Sample records for victorian legislative framework

  1. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shall present a detailed and critical review of the legislative and institutional framework of environmental protection and pollution control in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria; it shall conclude with some recommendations for a better, more efficient and effective environmental protection and pollution control regime ...

  2. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga


    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  3. The absence of a \\'norms and standards\\' legislative framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absence of a \\'norms and standards\\' legislative framework for institutional accreditation in private higher education: a disconnection between policy, expectations and quality assurance practice.

  4. European Legislative and Regulatory Framework on Power-to-Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeft, Gijs


    This report under the scope of the STORE&GO Horizon 2020 project aims to provide an assessment of the European legislative and regulatory framework applicable to Power-to-Gas. Power-to-Gas relates to many dimensions of European energy and environmental law. In the first place, the cross-sectoral

  5. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

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    Raguzin Igor


    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  6. Framework legislation for non-communicable diseases: and for the Sustainable Development Goals? (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S


    'Framework legislation' refers to legislation that sets out structures for governance and accountability or other processes for guiding the decisions and actions taken by government or the executive. Framework legislation for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) provides the opportunity for countries to focus their political commitment, to set national targets, and a time-frame for achieving them, and to create cross-sectoral governance structures for the development and implementation of innovative policies. Although they extend well beyond NCDs, the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) create similar demands for effective national governance. A similar case might, therefore, be made for framework legislation for the health-related SDGs or for legislation to govern particular aspects, such as managing commercial relationships with the private sector or managing conflicts of interest. This article considers the possible benefits of framework legislation, including what issues might be appropriate for inclusion in a framework law. The absence of framework legislation should neither be seen as an excuse for inaction, nor is framework legislation a substitute for detailed regulation of areas such as sanitation and water quality, tobacco and alcohol control, food safety, essential medicines or poisons. The ultimate test for framework legislation will be its capacity to provide a catalyst for action and to accelerate progress towards national and global health goals.

  7. The Legislative Framework Regarding Bullying In South African Schools

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    Annelie Laas


    Full Text Available Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that has the potential to impact on children not only physically but also psychologically. In South Africa countless children fall victim to bullying, harassment and abuse at schools. A myriad of constitutional rights are infringed upon when bullying occurs, and the problem is escalating. The Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011 was signed and accepted into law on the 27th of April 2013. This new Act may grant relief to victims of bullying inter alia by providing for protection orders, and therefore adds to the legislative framework available to victims. However, in terms of bullying in schools, the parties to these incidents are minors and therefore a critical analysis is necessary with regard to the rights of the victim and the offender. In this context the relationship and interaction between the Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011, the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis.

  8. Reading Victorian Sculpture

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    Angela Dunstan


    Full Text Available This introduction reflects on reading sculpture in Victorian culture, and in Victorian studies. How did the Victorians read sculpture? How should we read it today? What might a sculpture connote in different contexts: the home, the street, the gallery, the colony? How broadly should we define what we describe as ‘Victorian sculpture’, in light of nineteenth-century industrial and technological innovation? For the Victorians, as for modern readers of Victorian sculpture, legibility remains a prime preoccupation when addressing these questions. This introduction suggests that Victorian sculpture’s resistance to reading renders it fertile ground for revisiting and reinterpreting individual works, their creators, textual responses to them, and the greater significance of their cumulative cultural imprint.

  9. Legislation for Youth Sport Concussion in Canada: Review, Conceptual Framework, and Recommendations. (United States)

    Russell, Kelly; Ellis, Michael J; Bauman, Shannon; Tator, Charles H


    In this article, we conduct a review of introduced and enacted youth concussion legislation in Canada and present a conceptual framework and recommendations for future youth sport concussion laws. We conducted online searches of federal, provincial, and territorial legislatures to identify youth concussion bills that were introduced or successfully enacted into law. Internet searches were carried out from July 26 and 27, 2016. Online searches identified six youth concussion bills that were introduced in provincial legislatures, including two in Ontario and Nova Scotia and one each in British Columbia and Quebec. One of these bills (Ontario Bill 149, Rowan's Law Advisory Committee Act, 2016) was enacted into provincial law; it is not actual concussion legislation, but rather a framework for possible enactment of legislation. Two bills have been introduced in federal parliament but neither bill has been enacted into law. At present, there is no provincial or federal concussion legislation that directly legislates concussion education, prevention, management, or policy in youth sports in Canada. The conceptual framework and recommendations presented here should be used to guide the design and implementation of future youth sport concussion laws in Canada.


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    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU


    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  11. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation. (United States)

    Tumwine, Jacqueline


    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  12. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

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    Jacqueline Tumwine


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  13. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José


    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  14. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava (Private Consultants (Ukraine)); Nasvit, Oleg (National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)); German, Olga (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))


    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation


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    Anél Terblanche


    Full Text Available Various South African government reports list food security as a development priority. Despite this prioritisation and despite the fact that South Africa is currently food self-sufficient, ongoing food shortages remain a daily reality for approximately 35 percent of the South African population. The government's commitment to food security to date of writing this contribution manifests in related policies, strategies, programmes and sectoral legislation with the focus on food production, distribution, safety and assistance. A paradigm shift in the international food security debate was encouraged during 2009, namely to base food security initiatives on the right to sufficient food. During a 2011 visit to South Africa, the Special Rapporteur for the Right to Food of the United Nations, accordingly confirmed that a human rights-based approach to food security is necessary in the South African legal and policy framework in order to address the huge disparities in terms of food security (especially concerning geography, gender and race. A human rights-based approach to food security will add dimensions of dignity, transparency, accountability, participation and empowerment to food security initiatives. The achievement of food security is further seen as the realisation of existing rights, notably the right of access to sufficient food. The right of access to sufficient food, as entrenched in section 27(1(b of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 will accordingly play a central role within a human rights-based approach to food security. Section 27(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 qualifies section 27(1(b by requiring the state to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of each of the section 27(1 rights. The South African government's commitment to food security, as already mentioned, currently manifests in related policies

  16. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework

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    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz


    Full Text Available The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1 Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2 Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3 Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids.

  17. Introduction: Victorian Theatricalities

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    Michael Dobson


    Full Text Available After a barrage of manipulative fan-letters from Sir Merton and Annie Russell-Cotes, Sir Henry Irving, titan of the Victorian stage and the first actor to be knighted, eventually came to stay, briefly, at East Cliff Hall in Bournemouth. A peculiar but attractive compound of Scots baronial castle, Italian villa, French château and Bournemouth seaside bungalow, complete with lavish Art Nouveau interiors and a fountain in the entrance lobby, the house was always designed in and of itself as a dramatic location and was also intended as a magnet for theatrical celebrities. Sir Merton and Annie amply stuffed it with nineteenth-century British paintings, miscellaneous sculptures, and souvenirs of their extensive overseas holidays. Today the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum remains the late Victorian treasure house par excellence, and I can imagine few more vivid short-cuts into the culture and mindset of the late nineteenth-century haute bourgeoisie than an afternoon spent marvelling at the tons of accumulated trophies and bibelots cluttering its rooms or the acres of tastefully-exposed nipples adorning its walls. What the Russell-Cotes Museum also makes clear, even at its gloomiest, is the key place of drama in the Victorian imagination. After Irving's death in 1905, the Russell-Cotes bought many of Irving's personal effects at auction. Adding these to their existing collection of Irving memorabilia and other theatrical paintings and souvenirs, they converted the bedroom in which Irving had stayed into a permanent shrine to his memory. The Henry Irving Room would make an ideal introduction to most of the contents of this volume.


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    Diana Prihoanca


    Full Text Available Romania’s adherence to the European Union implied the previous and entire acceptance of the Community acquis in force on 31st of December 1999. Our country didn’t request any period of transition or of derogation in this meaning, being among the first states from East Europe that regulated the audio-visual department, after the occidental model. In order to harmonize the Romanian legislation with the European standards, The National Council of the Audio-Visual Department adopted and transposed a whole range of acts and decisions that we will try to synthesize in our paper. In the adoption of the acquis, the NAC has to watch whether the adopted decisions are conform to the progress at European level. It is necessary to continue strengthening the administrative capacities of NAC to ensure a transparent and predictable implementation of the regulatory framework in the field of audiovisual policy. In Romania, the normative acts that regulate aspects concerning general advertising and promotional communication through television are: Advertising Act and the Broadcasting Act.

  19. Proposed framework legislation for renewable energy in South Africa / David Frederik van der Merwe


    Van der Merwe, David Frederik


    It is common-cause that South Africa can be regarded as a country that is rich in diversity of natural resources. Moreover, it is generally accepted that South Africa has the best legislation with regard to the regulation of the environment in various fields such as water, air, biodiversity and waste management. However, there is to date, no specific legislation regulating renewable energy in South Africa. As a result of the high unemployment rate, poverty and the rural populat...

  20. [The prison nurse: analysis of the evolution of the legislative framework]. (United States)

    Ziliani, Paola


    The evolution of the role of prison nurses through the Italian legislation is presented, analyzing the implication of the transfer of competences from the Law ministry to the National Health Service. Until 60 years ago scarce attention was paid to the health of prisoners and only in the years 70' nurses were formally included in the staff of the prisons.

  1. [Health promotion in the framework of the health reform legislation--current perspectives for health insurance and municipalities]. (United States)

    Nowak, M


    This paper describes the perspectives of health promotion within the framework of the basic laws promulgated as of January 1989 in the Federal Republic of Germany. The initial situation, the intentions of the legislator, the performance criteria and the types of organised health promotion on a regional or county (community) basis are described. The new legislation on health promotion opens up new perspectives for compulsory health insurance bodies and regional (community) bodies. The advantages offered thereby must be made use of. The health insurance bodies can revive the principles of self-administration by taking full advantage of all possibilities of creating health promotion facilities. Community bodies must not only bear costs, they are also centrally responsible for health promotion policies to be enforced in their respective regions by organising cooperation between the individual persons and institutions who can regionally act as health policy promoters, and they are expected to bring about a general consensus on health promotion procedures.

  2. Legislative lobbying in context : towards a conceptual framework of interest group lobbying in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluver, Heike; Braun, C.; Beyers, Jan


    We outline a conceptual framework that identifies and characterizes the contextual nature of interest group politics in the European Union (EU) to better understand variation in interest group mobilization, lobbying strategies and interest group influence. We focus on two sets of contextual factors

  3. Legislative and Institutional Framework for the Food Safety Control of Live Animals in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Roest, van der J.


    In 2002, both China and the EU suffered from a trade dispute over animal products. The aim of the report is to document this framework, in order to make a constructive contribution towards bridging the gap of understanding and accessibility of the countries' procedures in particular and of their

  4. A framework of pediatric hospital discharge care informed by legislation, research, and practice. (United States)

    Berry, Jay G; Blaine, Kevin; Rogers, Jayne; McBride, Sarah; Schor, Edward; Birmingham, Jackie; Schuster, Mark A; Feudtner, Chris


    To our knowledge, no widely used pediatric standards for hospital discharge care exist, despite nearly 10 000 pediatric discharges per day in the United States. This lack of standards undermines the quality of pediatric hospital discharge, hinders quality-improvement efforts, and adversely affects the health and well-being of children and their families after they leave the hospital. In this article, we first review guidance regarding the discharge process for adult patients, including federal law within the Social Security Act that outlines standards for hospital discharge; a variety of toolkits that aim to improve discharge care; and the research evidence that supports the discharge process. We then outline a framework within which to organize the diverse activities that constitute discharge care to be executed throughout the hospitalization of a child from admission to the actual discharge. In the framework, we describe processes to (1) initiate pediatric discharge care, (2) develop discharge care plans, (3) monitor discharge progress, and (4) finalize discharge. We contextualize these processes with a clinical case of a child undergoing hospital discharge. Use of this narrative review will help pediatric health care professionals (eg, nurses, social workers, and physicians) move forward to better understand what works and what does not during hospital discharge for children, while steadily improving their quality of care and health outcomes.

  5. Law, Water and Sustainable Development: Framework of Nigerian Law - Country Legislation

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    Olawale Ajai


    Full Text Available The central issues of economic development and environmental protection in the current social, political and economic environment relate to water – an overlooked or less glamorous natural resource. For example, topical and sometimes controversial issues such as crude oil and minerals extraction, pollution control, biodiversity protection, energy and power, resource control, revenue allocation and political participation, etc., relate directly or indirectly to water resources management. This paper seeks to identify and present in a schematic and conceptual manner and to highlight the usefulness of folklore for sustainable development and evaluate the usefulness of recruiting traditional institutions into the institutional framework for modern sustainable water resources management in Nigeria It also discusses the emergent law on water resources as well as the issues concerning the domestic and international riparian law, in particular the River Niger and Lake Chad basins and explores how folklore, comparative law and international law may be adopted and adapted to aid the development and application of water law, and by direct implication sustainable development in Nigeria.

  6. Household Clearances in Victorian Fiction

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    David Trotter


    Full Text Available The deathbed apart, there are few scenes more profoundly disturbing in nineteenth-century fiction than the household clearance, or the process of 'selling up': the identification of domestic material goods for sale at auction, either in situ, or elsewhere. Of course, we shouldn't be surprised at this, if the Victorians took the idea of home anything like as seriously as they made out. How could such a violation or wilful sacrifice of domesticity not be profoundly disturbing? This essay argues that scenes of household clearance in nineteenth-century fiction possess a density and an edge which exceed any shock they might have administered to the sensibilities of the house-proud. Such scenes expose to critical view an aspect of existence otherwise generally understood, then as now, not to require or to benefit from illumination. The aims of the essay are twofold: 1 to demonstrate the pervasiveness of scenes of household clearance in Victorian fiction, with reference to Dickens, Thackeray, Eliot, Hardy, and others; 2 to put forward an explanation for the imaginative charge they carry, which runs counter to a strong emphasis in the current understanding of nineteenth-century fiction's perspective on a newly abundant material culture.

  7. Criminal acts related to the exploitation of child pornography through abuse of computer systems and networks: International and domestic criminal legislation framework

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    Stevanović Ivana


    Full Text Available The paper points out the importance of newly adopted international norms and standards that State Parties should undertake to aim a more adequate protection of children from sexual exploitation especially a pornography exploitation. A specific section of this paper is dedicated to the overview of the domestic criminal legislation framework regarding the protection of children victims of crimes related to their exploitation in pornography through abuse of computer systems and networks, and considering the recent changes in the criminal legislation in the Republic of Serbia. In this paper the author particularly analyses the compliance of certain provisions of the Criminal Code with the assumed international obligations.

  8. An analysis framework for characterizing and explaining development of EIA legislation in developing countries-Illustrated for Georgia, Ghana and Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands)


    Actors in the field of international development co-operation supporting the development of EIA legislation in developing countries often do not achieve the results envisaged. The performance of EIA in these countries often remains weak. One reason, we assume, is that often those actors support the establishment of overly ambitious EIA legislation that cannot achieve its objectives in the light of constraining contexts. To provide more effective support we need to better understand the enabling and constraining contextual factors that influence the development of EIA legislation and to which support actors should align itself. In this article a new analysis framework for classifying, characterizing and explaining the development of EIA legislation is described, measured in terms of ambition levels. Ambitions are defined as intentions the EIA authorities aim to fulfill, expressed in formal EIA legislation. Three country cases, Yemen, Georgia and Ghana are used to illustrate the usefulness of our framework and as a first test to refine the framework. We have formulated the following five hypotheses that complement and refine our analysis framework. One, EIA legislation may develop multilinearly in terms of ambition levels. Two, ambitions in EIA legislation seem to be influenced to a great extent by the power and capacity of, on the one hand, the environmental authorities supporting EIA and, on the other hand, the sector authorities hindering the development of EIA. Three, the political system is the most important context factor influencing the rules of policy-making and the power of the different actors involved. Four, the importance of context factors on the development of ambitions is dependent on the phase of EIA system development. Five, some ambitions seem to be influenced by particular factors; for instance the ambitions for the object of study seem to be influenced by the level of environmental awareness of the sector ministries and parliament. The analysis

  9. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  10. Dickens, Victorian Mental Sciences and Mnemonic Errancy

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    Greta Perletti


    Full Text Available While Dickens's alertness to debates about the physiology of the mind has been the subject of a number of critical investigations in the past two decades (especially with respect to Dickens's interest in mesmerism, this article investigates the relationship between Dickens's fiction and theories of memory within Victorian mental science. By focusing on a fantasy of 'memory extirpation' that was circulating in Victorian culture, this article reflects on the ways in which Dickens's writing engaged with (and perhaps even contributed to Victorian philosophical and psychological discourses on self and memory. Through an analysis of an emerging psychology of memory, this article shows how Dickens's fiction comes to terms with the risks that memory poses as well as its creative possibilities.

  11. Feminist Thinking on Education in Victorian England (United States)

    Schwartz, Laura


    This article examines some of the conversations that took place between women's rights advocates on the subject of female education. The relationship between Victorian feminism and educational reform was a complex one, and historians have long argued over whether campaigns for women's schools and colleges can be termed "feminist". This article…

  12. Moral Education in the Victorian Sunday School. (United States)

    Tholfsen, Trygve R.


    The teachings of the Victorian Sunday school reflected an evangelical subculture that had become comfortably adapted to the world around it. The social values of the middle and lower classes took their place beside traditional virtues of piety, charity, and honesty. (Author/KC)

  13. Streaming for Mathematics in Victorian Secondary Schools (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen


    Streaming (or ability grouping) for mathematics learning is a contentious issue. It can also be considered an issue of equity or social justice as some students may be adversely affected by the practice. Currently, the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) does not appear to have clear guidelines on streaming.…

  14. Female Researchers in Neo-Victorian Fiction

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    Lai-Ming Tammy Ho


    Full Text Available Neo-Victorian novelists sometimes use postgraduate students – trainee academics – who research nineteenth-century writers as protagonists. This article discusses four neo-Victorian novels, Lloyd Jones’s Mister Pip (2006, Justine Picardie’s Daphne (2008, A.N. Wilson’s A Jealous Ghost (2005 and Scarlett Thomas’s The End of Mr Y (2006, in which female postgraduate students take the centre stage. In Victorian literature, which mirrors the gender bias in the academic world and in society at large at that time, most scholars are male. The contemporary writers’ choice of female trainee academics is worth investigating as it speaks to the visibly changed gender make-up of contemporary academia. However, this utopian situation is complicated by the fact that the writers have chosen to frustrate the characters’ entry into the world of scholarship by having them leave the university environment altogether before the end of the novel. The fact that these females all choose to depart the university forms a contrast with notions of the university found in Victorian novels, in which leaving or not attending university might have detrimental effects on the characters.

  15. Identification Crises: Victorian Women and Wayward Reading


    Knox, Marisa


    In the Victorian period, no assumption about female reading generated more ambivalence and anxiety than the supposedly feminine facility for identifying with fictional characters and plots. Simultaneously, no assumption about women's reading seemed to be more axiomatic. Conservatives and radicals, feminists and anti-feminists, artists and scientists, and novelists and critics throughout the long nineteenth century believed implicitly in women's essential tendency to internalize textual perspe...

  16. The development and implementation of family and child welfare system legislation in the frameworks of contemporary family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Ana


    Full Text Available The demographic picture of Serbia over the last few decades has featured a negative trend, particularly fueled by the negative aspects of the transition process and adjustment to the new models of life functioning, and therefore the harmonization of family relationships is seriously undermined by the increased number of divorces, single-parent families and delayed parenthood. The research has confirmed that the parents opted for a larger number of children under the changed circumstances should relate to the government to take greater responsibility in this area. Programs do not necessarily have to be of material nature. They may include a variety of content-creative measures aimed at increasing the birth rate and the quality of family life by activating various discussions in the local community. National measures that would contribute to a harmonious family life are associated with an increased level of security, extended work of preschool institutions in order to harmonize work and family life and the introduction of discounts on equipment and clothing for the preschool children. In addition to reproductive functions, other functions of the family are: psychological, educational and socializing over the last decade (particularly after the introduction of compulsory pre-school program, which has led to the transformation of active strategies of the state and legislation in this regard and acceptance of the principle of lifelong learning in which preschool foundation plays a crucial role in the adaptation of compulsory education by providing equal starting conditions for all children. The existence of new forms of institutions such as family centers with a differentiated system of services (consulting, information, educational should compensate deficiencies of the existing system only on the basis of social protection embodied in the social welfare centers, which are available mostly in cases of pre-existing problems.

  17. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta, E-mail: [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Tediosi, Alice [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Ciffroy, Philippe [Electricité de France (EDF) R& D, National Hydraulic and Environment Laboratory, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Altenpohl, Annette [Österreichisches Normungsinstitut/Austrian Standards Institute, Heinestraße 38, 1020 Wien (Austria); Brochot, Céline [INERIS, Parc ALATA, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Verdonck, Frederik [ARCHE cvba, Liefkensstraat 35d, 9032 Gent-Wondelgem (Belgium); Ferrari, Federico [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Giubilato, Elisa [University Ca Foscari Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venice (Italy); Capri, Ettore [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Fait, Gabriella [EFSA, via Carlo Magno 1/a, 43126 Parma (Italy)


    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals • Coupling environmental exposure and pharmacokinetic models • MERLIN-expo as a higher tier exposure tool • MERLIN-expo potential application in EU chemical regulations • EU legislations and policies related to risk assessment and management of chemicals.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sagoff Alsagoff


    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1967 ASEAN has advanced in great leaps in the economic sector luring new member states into its pact. From a mere five member states (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines ASEAN has today managed to entice five other neighbouring states (Brunei 1984, Vietnam 1995, Laos & Myanmar 1997, Cambodia 1999 into its pact transforming itself into union of ten member states with a consumer population expected to exceed 600 million people. In order to ensure sustainability amid global challenges, member states have engrossed ASEAN Charter in 2007 with a view of creating an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 that is robust, competitive and sustainable. At this juncture, ASEAN has to realize that like any trade liberalization initiatives, goods moved readily and freely throughout the free-trade area that is facilitated by a lucrative non-barrier tariffs incentives. This vision of a single market which creates a frontier without borders can prove to be advantageous to member states only if they have the required vehicle that is able to overcome the drawback of its progression through harmonization and synchronization efforts that is effective and successful. Like everything else, every advantage has some disadvantages attached to it. This article will address important determining factors that are crucial in the development and scope of proposed ASEAN Product Safety Directive including reviewing relevant determining factors such as regional stability, consumer protection legislations and standard and testing agencies of which one without the other will be incomplete. The proposals suggested in this article will strengthen and unite ASEAN in overcoming unsafe product issues at ASEAN level.

  19. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa (United States)


    Background Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa’s constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs) as the principal institutions of community participation. Formally recognized in the National Health Act of 2003, the National Health Act deferred to provincial governments in establishing the specific roles and functions of HCs. As a result, stakeholders developed a Draft Policy Framework for Community Participation in Health (Draft Policy) to formalize participatory institutions in the Western Cape province. Methods With the Draft Policy as a frame of analysis, the researchers conducted documentary policy analysis and semi-structured interviews on the evolution of South African community participation policy. Moving beyond the specific and unique circumstances of the Western Cape, this study analyzes generalizable themes for rights-based community participation in the health system. Results Framing institutions for the establishment, appointment, and functioning of community participation, the Draft Policy proposed a formal network of communication – from local HCs to the health system. However, this participation structure has struggled to establish itself and function effectively as a result of limitations in community representation, administrative support, capacity building, and policy commitment. Without legislative support for community participation, the enactment of superseding legislation is likely to bring an end to HC structures in the Western Cape. Conclusions Attempts to realize community participation have not adequately addressed the underlying factors crucial to promoting effective participation, with

  20. The transit of Venus enterprise in Victorian Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliff, Jessica


    In nineteenth century, the British Government spent money measuring the distance between the earth and the sun using observations of the transit of Venus. This book presents a narrative of the two Victorian transit programmes. It draws out their cultural significance and explores the nature of 'big science' in late-Victorian Britain.

  1. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences. (United States)

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea


    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  2. Influenza vaccination uptake among Victorian healthcare workers: evaluating the success of a statewide program. (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra A; Bennett, Noleen; Bull, Ann L; Richards, Michael J; Worth, Leon J


    Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all Australian healthcare workers (HCWs). In 2014, a target vaccination uptake of 75% was set for Victorian healthcare facilities. This study aimed to determine the 2014 uptake, describe trends over time and propose an enhanced reporting framework. Annual data submitted to the Victorian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance System (VICNISS) regarding HCW influenza were evaluated for 2005-2014. Faculty uptake - the number of vaccinations administered divided by total number of staff employed - was reported as a statewide aggregate and stratified by facility size (number of staff employed). In 2014, 78,885 HCWs were vaccinated across 93 healthcare facilities, corresponding to an overall uptake of 72.2%. During 2005-2014, small facilities (healthcare facility size categories, the highest uptake was observed in 2014. Influenza vaccination uptake in HCWs has successfully been introduced as a performance indicator in Victorian healthcare facilities and a peak uptake was reported in 2014. Varied trends are evident when uptake is stratified by number of employed HCWs, providing a feasible and meaningful method for benchmarking. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Being Lister: ethos and Victorian medical discourse. (United States)

    Connor, J J; Connor, J T H


    Stylistic analysis and rhetorical theory are used in this study to inform our understanding of impediments to the successful uptake of a new medical idea. Through examination of the work of the Victorian surgeon Joseph Lister, who was described by one biographer as suffering from "stylistic ham-handedness", the study provides insights into the difficulty that Lister had in explaining his theory of antiseptic surgery. Using three comparisons-Lister's scientific style in public discourse with that of his students, and Lister's scientific style in private discourse with those of both a surbordinate and a superior-the study suggests that the rhetorical concept of ethos played a major role in his communication difficulties. In this way, it presents a more nuanced perspective on modern presentations of "model" communications versus communication failures: that is, that problematic written discourse offers as useful a heuristic device as does exemplary discourse.

  4. The natural theology of Victorian industry. (United States)

    Fisher, Nick


    As clergymen in Britain celebrated the Great Exhibition in the summer of 1851 and drew appropriate moral lessons, there was widespread agreement that the triumphs of industry on display represented the fulfilment of God's will. The basic assumption was that overcoming God's curse on Adam had been possible only through sustained hard work - industry in the early Victorian sense - and that this imperative work ethic had always been God's intention for mankind. In elaborating the details, preachers combined the British tradition of natural theology with the Scottish Enlightenment's progressive science of man to paint a picture of the slow recovery of man from the Fall through his own industry. This was the very story of civilization itself, with God the driving force. The celebrants were quite clear that it was divine providence that had ordained the greatness of Great Britain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana


    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  6. By-Product of Industrialization: The Victorian Myth (United States)

    Intercom, 1976


    A case study designed to provide a picture of sex stereotypes in Europe and America before and after the industrial revolution. Qualities most often exhibited and admired by Victorian men and women are described. (Author/DB)

  7. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Bochenek


    Full Text Available Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating

  8. Representations of Lovesickness in Victorian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Övgü Tüzün


    Full Text Available Given the central place it occupies in human life and relations, it is hardly surprising that romantic love as well as the distress caused by unrequited love is a universal phenomenon that has been explored by numerous writers over the years. Passionate love can be defined as a state of intense desire for fusion with another. When love is reciprocated and union is achieved, the lover feels a sense of fulfilment and joyful ecstasy. If the lover is rejected or scorned, however, s/he is overwhelmed with an acute sensation of emptiness, often accompanied with feelings of anxiety and despair. For the purposes of this article, I will focus on representations of lovesickness in two novels from the Victorian period: Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte and The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins. Drawing on the sociologist Eva Illouz’ Why Love Hurts? and the psychologist Dorothy Tennov’s conceptualization of love and limerence, I will examine how the emotional trauma experienced by Catherine and Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights and Rosanna Spearman in The Moonstone causes all three characters to feel intense suffering and prolonged misery, leading - eventually - to their destruction.

  9. Walking Victorian Spitalfields with Israel Zangwill

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    Nadia Valman


    Full Text Available This article discusses Zangwill’s Spitalfields, a mobile app with content curated, written, and produced by Nadia Valman, Soda Ltd (developer and the Jewish Museum, London (archive collaborator. The app uses Israel Zangwill’s novel 'Children of the Ghetto' (1892 as a walking guide to the Jewish immigrant subculture of Victorian Spitalfields, east London, which the novel describes at a moment of critical change. Zangwill’s Spitalfields exploits the app’s potential for bringing together a range of digital sources including archive photographs, museum objects, and oral history recordings with the user’s observations of the physical environment, to produce an experience that is both immersive and multivocal. Mobile digital technology has provided a new interpretive context for the Jewish Museum’s collection, and animated previously unmarked monuments in Spitalfields. By drawing on the user’s experience of walking in present-day Spitalfields, the app also intervenes into a historiography increasingly shaped by nostalgia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stîngaciu Ana-Maria


    Full Text Available The analysis of the administrative capacity of institutions in the regional development starts from the analysis of the existing framework for the implementation of regional politics in Romania and studies the extent to what the structures and competencies were regionally enlarged as to contribute in the regional development. The basic hypothesis considered for such analysis had in view the fact that the differences recorded with respect to the implementation capacity of the regional development policy are caused by the various levels of the administrative capacity of the national, regional and local institutions existent in Romania. Although the regional development activity is, both centrally and regionally, dominated by the Regional Operational Programmme 2007-2013 (ROP implementation, significant activity also exists outside the ROP, but only regionally. The regional strategies incorporate to a great extent the strategic objectives established nationally, being coordinated with the national financing instruments for economic, social and territorial development. The undertaking degree of responsibilities regarding the objectives fulfillment of the regional development policy is relatively low both regionally and locally, and the main indicator which contributes in sustaining this conclusion is the absence of an adequate level regarding the property holding on certain strategies and also the methodological lack of strategies. Nationally, the current activity of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism in the field of regional development totally overlaps the management activity of ROP. The management of structural funds 2007-2013 granted through ROP deals with various situations in which, due to the fact that the Law of regional development remained behind the legislation for the structural instruments implementation in Romania, additional resources are necessary to be granted in order to be found solutions through other types of

  11. The Victorian Meme Machine: Remixing the Nineteenth-Century Archive

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    Bob Nicholson


    Full Text Available In summer 2014 Bob Nicholson began working with the British Library Labs on a new project that aims to find and revive Victorian jokes. It began with two key aims: to build a high-quality, open access, research database of one million Victorian jokes; and to share these jokes with modern audiences in creative new ways, including the use of images, videos, performances, and social media. This article explains the rationale behind the project and outlines the work done so far. Part one explains why Victorian jokes are worthy of academic attention and demonstrates how the most laboured of puns can reveal new insights into nineteenth-century culture and society. Part two explores the relationship between Victorian jokes and existing digital archives and considers the pros and cons of liberating them from the restrictions imposed by these collections. Finally, part three documents the progress made so far. In particular, it reflects on the development of the ‘Mechanical Comedian’ tool and attempts to release one hundred ‘remixed’ versions of Victorian jokes onto social media.

  12. Introduction: Victorian Fiction and the Material Imagination

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    Victoria Mills


    Full Text Available How should we deal with the ‘stuff' in books? This is the question addressed in the lead articles of the Spring 2008 issue of 19, all of which focus on some aspect of the material in relation to Victorian fiction. Gas, rocks, jewellery, automata and the entire contents of houses are examined in essays that explore the material imagination of Dickens, Hardy, George Eliot and Thackeray, among others. Moving forward from the previous edition, which different types of collected object, here contributors examine how the material is brought into collision with literature. The phrase 'material imagination' can be traced to the work of Gaston Bachelard who identifies two types of imagination, the formal and the material. Whereas the former focuses on surfaces and the visual perception of images, the latter consists of '…this amazing need for penetration which, going beyond the attractions of the imagination of forms, thinks matter, dreams in it, lives in it, or, in other words, materializes the imaginary'. As Bachelard suggests, the material imagination involves more than just a focus on the representation of objects and the contributions to this edition explore such wide ranging subjects as the gender politics of ownership, dispossession, the body as object, the politics of collecting and display and the dichotomy between the material and immaterial. In addition, this edition features a forum on digitisation and materiality. We are particularly pleased to be able to make use of 19's digital publishing format to further debates about digital media. In the forum, five contributors respond to a series of questions about the nature of the virtual object. All five have worked or are working on nineteenth-century digitisation projects so they are uniquely placed to consider issues surrounding representation and the nature of digital space.

  13. Viewpoint: Transatlantic Scholarship on Victorian Literature and Culture

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    Isobel Armstrong


    Full Text Available This viewpoint offers a comparison of recent British and American criticism of Victorian literature and culture, encompassing Dickens, Tennyson, the epic and ethical criticism. Discussion centres on recent studies by Sally Ledger, Rosemarie Bodenheimer, Cornelia Pearsall, Kirstie Blair, Simon Dentith, Herbert Tucker, Andrew Miller and Mike Sanders.

  14. The new Victorians: The joys of scientific correspondence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.


    'My dear Hooker,' wrote Charles Darwin to Joseph Hooker on 6 March 1844, 'I will not lose a post in guarding you against what I am afraid is . . . labour in vain.' This urgent warning went by post, because Darwin had no option: he had no telephone. What the Victorians did have, however, was a

  15. An action research approach to practice, service and legislative change. (United States)

    Sullivan, Elise; Hegney, Desley G; Francis, Karen


    To describe the action research approach taken to engage a multidisciplinary group of health professionals and managers from five rural health services with government officers in redesigning their emergency care services and informing legislative change. The diminishing size of the medical workforce across rural Victoria in Australia captured the Victorian state government's attention when this threatened the sustainability of emergency care services in rural and remote hospitals in 2006. The government funded the collaborative practice model pilot between 2006 and 2008 to develop and test an alternative model of emergency care service in which nurses practised at a more advanced and autonomous level. Data were sourced from a combination of interviews, focus groups and patient records. Qualitative data were analysed using convergent interview and thematic analysis. Quantitative data were analysed using frequencies and cross tabulations. The three critical success factors owing to action research are presented. It provided a politically safe approach to service, policy and legislative change, ensured collaboration permeated the endeavour and helped to shift the focus from a technical to an emancipatory approach to action research. Action research was key to the success achieved by the participants in changing clinical practice, service delivery and the Victorian Drugs Poisons and Controlled Substances Act (1981) to authorise registered nurses to supply medicines. This paper offers an approach that nurses in practice, management and government can take to drive changes at practice, service and legislative levels in advanced nursing practice.

  16. How could health information be improved? Recommended actions from the Victorian Consultation on Health Literacy. (United States)

    Hill, Sophie J; Sofra, Tanya A


    Objective Health literacy is on the policy agenda. Accessible, high-quality health information is a major component of health literacy. Health information materials include print, electronic or other media-based information enabling people to understand health and make health-related decisions. The aim of the present study was to present the findings and recommended actions as they relate to health information of the Victorian Consultation on Health Literacy. Methods Notes and submissions from the 2014 Victorian Consultation workshops and submissions were analysed thematically and a report prepared with input from an advisory committee. Results Health information needs to improve and recommendations are grouped into two overarching themes. First, the quality of information needs to be increased and this can be done by developing a principle-based framework to inform updating guidance for information production, formulating standards to raise quality and improving the systems for delivering information to people. Second, there needs to be a focus on users of health information. Recommendation actions were for information that promoted active participation in health encounters, resources to encourage critical users of health information and increased availability of information tailored to population diversity. Conclusion A framework to improve health information would underpin the efforts to meet literacy needs in a more consistent way, improving standards and ultimately increasing the participation by consumers and carers in health decision making and self-management. What is known about the topic? Health information is a critical component of the concept of health literacy. Poorer health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes across a range of measures. Improving access to and the use of quality sources of health information is an important strategy for meeting the health literacy needs of the population. In recent years, health services and

  17. 'I am very glad and cheered when I hear the flute': The Treatment of Criminal Lunatics in Late Victorian Broadmoor. (United States)

    Shepherd, Jade


    Through an examination of previously unseen archival records, including patients' letters, this article examines the treatment and experiences of patients in late Victorian Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum and stakes the place of this institution within the broader history of therapeutic regimes in British asylums. Two main arguments are put forth. The first relates to the evolution of treatment in Victorian asylums. Historians tend to agree that in the 1860s and 1870s 'psychiatric pessimism' took hold, as the optimism that had accompanied the growth of moral treatment, along with its promise of a cure for insanity, abated. It has hitherto been taken for granted that all asylums reflected this change. I question this assumption by showing that Broadmoor did not sit neatly within this framework. Rather, the continued emphasis on work, leisure and kindness privileged at this institution into the late Victorian period was often welcomed positively by patients and physicians alike. Second, I show that, in Broadmoor's case, moral treatment was determined not so much by the distinction between the sexes as the two different classes of patients - Queen's pleasure patients and insane convicts - in the asylum. This distinction between patients not only led to different modes of treatment within Broadmoor, but had an impact on patients' asylum experiences. The privileged access to patients' letters that the Broadmoor records provide not only offers a new perspective on the evolution of treatment in Victorian asylums, but also reveals the rarely accessible views of asylum patients and their families on asylum care.

  18. Darwin and Reductionisms: Victorian, Neo-Darwinian and Postgenomic Biologies

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    Angelique Richardson


    Full Text Available This article compares the open-ended Darwinism of Charles Darwin, George Lewes, George Eliot and Thomas Hardy with reductive post-Weismann and early eugenist views and more recent neo-Darwinian ideas including literary Darwinism. It argues that some Victorians had a clear sense of the complexities of the natural world, and of the centrality of environment to life. This awareness contrasts with the processes of divorce and isolation that underpin neo-Darwinian understandings of evolutionary development. But biologists and philosophers of biology are now emphasising the complex and dynamic relations between organism and environment in ways that would have appealed to Darwin’s contemporaries. The article establishes that there are significant parallels between mid-Victorian and postgenomic thought.

  19. Savage numbers and the evolution of civilization in Victorian prehistory. (United States)

    Barany, Michael J


    This paper identifies 'savage numbers'--number-like or number-replacing concepts and practices attributed to peoples viewed as civilizationally inferior--as a crucial and hitherto unrecognized body of evidence in the first two decades of the Victorian science of prehistory. It traces the changing and often ambivalent status of savage numbers in the period after the 1858-1859 'time revolution' in the human sciences by following successive reappropriations of an iconic 1853 story from Francis Galton's African travels. In response to a fundamental lack of physical evidence concerning prehistoric men, savage numbers offered a readily available body of data that helped scholars envisage great extremes of civilizational lowliness in a way that was at once analysable and comparable, and anecdotes like Galton's made those data vivid and compelling. Moreover, they provided a simple and direct means of conceiving of the progressive scale of civilizational development, uniting societies and races past and present, at the heart of Victorian scientific racism.

  20. W. Henry Robinson: Popularising astronomy in Victorian Walsall and Birmingham (United States)

    Williams, S.

    William Henry Robinson was one of the most prominent citizens of Walsall, then part of Staffordshire, in the Victorian and Edwardian periods. An influential businessman, he managed to combine printing, publishing, editing a newspaper, writing books and poetry, maintaining a library and retail trading with founding the town's literary institute, and bringing the scientists, explorers, authors and cultural pursuits of the day to his home town. An amateur astronomer in his own right, Robinson was instrumental in setting up the BAA's Midland Branch.

  1. Blast furnace coke substitutes from Victorian brown coal


    Mollah, Mamun


    Iron is usually produced from its ores using coke in a blast furnace (BF). Coke, a hard and macroporous carbon material, is produced from special coals (coking coals) and acts as fuel, smelting agent, and the permeable support for the charge to the BF. No material can completely replace coke in a BF. Coking coals are becoming harder (and more expensive) to obtain. Victorian brown coal (VBC) is accessible, cheap, with low mineral concentrations, which is favourable for iron production in a BF....

  2. Medusa as the story of Victorian feminine identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Catrinel Avarvarei


    Full Text Available Medusa as the story of Victorian feminine identity Abstract  This paper scans the meandering paths of a quest through the realms of womanly self and its articulateness in (robust constructs of individuality. We have departed from a paradigm of interpretation related to a mythological figure, dual in itself, namely the Medusa, perceived as either mask, or face – which has always fascinated with her tragic beauty. It is within the semantics of the word fascinum – charm, evil spirit but also virile member – where the attributes of an age, the Victorian time, that was equally fascinating, as it was whirling and powerful, lie hidden. This paper focuses on artistic reflections of Victorian femininity in an effort to examine how it contributed to the ever-changing definition and search of female gender identities at times of hegemonic masculinities. Art and fiction articulate some of the more powerful challenges. If philosophy encapsulates phallogocentrism, as Derrida points out, fiction, he claims, is an invagination, namely a creation of differences where no term spells self-sufficiency.

  3. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  4. Legislators Speak Out (United States)

    Kelso, Robert R.


    A study involving legislators was conducted by the Region 8 Regional Rehabilitation Research Institute (Colorado) and four Region 8 States to improve State legislative support for vocational rehabilitation programs, especially delivery of rehabilitation services to the rural disabled. Suggestions for improving ways to meet legislative information…

  5. Eminent Victorian dentistry. 1. John Ruskin and the patient experience of Victorian dentistry. Ruskin's dentist, Alfred James Woodhouse. (United States)

    Bishop, M G H


    This paper describes the relationship between John Ruskin [1819-1900] the Victorian artist, writer, and critic, and Alfred James Woodhouse [1824-1906], the dentist who cared for him from 1866 to 1883. Although Ruskin was perhaps not quite as eccentric as a recent television series has portrayed him, he was certainly not conventional, and the relationship with his dentist was also not entirely conventional.

  6. Human tissue legislation in South Africa: Focus on stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African (SA) legislative framework follows a hierarchical structure aligned with the relevant level of government (national, provincial or local) responsible for applying and monitoring the legislation, with the overarching and progressive Constitution as the supreme law. Delegated legislation (also known as ...

  7. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing. (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom


    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  8. Farming suicides during the Victorian drought: 2001-2007. (United States)

    Guiney, Robyn


    The objective of this study was to determine whether farming suicides increased in Victoria during the prolonged drought in south eastern Australia and gain an understanding of Victorian farming suicides during the period. Intentional self-harm deaths of farmers and primary producers notified to the Victorian State Coroner from 2001 to 2007 were examined to identify characteristics and determine whether the annual number of farming suicides increased. Farming suicides accounted for just over 3% of Victorian suicides. The total number of farming suicides was 110 for the period and ranged between 11 and 19 deaths per year, rising and falling inconsistently from year to year. Males accounted for nearly 95% of farming suicides, with firearms and hanging the most frequently used methods, and most deaths occurring between 30 and 59 years of age. The small number of relevant cases and fluctuations in the annual number of deaths provides no evidence of a pattern of increasing farming suicides during the drought years, when there was approximately one suicide every 3 weeks. Given the elevated suicide risk in male farmers and association with multiple psychosocial and environmental factors, it cannot be concluded, however, that suicide risk itself did not increase during this period of heightened uncertainty and stress. Drought should not be dismissed among the many risk factors, and it is possible that increased mental health awareness and community support programs targeting drought-affected areas contributed to improved management of stress and suicide risk in regional and rural Victoria over the past decade. © 2012 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. Key players and legislative framework relative to radioactive materials and waste management; Principaux acteurs et cadre legislatif de la gestion des matieres et dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C. [Office Parlementaire d' Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques (OPECST), 75 - Paris (France)


    While French industry as a whole appears to have bowed slightly under increasing pressure from the competition in an international economic arena that is becoming more and more open and diverse, France's nuclear industry has firmly held onto its position as world leader, secured during the seventies and eighties. This is the result of sustained national investment in research to constantly improve the performance and safety of the solutions deployed; it is also due to the dynamism of the companies involved, which have successfully developed their international base while maintaining a firm national foothold; it is also due to a consistent commitment on the part of the public authorities, which have provided sound guidelines, while placing greater emphasis on transparency and giving structure to crucial dialogue with the public. France is also one of the first countries that has developed a nuclear power programme, to have set up an organisation, a framework and a coherent strategy regarding the management of all its radioactive waste. (author)

  10. Catholics, science and civic culture in Victorian Belfast. (United States)

    Finnegan, Diarmid A; Wright, Jonathan Jeffrey


    The connections between science and civic culture in the Victorian period have been extensively, and intensively, investigated over the past several decades. Limited attention, however, has been paid to Irish urban contexts. Roman Catholic attitudes towards science in the nineteenth century have also been neglected beyond a rather restricted set of thinkers and topics. This paper is offered as a contribution to addressing these lacunae, and examines in detail the complexities involved in Catholic engagement with science in Victorian Belfast. The political and civic geographies of Catholic involvement in scientific discussions in a divided town are uncovered through an examination of five episodes in the unfolding history of Belfast's intellectual culture. The paper stresses the importance of attending to the particularities of local politics and scientific debate for understanding the complex realities of Catholic appropriations of science in a period and urban context profoundly shaped by competing political and religious factions. It also reflects more generally on how the Belfast story supplements and challenges scholarship on the historical relations between Catholicism and science.

  11. Can soil change be assessed for the Victorian dairy industry? (United States)

    Aarons, Sharon R.; Crawford, Douglas; Imhof, Mark; Gourley, Cameron


    Meeting the increased demand for dairy products will require careful management of soils to minimise land degradation and sustain increased production. Key to providing farmers with the tools to manage their soils sustainably, is firstly understanding the soil types currently managed by dairy farmers, and secondly quantifying changes in soil properties in response to management. The Victorian Land Use Information System was interrogated to identify dairy land parcels and these data overlaid on soil survey information to identify the dominant soil orders managed by dairy farmers in the three dairy regions of Victoria. Of the approximately 590,000 hectares of dairy land identified across the state, Sodosols (33%), Chromosols (20%), Dermosols (16%), and Vertosols (11%) are the major soil Orders represented, although the dominant soil Orders vary for each region. Legacy data from research and extension activities undertaken between 1995 and 2010 were collated to understand regional differences in dairy soil properties. All soil properties were significantly and positively skewed with higher median pH, EC and available K in northern Victorian soils. Further analysis compared the 1995 to 2010 data with data from samples analysed by the government analytical laboratory between 1973 and 1980 to assess any differences over 38 years. The older soil chemical data were also positively skewed but had lower median soil pH, Olsen P and available K, consistent with the greater use of inputs by the industry in more recent years.

  12. The issues of translating Flaubert and Zola in victorian England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Merkle


    Full Text Available The late-Victorian two-tier public (circulating libraries, e.g., Mudie’s Select Library and private (secret literary societies, e.g. The Lutetian Society publishing field was at the centre of profound social transformations tied to literacy. The hierarchical structure of the field reveals the degree to which speech has traditionally been controlled in Britain, in alignment with the country’s rigid class structure. This reality marks a sharp contrast with the generally held view that Great Britain has historically been a model of free speech and democratic values. The article explains that the bourgeoning moral majority preoccupied with protecting the moral integrity of newly literate working class readers and women readers of all classes wished to quell the perceived scourge of pornography, believed to be promoted by dissolute foreigners and British aristocrats. In order to avoid prosecution, editors and translators needed to consider not only patterns of reader expectations, but also the discursive constraints that aligned with Victorian values. An example of an editor who overestimated the degree of freedom of expression was Henry Vizetelly, who attempted to provide working class and female readers with translations of Zola’s and Flaubert’s works. While Madame Bovary was not banned by the courts, many of Zola’s novels were.

  13. Selling Sentiment: The Commodification of Emotion in Victorian Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Solicari


    Full Text Available This essay argues that the Victorian sentimental impulse was motivated by the sharing of emotion and the dynamics of communal and interactive feeling. Integral to the popularity of sentiment was its recognition factor by means of established tropes and conventions. Arguably, the same familiarity that made narrative art accessible also made advertising successful and many of the same motifs ran from exhibition watercolours to book illustration to posters. Works of sentiment operated as emotional souvenirs so that material proof of feeling could be easily digested, displayed and revisited. The essay looks closer at the investment of emotion in ephemeral images, such as music-sheet covers, and the ways in which forms of feeling were standardised and reproduced in keeping with a new art-buying public and the possibilities of wider image dissemination. Focusing upon issues raised during the curation of a current exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum ( 'A Show of Emotion: Victorian Sentiment in Prints and Drawings', 7 Dec 2006 – 10 Sep 2007 this essay explores the ways in which the sentimental pervaded nineteenth-century visual culture and how, in the cut-throat commercial world of image production, sentiment became manifest and identifiable if only as a notional phenomenon.

  14. The 2002 Legislative Briefing. (United States)

    Gaines, Gale F.

    This document provides a summary of legislative actions and issues in the member states of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). The economic slowdown continued to dominate legislative deliberations of state budgets, with midyear cuts the norm rather than the exception. It is expected that 2002-2003 will be another tight year, with…

  15. Legislative Districts - 1990 (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  16. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    climate, vegetation, wildlife, the surrounding land uses and the physical character of an area, ... by Olomola O.A. in “Nigeria's Environmental Laws – A critical Review of Main Principles,. Policy and Practice” in O.A. ... environmental protection in the oil and gas sector include the Petroleum Act,22 Oil in. Navigable Waters ...

  17. e-ready legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line; Baaner, Lasse

    of the trustworthiness of administration systems. On the other hand, a successful adaption of legislation to a digital setup could help promote good service towards citizens and businesses, and according to land administration theories maybe even promote societal sustainability in large. Based on studies on Denmark......, different challenges within digital land administration solutions are demonstrated. This paper discusses how legislation needs to change in order to be ‘e-Ready’....

  18. Sexual violence, marital guidance, and Victorian bodies: an aesthesiology. (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna


    This essay examines some of the emotional rules, encoded in grammars of representation and framed within law and prescriptive marital advice literature, regarding the expression of male sexual aggressivity within the bedroom. Despite the general Victorian idealization of marriage, many wives suffered physical and sexual abuse at the hands of their husbands, marital rape drawing particular attention from early feminists, psychologists, physicians, and evolutionary physiologists. In the 1870s, a belief that unrestrained sexual license was a symptom of degeneration led these commentators to consider marital rape particularly harmful to husbands. By the turn of the century, however, the focus of this harm had nominally shifted to women, who might become frigid if forced to submit to sex--a problem for wives but for husbands as well. As sexology and psychology gained greater influence, couples came to rely on the emotion-talk of commentators to negotiate mutually agreeable bedroom activity.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul B. Pettitt; Mark J. White


    ... 1880s authors had constructed a basic paradigm of what 'primitive' human life was like. Here we examine the development of Victorian palaeoanthropology for what it reveals of the development of notions of cognitive evolution...

  20. Sympathetic science: Charles Darwin, Joseph Hooker, and the passions of Victorian naturalists. (United States)

    Endersby, Jim


    This essay examines the complex tangle of emotional and scientific attachments that linked Darwin and botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker. Analyzing their roles as husbands, fathers, and novel readers demonstrates that possessing and expressing sympathy was as important for Victorian naturalists as it was for Victorian husbands. Sympathy was a scientific skill that Victorian naturalists regarded as necessary to fully understand the living world; although sympathy became increasingly gendered as feminine over the course of the century, its importance to male naturalists requires us to rethink the ways gender roles were negotiated in Victorian Britain. Botany was, for men like Darwin and Hooker, an acceptably masculine pursuit that nevertheless allowed--and even required--them to be sensitive and sympathetic.

  1. Making Kew Observatory: the Royal Society, the British Association and the politics of early Victorian science. (United States)

    Macdonald, Lee T


    Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'.

  2. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro


    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  3. The Gentleman Artist-Surgeon in Late Victorian Group Portraiture (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Keren Rosa


    In this article I consider the ways in which group portraits of surgeons, a genre associated with inscriptions of corporate membership and institutional authority, reflected the complex and at times contradictory status of surgeons during the late Victorian period. Group portraits from this period offer a diverse range of representations of surgeons – from middle-class professional to hygiene reformer, scientist to cultured gentleman – all of which worked against the popular conception of the surgeon as manual labourer and bloody carpenter. In particular, the emergence during the period of the gentleman artist-surgeon, exemplified by the celebrity surgeon and amateur artist Henry Thompson (1820–1904), signalled a new incarnation of the surgeon and offered an alternative to both the stereotypes of the surgeon as manual labourer and the surgeon or middle-class professional. But there were complexities and contradictions that beset the identity of the gentleman artist-surgeon, and these will be considered with reference to Thompson’s own novel, Charley Kingston’s Aunt (1885). PMID:27904434

  4. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia


    framework for a novel food in a regulatory context. Once admitted, edible insects require proper rules to assure consumers and stakeholders of their benefits and safety. This overview highlights the need to develop clearer legislation to govern the future production and consumption of new food in Europe......Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... representation of this issue because a selection of food grade insect species may be available on the European market in the coming years. However, European legislation does not explicitly address edible insects. Consequently, this has left a grey area, allowing different interpretations of the legislation among...

  5. Gun Control Legislation (United States)


    for and against greater gun control . Past legislative proposals have raised the following questions: What restrictions on firearms are permissible...under the Constitution? Does gun control help reduce violent crime? Would household, street corner, and schoolyard disputes be less lethal if firearms...were more difficult to acquire? Or, would more restrictive gun control policies diminish an individual’s ability to defend himself? Speaking to these

  6. 2013 environmental health legislation. (United States)

    Farquhar, Doug; Ellis, Amy C


    The NEHA Government Affairs program has a long and productive association with the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). The organizations have worked together on any number of legislative and policy areas that directly impact the environmental health profession. One of the keys to the successes of the NEHA/NCSL collaboration has been the recognition of the fact that often some of the most significant legislation and policy initiatives related to environmental public health occur in state legislatures. The states have, in a very real sense, been the innovators in developing new programs and practices. In recognition of this fact, we have asked NCSL to provide occasional overviews of state environmental public health legislative activity, covering topics that are of the most pressing public concern. Doug Farquhar, program director for NCSI's Environmental Health Program, has worked with NCSL since 1990. Mr. Farquhar directs development, management, and research for the Environmental Health Program. These projects encompass consultation and policy analysis of state and federal policies and statutes, regulations, and programs regarding environmental and related topics for state legislatures and administrative programs. Amy Ellis is a law clerk for NCSL within the Environment, Energy, and Transportation Group. As a law clerk she has researched a wide variety of environmental health policies. She is expected to obtain her JD from the University of Colorado Law School in 2015.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Asmarani


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper entitled ―Victorian Femme Fatale in Mary Elizabeth Braddon‘s Novel Entitled Lady Audley‟s Secret‖ is to analyze the intricate life of the female main character as a representation of Victorian femme fatale. Feminist criticism and gynocritics are used as a frame of analysis supported by the concepts of femme fatale, fatalism, and Victorian femininity. The result indicates that although femme fatale is fatal to men, she leads a fatalistic life in a patriarchal Victorian society. Her success to pursue a wealthy life using her femininity is short-lived followed by years of exile in a private and luxurious asylum. Through her portrayal of the female main character‘s life as a femme fatale, the female writer launches two-edged criticism. She criticizes the woman who exploits her femininity to get excessive material gain and at the same time she criticizes the Victorian society which prevents a single (-parent woman to have a decent life using her skills not her femininity.

  8. Continuing education programme - Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine. (United States)

    Gall, J A; Ranson, D L


    With the increasing requirement of the courts for forensic experts to engage in ongoing education, a continuing education programme (CEP) was developed in the field of clinical forensic medicine at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in 1996. This programme has been described and was initially established to provide a means of education for the contracted forensic medical officers who provide forensic services to the police via the Institute throughout the State of Victoria. Owing to the sparsity of the population and the considerable distances between forensic practitioners, the CEP was designed to cater for individuals who are working alone: in effect, a distance education programme. Forensic pathologists expressed interest in the programme and it was subsequently modified to include forensic pathology cases. Currently, the programme caters for both clinicians and pathologists, and takes the form of four to five cases with related questions which are circulated several times per year. The cases include a mixture of both challenging and ordinary procedural types that may present to practitioners working in either clinical forensic medicine or forensic pathology, or both. The areas covered include: * injury interpretation * procedural matters in relation to adult and child sexual and physical assault * pharmacology/toxicology interpretation of findings * medico-legal issues (e.g. confidentiality, consent, etc.) * issues relating to alcohol and drugs * traffic medicine * clinical and legal aspects of sudden natural death * suspicious deaths * suicide * interpretation of findings at autopsy * fitness for interview * fitness to plead * psychiatric issues * general clinical medical issues. The presentation of each case includes relevant and appropriate details/findings and may include photographs. A series of questions follow which are answered in either short answer or multiple-choice format. The answers are returned and are correlated by a review panel of

  9. Depictions of females and males in Mozambican and Victorian (Australia primary mathematics textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelino Evaristo Murimo


    Full Text Available The depiction of females and males in Mozambican Primary Mathematics textbooks for grades 6 and 7 were examined, and comparisons made with Victorian  (Australia textbooks for years 5 and 6. It was found that mathematics learning was portrayed as a  male domain in the Mozambican textbooks, reflecting what used to be the case with Australian texts of the 1970s, although there are some differences between the two countries that may be culturally based. The Victorian textbooks depicted mathematics learning as a domain for all children, and in the majority of categories examined, females and males were distributed fairly evenly. Compared to earlier reported findings, there was a general improvement in the portrayal of females in Victorian textbooks.

  10. A conflict of analysis: analytical chemistry and milk adulteration in Victorian Britain. (United States)

    Steere-Williams, Jacob


    This article centres on a particularly intense debate within British analytical chemistry in the late nineteenth century, between local public analysts and the government chemists of the Inland Revenue Service. The two groups differed in both practical methodologies and in the interpretation of analytical findings. The most striking debates in this period were related to milk analysis, highlighted especially in Victorian courtrooms. It was in protracted court cases, such as the well known Manchester Milk Case in 1883, that analytical chemistry was performed between local public analysts and the government chemists, who were often both used as expert witnesses. Victorian courtrooms were thus important sites in the context of the uneven professionalisation of chemistry. I use this tension to highlight what Christopher Hamlin has called the defining feature of Victorian public health, namely conflicts of professional jurisdiction, which adds nuance to histories of the struggle of professionalisation and public credibility in analytical chemistry.

  11. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation. (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A


    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  12. Legislation contagion: building resistance. (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard


    The HIV/AIDS Policy & Law Review recently carried a feature article recounting the spread of problematic new HIV laws in west and central Africa. It outlined less-than-model approaches in the AWARE-HIV/AIDS "model" law and described how its provisions had been replicated in many national HIV laws. At the time of writing that article, eight national HIV laws had been passed in the region. Since that date, the rush to legislate HIV in west and central Africa in ways that do not accord with human rights law or policy has continued unabated.

  13. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela


    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... of a rationalization process, incl., a road map, recommending that there should be 7 universities in Moldova: 3 regional universities and 4 universities in Chisinau (capital); following the principle of clear demarcation between state regulation and institutional university autonomy, specifies universities powers...

  14. A discourse analysis of giftedness education policy in Victorian state education 1975-1994


    Glover, Carol Ann


    The development of giftedness education in Victorian state schools reflects a history of its support and resistance. Using an approach to discourse analysis based on Dant’s (1991) method of the ‘exchange of meaning’ this study focusses on the elements of power and resistance in discourse that are involved in the ideological construction of giftedness policy in the Victorian state education system. A wide selection of policy documents, dating from 1975-1994, are analysed to desc...

  15. Mental health parity legislation. (United States)

    Smaldone, Arlene; Cullen-Drill, Mary


    Although recognition and treatment of mental health disorders have become integrated into routine medical care, inequities remain regarding limits on mental health outpatient visits and higher copayments and deductibles required for mental health services when accessed. Two federal laws were passed by Congress in 2008: The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. Both laws became effective on January 1, 2010. The purpose of this article is to discuss provisions of each act and provide clinical examples describing how patients are affected by lack of parity and may potentially benefit from implementation of these new laws. Using available evidence, we examine the potential strengths and limitations of mental health parity legislation from the health policy perspectives of health care access, cost, and quality and identify the important role of nurses as patient and mental health parity advocates. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Governance, veterinary legislation and quality. (United States)

    Petitclerc, M


    This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.

  17. Games of Character: Team Sports, Games, and Character Development in Victorian Public Schools, 1850-1900 (United States)

    Dishon, Gideon


    This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…

  18. Trauma case review: A quality and safety feature of the Victorian State Trauma System. (United States)

    Pinto, Carolyn; Cameron, Peter A; Gabbe, Belinda; McLellan, Susan; Walker, Tony


    The aim of the present study was to describe the trauma case review process and its role in a regionalised trauma system. Victoria has a population of 5.9 million people, accounting for 26% of Australia's population. Victoria has been serviced by an inclusive, organised trauma system since 2000 comprising 138 health services with trauma designations and three major trauma services. Pre- and interhospital guidelines prescribe the timely transport of patients to the appropriate level of trauma service. A review of the role and contribution of 10 years of operation of the trauma case review group (CRG) was undertaken to describe the aims, processes and governance surrounding the implementation of an individual case review for specified major trauma patients. Specified patients were those identified by the Victorian State Trauma Registry as being managed outside of established Victorian State Trauma System prehospital and interhospital guidelines. A state-wide trauma case review process was implemented across the trauma system using data-informed detection flags and screening criteria. Using data from the Victorian State Trauma Registry, detection flags were correlated with patients at risk of a poorer outcome, thereby ensuring that all patients managed outside of the requirements of established trauma triage and transfer guidelines were subject to review. The CRG provides an individual review process as a technique for assessing and monitoring major trauma patient care and compliance with trauma system triage and transfer guidelines. The process has been effective as a quality and safety strategy by improving clinician knowledge of major trauma triage and transfer guidelines and facilitating improved compliance, particularly with interhospital transfers. Strong compliance has been achieved from health services with the requirement to internally review and respond to CRG concerns regarding 'high-risk' trauma cases. Anecdotal feedback from health services regarding

  19. National space legislation: future perspectives for Malaysian Space Law


    Saari, Che Zuhaida Binti


    This research studies the future perspectives for Malaysian space law. It aims at demonstrating the development of Malaysian outer space activities inclusive of her status with respect to United Nations space conventions and her membership of international and regional space-related organizations. On the basis of assisting Malaysia to develop her national space legislation, this study analyses the legal frameworks of selected national outer space legislations. It discusses some major aspects ...

  20. Legislator voting and behavioral science theory: a systematic review. (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Vernick, Jon S; Reiney, Erin V; Gielen, Andrea C


    To examine the application of behavioral science theories to explain the voting behavior of legislators for public health policies. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that examined factors associated with legislator support, intention to vote, or actual votes on public health policies, emphasizing those grounded in behavior science theory. Twenty-one papers met our inclusion criteria, and 6 were explicitly grounded in a behavioral science theory. Behavioral science theories, and the theory of planned behavior in particular, provide a framework for understanding legislator voting behavior and can be used by advocates to advance pro-health policies.

  1. The Political Economy of Collective Labour Legislation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Y. Wang


    Full Text Available This article provides a seminal analysis of collective labour legislation in Taiwan. A chronological review of Taiwan’s legislative process suggests that the context of incorporation, institutional framework, mechanisms for delivering reforms, and sequence of reforms together shape the legislative outcomes of labour reforms at the collective level. While most labour legislation was revised and passed after the preceding sequence of economic transition, the reform of collective labour rights was greatly constrained by the flexible labour-market structure. In order for politicians to form new alliances with labour organizations, legislation of collective labour rights was a strategy to cultivate support during electoral periods. Consequently, the industrial relations changed following the enactment of substantial reform-oriented labour legislation. Theore-tically, the historical analysis of legislative procedure unveils evolutionary reform paths for collective labour rights in new democracies. At the same time, empirically, Taiwan demonstrates an alternative reform path in combination with incremental steps and progressive agendas. For new democracies of small economy, a window of opportunity for the progress in collective labour legislation remains open today, albeit with limitations.

  2. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations (United States)


    Authorizations Since 1999, by Matthew E. Glassman . Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations Congressional Research Service 10 The FY2012 level of...Congresses, by Matthew E. Glassman . Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations Congressional Research Service 11 Members’ Representational...vehicles; communications equipment; security equipment and its installation; dignitary protection; intelligence analysis; hazardous material response

  3. Trends in outdoor recreation legislation (United States)

    George H. Siehl


    The two decades which have passed since the era of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) have been active and fruitful in terms of Federal recreation legislation. The Commission and its final report "Outdoor Recreation for America" strongly influenced the burst of recreation legislation in the 1960's. Even today, the studies prepared...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja


    Full Text Available An anomaly in legislation is absence of completeness, consistency and other desirable properties, caused by different semantic, syntactic or pragmatic reasons. In general, the detection of anomalies in legislation comprises validation and verification. The basic idea of research, as presented in this paper, is modelling legislation by capturing domain knowledge of legislation and specifying it in a generic way by using commonly agreed and understandable modelling concepts of the Unified Modelling Language (UML. Models of legislation enable to understand the system better, support the detection of anomalies and help to improve the quality of legislation by validation and verification. By implementing model-based approach, the object of validation and verification moves from legislation to its model. The business domain of legislation has two distinct aspects: a structural or static aspect (functionality, business data etc., and a behavioural or dynamic part (states, transitions, activities, sequences etc.. Because anomalism can occur on two different levels, on the level of a model, or on the level of legislation itself, a framework for validation and verification of legal regulation and its model is discussed. The presented framework includes some significant types of semantic and syntactic anomalies. Some ideas for assessment of pragmatic anomalies of models were found in the field of software quality metrics. Thus pragmatic features and attributes can be determined that could be relevant for evaluation purposes of models. Based on analogue standards for the evaluation of software, a qualitative and quantitative scale can be applied to determine the value of some feature for a specific model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  6. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation. (United States)

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A


    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. © 2014 AWHONN.

  7. Little Dorrit’s Fourth Volume. Twenty-first Century Remediation of a Victorian Classic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Falchi


    Full Text Available The current interest in the Victorian period is particularly evident in the multitude of successful period dramas and cinema productions deriving their inspiration from Victorian history and culture. Dickens’s Little Dorrit, generated by the difficulties of understanding a ‘new’ world dominated by more and more complicated machines, and markets, is possibly the ideal paradigm to explore this ‘Victorianomania’ because this novel strikes us “no less forcefully today in its indictment of society's ability to destroy through greed and crushing self-interest” (Kirschner 2009.This study carries out a threefold analysis of Little Dorrit's remediation in the twenty-first century: visual remediation – Xue’s 2012 Little Dorrit; audio-visual remediation – the BBC series; and web remediation – fan fiction – in order to investigate Dickens’s appeal and longevity in contemporary media.

  8. Cave men: stone tools, Victorian science, and the 'primitive mind' of deep time. (United States)

    Pettitt, Paul B; White, Mark J


    Palaeoanthropology, the study of the evolution of humanity, arose in the nineteenth century. Excavations in Europe uncovered a series of archaeological sediments which provided proof that the antiquity of human life on Earth was far longer than the biblical six thousand years, and by the 1880s authors had constructed a basic paradigm of what 'primitive' human life was like. Here we examine the development of Victorian palaeoanthropology for what it reveals of the development of notions of cognitive evolution. It seems that Victorian specialists rarely addressed cognitive evolution explicitly, although several assumptions were generally made that arose from preconceptions derived from contemporary 'primitive' peoples. We identify three main phases of development of notions of the primitive mind in the period.

  9. Reflexivity, the role of history, and the case of mesmerism in early Victorian Britain. (United States)

    Lamont, Peter


    As part of a wider argument that history is essential to psychological understanding because of the reflexive nature of psychological knowledge, this article examines the case of mesmerism in early Victorian Britain as an example of how psychological knowledge is both constructive and constructed. It is argued that the shift from "mesmerism" to "hypnotism" was a change in understanding that created a new kind of psychological experience. It is also argued that demonstrations of mesmerism, far from being self-evident facts, could be framed as evidence either for or against the central claims of mesmerism. It is concluded that the case of mesmerism in early Victorian Britain provides a further example of the need for historical understanding within Psychology.

  10. The inclusion of aural comprehension in the Victorian Certificate of Education music performance study design


    Jacob, Robert


    This research is principally concerned with the introduction of the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE). This curriculum was trialed in 1987 and was fully implemented in 1992. The political and educational context of this change as well as the role of aural comprehension in this music curriculum compared with the dominant Higher School Certificate (HSC) (Group 1) it immediately replaced will also be investigated. An examination of the teaching of aural comprehension skills in the VCE mus...

  11. Dogs and Domesticity Reading the Dog in Victorian British Visual Culture


    Robson, Amy


    Edited version embargoed until 26.10.2018 Full version: Access restricted permanently due to 3rd party copyright restrictions. Restriction set on 26.10.2017 by SE, Doctoral College The central aim of this thesis is to critically examine the values associated with dogs in Victorian British art and visual culture. It studies the redefining and restructuring of the domestic dog as it was conceptualized in visual culture and the art market. It proposes that the dog was strongly associated w...

  12. Sleep duration and risk of obesity among a sample of Victorian school children


    Bridget Morrissey; Mary Malakellis; Jill Whelan; Lynne Millar; Boyd Swinburn; Steven Allender; Claudia Strugnell


    Abstract Background Insufficient sleep is potentially an important modifiable risk factor for obesity and poor physical activity and sedentary behaviours among children. However, inconsistencies across studies highlight the need for more objective measures. This paper examines the relationship between sleep duration and objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and weight status, among a sample of Victorian Primary School children. Methods A sub-sample of 298 grades four (n = 157...

  13. Sleep duration and risk of obesity among a sample of Victorian school children


    Morrissey, Bridget; Malakellis, Mary; Whelan, Jill; Millar, Lynne; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Strugnell, Claudia


    Background Insufficient sleep is potentially an important modifiable risk factor for obesity and poor physical activity and sedentary behaviours among children. However, inconsistencies across studies highlight the need for more objective measures. This paper examines the relationship between sleep duration and objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and weight status, among a sample of Victorian Primary School children. Methods A sub-sample of 298 grades four (n?=?157) and six...

  14. The new Victorians? Celebrity charity and the demise of the welfare state


    Littler, J.


    This article asks whether the expansion of celebrity involvement in charitable and humanitarian issues in Northern Europe and the US might be a comparable historical phenomenon with the philanthropic endeavours of prominent nineteenth-century persons. The article notes that the conspicuous nature of star philanthropy in both Victorian times and the present is fairly dramatic in comparison with that of the mid twentieth century, when the welfare state and the New Deal were at their peak: a wel...

  15. Montgomery County Council Legislation - Bills (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Council enacts local public laws for the ‘peace, good government, health, and welfare of the county’. The bills dataset contains all legislation considered by...

  16. The Victorian Gambling Screen: reliability and validation in a clinical population. (United States)

    Tolchard, B; Battersby, M W


    There is a need to establish reliability and the various forms of validity in all measures in order to feel confident in the use of such tools across a wide diversity of settings. The aim of this study is to describe the reliability and validity of the Victorian Gambling Screen (VGS) and in particular one of the sub-scales (Harm to Self-HS) in a specialist problem gambling treatment service in Adelaide, Australia. Sixty-seven consecutive gamblers were assessed using a previously validated clinical interview and the VGS (Ben-Tovim et al., The Victorian Gambling Screen: project report. Victorian Research Panel, Melbourne, 2001). The internal consistency of the combined VGS scales had a Cronbach's alpha of .85 with the HS scale .89. There was satisfactory evidence of convergent validity which included moderate correlations with another measure of gambling-the South Oaks Gambling Screen. There were also moderate correlations with other measures of psychopathology. Finally, how the VGS may best be used in clinical settings is discussed.

  17. Curing "moral disability": brain trauma and self-control in Victorian science and fiction. (United States)

    Schillace, Brandy L


    While, historically, the disabled body has appeared in literature as "monstrous," burgeoning psychological theories of the Victorian period predicated an unusual shift. In a culture of sexual anxiety and fears of devolution and moral decay, the physically disabled and "weak" are portrayed as strangely free from moral corruption. Unlike the cultural link between deviance and disability witnessed in the medical literature and eugenic approach to generation, authors of narrative fiction-particularly Charles Dickens, but Wilkie Collins, Charlotte Yonge, and others as well-portray disabled characters as "purified," and trauma itself as potentially sanitizing. This present paper argues that such constructions were made possible by developments in the treatment of insanity. "Curing 'Moral Disability': Brain Trauma and Self-Control in Victorian Fiction," examines the concept of trauma-as-cure. Throughout the Victorian period, case studies on brain trauma appeared in widely circulated journals like the Lancet, concurrently with burgeoning theories about psychological disturbance and "moral insanity." While not widely practiced until the early twentieth century, attempts at surgical "cures" aroused curiosity and speculation-the traumatic event that could free sufferers from deviance. This work provides a unique perspective on representations of disability as cure in the nineteenth century as a means of giving voice to the marginalized, disabled, and disempowered.

  18. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department


    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service

  19. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law. (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D


    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  20. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation. (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C


    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  1. 40 CFR 1508.17 - Legislation. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislation. 1508.17 Section 1508.17 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.17 Legislation. Legislation includes a bill or legislative proposal to Congress developed by or with the significant...

  2. Pharmacist provider status legislation: Projections and prospects. (United States)

    Harper, Patrick C


    To compare legislation at the federal level that would recognize pharmacists as health care providers under Medicare Part B with similar state-level efforts in an attempt to identify the strengths and weaknesses of these options and forecast outcomes. The current primary care provider shortage poses a significant threat to public health in the United States. The effort to achieve federal provider status for pharmacists, currently in the form of identical bills introduced in January 2015 into the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate as the Pharmacy and Medically Underserved Areas Enhancement Act (H.R. 592 and S. 314), would amend the Social Security Act to recognize pharmacists as health care providers in sections of Medicare Part B that specify coverage and reimbursement. This action has budgetary implications owing to the compensation that would accrue to pharmacists caring for Medicare beneficiaries. Passage of these bills into law could improve public health by sustainably increasing access to pharmacists' patient care services in medically underserved areas. In this article, the legislation's strengths and weaknesses are analyzed. The resulting information may be used to forecast the bills' fate as well as plan strategies to help support their success. Comparison of the bills with existing, state-level efforts is used as a framework for such policy analysis. While the current political climate benefits the bills in the U.S. Congress, established legislative precedents suggest that parts of H.R. 592/S. 314, specifically those regarding compensation mechanisms, may require negotiated amendment to improve their chances of success.

  3. Mental health legislation in Algeria. (United States)

    Benmebarek, Zoubir


    Mental health law in Algeria originates from the French colonial era. Although several pieces of legislation deal with mental disorders, their implementation remains unsatisfactory and does not meet the real needs of healthcare providers. Amendment of the current mental health law is required to enhance the delivery of care but also to protect those with a mental disorder from abuse.

  4. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray


    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...

  5. New Legislation on Capitol Hill (United States)

    Wertman, John


    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  6. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination (United States)

    Ketney, Otto


    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  7. Differentiation of Victorian brown coal lithotypes as revealed by thermally desorbable biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Johns, R.B. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia))


    TD/GC/MS analyses of a profile of Victorian brown coal lithotypes are reported. Specifically, weight loss on TD, triterpenoid and diterpenoid hydrocarbons, and trimethylnaphthalene isomers are considered as lithotype differentiators. In this initial use of biomarkers released by thermal desorption to characterise lithotypes, evidence is reported for differences in angiosperm/gymnosperm contributions, variation in higher plant inputs and for distinct variations of bacterial biomass content of the lithotypes. Trimethylnaphthalenes also differentiate coal seams in the samples reported in this study. 4 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  8. Smoke-free legislation: global reach, impact and remaining challenges. (United States)

    Gruer, L; Tursan d'Espaignet, E; Haw, S; Fernández, E; Mackay, J


    Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2005) requires all signatory countries to adopt measures to protect people from tobacco smoke in indoor workplaces, indoor public places, public transport and other public places as appropriate. The aims of this symposium were to review progress across the world, to assess the evidence for the impact of legislation on health, and to identify the continuing challenges in making universal protection a reality. There was agreement that even in countries where strict legislation is enforced, many children continue to be dangerously exposed to parental second-hand smoke in the womb, the home and private cars. The importance of using accurate estimates of the burden of disease caused by second-hand smoke was agreed, in order to present an unassailable case for legislation and enforcement. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Portrayal of Victorian Men and Women as Seen in O'neill's “the Grand Match”


    Kurnia, Nandy Intan


    This paper analyzes the portrayal of Victorian women and men in the poem of Moira O'Neill, entitled “The Grand Match”. The poem gives the description of men and women relationship related to the discussion of love and marriage. As one of Victorian female poets, O'Neill tries to satirize the relationship of women and men by portraying the love story of a stereotypical male fortune seeker, who marries a rich woman and denies his own feeling toward a young-charming woman. This study is an attemp...

  10. Research on the Legislation of Chinese Space Laws (United States)

    Yang, Dongwen


    1 Need and necessity for the legislation of Chinese space activities --Complying with UN treaties and principles on outer space --Adapting to the requirements of market economy --Promoting the further development of Chinese space activities --Developing international space cooperation 2 Research method for legislation of Chinese space activities The research method is ROCCIPI. This method was introduced into China with the project "Legislation Supports Economy Reform" supported by the UN Office of Development Planning - By analyzing the correlations among the seven factors: Rule, Opportunity, Capacity, Communication, Interest, Process and Ideology, the optimal legal measures can be found . Such analysis and research works on the master law of Chinese space activities have been made in the paper. 3 Research of international treaties &principles on outer space, and of national space laws of other countries. Studies have been made in this paper on many aspects of international outer space laws, such as framework, development stage, current characteristics, new problems will be faced with in new century, and development tendency in the future, etc. Based on the investigation and study of national space laws of other countries, analyses and researches on national space law have been made in the paper from some aspects, such as legislative purpose, legislative aim, legislative form, legislative content and etc, and some enlightenments, which can be used for reference in the legislation of Chinese Space Laws, are found. 4 Framework of Chinese Space Laws The jurisdiction of Chinese Space Laws lies in three areas: space technology - space applications and space science. Chinese Space Laws are divided into 3 levels: Master law, Administration Regulations of the State Council of the P.R.C, Rules of governmental sectors. 5 Conclusions and Suggestions --The legislation of Chinese Space Activities should be strengthened --More attentions should be paid to the research work in

  11. After the sunset: the residual effect of temporary legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Fagan (Frank)


    textabstractThe difference between permanent legislation and temporary legislation is the default rule of termination: permanent legislation governs perpetually, while temporary legislation governs for a limited time. Recent literature on legislative timing rules considers the effect of temporary

  12. Development of South Australian-Victorian Prostate Cancer Health Outcomes Research Dataset. (United States)

    Ruseckaite, Rasa; Beckmann, Kerri; O'Callaghan, Michael; Roder, David; Moretti, Kim; Zalcberg, John; Millar, Jeremy; Evans, Sue


    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and prevalent malignancy reported to Australian cancer registries, with numerous studies from single institutions summarizing patient outcomes at individual hospitals or States. In order to provide an overview of patterns of care of men with prostate cancer across multiple institutions in Australia, a specialized dataset was developed. This dataset, containing amalgamated data from South Australian and Victorian prostate cancer registries, is called the South Australian-Victorian Prostate Cancer Health Outcomes Research Dataset (SA-VIC PCHORD). A total of 13,598 de-identified records of men with prostate cancer diagnosed and consented between 2008 and 2013 in South Australia and Victoria were merged into the SA-VIC PCHORD. SA-VIC PCHORD contains detailed information about socio-demographic, diagnostic and treatment characteristics of patients with prostate cancer in South Australia and Victoria. Data from individual registries are available to researchers and can be accessed under individual data access policies in each State. The SA-VIC PCHORD will be used for numerous studies summarizing trends in diagnostic characteristics, survival and patterns of care in men with prostate cancer in Victoria and South Australia. It is expected that in the future the SA-VIC PCHORD will become a principal component of the recently developed bi-national Australian and New Zealand Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry to collect and report patterns of care and standardised patient reported outcome measures of men nation-wide in Australia and New Zealand.

  13. Sleep duration and risk of obesity among a sample of Victorian school children. (United States)

    Morrissey, Bridget; Malakellis, Mary; Whelan, Jill; Millar, Lynne; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Strugnell, Claudia


    Insufficient sleep is potentially an important modifiable risk factor for obesity and poor physical activity and sedentary behaviours among children. However, inconsistencies across studies highlight the need for more objective measures. This paper examines the relationship between sleep duration and objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and weight status, among a sample of Victorian Primary School children. A sub-sample of 298 grades four (n = 157) and six (n = 132) Victorian primary school children (aged 9.2-13.2 years) with complete accelerometry and anthropometry data, from 39 schools, were taken from a pilot study of a larger state based cluster randomized control trial in 2013. Data comprised: researcher measured height and weight; accelerometry derived physical activity and sedentary time; and self-reported sleep duration and hypothesised confounding factors (e.g. age, gender and environmental factors). Compared with sufficient sleepers (67 %), those with insufficient sleep (sleep and objectively measured physical activity levels or sedentary time was found. The strong positive relationship between weight status and sleep deprivation merits further research though PA and sedentary time do not seem to be involved in the relationship. Strategies to improve sleep duration may help obesity prevention initiatives in the future.

  14. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford


    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  15. The Victorian CPAP program: is there a need for additional education and support? (United States)

    Manser, R L; Naughton, M T; Pierce, R J; Sasse, A; Teichtahl, H; Ho, M; Campbell, D A


    The Victorian Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) Program provides CPAP services to financially disadvantaged individuals with moderate to severe sleep apnoea. To evaluate health outcomes in patients referred to the pilot program in order to: (i) assess the magnitude of health benefit from treatment in this highly selected population and (ii) identify patient characteristics or factors related to service provision that may influence outcome. We adopted a simple before-after research design. Patients who were referred to the program were recruited from five sleep centres. Questionnaires were administered at baseline and 1 and 3 months after commencing CPAP. Generic and disease-specific quality of life were assessed using the MOS 36-Item Short-form Health Survey and the Sleep Apnoea Quality-of-life Index, respectively. Subjective daytime sleepiness was measured using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Sleep-Wake Activity Inventory. Of the 68 subjects enrolled in the study, 59 were available for follow up. There were significant improvements in daytime sleepiness (P CPAP-machine type were not predictors of outcome (P > 0.05). This review of the Victorian CPAP Program identified significant improvements in subjective daytime sleepiness and quality of life, despite the negative impact of treatment-related symptoms. Future research should explore whether services can be modified to help reduce the impact of treatment-related side-effects.

  16. "A hideous torture on himself": madness and self-mutilation in Victorian literature. (United States)

    Chaney, Sarah


    This paper suggests that late nineteenth-century definitions of self-mutilation, a new category of psychiatric symptomatology, were heavily influenced by the use of self-injury as a rhetorical device in the novel, for the literary text held a high status in Victorian psychology. In exploring Dimmesdale's "self-mutilation" in The Scarlet Letter in conjunction with psychiatric case histories, the paper indicates a number of common techniques and themes in literary and psychiatric texts. As well as illuminating key elements of nineteenth-century conceptions of the self, and the relation of mind and body through ideas of madness, this exploration also serves to highlight the social commentary implicit in many Victorian medical texts. Late nineteenth-century England, like mid-century New England, required the individual to help himself and, simultaneously, others; personal charity and individual philanthropy were encouraged, while state intervention was often presented as dubious. In both novel and psychiatric text, self-mutilation is thus presented as the ultimate act of selfish preoccupation, particularly in cases on the "borderlands" of insanity.

  17. Personal morals and abortion legislation. (United States)

    Konig, G


    Among the many vexing issues raised by the abortion debate is the argument of whether or not it is possible to support the legality of abortion while believing that it is immoral. By relating this issue to the broader goals of legislation, it is pointed out that this is indeed possible because there are distinct differences between what grounds logical justification of public policy and what grounds personal morality.

  18. Legislation to regulate medical devices. (United States)

    Harris, M


    The history of medical device regulation began with the need to rid the marketplace of bogus inventions which were either harmful in themselves or harmful because they delayed meaningful treatment of illness. Since World War II, sophistication in medical technology and development of electronic and other types of medical devices has created a new need for regulation of safety and performance of devices used to cure and mitigate disease in man. The 1938 amendments to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act gave FDA authority over labeling and advertising of devices, enforceable only after devices were marketed. In 1969 a study by an HEW commission documented the need for further legislation. The commission recommended three categories of medical devices: those requiring premarket clearance or scientific review, those for which standards could be established to protect the public, and those which are generally recognized as safe and for which nor standards would be necessary. In 1974 the Senate unanimously approved Senator Kennedy's "Medical Device Amendments of 1973" legislation which fulfills the recommendations of the HEW commission report. The House of Representatives failed to pass their version of the legislation in the 93rd Congress. Senator Kennedy re-introduced the bill in the 94th Congress and it passed the Senate in April 1975. Representative Rogers re-introduced an amended bill. The bill is expected to become law in 1975.

  19. [Female genital mutilation and legislation]. (United States)

    Bonessio, L; Bartucca, B; Bertelli, S; Morini, F; Spina, V


    This article deals with the legal aspect concerning female genital mutilations (FGM). Such a practice (a partial excision of the external genitalia) is highly widespread in Central Africa, especially in Ethiopia and Somalia, and currently involves approximately 130,000,000 women worldwide and, in Italy, about 30,000 women amongst the immigrant population. Since 1982 the World Health Organization (WHO), which condemns such a practice as injurious to women's rights and health, proposed that laws and professional codes prohibit it in all countries. Legislation, although insufficient as a sole measure, is considered indispensable for the elimination of FMG. Since a long time some western countries (Sweden, Great Britain, Belgium and Norway), involved by immigration from countries with FGM tradition, legislated with regard to FGM. In Italy, a specific law does not exist; however, FGM are not allowed by the article 5 of the Civil Code. Nevertheless, recently, several cases of mutilations took place: this led some members of the Parliament to introduce a bill in order to specifically forbid FGM. The authors believe that legislation could effectively support the job of prevention and education, which physicians may carry out in order to save little girls from the risk of familial tradition of genital mutilations.

  20. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K


    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  1. The accounting and tax legislation of the Greek football clubs




    The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in ...

  2. Are We Ready for BYOD? An Analysis of the Implementation and Communication of BYOD Programs in Victorian Schools (United States)

    Janssen, Kitty Catharina; Phillipson, Sivanes


    Many Victorian secondary schools appear to be implementing Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs as the Australian Federal government's Digital Education Revolution funding has come to an end for 1-to-1 Learning programs. One of the key elements identified as important for the success of these programs is the clear communication of policies and…

  3. The victorian institute of sports assessment - achilles questionnaire (visa-a) - a reliable tool for measuring achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning


    Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome meas...

  4. Teaching Children the Geography of England and Wales: An Analysis of Selected Georgian and Victorian Textbooks and Educational Pastimes (United States)

    Dove, Jane


    Children in Georgian and Victorian times were expected to be familiar with the geography of England and Wales. This study analyses some of the resources then available which taught children this information. John Aikin's "England Delineated" is evaluated as a geographical text and then compared with less formal games and puzzles, then on…

  5. The victorian institute of sports assessment - achilles questionnaire (visa-a) - a reliable tool for measuring achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning


    Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome...

  6. 46 CFR 67.132 - Special legislation. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special legislation. 67.132 Section 67.132 Shipping... legislation. (a) Vessels not otherwise entitled to be operated in the coastwise trade or in the fisheries may obtain these privileges as a result of special legislation by the Congress of the United States. (b) In...

  7. 38 CFR 13.3 - State legislation. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State legislation. 13.3... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.3 State legislation. Field facility Directors are authorized to... regarding any proposed legislation relating to fiduciary matters will be taken without the approval of the...

  8. 50 CFR 80.3 - Assent legislation. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assent legislation. 80.3 Section 80.3... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.3 Assent legislation. A State may participate in the benefits of the Act(s) only after it has passed legislation which assents to the provisions...

  9. 33 CFR 276.5 - Legislative history. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislative history. 276.5 Section 276.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Legislative history. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the reports by the Senate Committee on...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.


    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  12. Criminal legislation of drug abuse


    Tukinská, Markéta


    Title: Criminal legislation of drug abuse Author: Mgr. Markéta Tukinská Supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Jiří Jelínek, CSc. Abstract: Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. The production and illegal trade of drugs is the domain of international organized crime. Illegal weapon trade and human trafficking often follow these activities. The drug abuse means serious threat for the society. It doesn't mean danger only for the drug addict, who is suffering from health problems, which are following the addictio...

  13. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir


    Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...... variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote....

  14. Authors: A Laas and T Boezaart THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    bullying incident, various disciplines come into play such as law (child law, criminal law, education law and the law of delict), psychology, sociology, etc. These disciplines must work in conjunction with one another to ultimately provide a cohesive solution. See Boezaart "Child Law". 4 on the holistic nature of various aspects ...

  15. The legislative framework regarding bullying in South African schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis. KEYWORDS: Abuse; best interest of the child; bullying; child justice; children's rights; code of conduct; constitutional rights; discipline; educational context; harassment; harm; offender; protection orders; restorative justice; right to education; victim; violence.

  16. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac


    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  17. Current Legislative Initiatives and Geophysics (United States)

    Stephan, S. G.


    Geophysical research will be most effective in the fight against terrorism if it is done in cooperation with the expectations of local, state and federal policy makers. New tools to prevent, prepare for, and respond to acts of terrorism are coming from all fields, including geoscience. Globally, monitoring the land, oceans, atmosphere, and space for unusual and suspicious activities can help prevent terrorist acts. Closer to home, geoscience research is used to plan emergency transportation routes and identify infrastructure vulnerabilities. As important as it is for Congress and other policy makers to appreciate the promises and limitations of geophysical research, scientists need to be aware of legislative priorities and expectations. What does Congress expect from the geoscience community in the fight against terrorism and how well does reality meet these expectations? What tools do the 44 different federal agencies with stated Homeland Security missions need from geoscientists? I will address these questions with an overview of current legislative antiterrorism initiatives and policies that relate to the geoscience community.

  18. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis. (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima


    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws ( (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' ( from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation. [WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.


    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted.

  20. Managing professionals: The emerging leadership role of Victorian Maternal and Child Health coordinators. (United States)

    Reiger, Kerreen; Keleher, Helen


    Drawing on research into cultural and organizational change in the Victorian Maternal and Child Health Service during the 1990s, this paper examines implications for the nursing leadership provided by service coordinators. The project included a quantitative survey of nurses and semistructured interviews with managers and coordinators. Under a strongly neo-liberal state government in Victoria, Australia, services were fundamentally restructured through tendering processes. A competitive, productivist culture was introduced that challenged the professional ethos of nurses and a primary health orientation to the care of mothers and infants. This paper focuses on the pressures that the entrepreneurial environment presented to maternal and child health nurses' identity and collegial relations and to the coordination role. It argues that coordinators emerged as a significant nursing management group at the interface of administrative change and the management of professional practice. Although many nurses skillfully negotiated tensions with peers and management, their leadership role needs further clarification and support.

  1. Mid-Victorian science museums and exhibitions: 'the industrial amusement and instruction of the people'. (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard


    The Royal Polytechnic Institution, Wyld's Globe and the Royal Panopticon were part of a family of institutions that existed in the post-Great Exhibition era that shared a common approach to popularizing science based on the blending of education and entertainment. Studying them helps us to understand the Victorian fascination with science, especially in the third quarter of the century. It draws our attention to the important role of popularizers of science who worked in these museums and exhibitions. Once their role is added to our account of the cult of science, a very different picture emerges that forces us to reconsider the standard story of the dominance of the scientific scene in the second half of the century by figures such as Darwin, Huxley and Tyndall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vivisecting Major: a Victorian gentleman scientist defends animal experimentation, 1876-1885. (United States)

    Boddice, Rob


    Through an investigation of the public, professional, and private life of the Darwinian disciple George John Romanes, this essay seeks a better understanding of the scientific motivations for defending the practice of vivisection at the height of the controversy in late Victorian Britain. Setting aside a historiography that has tended to focus on the arguments of antivivisectionists, it reconstructs the viewpoint of the scientific community through an examination of Romanes's work to help orchestrate the defense of animal experimentation. By embedding his life in three complicatedly overlapping networks-the world of print, interpersonal communications among an increasingly professionalized body of scientific men, and the intimacies of private life-the essay uses Romanes as a lens with which to focus the physiological apprehension of the antivivisection movement. It is a story of reputation, self-interest, and affection.

  3. The social event of the season. Solar eclipse expeditions and Victorian culture. (United States)

    Pang, A. S.-K.


    The purpose of this article is to examine the construction of eclipse expeditions in Victorian and Edwardian Britain. (American expeditions will also be discussed to highlight national styles in organization and fieldwork.) The author begins by examining how expeditions were planned and how choices about observing sites, observers, and travel plans were made. He then follows parties out into the field. He argues that eclipse expeditons were powerfully affected by the practices and culture of tourism and were further shaped by expectations surrounding the encounter of "civilized" and "uncivilized" peoples. Finally, the author examines the crafting of observing practices used during totality. The evolution of astrophotography, the rise of big instruments, and battles between amateurs and professionals all had their effect on eclipse observation, but a close examination of observing practices and instrument design will show that the tools of empire were as important as cameras and telescopes for the production of reliable knowledge about the Sun.

  4. A Note on Child Neglect in American Victorianism: Henry James’ "The Pupil"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gül KOÇSOY


    Full Text Available In this study, the theme of “neglected child” in Henry James’ “The Pupil” (1891 is explored. Morgan is a neglected child with unscrupulous parents who hold strictly on the Victorian values which reflect American cultural consciousness in the last decades of 19th century. Although he is a brilliant boy, the family does not love him; because he reminds them of their vulgarity. They neglect him physically and emotionally, seeing him as a burden. Although his tutor tries to keep the boy from the family’s corruption, he contributes to his death; he neglects his illness and deserts him when he is most needy. As an interpreter, James draws attention to the situation of children that are not working but being tutored at home. He criticizes this culture’s general attitude towards children. It is a disturbing social reality and he shows how that materialistic culture victimizes children in terms of neglectful parenting

  5. Women Doctors and Lady Nurses: Class, Education, and the Professional Victorian Woman. (United States)

    Heggie, Vanessa


    The lives of the first women doctors in Britain have been well studied by historians, as have the many debates about the right of women to train and practice as doctors. Yet the relationship between these women and their most obvious comparators and competitors-the newly professionalized hospital nurses-has not been explored. This article makes use of a wide range of sources to explore the ways in which the first lady doctors created "clear water" between themselves and the nurses with whom they worked and trained. In doing so, it reveals an identity that may seem at odds with some of the clichés of Victorian femininity, namely that of the intelligent and ambitious lady doctor.

  6. Outlaw, hackers, victorian amateurs: diagnosing public participation in the life sciences today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kelty


    Full Text Available This essay reflects on three figures that can be used to make sense of the changing nature of public participation in the life sciences today: outlaws, hackers and Victorian gentlemen. Occasioned by a symposium held at UCLA (Outlaw Biology: Public Participation in the Age of Big Bio, the essay introduces several different modes of participation (DIY Bio, Bio Art, At home clinical genetics, patient advocacy and others and makes three points: 1 that public participation is first a problem of legitimacy, not legality or safety; 2 that public participation is itself enabled by and thrives on the infrastructure of mainstream biology; and 3 that we need a new set of concepts (other than inside/outside for describing the nature of public participation in biological research and innovation today.

  7. Victorian Imag(ining of the Pagan Pyre: Frank Dicksee's 'Funeral of a Viking'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Rose Marshall


    Full Text Available Victorians drew on imagery of Druid and Viking funeral pyres as a way of exploring alternative narratives of death and burial, generating a collective attention to what happened to a body after death. I set Frank Dicksee’s oil painting, 'Funeral of a Viking' (1893, against the background of the emergent cremation movement and accounts of the neo-Druid William Price, a proponent for the legalization of cremation in the 1880s, in order to glimpse the work performed by the visualization of the ritualized burning of human beings in the pagan past. Fire produces metamorphosis in the objects it encounters, and Dicksee’s portrayal underscores the notion of a clearly delineated human body transforming into amorphous flame. Moreover, the Viking dissolves into pigment itself, mere aesthetic effect taking the place of a recognizable figure. In fictional accounts such as Paul Du Chaillu’s novel 'Ivar the Viking '(1893, the pyre as a narrative tool similarly forced attention to the body as dematerializing thing and to the language articulating this dissipation. I suggest that the Victorian fascination with pagan fire-death allowed for alternate visions of form–matter relationships that in turn might produce new aesthetic possibilities. As the Christian world insisted on the resurrection of the body in a way that clung fiercely to tangibility and bounded form even in the face of belief in the immortality of the saved soul, the modern moment might be seen, in contrast, as characterized by an embrace of an aesthetic of dissolving form or formlessness.

  8. Sleep duration and risk of obesity among a sample of Victorian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Morrissey


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient sleep is potentially an important modifiable risk factor for obesity and poor physical activity and sedentary behaviours among children. However, inconsistencies across studies highlight the need for more objective measures. This paper examines the relationship between sleep duration and objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and weight status, among a sample of Victorian Primary School children. Methods A sub-sample of 298 grades four (n = 157 and six (n = 132 Victorian primary school children (aged 9.2-13.2 years with complete accelerometry and anthropometry data, from 39 schools, were taken from a pilot study of a larger state based cluster randomized control trial in 2013. Data comprised: researcher measured height and weight; accelerometry derived physical activity and sedentary time; and self-reported sleep duration and hypothesised confounding factors (e.g. age, gender and environmental factors. Results Compared with sufficient sleepers (67 %, those with insufficient sleep (<10 hrs/day were significantly more likely to be overweight (OR 1.97, 95 % CI:1.11-3.48 or obese (OR 2.43, 95 % CI:1.26-4.71. No association between sleep and objectively measured physical activity levels or sedentary time was found. Conclusion The strong positive relationship between weight status and sleep deprivation merits further research though PA and sedentary time do not seem to be involved in the relationship. Strategies to improve sleep duration may help obesity prevention initiatives in the future.

  9. Comparison of not for resuscitation (NFR) forms across five Victorian health services. (United States)

    Levinson, M; Mills, A; Hutchinson, A M; Heriot, G; Stephenson, G; Gellie, A


    Within Australian hospitals, cardiac and respiratory arrests result in a resuscitation attempt unless the patient is documented as not for resuscitation. To examine the consistency of policies and documentation for withholding in-hospital resuscitation across health services. An observational, qualitative review of hospital policy and documentation was conducted in June 2013 in three public and two private sector hospitals in metropolitan Melbourne. Not for resuscitation (NFR) forms were evaluated for physical characteristics, content, authorisation and decision-making. Hospital policies were coded for alerts, definition of futility and burden of treatment and management of discussions and dissent. There was a lack of standardisation, with each site using its own unique NFR form and accompanying site-specific policies. Differences were found in who could authorise the decision, what was included on the form, the role of patients and families, and how discussions were managed and dissent resolved. Futility and burden of treatment were not defined independently. These inconsistencies across sites contribute to a lack of clarity regarding the decision to withhold resuscitation, and have implications for staff employed across multiple hospitals. NFR forms should be reviewed and standardised so as to be clear, uniform and consistent with the legislative framework. We propose a two-stage process of documentation. Stage 1 facilitates discussion of patient-specific goals of care and consideration of limitations of treatment. Stage 2 serves to communicate a NFR order. Decisions to withhold resuscitation are inherently complex but could be aided by separating the decision-making process from the communication of the decision, resulting in improved end-of-life care. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. Critical Care Nurses' Knowledge of Confidentiality Legislation. (United States)

    Newman, Angela B; Kjervik, Diane K


    Health care legislation can be difficult to understand and apply in critical situations where patients may not be physically capable of autonomous control of confidential health information. Nurses are often the first to encounter confidential information about patients. To explore critical care nurses' knowledge of federal and North Carolina state legislation regarding confidentiality. This descriptive, qualitative study included 12 critical care nurses who were asked to describe their knowledge of federal confidentiality legislation and specific knowledge of North Carolina's confidentiality legislation. Critical care nurses were knowledgeable about federal confidentiality laws but demonstrated a need for further education about state-specific legislation. Nurses' application of confidentiality legislation demonstrates their knowledge of confidentiality legislation. To continue the trusting relationship that nurses have traditionally held with patients and patients' families, it is imperative for nurses to remain current about confidentiality legislation. Through education both before and after licensure, correct application of legislation can be achieved. Further research can aid in exploring the intersection between health care legislation and ethics. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Preventing non-communicable disease in Oman, a legislative review. (United States)

    Al-Bahlani, Sabah; Mabry, Ruth


    The burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) is a major global concern and is projected to increase by 15% over the next 10 years. NCD is the leading cause of mortality in Oman and other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Some of the most successful interventions to address NCD include legislations like banning smoking in public places. A desk review of available policies and legislations related to the behavioural risk factors of NCD from the GCC and from Oman was conducted with a focus on policies and legislations related to food, physical activity and tobacco. The review identified numerous documents; most were policies and resolutions related to tobacco control. Although only a few documents were laws, a majority were issued by non-health sectors. This policy review is the first effort in the GCC to consolidate information on the regulatory framework for the three key risk behaviours in the region, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Further work is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework, at both the national and regional levels, to strengthen tobacco control as well as to improve dietary patterns and physical activity levels. Given that a bulk of laws, regulations and policies are beyond the scope of the health sector, significant advocacy efforts are required to generate a multisectoral response. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. A review of climate change and the implementation of marine biodiversity legislation in the United Kingdom


    Frost, MT; Bayliss-Brown, G; Buckley, P; Cox, M; Dye, SR; Sanderson, WG; Stoker, B; Withers Harvey, N


    1. Marine legislation, the key means by which the conservation of marine biodiversity is achieved, has been developing since the 1960s. In recent decades, an increasing focus on ‘holistic’ policy development is evident, compared with earlier ‘piecemeal’ sectoral approaches. Important marine legislative tools being used in the United Kingdom, and internationally, include the designation of marine protected areas and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) with its aim of meeting ‘Good E...

  13. Classifying VAT Legislation for Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    The paper offers a framework for partitioning articles in legal documents pertaining to value added tax (VAT) into categories suitable for subsequent integration in computerized systems for automatically deriving VAT rates. The importance of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system supporting...

  14. Policy guidance on threats to legislative interventions in public health: a realist synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Lesley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legislation is one of the most powerful weapons for improving population health and is often used by policy and decision makers. Little research exists to guide them as to whether legislation is feasible and/or will succeed. We aimed to produce a coherent and transferable evidence based framework of threats to legislative interventions to assist the decision making process and to test this through the 'case study' of legislation to ban smoking in cars carrying children. Methods We conceptualised legislative interventions as a complex social interventions and so used the realist synthesis method to systematically review the literature for evidence. 99 articles were found through searches on five electronic databases (MEDLINE, HMIC, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Social Policy and Practice and iterative purposive searching. Our initial searches sought any studies that contained information on smoking in vehicles carrying children. Throughout the review we continued where needed to search for additional studies of any type that would conceptually contribute to helping build and/or test our framework. Results Our framework identified a series of transferable threats to public health legislation. When applied to smoking bans in vehicles; problem misidentification; public support; opposition; and enforcement issues were particularly prominent threats. Our framework enabled us to understand and explain the nature of each threat and to infer the most likely outcome if such legislation were to be proposed in a jurisdiction where no such ban existed. Specifically, the micro-environment of a vehicle can contain highly hazardous levels of second hand smoke. Public support for such legislation is high amongst smokers and non-smokers and their underlying motivations were very similar - wanting to practice the Millian principle of protecting children from harm. Evidence indicated that the tobacco industry was not likely to oppose legislation and

  15. Writing/Reading the Victorian Past through Spiritualist Séances in A. S. Byatt's "The Conjugal Angel"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Mulalić


    Full Text Available One of the dominant concerns of postmodern writing is to discuss the importance and modes of knowing the past. The aim of this paper is to explore how the British novelist A.S. Byatt rereads the Victorian past in her novella “The Conjugal Angel” by using Victorian spiritualism as a multilayered metaphor for dynamic communication between the past and present. Spiritualist rituals will also be read as a cultural practice characterised by the playful undermining of gender roles and norms. Finally, the paper will discuss spiritualist séances as a metaphor for the writing and reading of historiographic metafiction seen as a process of restless summoning of and intense communicating with the ghosts/texts from the past.

  16. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar


    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  17. "Fourteen dollars for one beer!" Pre-drinking is associated with high-risk drinking among Victorian young adults. (United States)

    MacLean, Sarah; Callinan, Sarah


    Pre-drinking entails consuming alcohol before attending licensed venues. We examined the relationship between pre-drinking, intention to get drunk and high-risk drinking among Victorians aged 18-24 years, to consider whether reducing pre-drinking might ameliorate alcohol-related harm. Variables within the 2009 Victorian Youth Alcohol and Drugs Survey (VYADS) dataset were analysed and compared with a thematic interpretation of research interviews involving 60 young adults living in Melbourne. High-risk drinking was defined as consuming 11 or more standard drinks in a session at least monthly. VYADS data show that pre-drinking was a significant predictor of high-risk drinking, even after intention to get drunk was controlled for. The most common explanation provided by interviewees for pre-drinking was because it is cheaper to purchase alcohol at bottle shops than at bars and clubs. This was particularly emphasised by those who drank at a high-risk level. The study suggests that people pre-drink because they desire to be intoxicated, but also that pre-drinking patterns and product choices exacerbate the likelihood of high-risk drinking. Reducing availability of cheap packaged alcohol has potential to limit both pre-drinking and high-risk drinking among Victorian young adults. The study adds weight to calls to implement minimum alcohol pricing in Australia. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. [Theories of evolution shaping Victorian anthropology. The science-politics of the X-Club, 1860-1872]. (United States)

    Gondermann, Thomas


    This paper discusses the role that a group of evolutionists, the X-Club, played in the epistemic and institutional transformation of Victorian anthropology in the 1860s. It analyses how anthropology has been brought into line with the theory of evolution, which gained currency at the same time. The X-Club was a highly influential pressure group in the Victorian scientific community. It campaigned for the theory of evolution in several fields of the natural sciences and had a considerable influence on the modernization of the sciences. Yet, this club also intervened in the anthropological discourse of these years. The X-Club's meddling with anthropology led to the latter's evolutionary turn. The introduction of an evolutionary agenda into Victorian anthropology depended not only on the X-Club's theoretical contributions but also on the structural reformation of the discipline. Its campaigns also aimed at marginalizing the proponents of pre-evolutionary anthropology in its institutions and led to the foundation of a new organization in anthropology: The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Thus, evolutionary anthropology emerged in the 1860s also as the result of science-politicking rather than just from the transmission of evolutionary concepts through discourse.

  19. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1985. (United States)

    Nelson, Richard R.


    Presents a summary, by state jurisdiction, of labor legislation during 1985. Legislation covered such topics as wages, equal employment opportunity, background clearance, occupational safety and health, employment and training, child labor, industrial homework, hours, agriculture, labor relations, plant closings, worker privacy, private employment…

  20. 29 CFR 11.14 - Legislation. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legislation. 11.14 Section 11.14 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor DEPARTMENT OF LABOR NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES Administrative Procedures § 11.14 Legislation. Notwithstanding any provisions of this part, environmental...

  1. Special Education Legislation and Policy in Canada (United States)

    McBride, Shirley R.


    This article reviews the historical context in which Canadian legislation and policy for children with special needs has evolved. The potential for the rights of students with special needs in light of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is outlined. The role of the Federal and Provincial governments in legislation and policy vis-à-vis…

  2. 43 CFR 26.4 - Legislation. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislation. 26.4 Section 26.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUTH CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.4 Legislation. State programs must meet all of the requirements of section 4...

  3. Development of Food Legislation Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.


    A variety of systems are presented in the perspective of the development of food legislation to give an impression of the features found in food law and the reasons they have taken certain forms. Legislation on food is not only widely distributed in time but also in space. The assurance of safe food

  4. Library Legislation is for Special Librarians Too. (United States)

    Soroka, Marguerite C.

    Library legislation affects all types of libraries, including special libraries. A good example is found in the New York state legislation for Reference and Research Library Resources Systems, in which public, business, industrial, hospital, college, university and historical society libraries are organized into nine regional councils. The 1974…

  5. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G


    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  6. Holiness in Victorian and Edwardian England: Some ecclesial patterns and theological requisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Goroncy


    Full Text Available This essay begins by offering some observations about how holiness was comprehended andexpressed in Victorian and Edwardian England. In addition to the ‘sensibility’ and ‘sentiment’that characterised society, notions of holiness were shaped by, and developed in reaction to, dominant philosophical movements; notably, the Enlightenment and Romanticism. It thenconsiders how these notions found varying religious expression in four Protestant traditions – he Oxford Movement, Calvinism, Wesleyanism, and the Early Keswick movement. Injuxtaposition to what was most often considered to be a negative expression of holinessassociated primarily with anthropocentric and anthroposocial behaviour as evidenced in thesetraditions, the essay concludes by examining one – namely, P.T. Forsyth – whose voice calledfrom within the ecclesial community for a radical requisition of holiness language as afundamentally positive reality describing the divine life and divine activity. The relevance of astudy of the Church’s understanding of holiness and how it sought to develop its doctrinewhile engaging with larger social and philosophical shifts endure with us still.

  7. Unacknowledged Intellect: Scott’s Changing Reputation and an Alternative Victorian Critical Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Coldwell


    Full Text Available Despite a critical tendency, common until recently, to minimize Sir Walter Scott’s impact as an intellectual, two late-Victorian reviewers, Julia Wedgwood and John Stuart Stuart-Glennie, do present Scott as a theorist and a contributor to the intellectual movements of his period. In the arguments made by these two rather minor critics on Scott, readers can recognize a moment when both Scott’s critical fortunes as well as academic and popular critical practices could have taken a different path than they did. What both critics attempt is a balance of the two critical perspectives that were beginning to emerge. Rather than writing for either an audience of compliant lay people or of contentious experts, Wedgwood and Stuart-Glennie ask their readers to balance rational and sympathetic responses, to read with both reason and intuition. In imagining such an audience, these critics imply that literature plays a role in the development of citizens who can, likewise, combine these responses, as they have practiced them in literature, and apply them to the problems faced by responsible citizens.

  8. Weiblichkeitsentwürfe viktorianischer Literatur Concepts of Femininity in Victorian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rönz


    Full Text Available Die viktorianische Epoche verzeichnet einen überproportionalen Zuwachs an Schriftstellerinnen besonders im Bereich des Romans, aber auch innerhalb der übrigen literarischen Gattungen. Autorinnen wie Charlotte und Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti oder Harriet Martineau reflektieren in ihren Schriften eine Gesellschaft, in deren Ideologie die Rolle der Frau als „Angel of the House“ definiert wurde. Silvia Mergenthal untersucht anhand ausführlicher Beispiele die Darstellung der konkreten Perspektiven britischer Frauen in Texten des 19. Jahrhunderts.The Victorian era marks a disproportionate increase of female authors, particularly of novels but also of other literary genres. Authors such as Charlotte and Emily Brontë, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Christina Rossetti or Harriet Martineau reflect a society in which the role of the woman is ideologically defined as the „angel of the house“ in their writings. Silvia Mergenthal examines the actual perspectives of British women from Nineteenth Century texts, using extensive examples.

  9. Recent increase in detection of alprazolam in Victorian heroin-related deaths. (United States)

    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Nielsen, Suzanne; Degenhardt, Louisa; Drummer, Olaf H


    To examine the rate of detection of alprazolam among cases of heroin-related death (HRD) in Victoria, including the relationship between alprazolam supply and HRDs. Population-based study of community alprazolam supply in Victoria and HRDs reported to the Victorian coroner from January 1990 to December 2010. Number of prescriptions for alprazolam supplied; defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 population per 04 of alprazolam; number of cases of HRD in which alprazolam was detected through postmortem toxicological testing. Alprazolam supply increased by 1426%, from 0.42 DDD/1000/04 in 1990, to 6.41 in 2010. For every 1 unit increase in DDD/1000/04, the proportion of cases of HRD in which alprazolam was detected increased at an incidence rate ratio of 2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.8; P < 0.001). Alprazolam was detected among increasing proportions of HRDs, from 5.3% in 2005 to a peak of 35.3% in 2009. The increase in detection of alprazolam among cases of HRD, particularly since 2005, and the disproportionate increase in prescribing of the high-dose 2 mg formulation compared with other formulations suggest a need to examine alprazolam prescribing and to identify inappropriate prescribing and the circumstances of diversion from licit to illicit use.

  10. The European politics of animal experimentation: From Victorian Britain to 'Stop Vivisection'. (United States)

    Germain, Pierre-Luc; Chiapperino, Luca; Testa, Giuseppe


    This paper identifies a common political struggle behind debates on the validity and permissibility of animal experimentation, through an analysis of two recent European case studies: the Italian implementation of the European Directive 2010/63/EC regulating the use of animals in science, and the recent European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) 'Stop Vivisection'. Drawing from a historical parallel with Victorian antivivisectionism, we highlight important threads in our case studies that mark the often neglected specificities of debates on animal experimentation. From the representation of the sadistic scientist in the XIX century, to his/her claimed capture by vested interests and evasion of public scrutiny in the contemporary cases, we show that animals are not simply the focus of the debate, but also a privileged locus at which much broader issues are being raised about science, its authority, accountability and potential misalignment with public interest. By highlighting this common socio-political conflict underlying public controversies around animal experimentation, our work prompts the exploration of modes of authority and argumentation that, in establishing the usefulness of animals in science, avoid reenacting the traditional divide between epistemic and political fora. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Gardner; re BWV: Victorian Supreme Court makes landmark Australian ruling on tube feeding. (United States)

    Ashby, Michael A; Mendelson, Danuta


    The Victorian Supreme Court has decided that artificial nutrition and hydration provided through a percutaneous gastrostomy tube to a woman in a persistent vegetative state may be withdrawn. The judge ruled, in line with a substantial body of international medical, ethical and legal opinion, that any form of artificial nutrition and hydration is a medical procedure, not part of palliative care, and that it is a procedure to sustain life, not to manage the dying process. Thus, the law does not impose a rigid obligation to administer artificial nutrition or hydration to people who are dying, without due regard to their clinical condition. The definition of key terms such as "medical treatment", "palliative care", and "reasonable provision of food and water" in this case will serve as guidance for end-of-life decisions in other states and territories. The case also reiterates the right of patients, and, when incompetent, their validly appointed agents or guardians, to refuse medical treatment. Where an incompetent patient has not executed a binding advance directive and no agent or guardian has been appointed, physicians, in consultation with the family, may decide to withdraw medical treatment, including artificial nutrition or hydration, on the basis that continuation of treatment is inappropriate and not in the patient's best interests. However, Victoria and other jurisdictions would benefit from clarification of this area of the law.

  12. Spazi e dimensioni nella letteratura utopica vittoriana - Space and dimension in the Victorian utopian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Forleo


    Full Text Available In the last centuries, the relationship between science and literature has had numerous manifestations. One of the most interesting aspects was the use of the scientific language in utopian Victorian texts. The analysis of Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott is a starting point for the description of utopian cities, where literature uses science as a technical tool for the explanation of the world. Science becomes a clear metaphor of a rational organization and strategic element for spreading “subliminal” messages. The combination between utopia and science can seem exclusively a theoretical and philosophical relationship, but in reality, it is only a tool to approach the utopian practice. The main feature of utopian texts is its criticism of society, which is made possible only if hidden in metaphorical terms. Indeed, Flatland, as many other mathematical utopias, presents itself as a multidimensional text. The use of geometric structures for the description of utopian spaces allows several interpretations. Science and literature intertwine throughout the text but nevertheless keep their own distinct features.

  13. Holiness in Victorian and Edwardian England: Some ecclesial patterns and theological requisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Goroncy


    Full Text Available This essay begins by offering some observations about how holiness was comprehended andexpressed in Victorian and Edwardian England. In addition to the ‘sensibility’ and ‘sentiment’that characterised society, notions of holiness were shaped by, and developed in reaction to, dominant philosophical movements; notably, the Enlightenment and Romanticism. It thenconsiders how these notions found varying religious expression in four Protestant traditions – he Oxford Movement, Calvinism, Wesleyanism, and the Early Keswick movement. Injuxtaposition to what was most often considered to be a negative expression of holinessassociated primarily with anthropocentric and anthroposocial behaviour as evidenced in thesetraditions, the essay concludes by examining one – namely, P.T. Forsyth – whose voice calledfrom within the ecclesial community for a radical requisition of holiness language as afundamentally positive reality describing the divine life and divine activity. The relevance of astudy of the Church’s understanding of holiness and how it sought to develop its doctrinewhile engaging with larger social and philosophical shifts endure with us still.

  14. A good Darwinian? Winwood Reade and the making of a late Victorian evolutionary epic. (United States)

    Hesketh, Ian


    In 1871 the travel writer and anthropologist W. Winwood Reade (1838-1875) was inspired by his correspondence with Darwin to turn his narrow ethnological research on West African tribes into the broadest history imaginable, one that would show Darwin's great principle of natural selection at work throughout the evolutionary history of humanity, stretching back to the origins of the universe itself. But when Martyrdom of Man was published in 1872, Reade confessed that Darwin would not likely find him a very good Darwinian, as he was unable to show that natural selection was anything more than a secondary law that arranges all details. When it came to historicising humans within the sweeping history of all creation, Reade argued that the primary law was that of development, a less contentious theory of human evolution that was better suited to Reade's progressive and teleological history of life. By focussing on the extensive correspondence between Reade and Darwin, this paper reconstructs the attempt to make an explicitly Darwinian evolutionary epic in order to shed light on the moral and aesthetic demands that worked to give shape to Victorian efforts to historicise humans within a vastly expanding timeframe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiencing racism in health care: the mental health impacts for Victorian Aboriginal communities. (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret A; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin


    To examine experiences of racism in health settings and their impact on mental health among Aboriginal Australians. A cross-sectional survey of experiences of racism and mental health was conducted in two metropolitan and two rural Victorian local government areas (LGAs) between 1 December 2010 and 31 October 2011. Participants included 755 Aboriginal Australians aged over 18 years who had resided in the relevant LGA for at least a year. The response rate across all LGAs was 99%. Being above or below the threshold for high or very high psychological distress on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. 221 participants reported experiences of racism in health settings in the past 12 months. The results suggested that people experiencing racism in health settings (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 2.28-8.86) and non-health settings (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39-5.08) were more likely than people who did not experience racism to be above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. Experiencing interpersonal racism in health settings is associated with increased psychological distress over and above what would be expected in other settings. This finding supports the rationale for improving cultural competency and reducing racism as a means of closing the health gap between Aboriginal and other Australians. Capitalising on this investment will require explicitly evaluating the impact of these initiatives on reducing patient experiences of racism.

  16. Insurance against germ theory: commerce and conservatism in late-Victorian medicine. (United States)

    Alborn, T L


    This article highlights the role played by commercial life insurance companies in determining the response to tuberculosis in Britain between 1865 and 1920. Late-Victorian life offices hired two sorts of physicians to help them screen out high-risk proposals: provincial medical examiners, who collected fees for examining candidates; and salaried medical advisors, who developed guidelines for the medical examination and interpreted the examiners' findings for the head office. The latter set of physicians, many of whom worked at specialist consumption hospitals in London, established an orthodoxy among life offices that privileged hereditarian explanations for the cause of tuberculosis. The provincial examiners resisted that orthodoxy, arguing that advances in public health and treatment rendered irrelevant any apparent correlation between family history and tuberculosis. In adjudicating this internal dispute, life offices stood by their salaried advisors, but in the process pushed them away from viewing disease in terms of specific causes and toward viewing disease in terms of statistical correlation. This victory of statistics over etiology preserved, at least for the rest of the twentieth century, the institutional prominence of insurance as a technique for coping with medical uncertainty.

  17. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action. (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B


    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  18. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.


    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  19. Charles Lucas and medical legislation in eighteenth century Ireland. (United States)

    Mullaney, S


    Charles Lucas, apothecary, physician and MP, was instrumental in facilitating legislation in Ireland in 1765 that established a nationwide network of hospitals in Ireland. This legislation was unique in contemporary Europe, and by the end of the century, there was a hospital in every county in the country. His work as an apothecary provided him with the knowledge to attempt to address the problems in the apothecaries' trade, and his 1741 pamphlet, Pharmacomastix, provided the framework for the 1761 Irish Apothecaries Act, which attempted to address these issues. It was, however, 1791 before nationwide regulation of the Irish apothecaries' trade was implemented following the establishment of the Apothecaries Hall, and this was 24 years before similar regulatory legislation was passed in Britain. Lucas sought enhanced regulation of the apothecaries' trade to provide better quality drugs and medicines for the general public, and he tried to ensure that untrained quacks did not practise as apothecaries, unbeknownst to their patients. He was aware that his proposals would meet with opposition, but he had the courage to pursue these without any element of personal gain. In medical terms, Charles Lucas was man ahead of his time.

  20. Report of the Environmental Legislation Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A review panel was established in October 1990 to hold public meetings throughout Alberta for providing the public with opportunities to express their views on draft environmental legislation. Overviews of public comments and review panel recommendations regarding the draft legislation are summarized in such categories as sustainable development, discretionary powers, environmental impact assessments, approvals, contaminant releases, conservation and reclamation, waste minimization and recycling, the polluter-pays concept, the role of local government, dispute resolution mechanisms, protected areas, environmental protection orders, and enforcement of the legislation.

  1. CFC legislation in the European Union


    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.


    In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with ...

  2. 10 CFR 51.88 - Proposals for legislation. (United States)


    ...) Legislative Environmental Impact Statements-Proposals for Legislation § 51.88 Proposals for legislation. The... proposals for legislation. final environmental impact statements—general requirements ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposals for legislation. 51.88 Section 51.88 Energy...

  3. Canadian parents' attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation in provinces with and without legislation. (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Degroot, J; Macpherson, A; Fuselli, P; Macarthur, C


    The objective of this study was to survey Canadian parents on their attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation and to compare responses from parents living in provinces with and without legislation. A national survey of 1002 parents of children aged under 18 years was conducted. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses from the surveyed parents in the different jurisdictions. Responses from parents living in provinces with legislation (n = 640) and without legislation (n = 362) were as follows: concern for injury (63% vs. 68%, nonsignificant [NS]); believe helmets are effective (98% vs. 98%, NS); child always wears a helmet (74% vs. 69%, NS); support legislation for children (95% vs. 83%, p legislation for all ages (85% vs. 75%, p legislation decreases the amount of time their child bicycles (5% vs. 8%, NS). Parents are highly supportive of bicycle helmet legislation in Canada. They believe that bicycle helmets are effective and that legislation does not decrease the amount of time a child spends bicycling. There was also a high level of support for legislation across all ages, and for police enforcement.

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  14. Legislative Action: The Possibility of Instant Retrenchment. (United States)

    Jedamus, Paul


    Planning models developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder and resulting strategies for coping with legislated retrenchment are presented. Several areas for course of action are examined: contingency planning, planning for flexibility and enhancing real productivity. (LC)

  15. Correction of refractive error in the Victorian population: the feasibility of "off the shelf" spectacles (United States)

    Maini, R.; Keeffe, J.; Weih, L. A.; McCarty, C.; Taylor, H.


    AIMS—To assess the feasibility of providing a stock of ready made spectacles for correction of refractive error in the general population.
METHODS—Data were collected in the Visual Impairment Project, a population based survey of Victorian residents aged 40 years or older in randomly selected urban and rural sample areas. This included a refractive eye examination and the proportion of subjects with hypermetropia, emmetropia (defined as −1.0 to +1.0D spherical equivalent), and myopia documented in the 40-60 year age group.
RESULTS—2595 (54.8%) participants were aged between 40 and 60 years. Those with a best corrected visual acuity of less than 6/12, astigmatism of more than 1.25D, and anisometropia of more than 0.5D were excluded. 516 participants had refractive error which was deemed suitable for correction by "off the shelf" spectacles. This represents 19.9% of all participants between 40 and 60 years of age. Provision of spectacles in 0.5D increments would provide suitable stock spectacles for 85.5% of a −3.0 to +3.0D range or 89.2% of a −3.50 to +3.50D range.
CONCLUSIONS—Ready made "off the shelf" spectacles could significantly alleviate visual morbidity due to refractive error in up to 20% of an urban population in Australia. This approach may also be useful in developing countries with poor access to optometric services.


  16. Cervical Spinal Cord Injury at the Victorian Spinal Cord Injury Service: Epidemiology of the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C.P. Lau


    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI is a significant medical and socioeconomic problem. In Victoria, Australia, there has been limited research into the incidence of CSCI. The Austin Hospital's Victorian Spinal Cord Injury Service (VSCIS is a tertiary referral hospital that accepts referrals for surgical management and ongoing neurological rehabilitation for south eastern Australia. The aim of this study was to characterise the epidemiology of CSCI managed operatively at the VSCIS over the last decade, in order to help fashion public health campaigns. Methods This was a retrospective review of medical records from January 2000 to December 2009 of all patients who underwent surgical management of acute CSCI in the VSCIS catchment region. Patients treated non-operatively were excluded. Outcome measures included: demographics, mechanism of injury and associated factors (like alcohol and patient neurological status. Results Men were much more likely to have CSCI than women, with a 4:1 ratio, and the highest incidence of CSCI for men was in their 20s (39%. The most common cause of CSCI was transport related (52%, followed by falls (23% and water-related incidents (16%. Falls were more prevalent among those >50 years. Alcohol was associated in 22% of all CSCIs, including 42% of water-related injuries. Discussion Our retrospective epidemiological study identified at-risk groups presenting to our spinal injury service. Young males in their 20s were associated with an increased risk of transport-related accidents, water-related incidents in the summer months and accidents associated with alcohol. Another high risk group were men >50 years who suffer falls, both from standing and from greater heights. Public awareness campaigns should target these groups to lower incidence of CSCI.

  17. Something in the Air: Dr Carter Moffat’s Ammoniaphone and the Victorian Science of Singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Melissa Dickson


    Full Text Available In January 1885, the Glaswegian Professor of Chemistry Dr Robert Carter Moffat organised a special operatic concert at St James’s Hall, London, to which he invited around two thousand scientists and musicians. The point of this invitation concert was that all the singers used bottled air. Moffat himself appeared between the various performances, wielding his mysterious Ammoniaphone, or bottled-air machine, a long silver tube which he flourished in the faces of his audience while describing its virtues with considerable animation. The premise of the Ammoniaphone was that since Italian opera singers were known throughout the world for the beauty of their voices, it stood to reason that this must have something to do with the quality of the air they breathed. The Ammoniaphone, Moffat claimed, contained the precise chemical formula of the air in Southern Italy, and inhaling from this instrument effectively resulted in the ‘Italianization of the voice’. Drawing on representations of the Ammoniaphone across nineteenth-century advertising and the medical and musical press, and situating these representations within the broader Victorian fascination with the supremacy of Italian opera singers, this essay offers new insight into the emergent corporeal anxieties betrayed by late nineteenth-century consumer culture, and the various methods by which the body might be continually fashioned and re-fashioned in order to produce a high-functioning social subject in a fast-paced modern society. Aggressively (not to say unscrupulously advertised, the Ammoniaphone was marketed to vocalists, clergymen, public speakers, choirmasters, schoolmasters, parliamentarians, and enthusiastic amateurs of these vocations, with claims that it would conserve and preserve the voice, expand its range upwards and downwards, and lend it an otherwise unobtainable purity, beauty and richness. This, I will argue, was symptomatic of a broader cultural need to counter the stresses

  18. Public access defibrillation—results from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. (United States)

    Lijovic, M; Bernard, S; Nehme, Z; Walker, T; Smith, K


    To assess the impact of automated external defibrillator (AED) use by bystanders in Victoria, Australia on survival of adults suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in a public place compared to those first defibrillated by emergency medical services (EMS). We analysed data from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry for individuals aged >15 years who were defibrillated in a public place between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2013, excluding events due to trauma or witnessed by EMS. Of 2270 OHCA cases who arrested in a public place, 2117 (93.4%) were first defibrillated by EMS and 153 (6.7%) were first defibrillated by a bystander using a public AED. Use of public AEDs increased almost 11-fold between 2002/2003 and 2012/2013, from 1.7% to 18.5%, respectively (p defibrillation occurred sooner in bystander defibrillation (5.2 versus 10.0 min, p defibrillated patients was significantly higher than for those first defibrillated by EMS (45% versus 31%, p defibrillation by a bystander using an AED was associated with a 62% increase in the odds of survival to hospital discharge (adjusted odds ratio 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.34, p = 0.010) compared to first defibrillation by EMS. Survival to hospital discharge is improved in patients first defibrillated using a public AED prior to EMS arrival in Victoria, Australia. Encouragingly, bystander AED use in Victoria has increased over time. More widespread availability of AEDs may further improve outcomes of OHCA in public places.

  19. Road safety legislation in the Americas. (United States)

    Híjar, Martha; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Inclán-Valadez, Cristina; Silveira-Rodrigues, Eugênia Maria


    Legislating five of the main risk factors for road traffic injuries (RTIs), as much as enforcing the law, is essential in forging an integral culture of road safety. Analysis of the level of progression in law enforcement allows for an evaluation of the state of world regions. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Global status report on road safety: time for action survey was undertaken to evaluate legislation on five risk factors (speed management, drinking and driving, motorcycle helmet use, seatbelt use, and use of child restraints) in the Americas. Laws were classified depending on their level of progression: the existence of legislation, whether the legislation is adequate, a level of law enforcement > 6 (on a scale of 0-10), and whether the law is considered comprehensive. A descriptive analysis was performed. The totality of the countries has national or subnational legislation for at least one of the five risk factors. However, 63% have laws on the five risk factors studied, and none of them has comprehensive laws for all five. Seatbelt use appears to be the most extended enforced legislation, while speeding laws appear to be the least enforced. There are positive efforts that should be recognized in the region. However, the region stands in different stages of progression. Law enforcement remains the main issue to be tackled. Laws should be based on evidence about what is already known to be effective.

  20. Specific legislation on biobanks in Spain. (United States)

    García-Merino, Isabel Ma; Consuegra, Irene; Jiménez, José Luís; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles


    Spain has enacted specific legislation concerning biobanks. This legislation regulates how biobanks should be set up, how they should operate, and the requirements they need to comply with. The main objective of this legislation is to keep a good balance between scientific progress and respect for the rights and freedom of individuals participating in research. Therefore, this legislation lays down a series of basic principles, for instance, the principle to inform donors accurately i) on the deposit of samples in terms of the objectives and implications of their donation and on the need to obtain written consents; ii) on the obligation to establish consistent procedures to guarantee the confidentiality of personal data associated with and obtained from biological samples; iii) on the concept of free sample donation either by donors or by biobanks; iv) on the need for consistent procedures to deposit samples and data in biobanks; and v) for acts of donation and data for research projects to be performed correctly. Although this Spanish legislation fulfills its objectives, it has some drawbacks; mainly it overprotects research participants. This issue should be analyzed in future revisions of the legislation.

  1. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey


    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  2. Family Violence in Domestic Homicides: A Case Study of Women Who Killed Intimate Partners Post-Legislative Reform in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Tyson, Danielle; Kirkwood, Deborah; Mckenzie, Mandy


    This article examines the impact of legislative reforms enacted in 2005 in Victoria, Australia, on legal responses to women charged with murder for killing their intimate partner. The reforms provided for a broader understanding of the context of family violence to be considered in such cases, but we found little evidence of this in practice. This is partly attributable to persistent misconceptions among the legal profession about family violence and why women may believe it necessary to kill a partner. We recommend specialized training for legal professionals and increased use of family violence evidence to help ensure women's claims of self-defense receive appropriate responses from Victorian courts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Beyond a clinical role: nurses were psychosocial supporters, coordinators and problem solvers in the Black Saturday and Victorian bushfires in 2009. (United States)

    Ranse, Jamie; Lenson, Shane


    This research explores the roles of nurses that participated in the Black Saturday and Victorian bushfires in February 2009, including aspects that influence nurses' roles, such as prior education, training and availability of resources. It is acknowledged that nurses play an important role in disaster response and recovery. However, our understanding of nurses' roles is superficial and commonly based on descriptions of events in which specifics relating to the nurses' roles are embedded within other topics or issues. Similarly, aspects that support nurses in the disaster environment, including previous experience, education and the provision of resources, are not well understood. Single, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 11 volunteer nursing members of St John Ambulance Australia. These interviews were electronically recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using a well-recognised human science approach. The thematic analysis identified two broad themes: being prepared and having an expansive role. Participants indicated that they were educationally prepared and had adequate clinical experience. They outlined that they took many resources with them; however, they were used very little, as their role consisted of minimal clinical care. Additionally, nurses performed roles including a psychosocial supporter, a coordinator of care and resources, and problem solvers. The nurses' role in providing health care during and/or following a disaster is more than a clinical care role. This understanding should be applied to the development of education programs, competencies and policies, with a particular focus on contextualising the education to the realities of possible disastrous scenarios that incorporates elements of coordination, problem solving and psychosocial care within a national framework. Additionally, this awareness education should be used to inform nurses about the realities of working in disaster environments. Copyright

  4. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith


    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  5. Supervising Snowsport Activities: A Reflection upon Legislation, Policies, Guidelines and Practice (United States)

    Dickson, Tracey J.; Terwiel, F. Anne


    This paper explores on-snow supervision in school-based snowsport excursions by investigating snowsport participation and safety data and relevant legislation and policies that form the framework for practice. Snowsports may present a more complex environment for managing of participants than many other outdoor environments and provide a valuable…

  6. Mechanism of financial support of education: legislative basis of power distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kotsovska


    Full Text Available The article studies the legislative basis of power distribution as a basic component of the mechanism of financial support of education at the regional level. Budgetary expenditure on education has been analyzed. It has been grounded and proposed to transfer the authority of financial support of education to appropriate regional and district administrations within the frameworks of decentralisation.

  7. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman


    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  8. Unintended consequences of health care legislation. (United States)

    Thrall, James H


    Unintended consequences of health care legislation threaten the financial and social well-being of the United States. Examples of major legislation resulting in unintended and unforeseen consequences include the Social Security Amendments Acts of 1989 and 1993 (the Stark laws), the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, and the Social Security Amendments Act of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid). Each of these has had unintended financial and social outcomes. Spending for Medicare and Medicaid now equals an unsustainable 23% of the federal budget. Major reasons for unintended consequences include failure to appreciate the complexity of the issues, the open-ended nature of medical advances with attendant increases in costs, the inducement of change in behaviors in response to legislation, and the moral hazard of people spending other people's money. Actions that should be considered to avoid unintended consequences include more involvement of health professionals in the design of legislation, the inclusion of triggers to target review of legislatively defined programs, and the setting of time limits for sun-setting legislation. The ACR has played an important advocacy role and should continue to offer input to legislators, federal policymakers, and other stakeholders. Many opportunities exist to address the current financial situation by reducing the amount of unnecessary care delivered. Both major US political parties need to find the political will to compromise to chart the way forward. Some level of sacrifice is likely to be necessary from patients and providers and other stakeholders. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity? (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross


    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  11. Using information and communication technologies to consult with patients in Victorian primary care: the views of general practitioners. (United States)

    Hanna, Lisa; Fairhurst, Karen


    Information and communication technologies such as email, text messaging and video messaging are commonly used by the general population. However, international research has shown that they are not used routinely by GPs to communicate or consult with patients. Investigating Victorian GPs' perceptions of doing so is timely given Australia's new National Broadband Network, which may facilitate web-based modes of doctor-patient interaction. This study therefore aimed to explore Victorian GPs' experiences of, and attitudes toward, using information and communication technologies to consult with patients. Qualitative telephone interviews were carried out with a maximum variation sample of 36GPs from across Victoria. GPs reported a range of perspectives on using new consultation technologies within their practice. Common concerns included medico-legal and remuneration issues and perceived patient information technology literacy. Policy makers should incorporate GPs' perspectives into primary care service delivery planning to promote the effective use of information and communication technologies in improving accessibility and quality of general practice care.

  12. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.


    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  13. Smoke-free legislation and child health (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz


    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world’s population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike. PMID:27853176

  14. Smoke-free legislation and child health. (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz


    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world's population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike.

  15. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra


    The benefists of outdoor recreation and the need for recreation inventories and monitoring are described in various policy and legislation documents at the European level. The objective of this paper is to analyse how these recreational aspects are reflected at the national level in core forest...... indicates that a consistent forest recreation monitoring system, linked to sustainable forest management, as describes for example in the Helsinki process, should be better transferred into national policuy and legislation. Compareable data across Europe could then provide a sound base for making decisions...

  16. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators. (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa


    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  17. A Comparative Study of the Positioning of Children with Special Educational Needs in the Legislation of Britain, New Zealand and the Republic of Ireland (United States)

    Howie, Dorothy


    This paper uses Positioning Theory, a theoretical framework within Discursive Psychology, to explore the positioning of children with special educational needs in the legislation of Britain, New Zealand and the Republic of Ireland. In terms of positioning the child with special educational needs as a person, the human rights legislation in all…

  18. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.


    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  19. 22 CFR 211.1 - General purpose and scope; legislation. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose and scope; legislation. 211.1...; legislation. (a) Legislation. The Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended (Pub...-624, 104 Stat. 3632-65 (1990). The legislation implemented by the regulation in this part (as of the...

  20. Research on the fundamental principles of China's marine invasive species prevention legislation. (United States)

    Bai, Jiayu


    China's coastal area is severely damaged by marine invasive species. Traditional tort theory resolves issues relevant to property damage or personal injuries, through which plaintiffs cannot cope with the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. Several defects exist within the current legal regimes, such as imperfect management systems, insufficient unified technical standards, and unsound legal responsibility systems. It is necessary to pass legislation to prevent the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. This investigation probes the fundamental principles needed for the administration and legislation of an improved legal framework to combat the problem of invasive species within China's coastal waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Forestry and Environment Legislation in Collision – Case Study Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Nevenić


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Conflicts in the Serbian forestry sector have not been very often used as a research topic in our country. This paper presents the results from a case study conducted in the National park 'Fruška gora'. The aim of the study was to explore the collision between forestry and environmental legislation and related institutions and organizations. Material and Methods: Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews. Interviews were conducted with the managers of the National park and the representatives of the scientific communities, private forest owners as well representatives from the relevant Ministry. The theoretical framework is a combination of the main conflict elements embedded in the structure of the main aspects like culture, conflict management and policy development. Results and Conclusion: According to the interviewees` opinions the roots of the conflict can be found in overlapping jurisdictions of the institutions and organizations in the forestry sector as well as in the implementation of the legislative and management plans. Conflict management strategy is based on sustainable management of protected areas and better implementation of laws.

  2. The Centrality of Aboriginal Cultural Workshops and Experiential Learning in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Course: A Regional Victorian University Case Study (United States)

    Weuffen, Sara L.; Cahir, Fred; Pickford, Aunty Marjorie


    This paper discusses a cross-cultural pedagogical approach, couched in a theory-practice nexus, used at a Victorian regional university to guide non-Indigenous pre-service teachers' (PSTs) engagement with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives and cultures. We have drawn on qualitative and statistical data, and current issues in…

  3. Fraud and Corruption Control at Education System Level: A Case Study of the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development in Australia (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Bandara


    This case describes the implementation of a fraud and corruption control policy initiative within the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (the Department) in Australia. The policy initiative was administered and carried out by a small team of fraud control officials, including the author of this article, in the…

  4. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1984. (United States)

    Nelson, Richard R.


    Summaries are presented, by state, of labor standards legislation passed during 1984. Significant actions included laws concerning wages, child labor, school attendance, occupational safety and health, working hours, equal employment opportunity, worker privacy, labor relations, private employment agencies, employment and training, plant closings,…

  5. Restructuring Environmental Legislation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, J.M.


    In 2002, the newly elected Cabinet in the Netherlands decided to act upon a growing number of complaints from businesses that government legis-lation is the cause of heavy administrative burdens for companies. According to businesses, this has a negative impact on the economy. The Cabinet promised

  6. Legislation, Empirical Research and Juridical Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotel, B.


    This article looks at the incorporation of empirical research into legislation from a juridical law perspective. Juridical law is characterized by four elements: autonomous and artificial reasoning; making statements to authorize factual actions; mobilizing helpers of the proponent and de-mobilizing

  7. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai


    European Union research has made great strides in understanding the dynamics of the European Union decision-making process. In contrast to this progress, the dynamics unfolding after the enactment of a European Union secondary legislative act has largely been ignored. Some of these acts remain...

  8. Networking Concepts and Cooperation among Legislative Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that military rule does not provide the appropriate environment for the growth and development of legislative libraries. Cooperation and not competition is stated as the driving philosophy for library networks and cooperation. Resource sharing is the premise for participation in library network. Network ...

  9. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY


    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  10. Accreditation in the Russian Federation. New Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei Zapryagaev


    Full Text Available Objective is to introduce a new approach to accreditation in the Russian Federation. New Russian legislation in higher education significantly alters the structure of the accreditation system. The most important element of this reform is the emergence of public accreditation. Some problems and their solutions are discussed in this paper

  11. Eleven Factors Influencing Federal Education Legislation. (United States)

    Andringa, Robert C.

    The 11 variables, in order of importance, that have the greatest ultimate effect in shaping national legislation on education are the following: (1) personal judgment and values of usually no more than six to ten members of Congress and staff, (2) strong views of respected and trusted friends, (3) assumptions about the economy and budget, (4)…

  12. Herbal products: Marketing strategies and legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooyenga, P.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Groen, K.P.


    Marketing of herbal products in the European Union (EU) has been regulated under national legislation for years, leading to differences in legal status of these herbal products. In one member state, a product may be regulated as a food supplement, while in the other member state the same product is

  13. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  14. Quality legislation: lessons for Ontario from abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillard, Jérémy; Tipper, Brenda; Klazinga, Niek


    While the Excellent Care for All Act, 2010 (ECFA Act) provides a comprehensive approach to stimulating quality improvement in healthcare, there are other examples of legislations articulating strategies aimed at the same goal but proposing different approaches. This paper reviews quality of care

  15. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John


    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  16. Media Roles and Legislators' New Media Use. (United States)

    Riffe, Daniel


    Surveys 82 Alabama legislators and finds officials' views of the press as adversary or agent of consensus relates to perceived value of media for job-relevant information. Suggests a dysfunction of the "watch-dog" role because those believing the consensus model found the press more useful than those seeing the press as an adversary. (MG)

  17. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.


    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  18. Guidelines for the Review of Environmental-Related Legislation Regarding the Realisation of the Right to Access to Sufficient Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Snyman


    Full Text Available The development of legislation for the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food is labelled as an international and national objective. Section 27(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 assigns a compulsory mandate to the South African government to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO proposes a three-level strategy for the implementation of the right to food on a national legislative level, namely through: constitutional recognition, the implementation of a food framework law and the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation. This contribution focuses on the last level of legislative provisioning, namely the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation which influences, or possibly can, influence the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The right to access to sufficient food has multidimensional, interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral characteristics and consequently various sectors are involved in the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The FAO determines that the intended purpose will be to identify and review all sectoral legislation that might influence the availability, stability, access and adequacy of food, by means of a proposed reviewing process. The suggested reviewing process of the FAO is comprehensive and diverse; therefore the focus of this contribution is based on the reviewing of relevant environmental-related legislation only. The FAO does not make recommendations with regard to the specific aspects that need to be incorporated in environmental-related legislation to contribute to the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food (in other words the aspects against which environmental-related legislation can be evaluated. Therefore this

  19. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania (United States)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena


    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Hate Crime Legislation: A Report to the Hate Crime Legislation Review


    Chalmers, James; Leverick, Fiona


    In January 2017, the Scottish Government announced a review of hate crime legislation, chaired by Lord Bracadale.1 Lord Bracadale requested that, to assist the Review it its task, we produce a comparative report detailing principles underpinning hate crime legislation and approaches taken to hate crime in a range of jurisdictions. Work on this report commenced in late March 2017 and the final report was submitted to the Review in July 2017.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade E. Shilts


    Full Text Available This paper looks at a particularly puzzling historical example of delay in the use of the law, the under-use by Victorian Britain of the general incorporation statutes passed between 1844 and 1862. Comparison of the rhetoric of company prospectuses of 1824-1862 and 1898 suggests that uncertainty about the meaning of “incorporation with limited liability” among those who might have benefited from it may have persisted for decades following the statute’s passage. Continuing uncertainty meant continuing interpretation costs, and continuing interpretation costs meant insufficient interpretation: until each law user involved with an enterprise interpreted and came to understand the rule’s meaning, less than fully realized.

  2. There is grandeur in this view of Newton: Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and Victorian conceptions of scientific virtue. (United States)

    Bellon, Richard


    For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ‘Thousands of throbbing hearts' - Sentimentality and community in popular Victorian poetry: Longfellow's Evangeline and Tennyson's Enoch Arden

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    Kirstie Blair


    Full Text Available This essay explores the function of sentimentality in popular nineteenth-century narrative poetry by focusing on Tennyson's 'Enoch Arden' and Longfellow's 'Evangeline', two poems that have suffered relative critical neglect due to their status as sentimental verse. It argues that both texts, in their stories of exile, alienation and eventual recuperation, set up their hero and heroine as role-models for ways of feeling and use them to examine the possibility of using personal feeling as a conduit for communal sentiment. While both poems deploy the standard tropes of Victorian sentimentality, the ambiguous conclusions of 'Enoch Arden 'and 'Evangeline' , I argue, call into question the clichés of sentimental discourse. The fates of Enoch and of Evangeline offer, to some extent, a darker vision of the potential for sentimental responses to an individual's suffering to create feeling communities either within or without the poem.

  4. [The impact of germ theory in the genesis of cancer. Consequences for surgical treatment in the victorian era]. (United States)

    Pereira Poza, A


    We use texts by preeminent figures in Victorian surgery at the end of the nineteenth century and information about their role in disseminating the germ theory to analyse the impact of this new etiologic element in the genesis of cancer. We trace the career of William Watson Cheyne (1852-1932), a disciple of Lister, and of many other surgeons of his generation, to outline the changes in the approach to treatment for cancer, the theoretical basis for these changes, and the role of a new conceptualization of cancer in the light of the microbial theory. This theory, among many other better-known factors, helped establish the foundation for radical surgery which became widespread in oncological treatment during the final decade of the nineteenth century.

  5. Saving orphan drug legislations: misconceptions and clarifications. (United States)

    Hyry, Hanna I; Cox, Timothy M; Roos, Jonathan C P


    Orphan-drug sales are rocketing, with revenue expected to total $176 billion annually by 2020. As a share of the industry, orphan drugs now account for close to 15% of all prescription revenue globally (excluding generics) and the sector is set to grow at more than twice the rate (10.5%) of the overall prescription market (4.3%). But this success also equates to costs--borne by individual patients and cash-strapped health systems. Prices for orphan drugs can be 19 times higher than for other medications, hampering access for patients, many of whom are children. With ever more such expensive drugs reaching the market, the situation is becoming unsustainable and putting the survival of the orphan drug legislation itself at risk. Here the authors consider why there has been an increase in orphan drug designations, how orphan drug prices are set and regulated, before discussing proposals for how changes which could save the legislation.

  6. Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation. (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano


    The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined.

  7. State Firearm Legislation and Nonfatal Firearm Injuries. (United States)

    Simonetti, Joseph A; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Mills, Brianna; Young, Bessie; Rivara, Frederick P


    We investigated whether stricter state-level firearm legislation was associated with lower hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries. We estimated discharge rates for hospitalized and emergency department-treated nonfatal firearm injuries in 18 states in 2010 and used negative binomial regression to determine whether strength of state firearm legislation was independently associated with total nonfatal firearm injury discharge rates. We identified 26 744 discharges for nonfatal firearm injuries. The overall age-adjusted discharge rate was 19.0 per 100 000 person-years (state range = 3.3-36.6), including 7.9 and 11.1 discharges per 100 000 for hospitalized and emergency department-treated injuries, respectively. In models adjusting for differences in state sociodemographic characteristics and economic conditions, states in the strictest tertile of legislative strength had lower discharge rates for total (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.82), assault-related (IRR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.99), self-inflicted (IRR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.14, 0.24), and unintentional (IRR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.84) nonfatal firearm injuries. There is significant variation in state-level hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries, and stricter state firearm legislation is associated with lower discharge rates for such injuries.

  8. Understanding Genocide Denial Legislation: A Comparative Analysis


    Pruitt , William R.


    Several countries touched by the scourge of genocide have responded by criminalizing the denial of this fact. The motivations for outlawing genocide denial are varied and the legislation coverage differs from state to state. Some nations are quite narrow in what behavior is criminalized and others are much broader in their coverage of activity. Since a key function of the law is to provide adequate notice to individuals it is important to understand what behavior is prohibited and in which ...

  9. State Firearm Legislation and Nonfatal Firearm Injuries (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Mills, Brianna; Young, Bessie; Rivara, Frederick P.


    Objectives. We investigated whether stricter state-level firearm legislation was associated with lower hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries. Methods. We estimated discharge rates for hospitalized and emergency department–treated nonfatal firearm injuries in 18 states in 2010 and used negative binomial regression to determine whether strength of state firearm legislation was independently associated with total nonfatal firearm injury discharge rates. Results. We identified 26 744 discharges for nonfatal firearm injuries. The overall age-adjusted discharge rate was 19.0 per 100 000 person-years (state range = 3.3–36.6), including 7.9 and 11.1 discharges per 100 000 for hospitalized and emergency department–treated injuries, respectively. In models adjusting for differences in state sociodemographic characteristics and economic conditions, states in the strictest tertile of legislative strength had lower discharge rates for total (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.82), assault-related (IRR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.99), self-inflicted (IRR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.14, 0.24), and unintentional (IRR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.84) nonfatal firearm injuries. Conclusions. There is significant variation in state-level hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries, and stricter state firearm legislation is associated with lower discharge rates for such injuries. PMID:26066935

  10. AIDS legislation--turning up the heat?


    Kirby, M D


    This paper is not about the medical condition of AIDS. Nor is it about the history of the condition since it was first reported in Atlanta, Georgia in 1981. It looks rather, at the catalogue of legislative and other legal responses to the spread of AIDS. The paper analyses the AIDS condition in its historical context. The hysteria accompanying the outbreak of AIDS is contrasted with the similar hysteria associated with other previous epidemics experienced in Australia over the past two centur...

  11. The accounting and tax legislation of the Greek football clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new «capital form» establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme, the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.

  12. [Conflicts between nursing ethics and health care legislation in Spain]. (United States)

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Terés-Vidal, Lourdes; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Molina, Fidel; Gastaldo, Denise; Otero-García, Laura


    To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Health policy, ethics, and the Kansas Legislative Health Academy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blacksher, Erika; Maree, Gina; Schrandt, Suzanne; Soderquist, Chris; Steffensmeier, Tim; St Peter, Robert


    We describe a unique program, the Kansas Legislative Health Academy, that brings together state legislators from across the political spectrum to build their capacity in advancing policies that can...

  14. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization]. (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P


    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  15. Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?


    Jiloha, Ram C.


    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the l...

  16. Legislation on biotechnology in the Nordic Countries - an overview 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvale, Hallvard; Gudmundsdóttir, Laufey Helga; Stoll, Jane

    This overview on the legislation of biotechnology in the Nordic Countries from The Nordic Committee on Bioethics provides an overview over the core biomedical legislation in the Nordic Countries, thus facilitating management of cross-border activities.......This overview on the legislation of biotechnology in the Nordic Countries from The Nordic Committee on Bioethics provides an overview over the core biomedical legislation in the Nordic Countries, thus facilitating management of cross-border activities....

  17. Bank exit legislation in US, EU and Japanese financial centres


    Peik Granlund


    This paper analyses bank exit (ie reorganisation and liquidation) legislation in selected financial centres: New York, London, Frankfurt, Helsinki and Tokyo. The focus is on bank exit legislation applicable to commercial banks. The legislation is analysed from the perspective of bank stakeholders, ie bank creditors, depositors and bank shareholders. The analysis is restricted to those legislative provisions that provide security and rights for stakeholders in case of bank exit. In addition to...

  18. Are evolving human rights harmless? An examination of English legislation, prostitution and its effect on human relatedness. (United States)

    Westin, Anna


    This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of human rights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The paper concludes by analysing whether the current ontology employed by human rights theory is effective in creating a system of just relatedness between agents, made visible in concrete legislative guidance. I argue that legislation guided by a fragmented teleology and ontological anthropology enables asymmetrical patterns of relatedness that can cause genuine physical and psychological harm to individuals.

  19. Potential Contradictions Connected to the Inclusion of Stable Schools in the Legislation for Danish Organic Dairy Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Fisker, I


    This article aims to raise questions and discuss how a previous farmer-driven group approach (Stable Schools) works under a legislation framework as a part of an obligatory health advisory service for Danish organic dairy producers. The study takes its starting point in an on-line questionnaire...... generally found the Stable Schools useful for many organic farmers, also after introduction to the legislation, given that farmers are motivated and the process is actively supported by a skilled facilitator. We raise the question of a potential mismatch between the legislative aims and the farmer group...... evaluation (79 farmer respondents) conducted after one year (2011) with the Stable School approach as part of the legislation. This is followed by a discussion on the perspectives of ‘obligatory farmer groups’ supported by literature on experience from other institutionalized advisory approaches. Respondents...

  20. A new genre of social protection policy for older people: a critical analysis of legislative development in Nepal. (United States)

    Sharma Bhattarai, Lok P


    This commentary critically discusses recent legislation promulgated in Nepal to safeguard older people's rights and promote their well-being. Using a human-rights-based framework, the legislation is analyzed for its strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis has also been placed on discussing various aspects overlooked by the legislation, such as changing family structure, relations, and social values; the impact of employment structure and migration; and, importantly, maintaining a desired balance between the roles of the state and of the family in providing social security, support, and care to older people. Efforts have been made to reflect the promulgated law in light of the contemporary developments taking place globally, particularly in regions of Asia. Areas for future policy work are also identified in order to make legislation more inclusive and effective.

  1. Politics is local: State legislator voting on restrictive voter identification legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth C McKee


    Full Text Available The marked increase in restrictive voter identification (ID laws since the 2010 elections reveals the extreme partisan polarization in those state legislatures advancing this reform. Unlike previous studies that examine state-level factors expected to influence passage of restrictive voter ID bills, this study is the first to investigate the question using the state legislator as the unit of analysis. Multivariate analysis of the voting behavior of state legislators shows which kinds of district-level factors increase or decrease their likelihood of supporting stricter voter ID laws. Given the differentiable coalitions favoring Democratic and Republican candidates, certain partisan-aligned district demographics influence state lawmaker support for restrictive voter ID legislation. Race in particular is a major cleavage conditioning support for restrictive voter ID laws. Unlike the mixed findings generated by macro-level studies, this article provides convincing evidence that the size of the black district population negatively influences the likelihood that a Democratic legislator votes in favor of a restrictive voter ID bill, but positively affects the probability that a Republican lawmaker votes yes. The findings in this study illuminate the contextual factors that influence legislator voting on this salient election reform.

  2. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legislative environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a legislative...

  3. 40 CFR 1506.8 - Proposals for legislation. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposals for legislation. 1506.8 Section 1506.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.8 Proposals for legislation. (a) The NEPA process for proposals for legislation (§ 1508.17...

  4. 43 CFR 20.506 - Appropriations, legislation and lobbying. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appropriations, legislation and lobbying... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.506 Appropriations, legislation and lobbying... manner a Member of Congress, to favor or oppose, by vote or otherwise, any legislation or appropriation...

  5. 31 CFR 0.212 - Influencing legislation or petitioning Congress. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Influencing legislation or... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.212 Influencing legislation or... Congress to favor or oppose any legislation. This prohibition does not apply to the official handling...

  6. 29 CFR 783.28 - General legislative history. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 783.28 Section 783.28 Labor... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Legislative History and Judicial Construction of the Exemptions § 783.28 General legislative history. As originally enacted in 1938, section 13(a)(3) of the Fair Labor...

  7. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008 (United States)

    Langmann, Caillin


    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  8. The History of Recent Farm Legislation: Implications for Farm Families. (United States)

    Little, Linda F.; And Others


    Presents history of modern farm legislation and looks at recent legislation and tax policies. Asserts that family scientists attempting to help farm families can benefit from understanding legislation and policies. Discusses family intervention strategies in the larger context of macroeconomic and political forces. (Author/NB)

  9. Legislative and its requirements to safety of tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Grendel


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the description of legislative and its requirements to safety of tunnels in Slovakia. . The main purposeis analyze Directive of the European Parliament and European Council 2004/54/ES about minimum safety measure at tunnelsin transeuropean route network, which accepts Slovak Republic too within the frame of process harmonization slovak legislative witheuropean legislative.

  10. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As orginally... products for shipment or in propagating, processing, marketing, freezing, canning, curing, storing, or...

  11. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid


    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  12. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John


    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...... out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients were randomised to targeted temperature management. Patients were randomised before NOK could be informed, and proxy consent was obtained as soon as possible. Written consent from NOK and GP were our study data. RESULTS: We obtained all legally required...

  13. GMOs in Russia: Research, Society and Legislation. (United States)

    Korobko, I V; Georgiev, P G; Skryabin, K G; Kirpichnikov, M P


    Russian legislation lags behind the rapid developments witnessed in genetic engineering. Only a scientifically based and well-substantiated policy on the place of organisms that are created with the use of genetic engineering technologies and an assessment of the risks associated with them could guarantee that the breakthroughs achieved in modern genetic engineering technologies are effectively put to use in the real economy. A lack of demand for such breakthroughs in the practical field will lead to stagnation in scientific research and to a loss of expertise.

  14. Combating sexual orientation discrimination in employment: legislation in fifteen EU members states (France) : Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation


    Borrillo, Daniel


    Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation; France was the first country in the world to discriminalize sodomy.....

  15. Concordance of the Indian Mental Healthcare Act 2017 with the World Health Organization's Checklist on Mental Health Legislation. (United States)

    Duffy, Richard M; Kelly, Brendan D


    India is revising its mental health legislation with the Indian Mental Healthcare Act 2017 (IMHA). When implemented, this legislation will apply to over 1.25 billion people. In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a Resource Book (WHO-RB) on mental health, human rights and legislation, including a checklist of 175 specific items to be addressed in mental health legislation or policy in individual countries. Even following the publication of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (2006), the WHO-RB remains the most comprehensive checklist for mental health legislation available, rooted in UN and WHO documents and providing the most systematic, detailed framework for human rights analysis of mental health legislation. We sought to determine the extent to which the IMHA will bring Indian legislation in line with the WHO-RB. The IMHA and other relevant pieces of Indian legislation are compared to each of the items in the WHO-RB. We classify each item in a binary manner, as either concordant or not, and provide more nuanced detail in the text. The IMHA addresses 96/175 (55.4%) of the WHO-RB standards examined. When other relevant Indian legislation is taken into account, 118/175 (68.0%) of the standards are addressed in Indian law. Important areas of low concordance include the rights of families and carers, competence and guardianship, non-protesting patients and involuntary community treatment. The important legal constructs of advance directives, supported decision-making and nominated representatives are articulated in the Indian legislation and explored in this paper. In theory, the IMHA is a highly progressive piece of legislation, especially when compared to legislation in other jurisdictions subject to similar analysis. Along with the Indian Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016, it will bring Indian law closely in line with the WHO-RB. Vague, opaque language is however, used in certain contentious

  16. [American and European legislation on bioethics evaluation of clinical experimentation]. (United States)

    Scuderi, G


    This paper describes the existing legislation for evaluating the bioethics of clinical trials (drug studies conducted on humans after completion of drug testing on animals). The legislation is presented in chronologic order; thus that of the United States is presented first, followed by a description of the European Union legislation, which includes a brief comment on Italian legislation. The rationale for informed consent and the specific requirements are addressed. Ethical committees are discussed in terms of their membership, responsibilities, and methods of revision. The paper concludes with a comparison between the USA and the European Union legislations.

  17. ‘The 19th-century construction of the Renaissance’: Katherine Wheeler, Victorian Perceptions of Renaissance Architecture, Farnham England and Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Lasansky


    Full Text Available Katherine Wheeler’s Victorian Perceptions of Renaissance Architecture provides a study of the architecture profession and the history of Renaissance architecture in nineteenth century England. Establishing a canon of Renaissance architectural history was key to the rise of architectural professionalism as well as the education of the architect. As we discover, the study of the Renaissance influenced design in England on all scales while also influencing the design of the architect himself.

  18. [Is it necessary to legislate euthanasia?]. (United States)

    Michaud, J


    There are no specific articles on the end of life in French law. Thus an act of euthanasia can be qualified as murder, murder with premeditation or non-assistance to a person in danger. Recent events and debates have raised the question of enacting new legislation to deal with this problem. Two contrary positions could be considered: either create a special offence or explicitly authorize acts of euthanasia. There are major objections to both these propositions. The first one would require taking account of various situations, --unbearable suffering, loss of dignity, and precise requests,--that would be impossible to specify in legislative terms. The second proposition would be open to the same objection; it would also derogate from the major principle of respect for the life of persons and thus risk setting a precedent that could be used in other circumstances to evade this principle. Finally, if a law were enacted to this effect, it would constitute a threat for the development of palliative care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;


    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  20. Is tax avoidance the theory of everything in tax Law? A terminological analysis of EU legislation and case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, Cihat

    The primary goal of this article is to analyze the use of the term ‘tax avoidance’ in the legislative framework and case law of the European Union to point out the absence of a common linguistic approach. The consequences derived from the terminological chaos will also be discussed; thus, the study

  1. Peculiarities of Speech Behavior of Women-outsiders of Victorian Epoch: Aspects of Interdisciplinary Approach (on the Material of Florence Nightingale and Mary Kingsley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Manzheleevskaya


    Full Text Available In this article, the phenomenon of human speech behavior is considered in its connection with such non-linguistic disciplines as: biology, psychology, logics. These branches of scientific knowledge provide basic data for the study of verbal behavior in linguistics. These data include information on factors that affect the behavior of living beings, what role in the formation of human behavioral characteristics plays the ability to abstract and demands. Psychology also provides the linguist with developments on the expectations theory, type of expectations determines the intensity of speech efforts to meet its communication needs. Active or inactive speech manner with age becomes a speech habit, i.e., nuance of the verbal behavior. The article presents the confirmation of the hypothesis of active verbal behavior dominance of womenoutsiders of Victorian era. Throughout their life, they had to overcome rejection and condemnation of the Victorian society. In their writings on medicine and geography Victorians F. Nightingale and M. Kingsley, who contradicted generally accepted standards, actualized much more intense impact on their contemporaries in the choice of speech acting emphasis signals than their malecontemporaries. Such a manner of speech interaction with contemporaries had developed in these women by adulthood (35-40 years due to the negative experience of interaction with the contemporary society.

  2. From Legislation towards the Provision of Services - An Approach to Agile Implementation of Legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engers, T.; Nijssen, S.


    Since the spring of 2012 a number of people from the Dutch government, academia and business have joined forces under the label ‘Blue Chamber’. The partners’ concrete ideas are intended to closely cooperate in the development of an agile implementation of legislation, allowing for a human-centred

  3. New Macedonian legislation which improves the position of the injured party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lažetić-Bužarovska Gordana


    Full Text Available This article deals with newly adopted provisions in the Macedonian criminal legislation, that are affecting the position and status of injured party in the criminal procedure, with special attention to alternative measures as new criminal sanctions and new opportunities for realization of compensation request on time and in effective way. As author says, with extending the grounds for submitting compensation request the legislator have introduced provisions that contribute toward improving the position of the injured party during the criminal procedure and even after its termination. Beside already strengthened position of public prosecutor, there are new provisions regarding widening of possibilities for injured party when he is in the role of subsidiary prosecutor. Having in mind European countries’ experiences regarding witness protection, Republic of Macedonia has created legislative framework for combating most difficult types of organized crime. However, practical implementation of newly adopted Law on witness protection depends a lot on successful establishment and functioning of authorities responsible for caring out witness protection Programs, providing enough financial resources and intensive and direct interstate co-operation. Hence, it is obvious that the legislative provisions are just the first step among necessary activities for accomplish witness protection programs.

  4. Worldwide legislative challenges related to psychoactive drugs. (United States)

    Negrei, Carolina; Galateanu, Bianca; Stan, Miriana; Balalau, Cristian; Dumitru, Mircea Lucian Bogdan; Ozcagli, Eren; Fenga, Concettina; Kovatsi, Leda; Fragou, Domniki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis


    The discovery of a "new" psychoactive substance is a relatively exceptional event, while the regulatory response usually involved the assessment of risks to public health and inclusion of the novel substance in the national list of controlled substances. However, in recent years we have witnessed the rapid emergence of new chemical substances, which elude international control and pose a challenge to existing processes and a threat to the credibility of control systems. We currently review and present characteristics of these legal and illegal new substances and issues regarding their global monitoring and regulatory measures already taken, or in the process of being taken, for their control. The concept of prohibition applied in active substance-related legislation is rather hazard ridden as balance is required between the ban on substances of potential therapeutic use and the access on the market of high-risk substances. Current and future laws regarding psychoactive compounds.

  5. [The new pharmacovigilance legislation in practice]. (United States)

    Broekmans, André W; Mol, Peter G M


    Recent European legislation has provided new tools to enhance the overseeing of medicinal products in the postmarketing phase. Package leaflets of newly approved medicines contain a black inverted triangle as a signal for enhanced monitoring. The leaflets also have clear instructions on how to report possible adverse drug reactions. Databases of drug reactions are accessible by the public. The most important change is the establishment of the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) within the European Medicines Agency (EMA). This Committee will review safety signals of medicinal products arising in the member states of the European Union. The Committee could recommend adaptation of the package leaflet, or suspension or revocation of the marketing authorisation. The PRAC is also involved in the assessment of risk management plans for medicinal products and post-authorisation efficacy and safety studies.

  6. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora


    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  7. Paleontology in parts: Richard Owen, William John Broderip, and the serialization of science in early Victorian Britain. (United States)

    Dawson, Gowan


    While a great deal of scholarly attention has been given to the publication of serialized novels in early Victorian Britain, there has been hardly any consideration of the no less widespread practice of issuing scientific works in parts and numbers. What scholarship there has been has insisted that scientific part-works operated on entirely different principles from the strategies for maintaining readerly interest that were being developed by serial novelists like Charles Dickens. Deploying the methods of book history, this essay examines the reporting of Richard Owen's celebrated paleontological reconstructions from the 1830s and 1840s in the serialized formats of the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, his own History of British Fossil Mammals, and, in particular, the Penny Cyclopaedia. It argues that Owen, along with his close friend William John Broderip, clearly recognized the affective possibilities of the serial format and that they exploited the Penny Cyclopaedia's sequential mode of publication to evoke suspense and expectation in their anonymous but collaboratively authored accounts of Owen's paleontological researches.

  8. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. (United States)

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C


    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Occupational health and safety legislation and implementation in China. (United States)

    Su, Zhi


    This article reviews the current statistics of employment and work-related injuries and illness in China, as well as the history of occupational health and safety legislation in the country. Comprehensive, newly promulgated workplace health and safety legislation is described, and the specific responsibilities of employers, government agencies, trade unions, and employees are detailed. The government's implementation plan for this and prior legislation is also outlined.

  10. The impact of legislation on divorce: a hazard function approach. (United States)

    Kidd, M P


    "The paper examines the impact of the introduction of no-fault divorce legislation in Australia. The approach used is rather novel, a hazard model of the divorce rate is estimated with the role of legislation captured via a time-varying covariate. The paper concludes that contrary to U.S. empirical evidence, no-fault divorce legislation appears to have had a positive impact upon the divorce rate in Australia." excerpt

  11. The effect of state pension cut legislation on bank values


    Cohen, Lee; Cornett, Marcia Millon; Mehran, Hamid; Tehranian, Hassan


    This study provides an empirical analysis of the impact of Wisconsin and Ohio pension cut legislation on values of banks operating in Wisconsin and Ohio, banks operating in other states in which pension cut legislation was being considered as Wisconsin and Ohio went through its legislative process, and all publicly traded U.S. banks. We find that banks doing business in Wisconsin and Ohio experience positive (negative) stock price reactions to announcements that indicate an increased (a decre...

  12. International regulation of wildlife trade: relevant legislation and organisations. (United States)

    Cooper, M E; Rosser, A M


    Trade in wildlife brings into play a variety of legislation from several distinct areas of law. Many species of wildlife are subject to restrictions on international movement with the aim of protecting wild populations from over-exploitation. Animal health legislation is strictly applied to the movement of most animals to prevent the spread of infectious diseases between importing and exporting counties. The welfare of animals in the course of trade requires consideration and relevant legislation has been put into place, particularly in respect of transportation. A number of institutions have an impact on the trade itself or on the legislation that regulates wildlife trade on an international basis.

  13. Using Structured e-Forum to Support the Legislation Formation Process (United States)

    Xenakis, Alexandros; Loukis, Euripides

    Many public policy problems are 'wicked', being characterised by high complexity, many heterogeneous views and conflicts among various stakeholders, and also lack of mathematically 'optimal' solutions and predefined algorithms for calculating them. The best approach for addressing such problems is through consultation and argumentation among stakeholders. The e-participation research has investigated and suggested several ICT tools for this purpose, such as e-forum, e-petition and e-community tools. This paper investigates the use of an advanced ICT tool, the structured e-forum, for addressing such wicked problems associated with the legislation formation. For this purpose we designed, implemented and evaluated two pilot e-consultations on legislation under formation in the Parliaments of Austria and Greece using a structured e-forum tool based on the Issue Based Information Systems (IBIS) framework. The conclusions drawn reveal the advantages offered by the structured e-forum, but also its difficulties as well.

  14. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin


    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  15. EU's new pharmacovigilance legislation: considerations for biosimilars. (United States)

    Calvo, Begoña; Zuñiga, Leyre


    Biosimilars are biological medicines, the active substances of which are highly similar to those of biologics that have already been authorized. As for any other medicine, the applicant of the biosimilar marketing authorization must submit a risk-management plan (RMP)/pharmacovigilance plan. The pharmacovigilance plan should take into account risks identified during product development, the potential risks and how those risks will be addressed after authorization of the product.Recently, new European Pharmacovigilance legislation has been implemented, ensuring proper risk management through the recording of suspected adverse drug reactions and data collection from all stakeholders. The new regulation entails a reduction of the administrative burden on companies and regulatory agencies, as obligations of the responsible parties are clearly established and duplication of effort avoided.This article analyzes the new European Pharmacovigilance System requirements, with special focus on those medicines requiring additional monitoring, such as biosimilars, which are priorities for pharmacovigilance. Further, it provides the new obligations to marketing authorization holders, such as the continuous benefit-risk assessment.

  16. Seed Legislation and agrobiodiversity: conservation varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bocci


    Full Text Available European seed policies and legislation have contributed to fostering a system in which fewer varieties are traded in ever bigger markets in accordance with the law of economy of scale. Informal seed systems have been marginalised and perceived as outdated in a scenario in which the agricultural system was being modernised. In 1998, however, the European Union recognised the need to conserve agricultural genetic resources and created a catalogue specially for registering what it called ‘conservation varieties’. In June 2008 an EU Directive was issued regulating the agricultural species involved. So what is this ‘new’ category of variety. What impact will it have in supporting the informal conservation initiatives in agricultural biodiversity and making them legitimate? This article sets out to address these questions by analysing the concept of conservation variety from when the phrase was coined up to the recent European directive 62/2008. After describing and evaluating the impact that the directive may have, Italian regulation on conservation varieties will be analysed focusing on synergies and diversities. Lastly, in the light of the International Treaty on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, attention will turn to the regulations in order to verify how they correspond.

  17. Information Privacy: Culture, Legislation and User Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cockcroft


    Full Text Available Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003

  18. Shechita (Kosher slaughtering) and European legislation. (United States)

    Pozzi, Paolo S; Waner, Trevor


    Shechita is the procedure of killing or slaughtering animals for food production, according to Jewish tradition and it is performed without prior stunning. USA and European legislations conditionally allow slaughter without prior stunning in the frame of religion freedom (USA) or religious/cultural traditions (EU); nevertheless some traditional events in Europe de nitely represent a concern for animal welfare. It is possible to identify animal welfare issues in the rules for shechita: correct restrain of the animal; adequacy of the instrument (knife); technical ability of the operator. Animals restrain techniques evolved along the time in order to accomplish to less stressful immobilization of animals in course of shechita. When performed in the right way, shechita cannot be framed as negligent or intentionally painful, distressing or inducing su ering to animals. Today's stunning techniques raise concerns relative to adequacy and e ectiveness of stunning on animals, with welfare implications due to automatism of next dressing procedures. Shechita needs in Europe are in line with average meat demand by non Jewish population.

  19. PHP frameworks




    The thesis presents one of the four most popular PHP web frameworks: Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter and CakePHP. These frameworks are compared with each other according to the four criteria, which can help with the selection of a framework. These criteria are size of the community, quality of official support, comprehensibility of framework’s documentation and implementation of functionalities in individual frameworks, which are automatic code generation, routing, object-relational mapping and...

  20. Framework Nette


    Tölg, Jan


    This thesis deals with an interesting Czech PHP framework called Nette. The first part of the thesis introduces the reader to general ideas, design patterns used in Nette and also describes the main properties of the framework. Goal of the second part is focused on real-life application demonstration of the framework while developing a web application. This thesis is not an instructional material, but helps to explain the main advantages of the framework and can thus offer a more detailed des...

  1. Texas charter school legislation and the evolution of open-enrollment charter schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Y. Barron Ausbrooks


    Full Text Available This article chronicles the evolution of legislation for Texas open-enrollment charter schools to their implementation by demonstrating how these schools have (or have not used their freedom from state-mandated requirements to develop innovative learning environments as well as to bring innovative curricula into the classroom. The investigative focus was on an analysis of Texas open-enrollment charter school legislation, from 1995 (74th legislative session to the 77th legislative session in 2001, and the characteristics of the state's 159 open-enrollment charter schools that were in operation during the 2001-2002 academic year. The authors found that charter school legislation has changed in response to concerns of all involved, and focuses on the need for balance between choice, innovation, and public accountability. Although charter schools are free from most state regulations, legislators were clearly interested in ensuring that this freedom does not impede charter schools' ability to provide a quality education to all students who attend them. The currently operating open-enrollment charter schools in Texas are more racially and economically segregated than other public schools in the state, and charter schools that targeted students most at risk for dropping out of school (and returning students who had previously dropped out differ from other schools in their stated teaching methods. Teacher turnover remains significantly greater than that for other public schools in the state. However, it does not appear to be specifically associated with schools that target disadvantaged students or minority students. The schools' mission statements suggest that innovative school environments are a factor in school design. Texas is poised to continue along the public education choice model. Charter school legislation provides a framework upon which charter schools may build to meet the educational needs of the students who choose to attend them

  2. ‘By a Comparison of Incidents and Dialogue’: Richard Owen, Comparative Anatomy and Victorian Serial Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowan Dawson


    Full Text Available Darwin’s extensive reading of literature was a crucial starting point for Gillian Beer’s insights into the interchange between science and culture which have shaped scholarship in the field for the last three decades. However, while the impact of Darwin’s reading on the imaginative development of his theories has continued to be an extremely productive area of study, there has been hardly any consideration of the broader context of nineteenth-century scientists’ reading practices in relation to literature, giving the impression that Darwin’s thought was especially, perhaps uniquely, amenable to the impact of his immersion in fiction and poetry. This paper examines the extensive but relatively little-known literary reading of the comparative anatomist Richard Owen, suggesting that important aspects of other, and even explicitly non-Darwinian, areas of Victorian science were just as likely to be influenced by their practitioners’ enthusiasm for fiction and poetry. That Darwin and Owen frequently read the same literary works, and often in the same or similar locations (whether in metropolitan clubs or out in the field, also permits direct comparisons of their reading practices, which, intriguingly, suggest that, far from being uniquely amenable to it, Darwin’s scientific thought might in fact have been shaped much less by his literary reading than that of contemporaneous naturalists like Owen. In particular, the paper focuses on Owen’s reading of serial fiction, and considers the close parallels between his practices of reading serial novels and his use of comparative anatomy in his renowned reconstructions of the skeletons of prehistoric creatures.

  3. The flux and reflux of science: The study of the tides and the organization of early Victorian science (United States)

    Reidy, Michael Sean


    For a fortnight in June, 1835, nine countries observed simultaneously the oceanic tides bordering their countries and their possessions. Over 650 tidal stations participated. This multi-national venture, which William Whewell affirmed to include the most ``multiplied and extensive observations yet encountered in science,'' was prototypical of what Susan Faye Cannon has termed ``Humboldtian science.'' This dissertation demonstrates how the beginnings of the politics of imperialism, the economics of a worldwide export trade, and the extensive diffusion of science to the middle and working classes laid the foundation for the increasing expansiveness Humboldtian research and the fruitful connection between science and government. The social matrix and internal mechanisms of this tidal research demonstrates that Humboldtian initiatives relied on a broad base of support and activity. This included significant contributions from Missionary Societies, the British Association, and especially the British Admiralty, from the Preventive Coast Guard to the Duke of Wellington, then Foreign Secretary. I also stress the essential contribution of the working-classes, a group previous historiography often described as mere data collectors. I uncover their roles in not only gathering data, but in initiating research topics, building self- registering instruments, reducing observational data, and advancing mathematical methods of analysis. Whewell's twenty-year research project helped him formulate what it was to do science and placed him at the forefront of the emerging profession of science in the early Victorian era. His approach to tidology was culled from a study of its history and philosophy and followed two major lines of research. The first entailed finding the phenomenological laws of the tides through long-term observations. His second approach entailed short-term but simultaneous observations along the entire coast of Great Britain, and eventually Europe and America

  4. Statewide prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis and rate of adrenaline autoinjector activation in Victorian government schools, Australia. (United States)

    Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J


    The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of antioxidant activity in Victorian marine algal extracts using high performance thin-layer chromatography and multivariate analysis. (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W; Ristivojević, Petar


    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method to screen for antioxidant activity in algal samples. 16 algal species were collected from local Victorian beaches. Fucoxanthin, one of the most abundant marine carotenoids was quantified directly from the HPTLC plates before derivatization, while derivatization either with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) was used to analyze antioxidants in marine algae, based on their ability to scavenge non biological stable free radical (DPPH) or to chelate iron ions. Principal component analysis of obtained HPTLC fingerprints has classified algae species into 5 groups according to their chemical/antioxidant profiles. The investigated brown algae samples were found to be rich in non-and moderate-polar compounds and phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. Most of the phenolic iron chelators also have shown free radical scavenging activity. Strong positive and significant correlations between total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity showed that, phenolic compounds, including flavonoids are the main contributors of antioxidant activity in these species. The results suggest that certain brown algae possess significantly higher antioxidant potential when compared to red or green algae and could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements, cosmetics or food industries. Cystophora monilifera extract was found to have the highest antioxidant concentration, followed by Zonaria angustata, Cystophora pectinate, Codium fragile, and Cystophora pectinata. Fucoxanthin was found mainly in the brown algae species. The proposed methods provide an edge in terms of screening for antioxidants and quantification of antioxidant constituents in complex mixtures. The current application also demonstrates flexibility and versatility of a standard HPTLC system in the drug discovery. Proposed

  6. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment: National Legislation. (United States)

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents abstracts of federal environmental legislation in each of the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and energy. An additional section of the report outlines related environmental legislation citations from the 1950's to the present. This document is…

  7. 48 CFR 231.205-22 - Legislative lobbying costs. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislative lobbying costs. 231.205-22 Section 231.205-22 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-22 Legislative lobbying costs. (a) Costs associated with...

  8. use of library and information services for legislative research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The paper looks at information as a critical element in life, society and as an inevitable aspect in the day to day management by the legislators. It outlines and explains legislative services, the roles of library and information services, research services in library and information setting, challenges of library and ...

  9. Impact of Wellness Legislation on Comprehensive School Health Programs (United States)

    Graber, Kim C.; Woods, Amelia Mays; O'Connor, Jamie A.


    In 2004, Congress passed the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act that requires schools to implement a wellness plan. Grounded in Ecological Systems Theory (EST) (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1979), the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the legislation, discover what measures have been taken to enact the legislation, gauge how the…

  10. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation (United States)

    Mwachofi, Ari K.


    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  11. requirement of geographical spread in elections into Legislative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and subsidiary legislations made by the Electoral Commission pursuant to the powers vested on it by the Constitution and the Electoral Act. Neither, the 1999 Constitution nor the. Electoral Act, 2010 imposed the requirement of Geographical spread on a candidate in an election into Legislative Houses. What the Constitution ...

  12. The Use of Impact Assessments and the Quality of Legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Dirk H.


    In the instrumentalist concept of law, the main function of legislation is the realisation of policy aims. This concept of legal instrumentalism seems to be the predominant view as adopted by policy makers and, accordingly, many believe that legislation is indeed just one of the tools for realising

  13. New mental health legislation in South Africa - principles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mental Health Care Act has been passed by parliament. There are a number of changes from the Mental Health Act (Act 18 of 1973) and this article outlines the basic principles of the new legislation and several of the procedural modifications which follow. The legislation has a strong human rights focus and addresses ...

  14. Game Theory and Educational Policy: Private Education Legislation in China (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan


    This article presents a game theory analysis of legislating private education in China, based on set of primary and secondary documents related to this issue. The article argues that shaping educational legislation is a dynamic, repeated game of negotiation, cooperation, and/or competition on multiple occasions among various interested actors,…

  15. National legislation, international conventions and exposure to harmful chemicals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hietkamp, S


    Full Text Available Without legislation pollution is regarded as an “externality” high levels of air and water pollution in Europe resulted increasing industrialisation. Disasters happened e.g. London smog in the 1950 and the first clean air legislation was introduced...

  16. 26 CFR 1.162-29 - Influencing legislation. (United States)


    ... view on a specific legislative proposal. Therefore, W is influencing legislation. Example 8. (i... under the budget proposal solely to support the lobbying communication. Example 3. (i) Facts. A senator... lobbying communication; and (ii) All activities, such as research, preparation, planning, and coordination...

  17. Legislation for Personal Privacy: Its Impact on Transborder Data Flow. (United States)

    Mendelsohn, L. D.


    This description of the development of privacy protection laws in several developed nations identifies possible motivations for such legislation other than protection of citizens' privacy, including economic factors and national sovereignty. The impact of privacy legislation on international trade is discussed. (20 references) (CLB)

  18. 7 CFR 282.1 - Legislative authority and notice requirements. (United States)


    ... Section 282.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION, RESEARCH, AND EVALUATION PROJECTS § 282.1 Legislative authority and notice requirements. (a) Legislative authority. Section...

  19. Comparison of policies for recognising and responding to clinical deterioration across five Victorian health services. (United States)

    Considine, Julie; Hutchison, Anastasia F; Rawson, Helen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Bucknall, Tracey; Dunning, Trisha; Botti, Mari; Duke, Maxine M; Street, Maryann


    Objectives The aim of the present study was to describe and compare organisational guidance documents related to recognising and responding to clinical deterioration across five health services in Victoria, Australia.Methods Guidance documents were obtained from five health services, comprising 13 acute care hospitals, eight subacute care hospitals and approximately 5500 beds. Analysis was guided by a specific policy analysis framework and a priori themes.Results In all, 22 guidance documents and five graphic observation and response charts were reviewed. Variation was observed in terminology, content and recommendations between the health services. Most health services' definitions of physiological observations fulfilled national standards in terms of minimum parameters and frequency of assessment. All health services had three-tier rapid response systems (RRS) in place at both acute and subacute care sites, consisting of activation criteria and an expected response. RRS activation criteria varied between sites, with all sites requiring modifications to RRS activation criteria to be made by medical staff. All sites had processes for patient and family escalation of care.Conclusions Current guidance documents related to the frequency of observations and escalation of care omit the vital role of nurses in these processes. Inconsistencies between health services may lead to confusion in a mobile workforce and may reduce system dependability.What is known about the topic? Recognising and responding to clinical deterioration is a major patient safety priority. To comply with national standards, health services must have systems in place for recognising and responding to clinical deterioration.What does this paper add? There is some variability in terminology, definitions and specifications of physiological observations and medical emergency team (MET) activation criteria between health services. Although nurses are largely responsible for physiological observations and

  20. Interstate dispensing: a case for uniform, intuitive legislation. (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole L; King, Michelle A; Hope, Denise L


    Australian health practitioner registration is national, whereas legislation regarding the handling of medicines is governed by individual States and Territories. To align with the July 2010 national registration scheme some legislative modifications were made concerning scheduled drugs and poisons, but many differences between jurisdictions remain. In Queensland, the Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 (Qld) allows for dispensing of controlled drugs written by interstate prescribers but not lower scheduled specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs. The aim of this study was to assess awareness of seemingly counterintuitive legislation by pharmacists practising in South-East Queensland. Of 125 Gold Coast pharmacies contacted, 54 (43.2%) agreed to participate. The majority of pharmacists (88.9%) had good knowledge regarding controlled drugs. In contrast, they demonstrated confusion regarding specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs (51.9% correct awareness). Uniform legislation between jurisdictions or more intuitive legislation would ease practitioner confusion.

  1. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin


    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  2. Undead Blond Hair in the Victorian Imagination: The Hungarian Roots of Bram Stoker’s "The Secret of the Growing Gold"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Heiniger


    Full Text Available The Hungarian folktale “Woman with Hair of Gold” is a part of what Nina Auerbach calls feminine mythos in Woman and the Demon. It is a story about the murder and revenge of a “very strange but beautiful woman with golden hair as fine as spun gold.” This paper explores how Bram Stoker’s short story “The Secret of the Growing Gold” reworks this folktale, stripping away its uniquely feminine voice, to create a story expressing British Victorian racial anxieties. The message of Teutonic superiority, which Stoker links with Hungarian folklore, is this author’s most dangerous and nefarious fiction.

  3. Color additives: legislative perspective in the United States, Europe, Australia, and India. (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj; Madan, Anil K


    In most countries, their regulatory bodies which control food, drugs, and cosmetics are responsible for regulating all the color additives to ensure that they are safe with those products, ensuring that they contain only approved ingredients, and that they are accurately labeled. Permitted colors are subject to rigorous safety standards prior to their approval and prior to the release of their specific use. Although a colorant may have approval in several countries, its use, level of use, specifications, acceptance criteria, and labeling requirements may differ from one country to another. In this review, we have explored the legislative and regulatory framework regarding the color additives for use in drugs and cosmetics.

  4. The Institutional Strategy of Brazilian Supreme Court on the Legislative Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bentes Bentes


    Full Text Available The Brazilian Federal Constitution established a framework of laws that allow for the Supreme Court to act over the social life and branches of the government. Nevertheless, the analysis of the federal legislative process by the strategic institutional approach demonstrates that the panorama among state departments is not asymmetric. In fact, the separation of powers game can create groups of scenarios that generate decisions based on the preference of individual judges, or that restrict the autonomy of the Court when criticism or external retaliations threaten its authority.

  5. [Insurance legislation aspects and peculiarities of occupational legislation in AIDS and HIV infection]. (United States)

    Exner-Freisfeld, H; Stille, W


    Major aspects of the German insurance legislation regarding AIDS are being discussed. I. The structure of the statutory health and social security scheme is described; problems of coverage of persons with HIV Infection/AIDS in case of accident or unemployment are discussed (medical treatment, social security, pension). II. Private health insurance schemes are scrutinised as to the conditions for persons with HIV infection/AIDS. The aspect of coverage for children in private health schemes is also taken into account, and the differences between statutory and private health insurance schemes are considered. III. Criteria for life insurance contracts are described: it depends on the amount of money insured whether or not life insurance companies demand medical examination and HIV test from the policy holder. IV. Criteria for acknowledgement of AIDS as an occupational disease are pointed out. In particular, injuries at the place of work in connection with HIV-infected material, as well as methods of prevention, are discussed. V. Finally, labour legislation is investigated as to its consequences for persons with HIV infection/AIDS; the different aspects for employer and employee are considered, and problems like employment of persons with full-blown AIDS and termination of employment are explained.

  6. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States. (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L


    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  7. Analysis of a global random stratified sample of nurse legislation. (United States)

    Benton, D C; Fernández-Fernández, M P; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V


    To identify, compare and contrast the major component parts of heterogeneous stratified sample of nursing legislation. Nursing legislation varies from one jurisdiction to another. Up until now no research exists into whether the variations of such legislation are random or if variations are related to a set of key attributes. This mixed method study used a random stratified sample of legislation to map through documentary analysis the content of 14 nursing acts and then explored, using quantitative techniques, whether the material contained relates to a number of key attributes. These attributes include: legal tradition of the jurisdiction; model of regulation; administrative approach; area of the world; and the economic status of the jurisdiction. Twelve component parts of nursing legislation were identified. These were remarkably similar irrespective of attributes of interest. However, not all component parts were specified in the same level of detail and the manner by which the elements were addressed did vary. A number of potential relationships between the structure of the legislation and the key attributes of interest were identified. This study generated a comprehensive and integrated map of a global sample of nursing legislation. It provides a set of descriptors to be used to undertake further quantitative work and provides an important policy tool to facilitate dialogue between regulatory bodies. At the individual nurse level it offers insights that can help nurses pursue recognition of credentials across jurisdictions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  8. An unofficial legislative history of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009. (United States)

    Carver, Krista Hessler; Elikan, Jeffrey; Lietzan, Erika


    In March 2010, Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCIA). This law established a statutory pathway for approval of "biosimilars," follow-on versions of innovative biological products. This article traces the history of the BPCIA, beginning with a discussion of the origins of federal regulation of drugs and biologics, including passage of the Hatch-Waxman amendments, in Section I. Section I also describes the development of the European approval framework for biosimilars in the mid-2000s and how this increased interest in creation of a pathway in the United States. The article then provides, in Section II, an overview of early stakeholder discussions in the United States regarding legal and scientific issues relating to biosimilars, spanning the years 1998-2006. The legislative debate began in earnest in late 2006, when the first biosimilars bill was introduced. Section III of the article examines introduced bills, other legislative proposals, and related stakeholder discussion in detail, leading up to enactment of the BPCIA. Section IV describes the BPCIA as enacted, and the paper ends with the authors' concluding observations about the legislative negotiations and their implications for interpretation of the Act.

  9. State health agencies and the legislative policy process. (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V


    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  10. Suffrage Movement and the Subversion of the ‘Juridico-Discursive’ Power in the Victorian Period: Elizabeth Robins and The Concept of 'New Women'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Najar


    Full Text Available This paper examines the socio-historical subversion of ‘juridico-discursive’ power in the late Victorian period. It briefly investigates the rise of the British suffrage movement and highlights the role of ‘suffrage drama’ as its social apparatus. The authors demonstrate how suffrage artists, especially the playwright/actress Elizabeth Robins, acted against the dominant patriarchal hegemony and were in frontline of social uprisings. It is argued that ‘Suffrage drama’ as a ‘place of tolerance’ functioned as an antithesis to the mainstream theatre and challenged the conventional dramatic forms practiced prior to its birth. Suffrage drama provided a space for women to have their collective voice heard in a social and political context in the early Victorian era. Elizabeth Robins, mostly acknowledged for enacting women heroines of Ibsen’s plays, became an invaluable inspirational figure for suffrage women as she was the actress in whom the strong concept of the ‘New Woman’ was incarnated.

  11. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Bolam


    Full Text Available Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.

  12. A qualitative exploration of key informant perspectives regarding the nature and impact of contemporary legislation on professional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to construct a substantive framework of the manner in which the Danish government interacts with the Danish chiropractic profession and influences professional practice. METHODS: An exploratory, qualitative study was performed using a substantive grounded...... chiropractic community may inhibit the spontaneous evolution of contemporary Danish chiropractic practice. Although historically narrow legislation may limit chiropractic practice, conservative interpretations by the Danish National Board of Health may also play an important role....

  13. Future Development of Civil Legislation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya L. Kavshbaya


    Full Text Available The article examines the future development of civil legislation in the Russian Federation. Special attention is attached to the intellectual property protection, including know-how.

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  16. White Paper on opioid usage improves legislation in Austria. (United States)

    Beubler, Eckhard


    The White Paper on Opioids and Pain: A Pan-European Challenge, which was presented to the European Parliament, has led to legislation in Austria to improve opioid usage. Process and outcomes of this work are summarized.

  17. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption....

  18. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  19. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  20. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  1. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure....

  2. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Campus (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  3. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The...

  4. Changes in political astuteness following nurse legislative day. (United States)

    Primomo, Janet; Björling, Elin A


    Political astuteness, including awareness, knowledge, and involvement, is necessary if nurses are to engage in policy advocacy-a vital aspect of the nursing profession. However, little is known about the effects of learning activities, such as legislative days, on political astuteness. The purpose of this research was to determine if political astuteness changed after participants attended a state nurse legislative day. Pre and post data were collected from participants in two studies (N = 80 and N = 34) using the Political Astuteness Inventory (PAI). Political astuteness scores were significantly higher after participants attended legislative day as compared to before. Age and educational rank were positively correlated with political astuteness. Experiential activities such as attending nurse legislative days that offer opportunities to learn policy advocacy skills can enhance knowledge of and participation in the policy process.

  5. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry. (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others


    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  6. Allegheny County Pennsylvania U.S. Legislative Congressional District Boundaries (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the U.S. Legislative Congressional district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania...

  7. Effect of Anti-Smoking Legislation in Public Places. (United States)

    Bhat, Nagesh; Oza, Swapnil; Reddy, Jaddu Jyothirmai; Mitra, Ruchi; Rahul, Patel; Singh, Sopan


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anti-smoking legislation in public places and public support for smoking ban. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public places such as market, bus/railway station, workplaces and hospitals in Udaipur, India. Informed consent was obtained. The questionnaire comprised of details about their agreement with the current anti-smoking legislation and their views on the support for smoking ban in public places. The study was conducted among 314 individuals of whom 255 (81.2%) supported the general ban on smoking in public places. Non-smokers (54.4%) agreed more than smokers that the introduction of legislation would create healthier environment (P places (P places in Udaipur is high. But there is a lack of enforcing mechanism in support of the legislation and hence complete smoking ban along with strong enforcement may provide better results.

  8. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  9. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana


    Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine


    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...



    Emilian Constantin Miricescu; Emilia Mioara Campeanu


    Long-term public debt sustainability can be achieved by particular public debt management measures. The changes occurred in the Romanian legislation have performed in this field both to the reduction of public debt ratio and on the public debt interests, also on the diversification of the financial instruments, the maturities and the currencies of the public debt. The aim of this study is to present the legislative changes and their incidence on public debt sustainability using the Romanian c...

  11. Why the Legislation does not Protect Native Forests in Argentina? Environmental Conflicts and Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Silvetti


    Full Text Available Using a political ecology framework, we analyze the environmental conflicts arising from the discussion of a law aiming at protecting native forests in the Province of Cordoba, Argentina (Law 9814/2010. The main social actors involved in the discussion are characterized, as well as the alliances and conflicts that emerged among them along the legislative discussion of the law. Two major stakeholders emerged during the conflict, which fostered a series of political actions aiming at influencing provincial legislators. The conflict showed what was at stake during the conflict: the discussion, at the local/provincial level, of the dominant rural-development model prevailing at national/global level. The research suggests that the approved law expresses the power alliances historically developed by the most powerful social actors. This group uses the institutional framework provided by the State in order to seek their own advantage and disregarding environmental and/or social costs. This situation undermines and weakens the demands and rights of the most disadvantaged social groups, ignores the processes of civil participation, and affects the provision of ecosystem services of central Argentina’s native forests

  12. The humidifier disinfectant case and the legislative challenges of the 20th Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyun Park


    Full Text Available A number of absurdities surrounding the humidifier disinfectant (HD incident may have occurred because 1 a judicial system operates on the underlying false assumption that the involved parties are equals in knowledge, information and resource mobilization capabilities, regardless of respective real status as company or individual; 2 there is a lack of a system that mandates a company to prevent and actively manage possible catastrophes; 3 the regulatory scheme makes companies believe that as long as they are complying with the existing regulations, they have satisfied all of their responsibilities. I believe that this issue is an opportunity to bring about changes in the judicial redress system, the system of internal management of manufacturers, and the regulatory system of the government. The following regulation amendments are needed to move towards the changes stated above. First, legislation relating to victim relief that is applicable to the HD incident must be established. Second, a risk management system must be formed within the manufacturing company and to this end an institutional environment for the system must be established within regulatory framework. Furthermore, legislation must be passed that could punish companies themselves that have caused severe damage to individuals because they had failed to take necessary actions to avoid foreseeable harm. Finally, the framework of regulation must be changed so that the company, who has the necessary information regarding the product and the component chemicals used in the product, must self-directed experiment and assessment of the safety of their own products.

  13. A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Wickman, Tonie


    Purpose Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited...

  14. Environmental Legislation in China: Achievements, Challenges and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Mu


    Full Text Available Compared to the environmental legislation of many developed countries, China’s environmental legislation was initiated late, beginning in 1979, but nevertheless has obtained considerable achievements. As many as thirty environmental laws have provided rules regarding prevention and control of pollution, resource utilization, and ecological protection in China. However, China’s environmental legislation still faces a series of challenges and problems, including that the sustainable development concept has not yet been fully implemented, as well as presence of gaps and non-coordination phenomena between laws and regulations, unclear responsibility, imperfect system design, imbalance between rights and obligations, higher impacts resulted from the GDP-centralized economy, lack of operability and instruments in the legal content, as well as difficulty of public participation. In contrast, China’s environmental legislation has improved, as a result of learning from experience in developed countries and introducing innovations stimulated by domestic environmental pressure. Looking into the future, increased attention to environmental protection and ecological consciousness paid by China’s new leaders will bring a valuable opportunity to China’s further development concerning environmental legislation. In the future, there are prospects for the gradual improvement of legal approaches, continuous improvements of legislation to mitigate environmental problems, and more opportunities to strengthen public participation can be predicted.

  15. Liquor legislation, last drinks, and lockouts: the Newcastle (Australia) solution. (United States)

    Hoffman, G R; Palazzi, K; Oteng Boateng, B K; Oldmeadow, C


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the regional implementation of prohibitive liquor legislation, introduced in order to limit the sale of and access to alcohol, can lead to a sustained reduction in the incidence of assault occasioning facial injury, as seen in patients presenting to a level 1 trauma hospital. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to document patients who were identified as an acute hospital presentation of assault occasioning facial injury. The period of study was 2003-2015; this ensured a similar period of time before and after the implementation of the legislation in 2008. A statistical analysis was undertaken to assess the rates of change in oral and maxillofacial (OMF) assault admissions pre and post legislation. The study found that pre-legislation numbers of OMF assaults increased at a rate of 14% per annum and then decreased at a rate of 21% per annum post legislation (31% relative rate ratio reduction). Similar trends were seen for all males, males aged 18-35 years, and males where alcohol was recorded at clinical presentation. The introduction of 'last drinks' and 'lock out' legislation has led to a significant and sustained reduction in assaultive alcohol-related facial injury in Newcastle. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing anti-stalking legislation on the basis of victims experiences and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Sheridan, L.; Winkel, F.W.


    Wording differs substantially between the various legislation with regard to with behaviours constitute stalking. Some legislation comprehensively describes which behaviours are punishable, whilst other legislation uses only broad terms, Differences also exist with regard to the number of occasions

  17. Evolution for Young Victorians (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard


    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  18. The Regulatory Framework Across International Jurisdictions for Risks Associated with Consumption of Botanical Food Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teng Yong; Wong, Kwok Onn; Yap, Adelene L.L.; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.


    Dietary supplements, including those containing botanical ingredients and botanical-derived compounds, have been marketed to consumers globally for many decades. However, the legislative framework for such products remains inconsistent across jurisdictions internationally. This study aims to

  19. Theoretical and Practical Issues of the Implementation of International Norms on Human Rights to the National Legislation (the Example of the Republic of Azerbaijan) (United States)

    Aliyev, Subhan F.


    The purpose of the study is to analyze the features of the implementation of international norms on human rights to the national law system of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Using the method of the critical analysis of national legislative framework on human rights, the authors argue that there are some certain problems connected with the application…

  20. The New Special Educational Needs (SEN) Legislation in England and Implications for Services for Children and Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (United States)

    Norwich, Brahm; Eaton, Andrew


    This paper analyses the first significant change to Special Educational Needs (SEN) legislation in England for over a decade, a change that promises new approaches to identification and assessment, increased parental choice and enhanced pupil outcomes. The paper aims to examine to what extent this new framework can live up to its claims in the…

  1. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  2. Impact of Scotland's comprehensive, smoke-free legislation on stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events following smoke-free legislation. Evidence is lacking on whether stroke is also reduced. The aim was to determine whether the incidence of stroke, overall and by sub-type, fell following introduction of smoke-free legislation across Scotland on 26 March 2006.A negative binomial regression model was used to determine whether the introduction of smoke-free legislation resulted in a step and/or slope change in stroke incidence. The model was adjusted for age-group, sex, socioeconomic deprivation quintile, urban/rural residence and month. Interaction tests were also performed. Routine hospital administrative data and death certificates were used to identify all hospital admissions and pre-hospital deaths due to stroke (ICD10 codes I61, I63 and I64 in Scotland between 2000 and 2010 inclusive. Prior to the legislation, rates of all stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage and unspecified stroke were decreasing, whilst cerebral infarction was increasing at 0.97% per annum. Following the legislation, there was a dramatic fall in cerebral infarctions that persisted for around 20 months. No visible effect was observed for other types of stroke. The model confirmed an 8.90% (95% CI 4.85, 12.77, p<0.001 stepwise reduction in cerebral infarction at the time the legislation was implemented, after adjustment for potential confounders.Following introduction of national, comprehensive smoke-free legislation there was a selective reduction in cerebral infarction that was not apparent in other types of stroke.

  3. State health agencies and the legislative policy process. (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V


    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8190858

  4. A Critique of the Key Legislative Framework guiding Civil Liberties in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    licenses to practise, arguing that "the local media should not be owned by foreigners". 85. This is in breach of citizens' right to information, which according to. Section 20 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe (guaranteeing access to information and freedom of expression) "every citizen has a right to information". AIPPA has also.

  5. Software agents, surveillance, and the right to privacy : a legislative framework for agent-enabled surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, Bart Willem


    In our modern society we rely on information and communication technology for the speed, efficiency, and security of many of our transactions and interactions. The use of these technologies almost always entails the keeping of electronic records. These are of interest to law enforcement and

  6. A critical review of legal framework as a factor of coops development: Case of Serbia


    Petković Goran; Chroneos-Krasavac Biljana; Kovačević Vlado


    Contemporary cooperative movement must rest on the original cooperative principles that were confirmed and modernized by the Congress of International Co-Operative Alliance held in Manchester in 1995. Development of coops legislative framework in Serbia has a long history and presently the matter of cooperatives is governed by the federal Law on Cooperatives adopted in 1996. The text analyzes the extent to which a legislative framework can be an incentive for and/or impediment to cooperatives...

  7. Access to Legislation in Europe: Overview and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Mockus


    Full Text Available The article analyses problems facing electronic legislation development (especially legislation processes of publishing acts in EU and EFTA member countries.All European countries were publishing acts officially on paper until the end of year 2000. The way of publishing acts officially was the same in all Europe countries, except that some counties had one “official journal” in which legal acts and other official documents and legal notices were published, and other countries had separate legal gazettes for acts publishing and an official gazette for publishing other official documents and legal notices.At the beginning of 2001 Norway started to publish acts officially in digital form, and only 12-20 times a year paper editions to present the statutes and regulations enacted since the publication of the previous issue are published. In 2002 Estonia decided to finish the publishing of paper editions, and started to publish acts only electronically. Till 2011 more than 10 European countries started to publish acts officially in digital format.Author discusses the advantages, principles, and legitimate expectation of electronic legislation. For future electronic legislation information systems developments the following principles should be a guide: broad/universal and equal access to legislation, reliability of the means of publicity, integrity of information, easy access to the requisite information. The advantages of digital act forms, and internet based publications are instantaneous outreach to the public, free of charge, information easily accessible and retrievable, voluminous technical acts easier to handle, no printing costs, more environmentally-friendly, more and more people use ICT to seek information, no time constraints to the availability of data, legal certainty will be granted.The author thinks that before creating future digital legislation information systems, some procedures shall be done. If we want to have pan

  8. Access to Legislation in Europe: Overview and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Mockus


    Full Text Available The article analyses problems facing electronic legislation development (especially legislation processes of publishing acts in EU and EFTA member countries. All European countries were publishing acts officially on paper until the end of year 2000. The way of publishing acts officially was the same in all Europe countries, except that some counties had one “official journal” in which legal acts and other official documents and legal notices were published, and other countries had separate legal gazettes for acts publishing and an official gazette for publishing other official documents and legal notices. At the beginning of 2001 Norway started to publish acts officially in digital form, and only 12-20 times a year paper editions to present the statutes and regulations enacted since the publication of the previous issue are published. In 2002 Estonia decided to finish the publishing of paper editions, and started to publish acts only electronically. Till 2011 more than 10 European countries started to publish acts officially in digital format. Author discusses the advantages, principles, and legitimate expectation of electronic legislation. For future electronic legislation information systems developments the following principles should be a guide: broad/universal and equal access to legislation, reliability of the means of publicity, integrity of information, easy access to the requisite information. The advantages of digital act forms, and internet based publications are instantaneous outreach to the public, free of charge, information easily accessible and retrievable, voluminous technical acts easier to handle, no printing costs, more environmentally-friendly, more and more people use ICT to seek information, no time constraints to the availability of data, legal certainty will be granted. The author thinks that before creating future digital legislation information systems, some procedures shall be done. If we want to have pan

  9. Terrorism and anti-terror legislation - the terrorised legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehmichen, Anna


    The thesis deals with the history of terrorism and counter-terrorism legislation, focussing on the legislation in the UK, Spain, Germany and France, in the last 30 years, and analysing its compatibility with national and European human rights standards.

  10. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D


    the fortificants and fortification levels, as well as the food vehicles and the fortification procedures. In addition, it should ensure the commitment of policy makers and producers to fortification, regulate the costing, describe and ensure information and communication such as product labeling integrate social...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs....... Fortification efforts in Indonesia and Vietnam are evaluated using published data as well as unpublished data from detailed evaluation reports, and compared with respect to the specific circumstances, constraints, objectives and results in each country. The legal framework is a crucial factor for the success...

  11. Scope of practice and legislation for nurse practitioners in Taiwan. (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Tsay, Shiow-Luan; Tung, Heng-Hsin


    The purpose of the article is to describe the scope of practice legislation in Taiwan, with some comparisons to the scope of practice legislation in the United States, as well as to identify the issues of nurse practitioner (NP) practice. A literature review was conducted to determine the limitations of the administrative directives used to govern NP scope of practice. A simultaneous review of authoritative resources, including the Ministry of Health and Welfare's administrative directives related to NP practice, the Physicians Act and Nurses Act of Taiwan, and the statement of the Taiwan Association of NPs, was conducted and the documents analyzed. Based only on administrative directives, and without law and regulations, it was difficult to define the scope of practice. It was determined, however, that, since the addition of Paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 23 of the Nurses Act, NPs became able to provide a high quality of care legally, which helps to facilitate the professionalism of NPs. Legislation still has a long way to go, and through sharing our findings on the NP legislation process, we hope to gain the support of NPs around the world and to encourage an understanding and the legislation of this new role. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. How do ICT project managers manage project knowledge in the public sector? An empirical enquiry from the Victorian Public Sector in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakub Karagoz


    Full Text Available Projects are temporal organisation forms that are highly knowledge-intensive and play an important role in modern public (and private sector organisations. The effective and efficient creation, dissemination, application and conservation of relevant knowledge are a critical success factor in the management of projects. Yet, project management (PM and knowledge management (KM are two distinct disciplines. This paper explores the relationship between PM and KM by analysing the literature at the intersection of those disciplines and presenting the empirical results of a case study of the Victorian Public Sector (VPS in Australia. A series of 14 interviews were conducted to explore how ICT project managers manage project knowledge across the departments of the VPS. Findings show a strong preference among the participants for informal, face-to-face interactions and agile approaches to facilitate knowledge transfer and creation in ICT project environments.

  13. Death and the dead-house in Victorian asylums: necroscopy versus mourning at the Royal Edinburgh Asylum, C. 1832-1901. (United States)

    Andrews, Jonathan


    This article examines the management and meaning of post-mortem examinations, and the spatial ordering of patients' death, dissection and burial at the Victorian asylum, referencing a range of institutional contexts and exploiting a case study of the Royal Edinburgh Asylum. The routinizing of dissection and the development of the dead-house from a more marginal asylum sector to a lynchpin of laboratory medicine is stressed. External and internal pressure to modernize pathological research facilities is assessed alongside governmental, public and professional critiques of variable necroscopy practices. This is contextualized against wider issues and attitudes surrounding consent and funereal rituals. Onus is placed on tendencies in anatomizing insanity towards the conversion of deceased lunatics--pauper lunatics especially--into mere pathological specimens. On the other hand, significant but compromised resistance on the part of a minority of practitioners, relatives and the wider public is also identified.

  14. Gelification of Victorian Tertiary soft brown coal wood. II. Changes in chemical structure associated with variation in the degree of gelification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.J.; Barron, P.F.


    The gross chemical structures of xylites and gelified soft brown coal woods, Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, as determined by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are compared with those of present-day wood-derived materials prepared from an angiosperm, Eucalyptus regnans, and a gymnosperm (conifer), Pinus radiata. Also examined are the changes in the gross chemical structures of soft brown coal woods with increase in their degree of gelification and the relationship between these changes and variations in their chemical composition and microscopic appearance. The Victorian xylites exhibit greater affinities with the present-day gymnosperm than the present-day angiosperm. The progressive removal of cellulose with increasing degree of gelification can be equated with an increase in huminite reflectance, elimination of humotelinite autofluoresence and changes in the relative proportions of the humotelinite submacerals. The lignin structure of xylite is also modified during the gelification process, including the progressive loss of methoxyl groups and evidence of minor oxidation.

  15. "You Say Tomato, I Say Solanum Lycopersicum Containing Beta-ionone and Phenylacetaldehyde": an Analysis of Connecticut's GMO Labeling Legislation. (United States)

    Nunziato, Travis


    "You Say Tomato, I Say Solanum Lycopersicum Containing Beta-ionone and Phenylacetaldehyde" discusses the importance of requiring labels on products that contain genetically modified organisms, focusing on Connecticut's GMO Labeling statutes, as it is they are the first of their kind in the nation. The article will compare Connecticut's law to the legislation found in Australia, highlighting the positive aspects of Connecticut's bill and identifying its key weaknesses, namely the "trigger clause" found in the statute. Part I will provide an overview of Genetic Modification and provide a brief history of Biotechnology. It will also provide a brief overview of the federal regulatory framework in biotechnology, as well as evaluate the United States Food and Drug Association's role of regulating genetic modification. Part I will conclude by discussing how the American public has shown that labeling GMOs is important, and something that should occur. Part II of this article will explore Connecticut's recent legislation requiring labels on products that contain GMOs. Part III will explore Australia's legislation requiring labels on products containing GMOs, comparing Australia's law to Connecticut's legislation.

  16. Excessive alcohol use and its association with risky sexual behaviour: a cross-sectional analysis of data from Victorian secondary school students. (United States)

    Agius, Paul; Taft, Angela; Hemphill, Sheryl; Toumbourou, John; McMorris, Barbara


    Estimate the prevalence of sexual behaviour and alcohol use and examine the association between excessive alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour in late secondary students in Victoria, Australia. The sample of Year 11 students from government and independent schools participating in the 2008 International Youth Development Study (n=450) was representative of the Victorian school population. Logistic regression analyses examined the associations between sexual behaviour, binge and compulsive drinking, adjusting for socio-demographic, school and family factors. Under half (44%) the students had experienced sex in the past year, half (50%) had engaged in binge drinking in the past two weeks and 26% reported compulsive drinking in the past year. Of those who reported sex in the past year (n=197), 34% had sex without a condom at the last sexual encounter and 28% later regretted sex due to alcohol. The likelihood of experiencing sex was increased by binge (OR=2.44, 95%CI 1.44-4.12) and compulsive drinking (OR=2.15, 95%CI 1.29-3.60). For those sexually active, binge drinking increased the risk of having three or more sexual partners (OR=3.37, 95%CI 1.11-10.26) and compulsive drinking increased the likelihood of regretted sex due to alcohol (OR=4.43, 95%CI 2.10-9.31). Excessive drinking was not associated with condom non-use. Risky sex - multiple sexual partners and regretted sex due to alcohol - and excessive drinking are highly prevalent and co-associated among Victorian late secondary students. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Medical legislation – educational needs assessment for dental students (United States)

    Piţuru, SM; Nanu, A; Bucur, A


    Rationale (hypothesis): Many studies have highlighted the vulnerabilities in medical practice due to the legislation ignorance. Therefore, developing special programs for students training is needed and has become imperative. Objective: This research aimed to identify the educational needs for the 5th year students in “Carol Davila” School of Dentistry in Bucharest, related to the legislation in dentistry and its area of application. Methods and results: 199 students were invited to respond to a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire had 11 closed-response questions and the answers were statistically analyzed. The results indicated many educational needs in all the areas of investigation. Discussion: “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy is the first university in Romania that created a new discipline in the School of Dentistry, called Work Organization and Legislation in Medicine and Dentistry. PMID:28255379

  18. Medical legislation - educational needs assessment for dental students. (United States)

    Piţuru, S M; Nanu, A; Bucur, A


    Rationale (hypothesis): Many studies have highlighted the vulnerabilities in medical practice due to the legislation ignorance. Therefore, developing special programs for students training is needed and has become imperative. Objective: This research aimed to identify the educational needs for the 5th year students in "Carol Davila" School of Dentistry in Bucharest, related to the legislation in dentistry and its area of application. Methods and results: 199 students were invited to respond to a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire had 11 closed-response questions and the answers were statistically analyzed. The results indicated many educational needs in all the areas of investigation. Discussion: "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy is the first university in Romania that created a new discipline in the School of Dentistry, called Work Organization and Legislation in Medicine and Dentistry.

  19. Health Policy, Ethics, and the Kansas Legislative Health Academy (United States)

    Maree, Gina; Schrandt, Suzanne; Soderquist, Chris; Steffensmeier, Tim; St. Peter, Robert


    We describe a unique program, the Kansas Legislative Health Academy, that brings together state legislators from across the political spectrum to build their capacity in advancing policies that can improve the health of Kansans. To that end, the academy helps legislators develop new skills to deliberate the ethics of health policy, use systems thinking to understand the long- and short-term effects of policy action and inaction, and engage in acts of civic leadership. The academy also seeks to foster an environment of respectful open dialogue and to build new cross-chamber and cross-party relationships. Among the most important outcomes cited by program participants is the value of sustained, personal interaction and problem solving with individuals holding differing political views. PMID:25607945

  20. Urban air quality management and information systems in Europe: legal framework and information access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatzas, K.; Moussiopoulos, N. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering


    The European Union (EU) legislative framework related to air quality, together with national legislation and relevant declarations of the United Nations (UN), requires an integrated approach concerning air quality management (AQM), and accessibility of related information for the citizens. In the present paper, the main requirements of this legislative framework are discussed and main air quality management and information system characteristics are drawn. The use of information technologies is recommended for the construction of such systems. The World Wide Web (WWW) is considered a suitable platform for system development and integration and at the same time as a medium for communication and information dissemination. (author)

  1. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress, Volume 1, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is the first of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Atomic Energy Act, Energy Reorganization Act, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act, and Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Other information included in this volume pertains to NRC user fees, NRC authorizations, the Inspector General Act, and the Administrative Procedure Act.

  2. The congress and health manpower: a legislative morass. (United States)

    Stimmel, B


    To correct deficiencies in physicians' services, chiefly related to geographic maldistribution and overspecialization, numerous bills have been introduced in both the House and the Senate. These bills would increase the annual number of medical graduates, would mandate service in areas defined as lacking in physicians, and would promote the training of primary-care physicians as opposed to more specialized training. The number of foreign medical graduates would also be restricted. Almost all this legislation potentially may diminish the quality of medical education without substantially affecting the provision of health service. Recently introduced legislation (HR 3279), however, seems to deal more rationally with the problems of health manpower.

  3. US Environmental Legislation and Biodiversity over the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks


    The U.S. Endangered Species Act is held up both as an example of strict legislation working to guard biodiversity preservation (Yaffee, 1982) and an uneconomical law that creates perverse incentives that may actually reduce such preservation (Brown and Shogren, 1998; Lueck & Michael, 2003; List et...... back throughout the development of the United States over the 20th century and continues into the present. We trace this evolution of federal political action to ask how the evolution of U.S. wildlife legislation reflects the tradeoffs between environment and development in spatial and temporal...

  4. [Current legislation in the healthcare system 2015/2016]. (United States)

    Martenstein, I; Wienke, A


    The energy of the legislator in the healthcare system was barely stoppable in 2015. Many new laws have been brought into force and legal initiatives have also been implemented. The Hospital Structure Act, the Treatment Enhancement Act, amendments of the official medical fee schedules for physicians, the Prevention Act, the E-Health Act, the Anti-corruption Act, the hospital admission guidelines and amendments of the model specialty training regulations are just some of the essential alterations that lie ahead of the medical community. This article gives a review of the most important new legislative regulations in the healthcare system and presents the fundamental consequences for the practice.

  5. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree


    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  6. 25 CFR 170.606 - How do legislation and procurement requirements affect the IRR Program? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do legislation and procurement requirements affect... Miscellaneous Provisions § 170.606 How do legislation and procurement requirements affect the IRR Program? Other legislation and procurement requirements apply to the IRR Program as shown in the following table. Legislation...

  7. 43 CFR 44.53 - What will the Department do if a State enacts distribution legislation? (United States)


    ... enacts distribution legislation? 44.53 Section 44.53 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of... distribution legislation? If a State enacts distribution legislation, the Department will: (a) Notify the State... Federal fiscal year following the fiscal year in which the State enacted legislation; and (b) Provide the...

  8. Civil detentions of older adults under successive Scottish mental health legislation: a comparative analysis. (United States)

    Stevenson, Gary S


    Many countries have adopted new mental health legislation, with the detention of adults for treatment of mental disorders remaining an integral part of such policies. However, there are relatively few publications on the use of mental health legislation in the detention of older adults. This paper examines the civil detention of older adults in one Scottish region under successive mental health legislation. This prospective study collected data primarily by clinician-based interviews on all emergency detentions under the Mental Health (Scotland) Act 1984 of older adults in 1994 and compared these with all emergency and initial short-term detentions under the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 of older adults during 2008 in the same Scottish region. There were a total of 124 detentions, with an initial rate of 68 increasing to 141 detentions per 100,000 of the respective over-65 year age populations, a two-fold increase. Compared to the 1994 patient cohort, the 2008 cohort had higher rates of over 85-year-olds (18.4% v 5.4%) and organic mental disorders (74.7% v 56.8%) and were significantly more likely to be detained by consultant psychiatrists (73.6% v 18.9%) during working hours (87.4% v 48.6%) and proceed to six-month detention orders (31% v 10.8%). The observed higher rates and longer periods of detention in the 2008 cohort may reflect changes in clinical attitudes and legal requirements from a previous reliance on the common law doctrine of necessity to the requirements of a more legalistic framework, and may signal future clinical requirements, given the aging population, pointing towards the need for earlier recognition and management of clinical issues in an attempt to minimize the "necessity" of clinico-legal intervention.

  9. Digital and multimedia forensics justified: An appraisal on professional policy and legislation (United States)

    Popejoy, Amy Lynnette

    Recent progress in professional policy and legislation at the federal level in the field of forensic science constructs a transformation of new outcomes for future experts. An exploratory and descriptive qualitative methodology was used to critique and examine Digital and Multimedia Science (DMS) as a justified forensic discipline. Chapter I summarizes Recommendations 1, 2, and 10 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Report 2009 regarding disparities and challenges facing the forensic science community. Chapter I also delivers the overall foundation and framework of this thesis, specifically how it relates to DMS. Chapter II expands on Recommendation 1: "The Promotion and Development of Forensic Science," and focuses chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances through 2014. Chapter III addresses Recommendation 2: "The Standardization of Terminology in Reporting and Testimony," and the issues of legal language and terminology, model laboratory reports, and expert testimony concerning DMS case law. Chapter IV analyzes Recommendation 10: "Insufficient Education and Training," identifying legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the expert witness, the attorney, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice system. Finally, Chapter V studies three DME specific laboratories at the Texas state, county, and city level, concentrating on current practice and procedure.

  10. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation]. (United States)

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech


    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  11. Enabling legislation in diagnosis and prescribing of medicine by nurses/health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Geyer


    Full Text Available The South African health system has undergone major changes over the last 5 - 1 0 years. These rapid changes have not only significantly increased the visibility of the nurse practitioner in South Africa, but are also posing challenges to the profession and health care services that need to be addressed. In its Health Policies the Government has indicated that the nursing/midwifery profession, as the biggest group of health care professionals, should be the practitioners to provide primary health care services to the communities. But to do this, they require enabling legislation. The “permit system” has been in place for non-pharmacists and institutions other than hospitals and pharmacies to acquire, possess, use and supply medication for a number of years. This system has been fraught with problems mainly due to a lack of clarity on exactly how the system works and the system has been abused. The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation with the aim to analyze the legal framework that exists within which the primary health care services, and specifically the diagnosing and prescribing of medication, could be performed. The conclusion is made that health legislation has not kept up with the rapid changes in service delivery and are not adequate to empower the nurse to deliver health services. Some recommendations are made for the way forward.

  12. Is existing legislation fit-for-purpose to achieve Good Environmental Status in European seas? (United States)

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Elliott, Michael; Murillas-Maza, Arantza; Papadopoulou, Nadia; Uyarra, Maria C


    Recent additions to marine environmental legislation are usually designed to fill gaps in protection and management, build on existing practices or correct deficiencies in previous instruments. Article 13 of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires Member States to develop a Programme of Measures (PoM) by 2015, to meet the objective of Good Environmental Status (GES) for their waters by 2020. This review explores key maritime-related policies with the aim to identify the opportunities and threats that they pose for the achievement of GES. It specifically examines how Member States have relied on and will integrate existing legislation and policies to implement their PoM and the potential opportunities and difficulties associated with this. Using case studies of three Member States, other external impediments to achieving GES are discussed including uses and users of the marine environment who are not governed by the MSFD, and gives recommendations for overcoming barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enduring politics: the culture of obstacles in legislating for assisted reproduction technologies in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Allison


    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology has become a normalized part of reproductive medicine in many countries around the world. Access, however, is uneven and inconsistent, facilitated and restricted by such factors as affordability, social and moral acceptance or refusal and local cultures of medical practice. In Ireland, assisted reproductive technology has been available since 1987 but remains unregulated by legislation. This creates an uncertain and untenable legal circumstance given the contested issues related to constitutional protection of the right to life of the unborn and the indeterminate legal status of embryos in vitro. This paper examines the impact of an enduring political impasse. It explores how clinical assisted reproductive technology services in Ireland operate both inside and outside dominant institutional frameworks, meeting a pronatalist and pro-family social and political agenda, while sometimes contradicting the pro-life politics that has continued to shape women’s reproductive lives. The medical approaches to infertility thus intersect with the ongoing debates around abortion, the failure of the government to regulate, and notions of embodied motherhood and responsibility within changing meanings of family and kinship. At the same time women and their partners seek assisted reproductive technology treatment in other countries throughout the European Union where laws differ and availability of services varies. A decade has passed since the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction in Ireland released its recommendations; the enduring legislative vacuum leaves women, families and practitioners in potential legal limbo.

  14. Detection of nanomaterials in food and consumer products: bridging the gap from legislation to enforcement. (United States)

    Stamm, H; Gibson, N; Anklam, E


    This paper describes the requirements and resulting challenges for the implementation of current and upcoming European Union legislation referring to the use of nanomaterials in food, cosmetics and other consumer products. The European Commission has recently adopted a recommendation for the definition of nanomaterials. There is now an urgent need for appropriate and fit-for-purpose analytical methods in order to identify nanomaterials properly according to this definition and to assess whether or not a product contains nanomaterials. Considering the lack of such methods to date, this paper elaborates on the challenges of the legislative framework and the type of methods needed, not only to facilitate implementation of labelling requirements, but also to ensure the safety of products coming to the market. Considering the many challenges in the analytical process itself, such as interaction of nanoparticles with matrix constituents, potential agglomeration and aggregation due to matrix environment, broad variety of matrices, etc., there is a need for integrated analytical approaches, not only for sample preparation (e.g. separation from matrix), but also for the actual characterisation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for quality assurance tools such as validated methods and (certified) reference materials, including materials containing nanoparticles in a realistic matrix (food products, cosmetics, etc.).

  15. Differences in legislation of data privacy protection in internet marketing in USA, EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Jasmina


    Full Text Available There is a growing number of companies that are, in its operations and dealings with consumers, turning to the Internet and using huge opportunities that it provides. Therefore, Internet marketing is now experiencing extreme expansion and it is considered to be the marketing segment that is vulnerable to intensive and continuous change. Along with the positive effects brought to both businesses and consumers, there are some negatives associated with this form of marketing, and one of them is the insufficient protection of privacy. The fact is that we must raise the level of data protection, and improve its quality. Intense changes have to be taken on the normative level, because there are still plenty of reasons for the dissatisfaction of consumers when it comes to protecting their privacy. Thus, the legislation must play a key role in building consumer confidence as well as in the establishment of a positive relationship with marketers. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of the construction of such levels of private data protection which will establish longterm partnerships between consumers, marketers and other participants in the market, since only the aforementioned relations can bring prosperity to all parties. The paper will make a comparative analysis of the legislative framework in this field in the United States, the European Union and Serbia, as well as stress still present significant backlog of Serbia in relation to the aforementioned developed countries.

  16. Focus on the legislative approach to short half life radioactive hospital waste releasing. (United States)

    Petrucci, Caterina; Traino, Antonio Claudio


    We propose to summarize the advancements introduced by the new Directive 2013/59/Euratom concerning the concept of clearance, for which the radioactive medical waste represents a typical candidate. We also intend to spotlight disputable points in the regulatory scheme in force in Italy, as well to make a contribution to evaluate whether the practice of patients' urine storing, stated by it, can be regarded to be proper. With directing our interest to radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine, we first present an overview of how the clearance concept, and that of exemption closely related to it, have been developed from the previous Directive 96/29 to the new one; then we describe the implementation of these concepts in the Italian legislation. Subsequently we estimate the exposure due both to keeping the effluent on site and to direct discharging it to the environment. In line with a well established international consensus, the Directive 2013/59 drives simple and harmonized regulation of clearance. On the contrary, some complexity and lack of consistency can be found in the framework of the national legislation affecting the radioactive medical waste handling. In addition the practice of excreta storing is disputed not to be really beneficial. The opportunity should be taken to make the whole system of these requirements simpler and more consistent and effective when it is revised to transpose the new Directive. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Delivering organisational adaptation through legislative mechanisms: Evidence from the Adaptation Reporting Power (Climate Change Act 2008). (United States)

    Jude, S R; Drew, G H; Pollard, S J T; Rocks, S A; Jenkinson, K; Lamb, R


    There is increasing recognition that organisations, particularly in key infrastructure sectors, are potentially vulnerable to climate change and extreme weather events, and require organisational responses to ensure they are resilient and adaptive. However, detailed evidence of how adaptation is facilitated, implemented and reported, particularly through legislative mechanisms is lacking. The United Kingdom Climate Change Act (2008), introduced the Adaptation Reporting Power, enabling the Government to direct so-called reporting authorities to report their climate change risks and adaptation plans. We describe the authors' unique role and experience supporting the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) during the Adaptation Reporting Power's first round. An evaluation framework, used to review the adaptation reports, is presented alongside evidence on how the process provides new insights into adaptation activities and triggered organisational change in 78% of reporting authorities, including the embedding of climate risk and adaptation issues. The role of legislative mechanisms and risk-based approaches in driving and delivering adaptation is discussed alongside future research needs, including the development of organisational maturity models to determine resilient and well adapting organisations. The Adaptation Reporting Power process provides a basis for similar initiatives in other countries, although a clear engagement strategy to ensure buy-in to the process and research on its long-term legacy, including the potential merits of voluntary approaches, is required. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Oliveira Gomes Ferreira


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to analyze the accounting disclosure of judicial payments warrants (precatórios, issued when governmental entities are found liable for pecuniary awards in lawsuits according to accounting theory, and to verify if the current legislation interferes in the accounting treatment of these instruments. In this sense, we performed a documental and literature review about the legal framework and accounting procedures adopted, as well gathered data from the National Treasury Secretariat Data Collection System (SISTN in the period 2004-2009 and consulted a study carried out by the Supreme Court (STF in 2004. The study’s justification is based on the perception that over than a half of judicial payment warrants are not registered in the public accounts. Consequently, whereas these warrants (i vested rights of the plaintiffs and (ii debts of the public entity, the lack of accounting disclosure jeopardizes both the beneficiary, whose right is not reflected in the public accounts, thus casting doubt on the expectation to receive payment, and government managers and society, who do not have reliable information that allows effective management. The innovation of this paper consists of discussing identification of the appropriate moment of the generating event of the underlying debts and the proposal of disclosure considering the risk classification. In conclusion, the influence of the current legislation and the failure to observe accounting fundamentals are among the likely factors that have affected the proper accounting of judicial payment warrants within the Brazilian public administration.

  19. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel


    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make...

  20. Recent Developments in EU Environmental Policy and Legislation (Jan.)


    GORDEEVA, Yelena


    The article briefly describes the significant political initiatives and acts of legislation in the environmental field adopted from June until November, 2014 Hasselt University 2030 Climate and Energy Policy; EU timber regulation; “Circular Economy” Package; New European Commission; Fuel Quality Directive; EU Air Quality Directive; Lima Climate Conference; water reuse

  1. School Choice Legislation: Impact Assessment and Fiscal Notes (United States)

    Ford, Michael; Merrifield, John


    Legislators considering large scale school choice proposals want information on more than likely schooling outcomes. They look to their fiscal bureaus and economic studies to provide that information. The fiscal notes that must accompany all proposals with revenue or expenditure implications are especially important. Often, fiscal notes must be…

  2. Recent Developments in EU Environmental Policy and Legislation


    GORDEEVA, Yelena


    The article briefly describes the significant political initiatives and acts of legislation in the environmental field adopted from June 2013 until December 2013. Hasselt University environmental action programme; EU forest strategy; CO2 emissions from new passenger cars; invasive alien species; EU ETS aviation

  3. Cross-Cutting Influences of Environmental Protest and Legislation (United States)

    Olzak, Susan; Soule, Sarah A.


    This research examines the influence of types of protest activities, Congressional hearings and political characteristics on environmental legislation enacted from 1961-1990. We find that rates of environmental protest rise with increases in the amount of previous institutional activities, but extra-institutional activities do not raise the…

  4. Coping with EU Environmental Legislation : Transposition Principles and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, K.J.; Purdy, Ray; Squintani, Lorenzo


    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure a

  5. The party political make-up of EU legislative bodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Hix, Simon; Crombez, Christophe


    This research note provides an overview of the party political make-up of EU legislative bodies for the period 1979-2004 (Commission: 1979-2007) in terms of the left-right and pro-/anti-Europe dimensions. The various methods of measuring political positions are discussed and compared. Measures for

  6. Selected developments in South African Labour Legislation related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examples of two such groups are older persons, whose rights are provided for in terms of the Older Persons Act 13 of 2006 and children, whose rights are provided for in terms of the Children's Act 38 of 2005. Persons with disabilities have, however, not yet been the subject of dedicated legislation outlining the content of the ...

  7. Guidelines for the review of environmental-related legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FAO determines that the intended purpose will be to identify and review all sectoral legislation that might influence the availability, stability, access and adequacy of food, by means of a proposed reviewing process. The suggested reviewing process of the FAO is comprehensive and diverse; therefore the focus of this ...

  8. Access to information: the role of freedom of information legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitutional guarantees of access to information and their enabling legislation, Freedom of Information Acts are present challenges, prospects and opportunities for records managers. It is widely accepted that records management plays a pivotal role in Freedom of Information implementation. For instance, the preface to ...

  9. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    first of three that reports on a review of a local acute mental health care unit in a general ... Method: The study reviewed the existing mental health care program and activities in context of relevant policy and legislation. Results: Norms from a ... current physical facilities and structure of the unit and of the utilization of available ...

  10. Law and population in Senegal : a survey of legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyder, F.G.; Savané, M.-A.


    Leiden : African Studies Centre (ASC Research report, no. 5), p. 242, 1977.This preliminary survey provides, in a reference format, a compendium of legislation potentially affecting the growth, distribution and composition of thepopulation in Senegal. It starts with an introduction to the

  11. Identifying Specific Learning Disabilities: Legislation, Regulation, and Court Decisions (United States)

    Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Zirkel, Perry A.; Danielson, Louis


    Specific learning disability (SLD) identification and eligibility practices are evolving and sometimes contentious. This article describes the historical context and current status of the SLD definition, legislation, regulation, and case law related to the identification of students eligible for special education services. The first part traces…

  12. Booster seat legislation: does it work for all children? (United States)

    Brixey, Suzanne N; Corden, Timothy E; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter M


    To assess the impact of a booster seat law in Wisconsin on booster seat use in relation to race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. A longitudinal study in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, involving repeated direct observational assessments of booster seat use rates by child passengers aged 4-7 years over five time periods, before and after legislation mandating booster seat use. Overall, booster seat use increased from 24% to 43%, whereas proper restraint use increased pre to post-legislation from 21% to 28%. Proper use increased after legislation in white, but not in black or Latino children. White individuals had a proper booster use increase from 48% to 68% over the time period of the study. Black children's proper use dropped from 18% to 7% over the study period and Latino children's proper use rates were stable at 10%. Driver-reported household income had a significant impact on overall use, but not on proper use. Racial/ethnic minority groups and those of lower socioeconomic status have significantly lower use and proper use of booster seats. Legislation may increase the total use of booster seats but not necessarily the correct use of the restraint, particularly in racial/ethnic minorities.

  13. Notification: Audit of CSB's Compliance With Improper Payment Legislation (United States)

    November 17, 2015. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) plans to begin its audit of CSB’s compliance with the improper payments legislation.

  14. State Legislation Related to Increasing Physical Activity: 2006-2012 (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A.; Budd, Elizabeth; Camberos, Gabriela J.; Yan, Yan; Brownson, Ross C.


    Background Strategies to improve physical activity prevalence often include policy and environmental changes. State-level policies can be influential in supporting access and opportunities for physical activity in schools and communities. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of state legislation related to physical activity and identify the correlates of enactment of this legislation. Methods An online legislative database was used to collect bills from 50 states in the U.S. from 2006-2012 for ten topics related to physical activity. Bills were coded for content and compiled into a database with state-level variables (e.g., obesity prevalence). With enactment status as the outcome, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Of the 1542 bills related to physical activity introduced, 30% (N=460) were enacted. Bills on public transportation and trails were more likely to be enacted than those without these topics. Primary sponsorship by the Republican Party, bipartisan sponsorship, and mention of specific funding amounts were also correlates of enactment. Conclusion Policy surveillance of bills and correlates of enactment are important for understanding patterns in legislative support for physical activity. This information can be used to prioritize advocacy efforts and identify ways for research to better inform policy. PMID:26104603

  15. Tensions Between Policy and Practice in Finnish Biobank Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro


    In 2012 a new biobanking law came into effect in Finland which, according to some, is one of the most comprehensive and broad national biobanking legislations in the world to date. The law covers both clinical and research collections and provides institutions with great flexibility in terms...

  16. Proposed Legislation for Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity (United States)

    Bauries, Scott R.


    Pursuant to the recommendations and findings in Dr. Barnett Berry's policy brief, the proposed set of legislative enactments presented in this paper offers both monetary incentives and positive working conditions requirements likely to further three goals: (a) cause more effective teachers to choose to work in high-need schools and fields, (b)…

  17. Legislation and Equality in Basic Education for All in China (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan


    In China, legislation exists which requires compulsory schooling for all students of school age. This article examines the functions of and the constraints on using law to institutionalize equality in basic education. It argues that, in China, law is a last resort, holding governments of various levels accountable. Law can be a device of social…

  18. Legislative and other measures taken by government to realise the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legislative and other measures taken by government to realise the right of children to shelter. ... Without an effective integrated plan of action, which includes cooperation between all three spheres of government, as well as the participation of civil society, especially people who are directly affected by the implementation of ...

  19. Contribution of Women in Influencing Legislation and Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on impact assessment of the contribution of women in influencing legislation and policy formulation and implementation in Uganda 1995-2005 is premised on the assumption that there is still much more to be done, though women have made some contributions towards the advancement of gender equality and ...

  20. [Liver transplant in children: comments and legislative proposal]. (United States)

    Stagni, S; Palazzolo, C; Ferraroli, G; Capasso, G; Campagnano, G; Erenbourg, L


    Having examined the literature on this subject, the authors raise the problem of segmentary liver transplant from a liver donor to a pediatric patient. They evaluate the current Italian legislation regarding the donation of organs and on the basis of foreign experience they draft a possible amendment to the law currently in force.

  1. The 2007 Legislative Elections and Prospects for Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ruling party in Madagascar scored a landslide victory during the September 2007 legislative elections and now fi nds itself unopposed in the National Assembly. Issues arising from the call for snap elections and the overwhelming political power allocated to the president by the new constitution threaten to roll back the ...

  2. 45 CFR 1612.3 - Prohibited legislative and administrative activities. (United States)


    ... attempt to influence: (1) The passage or defeat of any legislation or constitutional amendment; (2) Any... influence any rulemaking, or attempt to influence the issuance, amendment or revocation of any executive order. (c) Recipients shall not use any funds to pay for any personal service, advertisement, telegram...

  3. Early Childhood Policy-Making: Inputs, Processes, and Legislative Outputs. (United States)

    Forgione, Pascal D., Jr.


    Reports on rationales that states have used to support recent early childhood education (ECE) initiatives and describes how reform policies were made in 1971-73 in West Virginia, California, Georgia, New Mexico, and Ohio. Outlines background and initiation of reform, building of support for ECE, opposition, and resulting legislation. (Author/GC)

  4. Current Legislative and Policy Issues Related to School Psychological Services. (United States)

    Lombard, Thomas J.

    Recently American schools have attempted to provide more family-oriented services. As school psychologists expand their roles to include home-school consultation in the treatment of students' educational and psychological problems, they must understand the legislation related to various policy issues in public schools. School psychologists must be…

  5. Ex-post evaluation of tax legislation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C. Hemels (Sigrid)


    textabstractIntroduction Since the end of the 20th century, ex-post evaluation of tax legislation has consistently been part of the agenda of the Dutch government. In 2005, the 2001 Income tax Act was evaluated. In addition, several tax expenditures are evaluated each year. Tax expenditures can be a

  6. Legislating Character: Moral Education in North Carolina's Public Schools (United States)

    Cooley, Aaron


    This article analyzes the epistemological aims and justification of character education legislation passed by the North Carolina General Assembly. I take this specific state law as representative of the broader national trends in the character education movement. I primarily use the work of Richard Rorty as the theoretical lens for the analysis…

  7. Simulated Citizen: How Students Experienced a Semester Length Legislative Simulation (United States)

    Ganzler, Louis M.


    This collective case study contains the results of year-long inquiry into how students experienced a semester length legislative simulation that was rife with political conflict. Specifically the study sought to determine: what teaching strategies were employed, what role conflict played in affecting students' political engagement, and what the…

  8. Uniting Legislation with RFID Privacy-Enhancing Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.


    RFID is a popular identification and automation technology with serious security and privacy threats. Legislation expounds upon the actual security and privacy needs of people in RFID-enabled environments, while technology helps to ensure legal compliance. This paper examines the main aims of RFID

  9. Problems and Issues Related to Legislative Process: The Federal Dimension. (United States)

    Andringa, Robert C.

    The legislative process in the U. S. Congress is considered, and personal perspectives on federal/state roles in postsecondary education are offered. Members of the House Committee on Education and Labor are identified, and information is provided about the eight subcommittees. The comparable authorizing committee in the Senate is the Labor and…

  10. Look before you leap: Hate crime legislation reconsidered | Dixon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this response to Duncan Breen and Juan Nel's article on the need for legislation to enhance the sentences imposed on those convicted of hate crime, we draw on the international literature and our own research on racially motivated offending to argue that South Africa ought to adopt a more circumspect approach than ...

  11. The Impact of Clients' Rights Legislation on Hospital Staff. (United States)

    Ostrander, Susan A.


    Assessed the impact of a new clients' rights bill on the functioning of the state mental health system. Reports on specification of those levels of staff role ambiguity and conflict among and between staff and clients that were perceived by staff as caused by the new legislation. (Author)

  12. Empirical knowledge in legislation and regulation : A decision making perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.


    This commentary considers the pros and cons of the empirical approach to legislation from the vantage point of empirical decision making research. It focuses on methodological aspects that are typically not considered by legal scholars. It points out weaknesses in the empirical approach that are

  13. Factors Influencing Compliance with Legislative Mandates within Information Technology Departments (United States)

    Gioia, Paul J.


    Since 2001, information technology (IT) leadership has had to contend with a host of new federal and local regulatory mandates. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify and assess the possible inefficiencies associated with efforts to comply with recent legislative IT mandates and to model the impact of these mandates on the…

  14. Freedom of Information Legislation In Esarbica Member States and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the question of freedom of information. It begins by arguing that although all Citizens have the right of access to information, each citizen is entitled to enjoy certain rights that must be protected and must be enshrined in a freedom of information legislation. The paper identifies the major elements that ...

  15. [Reform of mental health legislation: a practical tool]. (United States)

    Laguerre, A; Schürhoff, F


    It was widely agreed that the June 27, 1990 law needed to be changed. The new mental health legislation provides new procedures, which challenge our work habits and balance the rights of individual patient with the need to ensure public safety. In view of the very short time between the publication of the law in the Bulletin Officiel (July 6, 2011) and its application (August 1, 2011), the changes in legislation have led to concrete modifications of our practices. The scope of this article is to provide a practical tool, which will help to better understand the new measures in the law and to provide an accessible guide of use in relation to mental health care decisions. For the purpose of involuntary admissions, we provide two flow-charts outlining the changes in the legislation in its various aspects. We propose to summarize the points, which are not modified by this legislation, and we further develop the several new aspects of the law. Notably, procedures involving compulsory detention including the care and observation period of 72 hours, medical certificates, care in an emergency situation, the panel of caregivers, systematic review of each decision to detain by the Juge de la Détention et des Libertés (JLD), the particular case of patients under a criminal procedure or subjects who were hospitalized in units for dangerous patients, planned discharges, and disagreements between psychiatrists and the civil servant responsible. The aim of this article is not to criticize the law. It simply sets out the new measures for the compulsory admission of patients in hospital and defines the new procedures for continued detention or discharge. Due to its recent implementation, we don't have any feedback concerning long-term implications of this reform of mental health legislation, and it is premature to fully appreciate its advantages or disadvantages. Copyright © 2012 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Communicating hospitals' concerns to legislators and the community. (United States)

    Tuley, M


    The time is past when voluntary hospitals could afford to be uninformed and inactive in public affairs. As decisions in the public sector increasingly threaten not-for-profit institutions, Catholic hospitals particularly must pursue an action-oriented program of communication with legislators and the community. At Carney Hospital, Boston, an especially effective forum for the past eight years has been buffet dinners held on a quarterly basis with state and congressional legislators and representatives of the hospital's management team, board of trustees, associate board, and medical staff. These dinner meetings provide a singular opportunity for law-makers to learn hospitals' perspective on key issues such as the effect of tightened reimbursement on care of the poor. The dinners not only have enhanced relations with legislators but also raised the consciousness of the business community, consumers, and the general public. Frequent mailings to legislators and members of the board of trustees and the associate board also have beeN helpful. The associate board was formed to augment the expertise of the board to trustees and to increase lay participation in the hospital's affairs. Composed of 20 lay leaders representing a diversity of disciplines, the associate board provides a strong base for influencing public policy and community action. Moreover, the hospital's various constituencies--physicians, employees, volunteers, and auxilians-are recruited as appropriate to contact legislators, write letters to the editor, and give media interviews. Also important in the facility's public affairs efforts have been timely responses to requests for action from The Catholic Health Association, the American Hospital Association, and the state hospital association.

  17. Ionizing radiation and legislation for personnel - Annex B; Radiacoes ionizantes e legislacao para trabalhadores - Anexo B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes


    This annex B presents a chronological approach on the set of laws related to the ionizing radiation personnel. This paper aims to discuss and clarify the main concepts that constitute the current legislation, pointing the scope of each, as well as its ambiguities or inaccuracies. The consequences of those issues discussed are easily noticeable related to difficulties in legal, administrative and human resource management, when seeking their efficient application. We also discuss issues associated with the extent and frequency of the gradient of risk in 5, 10 and 20%, models for assessing potential exposure in a risk area, dose calculation and criteria for defining benefits and framework for irradiation, bonus for activity, special retirement and period of vacations for personnel occupationally exposed within Unified Legal System (Regime Juridico Unico) and the Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT)

  18. Environmental policy, legislation and management of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in China. (United States)

    Lau, Melody Hoi Yin; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Wong, Stella Wing Yu; Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang


    Since early 1980s, chemical pollution has become a serious environmental problem in rapidly developing China. This study reviewed the policy and legal framework for monitoring and management of chemical pollutants in China, with reference to the relevant experience in other jurisdictions. Although efforts in environmental monitoring of chemical contamination have been substantially increased over the last decade, China is lagging behind in terms of nationwide monitoring of chemical contamination in human population, and standardization of sampling and analytical protocols. While actively participating in various international treaties and conventions related to pollution control, China also has a very comprehensive set of environmental laws and policies. These include the newly enacted legislation on the control of new chemicals (i.e., China REACH) and the development of a set of National Environmental Standards. In addition to environmental education, these new measures will further enhance the control of chemical pollutants and facilitate effective law enforcement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying the gaps: Armenian health care legislation and human rights in patient care protections. (United States)

    Zopunyan, Violeta; Krmoyan, Suren; Quinn, Ryan


    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia has undergone an extensive legislative overhaul. Although a number of developments have aimed to improve the quality and accessibility of Armenia's health care system, a host of factors has prevented the country from fully introducing measures to ensure respect for human rights in patient care. In particular, inadequate health care financing continues to oblige patients to make both formal and informal payments to obtain basic medical care and services. More generally, a lack of oversight and monitoring mechanisms has obstructed the implementation of Armenia's commitments to human rights in several international agreements. Within the framework of a broader project on promoting human rights in patient care, research was carried out to examine Armenia’s health care legislation with the aim of identifying gaps in comparison with international and regional standards. This research was designed using the 14 rights enshrined in the European Charter on Patient Rights as guiding principles, along with domestic legal acts relevant to the rights of health care providers. The gaps analysis revealed numerous problems with Armenian legislation governing the relationships between stakeholders in health care service delivery. It also identified several practical inconsistencies with the international legal instruments ratified by the Armenian government. These legislative shortcomings are illustrated by highlighting key health-related rights violations experienced by patients and their health care providers, and by indicating opportunities for improved rights protections. A full list of human rights relevant to patient care and recommendations for promoting them in the Armenian context is provided in Tables 1 and 2. A number of initiatives must be undertaken in order to promote the full spectrum of human rights in patient care in Armenia. This section highlights certain recommendations flowing from the findings of

  20. Developing Inclusive Practice in Scotland: The National Framework for Inclusion (United States)

    Barrett, Louise; Beaton, Mhairi; Head, George; McAuliffe, Lisa; Moscardini, Lio; Spratt, Jennifer; Sutherland, Margaret


    This paper reports on the collaborative development of a "National Framework for Inclusion" under the auspices of the Scottish Teacher Education Committee by a working party representing each of the Scottish Universities providing initial teacher education. Recent research, international legislation and Scottish education policy have…

  1. Framework Spring


    Bobkov, Pavel


    The aim of the thesis is to introduce reader to the Spring framework and describe it as a convenient tool for rapid application development and launching projects. It is necessary to grab the Spring issue in a broader context. That's why thesis is trying to note all the relevant technologies that are closely related to Spring, or which is Spring based on. The first step to understanding Spring is a basic knowledge of Java EE. Thesis presents the architecture of Java EE while arguing its flaws...

  2. [The process of death in the intensive care unit (ICU). From a medical, thanatological and legislative point of view]. (United States)

    Kaneko-Wada, Francisco de J Takao; Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Colmenares-Vásquez, Ariadna Marcela; Santana-Martínez, Paola; Gutiérrez-Mejía, Juan; Arroliga, Alejandro C


    Traditional goals in the intensive care unit are to reduce morbidity and mortality. Despite medical and technological advances, death in the intensive care unit remains commonplace and the modern critical care team should be familiar with palliative care and legislation in Mexico. Preserving the dignity of patients, avoiding harm, and maintaining communication with the relatives is fundamental. There is no unique, universally accepted technical approach in the management of the terminal critical care patient, so it is important to individualize each case and define objectives together under the legal framework in Mexico.

  3. Understanding the impact of legislation on ‘reduction of disease risk’ claims on food and drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raats, Monique M.; Malcolm, Rosalind N.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa


    The Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC No. 1924/2006) has established a common framework for the regulation of nutrition and health claims used on foods across the European Union. This regulation aims to provide the European food industry opportunities for product innovation whilst...... by industry to scientifically substantiate the claims they wish to make. There is a need to establish whether the implementation of this legislation is in fact driving product innovation and the development of healthy foods or whether it forms a barrier to such developments. The EU-funded REDICLAIM project...

  4. Economic implications of the new legislation on environmental responsibility; Implicaciones economicas de la nueva legislacion en responsabilidad ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego Gomez, A.; Riera, P.


    The European Environmental Liability Directive borrows from the US legislation the equivalency analysis tool. It is a tool to calculate the necessary remediation to return the environment to its baseline situation, as if it had not suffered the damage. The equivalence between damage and remediation can be estimated in terms of services (hectares of wetlands, for instance) or resources (trout, cork oaks), but under some circumstances the law also provides for welfare equivalency (generally expressed in monetary units). This articles introduces the equivalency tools, analyzes them in a cost-benefit analysis framework, and discuses some related issues, like the time treatment or the organization of a habitat banking system. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Legislative aspects of the development of medical devices. (United States)

    Marešová, Petra; Klímová, Blanka; Krejcar, Ondřej; Kuča, Kamil


    European industry of medical device technologies represents 30% of all worlds sales. New health technologies bring effective treatment approaches, help shorten stays in hospital1),bring better treatment results and accelerate rehabilitation which leads to the earlier patients recovery.Legislative aspects are one of the key areas influencing the speed of development of medical devices and their launching. The aim of this article is to specify current state of legislation in the development of medical devices in the European Union in comparison with the market leaders such as China, Japan and USA.The best established market of medical devices is in the USA. Both Japan and China follow the USA model. However, a non-professional code of ethics in China in some respect contributes to the decrease of quality of medical devices, while Japan as well as the EU countries try really hard to conform to all the regulations imposed on the manufacturing of medical devices.

  6. Sex work and the claim for grassroots legislation. (United States)

    Fassi, Marisa N


    The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding of legal models that aim to control sex work, and the policy implications of these, by discussing the experience of developing a grassroots legislation bill proposal by organised sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina. The term 'grassroots legislation' here refers to a legal response that derives from the active involvement of local social movements and thus incorporates the experiential knowledge and claims of these particular social groupings in the proposal. The experience described in this paper excludes approaches that render sex workers as passive victims or as deviant perpetrators; instead, it conceives of sex workers in terms of their political subjectivity and of political subjectivity in its capacity to speak, to decide, to act and to propose. This means challenging current patterns of knowledge/power that give superiority to 'expert knowledge' above and beyond the claims, experiences, knowledge and needs of sex workers themselves as meaningful sources for law making.

  7. Separating Judicial from Legislative Reasoning in Moral Dilemma Interviews. (United States)

    Langford, Peter E


    Unlike previous studies of the development of reasoning about moral dilemmas, the 2 studies reported separated judicial reasoning (the application of rules) from legislative reasoning (the justification of rules), as well as attending to other aspects of context, using a modification of the weakly interpretive scoring method of Langford and D'Cruz. This assigns justifications to relatively simple conceptually defined categories. Findings were in accord with substantially modified versions of the views of Piaget and Kohlberg, according to which legislative reasoning can be divided into 3 main types of stages in the period 7-21 years: heteronomy (Piaget) or egocentrism (Kohlberg); local groups (attention to group interests, harmony, and reciprocity in local groups), wider groups (attention to these thing in wider groups). Findings contradicted Gibbs's theory.

  8. Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul University, Chicago, IL (United States)


    It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

  9. How to kill gamete donation: retrospective legislation and donor anonymity. (United States)

    Pennings, Guido


    Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government.

  10. Categorization of crime victims: comparing theory and legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifi Besa


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the categorization of victims by several victimological schools and to compare that to the categorization in the Criminal Procedure Code of Macedonia (CPC. The first part of this article analyzes different theoretical categories of victims, taking into consideration approaches of representatives of positivist, conservative, radical and critical victimology. A parallel is drawn between theoretical and legislative categorization of victims. Many countries have reformed their criminal legislation providing certain rights to the victim of crime. The second part of the article discusses the categorization of the victims within the CPC of Macedonia. Categorization of the victims is linked to their separate rights guaranteed by law. The article draws certain conclusions and recommendations regarding the categorization of victims and their specific rights. The importance of effective implementation of the guaranteed rights for the victim is especially emphasized.

  11. [30 years animal welfare legislation: what has been achieved?]. (United States)

    Steiger, A


    The contribution deals with history and effects of the Swiss animal welfare legislation of 1978. Special descriptions concern the development and increasing dissemination of animal friendly housing systems for cattle, swine, rabbits and poultry, the realization of the prohibition of the usual cages for laying hens until the end of 1991 and the development of aviary systems, the examination and improvement of many housing systems and equipment for farm animals, adaptations of many enclosures for wild animals in zoos and circuses, improvements in animal experimentation and also in housing of companion animals. The new animal welfare law of 2005 and the animal welfare ordinance of 2008 filled loopholes in the legislation. Animal friendly housing forms may also have economic advantages.

  12. Current needs for further development of Serbian labour legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag


    Full Text Available Current needs for further development of Serbian legislation relate to the field of collective employee-employer relations and their collective rights and obligations. These are the relations established by the workers' and employers' mutually, but also the relationship between them, on the one hand and the state on the other. In other words, this is the need to strengthen the industrial democracies (including the improvement of labour legislation in the field of collective rights of employees and employers, which is actually still in stagnation. The fact is that trade union movement in Serbia, social dialogue, collective bargaining on working conditions, employees participation in management are weakening, which is where one should seek current needs for further development of labour law in order to strengthen and provide normatively the legal platform to stop these negative tendencies.

  13. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress. Volume 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is the second of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, various acts pertaining to low-level radioactive waste, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Licensing Statutes, and selected treaties, agreements, and executive orders. Other information provided pertains to Commissioner tenure, NRC appropriations, the Chief Financial Officers Act, information technology management reform, and Federal civil penalties.

  14. Prostitution Legislation Reforms in Western Australia: What Indonesia Can Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Sari K.A.


    Full Text Available Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.

  15. New psychoactive substances legislation in Ireland - Perspectives from academia. (United States)

    Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D


    The emergence of 'legal highs' or 'new psychoactive substances' (NPS) on the Irish market is reflective of their appearance in many countries, with some notable exceptions. The official response to the situation is examined here by looking at Irish controlled drugs legislation and drug enforcement policies as enacted in recent years and their effects on academic research on NPS. The philosophy and practice of outright bans of scheduled substances has not been effective in delivering the stated aims of illicit drug control, namely harm reduction. With these legislative changes, we have witnessed the removal of the 'legitimate' sale and open marketing of a number of NPS to the general public in commercial retail premises. However, as legislation was enacted, suppliers and vendors rapidly changed the contents of their legal high products from now controlled to non-controlled substances. We have found that it is administratively challenging to perform scientific research on controlled substances at academic institutions. It is desirable to gather analytical, pharmacological, and toxicological data on these substances as they emerge on the market but due to the restrictive nature of licensing requirements, once a substance or generic class of substances is controlled, this becomes more difficult. The facts that any quantity of substance, no matter how small, is controlled, the nomenclature used to describe compounds is not consistent within the enacted legislation and the use of catch-all classes of compounds with the intention of controlling many similar molecular structures, all create problematic issues for academic researchers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Transfer pricing as tax avoidance under different legislative schemes


    Holzmann, Carolin Maria


    This paper investigates transfer pricing as tax avoidance before and after reforms of anti-avoidance legislation. The reforms introduced and tightened obligatory documentation requirements for transfer prices to enforce that multinational enterprises (MNEs) set internal transfer prices at an arm’s-length. Linking data from the Microdatabase Statistics on International Trade in Services that comprehends prices of MNEs’ international service transactions to the Microdatabase Direct Investment, ...

  17. Legislative background of food and nutrition policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Andreeva


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of effective policy aimed at improving nutrition practices is highly recognized by the global community. METHODS: Analysis of Ukrainian legislative documents was conducted to clarify the situation in the field of policy initiatives and legislation devoted to nutrition in Ukraine. Documents in force adopted from 1991 to 2011 including key words “nutrition”, “health”, “concept”, and “food products” were reviewed.RESULTS: We reviewed 55 legislative acts related to nutrition and identified several groups: 18 documents are related to organization of supply, regimen, norms of nutrition in state establishments or for special populations; 12 documents related to economic and technological regulation of food preparation, quality control and distribution; 3 documents regulating nutritious and safety norms of food products for children under 3 years; 14 documents aimed to control food safety, quality and accessibility; 6 other documents partly referred to nutrition, including 4 Concepts of healthy lifestyles. Some of the principles of healthy eating are declared in the “Concept of improving food security and quality of nutrition of the population” approved by the Cabinet of Ministers in 2004. Principles of maintaining breastfeeding, activities aimed to reduce iodine deficiency among population as well as school educational program “Foundations of health” were those few governmental activities, which supported some of the ideas declared in the Concept. CONCLUSION: Great attention of policymakers is paid to regulation of production, distribution of food, its quality control, affordability of products for special population groups, especially children. Not much attention is devoted in the official documents to creating and maintaining the healthy eating practices of the population. Mechanisms aimed to form healthy eating practices are not specified in the legislative documents. No regulatory documents to

  18. The EU Legislation on GMOs: an overview - Update December 2011


    PLAN DAMIEN; Van den Eede, Guy


    Genetic modification, also known as "genetic engineering” or “recombinant-DNA technology” allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between non-related species. The products obtained from this technology are commonly called "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are officially defined in the EU legislation as "organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur natu...

  19. Pension legislation for federal public servants in Brazil


    Jardim, Maria Aparecida Chaves [UNESP; Jard, Sidney


    This paper addresses the creation of pension funds for federal civil servants in Brazil, analyzing the existing legislation and regulation on this issue. To this end, it takes off based on the genesis of the Brazilian private pension plans, logging the emergence of private funds as well as the existence of various laws and constitutional amendments prior to Law 12.618/2012, which provided for the pension funds system for Brazilian federal public servants. It also identifies proponents and opp...

  20. The Economic and Health Impacts of Legislative Fiscal Policies to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will assess the impact of fiscal and legislative policies on the nutritional status of South Africans and recommend important policy changes. The most recent national burden of ... Intervention intégrée quant au risque de diabète après le diabète gestationnel en Afrique du Sud. Les femmes ayant souffert de ...

  1. Status of Legislation and Regulatory Control of Public Health Pesticides in Countries Endemic with or at Risk of Major Vector-Borne Diseases (United States)

    Matthews, Graham; Zaim, Morteza; Soares, Agnes; Hii, Jeffrey; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Mnzava, Abraham; Dash, Aditya Prasad; Ejov, Mikhail; Tan, Soo Hian; van den Berg, Henk


    Background: Legislation and regulation of pesticides used in public health are essential for reducing risks to human health and the environment. Objective: We assessed the global situation on legislation and regulatory control of public health pesticides. Methods: A peer-reviewed and field-tested questionnaire was distributed to 142 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO); 113 states completed the questionnaire. Results: Legislation on public health pesticides was absent in 25% of the countries. Where present, legislation often lacked comprehensiveness, for example, on basic aspects such as labeling, storage, transport, and disposal of public health pesticides. Guidelines or essential requirements for the process of pesticide registration were lacking in many countries. The capacity to enforce regulations was considered to be weak across WHO regions. Half of all countries lacked pesticide quality control laboratories, and two-thirds reported high concern over quality of products on the market. National statistics on production and trade of pesticides and poisoning incidents were lacking in many countries. Despite the shortcomings, WHO recommendations were considered to constitute a supportive or sole basis in national registration. Also, some regions showed high participation of countries in regional schemes to harmonize pesticide registration requirements. Conclusions: Critical deficiencies are evident in the legislative and regulatory framework for public health pesticides across regions, posing risks to human health and the environment. Recent experience in some countries with situational analysis, needs assessment, action planning, and regional collaboration has signaled a promising way forward. PMID:21742577

  2. Brazilian agriculture and environmental legislation: status and future challenges. (United States)

    Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Klug, Israel L F; Barretto, Alberto G O P


    Brazilian agriculture covers about one-third of the land area and is expected to expand further. We assessed the compliance of present Brazilian agriculture with environmental legislation and identified challenges for agricultural development connected to this legislation. We found (i) minor illegal land use in protected areas under public administration, (ii) a large deficit in legal reserves and protected riparian zones on private farmland, and (iii) large areas of unprotected natural vegetation in regions experiencing agriculture expansion. Achieving full compliance with the environmental laws as they presently stand would require drastic changes in agricultural land use, where large agricultural areas are taken out of production and converted back to natural vegetation. The outcome of a full compliance with environmental legislation might not be satisfactory due to leakage, where pristine unprotected areas become converted to compensate for lost production as current agricultural areas are reconverted to protected natural vegetation. Realizing the desired protection of biodiversity and natural vegetation, while expanding agriculture to meet food and biofuel demand, may require a new approach to environmental protection. New legal and regulatory instruments and the establishment of alternative development models should be considered.

  3. A review of state legislation of DNA forensic data banking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, J.E. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States) Boston College Law School, Newton, MA (United States)); Reilly, P.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States))


    Recent advances in DNA identification technology are making their way into the criminal law. States across the country are enacting legislation to create repositories for the storage both of DNA samples collected from convicted offenders and of the DNA profiles derived from them. These data banks will be used to assist in the resolution of future crimes. This study surveys existing state statutes, pending legislation, and administrative regulations that govern these DNA forensic data banks. The authors critically analyzed these laws with respect to their treatment of the collection, storage, analysis, retrieval, and use of DNA and DNA data. They found much variation among data-banking laws and conclude that, while DNA forensic data banking carries tremendous potential for law enforcement, many states, in their rush to create data banks, have paid little attention to issues of quality control, quality assurance, and privacy. In addition, the sweep of some laws is unnecessarily broad. Legislative modifications are needed in many states to better safeguard civil liberties and individual privacy. 16 refs., 11 tabs.

  4. The harmonization of banking legislation in the EU

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    Shkëlqesa Çitaku


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess the current legislation of banking in the European Union. The process of unification in Europe is also followed by efforts to harmonize and unify the laws of the member states. In the field of banking industry the precondition for harmonization of laws is the integration of internal market with the free movement of capital. The regulation and supervision of banks in EU still remains fragmented. European member states still have diverse regulations concerning the role of the state. The European Commission has the important function of proposing EU legislation on financial services including banks and ensuring that EU law is properly applied throughout the EU. Banks are considered as a key industry enabling all the economic activities via depositing, crediting and arranging of payments. A number of secondary legislation has been adopted by the EU institutions to harmonize the national banking law of Member States. The principles and objectives set by the European Commission Treaty depend on four EU freedoms with the aim of effective and open market including banks. Therefore it was a continuous process of harmonization of national banking regulation via secondary law since the 70’s.

  5. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients. (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera


    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  6. Summary of international principles of legislative regulation of media

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    Y. V. Nesteryak


    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the basic international principles of legislative regulation of the media and the settlement of regulatory relations in the field of information on the basis of a comprehensive theoretical and methodological analysis of the international legislation concerning human rights and freedoms in the sphere of information and the settlement information relations, principles and mechanisms of regulation and control of resources mass communication. International legal acts in the field of information: the Convention of United Nations, resolutions and recommendations of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembleia and declarations, resolutions and recommendations of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe more influence on the formation and development of the global information society. Only the Council of Europe, of which Ukraine is a member, adopted more than one hundred legal documents relating to the management of information relations, human rights and freedoms in the information sphere. Ukraine’s membership in public international organizations (UN, Council of Europe confirms its status as an integral part of the European and global media space, and commits to implement into national law the provisions of international agreements and related legislation. At the same time, taking international experience and standards should take into account national specifics, in particular: the conditions of post-totalitarian environment of functioning of mass media, the mentality of Ukrainian society and the authorities, and other features of adaptation of international law to domestic realities.

  7. Compliance of Australian threatened species recovery plans with legislative requirements. (United States)

    Ortega-Argueta, Alejandro; Baxter, Greg; Hockings, Marc


    Recovery plans are the main documents supporting management decision-making for threatened species. We evaluated Australian recovery plans to assess their appropriateness as conservation and management planning instruments. Six legislative requirements (species information and general requirements, species distribution and location, known and potential threats, objectives, performance criteria and actions, duration of the plan, and estimated costs of plan implementation) were used to assess the degree of compliance of recovery plans with the relevant legislation. We assessed all 236 official recovery plans which had been adopted as at January 2006. The results showed that plans were most compliant regarding the setting of objectives, performance criteria, recovery actions, and duration of plan. Most plans included a single performance criterion that was generally related to the population status of target species. Improvement is required in relation to identification of current threats and critical habitats, and the establishment of basic elements of monitoring and evaluation for measuring recovery progress. Gaps in ecological information are the main factors affecting adequate compliance with legislative requirements as opposed to managerial information (e.g. clarity in establishing the implementation schedule, costs and resource allocation). Planning deficiencies could be addressed by improving the recovery planning guidelines and more carefully reviewing the drafting and adoption of new plans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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    Oleg Kozhevnikov


    Full Text Available УДК 347.734The relevance of the study is determined by the debates around legal rules devoted to the bank deposit contract, as well as an extensive judicial practice, revealing the problems of existing legislation. Purpose: to systematize the main problems of enforcement related to the bank deposit contract and to suggest ways of improving the current legislation. Meth-ods: general and special scientific methods (systemic, comparative, formal-logical and other are used. Results: on the basis of the comparative experience of Belarus, Kazakhstan and other foreign countries, analysis of judicial practice proposals to improve existing legislation are presented (including types of contract, investigation of deposits, bail-in.The authors conclude, it is necessary to supplement Chapter 44 of Russian Civil Code by rules on types of bank deposit agreement, establish the order of registration of the deposit and deposited funds with the remote technology, by list of requirements as to the form of deposit and savings certificates, by details and peculiarities of treatment, as well as consolidate the definition of "interest capitalization" and establish the list of cases of restriction of the rights of depositors for disposal of deposits. Procedural rules on the investigation of the deposits, determining the jurisdiction of cases on the protection of investors, are also should be improved.

  9. Vendor compliance with Ontario's tobacco point of sale legislation. (United States)

    Dubray, Jolene M; Schwartz, Robert M; Garcia, John M; Bondy, Susan J; Victor, J Charles


    On May 31, 2006, Ontario joined a small group of international jurisdictions to implement legislative restrictions on tobacco point of sale promotions. This study compares the presence of point of sale promotions in the retail tobacco environment from three surveys: one prior to and two following implementation of the legislation. Approximately 1,575 tobacco vendors were randomly selected for each survey. Each regionally-stratified sample included equal numbers of tobacco vendors categorized into four trade classes: chain convenience, independent convenience and discount, gas stations, and grocery. Data regarding the six restricted point of sale promotions were collected using standardized protocols and inspection forms. Weighted estimates and 95% confidence intervals were produced at the provincial, regional and vendor trade class level using the bootstrap method for estimating variance. At baseline, the proportion of tobacco vendors who did not engage in each of the six restricted point of sale promotions ranged from 41% to 88%. Within four months following implementation of the legislation, compliance with each of the six restricted point of sale promotions exceeded 95%. Similar levels of compliance were observed one year later. Grocery stores had the fewest point of sale promotions displayed at baseline. Compliance rates did not differ across vendor trade classes at either follow-up survey. Point of sale promotions did not differ across regions in any of the three surveys. Within a short period of time, a high level of compliance with six restricted point of sale promotions was achieved.

  10. Thailand—lighting up a dark market: British American tobacco, sports sponsorship and the circumvention of legislation (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff; Sriwongcharoen, Kobkul


    Objective To examine how British American Tobacco (BAT) used sports sponsorship to circumvent restrictions on tobacco promotion in Thailand, both a key emerging market and a world leader in tobacco control. Method Analysis of previously confidential BAT company documents. Results Since its inception in 1987, BAT's sports sponsorship programme in Thailand has been politically sensitive and legally ambiguous. Given Thailand's ban on imported cigarettes, early events provided promotional support to smuggled brands. BAT's funding of local badminton, snooker, football and cricket tournaments generated substantial media coverage for its brands. After the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs decision that obliged Thailand to open its cigarette market to imports, Thailand's 1992 tobacco control legislation established one of the world's most restrictive marketing environments. BAT's sponsorship strategy shifted to rallying and motorbike racing, using broadcasts of regional competitions to undermine national regulations. BAT sought to dominate individual sports and to shape media coverage to maximise brand awareness. An adversarial approach was adopted, testing the limits of legality and requiring active enforcement to secure compliance with legislation. Conclusions The documents show the opportunities offered by sports sponsorship to tobacco companies amid increasing advertising restrictions. Before the 1992 tobacco control legislation, sponsored events in Thailand promoted international brands by combining global and local imagery. The subsequent strategy of “regionalisation as defensibility” reflected the capacity of international sport to transcend domestic restrictions. These transnational effects may be effectively dealt with via the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but will require the negotiation of a specific protocol. PMID:17183011

  11. Thailand--lighting up a dark market: British American tobacco, sports sponsorship and the circumvention of legislation. (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff; Sriwongcharoen, Kobkul


    To examine how British American Tobacco (BAT) used sports sponsorship to circumvent restrictions on tobacco promotion in Thailand, both a key emerging market and a world leader in tobacco control. Analysis of previously confidential BAT company documents. Since its inception in 1987, BAT's sports sponsorship programme in Thailand has been politically sensitive and legally ambiguous. Given Thailand's ban on imported cigarettes, early events provided promotional support to smuggled brands. BAT's funding of local badminton, snooker, football and cricket tournaments generated substantial media coverage for its brands. After the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs decision that obliged Thailand to open its cigarette market to imports, Thailand's 1992 tobacco control legislation established one of the world's most restrictive marketing environments. BAT's sponsorship strategy shifted to rallying and motorbike racing, using broadcasts of regional competitions to undermine national regulations. BAT sought to dominate individual sports and to shape media coverage to maximise brand awareness. An adversarial approach was adopted, testing the limits of legality and requiring active enforcement to secure compliance with legislation. The documents show the opportunities offered by sports sponsorship to tobacco companies amid increasing advertising restrictions. Before the 1992 tobacco control legislation, sponsored events in Thailand promoted international brands by combining global and local imagery. The subsequent strategy of "regionalisation as defensibility" reflected the capacity of international sport to transcend domestic restrictions. These transnational effects may be effectively dealt with via the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but will require the negotiation of a specific protocol.


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    Full Text Available This article analyzes the political and legal aspects of the first decrees of the Soviet government  from 1917 and the codified acts on marriage and family from 1918 and 1926 as large and small  “revolutions” in Russian and Soviet family law. These acts put Russia forward into progressive  positions in comparison with comparable European and American law of that time. The article  analyzes the repressive, “counterrevolutionary” decisions of 1930s and 1940s that pushed family  law, particularly in the sphere of marriage and the legal status of children born out of wedlock,  back to pre-revolutionary imperial standards. It also reviews the normative legal acts on marriage  and the family dating from the “Khrushchev thaw” period. The article identifies the contradictory  and conflicting approaches of legal scholars and legislators to the methodology of legal regulation  of family relations in different periods of political and social history, as well as in our times. The  quality of Russia’s current family legislation, which mainly evolved during the political, economic  and social reforms of the late 20th century, is also assessed. The article traces the influence of  Soviet family law on the content of similar legislation elsewhere in Eastern Europe and the  countries of the former Soviet Union, where there are various levels of legal sovereignty. Their independent legal positions, which are worth comparing with Russia’s family-law doctrine and  legislation, are revealed. The article investigates and evaluates both successful and partially  unsuccessful attempts of modern Russian legislators to adapt the current Family Code and other federal laws regulating family relations to new challenges in the sphere of marriage and family. It speculates on three tendencies of family law doctrine: a certain adherence to the revolutionary ideas of 1917, an orientation toward a return to traditional family

  13. Legislative approaches to the regulation of the chiropractic profession. (United States)

    Chapman-Smith, D A


    Traditional and complementary health care services have a growing and significant role in both developed and developing countries. In the United Kingdom the British Medical Association (BMA) has identified five complementary approaches to health care that should now be regarded as "discrete clinical disciplines" because they have "established foundations of training and have the potential for greatest use alongside orthodox medical care". These are acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy and osteopathy. The BMA recommended that there should be legislation to regulate these disciplines and the Chiropractors' Act enacted in the U.K in 1994. The chiropractic profession was founded in the United States in 1895, and the practice of chiropractic has been regulated in the United States and Canada since the 1920s, in Australia since the late 1940s, in New Zealand and South Africa since the 1960s, and more recently in Asia, Europe, Latin America and elsewhere. Figure 1 lists the countries which currently recognize and regulate the chiropractic profession. Many countries, such as Japan with approximately 10,000 chiropractors with different levels of education, and Trinidad & Tobago with 5 chiropractors who are graduates of accredited chiropractic colleges in North America, are considering legislation. Croatia, with 3 chiropractors, is preparing legislation. Cyprus, with 6 chiropractors, has legislation. Even in countries such as these, where the profession is small, there are compelling public interest arguments for regulation. This is especially true in the 1990s. One reason is the growing incentive for lay healers and others without formal training to use the title "chiropractor" as chiropractic practice gains increasing acceptance. The majority of chiropractic practice involves patients with non- specific or mechanical back and neck pain. The chiropractic approach to management, which includes spinal adjustment or manipulation, other physical treatments, postural

  14. Yorkshire's influence on the understanding and treatment of mental diseases in Victorian Britain: The golden triad of York, Wakefield, and Leeds. (United States)

    Rollin, Henry R; Reynolds, Edward H


    In the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a more humane approach to the care of the insane in Britain was catalyzed in part by the illness of King George III. The Reform Movement envisaged "moral" treatment in asylums in pleasant rural environments, but these aspirations were overwhelmed by industrialization, urbanization, and the scale of the need, such that most asylums became gigantic institutions for chronic insanity. Three institutions in Yorkshire remained beacons of enlightenment in the general gloom of Victorian alienism: the Retreat in York founded and developed by the Quaker Tuke family; the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield led by Sir James Crichton-Browne, which initiated research into brain and mental diseases; and the Leeds Medical School and Wakefield axis associated with Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, which pioneered teaching of mental diseases and, later, the first Chair of Psychiatry. Three other Yorkshiremen who greatly influenced nineteenth-century "neuropsychiatry" in Britain and abroad were Thomas Laycock in York and Edinburgh, and Henry Maudsley and John Hughlings Jackson in London.

  15. Transitioning from a single-site pilot project to a state-wide regional telehealth service: The experience from the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine programme. (United States)

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kim, Joosup; Vu, Michelle; Savage, Mark; Bolitho, Les; Howlett, Glenn; Rabl, Justin; Dewey, Helen M; Hand, Peter J; Denisenko, Sonia; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Bladin, Christopher F


    Scaling of projects from inception to establishment within the healthcare system is rarely formally reported. The Victorian Stroke Telemedicine (VST) programme provided a very useful opportunity to describe how rural hospitals in Victoria were able to access a network of Melbourne-based neurologists via telemedicine. The VST programme was initially piloted at one site in 2010 and has gradually expanded as a state-wide regional service operating with 16 hospitals in 2017. The aim of this paper is to summarise the factors that facilitated the state-wide transition of the VST programme. A naturalistic case-study was used and data were obtained from programme documents, e.g. minutes of governance committees, including the steering committee, the management committee and six working groups; operational and evaluation documentation, interviews and research field-notes taken by project staff. Thematic analysis was undertaken, with results presented in narrative form to provide a summary of the lived experience of developing and scaling the VST programme. The main success factors were attaining funding from various sources, identifying a clinical need and evidence-based solution, engaging stakeholders and facilitating co-design, including embedding the programme within policy, iterative evaluation including performing financial sustainability modelling, and conducting dissemination activities of the interim results, including promotion of early successes.

  16. Incidence and survival of lymphohematopoietic neoplasms according to the World Health Organization classification: a population-based study from the Victorian Cancer Registry in Australia. (United States)

    Jayasekara, Harindra; Karahalios, Amalia; Juneja, Surender; Thursfield, Vicky; Farrugia, Helen; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G


    We studied the incidence and relative survival of 39 837 cases of lymphohematopoietic neoplasms (LHN) reported to the Victorian Cancer Registry during 1982-2004, classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. We modeled excess mortality using Poisson regression to estimate differences in survival by age, sex, and time period. Age-standardized incidence rates varied across subtypes of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms. All major subtypes predominantly affected the elderly except Hodgkin lymphoma (incidence peaks at 20-24 and 75-79 years) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0-9 years). After an initial rise, overall lymphoid and myeloid incidence stabilized in the mid-1990s. The 5-year relative survival was 58% for lymphoid and 35% for myeloid neoplasms. Survival improved during 1990-2004 for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes (p  < 0.001) and declined with advancing age for all subtypes (p <  0.001). Female sex was associated with higher survival for most myeloid subtypes. The results represent a rare epidemiological characterization of the whole range of LHN according to WHO subtypes.

  17. Symbolic Codes of Communication in the Victorian Era: The Language of Flowers in John Fowles’s The French Lieutenant’s Woman

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    Cristina PĂTRAȘCU


    Full Text Available John Fowles’s love of nature is illustrated by the great variety of landscapes and flowers present everywhere throughout his fiction. His interest goes well beyond that of a mere admirer of flowers as it is proved by his knowledge of their names and species and by his great ability to describe and use them as symbols, as carriers of meaning. In all his six novels, Fowles makes extensive references to flowers and their symbolism and The French Lieutenant’s Woman is no exception in this sense. The present article aims to prove that the language of flowers as a form of symbolic communication was very much used in the Victorian era, which Fowles reconstructs minutely. At the same time, the close analysis of the text will reveal that the novelist uses flowers as a symbolic code of communication with his readers so as to disclose the hidden nature of his characters. The focus is placed on decoding the language of flowers, as there is no systematic approach to it in the critical writings on Fowles’s fiction.

  18. A Review of Telehealth Service Implementation Frameworks (United States)

    van Dyk, Liezl


    Despite the potential of telehealth services to increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare, the success rate of such services has been disappointing. The purpose of this paper is to find and compare existing frameworks for the implementation of telehealth services that can contribute to the success rate of future endeavors. After a thorough discussion of these frameworks, this paper outlines the development methodologies in terms of theoretical background, methodology and validation. Finally, the common themes and formats are identified for consideration in future implementation. It was confirmed that a holistic implementation approach is needed, which includes technology, organizational structures, change management, economic feasibility, societal impacts, perceptions, user-friendliness, evaluation and evidence, legislation, policy and governance. Furthermore, there is some scope for scientifically rigorous framework development and validation approaches. PMID:24464237

  19. 75 FR 63764 - Hearing Aid Compatibility Proceeding; Request That Comments Address Effects of New Legislation (United States)


    ... Legislation AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: In this document... FNPRM address the effect of the new legislation, if any, on the proposed rules. Comments remain due on...

  20. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

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    Kalamatiev Todor


    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives