacious cultural logic by which men's and women's pockets were imagined to correspond to sexual differences and to index access, or lack thereof, to public mobility and financial agency. Interconnected readings of visual art, essays, and novels show how the common sense about gendered pockets was utilized and promulgated in Victorian narratives. The question of who gets pockets is thus positioned as part of the history of gendered bodies in public space.

  9. Darwin and Reductionisms: Victorian, Neo-Darwinian and Postgenomic Biologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Richardson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the open-ended Darwinism of Charles Darwin, George Lewes, George Eliot and Thomas Hardy with reductive post-Weismann and early eugenist views and more recent neo-Darwinian ideas including literary Darwinism. It argues that some Victorians had a clear sense of the complexities of the natural world, and of the centrality of environment to life. This awareness contrasts with the processes of divorce and isolation that underpin neo-Darwinian understandings of evolutionary development. But biologists and philosophers of biology are now emphasising the complex and dynamic relations between organism and environment in ways that would have appealed to Darwin’s contemporaries. The article establishes that there are significant parallels between mid-Victorian and postgenomic thought.

  10. Savage numbers and the evolution of civilization in Victorian prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    This paper identifies 'savage numbers'--number-like or number-replacing concepts and practices attributed to peoples viewed as civilizationally inferior--as a crucial and hitherto unrecognized body of evidence in the first two decades of the Victorian science of prehistory. It traces the changing and often ambivalent status of savage numbers in the period after the 1858-1859 'time revolution' in the human sciences by following successive reappropriations of an iconic 1853 story from Francis Galton's African travels. In response to a fundamental lack of physical evidence concerning prehistoric men, savage numbers offered a readily available body of data that helped scholars envisage great extremes of civilizational lowliness in a way that was at once analysable and comparable, and anecdotes like Galton's made those data vivid and compelling. Moreover, they provided a simple and direct means of conceiving of the progressive scale of civilizational development, uniting societies and races past and present, at the heart of Victorian scientific racism.

  11. Convicted Murderers and the Victorian Press: Condemnation vs. Sympathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Wiener

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost half of those receiving the death sentence in late-Victorian and Edwardian England were reprieved. The process of deciding which murderers were to hang and which were to be spared became an increasingly public one, thanks to the growing intervention of the press. This intervention grew alongside the accelerated expansion in the numbers and circulations of newspapers in the second half of the nineteenth century. As the press became a larger part of national life, its more „popular‟ and its more local segments carved out for themselves a new and ever more prominent role as major participants in public discourse over „justice‟ vs. „mercy‟ for condemned murderers. This involvement is a facet of Victorian and Edwardian newspapers that has previously been overlooked.

  12. Common misperceptions: the press and Victorian views of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Christopher A

    2010-01-01

    After a string of successes in the early nineteenth century, the Victorian movement to reform criminal punishment began to falter. Despite evidence to the contrary, the populace grew convinced that violent crime was on the rise. A frequency analysis of The Times and The Manchester Guardian suggests that this misperception was due to a drastic increase in crime coverage by the periodicals of the day.

  13. The pattern of psychiatric morbidity in a Victorian urban aboriginal general practice population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, J; Cutter, T; Mackenzie, A; Chiu, E

    1992-03-01

    Victorian Aboriginal people, most of whom live an urban lifestyle, form a distinct cultural group within the wider Victorian community. This paper describes a unique psychosocial study of urban Aboriginal adults attending a general practitioner at the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service in Fitzroy. The frequency and nature of psychiatric disorders among survey respondents is reported, together with a discussion of the association between this morbidity and certain sociodemographic variables.

  14. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    regime in Nigeria given the scenario that several times burst oil pipelines have stayed for days ... understand the meaning of the term environmental protection. ..... of methods, materials and equipment for oil spill detection and response;.

  15. The need for legislative framework (licensing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krech, H.

    1977-01-01

    For reasons of public acceptance the basis of a licensing system should be laid down in a law, details can be fixed in regulations below the law-level. The competence for licensing nuclear installations should be attributed to one body, which is not a the same time charged with the promotion of nuclear energy. The licensing authority has to be provided with sufficient technical advice, given by experts organized in advisory bodies. Normally a licensing procedure is split into several steps (site approval, construction permit, operation licence), each step can be subdivided. Some general aspects of licensing conditions (personal, technical and financial) as well as of the licensing procedure are outlined. The participation of the public is of particular importance but also involves most intricate problems. The paper concludes with some critical remarks on the role of administrative courts with respect to the licensing of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  16. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  17. Farming suicides during the Victorian drought: 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Robyn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether farming suicides increased in Victoria during the prolonged drought in south eastern Australia and gain an understanding of Victorian farming suicides during the period. Intentional self-harm deaths of farmers and primary producers notified to the Victorian State Coroner from 2001 to 2007 were examined to identify characteristics and determine whether the annual number of farming suicides increased. Farming suicides accounted for just over 3% of Victorian suicides. The total number of farming suicides was 110 for the period and ranged between 11 and 19 deaths per year, rising and falling inconsistently from year to year. Males accounted for nearly 95% of farming suicides, with firearms and hanging the most frequently used methods, and most deaths occurring between 30 and 59 years of age. The small number of relevant cases and fluctuations in the annual number of deaths provides no evidence of a pattern of increasing farming suicides during the drought years, when there was approximately one suicide every 3 weeks. Given the elevated suicide risk in male farmers and association with multiple psychosocial and environmental factors, it cannot be concluded, however, that suicide risk itself did not increase during this period of heightened uncertainty and stress. Drought should not be dismissed among the many risk factors, and it is possible that increased mental health awareness and community support programs targeting drought-affected areas contributed to improved management of stress and suicide risk in regional and rural Victoria over the past decade. © 2012 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Alfred Russel Wallace and the antivaccination movement in Victorian England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas P

    2010-04-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace's background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind.

  19. Victorian Financial Crises and their Implications for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth N Kuttner

    2010-01-01

    Banking crises were a relatively common occurrence in 19th century England. Like the Federal Reserve today, the Bank of England struggled to quell panics by acting as the lender of last resort, while at the same time maintaining monetary stability. This article surveys the events leading up to and the Bank's response to the four post-1844 crises, highlights some of the similarities between the Victorian era panics and the 2007–08 crisis, and draws on the 19th century experience to illustrate ...

  20. Singing by speechless (aphasic) children: Victorian medical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie Perlman; Greenblatt, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, British clinicians made observations regarding the ability of individuals with impaired language abilities to sing or hum. One notable publication was of two cases of children briefly observed by John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) in 1871. These children were speechless but could produce some musical expression. Other such cases attracted the attention of Victorian clinicians who were actively pursuing theoretical questions regarding the organization of brain function and laterality. The presence of musical expression in children who failed to develop spoken language was seen as a notable symptom for early practitioners of pediatric neurology. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  3. Selling Sentiment: The Commodification of Emotion in Victorian Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Solicari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the Victorian sentimental impulse was motivated by the sharing of emotion and the dynamics of communal and interactive feeling. Integral to the popularity of sentiment was its recognition factor by means of established tropes and conventions. Arguably, the same familiarity that made narrative art accessible also made advertising successful and many of the same motifs ran from exhibition watercolours to book illustration to posters. Works of sentiment operated as emotional souvenirs so that material proof of feeling could be easily digested, displayed and revisited. The essay looks closer at the investment of emotion in ephemeral images, such as music-sheet covers, and the ways in which forms of feeling were standardised and reproduced in keeping with a new art-buying public and the possibilities of wider image dissemination. Focusing upon issues raised during the curation of a current exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum ( 'A Show of Emotion: Victorian Sentiment in Prints and Drawings', 7 Dec 2006 – 10 Sep 2007 this essay explores the ways in which the sentimental pervaded nineteenth-century visual culture and how, in the cut-throat commercial world of image production, sentiment became manifest and identifiable if only as a notional phenomenon.

  4. The issues of translating Flaubert and Zola in victorian England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Merkle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The late-Victorian two-tier public (circulating libraries, e.g., Mudie’s Select Library and private (secret literary societies, e.g. The Lutetian Society publishing field was at the centre of profound social transformations tied to literacy. The hierarchical structure of the field reveals the degree to which speech has traditionally been controlled in Britain, in alignment with the country’s rigid class structure. This reality marks a sharp contrast with the generally held view that Great Britain has historically been a model of free speech and democratic values. The article explains that the bourgeoning moral majority preoccupied with protecting the moral integrity of newly literate working class readers and women readers of all classes wished to quell the perceived scourge of pornography, believed to be promoted by dissolute foreigners and British aristocrats. In order to avoid prosecution, editors and translators needed to consider not only patterns of reader expectations, but also the discursive constraints that aligned with Victorian values. An example of an editor who overestimated the degree of freedom of expression was Henry Vizetelly, who attempted to provide working class and female readers with translations of Zola’s and Flaubert’s works. While Madame Bovary was not banned by the courts, many of Zola’s novels were.

  5. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  6. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  8. Working with Your Legislative Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safransky, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to work with legislative delegation to get positive legislation passed. Most school districts have a person who is responsible for working with the legislators and informing them of the district's position on bills and issues that arise in each legislative session. Even if one has a full-time or part-time…

  9. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  10. Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001

  11. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  12. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  13. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  14. Foreign trade legislation, war weapons control legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume contains, in addition to an introduction into the matter, the texts of the Foreign Trade Act (FTA), the War Weapons Control Act and all relevant ordinances. Foreign trade transactions of the Federal Republic of Germany are essentially, but not exclusively, governed by the FTA. They are strongly influenced by the legislation of the European Communities which in the form of directives are immediately effective here, and in the form of guidelines oblige the German lawgiver or ordinance giver to translate them into practice, mostly by appropriate modifications of the foreign trade ordinance, the import and export lists. It is not the war weapons which are the problem, but the so-called dual-use goods, namely articles, technologies and knowledge which, as a rule, serve civil purposes, which, however, may be used also to produce weapons, in particular ABC weapons or rockets. Nowadays we are concerned about several third-world states which are obsessed by the wish to build their own atomic bomb. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Increasing incidence of Crohn's disease in Victorian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phavichitr, Nopaorn; Cameron, Donald J S; Catto-Smith, Anthony G

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of Crohn's disease has been increasing in Western communities, but there are no published studies which have examined this change in children in Australia. The centralization of pediatric gastroenterology services in Victoria provides an opportunity to examine these changes within one state. We undertook a retrospective study over a 31-year period of all children aged 16 years or less initially diagnosed with Crohn's disease at either the Royal Children's Hospital, or Monash Medical Center, Melbourne, Victoria. We identified 351 patients who met the diagnostic criteria between 1971 and 2001. The incidence of Crohn's disease in children aged 16 years or less rose from 0.128 to 2.0 per 100,000 per year over the three decades (r = 0.964, P Victorian children. The pattern of disease has also changed with colonic disease now more frequent, and inflammatory indices less abnormal. The increased use of endoscopy has established the frequent involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Supercritical water gasification of Victorian brown coal: Experimental characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Doki; Aye, Lu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic 3010 (Australia); Sanderson, P. John; Lim, Seng [CSIRO Minerals, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    Supercritical water gasification is an innovative thermochemical conversion method for converting wet feedstocks into hydrogen-rich gaseous products. The non-catalytic gasification characteristics of Victorian brown coal were investigated in supercritical water by using a novel immersion technique with quartz batch reactors. Various operating parameters such as temperature, feed concentration and reaction time were varied to investigate their effect on the gasification behaviour. Gas yields, carbon gasification efficiency and the total gasification efficiency increased with increasing temperature and reaction time, and decreasing feed concentration. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the product gases was lowest at 600 C, and increased to over 30 % at a temperature of 800 C. Varying parameters, especially reaction time, did not improve the coal utilisation for gas production significantly and the measured data showed a large deviation from the equilibrium level. (author)

  17. Predicting human height by Victorian and genomic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Struchalin, Maksim V; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I; Weedon, Michael N; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Kayser, Manfred; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Borodin, Pavel M

    2009-08-01

    In the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that 'when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average height of the two parents, ... is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54 loci showing strong statistical evidence for association to human height were described, providing us with potential genomic means of human height prediction. In a population-based study of 5748 people, we find that a 54-loci genomic profile explained 4-6% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and had limited ability to discriminate tall/short people, as characterized by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). In a family-based study of 550 people, with both parents having height measurements, we find that the Galtonian mid-parental prediction method explained 40% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and showed high discriminative accuracy. We have also explored how much variance a genomic profile should explain to reach certain AUC values. For highly heritable traits such as height, we conclude that in applications in which parental phenotypic information is available (eg, medicine), the Victorian Galton's method will long stay unsurpassed, in terms of both discriminative accuracy and costs. For less heritable traits, and in situations in which parental information is not available (eg, forensics), genomic methods may provide an alternative, given that the variants determining an essential proportion of the trait's variation can be identified.

  18. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  19. Sympathetic science: Charles Darwin, Joseph Hooker, and the passions of Victorian naturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the complex tangle of emotional and scientific attachments that linked Darwin and botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker. Analyzing their roles as husbands, fathers, and novel readers demonstrates that possessing and expressing sympathy was as important for Victorian naturalists as it was for Victorian husbands. Sympathy was a scientific skill that Victorian naturalists regarded as necessary to fully understand the living world; although sympathy became increasingly gendered as feminine over the course of the century, its importance to male naturalists requires us to rethink the ways gender roles were negotiated in Victorian Britain. Botany was, for men like Darwin and Hooker, an acceptably masculine pursuit that nevertheless allowed--and even required--them to be sensitive and sympathetic.

  20. The pedagogical implications of Maxwellian electromagnetic models: a case study from Victorian-Era physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Shawn Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the late Victorian Era, a group of British physicists devoted their time to interpreting and extending the work of James Clerk Maxwell. There has been considerable discussion about the ways in which these "Maxwellian" physicists used mechanical models by in the for research purposes; less attention has been paid to the relevance of their mechanical models for pedagogical purposes. Drawing from educational research literature, I begin from the premise that understanding a scientist's self-identity in its historical context is crucial to understanding how she or he enacts particular pedagogical approaches. I aim to extend Bruce Hunt's seminal work on the Maxwellians by providing a pedagogical analysis of one of Sir Oliver Lodge's lectures. In so doing, I claim that Lodge drew on his identity as a Maxwellian as an organizing framework for his lecture and that he attempted to engage his audience in Maxwellian thought by exposing them to many mechanical models. I conclude that Lodge's self-concept as a teacher and his apparent broad appeal as a public educationist were deeply embedded in his life history as a member of the Maxwellians. Sir Oliver Lodge's identities as a Maxwellian and a pedagogue are inextricably linked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Making Kew Observatory: the Royal Society, the British Association and the politics of early Victorian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Lee T

    2015-09-01

    Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'.

  2. Louise Penner, Victorian Medicine and Social Reform: Florence Nightingale among the Novelists

    OpenAIRE

    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Much social activism went on in the Victorian period, and quite a few social reformers were women. These female social reformers were even fictionalized and satirized, as Mrs Jellyby in Bleak House (1854), Dickens’s obsessive philanthropist who focuses so much on Africa that she forgets to look after her house, children and husband. Florence Nightingale was one of these activists. The nurse who became famous for her involvement in the Crimean War was a highly significant Victorian public figu...

  3. Synthesis of Automated Vehicle Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report provides a synthesis of issues addressed by state legislation regarding automated vehicles (AV); AV technologies are rapidly evolving and many states have developed legislation to govern AV testing and deployment and to assure safety on p...

  4. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  5. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  7. Labour legislations in India: tourism industry dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan

    2012-01-01

    Labour laws shape industrial relations addressing the socio-economic security of the working class. The legislative framework of labour conditions the working conditions, employer-employee relations, mode of wage payments, provide social security, class and protect the interests of special categories of working class. The paper discusses various labour statutes of India that are applicable to tourism. Almost all labour laws prevailing in the country were enacted even before tourism attained i...

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    uses of nuclear energy, signed on 1 September 2014, in Beijing; Nuclear security - Order No. 181/2014 for approval of norms regarding the protection of nuclear installation against cyber threats; Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Order No. 51/2015 for approval of the Nuclear Safety Guide regarding industrial codes and standards for nuclear power plants; Order No. 199/2015 for approval of the norms regarding nuclear safety policy and technical operation conditions for nuclear installations; Order No. 177/2015 for approval of norms regarding nuclear safety policy and independent assessment of nuclear safety; Order No. 180/2015 for approval of the guide regarding independent verification of the nuclear safety analyses and evaluation for nuclear installations; Order No. 198/2015 for approval of the guide regarding the framework and content of the nuclear safety final report for nuclear power plants; 7 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation - Details about international agreements concluded by the Slovak Republic; Liability and compensation - Regulation No. 170/2015 Establishing a List of Radioactive Materials, Their Quantities and Their Physical and Chemical Parameters Justifying the Low Risk of Nuclear Damage; General legislation - amendments to existing NRA regulations; 8 - Slovenia: General legislation - Amendments to the Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act; 9 - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management; Liability and compensation Obligation of insurance, risks not covered by private insurers - Partial revision of the Ordinance on Nuclear Third Party Liability (ORCN); 10 - USA: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Commission authorises issuance of combined licence for Fermi Nuclear Power Plant in Monroe County, Michigan; Radioactive waste management - NRC conducts final public meetings on Yucca Mountain Environmental Report Supplement

  9. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  10. The legislative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States Congress has only recently become interested in the issue of ballistic missile proliferation. It was primarily as a result of the outcome of the debate over chemical weapons legislation that Congress joined the issue of ballistic missile proliferation in the matter of restraints on foreign countries, particularly those based in Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) countries. This paper addresses the following questions: Is it Congress's place to enforce compliance with international agreements? More importantly, will such measures have the desired effect?

  11. Legislation, women, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.

  12. Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H; Murphy, A; Leong, W; Leydon, J; Tresise, P; Gerrard, M; Chibo, D; Birch, C; Andrews, R; Catton, M

    2000-12-01

    Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance is important as part of pandemic preparedness, for identifying and isolating candidate vaccine strains, for supporting trials of anti-influenza drugs and for refining the influenza surveillance case definition in practice. This study describes the implementation of laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices and provides an estimate of the proportion of patients with an influenza-like illness proven to have influenza. During 1998 and 1999, 25 sentinel general practices contributed clinical surveillance data and 16 metropolitan practices participated in laboratory surveillance. Serological, virus-antigen detection, virus culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures were used to establish the diagnosis of influenza. Two laboratories at major teaching hospitals in Melbourne provided additional data on influenza virus identification. General practice sentinel surveillance and laboratory identification of influenza provided similar data on the pattern of influenza in the community between May and September. The clinical suspicion of influenza was confirmed in 49 to 54 per cent of cases seen in general practice.

  13. Outsourcing: two case studies from the Victorian public hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Suzanne

    2007-02-01

    Outsourcing was one process of privatisation used in the Victorian public health sector in the 1990s. However it was used to varying degrees and across a variety of different services. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Why have managers outsourced? What have managers considered when they have decided to outsource? The research was carried out in a rural hospital and a metropolitan network in Victoria. The key findings highlight the factors that decision makers considered to be important and those that led to negative outcomes. Economic factors, such as frequency of exchange, length of relationships between the parties, and information availability, were often ignored. However, other factors such as outcome measurability, technology, risk, labour market characteristics and goal conflict, and political factors such as relative power of management over labour were often perceived as important in the decision-making process. Negative outcomes from outsourcing were due to the short length of relationships and accompanying difficulties with trust, commitment and loyalty; poor quality; and excessive monitoring and the measurement of outcomes.

  14. Euthanasia and surgeons: an overview of the Victorian Voluntary Assisted Dying Act 2017 and its relevance to surgical practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Christian; Brown, Kilian; Sandroussi, Charbel

    2018-05-14

    Surgeons play a significant role in the treatment of patients with many types of cancer, including the management of advanced and recurrent disease after long periods of apparent remission. The recently introduced Victorian Voluntary Assisted Dying (VAD) Act represents a shift in paradigm in Australian medical practice. To be eligible for VAD, the new legislation requires patient assessment by a physician with at least 5 years post-fellowship experience and relevant expertise in the patient's condition. Given many specialist surgeons' experience in managing advanced and often incurable malignancy, it is likely that many will receive referrals for assessment for VAD. It is foreseeable that other states and territories in Australia will follow suit with similar legislation. It is imperative that surgeons receiving referrals to assess patients seeking access to VAD are familiar with the legislation and assessment process. This article summarizes the current regulation of VAD in Australia, including the patient application and assessment process, briefly reviews world-wide assisted dying practices and discusses the relevance to surgeons practicing in Australia. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  16. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  17. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country and topic: - Algeria: Nuclear security. - France: Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation; International co-operation. - Germany: International trade. - Indonesia: Nuclear security, General legislation. - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation. - Lithuania: Nuclear security; Nuclear safety and radiological protection. - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; Environmental protection. - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management. - United Arab Emirates: Liability and compensation. - United States: Radioactive waste management; Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  18. Accountability legislation: Implications for financial and performance reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Rixon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to first examine the implications of accountability legislation on the financial and performance reporting of a public sector agency in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador and secondly, to compare the level of accountability with Stewart’s (1984 ladder of accountability. This paper is based on the first phase of a two-phase study. The first phase focuses on the initial impacts of accountability legislation on agencies and the challenges created by the legislation’s ‘one size fits all’ approach. The second phase of this study will examine the impact of the legislation on stakeholders after it has been in operation for five years. The second phase will include interviews with stakeholders to ascertain the level of satisfaction with the new legislation. The first phase of the study is significant since it highlights how governments could consider stakeholder needs when drafting such legislation. This research contributes to the body of literature on stakeholder accountability since there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the impact of accountability legislation on public sector agencies. An important contribution of this paper is the introduction of a framework for legislated accountability reporting. The main theoretical frameworks used to analyse the findings are Stewart’s (1984 ladder of accountability in conjunction with Friedman and Miles (2006 ladder of stakeholder management and engagement.

  19. Legislator voting and behavioral science theory: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Vernick, Jon S; Reiney, Erin V; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-11-01

    To examine the application of behavioral science theories to explain the voting behavior of legislators for public health policies. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that examined factors associated with legislator support, intention to vote, or actual votes on public health policies, emphasizing those grounded in behavior science theory. Twenty-one papers met our inclusion criteria, and 6 were explicitly grounded in a behavioral science theory. Behavioral science theories, and the theory of planned behavior in particular, provide a framework for understanding legislator voting behavior and can be used by advocates to advance pro-health policies.

  20. Vulnerable Populations, Social Investigations, and Epistemic Justice in Early Victorian Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oz Frankel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducted by royal commissions, select committees and the newly established inspectorates, early Victorian social investigations elaborated formats and procedures of public inquiry that left an enduring impact on modern, liberal public spheres in the English speaking world and beyond. This article revisits a few features of 19th Century official investigations, highlighting the rather diverse and contradictory effects these fact-seeking ventures had on British democratic culture. I argue that even as government inquiries confirmed and strengthen social gradations as well as hierarchies of knowledge and expertise, they nevertheless allowed the British lower classes to participate in official discourse as knowers, not just sufferers, and opened new possibilities for dissent and contestations. I highlight the manner in which the investigation itself rather than any consequent legislation or policy touched upon the administration of justice either by emulating court procedures or in terms of its epistemic labor.Las investigaciones sociales de principio de la época victoriana dirigidas por comisiones reales, comités selectos y las inspecciones que se estaban creando entonces, elaboraron formatos y procedimientos de investigación pública que dejaron un impacto duradero en las esferas públicas modernas y liberales tanto en el mundo angloparlante como fuera de él. Este artículo revisa algunas características de las investigaciones oficiales del siglo XIX, resaltando los efectos diversos y contradictorios que estas iniciativas de búsqueda de hechos tuvieron en la cultura democrática británica. Se defiende que, a pesar de que las investigaciones gubernamentales confirmaron y reforzaron las escalas sociales y las jerarquías de conocimiento y experiencia, permitieron que las clases bajas británicas participaran en el discurso oficial como conocedores y no sólo víctimas, y abrieron nuevas posibilidades de disensión y lucha. Se destaca la

  1. Legislation and patients' rights: some necessary remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic-Zornic, Hajrija

    2007-12-01

    The essence of a patient's rights and legislation framework requires an answer to the question on how legislation can work towards better defining, respecting, protecting and effectiveness of these rights. First, it is necessary to give a short introduction to patients' rights, their definition and different classifications. In the long list of human rights, patients' rights obviously take one of the very important places. Human life and health are the values, which, in comparison with all other human values, are considered as values of the highest rank. Patients' rights represent a legal expression of something, which every person basically and naturally expects from a doctor, medical staff, and from a health care system in general. The subject of the second part of this paper presents the intention, scope and conception of necessary legislation. How should it be considered - in a wider sense or as a special law? Some theoretical and practical questions regarding interaction between medical ethics regulation, confidentiality, and legislation are discussed as well. In the European context there are numerous examples of laws with the specific purpose of protecting patients' rights. Special attention and critical review will be paid to the situation of patients' rights in Serbia. The paper concludes with the point that the role of legislation is evidently important, but the traditional view should be replaced with a new one, due to the reason that modem health law puts the protection of patients' rights on a higher level. De lege lata, the whole system of health law in its diversity (civil, penal and administrative) is characterized by better understanding of rights, duties and legal relations, either through regulation or the protection of patients' rights.

  2. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  3. Consolidation of the Victorian Marriage Tradition in Hardy’s Jude the Obscure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Ghasemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy has always been considered a novel in which the concept of the traditional Victorian marriage is severely criticized through various tones. New Historicism and Cultural Materialism are methodological approaches that provide us with a different interpretation of this novel. Therefore , on the basis of these "reading practices," as Greenblatt calls them, the researchers attempt to offer another reading of this novel. The present research concludes that Jude the Obscure at first presents an explicit, reproachful treatment of the conventional Victorian marriage but at the end it reinforces this type of marriage by repressing the characters whose views are at odds with the dominant views of the society. In other words, through marginalizing its own major characters as "the others", Jude the Obscure consolidates the dominant discourse of the Victorian society about "marriage".

  4. Depictions of females and males in Mozambican and Victorian (Australia primary mathematics textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelino Evaristo Murimo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The depiction of females and males in Mozambican Primary Mathematics textbooks for grades 6 and 7 were examined, and comparisons made with Victorian  (Australia textbooks for years 5 and 6. It was found that mathematics learning was portrayed as a  male domain in the Mozambican textbooks, reflecting what used to be the case with Australian texts of the 1970s, although there are some differences between the two countries that may be culturally based. The Victorian textbooks depicted mathematics learning as a domain for all children, and in the majority of categories examined, females and males were distributed fairly evenly. Compared to earlier reported findings, there was a general improvement in the portrayal of females in Victorian textbooks.

  5. The Political Economy of Collective Labour Legislation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Y. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a seminal analysis of collective labour legislation in Taiwan. A chronological review of Taiwan’s legislative process suggests that the context of incorporation, institutional framework, mechanisms for delivering reforms, and sequence of reforms together shape the legislative outcomes of labour reforms at the collective level. While most labour legislation was revised and passed after the preceding sequence of economic transition, the reform of collective labour rights was greatly constrained by the flexible labour-market structure. In order for politicians to form new alliances with labour organizations, legislation of collective labour rights was a strategy to cultivate support during electoral periods. Consequently, the industrial relations changed following the enactment of substantial reform-oriented labour legislation. Theore-tically, the historical analysis of legislative procedure unveils evolutionary reform paths for collective labour rights in new democracies. At the same time, empirically, Taiwan demonstrates an alternative reform path in combination with incremental steps and progressive agendas. For new democracies of small economy, a window of opportunity for the progress in collective labour legislation remains open today, albeit with limitations.

  6. Births after a period of infertility in Victorian women 1982-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, A; Lumley, J

    1993-11-01

    Pregnancies following a period of infertility are often thought to be at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Between 1982-1990, 1465 births were reported to the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection Unit with a history of infertility. We present some characteristics of these births and compare them with all Victorian births in 1986 (n = 61,253) and Australian and New Zealand IVF and GIFT births 1979-1989 (n = 6,675). Women with a history of infertility were older than other Victorian women but younger than the IVF and GIFT group. Multiple births comprised 9% of the infertility group compared with 1.3% in the general Victorian population and 23.7% of IVF and GIFT births. The incidence of low birth-weight (18.6%) and very low birth-weight (4.2%) was higher than in other Victorian births (5.8% and 1.1% respectively) but lower than in IVF and GIFT births (34.6% and 8.9%). Perinatal mortality in the infertility group (33.4 per 1,000) was higher than in the general population (11.1 per 1,000) and similar to the IVF and GIFT group (34.9 per 1,000). The Caesarean section rate after infertility (41%) was more than double the rate in the rest of the Victorian population (16%), and showed a different pattern of indications. The relative risks of low and very low birth-weight, perinatal mortality and Caesarean delivery remained significantly increased for singletons after adjustment for maternal age and parity.

  7. Thomas Albrecht, The Medusa Effect: Representation and Epistemology in Victorian Aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvage, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Albrecht presents a stimulating study of what he calls the “Medusa effect” in Victorian aesthetics. This specific pattern, linked to the mythological figure of Medusa, raises both epistemological and aesthetic issues. The wide range of texts he examines spans a variety of genres and includes works by Gabriel Dante Rosetti, Freud, Nietzsche, Swinburne and Pater as well as George Eliot. They may not all be Victorian in the strict sense, but T. Albrecht does convincingly show that they al...

  8. Production of activated carbon from Victorian brown coal and its application in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobson, G.; Swinbourne, D.

    1985-01-01

    A research grant was awarded by the Coal Council of Victoria to support investigations into the manufacture of a Victorian brown coal-based activated carbon suitable for Carbon-in-Pulp (CIP) gold recovery operations. This project was started on 31.1.84 and was completed by 27.9.85. The general aim of this study was to develop the technology needed for production of an indigenous activated carbon which could be a substitute for the carbons presently imported for use in CIP operations. There was a considerable economic incentive to achieve a carbon based on an inexpensive resource such as Victorian brown coal.

  9. Health visiting and district nursing in Victorian Manchester; divergent and convergent vocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Community nursing and public health work provided many Victorian and Edwardian women in Britain with the opportunity of a career and professional training. Such work created contradictions, not least the tension between 'inherent' female skills and the role of learnt professionalism. This article discusses Manchester's neglected district nurses alongside the city's more well-studied health visiting scheme. Comparing these occupations in one city highlights continuities in origins and practice, but a clear divergence in terms of class and purpose. These differences provide historians with opportunities to reconsider the inherent tensions and varied identities of employed women in Victorian and Edwardian Britain.

  10. A Discussion on the Victorian Novel Canon and Underrepresented Sensation Women Novelists

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Seda Coşar

    2016-01-01

    The Victorians are known as a novel-writing and novel-reading society, which makes it nearly impossible to judge the exact number of novels that were published in the period. The novel industry was central to many Victorian concerns: novel-writing was a way of making money for numerous middle-class writers and novel-reading functioned as a domestic entertainment. Also, many novels were written as a medium of reflecting social, political issues and novel was used as a way of influencing readin...

  11. Victorian era esthetic and restorative dentistry: an advertising trade card gallery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Theodore P; Swanson, Ben Z

    2006-01-01

    A chief means of print advertising in the Victorian era was the "trade card." Innumerable products, companies, and services were highlighted on colorful chromolithographic trade cards, and these became desirable collectible objects which were pasted into scrapbooks and enjoyed by many families. Dentistry- and oral health-related subjects were often depicted on Victorian trade cards, and esthetic and restorative dentistry themes were featured. This review describes the history of advertising trade cards and offers a photographic gallery of dentistry-related cards of the era.

  12. "To wipe a manly tear": the aesthetics of emotion in Victorian narrative painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Over the course of the twentieth century, Victorian narrative painting became synonymous with sentimentality, melodrama, and the artificial evocation of emotion. This essay aims to complicate this familiar assessment by examining the role of emotional effect played in aesthetic evaluations of some of the most popular modern life genre paintings of the 1850s to 1870s. I argue that the critical discourse on Victorian narrative painting was marked by a persistent skepticism about the role of feeling in aesthetic response -- as excessively painful or obvious emotional impact marked the limit between artistic success and failure -- and I locate these concerns within the physical and social exhibition culture of the Royal Academy.

  13. Nuclear legislation in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the status of nuclear legislation in the Czech Republic, specifying the fields of nuclear activities covered, partially covered and uncovered by the present legislation. The licensing process and the competence and powers of the State Office for Nuclear Safety are also briefly described

  14. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  15. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  16. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  17. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  18. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  19. Refurbishment of a Victorian terraced house for energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Angeliki

    The impacts of global warming are now obvious. The international community has committed itself to reduce CO2 emissions, the main contributor to the greenhouse effect, both at international and national levels. In the Kyoto Protocol signed in 1997, countries have committed to reduce their greenhouse gases emissions below their 1990 levels by the period 2008-2012. The UK specifically should reduce those emissions by 12.5%. Format reason, the UK has introduced a package of policies, which promote not only the use of renewable energy resources, but most importantly the reduction in energy use, with energy efficiency. Refurbishment of existing houses has and will contribute to the reduction of energy consumption. A Victorian mid-terraced house was studied in this report, and different refurbishment measures were tested, using two software programmes: TAS and SAP. The targets were to achieve certain levels of thermal comfort, to comply with the Building Regulation for building thermal elements and to achieve a high SAP rating. Then, the cost of each measure was calculated and its CO2 emissions were compared. Heat losses were mainly through the walls and roof. Roof and mainly wall refurbishment measures reduce the heating loads the most. Ground floor insulation does not contribute to the reduction of the heating loads, on the contrary it has detrimental effect in summer, where the cooling effect coming from the ground is being reduced. Window replacement achieves a very good performance in summer resulting in the reduction of overheating. Wall and roof insulation increase the SAP rating the most, between the building elements, but boiler replacement and upgrading of heating controls increase it more. According to the SAP rating, CO2 annual emissions are reduced the most by boiler replacement and then by wall and roof. The results given by the two softwares concerning which measure is more leads more to energy efficiency, are the same. Finally, if the measures which lead

  20. Antinomy in Legislation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin Mochtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of reality for laws as a production of Parliament and President was canceled by the Constitutional Court, occur as a result of the legislation matter that plural reflects the injustice and legal uncertainty. The high number of judicial review becomes signal less accommodation of citizen interests and rights in a legislation product. The absence of arrangement harmony made by Parliament gives impact on plural legislation sued. This paper attempts to describe some debate antinomy that characterizes the existence of legislation in Indonesia. The analysis showed, antinomy-conflict-norm in the legislation is one thing that is difficult to avoid, especially given the poor-legislative process in the parliament today. In each establishment of legislation, synchronization and norms harmonization is not a major pressing point, but defeated by transnational politics inter-faction in the parliament that actually looked more dominant. But when these norms conflict constituted a rule of law which are simultaneous, dynamic, and meet legal ideals, would not be a problem. As long as not to cause harm to the fulfillment of constitutional rights of citizens.

  1. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  2. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  3. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The UK approach to radiation protection legislation is described in detail. The advantages are outlined of a flexible approach whereby the objectives of the legislation are clearly identified but the means of achieving these are left open or qualified by terms such as 'where reasonably practicable'. The roles and viewpoints of management and unions in such an approach are discussed especially with respect to legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act. Specific topics include requirements for notification of use, criteria for controlled areas and the tasks of the radiation protection adviser. (UK)

  4. Caverns Measureless to Man: Subterranean Rivers and Adventurous Masculinities in the Victorian Lost World Novel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCausland, Elly

    2018-01-01

    This article examines a recurring trope in late Victorian ‘lost world’ adventure novels: the terrifying descent down a subterranean river into the bowels of the earth. More than simply an exciting episode, the subterranean river journey reflects narrative strategies and thematic concerns key to b...

  5. How To Dance through Time. Volume V: Victorian Era Couple Dances. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 55-minute VHS videotape is the fifth in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It continues the tradition of the romance of the mid-19th century couple dances, focusing on Victorian era couple dances. The videotape offers 35 variations of the renowned 19th century couple dances, including the waltz, the polka, the galop,…

  6. Paths to Suicide: Rebellion against Victorian Womanhood in Kate Chopin's The Awakening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenson, Joyce Ruddel

    1975-01-01

    Kate Chopin's once-banned novel explores Edna Pontellier's resistance to the 19th-century Victorian norm for womanhood in order to show at least one woman's identity could not be realized within the prescribed sex roles of her culture. (Editor)

  7. ANGELS OF THE HOUSE: DICKENS’ VICTORIAN WOMEN (EV MELEKLERI: DICKENS’IN VİKTORYEN KADINLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın Haluk YILDIRIM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Charles Dickens’ view of Victorian women and the effect of his perception of women on his creation of female characters in his novels. To this end, the gender issues in the Victorian era are presented along with the social reforms and industrial revolution in terms of their impact on the status of women in 19th century Victorian England. The role of actual female figures in Dickens’ personal life is also examined in order to provide an insight into the motives and inspirations behind his creation of female characters. In view of the detailed account given as to the time period and background information provided, the main issue discussed in the article is the extent of Dickens’ conformity with the Victorian ideology of women in his novels. Through the insight provided in the article, it is concluded that despite Dickens’ overall faith in the ‘Angel of the House’ concept, his fiction does not strictly follow the gender codes of the period.

  8. Thomas Hardy's Victorian Gothic: Reassessing Hardy's Fiction and His Gothic Sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Norma Walrath

    Proposing that Thomas Hardy's fiction exhibits strong Gothic sensibilities which offer insight into his artistic vision and add to the power of his fiction, creating a new form of the Gothic, a Victorian Gothic, this dissertation reassesses the Gothic strains in Hardy's fiction. The dissertation is in eight chapters: (1) Introduction to Hardy's…

  9. THE QUESTION OF VICTORIANISM AND PROGRESS IN GASKELL’S CRANFORD: A ROMANTICISED OFFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer ÖĞÜNÇ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Gaskell’s Cranford (1853 can be regarded as a notable work in terms of the attitude towards the dominant idea of progressivism in the Victorian era. Many works by Gaskell’s contemporaries tended to deal with social problems of the period, among which her own industrial novels can be included. However, Cranford has an exceptional stance in that the novel takes place in English countryside remote from all the turmoil created by industrialisation. Setting her characters in the middle of an idyllic landscape where the railways and impact of the capitalist economy are quite far away from the inhabitants of the little town Cranford, Gaskell presents a lifestyle associated with the remote past, which is still alive in the memories of English people. In view of the representation of a small town in the mid-Victorian period and the praise on a simple lifestyle, Gaskell’s attitude in Cranford can be defined as a challenge against progressivism. Hence, this article aims to analyse Gaskell’s Cranford in the light of the industrial transformation of the Victorian era and argues that Victorianism and the philosophy of progressivism were severely challenged longing for pre-industrial conditions.

  10. Opening the Doors to Medical Education from the Victorian Era to the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes three distinct periods that characterize women's efforts to become successful physicians: the Victorian era, the first 70 years of the 1900s, and the past twenty years. Compares social, historical, and scientific factors which have affected the number of enrollments and graduations by women. (EMK)

  11. Feeling Critically: A Report on ‘The Victorian Tactile Imagination’ Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Wood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This short piece reflects upon the way in which the themes of ‘The Victorian Tactile Imagination’ conference impacted upon participants and suggested a more ‘feeling’ direction for scholarship: an approach that cultivates respect for emotional intuition in critical practice while remaining sensitive to the challenges and limitations of such interpretations.

  12. Victorian Audit of Surgical Mortality is associated with improved clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiles, C Barry; Retegan, Claudia; Maddern, Guy J

    2015-11-01

    Improved outcomes are desirable results of clinical audit. The aim of this study was to use data from the Victorian Audit of Surgical Mortality (VASM) and the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) to highlight specific areas of clinical improvement and reduction in mortality over the duration of the audit process. This study used retrospective, observational data from VASM and VAED. VASM data were reported by participating public and private health services, the Coroner and self-reporting surgeons across Victoria. Aggregated VAED data were supplied by the Victorian Department of Health. Assessment of outcomes was performed using chi-squared trend analysis over successive annual audit periods. Because initial collection of data was incomplete in the recruitment phase, statistical analysis was confined to the last 3-year period, 2010-2013. A 20% reduction in surgical mortality over the past 5 years has been identified from the VAED data. Progressive increase in both surgeon and hospital participation, significant reduction in both errors in management as perceived by assessors and increased direct consultant involvement in cases returned to theatre have been documented. The benefits of VASM are reflected in the association with a reduction of mortality and adverse clinical outcomes, which have clinical and financial benefits. It is a purely educational exercise and continued participation in this audit will ensure the highest standards of surgical care in Australia. This also highlights the valuable collaboration between the Victorian Department of Health and the RACS. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Barriers to Providing Physical Education and Physical Activity in Victorian State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Kate A.; Benson, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    An on-line questionnaire was completed by 115 physical education teachers to establish the barriers to their implementation of physical education in Victorian state secondary schools. In addition, the barriers perceived by teachers to impact on students' participation in school-based physical education and physical activity were examined. The…

  14. Environmental framework for renewable energy. Environmentally oriented curricula and legislation of importance to the development of renewable energy projects; Miljoerammer for fornybar energi. Miljoerettede rammeplaner og lover av betydning for utvikling av prosjekter for fornybar energi.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaulow, Haakon; Barkved, Line Johanne; Selvig, Eivind

    2011-07-01

    The following environmental curricula / laws are considered: Samlet plan, Conservation Plan for water resources (Verneplan for vassdrag), Water management plans for water directive, the National Plan for fishing salmon / salmon fjords, Biodiversity Act, Non- areas-(interference-free areas), County plans for power plants, County plans for wind, Planning and building Act, County and municipal climate and energy plans. Assessments include: general description - purpose and goals, the formal legislation and management, activity, scope and planning, relationship with licensing / privacy audit and relations with the implementation of renewable energy. Plans / laws / activities are divided into three groups: sector-specific, sector-neutral and protective oriented, all considered in relation to each other and to licensing. Important for National Curriculum importance is the appliance and quality, good knowledge base, and regular revision and updating. The licensing system is dominant and will still be there when decisions must be made about energy systems. Concessions will yield better decisions with better conditions in terms of an approved energy and climate policy, and it will improve policies and guidelines for assessments and the development of academic curricula.(eb)

  15. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  16. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  17. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  18. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  19. Béatrice Laurent (ed.), Sleeping Beauties in Victorian Britain, Cultural, Literary and Artistic Explorations of a Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert-Charbonnier, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Sleeping Beauties in Victorian Britain is a remarkable collection of articles which uses the interdisciplinary approach to examine a whole network of correspondences between the arts, literature and science, thus conjuring up a new powerful picture of Victorian culture and its tensions over the last three decades of the 19th century. In her article “The Strange Case of the Victorian Sleeping Maid”, Béatrice Laurent, who edited the collection, describes the motif of the Sleeping Beauty as “a c...

  20. Archival legislation and the management of public sector Records in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mpho ngoepe

    such institution Legislation relating to public records or national archives exists in some form in most countries. ... It establishes the framework within which appropriate records and archives ..... management and governance of public institutions (Organisation of Economic Cooperation ... Metropolitan Book Company. Mnjama ...

  1. School Violence: 10 Things Legislators Need To Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomerson, Julie

    In the wake of increasing concern regarding school safety, state lawmakers will be faced with difficult decisions regarding statewide policies and the funding of local programs. To assist lawmakers with this process, this report provides an overview of the most prominent issues legislators may face, as well as a framework within which to address…

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reviews the recent National legislative and regulatory activities: Algeria (Establishment of a nuclear security centre); Armenia (Amendment to the Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Safe Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes); Brazil (creation of a Support Centre for Safety and Radiation Protection - Centro de Apoio a Seguranca Fisica Nuclear e Radiologica - CENASF); Canada (enacting of the Nuclear Terrorism Act,4 which amends the Criminal Code, creating four new Criminal Code offences related to nuclear terrorism; proposal to replace the existing Nuclear Liability Act with the increase of the amount of compensation available to address civil nuclear damage); France (National plan for the management of radioactive materials and waste - PNGMDR; Law No.2013-580 of 4 July 2013 authorising approval of the agreement between France and Monaco on the management of Monegasque radioactive waste in the French territory; Decree No.2013-675 of 25 July 2013 publishing an agreement of co-operation between France and Saudi Arabia for the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes); Germany (Act for retrieving radioactive waste from and decommissioning the Asse II Mine); Greece (Decree transposing Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom); Ireland (Adoption of European Communities Regulations on Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment); Luxembourg (Transposition of Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom of 19 July 2011 establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste); Poland (New requirements for employees concerning radiological protection; New detailed requirements for nuclear facility siting, design, commissioning and operation, organisational unit commissioning, periodical safety assessment, decommissioning and fund contributions; New regulation on subsidies related to nuclear safety and radiological protection; New requirements on transparency of

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  4. 'Industry, perseverance, self-reliance, and integrity'. Alfred A. Walton and mid-Victorian working-class radicalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mares, Detlev

    2018-01-01

    Biography of one of the lesser-known Victorian working-class radicals, who was active in political (Chartism, electoral reform), social (O'Brienism, co-operation, trade unionism) and international (International Working Men's Association) movements in the mid-Victorian era. He also was a prolific author of pamphlets and newspaper contributions on political and social questions, esp. land reform, co-operation and working-class representation.

  5. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - France: General legislation, regulations and instruments; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); International co-operation; 2 - India: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Liability and compensation; 3 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Transport of radioactive material; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); 4 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Radioactive waste management; 5 - Luxembourg: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); 6 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; General legislation, regulations and instruments; 7 - Spain: Radioactive materials (including physical protection); Radioactive waste management; 8 - United States: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  7. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  8. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  9. Cave men: stone tools, Victorian science, and the 'primitive mind' of deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Paul B; White, Mark J

    2011-03-20

    Palaeoanthropology, the study of the evolution of humanity, arose in the nineteenth century. Excavations in Europe uncovered a series of archaeological sediments which provided proof that the antiquity of human life on Earth was far longer than the biblical six thousand years, and by the 1880s authors had constructed a basic paradigm of what 'primitive' human life was like. Here we examine the development of Victorian palaeoanthropology for what it reveals of the development of notions of cognitive evolution. It seems that Victorian specialists rarely addressed cognitive evolution explicitly, although several assumptions were generally made that arose from preconceptions derived from contemporary 'primitive' peoples. We identify three main phases of development of notions of the primitive mind in the period.

  10. Making medicine scientific: empiricism, rationality, and quackery in mid-Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, M W

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses the strategies used to construct scientific medicine in mid-Victorian Britain. An opening section considers why it was thought desirable to create a properly scientific medicine, and outlines the empirical and rational bases of the medical establishment's projects for this. The bulk of the paper concerns an alternative approach to making medicine scientific--that put forward by certain advocates of homoeopathy--and how this approach was excluded from those arenas where scientific medicine was being created, and thereby made unscientific. This process is illustrated by the clash between homoeopathy and establishment medicine that occurred in mid-Victorian Cambridge. The final section briefly considers the complementary process of educating the public in what was properly scientific medicine, and what was not, and suggests that the processes of building boundaries to exclude competing practitioners, while keeping patients inside, created the space in which modern scientific medicine has flourished so successfully.

  11. Rapid Inventory Collection System (RICS) and the 2009 Victorian Bushfires impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habili, N; Corby, N; Cechet, R P, E-mail: nariman.habili@ga.gov.a [Risk and Impact Analysis Group, Geoscience Australia G.PO Box 378, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    The Rapid Inventory Collection System (RICS) is a vehicular data collection system (image and GPS) used for building/infrastructure damage and inventory assessment. The system consists of Ethernet cameras attached to a tripod mounted on a motor vehicle, a GPS receiver and software written in C++. RICS was deployed following the 2009 Victorian Bushfires and the collected data was used by the Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission for the impact assessment (field survey) which quantified the extent and severity of the damage caused to residential buildings by the fire-storm. The regions of Kilmore East, Murrindindi, Churchill, Maiden Gully - Bendigo and Bunyip had nearly 5400 residential structures within the fire perimeter. Analysis utilising both aerial and vehicular (RICS) imagery indicates that just over 2100 homes were destroyed and an additional 800 received minor damage.

  12. The Victorian Philanthropic Quixote: Donna Quixote, by Justin McCarthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Javier Pardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper undertakes the analysis of a little known Victorian quixotic novel, Donna Quixote, by Justin McCarthy. In so doing, it places the latter, in the first place, within the conception of quixotism characteristic of the Victorian age and, in the second place, within the previous tradition of female quixotes, particularly as a response to George Eliot’s Middlemarch. Then, the text studies the novel’s originality within the English quixotic tradition, which lies in the way it relates quixotism to both philanthropy and feminism, not just by means of the heroine but also of some quixotic secondary figures, and argues the author’s conservative position in the debate on women’s rights known as the woman question. Finally, the paper illustrates such a position and its ideological context by presenting another “Donna Quixote,” in this case a satiric cartoon on the so-called new woman.

  13. Funding issues for Victorian hospitals: the risk-adjusted vision beyond casemix funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioch, K; Walsh, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses casemix funding issues in Victoria impacting on teaching hospitals. For casemix payments to be acceptable, the average price and cost weights must be set at an appropriate standard. The average price is based on a normative, policy basis rather than benchmarking. The 'averaging principle' inherent in cost weights has resulted in some AN-DRG weights being too low for teaching hospitals that are key State-wide providers of high complexity services such as neurosurgery and trauma. Casemix data have been analysed using international risk adjustment methodologies to successfully negotiate with the Victorian State Government for specified grants for several high complexity AN-DRGs. A risk-adjusted capitation funding model has also been developed for cystic fibrosis patients treated by The Alfred, called an Australian Health Maintenance Organisation (AHMO). This will facilitate the development of similar models by both the Victorian and Federal governments.

  14. The Victorian Amateur Astronomer: Independent Astronomical Research in Britain 1820-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Allan

    1999-01-01

    This is the first book to look in detail at amateur astronomy in Victorian Britain. It deals with the technical issues that were active in Victorian astronomy, and reviews the problems of finance, patronage and the dissemination of scientific ideas. It also examines the relationship between the amateur and professional in Britain. It contains a wealth of previously unpublished biographical and anecdotal material, and an extended bibliography with notes incorporating much new scholarship. In The Victorian Amateur Astronomer, Allan Chapman shows that while on the continent astronomical research was lavishly supported by the state, in Britain such research was paid for out of the pockets of highly educated, wealthy gentlemen the so-called Grand Amateurs . It was these powerful individuals who commissioned the telescopes, built the observatories, ran the learned societies, and often stole discoveries from their state-employed colleagues abroad. In addition to the Grand Amateurs , Victorian Britain also contained many self-taught amateurs. Although they belonged to no learned societies, these people provide a barometer of the popularity of astronomy in that age. In the late 19th century, the comfortable middle classes clergymen, lawyers, physicians and retired military officers took to astronomy as a serious hobby. They formed societies which focused on observation, lectures and discussions, and it was through this medium that women first came to play a significant role in British astronomy. Readership: Undergraduate and postgraduate students studying the history of science or humanities, professional historians of science, engineering and technology, particularly those with an interest in astronomy, the development of astronomical ideas, scientific instrument makers, and amateur astronomers.

  15. The role of visual appearance in Punch’s early-Victorian satires on religion

    OpenAIRE

    Janes, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Satires on various aspects of contemporary religion can frequently be found in the early Victorian editions of Punch. The more strident forms of Protestant evangelicalism, in the earlier 1840s, and Roman Catholic revivalism, around 1850, came in for particular attack. This pattern was partly the result of a drift in the editorial policy of the publication towards a less radical social and political position. However, Catholicism, in both its Roman and Anglican varieties, was particularly vuln...

  16. The Organization of Organizations: Bureaucratic Administration and Domestic Comfort in the Victorian Sequence Novel

    OpenAIRE

    Dubord, Matthew Andre

    2015-01-01

    Victorian bureaucracy had its own brand of fiction. In this dissertation I argue that the long novel sequences of Anthony Trollope and Margaret Oliphant describe the development of modern systems of administrative and domestic organization. In mid-century England, writing about organization and administrative bureaucracy gained in importance in the wake of the Northcote-Trevelyan report as a cluster of sequence novels sprang up and explored the links between fiction and organization. By 1890,...

  17. Water policy reform in Australia: lessons from the Victorian seasonal water market

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Donna C.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of the seasonal water market is examined using a theoretical model and empirical evidence from the Victorian market. Drivers of the seasonal opportunity cost of water include the underlying nature of investment in the industry made in the context of risky entitlement yields; and the timing and nature of information regarding seasonal water availability and rainfall. Seasonal water markets facilitate the reallocation of water availability according to this short-run opportunity cost...

  18. An investigation of pimary music education in Victorian schools: a single case study

    OpenAIRE

    Cosaitis, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological research has employed a qualitative case study approach and investigates what practices are required in successful music curriculum development and quality music teaching within and without the music classroom in state-supported (government) primary schools in Victoria, Australia. To contextualize the study, issues involving the history of music education in Victorian government primary schools, current national and state music curricula, particular music teaching approa...

  19. Victorian Women’s Independence and their Body Images Shown through their Selecting Costumes

    OpenAIRE

    佐々井, 啓; 坂井, 妙子; 好田, 由佳; 山村, 明子; 米今, 由希子

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to clarify Victorian English women’s body images and their relations to women’s sense of independence, through the examinations of contemporary women’s magazines. In examining women’s magazines, the members of the project focus on the following five issues: 1. Theatrical representations of women characters (“New Woman”) and their dresses, 2. How physiognomical observations are reflected in the presentations of dress accessories, 3. Women’s outdoor activities and...

  20. Victorian telescope makers. The lives and letters of Thomas and Howard Grubb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I. S.

    This book is the story of a highly specialized and unusual nineteenth-century business enterprise. Makers of some of the largest and best known telescopes of the Victorian era, the Grubbs of Dublin were at the forefront of optical and mechanical engineering. For 95 years Thomas and Howard Grubb, father and son, supplied astronomical instruments to the world. Through extensive use of their original letters and documents the author has allowed the Grubbs to speak for themselves.

  1. ACHP | News | Legislation Passes Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Clinton. "Bipartisan approval of this legislation by an overwhelming margin reflects the Bingaman, former Senator Pete Domenici, and Senators Hillary Clinton and Richard Burr." At a Capitol , who introduced the House version; Sen. Hillary Clinton and former Sen.Pete Domenici, who introduced

  2. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  3. The Impact of FEP Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Arvil

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, had three express focuses: (1) on urban poverty among blacks in the non-south; (2) on the enforcement of Fair Employment Practice (FEP) legislation and its effect on the economic position of blacks and other minority groups; and, (3) on guidelines…

  4. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  5. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  6. Curing "moral disability": brain trauma and self-control in Victorian science and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillace, Brandy L

    2013-12-01

    While, historically, the disabled body has appeared in literature as "monstrous," burgeoning psychological theories of the Victorian period predicated an unusual shift. In a culture of sexual anxiety and fears of devolution and moral decay, the physically disabled and "weak" are portrayed as strangely free from moral corruption. Unlike the cultural link between deviance and disability witnessed in the medical literature and eugenic approach to generation, authors of narrative fiction-particularly Charles Dickens, but Wilkie Collins, Charlotte Yonge, and others as well-portray disabled characters as "purified," and trauma itself as potentially sanitizing. This present paper argues that such constructions were made possible by developments in the treatment of insanity. "Curing 'Moral Disability': Brain Trauma and Self-Control in Victorian Fiction," examines the concept of trauma-as-cure. Throughout the Victorian period, case studies on brain trauma appeared in widely circulated journals like the Lancet, concurrently with burgeoning theories about psychological disturbance and "moral insanity." While not widely practiced until the early twentieth century, attempts at surgical "cures" aroused curiosity and speculation-the traumatic event that could free sufferers from deviance. This work provides a unique perspective on representations of disability as cure in the nineteenth century as a means of giving voice to the marginalized, disabled, and disempowered.

  7. Patient perspectives of care in a regionalised trauma system: lessons from the Victorian State Trauma System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Sleney, Jude S; Gosling, Cameron M; Wilson, Krystle; Hart, Melissa J; Sutherland, Ann M; Christie, Nicola

    2013-02-18

    To explore injured patients' experiences of trauma care to identify areas for improvement in service delivery. Qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured interviews, conducted from 1 April 2011 to 31 January 2012, with 120 trauma patients registered by the Victorian State Trauma Registry and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry and managed at the major adult trauma services (MTS) in Victoria. Emergent themes from patients' experiences of acute, rehabilitation and post-discharge care in the Victorian State Trauma System (VSTS). Patients perceived their acute hospital care as high quality, although 3s with communication and surgical management delays were common. Discharge from hospital was perceived as stressful, and many felt ill prepared for discharge. A consistent emerging theme was the sense of a lack of coordination of post-discharge care, and the absence of a consistent point of contact for ongoing management. Most patients' primary point of contact after discharge was outpatient clinics at the MTS, which were widely criticised because of substantial delays in receiving an appointment, prolonged waiting times, limited time with clinicians, lack of continuity of care and inability to see senior clinicians. This study highlights perceived 3s in the patient care pathway in the VSTS, especially those relating to communication, information provision and post-discharge care. Trauma patients perceived the need for a single point of contact for coordination of post-discharge care.

  8. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) developed a methodology and the NRA SR Chairman's Regulation that sets out a uniform administration procedure in collecting administration fees, for the purpose of applying the Act of the National council of the Slovak Republic on Administration Fees. Pursuant to the Act on Czech-Slovak technical standards, NRA SR has a function of an uneglectable participant in commenting on draft Slovak technical standards (STN). A total of 101 drafts were reviewed. The standard drafts in most cases concerned taking European standards and international standards over into the STN system, with respect to the Slovak Republic integration into the European Union. Coordination of technical standardization is assessed by the Council for Technical Standardization that is established at the Slovak Institute of Technical Standardization. The NRA SR's staff member takes part at meetings of the Council. In the third year of their existence, NRA SR started to issue their own publications that should provide legal and qualified information about peaceful use of nuclear power. NRA SR in co-operation with VUJE a.s. Trnava issued the first publication 'Selected legal documents on peaceful use of nuclear power (general binding legal regulations)'. The publication contains texts or extracts from 21 regulations

  9. Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1979-01-01

    Highlights the issues to be dealt with during the 96th Congress including the establishment of a Department of Education, reauthorization of the Higher Education Act and related programs, and funding for fiscal 1980 and 1981. (JMF)

  10. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  11. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    for the renovation of the Cannon House Office Building and the condition of the Rayburn building, the effect of the sequester on overtime work, plans...provided by the Joint Committee on Taxation for all revenue legislation (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, P.L. 99-177...Committee, the Joint Committee on Taxation , the Office of the Attending Physician, and the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services. The FY2012

  12. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  13. Psychiatric advance directives in Australian mental-health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouliaris, Calina; Kealy-Bateman, Warren

    2017-12-01

    Following the recent widespread reform of mental-health legislation in Australia, psychiatric advance directives (PADs) have now been incorporated in four jurisdictions. We contextualise the potential role for PADs within the Australian legal framework and note their varying introduction across jurisdictions, with a focus on progressive legislation in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The formal recognition of PADs effectively shifts the trajectory of mental-health law towards a stronger recognition of consumer autonomy, albeit to varying degrees across jurisdictions. The most inspiring of these changes may be seen in the ACT Act, where an innovative framing of PAD provisions creates a safe space for clinicians and patients to engage, build therapeutic alliances and develop appropriate frameworks for further change.

  14. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  15. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo, Jose

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  16. The legislative framework regarding bullying in South African schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis. KEYWORDS: Abuse; best interest of the child; bullying; child justice; children's rights; code of conduct; constitutional rights; discipline; educational context; harassment; harm; offender; protection orders; restorative justice; right to education; victim; violence.

  17. The legislative and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary and alternative medicine is an integral component of primary healthcare in Kenya. This is because the infrastructural health setup in the country is inadequate in catering for all the medical needs of the population. This particularly holds true in the rural areas where many rural folk rely on products of herbal ...

  18. Authors: A Laas and T Boezaart THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    on the advantages of a restorative justice approach to bullying and her ... Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for ..... sometimes just the perception that a child is weak or too academically inclined.43 ... those grounds listed in section 9 of the Constitution on which discrimination may not.

  19. Legislative framework affecting First Nations and resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, M.

    1998-01-01

    In its Delgamuukw decision (released December 1997), the Supreme Court of Canada has given a clear direction to the Crown and First Nations to negotiate rather than litigate outstanding claims within the province of British Columbia. This paper describes the practical implications which the Delgamuukw decision will have for resource development on lands located within the traditional territories of Aboriginal people, reviews constitutional and jurisdictional issues, and discusses issues such as reserve lands in British Columbia, including the nature of reserve interest, tax considerations, the surrender of reserve lands, and provincial regulation on reserve lands

  20. Authors: A Laas and T Boezaart THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis. 1.2 .... behaviour is aimed at exercising control over the victim. .... birth.41 The importance of equality in the bullying phenomenon pertains to the.

  1. Legislative framework for sediment management in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Garcia-Chevesich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sediment erosion is a serious issue, with approximately 75 billion tons of soil is eroded annually around the world (Pimentel and Kounang, 1998. Although erosion is a natural process, it can accelerate due to human activity and land use changes. Increasing soil erosion beyond its natural threshold can result in significant environmental degradation and decreased economic productivity. Implementing sediment management laws and practices is critical to significantly decrease soil erosion and preserve environmental resources. In the United States, there is a comprehensive system of laws and regulations at national, state, county, and city level that govern erosion and sediment control. The laws and voluntary incentives outlined in our paper have significantly reduced the negative impacts of sediment carried in urban and storm-generated runoff, have reduced chemical and biological pollutants in sediment transported in aquatic ecosystems, and have improved the air quality in several cities with air pollution problems. Having a multi-faceted approach to monitoring erosion and improving soil management is important for a healthy, productive environment and economy.

  2. US legislative proposals for nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the topics covered are: Congress' perception of proliferation; completed legislation for non-proliferation; partially complete legislative initiatives in the 94th Congress; non-proliferation measures defeated or vetoed; and legislation for non-proliferation in the 95th Congress

  3. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  4. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  6. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote.......Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...

  7. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  8. Exploration and exploitation of Victorian science in Darwin's reading notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Jaimie; Allen, Colin; DeDeo, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between exploitation of past discoveries and further exploration. This extends to information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this decision-making process, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. From the full-text of books listed in his chronologically-organized reading journals, we generate topic models to quantify his local (text-to-text) and global (text-to-past) reading decisions using Kullback-Liebler Divergence, a cognitively-validated, information-theoretic measure of relative surprise. Rather than a pattern of surprise-minimization, corresponding to a pure exploitation strategy, Darwin's behavior shifts from early exploitation to later exploration, seeking unusually high levels of cognitive surprise relative to previous eras. These shifts, detected by an unsupervised Bayesian model, correlate with major intellectual epochs of his career as identified both by qualitative scholarship and Darwin's own self-commentary. Our methods allow us to compare his consumption of texts with their publication order. We find Darwin's consumption more exploratory than the culture's production, suggesting that underneath gradual societal changes are the explorations of individual synthesis and discovery. Our quantitative methods advance the study of cognitive search through a framework for testing interactions between individual and collective behavior and between short- and long-term consumption choices. This novel application of topic modeling to characterize individual reading complements widespread studies of collective scientific behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "The Luxurious Daughters of Artificial Life": Female "Delicacy" and Pain in Late-Victorian Advice Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    The second half of the 19th century marked the rise of obstetrics as a legitimate physician-dominated medical specialty. In this period of transition, distanced from traditional cultures of social childbirth but not yet embracing hospital deliveries, many middle-class North American women turned to prescriptive literature to fill a crucial gap. In the medical advice they directed at young wives and expectant mothers, physicians consistently emphasized the middle-class woman's heightened sensitivity to the pain of giving birth, relying on arguments that resonated with the class, gender, and racial tensions of the late-Victorian period while consistently reaffirming physicians' expanding authority.

  10. The subversion of the gentleman. Body and beauty in Victorian ethos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel CERCÓS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the importance acquired in the Victorian age to define gender stereotypes, the authors analize the debate emerged in the last period of the nineteenth century and especially in the Oxonian colleges, questioning the prevailing model of manhood represented by the prototype of the gentleman. This contention, supported by new aesthetic-artistic trends and focused on the texts of authors like Walter Horatio Pater, John Addington Symonds and Oscar Wilde, made possible a sort of new open-mindedness and a rupture of hegemonic masculinity ideals governed by a scheme where gender binary determined sexual orientation, leaving it, circumscribed to the limits of heterosexuality.

  11. Reinventing Female Fashion: From Victorian Apparel to Steampunk Expression of the Self

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Jerez, Marta

    2015-01-01

    First impressions have always been said to be extremely important in most situations. Traditionally, outfit is linked to one’s conception of the society one lives in. Some scholars, such as Roberts, argue that fashion was used in Victorian times as a means of control. Crinolines, crinolinettes and tight-lacing were elements of repression deriving from the social consideration of women as objects that must observe certain rules of behaviour; as Ellis states, a woman was expected “to suffer and...

  12. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  13. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Algeria, Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Executive Decree No. 17-126 of 27 March 2017; 2 - Belgium, Liability and compensation, Law of 7 December 2016 modifying the law of 22 July 1985 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; 3 - Canada, Liability and compensation, Ratification by Canada of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; 4 - France, Radioactive waste management: Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code (Code de l'environnement) and setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; and Order of 23 February 2017 implementing Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; Liability and compensation: Order of 10 November 2016 amending the Appendix to the Order of 19 August 2016, setting the list of reduced liability amount sites pursuant to Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the nuclear energy field; International co-operation: Decree No. 2016-1225 of 16 September 2016 making public the Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the Development of the Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 27 August 2008; 5 - Germany, Transport of radioactive materials: New Versions of Ordinances on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (2017); Radioactive Waste Management: Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2017); 6 - Lithuania, Nuclear security: Cyber security; Nuclear installations: Free release criteria of buildings and site of nuclear

  14. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  15. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  17. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  18. Evaluating the value and impact of the Victorian Audit of Surgical Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retegan, Claudia; Russell, Colin; Harris, Darren; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Beiles, C Barry

    2013-10-01

    Since the Victorian Audit of Surgical Mortality (VASM) commenced in 2007, 95% of Victorian Fellows have agreed to participate and have provided data on the deaths of patients receiving surgical care. All public, and the majority of private, hospitals involved in the delivery of surgical services in Victoria have been submitting data on deaths associated with surgery. De-identified reports on this data are distributed in regular annual reports and case note review booklets. Although informal feedback on the perceived value of the audit was encouraging, a formal review of all aspects of the audit was felt necessary. An independent formal review of VASM governance, documentation, datasets and data analysis was performed, in addition to a survey of 257 individuals (surgeons and other stakeholders) on the perceived impact of VASM. The review confirmed increasing participation and acceptance by surgeons since the inception of the project. Governance mechanisms were found to be effective and acknowledged by stakeholders and collaborators. Robust participation rates have been achieved, and stakeholders were generally satisfied with the quality of feedback. Suggestions for improvement were provided by some surgeons and hospitals. External review of VASM processes and procedures confirmed that the audit was operating effectively, with robust quality control and achieving the trust of stakeholders. The educational value of the audit to the surgical community was acknowledged and areas for future improvement have been identified. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. Build back better principles for economic recovery: case study of the Victorian bushfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannakkara, Sandeeka; Wilkinson, Suzanne

    This paper looks at developing build back better (BBB) principles for economic recovery using the 2009 Victorian bushfires in Australia as a case study. The concept behind BBB-based economic recovery is to rejuvenate the economy in disaster-affected communities along with rebuilding to create resilient sustainable communities. A review of the literature identified several principles that can be applied to economic recovery to build back better. Data were collected in 2010 and 2011 by conducting semi- structured interviews with stakeholders who were directly involved in the Victorian bushfires recovery efforts, along with reports and other documentation. The recovery in Victoria displayed the use of BBB-based initiatives for economic recovery. The successes and shortcomings contributed to the creation of a modified list of BBB principles for economic recovery, including: creating an economic strategy based on thorough data collection; providing effective funding through grants and flexible low-interest loans; establishing business advice and mentoring services; providing incentives for businesses; assisting speedy rebuilding of business buildings; providing subsidised employee training and up-skilling programmes; and promoting local businesses through advertising.

  20. Knowledge is power: Customer load metering in the Victorian End-Use Measurement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavin, G. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian End-Use Measurement Program is a sophisticated load metering program being conducted over 500 sites in Victoria, covering the major customer sectors of residential, commercial and industrial. Its goal is to gather sufficient data to determine with statistical accuracy the load profiles of these major sectors, together with the load profiles of selected customer end-uses in the residential and commercial sectors, and selected building types in the commercial sector. This paper discusses the major elements of the program, the history of its development, the design of the statistical and operational components of the program, and its implementation in the field. In the Victorian electricity industry, with the combination of contestable customer metering and the End-Use Measurement program metering for the franchise/non-contestable market, there is now a considerable flow of customer load data. The opportunity exists for an accurate understanding of customer load needs, and the minimization of risk in business operations in the retail and wholesale market. (author).

  1. The new Italian IVF legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2004-08-01

    Last February, the Italian Parliament gave final approval to a new Law regulating assisted reproduction technology. The new legislation fell short of the expectations of infertile couples and of all specialists in the field. There are three problems with the new Italian law; they involve social issues, human rights and the application of technology. The present paper focuses on the fact that the new rules infringe upon basic human rights and the proper application of IVF technology, because they mandate procedures that are against the best interest of the woman seeking pregnancy. The main point of controversy is the combination of a mandatory limit of three embryos for transfer, and an obligation to reimplant all produced embryos; cryopreservation of excess embryos is prohibited. Obviously, this decreases the chances of most women to achieve pregnancy, while at the same time it increases the number and complexity of procedures they need to undergo and may expose some to an unacceptable increase in the risk of multiple pregnancy. The new law is inspired by the desire to protect every newly produced embryo; this is a commendable aim, although it is in total opposition to a law passed over 25 years ago that liberalized voluntary termination of first trimester pregnancies. This means that today Italy has a law that protects every early, pre-implantation embryo, and another that allows the 'suppression' of every post-implantation one. From a technical point of view, given the low level of human fecundity, the only way to prevent the 'loss' of even one preimplantation embryo is to simply ban IVF altogether, an option that Italian legislators obviously did not have the courage to opt for. The tragedy is that Italian infertile couples are now confronted with new rules that not only severely limit the ability of physicians to correctly apply IVF technology, but are so confused that, depending on the interpretation, anyone may try to nullify the main ideological premise upon

  2. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  3. Points for Improvement in Mexican Legislation on Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel Sánchez, S.; Carreño Padilla, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to underline the specific points needed still to be improved on safeguards in the Mexican legal framework. The problem: Mexico proposed the Tlatelolco Treaty which was before the TNP. So the Mexican legislation on safeguards should to be one of the best around the world, but there are still points to be improved, such as a specific regulation on the topic. Justification: Remembering that the exact sciences need of the law in order to be applied in a desirable way. I mean, the safeguards could be well conceived and well worked from the physics and mathematics point of view, but in order to be followed in any country, it is necessary the right legal framework. Hypothesis: What has Mexico now in its legislation on safeguards and what remains to be done (what is pending in the Mexican legal scope of the safeguards)? Objectives: – To propose legal solutions to correct the weakness of the Mexican legal framework on Safeguards; taking into account my own experience drafting the Mexican regulation on safeguards from 2008 for the Mexican Government in my nuclear law firm “Martínez and Maciel”. – To propose a legal framework on safeguards for Mexico as it is understood by the IAEA. – To update the legal frame work on safeguards in Mexico linking it to the Back end of the spent fuel. (Considering that sooner or later the Mexican Government will have to define its politic on this topic). (author)

  4. Preventing non-communicable disease in Oman, a legislative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahlani, Sabah; Mabry, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) is a major global concern and is projected to increase by 15% over the next 10 years. NCD is the leading cause of mortality in Oman and other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Some of the most successful interventions to address NCD include legislations like banning smoking in public places. A desk review of available policies and legislations related to the behavioural risk factors of NCD from the GCC and from Oman was conducted with a focus on policies and legislations related to food, physical activity and tobacco. The review identified numerous documents; most were policies and resolutions related to tobacco control. Although only a few documents were laws, a majority were issued by non-health sectors. This policy review is the first effort in the GCC to consolidate information on the regulatory framework for the three key risk behaviours in the region, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Further work is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework, at both the national and regional levels, to strengthen tobacco control as well as to improve dietary patterns and physical activity levels. Given that a bulk of laws, regulations and policies are beyond the scope of the health sector, significant advocacy efforts are required to generate a multisectoral response. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. European legislation on radioactive waste management - opportunities and areas of uncertainty in case of shared competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, O.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the regularities characterizing the European legislative framework for the radioactive waste management, the basic principles, legislative mechanism and relevant alternative methods of co-regulation and self-regulation, as well as characterization of areas of uncertainty in the radioactive waste management in case of shared competence and capabilities to improve the system involved in management of dangerous to health and the environment wastes from nuclear applications. Subject of study is the EU legislative framework on the management of radioactive waste, in particular the possibilities of existing mechanisms to achieve balance in the distribution of powers between the Community and national legislation regarding the responsibilities related to the radioactive waste management

  6. Handbook on Nuclear Law: Implementing Legislation (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Cherf, A.; Tonhauser, W.; Vez Carmona, Maria de Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the IAEA published the Handbook on Nuclear Law (the 2003 Handbook), which emphasized that the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy in any State can only be ensured with the promulgation and implementation of an effective national legal framework to govern this technology. The IAEA has long been involved in providing assistance to its Member States in developing these frameworks, and demand for such assistance has increased dramatically. Since publication of the 2003 Handbook, requests for IAEA legislative assistance have - if anything - been even more numerous, in large part due to the fact that over sixty Member States that currently do not utilize nuclear energy for the production of electrical power have recently expressed interest in pursuing this option. The current nuclear laws in many of these States are limited to non-power uses of ionizing radiation, such as those utilizing radiation sources for medical, agricultural and industrial purposes. If these States move toward nuclear power development, they will need to adopt legislation consistent with the various relevant international legal instruments covering the field (such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, among others) and with relevant voluntary guidance documents developed under the aegis of the IAEA. The 2003 Handbook has already made an important contribution to enhancing national capabilities to develop the necessary legal frameworks by setting out the general scheme of nuclear law. However, a number of important developments in nuclear law have occurred since its publication. These developments are discussed in the present volume. Also, over the past six years, representatives of many Member States receiving IAEA legislative assistance have suggested that it would be valuable to develop model texts of legislative provisions covering the key elements needed in a national nuclear law. The present volume provides such

  7. Teaching Children the Geography of England and Wales: An Analysis of Selected Georgian and Victorian Textbooks and Educational Pastimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Children in Georgian and Victorian times were expected to be familiar with the geography of England and Wales. This study analyses some of the resources then available which taught children this information. John Aikin's "England Delineated" is evaluated as a geographical text and then compared with less formal games and puzzles, then on…

  8. Richard J. Hill, Picturing Scotland through the Waverley Novels: Walter Scott and the Origins of the Victorian Illustrated Novel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Irene Cannata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard J. Hill, Picturing Scotland through the Waverley Novels: Walter Scott and the Origins of the Victorian Illustrated Novel . Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2010. Pp. 236. ISBN 978-0-7546-6806-0. US$99.99.

  9. Education as an Agent of Social Evolution: The Educational Projects of Patrick Geddes in Late-Victorian Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the educational projects of Patrick Geddes in late-Victorian Scotland. Initially a natural scientist, Geddes drew on an eclectic mix of social theory to develop his own ideas on social evolution. For him education was a vital agent of social change which, he believed, had the potential to develop active citizens whose…

  10. Are We Ready for BYOD? An Analysis of the Implementation and Communication of BYOD Programs in Victorian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kitty Catharina; Phillipson, Sivanes

    2015-01-01

    Many Victorian secondary schools appear to be implementing Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs as the Australian Federal government's Digital Education Revolution funding has come to an end for 1-to-1 Learning programs. One of the key elements identified as important for the success of these programs is the clear communication of policies and…

  11. The victorian institute of sports assessment - achilles questionnaire (visa-a) - a reliable tool for measuring achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome...

  12. Legislative Measures to Prevent and Combat Sexual Violence Against Child: National and International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Antonius PS

    2016-01-01

    Legislative measures is one of some measures commonly used as Internationally accepted on the logical framework to ensure that implementation of the International convention at the States parties to its International convention will become appropriate. In context of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, legislative measures should be afforded by an administrative and other measures that include among others: decentralisation, federalisation and delegation; training and ...

  13. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Argentina: Organisation and structure; 2 - France: Radioactive waste management (Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016 specifying the procedures for creating a reversible deep geological repository for long-lived medium and high-level radioactive waste), Liability and compensation (Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; Ministerial Order of 19 August 2016 listing the sites benefiting from a reduced amount of liability pursuant to decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy), Nuclear facilities (Decree No. 2016-846 of 28 June 2016 related to the modification, final shutdown and decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, and to subcontracting); 3 - Germany: Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation (Amendments to the Foreign Trade Act and the Foreign Trade Ordinance (2015)), Radioactive waste management (Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management (2016); Final report of the Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy; Draft Bill of an Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2016)); 4 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning), Nuclear security (Physical security of sources of ionising radiation), Radioactive waste management, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Enforcement measures); 5 - Luxembourg: Radioactive waste management (Agreement between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Belgium on the Management and Final Disposal of the Radioactive Waste of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the Territory of the Kingdom of Belgium, signed on 4 July 2016); 6

  15. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  16. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  17. Towards Uniformity of Radiation Protection Legislation in a Multi-jurisdictional country- the Australian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Australia is a federation of nine jurisdictions, each with independent radiation protection legislation. The existing legislative non-uniformity across the jurisdictions has constituted an impediment for operators who must comply with differing legislative requirements in different jurisdictions. To address this issue, a National Competition Policy Review of Radiation Protection Legislation took place in 2000/2001. It has produced 19 Recommendations, which addressed objectives of the legislation, the need to regulate, alternative regulatory approaches, national uniformity, licensing and registration, strict and prescriptive standards, advertising and promotional activities, compliance costs and cost recovery issues. The Review has recommended that jurisdictions should retain the regulatory approach to achieve radiation protection objectives rather than leave them to be decided by market forces. But the approach should be performance-based, i.e. outcome-focused rather than prescriptive. An Implementation Plan of the Recommendations has been created which, by the end of 2004, will produce the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The Directory, which will become a consolidated repository of radiation protection standards, guidelines, codes of practice and administrative principles will provide a uniform national framework for radiation protection legislation in Australia. It will provide guidance for the jurisdictions redrawing their legislations. Because of its central role in shaping future legislation, the Directory will contain only those provisions, which have passed a formal process (process for issue resolution) concluded by an approval by the Australian Health Ministers Conference. Such process will also expedite the uniform adoption nationwide of legislative trends emerging from international radiation protection recommendations and standards. This Australian model might be a viable example for other multi-jurisdictional countries to consider

  18. Model Legislation for GAAP and GASB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, George E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) by all state and local governments may require legislation. Findings from a survey of states to get data on current accounting and financial reporting practices are summarized. Model legislation to provide uniformity in accounting and reporting is presented. (MLF)

  19. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  20. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  1. Legislative policy in Brazil : limits and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Paula F.

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral thesis discusses the limits and possibilities for developing a new legislative-regulatory policy in Brazil, understood as a public policy whose purpose is to improve the process of drafting legislation and regulation and to increase the quality of rules. It considers the

  2. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  3. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  4. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section compiles the presentations of the following texts sorted by country. Armenia - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: New design safety requirements adopted, New seismic hazard assessment guidelines adopted; France - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: Decree No. 2012-1248 of 9 November 2012 authorising the ITER Organisation to create the 'ITER' basic nuclear installation in Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (Bouches-du-Rhone); - Nuclear security: Law No. 2012-1473 of 28 December 2012 authorizing the approval of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Complementary safety assessments. Follow-up of the stress tests carried out on French nuclear power plants. Action Plan of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - December 2012; - International cooperation: Decree No. 2012-1178 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of the Republic of Tunisia for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed in Tunis on 23 April 2009; Decree No. 2012-1180 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of Mongolia in the field of nuclear energy (with annex), signed in Ulaanbaatar on 14 October 2010; Germany - General legislation: Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act to expedite the retrieval of radioactive waste from and to decommission the Asse II Mine (2013); Act to amend the Act on Environmental Legal Remedies and other environmental provisions (2013); - Radiation protection: General administrative rules on Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2012); - Nuclear Safety: Safety requirements for nuclear power plants (2012); - Transport of radioactive material: International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (2010, 2012); - Regulations on nuclear trade (including non-proliferation): Export List (2013); Greece

  5. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, G.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  6. A Note on Child Neglect in American Victorianism: Henry James’ "The Pupil"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gül KOÇSOY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the theme of “neglected child” in Henry James’ “The Pupil” (1891 is explored. Morgan is a neglected child with unscrupulous parents who hold strictly on the Victorian values which reflect American cultural consciousness in the last decades of 19th century. Although he is a brilliant boy, the family does not love him; because he reminds them of their vulgarity. They neglect him physically and emotionally, seeing him as a burden. Although his tutor tries to keep the boy from the family’s corruption, he contributes to his death; he neglects his illness and deserts him when he is most needy. As an interpreter, James draws attention to the situation of children that are not working but being tutored at home. He criticizes this culture’s general attitude towards children. It is a disturbing social reality and he shows how that materialistic culture victimizes children in terms of neglectful parenting

  7. The Two Cultures of Electricity: Between Entertainment and Edification in Victorian Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, Iwan Rhys

    2007-06-01

    Reviewing Fleeming Jenkin's Electricity and Magnetism in Nature in 1873 an anonymous reviewer (probably James Clerk Maxwell) remarked that "at the present time there are two sciences of electricity — one that of the lecture-room and the popular treatise; the other that of the testing-office and the engineer's specifications." In this paper I want to look behind Maxwell's remark and examine the relationship between the "two sciences" of electricity during the third quarter or so of the 19th century. In particular I want to look at them in terms of their instrumental technologies. How did apparatus travel between the lecture-room or exhibition-hall and the testing-office or the laboratory? How did skills cross between these different spaces? How did the earlier Victorian culture of electricity as "entertainment and edification" become transformed into late 19th century metrological culture? How did these cultures overlap and how did they differ?

  8. Outlaw, hackers, victorian amateurs: diagnosing public participation in the life sciences today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kelty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on three figures that can be used to make sense of the changing nature of public participation in the life sciences today: outlaws, hackers and Victorian gentlemen. Occasioned by a symposium held at UCLA (Outlaw Biology: Public Participation in the Age of Big Bio, the essay introduces several different modes of participation (DIY Bio, Bio Art, At home clinical genetics, patient advocacy and others and makes three points: 1 that public participation is first a problem of legitimacy, not legality or safety; 2 that public participation is itself enabled by and thrives on the infrastructure of mainstream biology; and 3 that we need a new set of concepts (other than inside/outside for describing the nature of public participation in biological research and innovation today.

  9. Mid-Victorian science museums and exhibitions: 'the industrial amusement and instruction of the people'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    The Royal Polytechnic Institution, Wyld's Globe and the Royal Panopticon were part of a family of institutions that existed in the post-Great Exhibition era that shared a common approach to popularizing science based on the blending of education and entertainment. Studying them helps us to understand the Victorian fascination with science, especially in the third quarter of the century. It draws our attention to the important role of popularizers of science who worked in these museums and exhibitions. Once their role is added to our account of the cult of science, a very different picture emerges that forces us to reconsider the standard story of the dominance of the scientific scene in the second half of the century by figures such as Darwin, Huxley and Tyndall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sir William Turner (1832-1916) - Lancastrian, anatomist and champion of the Victorian era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Correia, Janine Carla; Taylor, Adam M

    2016-11-01

    Sir William Turner, a Lancastrian, was renowned as a scientist, anatomist and a great reformer of medical education. His students became anatomists at various international institutions, which consequently shaped the future of anatomy as a subject matter both in the United Kingdom and in South Africa. Although Turner's accomplishments have been documented, little is known about the details that determined his career path and the individuals that shaped his future. Here the authors aim to highlight some aspects of Turner's academic achievements and his personal life as well as how he crossed paths with other great minds of the Victorian era including Richard Owen, Charles Darwin, James Paget and Joseph Lister. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Vivisecting Major: a Victorian gentleman scientist defends animal experimentation, 1876-1885.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Rob

    2011-06-01

    Through an investigation of the public, professional, and private life of the Darwinian disciple George John Romanes, this essay seeks a better understanding of the scientific motivations for defending the practice of vivisection at the height of the controversy in late Victorian Britain. Setting aside a historiography that has tended to focus on the arguments of antivivisectionists, it reconstructs the viewpoint of the scientific community through an examination of Romanes's work to help orchestrate the defense of animal experimentation. By embedding his life in three complicatedly overlapping networks-the world of print, interpersonal communications among an increasingly professionalized body of scientific men, and the intimacies of private life-the essay uses Romanes as a lens with which to focus the physiological apprehension of the antivivisection movement. It is a story of reputation, self-interest, and affection.

  12. Women Doctors and Lady Nurses: Class, Education, and the Professional Victorian Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The lives of the first women doctors in Britain have been well studied by historians, as have the many debates about the right of women to train and practice as doctors. Yet the relationship between these women and their most obvious comparators and competitors-the newly professionalized hospital nurses-has not been explored. This article makes use of a wide range of sources to explore the ways in which the first lady doctors created "clear water" between themselves and the nurses with whom they worked and trained. In doing so, it reveals an identity that may seem at odds with some of the clichés of Victorian femininity, namely that of the intelligent and ambitious lady doctor.

  13. Victorian Imag(ining of the Pagan Pyre: Frank Dicksee's 'Funeral of a Viking'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Rose Marshall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Victorians drew on imagery of Druid and Viking funeral pyres as a way of exploring alternative narratives of death and burial, generating a collective attention to what happened to a body after death. I set Frank Dicksee’s oil painting, 'Funeral of a Viking' (1893, against the background of the emergent cremation movement and accounts of the neo-Druid William Price, a proponent for the legalization of cremation in the 1880s, in order to glimpse the work performed by the visualization of the ritualized burning of human beings in the pagan past. Fire produces metamorphosis in the objects it encounters, and Dicksee’s portrayal underscores the notion of a clearly delineated human body transforming into amorphous flame. Moreover, the Viking dissolves into pigment itself, mere aesthetic effect taking the place of a recognizable figure. In fictional accounts such as Paul Du Chaillu’s novel 'Ivar the Viking '(1893, the pyre as a narrative tool similarly forced attention to the body as dematerializing thing and to the language articulating this dissipation. I suggest that the Victorian fascination with pagan fire-death allowed for alternate visions of form–matter relationships that in turn might produce new aesthetic possibilities. As the Christian world insisted on the resurrection of the body in a way that clung fiercely to tangibility and bounded form even in the face of belief in the immortality of the saved soul, the modern moment might be seen, in contrast, as characterized by an embrace of an aesthetic of dissolving form or formlessness.

  14. Measuring Outcomes of Clinical Care: Victorian Emergency Laparotomy Audit Using Quality Investigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Claire L; Brown, Christopher; Watters, David A K

    2018-07-01

    The Australian and New Zealand Audit of Surgical Mortality (ANZASM) National Report 2015 found that within the cohort of audited deaths, 85% were emergencies with acute life-threatening conditions, and by far, the most common procedures were laparotomy and colorectal procedures. Emergency laparotomy outcomes have shown improvement through audit and reporting in the UK. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of emergency laparotomy in the state of Victoria, Australia. The Dr Foster Quality Investigator (DFQI) database was interrogated for a set of Australian Classification of Health Intervention (ACHI) codes defined by the authors as representing an emergency laparotomy. The dataset included patients who underwent emergency laparotomy from July 2007 to July 2016 in all Victorian hospitals. There were 23,115 emergency laparotomies conducted over 9 years in 66 hospitals. Inpatient mortality was 2036/23,115 (8.8%). Mortality in the adult population increased with age and reached 18.1% in those patients that were 80 years or older. 51.3% were females, and there was no significant difference in survival between genders. Patients with no recorded comorbidities had a mortality of 4.3%, whereas those with > 5 comorbidities had 19.3% mortality. Administrative data accessed via a tool such as DFQI can provide useful population data to guide further evidence-based improvement strategies. The mortality for emergency laparotomy within Victorian hospitals is comparable, if not better than that seen in overseas studies. There is a need to continue routine audit of mortality rates and implement systems improvement where necessary.

  15. Classifying VAT Legislation for Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    The paper offers a framework for partitioning articles in legal documents pertaining to value added tax (VAT) into categories suitable for subsequent integration in computerized systems for automatically deriving VAT rates. The importance of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system supporting...... 2006 on the common system of value added tax is presented. The classification of VAT articles is important in order to allow for easier VAT modeling for ERP systems. Better VAT modeling should eventually lead to lower cost of implementing changes in VAT legislature....

  16. Standardization and workers' protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliesch, G.

    1979-01-01

    There are distinct laws guaranteeing the protection of workers in the social and medical field, but the protection of workers in the technical field is based on a simple, general clause relating to technical standards, i.e. to a confusing variety of regulations. The author therefore asks for DIN standards to be set up in order to achieve a consistent and uniform set of rules and regulations. He furthermore points out that it is up to the government to initiate appropriate procedures within the framework of constitutional law towards solving the essential problem, namely that of directly incorporating technical expert knowledge in legal provisions. (HSCH) [de

  17. Comparison of not for resuscitation (NFR) forms across five Victorian health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, M; Mills, A; Hutchinson, A M; Heriot, G; Stephenson, G; Gellie, A

    2014-07-01

    Within Australian hospitals, cardiac and respiratory arrests result in a resuscitation attempt unless the patient is documented as not for resuscitation. To examine the consistency of policies and documentation for withholding in-hospital resuscitation across health services. An observational, qualitative review of hospital policy and documentation was conducted in June 2013 in three public and two private sector hospitals in metropolitan Melbourne. Not for resuscitation (NFR) forms were evaluated for physical characteristics, content, authorisation and decision-making. Hospital policies were coded for alerts, definition of futility and burden of treatment and management of discussions and dissent. There was a lack of standardisation, with each site using its own unique NFR form and accompanying site-specific policies. Differences were found in who could authorise the decision, what was included on the form, the role of patients and families, and how discussions were managed and dissent resolved. Futility and burden of treatment were not defined independently. These inconsistencies across sites contribute to a lack of clarity regarding the decision to withhold resuscitation, and have implications for staff employed across multiple hospitals. NFR forms should be reviewed and standardised so as to be clear, uniform and consistent with the legislative framework. We propose a two-stage process of documentation. Stage 1 facilitates discussion of patient-specific goals of care and consideration of limitations of treatment. Stage 2 serves to communicate a NFR order. Decisions to withhold resuscitation are inherently complex but could be aided by separating the decision-making process from the communication of the decision, resulting in improved end-of-life care. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Wind power: Italian auto-production legislation (ISES convention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, G.

    1991-01-01

    With reference to what was discussed at the Bologna (Italy) June 1991 ISES (International Solar Energy Society) convention on wind energy, this paper summarizes the Italian legislative framework relative to on-site power generation and outlines the National Energy Plan objectives regarding the promotion of the use, by industry, of renewable energy sources. Brief notes are also provided on wind energy promotional activities being carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Energy Board), ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and EWEA (the European Wind Energy Association)

  19. Victorian Influence on the Russian Imperial Court Through the Family Ties between the English and Russian Royal Houses at the End of the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    DUFKOVÁ, Alena

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis aims to point out and describe the consequences of influence of both Victorianism and the person of Queen Victoria on the lifestyle at the Russian Imperial Court at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century. It describes historical events which shaped Russia and focuses on family relations binding the Romanovs and the English ruling house. The thesis defines the meaning of Victorianism and determines the difference between mentality of Russian and English high Society...

  20. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  1. Smoke-free legislation and charitable gaming in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, M K; Hahn, E J

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effect of municipal smoke-free laws in Kentucky on gross and/or net revenues from charitable gaming activities. Between January 2000 and June 2007, 13 Kentucky communities implemented smoke-free legislation; only three specifically exempted charitable gaming facilities and compliance in several communities was not consistent. Kentucky is a tobacco-growing state that has the highest smoking rate in the United States. A fixed-effects time series design to estimate the impact of municipal smoke-free laws on charitable gaming. 13 Kentucky counties that implemented smoke-free laws during the study period of January 2000 through June 2007. All charitable gaming facilities in 13 counties in which a smoke-free ordinance was enacted during the study period. Gross and net revenues from charitable gaming activities in each county for each quarter of the study period, obtained from the Kentucky Department of Charitable Gaming. When controlling for economic variables, county-specific effects and time trends using a robust statistical framework, there was no significant relation between smoke-free laws and charitable gaming revenues. Municipal smoke-free legislation had no effect on charitable gaming revenues. No significant harm to charitable gaming revenues was associated with the smoke-free legislation during the 7.5-year study period, despite the fact that Kentucky is a tobacco-producing state with higher-than-average smoking rates.

  2. Harmonization of Legislation against Organized Crime in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Edwin Martínez Ventura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of organized crime in Central America, the countries in this continental sub-region have enacted a great deal of internal legislation, and have ratified international treaties at the universal, regional and Central American level, particularly after the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime took effect in 2000.This abundance of laws is very positive, and is an expression of these Central American States’ intent to fulfill their supranational obligations and provide security for their inhabitants. However, it is also negative in that it has led to dispersion, dislocation, discrepancies and inaccuracies regarding the prevailing legal regulations, because national laws have been developed with different concepts, structures, approaches, scope and definitions.Despite these conditions that are adverse to legal harmonization, Central America can move forward with matching its legislation against organized crime. Actually, there already exists an extensive common legal framework in this area, expressed in the fact that most international treaties on Organized Crime have come into force at the universal, regional and subregional levels, ratified by all or most countriesPolitical will is the common denominator that should mediate all efforts of harmonization and alignment of legislation in Central America; it is essential for proposing steps that are based on a common strategy or program.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1359

  3. Marine renewable energy legislation for Nova Scotia : policy background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Marine renewable energy sources can provide Nova Scotia with a large supply of sustainable, non-carbon emitting electricity. One of the largest tidal ranges within the world is contained within the Bay of Fundy, which holds power potential in the form of wind, wave and tidal energy. A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) on the Bay of Fundy's potential marine renewable energy was published in 2008. An assessment of the social, economic, and environmental effects and factors linked with possible development of renewable energy sources in the Bay Fundy was published. Twenty-nine recommendations were offered, including the creation of marine renewable energy legislation incorporating sustainability principles. This discussion paper described the policy drivers and opportunities in Nova Scotia for marine renewable energy sources as well as the challenges and relevant subject areas that should be considered when creating marine renewable energy legislation and policy. Specific challenges that were discussed included a policy approach to development; multiple jurisdictions; Aboriginal issues; economic factors; environmental impacts; occupational and operation safety; allocation of rights; and regulatory issues. It was concluded that if the marine renewable energy resource was going to be created with the possibility of providing commercial electricity generation, a coordinated legislative framework should be established. refs., tabs.

  4. Tradition and change in power industry legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.F.; Boerner, B.; Friauf, K.H.; Salzwedel, J.; Selmer, P.

    1986-01-01

    On September 24-25, 1985 the 15th conference of the Institute for Energy Law took place in Cologne. This book contains five of the lectures held at the conference. They deal with the following subjects: Constitutional restrictions of autonomous energy policy of the Land governments; compulsory connection to and use of district heating; is there any necessity for amending the anti-trust law for reasons of energy policy; environmental law - planning law - gaps in the legislation concerning the energy sector; Energy Industry Law - are there legislative deficiencies, or is it an adequate, correct legislative instrument. (HSCH) [de

  5. Participation without representation? Senior opinion, legislative behavior, and federal health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Katharine W V; Chen, Jowei

    2014-04-01

    Why do legislators sometimes engage in behavior that deviates from the expressed policy preferences of constituents who participate in politics at high rates? We examine this puzzle in the context of Democratic legislators' representation of their senior citizen constituents on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). We find that legislators' roll-call votes on the ACA did not reflect the stated preferences of their respective senior constituents; by contrast, these roll-call votes did reflect the preferences of nonsenior adults. We draw upon a theoretical framework developed by Mansbridge to explain this apparent nonresponsiveness to seniors on the ACA. This framework distinguishes between promissory representation, whereby legislators merely respond to constituents' preferences, and anticipatory representation, whereby legislators respond to constituents' underlying policy interests, even when such interests conflict with expressed preferences. By considering the Medicare provisions in the ACA and analyzing Democratic legislators' floor speeches on health reform, we provide preliminary evidence that members of Congress engaged in anticipatory representation of their senior constituents by attempting to educate seniors about how the ACA serves their policy interests.

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  7. A proposal for measuring the degree of public health-sensitivity of patent legislation in the context of the WTO TRIPS Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to propose a framework for measuring the degree of public health-sensitivity of patent legislation reformed after the World Trade Organization's TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement entered into force. The methodology for establishing and testing the proposed framework involved three main steps:(1) a literature review on TRIPS flexibilities related to the protection of public health and provisions considered "TRIPS-plus"; (2) content validation through consensus techniques (an adaptation of Delphi method); and (3) an analysis of patent legislation from nineteen Latin American and Caribbean countries. The results show that the framework detected relevant differences in countries' patent legislation, allowing for country comparisons. The framework's potential usefulness in monitoring patent legislation changes arises from its clear parameters for measuring patent legislation's degree of health sensitivity. Nevertheless, it can be improved by including indicators related to government and organized society initiatives that minimize free-trade agreements' negative effects on access to medicines.

  8. Legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations in the arab counties a comparative analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the developments taking place in nuclear sciences and technologies during the twentieth century and the resulting increase of useful applications of these technologies, the international efforts aiming at helping different countries to establish nuclear safety systems. This was also increased through the promulgation of legislations that render the practices, which could be accompanied with exposure to ionizing radiations, more safe within a firm legal system that is also backed by promulgating suitable executive regulations. Most Arab countries are keen to promulgate their legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations and protection against their dangers. Those legislations usually get their genesis and provisions from the international recommendations as well as from the general legal system of the country. The present work consists of four chapters. The first chapter deals with the definition of legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations. Chapter two discusses the international trend to promulgate legislations for protection against ionizing radiations. Chapter three includes an analytical comparative study on the legislations that regulates the work with ionizing radiations in the Arab countries. Finally, chapter four deals with the legislations for protection against ionizing radiations in the Arab Republic of Egypt

  9. European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection principles are the foundation for national and European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of management and disposal of radioactive waste. Directives set up at Community level, which are to be implemented in the national legislative framework of the Member States are summarized. Policies and strategies in radioactive waste management are of national competence, as well as ensuring safety of all steps of handling, storage and final disposal; recommendations at Community level are developed to assist national authorities and agencies in determining their strategy. Existing recommendations are described and a preview of recommendations under preparation is given. Legislation in this field is mainly aimed at radioactive waste arising from operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations; for radioactive waste produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle and for material with significant levels of naturally occurring radionuclides special situations exist, and harmonization of legislation and the development of common practices on the management of such wastes may be desirable

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  11. The Emerging Legislative Role in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the capacity, internal distribution of power, habits of work, and composition of state legislators have increased their involvement and assertiveness in educational policy formation, oversight, and control. (Author/MLF)

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  14. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  17. Page | 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    NAUJILJ 9 (2) 2018. Page | 133 ... Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. ... Representatives is led by a Speaker.6 The election of the leadership of the senate is entirely the affair of.

  18. The Victorian State Computer Education Committee’s Seeding Pair In-Service Program: Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Keane , William ,

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Following the introduction of microcomputers into schools in the late 1970s, National Policy was developed which focused on the use of computers in non-computing subjects. The Victorian strategy for the implementation of the National Computers in Education Program was the development of a week-long in-service course which aimed to develop seeding pairs of teachers who would act as change agents when they returned to school. This chapter looks back at the case studies o...

  19. Clinical management issues vary by specialty in the Victorian Audit of Surgical Mortality: a retrospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Vinluan, Jessele; Retegan, Claudia; Chen, Andrew; Beiles, Charles Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clinical management issues are contributory factors to mortality. The aim of this study was to use data from the Victorian Audit of Surgical Mortality (VASM), an educational peer-review process for surgeons, to discover differences in the incidence of these issues between surgical specialties in order to focus attention to areas of care that might be improved. Design This study used retrospectively analysed observational data from VASM. Clinical management issues between eight speci...

  20. The economic impact of merger control legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Onega, Steven

    2007-01-01

    We construct a unique dataset of legislative reforms in merger control legislation that occurred in nineteen industrial countries in the period 1987-2004, and investigate the economic impact of these changes on stock prices. In line with the hypothesis that merger control should challenge anticompetitive mergers and thus limit future monopolistic profits, we find that the strengthening of merger control decreases the stock prices of non-financial firms. In contrast, we find that bank stock pr...

  1. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  2. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  3. Remaking the medico-legal scene: a social history of the late-Victorian coroner in Oxford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Elizabeth T

    2010-04-01

    There have been wide-ranging debates about medicine and the law encapsulated in the figure of the coroner in Victorian England. Recently the historical literature on coroners has been enriched by macro-studies. Despite this important research, the social lives of coroners and their daily interactions remain relatively neglected in standard historical accounts. This article redresses that issue by examining the working life of the coroner for Oxford during the late-Victorian era. Edward Law Hussey kept very detailed records of his time in office as coroner. New research material makes it feasible to trace his professional background, from doctor of the sick poor, to hospital house surgeon and then busy coroner. His career trajectory, personal interactions, and professional disputes, provide an important historical prism illuminating contemporary debates that occupied coroners in their working lives. Hussey tried to improve his medico-legal reach and the public image of his coroner's office by reducing infanticide rates, converting a public mortuary, and acquiring a proper coroner's court. His campaigns had limited success because the social scene in which he worked was complicated by the dominance of health and welfare agencies that resented his role as an expanding arm of the Victorian information state.

  4. [Theories of evolution shaping Victorian anthropology. The science-politics of the X-Club, 1860-1872].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondermann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role that a group of evolutionists, the X-Club, played in the epistemic and institutional transformation of Victorian anthropology in the 1860s. It analyses how anthropology has been brought into line with the theory of evolution, which gained currency at the same time. The X-Club was a highly influential pressure group in the Victorian scientific community. It campaigned for the theory of evolution in several fields of the natural sciences and had a considerable influence on the modernization of the sciences. Yet, this club also intervened in the anthropological discourse of these years. The X-Club's meddling with anthropology led to the latter's evolutionary turn. The introduction of an evolutionary agenda into Victorian anthropology depended not only on the X-Club's theoretical contributions but also on the structural reformation of the discipline. Its campaigns also aimed at marginalizing the proponents of pre-evolutionary anthropology in its institutions and led to the foundation of a new organization in anthropology: The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Thus, evolutionary anthropology emerged in the 1860s also as the result of science-politicking rather than just from the transmission of evolutionary concepts through discourse.

  5. Application of Variable Life Adjusted Displays (VLAD on Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianopoulos Nick

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to improve patient safety has been identified as a major priority for health reform in developed countries, including Australia. We investigated the implementation and appropriateness of Variable Life Adjusted Displays as a quality control procedure to monitor “in-control” versus “out-of-control” processes in Victorian public hospitals. Methods Victorian Admitted Episode Data from Department of Human Services, Victoria for 2004–7 were used. The VLAD is a plot of a cumulative sum of the difference in expected outcome (range 0–1 and observed outcome (0 or 1 for sequential separations. Three outcomes were assessed: in-hospital mortality for acute myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Logistic regression was used to obtain a realistic measure of expected mortality over the period 2004–5, adjusting for covariates and comorbidities, to estimate expected mortality risk for the separations between 2005–7. VLAD were plotted for the years 2005–7, by the 11 hospitals with the highest frequency of separations. Signalling limits for 30%, 50% and 75% risk decrease and risk increase were determined and plotted for each VLAD utilizing risk-adjusted cumulative sum techniques. This is a likelihood-ratio test statistic for signalling. If the VLAD signalled by intersecting with a limit, the limit was reset. Results The three logit models displayed reasonable fit to the observed data. There were n = 2999 separations in the AMI model, n = 3598 in the HF model and n = 1922 in the stroke model. The number of separations plotted by VLAD ranged from n = 126 to n = 648. No signals were observed in 64%, 55% and 18% of VLAD for AMI, HF and stroke respectively. For AMI and HF 9% of hospitals signalled at least once for each of 30%, 50% and 75% risk increase, whereas this was 45% for stroke. Hospitals signalling at least once for risk decrease ranged from 18% to 36% across the levels of risk and

  6. Mechanism of financial support of education: legislative basis of power distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kotsovska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the legislative basis of power distribution as a basic component of the mechanism of financial support of education at the regional level. Budgetary expenditure on education has been analyzed. It has been grounded and proposed to transfer the authority of financial support of education to appropriate regional and district administrations within the frameworks of decentralisation.

  7. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  8. Supervising Snowsport Activities: A Reflection upon Legislation, Policies, Guidelines and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Tracey J.; Terwiel, F. Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores on-snow supervision in school-based snowsport excursions by investigating snowsport participation and safety data and relevant legislation and policies that form the framework for practice. Snowsports may present a more complex environment for managing of participants than many other outdoor environments and provide a valuable…

  9. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  10. Family Violence in Domestic Homicides: A Case Study of Women Who Killed Intimate Partners Post-Legislative Reform in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Danielle; Kirkwood, Deborah; Mckenzie, Mandy

    2016-05-18

    This article examines the impact of legislative reforms enacted in 2005 in Victoria, Australia, on legal responses to women charged with murder for killing their intimate partner. The reforms provided for a broader understanding of the context of family violence to be considered in such cases, but we found little evidence of this in practice. This is partly attributable to persistent misconceptions among the legal profession about family violence and why women may believe it necessary to kill a partner. We recommend specialized training for legal professionals and increased use of family violence evidence to help ensure women's claims of self-defense receive appropriate responses from Victorian courts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Spazi e dimensioni nella letteratura utopica vittoriana - Space and dimension in the Victorian utopian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Forleo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last centuries, the relationship between science and literature has had numerous manifestations. One of the most interesting aspects was the use of the scientific language in utopian Victorian texts. The analysis of Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott is a starting point for the description of utopian cities, where literature uses science as a technical tool for the explanation of the world. Science becomes a clear metaphor of a rational organization and strategic element for spreading “subliminal” messages. The combination between utopia and science can seem exclusively a theoretical and philosophical relationship, but in reality, it is only a tool to approach the utopian practice. The main feature of utopian texts is its criticism of society, which is made possible only if hidden in metaphorical terms. Indeed, Flatland, as many other mathematical utopias, presents itself as a multidimensional text. The use of geometric structures for the description of utopian spaces allows several interpretations. Science and literature intertwine throughout the text but nevertheless keep their own distinct features.

  12. Regional differences in the mid-Victorian diet and their impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Peter

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of regional diets on the health of the poor in mid-Victorian Britain. Contemporary surveys of regional diets and living condition were reviewed. This information was compared with mortality data from Britain over the same period. Although there was an overall improvement in life expectancy during the latter part of the 19th century, there were large regional differences in lifestyle, diet and mortality rates. Dietary surveys showed that the poor labouring population in isolated rural areas of England, in the mainland and islands of Scotland and in the west of Ireland enjoyed the most nutritious diets. These regions also showed the lowest mortality rates in Britain. This was not simply the result of better sanitation and less mortality from food and waterborne infections but also fewer deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, which is typically associated with better nutrition. These more isolated regions where a peasant-style culture provided abundant locally produced cheap foodstuffs such as potatoes, vegetables, whole grains, and milk and fish, were in the process of disappearing in the face of increasing urbanisation. This was to the detriment of many rural poor during the latter half of the century. Conversely, increasing urbanisation, with its improved transport links, brought greater availability and diversity of foods to many others. It was this that that led to an improved nutrition and life expectancy for the majority in urbanising Britain, despite the detrimental effects of increasing food refinement.

  13. Roundway, Wiltshire County Asylum attendants and nurses, 1881-1905: a window onto Victorian sobriety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D

    2000-01-01

    The only detailed surving Male and Female Registers of Roundway provide a rich documentary glimpse of nineteenth century mental health care staff. An analysis is made of what constituted desirable behavior and problems occurring in the workplace. More primary source material has been gathered from visitors books, medical superintendents' reports, patient case records, admission/discharge registers and account books. An attempt will be made to show how the dominant characteristics of Victorianism shaped the lives of the staff. Religion, morality and personal qualities appear more influential than scientific inquiry in determining the pattern of events. The 'Asylum for the Pauper Insane of the County of Wiltshire' later came to be called 'Roundway Hospital'. It is commonly remembered as 'Roundway' and that is how it is referred to here. The nursing staff changed their titles in minor ways during the period considered, but for convenience the dominant titles - 'attendants' for men and 'nurses' for women - are used. The period chosen, 1881-1905, begins from when Dr John Bowes was appointed Medical Superintendent and started to write in the new Staff Registers. The period finishes when he ceased to make entries. There are no detailed registers for any other nineteenth century period.

  14. Unacknowledged Intellect: Scott’s Changing Reputation and an Alternative Victorian Critical Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Coldwell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite a critical tendency, common until recently, to minimize Sir Walter Scott’s impact as an intellectual, two late-Victorian reviewers, Julia Wedgwood and John Stuart Stuart-Glennie, do present Scott as a theorist and a contributor to the intellectual movements of his period. In the arguments made by these two rather minor critics on Scott, readers can recognize a moment when both Scott’s critical fortunes as well as academic and popular critical practices could have taken a different path than they did. What both critics attempt is a balance of the two critical perspectives that were beginning to emerge. Rather than writing for either an audience of compliant lay people or of contentious experts, Wedgwood and Stuart-Glennie ask their readers to balance rational and sympathetic responses, to read with both reason and intuition. In imagining such an audience, these critics imply that literature plays a role in the development of citizens who can, likewise, combine these responses, as they have practiced them in literature, and apply them to the problems faced by responsible citizens.

  15. Holiness in Victorian and Edwardian England: Some ecclesial patterns and theological requisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Goroncy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay begins by offering some observations about how holiness was comprehended andexpressed in Victorian and Edwardian England. In addition to the ‘sensibility’ and ‘sentiment’that characterised society, notions of holiness were shaped by, and developed in reaction to, dominant philosophical movements; notably, the Enlightenment and Romanticism. It thenconsiders how these notions found varying religious expression in four Protestant traditions – he Oxford Movement, Calvinism, Wesleyanism, and the Early Keswick movement. Injuxtaposition to what was most often considered to be a negative expression of holinessassociated primarily with anthropocentric and anthroposocial behaviour as evidenced in thesetraditions, the essay concludes by examining one – namely, P.T. Forsyth – whose voice calledfrom within the ecclesial community for a radical requisition of holiness language as afundamentally positive reality describing the divine life and divine activity. The relevance of astudy of the Church’s understanding of holiness and how it sought to develop its doctrinewhile engaging with larger social and philosophical shifts endure with us still.

  16. Comparing the coding of complications in Queensland and Victorian admitted patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jude L; Cheng, Diana; Jackson, Terri J

    2011-08-01

    To examine differences between Queensland and Victorian coding of hospital-acquired conditions and suggest ways to improve the usefulness of these data in the monitoring of patient safety events. Secondary analysis of admitted patient episode data collected in Queensland and Victoria. Comparison of depth of coding, and patterns in the coding of ten commonly coded complications of five elective procedures. Comparison of the mean complication codes assigned per episode revealed Victoria assigns more valid codes than Queensland for all procedures, with the difference between the states being significantly different in all cases. The proportion of the codes flagged as complications was consistently lower for Queensland when comparing 10 common complications for each of the five selected elective procedures. The estimated complication rates for the five procedures showed Victoria to have an apparently higher complication rate than Queensland for 35 of the 50 complications examined. Our findings demonstrate that the coding of complications is more comprehensive in Victoria than in Queensland. It is known that inconsistencies exist between states in routine hospital data quality. Comparative use of patient safety indicators should be viewed with caution until standards are improved across Australia. More exploration of data quality issues is needed to identify areas for improvement.

  17. A good Darwinian? Winwood Reade and the making of a late Victorian evolutionary epic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Ian

    2015-06-01

    In 1871 the travel writer and anthropologist W. Winwood Reade (1838-1875) was inspired by his correspondence with Darwin to turn his narrow ethnological research on West African tribes into the broadest history imaginable, one that would show Darwin's great principle of natural selection at work throughout the evolutionary history of humanity, stretching back to the origins of the universe itself. But when Martyrdom of Man was published in 1872, Reade confessed that Darwin would not likely find him a very good Darwinian, as he was unable to show that natural selection was anything more than a secondary law that arranges all details. When it came to historicising humans within the sweeping history of all creation, Reade argued that the primary law was that of development, a less contentious theory of human evolution that was better suited to Reade's progressive and teleological history of life. By focussing on the extensive correspondence between Reade and Darwin, this paper reconstructs the attempt to make an explicitly Darwinian evolutionary epic in order to shed light on the moral and aesthetic demands that worked to give shape to Victorian efforts to historicise humans within a vastly expanding timeframe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The European politics of animal experimentation: From Victorian Britain to 'Stop Vivisection'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Pierre-Luc; Chiapperino, Luca; Testa, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This paper identifies a common political struggle behind debates on the validity and permissibility of animal experimentation, through an analysis of two recent European case studies: the Italian implementation of the European Directive 2010/63/EC regulating the use of animals in science, and the recent European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) 'Stop Vivisection'. Drawing from a historical parallel with Victorian antivivisectionism, we highlight important threads in our case studies that mark the often neglected specificities of debates on animal experimentation. From the representation of the sadistic scientist in the XIX century, to his/her claimed capture by vested interests and evasion of public scrutiny in the contemporary cases, we show that animals are not simply the focus of the debate, but also a privileged locus at which much broader issues are being raised about science, its authority, accountability and potential misalignment with public interest. By highlighting this common socio-political conflict underlying public controversies around animal experimentation, our work prompts the exploration of modes of authority and argumentation that, in establishing the usefulness of animals in science, avoid reenacting the traditional divide between epistemic and political fora. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Weiblichkeitsentwürfe viktorianischer Literatur Concepts of Femininity in Victorian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rönz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Die viktorianische Epoche verzeichnet einen überproportionalen Zuwachs an Schriftstellerinnen besonders im Bereich des Romans, aber auch innerhalb der übrigen literarischen Gattungen. Autorinnen wie Charlotte und Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti oder Harriet Martineau reflektieren in ihren Schriften eine Gesellschaft, in deren Ideologie die Rolle der Frau als „Angel of the House“ definiert wurde. Silvia Mergenthal untersucht anhand ausführlicher Beispiele die Darstellung der konkreten Perspektiven britischer Frauen in Texten des 19. Jahrhunderts.The Victorian era marks a disproportionate increase of female authors, particularly of novels but also of other literary genres. Authors such as Charlotte and Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti or Harriet Martineau reflect a society in which the role of the woman is ideologically defined as the „angel of the house“ in their writings. Silvia Mergenthal examines the actual perspectives of British women from Nineteenth Century texts, using extensive examples.

  20. Police service in Victorian and Edwardian London: a somwhat atypical case of a hazardous occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpayer-Makov, H

    1995-01-01

    British society in the nineteenth century showed a growing concern with public-health issues and with occupational hazards. Police service, which is at the centre of this paper, was not viewed by many as a hazardous occupation. Using the London Metropolitan Police as a case study, the paper suggests that working conditions in the Victorian and Edwardian police had detrimental effects on the health of officers. It is true that medical statistics of the time showed that police officers in London had a lower death rate than the average working man, but this comparison should not obscure the fact that policemen entered the force much healthier than when they retired and that this gap was not merely age-related. The paper sets out to answer the following questions: What were the prevalent injuries and illnesses in the Metropolitan Police? What was the work experience of the police officer and what impact did it have on his state of health? In addition to accounting for the deteriorating health of police officers, the paper provides the views of contemporary observers on the subject.

  1. Experiencing racism in health care: the mental health impacts for Victorian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret A; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin

    2014-07-07

    To examine experiences of racism in health settings and their impact on mental health among Aboriginal Australians. A cross-sectional survey of experiences of racism and mental health was conducted in two metropolitan and two rural Victorian local government areas (LGAs) between 1 December 2010 and 31 October 2011. Participants included 755 Aboriginal Australians aged over 18 years who had resided in the relevant LGA for at least a year. The response rate across all LGAs was 99%. Being above or below the threshold for high or very high psychological distress on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. 221 participants reported experiences of racism in health settings in the past 12 months. The results suggested that people experiencing racism in health settings (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 2.28-8.86) and non-health settings (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39-5.08) were more likely than people who did not experience racism to be above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. Experiencing interpersonal racism in health settings is associated with increased psychological distress over and above what would be expected in other settings. This finding supports the rationale for improving cultural competency and reducing racism as a means of closing the health gap between Aboriginal and other Australians. Capitalising on this investment will require explicitly evaluating the impact of these initiatives on reducing patient experiences of racism.

  2. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  3. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  5. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  6. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... representation of this issue because a selection of food grade insect species may be available on the European market in the coming years. However, European legislation does not explicitly address edible insects. Consequently, this has left a grey area, allowing different interpretations of the legislation among....... Particular attention will be paid to the evolution of legislation and to the experiences of both EU and non-EU countries. In recent years, a number of different stakeholders have supported the legalization of edible insect consumption in Europe, but market permission is just the first step towards a new...

  7. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  8. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  9. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  10. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  11. Legal framework: Renewables in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matute, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the framework (organic structure and legislation) in promotion of renewables in Honduras, the policies for promotion of the free market of energy, laws on environmental protection and law of electricity. Also describes treties and agreements suscribed by Honduras in these matters

  12. Impact of the legislation on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Douglas Lee points out that the question of nuclear waste will not go away. Nuclear waste is with us and consumers should support legislation to deal with the problem once and for all. The spent fuel is growing, and twenty-nine nuclear plants will face onsite storage problems in this decade. If these plants shut down, consumers will face higher electric generating costs if a switch to a more expensive fuel is necssary, or if the utilities are forced to purchase power of the grid. The cost of waste disposal under this proposed legislation will amount to about 75 cents per month for those electric customers serviced by nuclear plants

  13. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  14. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  15. Legislation on and regulation of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This work is a compilation of legislative texts and regulations published by the Atomic Energy Commission's Legal Affairs Department (CEA). It provides a comprehensive source of knowledge and information on nuclear energy law. Legislative texts published over the last forty years, are collected and analytically indexed. The publication covers both French regulations and regulations of international organisations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and Euratom. It is divided into eight different chapters, dealing with regulations relevant to international and national institutions, nuclear installations, third party liability, protection of persons and the environment, etc. A chronological table of the texts of international and national laws is also included in this work. (NEA) [fr

  16. Metaphors of Postmodernism in Neo-Victorian Fiction: “The Trial of Elizabeth Cree” by Peter Ackroyd and “The Decorator” by Boris Akunin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Baratova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the features that characterizes postmodern fiction is an intense interest in the past, and especially so – in Victorian period, chiefly in its sensational aspects. Therefore we witness a revival of Victorian crime novel and this tendency can be traced not only in recent English literature, but in other literatures as well, Russian in particular. This gave birth to the term “neo-Victorian novel”, referring to the pieces, which recreate the atmosphere of the period, introduce a lot of intertextual allusions and references to the well-known Victorian novels and exploit most popular subjects of the 19th century literature. However as we will argue in this essay the authors often use these plots as implicit metaphors of postmodern art as such. It will be demonstrated on the example of two Neo-Victorian novels – “The Trial of Elizabeth Cree” by Peter Ackroyd (1995 and “The Decorator” by Boris Akunin; for the latter Ackroyd’s novel can be also regarded as one of the precedent texts. Both novels give their versions of the story of Jack the Ripper but what is more important in our case – employ akin plot structures, images and artistic devices, which in fact become metaphoric actualization of postmodern techniques.

  17. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  18. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact

  19. Research on the fundamental principles of China's marine invasive species prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiayu

    2014-12-15

    China's coastal area is severely damaged by marine invasive species. Traditional tort theory resolves issues relevant to property damage or personal injuries, through which plaintiffs cannot cope with the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. Several defects exist within the current legal regimes, such as imperfect management systems, insufficient unified technical standards, and unsound legal responsibility systems. It is necessary to pass legislation to prevent the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. This investigation probes the fundamental principles needed for the administration and legislation of an improved legal framework to combat the problem of invasive species within China's coastal waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Philosophocal and legislation aspects of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariadze, A

    2011-06-01

    Among current bioethical issues one of the most dilemmatic is an issue of surrogacy. It causes great moral, ethical and legal debate. The article aims to show philosophical and legislation aspects of surrogacy. The meaning of "motherhood", "kinship", "liberty" in connection with surrogacy is analyzed. The article provides an overview of Georgian Orthodox Church on surrogate motherhood.

  1. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    in force in their original form for several years while others are revised soon after their enactment. What factors account for this variation? We empirically analyze the proposition that in the presence of ‘legislative drift,’ i.e. the intertemporal variation of decision-makers’ preferences, major...

  2. Colombian mining legislation; Legislacion minera colombiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-07-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001.

  3. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  4. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  5. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  6. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  7. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  8. Legislating health care coverage for the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A; Feldman, G; Gallner, I; Tysor, M

    1985-01-01

    Because the unemployed and their families are often likely to develop stress-related health problems, ensuring them access to health care is a public health issue. Congressional efforts thus far to legislate health coverage for the unemployed have proposed a system that recognizes people's basic need for coverage but has several limitations.

  9. Forestry and Environment Legislation in Collision – Case Study Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Nevenić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Conflicts in the Serbian forestry sector have not been very often used as a research topic in our country. This paper presents the results from a case study conducted in the National park 'Fruška gora'. The aim of the study was to explore the collision between forestry and environmental legislation and related institutions and organizations. Material and Methods: Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews. Interviews were conducted with the managers of the National park and the representatives of the scientific communities, private forest owners as well representatives from the relevant Ministry. The theoretical framework is a combination of the main conflict elements embedded in the structure of the main aspects like culture, conflict management and policy development. Results and Conclusion: According to the interviewees` opinions the roots of the conflict can be found in overlapping jurisdictions of the institutions and organizations in the forestry sector as well as in the implementation of the legislative and management plans. Conflict management strategy is based on sustainable management of protected areas and better implementation of laws.

  10. Legislation on university technology transfer and research management 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This book deals with legislation on university technology transfer in 2012, which includes invention promotion act, legislation on technology transfer and promotion of industrialization, legislation on industrial education and industrial cooperation, and special legislation on venture business. It lists the legislation related research and development by government department : fundamental law of scientific technique, law on evaluation and management of domestic research development business, national science and technology council and the patent office.

  11. The social location of heavy episodic alcohol consumption in the Victorian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sharon; Dietze, Paul; Room, Robin; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Jolley, Damien

    2013-03-01

    To examine heavy episodic drinking across demographic subgroups to identify where heavy episodic drinking is socially located in an Australian state. Cross-sectional survey, 2483 adult Victorians using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Two measures of heavy drinking were used: (i) heavy episodic drinking-more than five standard drinks at least weekly; and (ii) typically heavy drinking-50% or more of all drinking occasions involving consumption of 5+ standard drinks. Associations between heavy episodic drinking and eight potential sociodemographic correlates (gender, age, education, income, marital status, ethnic origin, religion and geographical remoteness) were examined. There were few significant correlates of heavy episodic drinking apart from gender and age, once gender and age were controlled. Men were more likely to report heavy episodic drinking than women, but this was attenuated in the measure of typically heavy drinking, suggesting that women reporting heavy episodic drinking were more likely to typically drink that much when they drank. Younger people were more likely to report weekly heavy episodic drinking and more likely to report engaging in this pattern on at least half of their drinking occasions, and this was also true for those unmarried or in de facto relationships. Those of Asian background were less likely to report heavy drinking. In multivariate analysis, the remaining sociodemographic variables were largely unrelated to the drinking measures. The study clearly shows that the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking varies particularly across gender and age groups in Victoria. These variations appear to hold across key sociodemographic variables such as income and education. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Effects of drying methods on the low temperature reactivity of Victorian brown coal to oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, S.; Wood, D.G.; Harris, I.J. (University of Marmara, Istanbul (Turkey). Ataturk Faculty of Education, Division of Science Education)

    1992-02-01

    The effects of air drying and thermal dewatering on the low temperature oxygen reactivity of Victorian brown coal have been investigated in the temperature range 35-55{degree}C and at 100 kPa oxygen pressure using coal samples ground to {lt} 100 mesh. An attempt has also been made to relate the low temperature oxygen reactivity of the coal to its free radical concentration as measured prior to oxidation. Two rate models, the Schmidt and Winmill models, have been adapted to include the initial free radical concentration of the coal samples as the drying method sensitivity parameter in lieu of the concentration of oxygen-reactive sites in the coal material. The experimental results show that air drying, which reduces the free radical concentration of the coal, causes a decline in its oxygen reactivity whereas thermal dewatering, which causes an increase in the free radical concentration of the coal, enhances its oxygen reactivity. Air drying does not affect the distribution of the consumed oxygen in the oxidation products. A difference is observed in the case of the thermally dewatered coal samples. The correlation of the two rate models adopted is considered equally satisfactory. However, only the values obtained for the two activation energies in the Winmill model reflect the changes caused by thermal dewatering in the oxidation pattern of the coal. The activation energy values obtained from the two models are within the range of those quoted in the literature for the abstraction of hydrogen from various arene structures by free radicals. 35 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Cervical Spinal Cord Injury at the Victorian Spinal Cord Injury Service: Epidemiology of the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C.P. Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI is a significant medical and socioeconomic problem. In Victoria, Australia, there has been limited research into the incidence of CSCI. The Austin Hospital's Victorian Spinal Cord Injury Service (VSCIS is a tertiary referral hospital that accepts referrals for surgical management and ongoing neurological rehabilitation for south eastern Australia. The aim of this study was to characterise the epidemiology of CSCI managed operatively at the VSCIS over the last decade, in order to help fashion public health campaigns. Methods This was a retrospective review of medical records from January 2000 to December 2009 of all patients who underwent surgical management of acute CSCI in the VSCIS catchment region. Patients treated non-operatively were excluded. Outcome measures included: demographics, mechanism of injury and associated factors (like alcohol and patient neurological status. Results Men were much more likely to have CSCI than women, with a 4:1 ratio, and the highest incidence of CSCI for men was in their 20s (39%. The most common cause of CSCI was transport related (52%, followed by falls (23% and water-related incidents (16%. Falls were more prevalent among those >50 years. Alcohol was associated in 22% of all CSCIs, including 42% of water-related injuries. Discussion Our retrospective epidemiological study identified at-risk groups presenting to our spinal injury service. Young males in their 20s were associated with an increased risk of transport-related accidents, water-related incidents in the summer months and accidents associated with alcohol. Another high risk group were men >50 years who suffer falls, both from standing and from greater heights. Public awareness campaigns should target these groups to lower incidence of CSCI.

  14. Information and communication technology use among Victorian and South Australian oral health professions students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Habibi, Elmira; Morgan, Michael; Au-Yeung, Winnie

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and analyze the use of information and communication technology (ICT) by oral health professions students in Victoria and South Australia. Data were collected during the 2009 and 2010 academic years via electronic survey. Out of 1,138 students studying in Adelaide and Victorian dental schools, 740 students participated, for an overall response rate of 65 percent. The majority were dental students (n=609) with 131 seeking a Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) degree. The majority were female (62.0 percent), had home Internet access (91.7 percent), and no barriers to accessing the Internet (87.2 percent). Among those who mentioned barriers, difficult access and cost were the most common. The Internet was accessed at least once a week by the majority for general purposes (93.5 percent) and for study purposes (84.2 percent). Nonetheless, thirty-nine students (5.3 percent) were non-frequent ICT users. The probability of an oral health professions student being in the non-ICT users group was explored utilizing a logistic regression analysis. The final model contained three predictors: location of school, ethnic background, and place of Internet use (χ(2) [3]=117.7; pstudents from an Asian background were three times more likely to be non-users (OR=3.06; 95 percent CI 1.16 to 8.08). Those who had access to the Internet at home (OR=0.02; 95 percent CI 0.01 to 0.05) were less likely to be a non-user. These results represent a preliminary evaluation of ICT use among oral health professions students in Australia. It seems that a digital divide exists among these students. The information can be utilized in planning dental education programs and incorporating the use of ICT suitable for oral health professions students and in the design and implementation of employment recruitment and retention programs.

  15. Something in the Air: Dr Carter Moffat’s Ammoniaphone and the Victorian Science of Singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Melissa Dickson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In January 1885, the Glaswegian Professor of Chemistry Dr Robert Carter Moffat organised a special operatic concert at St James’s Hall, London, to which he invited around two thousand scientists and musicians. The point of this invitation concert was that all the singers used bottled air. Moffat himself appeared between the various performances, wielding his mysterious Ammoniaphone, or bottled-air machine, a long silver tube which he flourished in the faces of his audience while describing its virtues with considerable animation. The premise of the Ammoniaphone was that since Italian opera singers were known throughout the world for the beauty of their voices, it stood to reason that this must have something to do with the quality of the air they breathed. The Ammoniaphone, Moffat claimed, contained the precise chemical formula of the air in Southern Italy, and inhaling from this instrument effectively resulted in the ‘Italianization of the voice’. Drawing on representations of the Ammoniaphone across nineteenth-century advertising and the medical and musical press, and situating these representations within the broader Victorian fascination with the supremacy of Italian opera singers, this essay offers new insight into the emergent corporeal anxieties betrayed by late nineteenth-century consumer culture, and the various methods by which the body might be continually fashioned and re-fashioned in order to produce a high-functioning social subject in a fast-paced modern society. Aggressively (not to say unscrupulously advertised, the Ammoniaphone was marketed to vocalists, clergymen, public speakers, choirmasters, schoolmasters, parliamentarians, and enthusiastic amateurs of these vocations, with claims that it would conserve and preserve the voice, expand its range upwards and downwards, and lend it an otherwise unobtainable purity, beauty and richness. This, I will argue, was symptomatic of a broader cultural need to counter the stresses

  16. Chronic disease, medications and lifestyle: perceptions from a regional Victorian Aboriginal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deacon-Crouch M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor medication management may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of Aboriginal people in Australia. Yet while there is extensive literature about the perceptions of healthcare providers on this issue, there is limited information on the perceptions of Aboriginal people themselves. Objectives: To investigate the perceptions of a group of Aboriginal people attending a Victorian regional Aboriginal Health Service (AHS with diagnosed medical conditions requiring medications, of their lifestyle, disease management and medication usage. Methods: Data was collected through one to one in depth interviews using a semi-structured ‘yarning’ process. Twenty patients were invited to participate in the study and were interviewed by Aboriginal Health Workers in a culturally appropriate manner. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Our results show that the majority of participants perceived that changes in lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, and smoking cessation would help improve their health. Most patients reported having been counselled on their medicines, and while the majority reported adherence and acknowledgement of the efficacy of their medicines, there was a lack of clarity regarding long term maintenance on regimens. Finally, while the majority reported taking over the counter products, some did not see the need to inform their doctor about this, or chose not to. Conclusion: Chronic illness was perceived as common in families and community. Patients relied mostly on their health care professionals as sources for their drug information. Patients may have benefited from further counselling in the area of complementary and other over the counter medicines, as well as on the necessity of maintenance of regimes for chronic disease management. Finally, lifestyle changes such as dietary improvements and smoking cessation were identified as

  17. Natural Resource Knowledge and Information Management via the Victorian Resources Online Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, the Victorian Resources Online (VRO website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro has been a key means for the dissemination of landscape-based natural resources information via the internet in Victoria, Australia. The website currently consists of approximately 11,000 web pages, including 1900 maps and 1000 downloadable documents. Information is provided at a range of scales—from statewide and regional overviews to more detailed catchment and sub-catchment levels. At all these levels of generalisation, information is arranged in an organisationally agnostic way around key knowledge “domains” (e.g., soil, landform, water. VRO represents a useful model for the effective dissemination of a wide range of natural resources information; relying on partnerships with key subject matter experts and data custodians, including a “knowledge network” of retired land resource assessment specialists. In this paper, case studies are presented that illustrate various approaches to information and knowledge management with a focus on presentation of spatially contexted soil and landscape information at different levels of generalisation. Examples are provided of adapting site-based information into clickable maps that reveal site-specific details, as well as “spatialising” data from specialist internal databases to improve accessibility to a wider audience. Legacy information sources have also been consolidated and spatially referenced. More recent incorporation of interactive visualisation products (such as landscape panoramas, videos and animations is providing interactive rich media content. Currently the site attracts an average of 1190 user visits per day and user evaluation has indicated a wide range of users, including students, teachers, consultants, researchers and extension staff. The wide range of uses for information and, in particular, the benefits for natural resource education, research and extension has also been identified.

  18. Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam L; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Devlin, Joanne M; Sansom, Fiona M

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. Utilizing an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of C. pecorum in koalas within six regions of Victoria, Australia. The ompA genotypes of the detected C. pecorum were characterized to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in Victorian koalas. Despite many studies in northern Australia (i.e. Queensland and New South Wales), prior Chlamydia studies in Victorian koalas are limited. We detected C. pecorum in 125/820 (15 %) urogenital swabs, but in only one ocular swab. Nucleotide sequencing of the molecular marker C. pecorum ompA revealed that the majority (90/114) of C. pecorum samples typed were genotype B. This genotype has not been reported in northern koalas. In general, Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas is associated with milder clinical signs compared with infection in koalas in northern populations. Although disease pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial, the high prevalence of genotype B in Victoria may suggest it is less pathogenic. All but three koalas had C. pecorum genotypes unique to southern koala populations (i.e. Victoria and South Australia). These included a novel C. pecorum ompA genotype and two genotypes associated with livestock. Regression analysis determined that significant factors for the presence of C. pecorum infection were sex and geographical location. The presence of 'wet bottom' in males and the presence of reproductive tract pathology in females were significantly associated with C. pecorum infection, suggesting variation in clinical disease manifestations between sexes.

  19. Ionizing radiation and legislation for personnel - Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan

    2013-01-01

    This annex B presents a chronological approach on the set of laws related to the ionizing radiation personnel. This paper aims to discuss and clarify the main concepts that constitute the current legislation, pointing the scope of each, as well as its ambiguities or inaccuracies. The consequences of those issues discussed are easily noticeable related to difficulties in legal, administrative and human resource management, when seeking their efficient application. We also discuss issues associated with the extent and frequency of the gradient of risk in 5, 10 and 20%, models for assessing potential exposure in a risk area, dose calculation and criteria for defining benefits and framework for irradiation, bonus for activity, special retirement and period of vacations for personnel occupationally exposed within Unified Legal System (Regime Juridico Unico) and the Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT)

  20. Changes in Tax Legislation and Social Responsibility of Taxpayers and Legislative Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štager Vesna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cost of tax compliance which arises for taxpayers from tax complexity and the constant changes in tax legislation. A socially responsible institution for the fiscal aggression is the Financial Administration of the Republic of Slovenia, as its powers and responsibilities creates the tax position of individuals, businesses and the entire economy. The aim of our research is to encourage socially responsible behaviour of legislation institutions in adopting the tax legislation, which will help to improve the social responsibility of taxpayers and increase tax compliance.

  1. Guidelines for the Review of Environmental-Related Legislation Regarding the Realisation of the Right to Access to Sufficient Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of legislation for the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food is labelled as an international and national objective. Section 27(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 assigns a compulsory mandate to the South African government to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO proposes a three-level strategy for the implementation of the right to food on a national legislative level, namely through: constitutional recognition, the implementation of a food framework law and the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation. This contribution focuses on the last level of legislative provisioning, namely the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation which influences, or possibly can, influence the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The right to access to sufficient food has multidimensional, interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral characteristics and consequently various sectors are involved in the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The FAO determines that the intended purpose will be to identify and review all sectoral legislation that might influence the availability, stability, access and adequacy of food, by means of a proposed reviewing process. The suggested reviewing process of the FAO is comprehensive and diverse; therefore the focus of this contribution is based on the reviewing of relevant environmental-related legislation only. The FAO does not make recommendations with regard to the specific aspects that need to be incorporated in environmental-related legislation to contribute to the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food (in other words the aspects against which environmental-related legislation can be evaluated. Therefore this

  2. Science and scientists in Victorian and Edwardian literary novels: insights into the emergence of a new profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2007-04-01

    Literary fiction has seldom been seriously considered as a mode of science communication. Here, I review novels from the 19th century canon of English literature in which characters either have, or aspire to have, substantive professional scientific roles to see what insights they provide into the practice of science in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. They reflect the historical transition of science from an intellectual hobby to a paid occupation, but also reveal that while a career in science became possible for a wider range of people, it seldom allowed these new entrants to undertake fundamental scientific research.

  3. Chlorine-36 measurements in the Murray Basin; preliminary results from the Victorian and South Australian Mallee region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davie, R.F.; Calf, G.E.; Bird, J.R.; Topham, S.; Kellett, J.R.; Evans, W.R.; Fifield, L.K.; Ophel, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    Chlorine-36 analyses of groundwater samples from 18 wells in the Victorian and South Australian Mallee region of the Murray Basin have been carried out using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of these analyses are discussed and presented as evidence for significant recharge from rainfall over much of the study area to the underlying Murray Group limestone aquifer. In addition, results indicate areas where further 36 Cl measurements of Murray Mallee groundwater would provide useful hydrological information on both recharge and discharge mechanisms. 34 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  4. Bulgarian energy legislation. Status quo and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denchev, P.

    1996-01-01

    The author gives a general survey of the present situation and the development tendencies in the Bulgarian nuclear legislation. The latest amendments of the Atomic Energy Act passed by the Bulgarian Parliament are discussed. Special attention is paid to the ratification of the following four groups of international documents: 1) The Convention on Nuclear Safety; 2) The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Joint Protocol on the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 3) The Convention for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; 4) The European Energy Charter and its Protocol on Energy Efficiency. The need of adoption of new legislative documents regulating the supply of radioactive materials according to the EURATOM Treaty is stressed

  5. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  6. Critical analysis of the Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas P, Elkin; Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document analyses the Colombian mining legislation, Act 685 of 2001, based on the reasons expressed by the government and the miners for its conceit and approval. The document tries to determine the developments achieved by this new Mining Code considering international mining competitiveness and its adaptation to the constitutional rules about environment, indigenous communities, decentralization and sustainable development. The analysis formulates general and specific hypothesis about the proposed objectives of the reform, which are confronted with the arguments and critical evaluations of the results. Most hypothesis are not verified, thus demonstrating that the Colombian mining legislation is far from being the necessary instrument to promote mining activities, making it competitive according to international standards and adapted to the principles of sustainable development, healthy environment, community participation, ethnic minorities and regional autonomy

  7. No let-up in transport legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutteridge, J M

    1978-02-01

    A discussion covers problems connected with the change from the current U.K. road transport legislation based on the 1968 U.K. Transport Act to the European Economic Community transport rules, which will go in effect Jan. 1 1978, with a three-year adjustment period, including the shortening of the drivers' working day from 10 to 8 hr with a four-hour limit of continuous driving, and 48 hr weekly and 92 hr fortnightly driving limits; the 450 km/day distance limit for drivers of articulate vehicles and vehicles exceeding 20 tons gross (except where a tachograph is used); new system of driver's license categories and professional competence examinations; proposed new taxation rules; and a special legislation for dangerous loads, e.g., for oil transport, including the mandatory use of hazard information marking of road tanks and the expected additional licensing of drivers.

  8. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  9. Recent tendency of Nuclear Third Party Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohara, Fumiaki

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear accidents in Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have a great influence on Nuclear Third Party Legislation of many countries. Nuclear Third Party Law of Japan is due to expire as at 31st, December, 1989, under the recent circumstances in which threre exist pros and cons to nuclear installations among people. This report describes the outline of Japanese Nuclear Law compared with foreign ones and the prospect of its revision. (author)

  10. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  11. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  13. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  14. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEATHER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the current legislation and compliance issues leather waste in different waste groups according to relevant legislation and shows that, although seemingly harmless waste of skin sometimes contain dangerous compounds. As presented risks to human health were some restricted substances in leather. Since 2001 Romania had preoccupation in national legislation on waste management, but some categories, such as leather waste are not framed to this category. Also, another goal is implementing the EU management/storage strategy of industrial waste. Unfortunately, Romania imports huge quantities of used clothing and shoes. Transport, storage and use of them are poor, and many of these are subsequently stored waste by the fact that it is even sometimes improperly discarded. The paper also shows the statistics on waste management in the Bihor County by activity of national economy and by activity of industry at level of CANE REV.2 Section. Analyzing the postings on Internet regarding the sale and purchase of leather wastes in Romania, it was found that there are the following 'categories' of wastes: leather goods, leather from coats, leather from footwear industry, suede, leather, leather resulting from the production of upholstery. It was found that most car buyers use waste leather upholstery. It is recommended that production companies to highlight more transparent their inventory textile and leather waste on types for those interested (including online can access/capitalize them.

  15. A model of survival following pre-hospital cardiac arrest based on the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Masha; Barnes, Vanessa; Whyman, Andrew; Currell, Alex; Bernard, Stephen; Walker, Tony; Smith, Karen L

    2007-11-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of sudden cardiac arrest patients in Victoria, Australia, as captured via the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Register (VACAR). We used the VACAR data to construct a new model of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), which was specified in accordance with observed trends. All cases of cardiac arrest in Victoria that were attended by Victorian ambulance services during the period of 2002-2005. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 3.8% among 18,827 cases of OHCA. Survival was 15.7% among 1726 bystander witnessed, adult cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac aetiology, presenting in ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT), where resuscitation was attempted. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, bystander CPR, cardiac arrest (CA) location, response time, age and sex were predictors of VF/VT, which, in turn, was a strong predictor of survival. The same factors that affected VF/VT made an additional contribution to survival. However, for bystander CPR, CA location and response time this additional contribution was limited to VF/VT patients only. There was no detectable association between survival and age younger than 60 years or response time over 15min. The new model accounts for relationships among predictors of survival. These relationships indicate that interventions such as reduced response times and bystander CPR act in multiple ways to improve survival.

  16. Using information and communication technologies to consult with patients in Victorian primary care: the views of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Lisa; Fairhurst, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technologies such as email, text messaging and video messaging are commonly used by the general population. However, international research has shown that they are not used routinely by GPs to communicate or consult with patients. Investigating Victorian GPs' perceptions of doing so is timely given Australia's new National Broadband Network, which may facilitate web-based modes of doctor-patient interaction. This study therefore aimed to explore Victorian GPs' experiences of, and attitudes toward, using information and communication technologies to consult with patients. Qualitative telephone interviews were carried out with a maximum variation sample of 36GPs from across Victoria. GPs reported a range of perspectives on using new consultation technologies within their practice. Common concerns included medico-legal and remuneration issues and perceived patient information technology literacy. Policy makers should incorporate GPs' perspectives into primary care service delivery planning to promote the effective use of information and communication technologies in improving accessibility and quality of general practice care.

  17. Legislative Process For National Atomic Energy Laws Various Legal Approaches And Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Legislative Process for National Atomic Energy Laws (NAELs) aim at establishing a legal base for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Various approaches (partial and comprehensive) to draft the NAELs are studied. The paper also studies some national nuclear energy laws through a comparative legal analysis and the important developments that have taken place in the legislative process for NAELs. There are lessons learned from the legislative process for NAELs. First, each state must develop its own legislative framework based on its own situation. Second, although the NAELs have common features, they vary considerably due to national legal traditions, social, economic circumstances and cultural values. Third, the NAELs have also evolved in time. Fourth, the technical standards, rules and guidelines should not be part of legislation issued by the Parliament because they would also facilitate quick adaption to new technical developments. Fifth, interface between legal and technical issues, requiring legal and technical experts to interact with each other. Sixth, continuing assessment that may lead to amendments to the law over time

  18. Legislation on direct-to-consumer genetic testing in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borry, Pascal; van Hellemondt, Rachel E; Sprumont, Dominique; Jales, Camilla Fittipaldi Duarte; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Spranger, Tade Matthias; Curren, Liam; Kaye, Jane; Nys, Herman; Howard, Heidi

    2012-07-01

    An increasing number of private companies are now offering direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services. Although a lot of attention has been devoted to the regulatory framework of DTC genetic testing services in the USA, only limited information about the regulatory framework in Europe is available. We will report on the situation with regard to the national legislation on DTC genetic testing in seven European countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Portugal, France, Germany, the United Kingdom). The paper will address whether these countries have legislation that specifically address the issue of DTC genetic testing or have relevant laws that is pertinent to the regulatory control of these services in their countries. The findings show that France, Germany, Portugal and Switzerland have specific legislation that defines that genetic tests can only be carried out by a medical doctor after the provision of sufficient information concerning the nature, meaning and consequences of the genetic test and after the consent of the person concerned. In the Netherlands, some DTC genetic tests could fall under legislation that provides the Minister the right to refuse to provide a license to operate if a test is scientifically unsound, not in accordance with the professional medical practice standards or if the expected benefit is not in balance with the (potential) health risks. Belgium and the United Kingdom allow the provision of DTC genetic tests.

  19. The accounting and tax legislation of the Greek football clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANAGIOTIS E. DIMITROPOULOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new «capital form» establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme, the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.

  20. [Conflicts between nursing ethics and health care legislation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Terés-Vidal, Lourdes; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Molina, Fidel; Gastaldo, Denise; Otero-García, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Administrative, institutional and legislative issues on agricultural waste exploitation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Baban, Ahmet; Dikec, Stephanie [TUBITAK MRC Chemistry and Enviorenment Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Canka Kilic, Fatma [Kocaeli University, KMYO, Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kullar/Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study, the influence of non-technical issues on the exploitation of agricultural waste in Turkey was investigated in accordance with the work program requirements for the project entitled ''Exploitation of Agricultural Waste in Turkey'' under the EU Life Third Countries Program. The study has been organized and presented according to the following four phases: (i) study of existing Turkish legislation and the administrative and institutional framework, (ii) review and analysis of the EU policy and legislation relevant to agricultural waste, including identification of potential market instruments, (iii) identification of barriers to the promotion of agricultural waste exploitation in Turkey, and (iv) Identification of gaps and formulation of recommendations. An ultimate objective of this study is to transfer the European experience and practices relative to the overall framework of managing agricultural waste. (author)

  2. Administrative, institutional and legislative issues on agricultural waste exploitation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Baban, Ahmet; Dikec, Stephanie; Canka Kilic, Fatma

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the influence of non-technical issues on the exploitation of agricultural waste in Turkey was investigated in accordance with the work program requirements for the project entitled ''Exploitation of Agricultural Waste in Turkey'' under the EU Life Third Countries Program. The study has been organized and presented according to the following four phases: (i) study of existing Turkish legislation and the administrative and institutional framework, (ii) review and analysis of the EU policy and legislation relevant to agricultural waste, including identification of potential market instruments, (iii) identification of barriers to the promotion of agricultural waste exploitation in Turkey, and (iv) Identification of gaps and formulation of recommendations. An ultimate objective of this study is to transfer the European experience and practices relative to the overall framework of managing agricultural waste. (author)

  3. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  4. Baldwin Spencer and Classical Anthropology in the Post-Victorian Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    The post-Victorian anthropologist Baldwin Spencer was the first to investigate the central and northern aboriginal tribes of Australia. His ethnographic works in this area have greatly in-fluenced related disciplines and studies in fields such as kinship, totem worship, and primitive reli-gions. In the field of classics and anthropology, Spencer’s academic heritage has received wide-spread respect and recognition, and has made sub-sequent academic discussion possible. In order to present Spencer’s personal experiences and aca-demic ideas clearly and comprehensively, it is nec-essary to return to the post-Victorian context, and comb Spencer’ s life history and academic history. Taking important clues from various times an e-vents in his life, the paper introduces three peri-ods:Spencer’s early training in the discipline and his epistemic background, his medium-term eth-nographic investigations and works, and the later investigations of Tierra del Fuego. Textual study, based on Spencer’s life history and academic histo-ry, is very useful to understand his ethnographic investigations. Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer ( 1860 -1929 ) was born on 23 June, 1860 in Lancashire, Eng-land. Spencer was educated at Old Trafford School and at the Manchester School of Art. His interest in art and sketching was lifelong, and would reveal itself in his competence as a scientific draftsman and illustrator ( D. J. Mulvaney,1990 ) . Entering Owens College ( Victoria University of Manchester) in 1879, Spencer intended to study medicine. In-spired by Milnes Marshall, a disciple of Darwin disciple, he became a committed evolutionary biol-ogist, soon abandoning conventional religion. He entered the University of Oxford in 1881 to study science under Professor H. N. Moseley, who com-bined an enthusiasm for evolutionary biology with ethnological interests. Spencer grasped Oxford ’ s diverse opportunities, which included lectures by Ruskin and E. B. Tylor. In 1887, Spencer ar-rived at

  5. Fraud and Corruption Control at Education System Level: A Case Study of the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2014-01-01

    This case describes the implementation of a fraud and corruption control policy initiative within the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (the Department) in Australia. The policy initiative was administered and carried out by a small team of fraud control officials, including the author of this article, in the…

  6. Were the Victorians cleverer than us? The decline in general intelligence estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodley, M.A.; te Nijenhuis, J.; Murphy, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Victorian era was marked by an explosion of innovation and genius, per capita rates of which appear to have declined subsequently. The presence of dysgenic fertility for IQ amongst Western nations, starting in the 19th century, suggests that these trends might be related to declining IQ. This is

  7. "We Didn't Even Realize that Kids like Us Could Go on the Radio"--An Evaluation of a Victorian Schools Youth Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn S.; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a comprehensive evaluation of the Advance programme by Victoria University in 2007/08. Advance is a flexible school-based programme for young people to volunteer or implement a project of benefit to their communities in the state of Victoria, in Australia. It is a partnership between the Office for Youth, Victorian government…

  8. The Centrality of Aboriginal Cultural Workshops and Experiential Learning in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Course: A Regional Victorian University Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weuffen, Sara L.; Cahir, Fred; Pickford, Aunty Marjorie

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a cross-cultural pedagogical approach, couched in a theory-practice nexus, used at a Victorian regional university to guide non-Indigenous pre-service teachers' (PSTs) engagement with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives and cultures. We have drawn on qualitative and statistical data, and current issues in…

  9. The relationship between administrative court control and legislative control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The legislator can determine the extent of control of administrative courts by reduction of substantive conditions. The author has the opinion that the judicial control cannot be stricter than the legislative control. For the range of the control of administrative courts is decisive, to what extent the legislator is forced to proper legislative settlements. In this context the author discusses the Kalkar-decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1978. (CW) [de

  10. Legislative amendments and informal politics in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross, James P.; Hermansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the Commission’s proposals and the final legislative outcome passed by the European Union. It does so by implementing minimum edit distance algorithms to measure changes between legislative proposals and outcomes. The findings suggest that legislative amendments are determined by the formal and informal...... institutional structures in which negotiations take place and characteristics of the proposal itself. Our conclusions contribute to the ongoing debate on the nature and distribution of legislative powers in the European Union....

  11. Combating sexual orientation discrimination in employment: legislation in fifteen EU members states (France) : Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Borrillo , Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation; France was the first country in the world to discriminalize sodomy.....

  12. European regulation of cross-border hate speech in cyberspace: The limits of legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the complexities of regulating hate speech on the Internet through legal frameworks. It demonstrates the limitations of unilateral national content legislation and the difficulties inherent in multilateral efforts to regulate the Internet. The paper highlights how the US's commitment to free speech has undermined European efforts to construct a truly international regulatory system. It is argued that a broad coalition of citizens, industry and government, employing technol...

  13. Potential Contradictions Connected to the Inclusion of Stable Schools in the Legislation for Danish Organic Dairy Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Fisker, I

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to raise questions and discuss how a previous farmer-driven group approach (Stable Schools) works under a legislation framework as a part of an obligatory health advisory service for Danish organic dairy producers. The study takes its starting point in an on-line questionnaire...... evaluation (79 farmer respondents) conducted after one year (2011) with the Stable School approach as part of the legislation. This is followed by a discussion on the perspectives of ‘obligatory farmer groups’ supported by literature on experience from other institutionalized advisory approaches. Respondents...... generally found the Stable Schools useful for many organic farmers, also after introduction to the legislation, given that farmers are motivated and the process is actively supported by a skilled facilitator. We raise the question of a potential mismatch between the legislative aims and the farmer group...

  14. A new genre of social protection policy for older people: a critical analysis of legislative development in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma Bhattarai, Lok P

    2013-01-01

    This commentary critically discusses recent legislation promulgated in Nepal to safeguard older people's rights and promote their well-being. Using a human-rights-based framework, the legislation is analyzed for its strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis has also been placed on discussing various aspects overlooked by the legislation, such as changing family structure, relations, and social values; the impact of employment structure and migration; and, importantly, maintaining a desired balance between the roles of the state and of the family in providing social security, support, and care to older people. Efforts have been made to reflect the promulgated law in light of the contemporary developments taking place globally, particularly in regions of Asia. Areas for future policy work are also identified in order to make legislation more inclusive and effective.

  15. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  16. 29 CFR 783.28 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 783.28 Section 783.28 Labor... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Legislative History and Judicial Construction of the Exemptions § 783.28 General legislative history. As originally enacted in 1938, section 13(a)(3) of the Fair Labor...

  17. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As orginally...

  18. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  19. Acid rain legislation and local areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control

  20. Politeness Indicators in Nigeria Legislative Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Unoalegie Bola Agbara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In every human interaction, interlocutors strive to maintain appropriate decorum and politeness in order to avoid undue feeling of not being ‘nice’ or being insensitive to co-participant’s self-esteem or image. This culture of being ‘nice’ is expressed not only through verbal codes, but also through non-verbal cues such as pitch, tone, voice modulation, facial expression and other forms of body language. Nigeria legislative House reflects the uniqueness of Nigeria as a multicultural nation with about two hundred and fifty ethnic groups. Each tribe has a unique way of expressing ‘nice’ (politeness. This paper examines how Nigerian legislators from different ethnic groups acknowledge the self-esteem of other legislators during senate debates. The study used Scollon and Scollon’s politeness principle which states that in every interaction there is a continuous ‘face’ (self-image negotiation and this ‘face’ which is made up of two aspects - involvement and independent- must be balanced during interactions because ‘face’ is a paradoxical concept. The interest of this study is to identify and to explain how politicians, who though are in opposition, acknowledge the self-esteem of others. Six hansards were sampled from 2009 to 2010, one bill from each quarter of the year. It was discovered that speakers almost always punctuate their contributions to debate with different types of politeness indicators as a means of acknowledging both the involvement and dependent face wants of participants. The politeness indicators often used by senators include address forms which are used not only as vocative (to the presiding senator but also as designative (for reference to a third person mentioned in the speech, first person plural pronouns, rhetorical (speech politeness markers and ritualized utterances.

  1. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    situations. The Ethics Committees' approval of the trial justified by their competence and authority, combined with the NOK´s insight into the patient's wishes may be a relevant and feasible alternative to the current consent procedure. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Regional Development......INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  2. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  3. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  4. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  5. GMOs in Russia: Research, Society and Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, I V; Georgiev, P G; Skryabin, K G; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-01-01

    Russian legislation lags behind the rapid developments witnessed in genetic engineering. Only a scientifically based and well-substantiated policy on the place of organisms that are created with the use of genetic engineering technologies and an assessment of the risks associated with them could guarantee that the breakthroughs achieved in modern genetic engineering technologies are effectively put to use in the real economy. A lack of demand for such breakthroughs in the practical field will lead to stagnation in scientific research and to a loss of expertise.

  6. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  7. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  8. The road to smoke-free legislation in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Laura M; Clancy, Luke

    2011-01-01

    To describe the process through which Ireland changed its policies towards smoking in work-places and distil lessons for others implementing or extending smoke-free laws. This analysis is informed by a review of secondary sources including a commissioned media analysis, documentary analysis and key informant interviews with policy actors who provide insight into the process of smoke-free policy development. The policy analysis techniques used include the development of a time-line for policy reform, stakeholder analysis, policy mapping techniques, impact analysis through use of secondary data and a review process. The policy analysis triangle, which highlights the importance of examining policy content, context, actors and processes, will be used as an analytical framework. The importance of the political, economic, social and cultural context emerged clearly. The interaction of the context with the policy process both in identification of need for policy and its formulation demonstrated the opportunity for advocates to exert influence at all points of the process. The campaign to support the legislation had the following characteristics: a sustained consistent simple health message, sustained political leadership/commitment, a strong coalition between the Health Alliance, the Office of Tobacco Control and the Department of Health and Children, with cross-party political support and trade union support. The public and the media support clearly defined the benefit of deliberate and consistent planning and organization of a communication strategy. The Irish smoke-free legislation was a success as a policy initiative because of timing, dedication, planning, implementation and the existence of strong leadership and a powerful convinced credible political champion. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  10. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  11. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  13. ACCOUNTiNG, ENGINEERING, OR ADVERTISING? LIMITED LIABILITY, THE COMPANY PROSPECTUS, AND THE LANGUAGE OF UNCERTAINTY IN VICTORIAN BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade E. Shilts

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at a particularly puzzling historical example of delay in the use of the law, the under-use by Victorian Britain of the general incorporation statutes passed between 1844 and 1862. Comparison of the rhetoric of company prospectuses of 1824-1862 and 1898 suggests that uncertainty about the meaning of “incorporation with limited liability” among those who might have benefited from it may have persisted for decades following the statute’s passage. Continuing uncertainty meant continuing interpretation costs, and continuing interpretation costs meant insufficient interpretation: until each law user involved with an enterprise interpreted and came to understand the rule’s meaning, less than fully realized.

  14. There is grandeur in this view of Newton: Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and Victorian conceptions of scientific virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The impact of germ theory in the genesis of cancer. Consequences for surgical treatment in the victorian era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Poza, A

    1998-01-01

    We use texts by preeminent figures in Victorian surgery at the end of the nineteenth century and information about their role in disseminating the germ theory to analyse the impact of this new etiologic element in the genesis of cancer. We trace the career of William Watson Cheyne (1852-1932), a disciple of Lister, and of many other surgeons of his generation, to outline the changes in the approach to treatment for cancer, the theoretical basis for these changes, and the role of a new conceptualization of cancer in the light of the microbial theory. This theory, among many other better-known factors, helped establish the foundation for radical surgery which became widespread in oncological treatment during the final decade of the nineteenth century.

  16. ‘Thousands of throbbing hearts' - Sentimentality and community in popular Victorian poetry: Longfellow's Evangeline and Tennyson's Enoch Arden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Blair

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the function of sentimentality in popular nineteenth-century narrative poetry by focusing on Tennyson's 'Enoch Arden' and Longfellow's 'Evangeline', two poems that have suffered relative critical neglect due to their status as sentimental verse. It argues that both texts, in their stories of exile, alienation and eventual recuperation, set up their hero and heroine as role-models for ways of feeling and use them to examine the possibility of using personal feeling as a conduit for communal sentiment. While both poems deploy the standard tropes of Victorian sentimentality, the ambiguous conclusions of 'Enoch Arden 'and 'Evangeline' , I argue, call into question the clichés of sentimental discourse. The fates of Enoch and of Evangeline offer, to some extent, a darker vision of the potential for sentimental responses to an individual's suffering to create feeling communities either within or without the poem.

  17. Is tax avoidance the theory of everything in tax Law? A terminological analysis of EU legislation and case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, Cihat

    The primary goal of this article is to analyze the use of the term ‘tax avoidance’ in the legislative framework and case law of the European Union to point out the absence of a common linguistic approach. The consequences derived from the terminological chaos will also be discussed; thus, the study

  18. Establishment of an effective acute stroke telemedicine program for Australia: protocol for the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Moloczij, Natasha; Denisenko, Sonia; Dewey, Helen; Disler, Peter; Winzar, Bruce; Mosley, Ian; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Bladin, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Urgent treatment of acute stroke in rural Australia is problematic partly because of limited access to medical specialists. Utilization of telemedicine could improve delivery of acute stroke treatments in rural communities. The study aims to demonstrate enhanced clinical decision making for use of thrombolysis within 4·5 h of ischemic stroke symptom onset in a rural setting using a telemedicine specialist support model. A formative program evaluation research design was used. The Victorian Stroke Telemedicine program was developed and will be evaluated over five stages to ensure successful implementation. The phases include: (a) preimplementation phase to establish the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine program including the clinical pathway, data collection tools, and technology processes; (b) pilot clinical application phase to test the pathway in up to 10 patients; (c) modification phase to refine the program; (d) full clinical implementation phase where the program is maintained for one-year; and (e) a sustainability phase to assess project outcomes over five-years. Qualitative (clinician interviews) and quantitative data (patient, clinician, costs, and technology processes) are collected in each phase. The primary outcome is to achieve a minimum 10% absolute increase in eligible patients treated with thrombolysis. Secondary outcomes are utilization of the telestroke pathway and improvements in processes of stroke care (e.g., time to brain scan). We will report door to telemedicine consultation time, length of telemedicine consultation, clinical utility and acceptability from the perspective of clinicians, and 90-day patient outcomes. This research will provide evidence for an effective telestroke program for use in regional Australian hospitals. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  19. Harmonization of Legislation of a Candidate Country with EU Legislation: Insights from the Prism of the Citizens of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdula Azizi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of the Western Balkan countries remain although they have expressed a willingness to join the EU, it is considered necessary to examine the topic of harmonization of national legislation of these countries with the EU legislation. So while until now, to this problem is not devoted adequate attention in scientific circles, it is considered necessary to explain and analyze the theoretical aspect of the harmonization of the legislation of the candidate countries with EU legislation, while they also learned things fr survey was conducted with the citizens of Macedonia where they express their opinions on the harmonization of Macedonian legislation and government policies related to Euro hope that in the future this work will encourage research and other activities related to government policy on the harmonization of national legislation with EU legislation.

  20. Plea for European Price Anderson legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    The paper analyses the essential features and the basic differences in nuclear liability and coverage in the United States where the problem is governed by the Price-Anderson legislation, and the Member States of the European Community which adhere to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. The paper undertakes to show that it is possible to introduce into the European Community certain elements of the American regime, in particular the solidarity of nuclear operators and the retroactive premium coverage without violating the basic principles of the Paris Convention. Consequently the paper advocates the adoption of such rules in Europe as a step towards harmonisation of nuclear coverage and safety and a means to reduce government interference. (author)

  1. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  2. Colombian legislation for air contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-01-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms

  3. New U.S. nuclear export legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The new 1978 Export Control Act of the United States of America introduces a comprehensive arrangement of the criteria, responsibilities and procedures associated with nuclear exports, especially under the nonproliferation aspect. After a detailed analysis of the multitude of provisions it must be feared that, merely as a result of the high degree of formalization, bureaucratization and politicalization of these procedures, the U.S. can henceforth no longer be regarded as a reliable source of nuclear materials and facilities. An aspect received abroad with particular anguish is the fact that this unilateral aggravation of export controls was initiated after the start of the two-year INFCE program for international fuel cycle evaluation and that the new legislation forces the American government to renegotiate existing agreements on cooperation with the receiver countries under the threat of a delivery stop. (orig.) [de

  4. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  5. CONCORDAT PROCEDURE. LEGISLATIVE AND JURISPRUDENTIAL HIGHLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insolvency Code has revived theoreticians’ and practitioners’ discussions, equally. The voluntary arrangements procedure is considered a legal solution for the prevention and recovery from commercial actors’ financial difficulty. The current legal framework establishes a number of imperative conditions for the implementation of this procedure, but in many cases, the application of the current regulation generated different conclusions. In less than half a year, since the entry into force of the law, the practice for each court varied. The paper synthesizes separate opinions and proposes solutions for shaping a more precise legal framework.

  6. Problems encountered in embodying the principles of ICRP-26 and the revised IAEA safety standards into UK national legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the United Kingdom procedures and format for safety legislation and goes on to show how the necessary legislation for radiological protection will fit into the general framework. The United Kingdom, as a member of the European Community and EURATOM, is bound to implement the Euratom Directive on radiological protection within the next few years. The latest draft of the Directive takes account of the recommendations of ICRP-26 and further, a recent draft of the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards is a composite of both the Directive and ICRP-26. Thus, the effect of embodying the principles of the Directive is to embody the principles of ICRP-26 and the Basic Safety Standards. Some of the problems which have been met are described and in particular there is discussion of the problems arising from the incorporation of the three ICRP-26 facets of dose control, namely justification, optimization and limitation, into a legislative package. The UK system of evolving safety legislation now requires considerable participation by all the parties affected (or by their representatives). This paper indicates that the involvement of persons affected, coupled with a legislative package which consists of a hierarchy of (a) regulations; (b) codes of practice; and (c) guidance notes, will result in the fundamental principles of ICRP-26 being incorporated into UK legislation in a totally acceptable way. (author)

  7. PHP frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Srša, Aljaž

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents one of the four most popular PHP web frameworks: Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter and CakePHP. These frameworks are compared with each other according to the four criteria, which can help with the selection of a framework. These criteria are size of the community, quality of official support, comprehensibility of framework’s documentation and implementation of functionalities in individual frameworks, which are automatic code generation, routing, object-relational mapping and...

  8. The impact of legislation on divorce: a hazard function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, M P

    1995-01-01

    "The paper examines the impact of the introduction of no-fault divorce legislation in Australia. The approach used is rather novel, a hazard model of the divorce rate is estimated with the role of legislation captured via a time-varying covariate. The paper concludes that contrary to U.S. empirical evidence, no-fault divorce legislation appears to have had a positive impact upon the divorce rate in Australia." excerpt

  9. Structural Liberalism and Anti-Bullying Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the legal, semantic, and material implications of Massachusetts' anti-bullying law through an analytic framework of structural liberalism. Specifically, this article asks how the law produces categories of fit and unfit subjects of the state through raced and gendered practices of individualism, paternalism, meliorism,…

  10. ‘I am not very well I feel nearly mad when I think of you’: Male Jealousy, Murder and Broadmoor in Late-Victorian Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jade

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article compares the representations of jealousy in popular culture, medical and legal literature, and in the trials and diagnoses of men who murdered or attempted to murder their wives or sweethearts before being found insane and committed into Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum between 1864 and 1900. It is shown that jealousy was entrenched in Victorian culture, but marginalised in medical and legal discourse and in the courtroom until the end of the period, and was seemingly cast aside at Broadmoor. As well as providing a detailed examination of varied representations of male jealousy in late-Victorian Britain, the article contributes to understandings of the emotional lives of the working-class, and the causes and representations of working-class male madness. PMID:29713114

  11. 'I am not very well I feel nearly mad when I think of you': Male Jealousy, Murder and Broadmoor in Late-Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jade

    2017-05-01

    This article compares the representations of jealousy in popular culture, medical and legal literature, and in the trials and diagnoses of men who murdered or attempted to murder their wives or sweethearts before being found insane and committed into Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum between 1864 and 1900. It is shown that jealousy was entrenched in Victorian culture, but marginalised in medical and legal discourse and in the courtroom until the end of the period, and was seemingly cast aside at Broadmoor. As well as providing a detailed examination of varied representations of male jealousy in late-Victorian Britain, the article contributes to understandings of the emotional lives of the working-class, and the causes and representations of working-class male madness.

  12. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  13. Thailand Momentum on Policy and Practice in Local Legislation on Dengue Vector Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a past decade, an administrative decentralization model, adopted for local administration development in Thailand, is replacing the prior centralized (top-down command system. The change offers challenges to local governmental agencies and other public health agencies at all the ministerial, regional, and provincial levels. A public health regulatory and legislative framework for dengue vector control by local governmental agencies is a national topic of interest because dengue control program has been integrated into healthcare services at the provincial level and also has been given priority in health plans of local governmental agencies. The enabling environments of local administrations are unique, so this critical review focuses on the authority of local governmental agencies responsible for disease prevention and control and on the functioning of local legislation with respect to dengue vector control and practices.

  14. ‘The 19th-century construction of the Renaissance’: Katherine Wheeler, Victorian Perceptions of Renaissance Architecture, Farnham England and Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Lasansky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Wheeler’s Victorian Perceptions of Renaissance Architecture provides a study of the architecture profession and the history of Renaissance architecture in nineteenth century England. Establishing a canon of Renaissance architectural history was key to the rise of architectural professionalism as well as the education of the architect. As we discover, the study of the Renaissance influenced design in England on all scales while also influencing the design of the architect himself.

  15. [Legislative regulation of production and turnover of products for people with different diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritul'skaia, N V; Motuzka, Iu N; Antiushko, D L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results of analysis of existing regulatory documents and approaches to the legislative regulation of production and turnover of special dietary products for people with specific diseases in EU, Ukraine and Russian Federation. According to the EU legislation, production and turnover of food products for nutritional support of people during specific diseases and the rehabilitation period are regulated by the Commission Directive 1999/21/EC, 2009/39/ES, by Regulation Commission (EU) No 953/2009 and documents of Codex Committee. Special food products for people with specific diseases in Ukrainian legislation are classified as nutrition products for special dietary use and are regulated by the following Laws of Ukraine "On the safety and quality of food", "On ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population", "On Consumer Rights Protection", "On advertising" and by other non-legislative acts. According to the current legislation of the Russian Federation, the products for people with specific diseases are classified as healthy dietary food products. The basis of the legal framework are federal laws "On the quality and safety of food", "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of the populations", "On technical regulations and technical regulations of the Customs Union "On Food Safety" and "On the safety of certain types of specialized food products, including healthy dietary food products and therapeutic dietary food products". There is no common approach to the legal regulation of production and turnover of products for people with specific diseases in the world. The proposals for further harmonization of regulatory control in this area have been developed.

  16. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  17. Information Privacy: Culture, Legislation and User Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cockcroft

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003

  18. Stricter antitrust legislation?; Verschaerfung des Kartellrechts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-15

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  19. Legislative and political aspects of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the Senate bill on waste disposal the definition for high-level waste was based on the source of the waste. High-level waste was defined as the liquids and solids resulting from reprocessing. The other terms defined in that bill that are crucial for any legislation dealing with high-level waste are storage and disposal. In the Senate bill, the definition of storage specifically mentioned transuranic (TRU) waste, but it did not include TRU waste in the definition of disposal. In the four House versions of the nuclear waste bill, the definition of high-level waste are addressed more carefully. This paper discusses the following four House committee's versions particularly pointing out how TRU waste is defined and handled: (1) Science Committee bill; (2) Interior Committee bill; (3) Commerce Committee bill; and (4) Armed Service Committee bill. The final language concerning TRU waste will depend on the next series of conference between these Committees. After resolving any differences, conferences will be held between the House and Senate. Here a concensus bill will be developed and it will go to the Rules Committee and then to the floor

  20. De quelques héritages victoriens dans Ever After de Graham Swift (1992 The Question of the Victorian Heritage in Graham Swift’s Ever After (1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roblin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Published in 1992, Ever After is Graham Swift’s fifth novel. It is built around a Victorian metanarrative, the Notebooks written by Matthew Pearce, who is the ancestor of Bill Unwin, the main narrator. As with numerous re-writings of 19th century literary works (“retro-victorian” stories amongst others, Darwin’s and Lyell’s theories appear prominently in the novel. Matthew Pearce, an ardent reader of the naturalist and of the geologist, is going through a spiritual and family crisis and he recounts in his Notebooks his growing skepticism regarding the creationist religious dogma, of which his father-in-law, an Anglican minister, is a determined proponent. A few generations later, this crisis is reflected in his descendent Bill Unwin. Thus, in Ever After, the reader constantly goes to and fro between the Victorian and contemporary periods, the two narrators and their autobiographical texts. How do Matthew Pearce’s Notebooks resonate in the crisis his great-great-grandson is going through? How relevant is this Victorian heritage for a late 20th century narrator or for contemporary literature? I shall try and suggest a few leads to answer these questions.