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Sample records for victimization depressive symptoms

  1. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  2. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Elliott, Marc N; Reisner, Sari L; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Peskin, Melissa F; Schuster, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Peer victimization is common among youth and associated with substance use. Yet, few studies have examined these associations longitudinally or the psychological processes whereby peer victimization leads to substance use. The current study examined whether peer victimization in early adolescence is associated with alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use in mid- to late adolescence, as well as the role of depressive symptoms in these associations. Longitudinal data were collected between 2004 and 2011 from 4297 youth in Birmingham, Alabama; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The hypothesized model fit the data well (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02; Comparative Fit Index [CFI] = 0.95). More frequent experiences of peer victimization in the fifth grade were associated with greater depressive symptoms in the seventh grade (B[SE] = 0.03[0.01]; P peer victimization was indirectly associated with tenth-grade substance use via the mediator of seventh-grade depressive symptoms, including alcohol use (B[SE] = 0.01[0.01]; P = .006), marijuana use (B[SE] = 0.01[0.01]; P peer victimization in the fifth grade were more likely to use substances in the tenth grade, showing that experiences of peer victimization in early adolescence may have a lasting impact by affecting substance use behaviors during mid- to late adolescence. Interventions are needed to reduce peer victimization among youth and to support youth who have experienced victimization. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents’ peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents’ depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents’ symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  4. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

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    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  5. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and High Salivary Cortisol Predict Poorer Memory in Children

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    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Becker, Suzanna; Schmidt, Louis A.; Nicol, Jeffrey; Muir, Cameron; MacMillan, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    The predictive relations of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and salivary cortisol on memory in 168 children aged 12 at Time 1 (T1) were examined using a longitudinal design in which data were collected on four occasions over a 2-year period. Results indicated that: (1) peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and evening cortisol were…

  6. Rumination mediates the association between cyber-victimization and depressive symptoms.

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    Feinstein, Brian A; Bhatia, Vickie; Davila, Joanne

    2014-06-01

    The current study examined the 3-week prospective associations between cyber-victimization and both depressive symptoms and rumination. In addition, a mediation model was tested, wherein rumination mediated the association between cyber-victimization and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 565 college-age young adults) completed online surveys at two time points 3 weeks apart. Results indicated that cyber-victimization was associated with increases in both depressive symptoms and rumination over time. Furthermore, results of the path analysis indicated that cyber-victimization was associated with increases in rumination over time, which were then associated with greater depressive symptoms, providing support for the proposed mediation effect for women, but not men. Findings extend previous correlational findings by demonstrating that cyber-victimization is associated with increases in symptomatology over time. Findings also suggest that the negative consequences of cyber-victimization extend beyond mental health problems to maladaptive emotion regulation. In fact, rumination may be a mechanism through which cyber-victimization influences mental health problems, at least for women. Mental health professionals are encouraged to assess cyber-victimization as part of standard victimization assessments and to consider targeting maladaptive emotion regulation in addition to mental health problems in clients who have experienced cyber-victimization.

  7. Longitudinal Associations Among Youths’ Depressive Symptoms, Peer Victimization, and Low Peer Acceptance: An Interpersonal Process Perspective

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    Kochel, Karen P.; Ladd, Gary W.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    A longitudinal investigation was conducted to explicate the network of associations between depressive symptoms and peer difficulties among 486 fourth through sixth graders (M = 9.93 years). Parent and teacher reports of depressive symptoms, peer, self, and teacher reports of victimization, and peer reports of peer acceptance were obtained. A systematic examination of nested structural equation models provided support for a symptoms-driven model whereby depressive symptoms contributed to peer difficulties; no evidence was found for interpersonal risk or transactional models. Analyses further revealed that victimization mediated the association between prior depressive symptoms and subsequent peer acceptance. Results extend knowledge about the temporal ordering of depressive symptoms and peer difficulties and elucidate one process through which depressive symptoms disrupt peer relationships. PMID:22313098

  8. Peer victimization during adolescence: concurrent and prospective impact on symptoms of depression and anxiety.

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    Stapinski, Lexine A; Araya, Ricardo; Heron, Jon; Montgomery, Alan A; Stallard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has the potential for long-lasting effects on the well-being of victims. To date, research has focused on the consequences of peer victimization during childhood but neglected adolescence. Peer relationships and approval become increasingly important during adolescence; thus, peer victimization at this age may have a damaging psychological impact. Participants were 5030 adolescents aged 11-16 recruited from secondary schools in the UK. Self-report measures of victimization and symptoms of anxiety and depression were administered on three occasions over a 12-month period. Latent growth models examined concurrent and prospective victimization-related elevations in anxiety and depression symptoms above individual-specific growth trajectories. Peer victimization was associated with a concurrent elevation of 0.64 and 0.56 standard deviations in depression and anxiety scores, respectively. There was an independent delayed effect, with additional elevations in depression and anxiety (0.28 and 0.25 standard deviations) six months later. These concurrent and prospective associations were independent of expected symptom trajectories informed by individual risk factors. Adolescent peer victimization was associated with immediate and delayed elevations in anxiety and depression. Early intervention aimed at identifying and supporting victimized adolescents may prevent the development of these disorders.

  9. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally-oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially-diverse community sample of adolescents. We expanded on past research by examining hopelessness as a mediator of the relationships between these interpersonal stressors and symptoms. Method Participants included 225 adolescents (55% African-American; 59% female; Mean age = 12.84 years) who completed measures at baseline (Time 1) and two follow-up assessments (Times 2 and 3). Symptoms of depression and anxiety (social, physical, total) were assessed at Time 1 and Time 3, while intervening emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and hopelessness were assessed at Time 2. Results Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that emotional abuse was a nonspecific predictor of increases in both depressive symptoms and symptoms of social, physical, and total anxiety, whereas relationally-oriented peer victimization predicted depressive symptoms specifically. Emotional neglect did not predict increases in depressive or anxiety symptoms. In addition, hopelessness mediated the relationships between emotional abuse and increases in symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest that emotional abuse and relationally-oriented peer victimization are interpersonal stressors that are relevant to the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence, and that hopelessness may be one mechanism through which emotional abuse contributes to an increased risk of depression and social anxiety. PMID:23534812

  10. Emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and depressive versus anxiety symptoms during adolescence: hopelessness as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Shapero, Benjamin G; Stange, Jonathan P; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We expanded on past research by examining hopelessness as a mediator of the relationships between these interpersonal stressors and symptoms. Participants included 225 adolescents (55% African American; 59% female; M age = 12.84 years) who completed measures at baseline (Time 1) and two follow-up assessments (Times 2 and 3). Symptoms of depression and anxiety (social, physical, total) were assessed at Time 1 and Time 3, whereas intervening emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and hopelessness were assessed at Time 2. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that emotional abuse was a nonspecific predictor of increases in both depressive symptoms and symptoms of social, physical, and total anxiety, whereas relationally oriented peer victimization predicted depressive symptoms specifically. Emotional neglect did not predict increases in depressive or anxiety symptoms. In addition, hopelessness mediated the relationships between emotional abuse and increases in symptoms of depression and social anxiety. These findings suggest that emotional abuse and relationally oriented peer victimization are interpersonal stressors that are relevant to the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence and that hopelessness may be one mechanism through which emotional abuse contributes to an increased risk of depression and social anxiety.

  11. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Tracy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of…

  12. Moderating Effects of Relational Interdependence on the Association Between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Onishi, Ayako

    2017-04-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the association between relational and physical victimization and subsequent depressive symptoms together with the roles of social cognitive processes (i.e., relational interdependence) and gender in this association. A total of 580 Japanese adolescents in the seventh and eighth grades (52 % girls; age range 12-14) participated in this study across an academic year. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational and physical victimization, which was assessed via self- and teacher- reports, was concurrently associated with greater depressive symptoms, regardless of the gender of the youth and the level of relational interdependence. Furthermore, after controlling for the stability and co-occurrence between each construct, relational victimization (not physical victimization) was predictive of elevated depressive symptoms only for boys who exhibited relatively higher relational interdependence. The findings are discussed from developmental, gender, and cultural perspectives.

  13. Intrinsic religiosity buffers the longitudinal effects of peer victimization on adolescent depressive symptoms.

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    Helms, Sarah W; Gallagher, Michelle; Calhoun, Casey D; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Dawson, Glen C; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common and potentially detrimental experience for many adolescents. However, not all youth who are exposed to peer victimization experience maladaptive outcomes, such as depression. Thus, greater attention to potential moderators of peer victimization is particularly important. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of intrinsic religiosity and religious attendance on the longitudinal association between physical and relational victimization and depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of adolescents (N = 313; M(age) = 17.13 years; 54% female; 49% Caucasian, 24% African American, 19% Latino, 8% mixed race/other; 80% Christian religious affiliation) were recruited from a rural, low-income setting. Adolescents completed self-report measures of religious attendance and intrinsic religiosity, and two forms of victimization (i.e., physical and relational) were assessed using sociometric procedures in 11th grade. Depressive symptoms were measured in both 11th and 12th grade. Results suggest that relational victimization is associated prospectively with depressive symptoms only under conditions of adolescents' low intrinsic religiosity. Findings may contribute to efforts aimed at prevention and intervention among adolescents at risk for peer victimization and depression.

  14. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  15. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

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    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Peer victimization in middle childhood impedes adaptive responses to stress: a pathway to depressive symptoms.

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    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Rudolph, Karen D; Sugimura, Niwako; Little, Todd D

    2015-01-01

    Although associations between peer victimization in childhood and later psychopathology are well documented, surprisingly little research directly examines pathways accounting for these enduring effects. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether maladaptive responses to peer aggression (less effortful engagement coping and more involuntary responses) mediate associations between peer victimization and later depressive symptoms. Data were collected on 636 children (338 girls, 298 boys; M = 8.94 years, SD = .37) for three consecutive years beginning in 3rd grade. Findings supported the proposition that peer victimization predicts lower levels of effortful engagement coping and higher levels of involuntary engagement and disengagement responses to stress. Moreover, these responses to stress helped to explain the link between 3rd-grade peer victimization and 5th-grade depressive symptoms. No sex differences in these linkages emerged. These findings build on prior theory and research by providing a more nuanced understanding of how and why peer victimization serves as an early risk factor for depressive symptoms.

  17. Relational victimization, loneliness and depressive symptoms: indirect associations via self and peer reports of rejection sensitivity.

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    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Trevaskis, Sarah; Nesdale, Drew; Downey, Geraldine A

    2014-04-01

    Theory suggests that aversive social experiences generate emotional maladjustment because they prompt the development of a hypersensitivity to perceiving and overreacting to rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test hypothesized direct and indirect (via rejection sensitivity) links of overt/relational victimization and friendship conflict with early adolescents' loneliness and depressive symptoms. Participants were 366 Australian early adolescents age 10-14 years (50.5 % girls). Using both a self-report and peer-report measure of rejection sensitivity, no difference was found when comparing the significant correlations of each measure with loneliness and depressive symptoms. Tests of direct and indirect associations with structural equation modeling showed that adolescents higher in relational victimization reported more loneliness and depressive symptoms and part of this association was by way of their greater self-reports of rejection sensitivity and their peers' identification that they were higher in rejection sensitivity. Additionally, relational victimization was the only unique correlate of emotional maladjustment, and adolescents who reported more overt victimization were identified by their peers as higher in rejection sensitivity. Finally, gender and rejection sensitivity were tested as moderators. No gender moderation was found, but friendship conflict was associated more strongly with emotional maladjustment for adolescents low, rather than high, in rejection sensitivity. These findings identify relational victimization as particularly salient for emotional maladjustment both directly and indirectly via links with elevated rejection sensitivity. They show how rejection sensitivity and aversive experiences may contribute independently and jointly to emotional maladjustment for both boys and girls.

  18. Adolescents Transitioning to High School: Sex Differences in Bullying Victimization Associated with Depressive Symptoms, Suicide Ideation, and Suicide Attempts

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    Williams, Susan G.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students (N = 233). Females…

  19. Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218…

  20. Adolescents Transitioning to High School: Sex Differences in Bullying Victimization Associated With Depressive Symptoms, Suicide Ideation, and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan G; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather

    2017-12-01

    Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students ( N = 233). Females reported significantly more verbal/social and cyberbullying than male students. There were no significant sex differences in physical bullying; male students who reported physical bullying victimization were more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Verbal/social bullying predicted depressive symptoms in males and females. Females who reported being victims of cyberbullying were more likely to report depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. Eighteen students reported suicide attempts, and each also experienced verbal/social bullying. School nurses are positioned to reach out to transitioning students, screen for mental health issues, provide a safe place to talk about bullying experiences, and promote positive mental health.

  1. Relational victimization and depressive symptoms: The role of autonomic nervous system reactivity in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holterman, Leigh Ann; Murray-Close, Dianna K; Breslend, Nicole L

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the association between relational victimization, defined as being the target of aggressive acts that damage relationships (e.g., gossip, social exclusion) and depressive symptoms during the relatively understudied developmental period of emerging adulthood. In addition, as individual differences in stress reactivity may influence the outcomes associated with victimization by peers, the moderating roles of sympathetic nervous system (SNS; as measured by skin conductance reactivity) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS; as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to social and non-social stressors were examined. Findings indicated that relational victimization was positively related to depressive symptoms in individuals demonstrating coactivation (i.e., high SNS and PNS reactivity) and coinhibition (blunted SNS and PNS reactivity) to both social and non-social stressor tasks. These patterns may reflect a breakdown of regulation in the body's physiological response to stress, thus increasing risk for depressive symptoms in the context of peer stress. Findings highlight potential areas for future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms Among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in China: The Protective Role of Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Ye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children’s wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children. This study utilized a latent interaction model to examine the effect of resilience on the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms among 721 rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China. Results indicated that peer victimization was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Resilience was found to be a protective factor for depressive symptoms and also mitigated the effects of peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Exploratory analyses suggest that enrollment in private migrant schools may be linked with poorer psychosocial outcomes for Chinese migrant children. Strengthening the internal resilience and social supports for all migrant children may be an effective strategy to lower their risk for depression. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  3. Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms Among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in China: The Protective Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi; Chen, Lihua; Harrison, Sayward E; Guo, Haiying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2016-01-01

    Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children's wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics, and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children. This study utilized a latent interaction model to examine the effect of resilience on the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms among 721 rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China. Results indicated that peer victimization was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Resilience was found to be a protective factor for depressive symptoms and also mitigated the effects of peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Exploratory analyses suggest that enrollment in private migrant schools may be linked with poorer psychosocial outcomes for Chinese migrant children. Strengthening the internal resilience and social supports for all migrant children may be an effective strategy to lower their risk for depression. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  4. Depressive symptoms from kindergarten to early school age: longitudinal associations with social skills deficits and peer victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaker Françoise D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms in children are associated with social skills deficits and problems with peers. We propose a model which suggests different mechanisms for the impact of deficits in self-oriented social skills (assertiveness and social participation and other-oriented social skills (pro-social, cooperative and non-aggressive behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. We hypothesized that deficits in self-oriented social skills have a direct impact on children's depressive symptoms because these children have non-rewarding interactions with peers, whereas the impact of deficits in other-oriented social skills on depressive symptoms is mediated through negative reactions from peers such as peer victimization. Method 378 kindergarten children (163 girls participated at two assessments (Age at T1: M = 5.8, T2: M = 7.4. Teachers completed questionnaires on children's social skills at T1. Teacher reports on peer victimization and depressive symptoms were assessed at both assessment points. Results Our study partially confirmed the suggested conceptual model. Deficits in self-oriented social skills significantly predicted depressive symptoms, whereas deficits in other-oriented social skills were more strongly associated with peer victimization. Longitudinal associations between other-oriented social skills and depressive symptoms were mediated through peer victimization. Conclusion The study emphasizes the role of deficits in self-oriented social skills and peer victimization for the development of internalizing disorders.

  5. Body mass index and depressive symptoms in adolescents in Taiwan: testing mediation effects of peer victimization and sleep problems.

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    Chang, L-Y; Chang, H-Y; Wu, W-C; Lin, L N; Wu, C-C; Yen, L-L

    2017-10-01

    Despite recognition of the link between body mass index (BMI) and depression in adolescence, the underlying mechanisms behind this association remain understudied. This study aims to examine three mediational pathways from BMI to depressive symptoms through peer victimization and sleep problems. Sex differences in the mediating effects were also explored. Data came from 1893 adolescents participating in a multi-wave longitudinal study from grade 9 to 12 in northern Taiwan were analyzed. Measures included BMI in 2009, peer victimization in 2010, sleep problems in 2011, depressive symptoms in 2012 and other covariates (sex, age, parental education, family structure, family economic stress, stressful life events, pubertal development and previous scores of focal study variables). A series of multiple regression models were conducted to test mediation hypotheses. A bootstrapping approach was applied to obtain confidence intervals for determining the significance of indirect effects. The association between BMI and depressive symptoms was significantly mediated by peer victimization and sleep problems. Higher BMI predicted more peer victimization and sleep problems, each of which led to higher levels of depressive symptoms. Our results further showed that higher BMI was associated with more peer victimization, which led to greater sleep problems and in turn resulted in increased depressive symptoms. No sex differences was found for the indirect effects of BMI on depressive symptoms through either peer victimization or sleep problems. Peer victimization and sleep problems partly explain the link between BMI and depressive symptoms. Interventions to prevent or manage depressive symptoms may yield better results if they consider the effects of these two psychosocial factors rather than targeting BMI alone.

  6. Crime Victimization and Suicidal Ideation Among Colombian College Students: The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Familism, and Social Support.

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    Zapata Roblyer, Martha I; Betancourth Zambrano, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    Crime victimization is one of the most pressing public health concerns in Latin America. Young people in the region are at particularly high risk of victimization. The present study examined exposure to crime victimization as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, and the protective effects of familism and social support in a community sample of Colombian college students. Data ( N = 424) came from the Juventud Project (The Emergent Adults Project), a cross-sectional study of college students, 18 to 29 years old ( M = 20.8, SD = 2.5; 63% female; 75.5% lived with their families), attending an urban public university in Southern Colombia. Data were collected between March and June of 2014 through anonymous, self-administered surveys. Conditional process analysis was used to test a model in which crime victimization was directly and indirectly associated with suicidal ideation via depressive symptoms, with familism and social support as moderators of this association while controlling for gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Overall, 58.9% of participants reported at least one crime victimization event in the past year. The most common types of victimization were being robbed without the threat of harm (29.8%) and being robbed with a weapon (24.8%). Male participants reported more instances of crime victimization than female participants. Levels of depressive symptoms that could be clinically significant were reported by 30.2% of participants, and suicidal ideation was reported by 31% of participants. The association between crime victimization and suicidal ideation was fully mediated by depressive symptoms. Social support, but not familism, moderated this association; social support weakened the link between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Findings suggest that crime victimization may be a significant risk for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among college students in Colombia, and that social support may protect from the

  7. The Relation between Childhood Aggression and Depressive Symptoms: The Unique and Joint Mediating Roles of Peer Rejection and Peer Victimization

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    Morrow, Michael T.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Rubin, Ronnie M.; McAuliffe, Meghan D.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether peer rejection and peer victimization mediated the relation between children's aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms. Participants were 533 fourth- and fifth-grade children (289 girls and 244 boys). Data on aggression and peer victimization were collected through teacher and peer…

  8. Childhood Gender Nonconformity, Bullying Victimization, and Depressive Symptoms Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study

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    Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Slopen, Natalie; Calzo, Jerel P.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Objective Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with increased risk of caregiver abuse and bullying victimization outside the home, but it is unknown whether as a consequence children who are nonconforming are at higher risk of depressive symptoms. Method Using data from a large national cohort (N = 10,655), we examined differences in depressive symptoms from ages 12 through 30 years by gender nonconformity before age 11 years. We examined the prevalence of bullying victimization by gender nonconformity, then ascertained whether increased exposure to abuse and bullying accounted for possible increased risk of depressive symptoms. We further compared results stratified by sexual orientation. Results Participants in the top decile of childhood gender nonconformity were at elevated risk of depressive symptoms at ages 12 through 30 years (for females, 0.19 standard deviations more depressive symptoms than conforming females; for males, 0.34 standard deviations more symptoms than conforming males). By ages 23 to 30 years, 26% of participants in the top decile of childhood nonconformity had probable mild or moderate depression versus 18% of participants who were conforming (p depressive symptoms in youth who were nonconforming versus conforming. Gender-nonconforming heterosexuals and males were at particularly elevated risk for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Gender nonconformity was a strong predictor of depressive symptoms beginning in adolescence, particularly among males and heterosexuals. Physical and emotional bullying and abuse, both inside and outside the home, accounted for much of this increased risk. PMID:23357441

  9. Does supportive parenting mitigate the longitudinal effects of peer victimization on depressive thoughts and symptoms in children?

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    Bilsky, Sarah A; Cole, David A; Dukewich, Tammy L; Martin, Nina C; Sinclair, Keneisha R; Tran, Cong V; Roeder, Kathryn M; Felton, Julia W; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Weitlauf, Amy S; Maxwell, Melissa A

    2013-05-01

    Cohen and Wills (Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A., 1985, Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357) described two broad models whereby social support could mitigate the deleterious effects of stress on health: a main effect model and stress-buffering model. A specific application of these models was tested in a three-wave, multimethod study of 1888 children to assess ways parental support (social support) mitigates the effects of peer victimization (stress) on children's depressive symptoms and depression-related cognitions (health-related outcomes). Results revealed that (a) both supportive parenting and peer victimization had main effects on depressive symptoms and cognitions; (b) supportive parenting and peer victimization did not interact in the prediction of depressive thoughts and symptoms; (c) these results generalized across age and gender; and (d) increases in depressive symptoms were related to later reduction of supportive parenting and later increase in peer victimization. Although supportive parenting did not moderate the adverse outcomes associated with peer victimization, results show that its main effect can counterbalance or offset these effects to some degree. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  10. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim JF; Svanström, Leif; Antai, Diddy

    2012-01-01

    Background Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization) of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion). This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study. Methods and materials Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique) for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008. Results In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health. Conclusion In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration and mental health is warranted as well as the influence of controlling behaviors on mental health. PMID:23071419

  11. Targeted Peer Victimization and the Construction of Positive and Negative Self-Cognitions: Connections to Depressive Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Maxwell, Melissa A.; Dukewich, Tammy L.; Yosick, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to examine the relation of covert/relational and overt/physical targeted peer victimization (TPV) to each other, to positive and negative self-cognitions, and to symptoms of depression. In a sample of elementary and middle school children, TPV was assessed by self-report, peer-nomination, and parent report in a multitrait-multimethod…

  12. Childhood Gender Nonconformity, Bullying Victimization, and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Slopen, Natalie; Calzo, Jerel P.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with increased risk of caregiver abuse and bullying victimization outside the home, but it is unknown whether as a consequence children who are nonconforming are at higher risk of depressive symptoms. Method: Using data from a large national cohort (N = 10,655), we examined differences…

  13. Self-Disclosure in Friendships as the Moderator of the Association between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Overweight Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Cantin, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of self-disclosure in best friendships on the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms as mediated by self-esteem for physical appearance (SEPA) in overweight adolescents. Utilizing data from 610 French-speaking Canadian adolescents in Grades 7 and 8, the current study examined…

  14. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares JJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Eugenio Zacarias,1,2 Gloria Macassa,3 Joaquim JF Soares,1 Leif Svanström,1 Diddy Antai1,41Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo, Mozambique; 3University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Health Sciences, Gävle, Sweden; 4Division of Global Health and Inequalities, The Angels Trust – Nigeria, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion. This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study.Methods and materials: Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008.Results: In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health.Conclusion: In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration

  15. Targeted peer victimization and the construction of positive and negative self-cognitions: connections to depressive symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Maxwell, Melissa A; Dukewich, Tammy L; Yosick, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to examine the relation of covert/relational and overt/physical targeted peer victimization (TPV) to each other, to positive and negative self-cognitions, and to symptoms of depression. In a sample of elementary and middle school children, TPV was assessed by self-report, peer-nomination, and parent report in a multitrait-multimethod study. Positive and negative self-cognitions and depressive symptoms were assessed by self-report. Confirmatory factor analytic results support the convergent and discriminant validity of these two types of TPV. Both kinds of TPV were significantly related to positive and negative self-cognitions as well as self-reported depressive symptoms; however, structural equation modeling revealed that the effects of covert/relational TPV accounted for the effects of overt/physical TPV. In exploratory analyses, positive and negative self-cognitions explained the relation between TPV and depressive symptoms.

  16. Do Other People's Plights Matter? A Genetically Informed Twin Study of the Role of Social Context in the Link between Peer Victimization and Children's Aggression and Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Using a genetically informed design, this study examined the additive and interactive effects of genetic risk, personal peer victimization experiences, and peer victimization experienced by others on children's aggression and depression symptoms. Of major interest was whether these effects varied depending on whether or not the victimized others…

  17. Emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality: The mediating roles of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanisms and processes of relational and physical victimization, depressive symptoms, and children's relational-interdependent self-construals: implications for peer relationships and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between relational and physical victimization and depressive symptoms, and the moderating role of school-aged children's relational-interdependent self-construals in these associations. The participants were 387 children (51.8% boys) who were in the fifth grade (M = 10.48 years, SD = 0.55) in Taiwan and followed at two time points (a 6-month interval) during a calendar year. A multiple-informant approach was used where forms of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and relational-interdependent self-construals were assessed via peer nominations, teacher reports, and child reports, respectively. All measures had favorable psychometric properties. The results of a multigroup cross-lagged model demonstrated that relational victimization (not physical victimization) was positively predictive of subsequent depressive symptoms, and the effect was evidenced for highly interdependent children only. The opposite link was also significant, such that depressive symptoms predicted subsequent relational victimization (not physical victimization) for children who exhibited low and high levels of relational-interdependent self-construals. In contrast, physical victimization predated a lower level of depressive symptoms for highly interdependent children. These effects were unaffected by the gender of the child. The findings, especially the interactive effects of relational victimization (as a contextual factor) and relational-interdependent self-construals (as an individual vulnerability) on depressive symptoms, are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective.

  19. Understanding the Context of Romantic Partner Relational Victimization: Links between Relationship Satisfaction, Depressive Symptoms, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Angelo M; Preddy, Teresa M; Øverup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links across romantic partner relational victimization, depressive symptoms, and drinking problems during young adulthood. We were interested in evaluating depression as a mediator of the association between relational victimization by one's romantic partner, drinking problems, and the conditional indirect effects of relationship satisfaction. 269 individuals aged 18 to 26 years (68% female, Mage = 22.78 years, SD = 4.70) participated in the study. They completed self-report measures online. Mediation results indicated that depression significantly mediated the association between relational victimization and alcohol-related problems. Furthermore, tests of conditional indirect effects suggest that depression mediated the association between romantic partner relational victimization and alcohol-related problems among those who were lower in relationship satisfaction, but not among those who were higher in relationship satisfaction. Findings are discussed with attention to the developmental significance of romantic relationships during the transition to young adulthood. Specifically, the current findings add to the existing literature, which has suggested that both relationship aggression and depression are associated with problematic drinking.

  20. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression and Body Image Distress in Female Victims of Physical and Sexual Assault: Exploring Integrated Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Terri L.; Griffin, Michael G.; Mitchell, Elisha R.

    2014-01-01

    While body image concerns and interpersonal violence exposure are significant issues for women, their interrelationship has been rarely explored. We examined the associations between severity of acute injuries, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and body image distress within a sample of predominantly African-American victims of interpersonal violence (N = 73). Severity of body image distress was significantly associated with each outcome. Moreover, body image distre...

  1. Moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression: the roles of engagement in bullying and baseline symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christopher C; Shahar, Golan

    2014-12-01

    Two hypothesized moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression in sixth grade were examined: engagement in bullying and baseline fifth grade symptoms of (anxious) depression. Analyses were conducted on longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Interview data from 1,081 fifth grade participants assessed peer victimization and engagement in bullying classmates during the school year. Self-reported symptoms of depression were measured in fifth and sixth grade with the Child Depression Inventory Short form. Additionally, maternal reports of child anxious depression were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. Engagement in bullying and concurrent depression symptoms moderated the effect of peer victimization in fifth grade on child-reported symptoms of depression in sixth grade. The adverse effect of peer victimization was stronger for children with high levels of concurrent depression symptoms or engagement in bullying. Concurrent symptomatology also moderated the effects of peer victimization on mother-reported child anxious depression 1 year later.

  2. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and body image distress in female victims of physical and sexual assault: exploring integrated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Terri L; Griffin, Michael G; Mitchell, Elisha R

    2014-01-01

    While body image concerns and interpersonal violence exposure are significant issues for women, their interrelationship has rarely been explored. We examined the associations between severity of acute injuries, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and body image distress within a sample of predominantly African American victims of interpersonal violence (N = 73). Severity of body image distress was significantly associated with each outcome. Moreover, body image distress was a significant, unique predictor of depression but not PTSD severity. We recommend continued exploration of body image concerns to further integrated research on violence against women.

  3. Mediator and Moderator Role of Loneliness in the Relationship between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ozgur Erdur; Bugay, Asli

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator roles of loneliness in the relationship between peer victimisation and depressive symptoms. The participants of the study were 144 adolescents (66 girls, 78 boys) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the relations of…

  4. Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Heléne Zetterström; Landstedt, Evelina; Young, Robert; Gådin, Katja Gillander

    2016-05-01

    Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages 14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences in these pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following 2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

  5. Profiles of Bullying Victimization, Discrimination, Social Support, and School Safety: Links with Latino/a Youth Acculturation, Gender, Depressive Symptoms, and Cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Oshri, Assaf; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking but this risk varies by acculturation and gender. To understand why some youth are at greater risk than others, we identified profiles of diverse community experiences (perceived discrimination, bullying victimization, social support, perceived school safety) and examined associations between profiles of community experience and depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, acculturation, and gender. Data came from Project Red (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a school-based longitudinal study of acculturation among 1919 Latino/a adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 years old; 87% U.S. born). Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed four distinct profiles of community experience which varied by gender and acculturation. Boys were overrepresented in profile groups with high perceived discrimination, some bullying, and lack of positive experiences, while girls were overrepresented in groups with high bullying victimization in the absence and presence of other community experiences. Youth low on both U.S. and Latino/a cultural orientation described high perceived discrimination and lacked positive experiences, and were predominantly male. Profiles characterized by high perceived discrimination and/or high bullying victimization in the absence of positive experiences had higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher risk of smoking, relative to the other groups. Findings suggest that acculturation comes with diverse community experiences that vary by gender and relate to smoking and depression risk. Results from this research can inform the development of tailored intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depression and/or smoking for Latino/a youth at risk for depression and/or smoking. PMID:26752445

  6. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.

  7. Prevalence of PTSD Symptoms and Depression and Level of Coping among the Victims of the Kashmir Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaswi, Arooj; Haque, Amber

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and coping mechanisms among the adult civilian population in Indian Kashmir. The Everstine Trauma Response Index-Adapted, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Resources Inventory were used to assess the three domains. Independent-sample t…

  8. Profiles of bullying victimization, discrimination, social support, and school safety: Links with Latino/a youth acculturation, gender, depressive symptoms, and cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Oshri, Assaf; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking but this risk varies by acculturation and gender. To understand why some youth are at greater risk than others, we identified profiles of diverse community experiences (perceived discrimination, bullying victimization, social support, perceived school safety) and examined associations between profiles of community experience and depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, acculturation, and gender. Data came from Project Red (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a school-based longitudinal study of acculturation among 1,919 Latino/a adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 years old; 87% U.S. born). Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed 4 distinct profiles of community experience that varied by gender and acculturation. Boys were overrepresented in profile groups with high perceived discrimination, some bullying, and lack of positive experiences, while girls were overrepresented in groups with high bullying victimization in the absence and presence of other community experiences. Youth low on both U.S. and Latino/a cultural orientation described high perceived discrimination and lacked positive experiences, and were predominantly male. Profiles characterized by high perceived discrimination and /or high bullying victimization in the absence of positive experiences had higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher risk of smoking, relative to the other groups. Findings suggest that acculturation comes with diverse community experiences that vary by gender and relate to smoking and depression risk. Results from this research can inform the development of tailored intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depression and/or smoking for Latino/a youth. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Findings from community and inpatient mental health settings in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Stewart, Shannon L; Fallon, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Although bullying victimization has been linked to a number of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents, few studies have investigate the mechanism through which bullying victimization affect non-suicidal self-injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of bullying victimization on non-suicidal self-injury and the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents. Data for this study came from the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health dataset. A total of 1650 adolescents aged 12-18 years (M =14.56; SD =1.79; 54.2% males) were analyzed. Binary logistic and Poisson regression models were conducted to identify the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury. Of the 1650 adolescents studied, 611 representing 37% engaged in non-suicidal self-injury and 26.7% were victims of bullying. The effect of bullying victimization on non-suicidal self-injury was partially mediated by depressive symptoms after adjusting for the effect of demographic characteristics, history of childhood abuse, social support, and mental health diagnoses. The contribution of bullying victimization and depression to non-suicidal self-injury adds to the case for the development of trauma-focused interventions in reducing the risk of non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hopkins Symptoms Checklist 25(HSCL-25) Urdu translation: an instrument for detecting anxiety and depression in torture and trauma victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halepota, A A; Wasif, S A

    2001-07-01

    The two major psychiatric illnesses associated with trauma and torture are major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Obtaining accurate knowledge of traumatic event and symptoms and properly classifying them into a diagnostic system is fundamental for providing effective treatment and good therapeutic intervention. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) measures symptoms associated with diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder as defined by DSMIII R manual and symptoms. Therefore an attempt is made to translate the HTQ, the only cross-culturally validated screening instrument for the assessment of trauma and torture related to mass violence and their sequelae. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was translated into Urdu by a team of psychiatrists and linguistic experts proficient in national languages belonging to different ethnic backgrounds. Each member translated HTQ independently and subsequently a work shop was arranged to develop the standard translation and finally it was approved. Subsequently back translation of the approved questionnaire was carried out by independent multilingual psychiatrist to test the accuracy of the approved translation and was formally accepted.

  11. Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship among Maternal Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, Social Support, and Children's Behavior and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koverola, Catherine; Papas, Mia A.; Pitts, Steven; Murtaugh, Cristin; Black, Maureen M.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article is a longitudinal investigation of the relationships between maternal victimization, maternal functioning, and children's behavior and development. Participants include 203 mother-child dyads from a low-income population recruited from pediatric primary care clinics. Data are collected when children are 4 and 8 years of age. Child…

  12. Deficits in Emotional Clarity and Vulnerability to Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Peer victimization is a significant risk factor for a range of negative outcomes during adolescence, including depression and anxiety. Recent research has evaluated individual characteristics that heighten the risk of experiencing peer victimization. However, the role of emotional clarity, or the ability to understand one's emotions, in being the target of peer victimization remains unclear. Thus, the present study evaluated whether deficits in emotional clarity increased the risk of experiencing peer victimization, particularly among adolescent girls, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. In the present study, 355 early adolescents (ages 12-13; 53% female; 51% African American) who were part of the Adolescent Cognition and Emotion project completed measures of emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline, and measures of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at follow-up. Moderation analyses indicated that deficits in emotional clarity predicted greater peer victimization among adolescent girls, but not adolescent boys. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that deficits in emotional clarity contributed to relational peer victimization, which, in turn, predicted prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms among adolescent girls, but not boys. These findings indicate that deficits in emotional clarity represent a significant risk factor for adolescent girls to experience relational peer victimization, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of internalizing symptoms. Thus, prevention programs should target deficits in emotional clarity to prevent peer victimization and subsequent internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls.

  13. Social Coping by Masking? Parental Support and Peer Victimization as Mediators of the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Expressive Suppression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Eisinga, Rob; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Hofman, Elin; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Expressive suppression is regarded as a generally ineffective emotion regulation strategy and appears to be associated with the development of depressive symptoms among adolescents. However, the mechanisms linking suppression to depressive symptoms are not well understood. The main aim of this study was to examine two potential mediators of the…

  14. Children's Peer Victimization, Empathy, and Emotional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Perren, Sonja; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations among children's peer victimization, empathy, and emotional symptoms. The sample consisted of 175 children (85 girls, mean age = 6.1 years) recruited from kindergartens in Switzerland and followed for 1 year (Time 2). Parents and teachers reported on the children's emotional…

  15. The Impact of Lifetime Victimization and Polyvictimization on Adolescents in Québec: Mental Health Symptoms and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Katie; Chamberland, Claire; Clément, Marie-Ève; Wemmers, Jo-Anne; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Lessard, Geneviève; Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Damant, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    This study documents lifetime experiences of victimizations, polyvictimization, and trauma symptoms among 1,400 adolescents from the province of Québec. The vast majority (81%) of adolescents were victimized during their lifetime, with most victims (82%) being the target of more than one form of victimization. Polyvictimization accounted for most variability in scores of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anger/ aggression compared to individual victimization categories. Sexual victimization and maltreatment still made an independent contribution in predicting all trauma scores once polyvictimization was considered. Gender differences were found in the victimization experiences contributing to the prediction of mental health symptoms. Sexual victimization was a significant predictor of PTSD and anger/aggression symptoms for girls, whereas witnessing violence predicted anger and PTSD symptoms for boys, and assault predicted their anger. This study outlines the importance of assessing various types of victimization among adolescents. Systematic data and observation of trends on child victimization are needed in Canada and elsewhere.

  16. Internalizing symptoms of Italian youth directly and vicariously victimized at school and at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Winkel, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    Internalizing symptoms, such as depression, anxiety/withdrawal, as well as somatic complaints are indicators of maladjustment. Mental and physical complaints may be related to victimization at home and at school. In the present study we investigated the independent impact of direct victimization at

  17. Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization, Emotion Dysregulation, and Internalizing Symptoms among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Sarah T.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal relations between overt and relational victimization, sadness and anger dysregulation, and depressive and anxiety symptoms across 6 months among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth graders (N = 485; 48% male; 65% African American). No direct longitudinal relations were found between peer victimization and…

  18. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  19. Peer Victimization and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Depressed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Valeri, Linda; Esposito, Erika C; Auerbach, Randy P

    2017-04-25

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth worldwide, and depressed adolescents are at a significantly elevated risk to report suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts. Peer victimization is a robust predictor of adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), but little research has focused on why bullying leads to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. To address this empirical gap, we recruited 340 (246 female) depressed adolescents ages 13-19 (M = 15.59, SD = 1.41) within 48 h of admission for acute psychiatric treatment. At the initial assessment, participants were administered clinical interviews characterizing psychopathology, nonsuicidal self-injury, and STBs (ideation, plans, and attempts). Further, they completed questionnaires assessing 3 forms of victimization (overt, relational, and reputational), recent risky behavior engagement, and psychiatric symptom severity. Controlling for internalizing symptoms and age, overt and reputational bullying were associated with more frequent past month suicide attempts, but not suicide ideation. Past month risky behavior engagement, but not NSSI, mediated the relation between victimization and attempts. However, sex differences revealed that this effect only held for males whereas bullying was directly associated with suicide attempts among females. In contrast, overt and relational bullying were non-linearly associated with suicide plans, and these relations were not mediated by risky behaviors or NSSI. Results highlight the complex network of factors that lead victimized adolescents to engage in STBs and may inform targeted suicide prevention and intervention programs.

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss ... get help now. Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss ... Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...

  4. Maternal depression and bullying victimization among adolescents: Results from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Barros, Fernando C; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2017-10-01

    Maternal depression impacts on several detrimental outcomes during a child's life course, and could increase their risk of victimization. This longitudinal study examined the association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization at 11 years. We included 3,441 11-year-old adolescents from the 2004 Pelotas Cohort Study. Antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression data were assessed during the follow-up waves. Bullying victimization was self-reported by the adolescents. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for the association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization. The most prevalent type of bullying was verbal victimization (37.9%). We observed a positive association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and physical bullying victimization. Maternal mood symptoms during pregnancy were associated with physical (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.11-1.53), verbal (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49), and any victimization (OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.05-1.41). Severe current maternal depression was associated with physical (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.10-1.62), social manipulation (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.08-1.53), attacks on property (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.08-1.57) and any victimization (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.12-1.56). Regarding maternal depression trajectories, the "chronic-high" group was associated with higher risk of social manipulation, attacks on property and any victimization, than the "low" group. Our results strengthen the evidence of association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization, and physical victimization appears to be the main component. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to elucidate the theoretical pathways for this longitudinal association. © 2017 Wiley

  5. Internalizing symptoms and rumination: the prospective prediction of familial and peer emotional victimization experiences during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Hamilton, Jessica L; Liu, Richard T; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-12-01

    Adolescence is marked by increases in stressful life events. Although research has demonstrated that depressed individuals generate stress, few studies investigate the generation of emotional victimization. The current study examined the effects of rumination and internalizing symptoms on experiences of peer victimization and familial emotional abuse. Participants were 216 adolescents (M = 14-years-old; 58% female; 47% African-American) who completed two assessments. Results showed that rumination predicted peer victimization and emotional abuse. The effect of rumination on emotional victimization is heightened for those who have higher levels of depression symptoms. That is, individuals who ruminate and who have depression symptoms experience increases in both peer emotional victimization and parental emotional abuse. This study builds upon prior research and indicates that rumination may be a stronger predictor of emotional victimization than symptoms of depression or anxiety. Identifying underlying mechanisms may yield targets for interventions aimed at addressing the chronic nature of depression. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Training (1 item) Other Treatments (11 items) Alzheimer’s Disease (2 items) Coping with Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  11. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  12. Associations Between Internet Attachment, Cyber Victimization, and Internalizing Symptoms Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Brett; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2017-02-01

    With increasing frequency of Internet use among adolescents, there are growing concerns about their risk for becoming attached to these forms of communication and increased vulnerability for negative online experiences, including cyber victimization. The effect of these experiences on adolescent mental health is not well understood. In this study, we examine how Internet attachment is related to anxiety and depression and assess the mediating effect of cyber victimization on these associations. Participants included 1,151 middle school students (51.4 percent males) aged 10 to 16 (M = 12.7, SD = 0.93). Structural equation models show that greater Internet attachment was associated with more cyber victimization and greater symptoms of anxiety and depression. Cyber victimization mediated the associations between Internet attachment and anxiety and between Internet attachment and depression. Implications for online awareness efforts are discussed.

  13. Depressive symptoms after a sexual assault among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive symptoms after a sexual assault among women: understanding victim-perpetrator relationships and the role of social perceptions. ... it is more generally assumed that multiple perpetrator rapes, stranger rapes and those with weapons would result in more psychological trauma and thus more enduring symptoms.

  14. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms following Interpersonal Stressors during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Potter, Carrie M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1–3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety. PMID:26142495

  15. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.

  16. Diabetes Complications and Depressive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deschênes, Sonya S; Burns, Rachel J; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies testing the potential impact of diabetes complications on depression are limited. The present study examined the longitudinal associations between diabetes complications and the risk and recurrence/persistence of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were from....... Additionally, a greater number of diabetes complications was associated with recurrent/persistent depression, though with a small effect size (Δr = 0.02). A parallel process latent growth curve model indicated that increases in diabetes complications were associated with increases in depressive symptoms during...... the course of the follow-up period (β= 0.74, p depressive symptoms and underscores the psychological burden of diabetes complications by prospectively demonstrating the increased risk and recurrence...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose ... how to make better, more effective ones. For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. Share ... News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Brain waves reflect different types of ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... in college so I wouldn't go to classes at all. I gained a lot of weight. ... the symptoms fit, get help now. Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. Share ... News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert CMU and Pitt brain imaging science ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov The National ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ...

  4. Do extraversion and neuroticism moderate the association between bullying victimization and internalizing symptoms? A three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, E; Orue, I; Gamez-Guadix, M

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined the moderating roles of neuroticism and extraversion in victims of bullying. According to a stress-diathesis model, we hypothesized that adolescents with high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion would react to victimization with increased symptoms of depression and social anxiety. A sample of 1440 adolescents (648 girls and 792 boys; ages between 13- and 17-years-old) completed measures of extraversion and neuroticism at time 1, as well as measures of bullying victimization, depressive symptoms and social anxiety symptoms at time 1, time 2, and time 3 (in intervals of six months). The results of multilevel analyses for longitudinal data indicated that there was a weak association between bullying victimization and social anxiety symptoms for the adolescents who scored high on extraversion. In addition, the adolescents with high levels of extraversion presented a greater reduction in depressive symptoms over time than adolescents with low levels. Although neuroticism predicted both depression and social anxiety, no significant interactions were evident between neuroticism and bullying victimization. Regarding gender differences, the association between bullying victimization and social anxiety was stronger for boys than for girls, whereas the association between neuroticism and depression was stronger for girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Violence and health. Symptoms, consequences and treatment of victimized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Ute; Wagels, Lisa; Ellendt, Sinika; Scheller, Maryse; Evler, Aynur; Bergs, René; Clemens, Benjamin; Pütz, Annette; Kohn, Nils; Schneider, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Violence has many faces and often results in a variety of consequences. Some studies indicated different types of violence and health consequences in men and women. However, it is still unclear whether this is reflected in clinical context, for example in a patient sample of a German university hospital. The primary goal of the present study was to analyze associations of violence with health, gender and social, economic, job-related, psychological and physical consequences. In addition, the effects of psychological treatment were examined. One line of research refers to the survey of more than 5000 patients of the university hospital Aachen, evaluating violence experience and several health complaints anonymously. Another line of research deals with detailed interviews with victims of violence and their experienced consequences. A final data source stems from the evaluation of psychological counseling of patients with prior experience of violence. Changes in subjectively perceived depressive symptoms and acceptance of the treatment are evaluated. Experience of violence increases the risk for several health problems, especially the experience of multiple types of violence. The interviews showed that more than 60% of the victims had a clinical diagnosis--independent of sex. The risk for a clinical diagnosis increased with multiple violence experiences during childhood. Patients with a clinical diagnosis indicated more subjective consequences of violence, and consequences of violence were more pronounced in patients that experienced multiple types of violence. The good acceptance as well as the effects on symptomatology and other relevant therapeutic variables provides a first indication for a successful treatment of victims of violence in a clinical context.

  6. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  7. Long-Term Associations of Justice Sensitivity, Rejection Sensitivity, and Depressive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondü, Rebecca; Sahyazici-Knaak, Fidan; Esser, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been related to anxious rejection sensitivity, but little is known about relations with angry rejection sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We measured rejection sensitivity, justice sensitivity, and depressive symptoms in 1,665 9-to-21-year olds at two points of measurement. Participants with high T1 levels of depressive symptoms reported higher anxious and angry rejection sensitivity and higher justice sensitivity than controls at T1 and T2. T1 rejection, but not justice sensitivity predicted T2 depressive symptoms; high victim justice sensitivity, however, added to the stabilization of depressive symptoms. T1 depressive symptoms positively predicted T2 anxious and angry rejection and victim justice sensitivity. Hence, sensitivity toward negative social cues may be cause and consequence of depressive symptoms and requires consideration in cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression. PMID:28955257

  8. Psychotic experiences in the context of depression: The cumulative role of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Hilimire, Matthew; Schiffman, Jason; DeVylder, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between depression and psychotic experiences, but little is known about what drives this co-occurrence. This study tests the hypothesis that exposure to trauma and bullying may strengthen the relation between depression and psychotic experiences. A total of 799 college students completed self-report questionnaires on psychotic experiences, depression, bullying, and sexual trauma. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to test the direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences, as well as interactions. Approximately 20% of respondents reported a history of being bullied, and 7% reported exposure to childhood sexual trauma. There was a significant direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences. The association between depression and psychotic experiences was significantly stronger among respondents who were victims of both bullying and sexual violence compared to those who experienced either exposure alone, or who were not exposed to either form of victimization. These findings suggest that cumulative exposure to trauma and victimization may contribute to the co-occurrence of depression and psychotic experiences. History of victimization should be assessed among individuals with depressive symptoms to improve treatment plans and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Adolescents (N=14; 13-18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths' clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention ( M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed.

  10. The role of bullying in depressive symptoms from adolescence to emerging adulthood: A growth mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Mellick, William; Temple, Jeff R; Sharp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescence and emerging adulthood using a school-based sample of adolescents assessed over a five-year period. The study also examined whether bully and cyberbully victimization and perpetration significantly predicted depressive symptom trajectories. Data from a sample of 1042 high school students were examined. The sample had a mean age of 15.09 years (SD=.79), was 56.0% female, and was racially diverse: 31.4% Hispanic, 29.4% White, and 27.9% African American. Data were examined using growth mixture modeling. Four depressive symptoms trajectories were identified, including those with a mild trajectory of depressive symptoms, an increasing trajectory of depressive symptoms, an elevated trajectory of depressive symptoms, and a decreasing trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that bully victimization and cyberbully victimization differentially predicted depressive symptoms trajectories across adolescence, though bully and cyberbully perpetration did not. Limitations include reliance on self-reports of bully perpetration and a limited consideration of external factors that may impact the course of depression. These findings may inform school personnel in identifying students' likely trajectory of depressive symptoms and determining where depression prevention and treatment services may be needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsk, Sarah A; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves 1 year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Every Wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a Wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R.; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsky, Sarah A.; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. Method The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves one year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Results Every wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Conclusions Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25751612

  13. Gender Differences in Depression and Anxiety among Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Effect of Shame Proneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Sherman, Amanda E.; Kivisto, Aaron J.; Elkins, Sara R.; Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Moore, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of shame proneness on the association between physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence victimization and depressive and anxious symptoms among male and female college students (N = 967). Students completed self-report measures of dating violence, depression, anxiety, and shame…

  14. Peer Social Preference and Depressive Symptoms of Children in Italy and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Capanna, Cristina; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of low social preference in relation to subsequent depressive symptoms, with particular attention to prior depressive symptoms, prior and concurrent aggression, mutual friendships, and peer victimization. Italian children (N = 288) were followed from grade 6 through grade 8, and American children (N = 585) were…

  15. Increased mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase in dorsal raphe nucleus of depressive suicide victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bahillo, A; Bautista-Hernandez, V; Barcia Gonzalez, Carlos; Bañon, R; Luna, A; Hirsch, EC; Herrero, Maria-Trinidad

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC). These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of serotonin re-uptake. No alteration was found in noradrenergic neurons, suggesting that they play no crucial role in the suicidal behavior of depressive patients. PMID:18728743

  16. The Io syndrome: symptom formation in victims of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, S; Price, J L

    1990-01-01

    The sexual abuse of women today is analyzed alongside the mythology of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Two thousand years ago, Ovid unfolded a world view of human beliefs and practices that make up today's symptom formation and psychodynamic in victims of sexual abuse. Herewith the mythology of Io. Her rape and subsequent symptom formation is understood as a clinical account of rape-trauma syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder.

  17. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nina B.; Sara B. Eriksen; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV.Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression) and perceived social support. Gi...

  18. Associations among Depressive Symptoms, Dating Violence, and Relationship Power in Urban, Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations among dating violence (DV), aggression, relationship power, and depressive symptoms. Design A cross-sectional survey secondary analysis. Setting An urban, school based health center, October, 2009 through May, 2009. Participants Low income, adolescent girls (n= 155), ages 14–18. Methods Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted to illustrate patterns and associations among variables. Key variables included depressive symptoms, DV victimization and aggression, and relationship power. We used mediation analyses to determine the direct and indirect effects among variables. Results Both DV victimization and aggression were reported frequently. Furthermore, DV victimization had a significant direct effect on depression and an indirect effect through relationship power. Depressive symptoms and relationship power were associated with DV aggression. Although relationship power did have a significant inverse effect on depressive symptoms, it was not through DV aggression. Conclusions Complex associations remain between mental health and DV; however, relationship power partially accounts for DV victimization's effect on depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are associated with DV victimization and aggression; therefore, nurses should address relationship power in clinical and community interventions. PMID:22697267

  19. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...... (FEP) patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed for depressive symptoms with PANSS depression item (g6) at baseline, and 1, 2, 5 and 10 years of follow up. At 10 years, depressive symptoms were also assessed with Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). A PANSS g6 ≥ 4......: Depressive symptoms are frequent among FEP patients at baseline but decrease after treatment because their general symptoms have been initiated. Patients with poor social functioning in childhood and alcohol use at baseline are more prone to have depressive symptoms at 10 years of follow up. Patients...

  20. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, P; Lenze, E J; Avidan, M S; Rawson, K S

    2016-05-01

    Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ⩾60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed 'resilient', 'distressed', and 'depressed'. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture.

  1. Noradrenergic symptom cluster in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stuart Montgomery1, Mike Briley21Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceDepression is characterized by a wide range of diverse symptoms, the severity of which can be quantified by various depression rating scales, such as the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Analyses of the individual items of this scale in patients treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have shown that not all items respond equally or with the same time of onset of improvement (Table 1.1,2 The items which respond less well or more slowly with SSRIs include lassitude, loss of energy, retardation of thoughts or actions, as well as concentration difficulties and loss of alertness. The loss of interest or pleasure that depressed patients experience (anhedonia also responds poorly to SSRIs, and patients often complain of emotional indifference or blunting. Certain sleep difficulties are sometimes worsened by SSRIs. Appetite loss can be aggravated by certain SSRIs, an effect which can be made worse by nausea at the beginning of treatment.

  2. Joint Trajectories of Bullying and Peer Victimization across Elementary and Middle School and Associations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The joint development of trajectories of bullying perpetration and peer victimization from Grade 5 to Grade 8 and concurrent and predictive associations with parent- and child-reported symptoms of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and somatization) were examined in a large sample (N = 695) of Canadian…

  3. Vulnerability to depression: A moderated mediation model of the roles of child maltreatment, peer victimization, and 5-HTTLPR genetic variation among children from low-SES backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banny, Adrienne M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment, peer victimization, and a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) were examined as predictors of depressive symptomatology. Children (M age = 11.26, SD = 1.65), including 156 maltreated and 145 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided DNA samples and self-reports of relational peer victimization, overt peer victimization, and depressive symptoms. Path analysis showed that relational and overt victimization mediated the association between child maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Bootstrapping procedures were used to test moderated mediation and demonstrated that genotype moderated the indirect effects of relational and overt victimization on child depressive symptoms, such that victimized children with the l/l variation were at an increased risk for depressive symptoms compared to victimized children carrying an s allele. Results highlight the utility of examining process models that incorporate biological and psychological factors contributing to the development of depressive symptomatology, and provide direction toward understanding and promoting resilience among high risk youth from a multiple levels of analysis approach. PMID:23880379

  4. Depression as a cause and consequence of victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Danijela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I tried to show cause-and-consequence relationship between depression, as one of very frequent and specific mental disorders, and different forms of victimization. I wanted to make a modest contribution to the statement that depression, taken in a historic and temporal sequence despite our will and quite unexpectedly was transformed into some kind of "collective madness". At the beginning, it was a synonym for melancholy, a specific state into which those who were weaker were falling. But step by step and parallel with the global network of changes in all fields of human life, it got a character of world "infection" which spreading was being followed by the expansion of cardiovascular or malignant diseases, but without so obvious physical manifestations. Depression, as a long-term and "painful state of human soul" is often looking for shelter and rescue in abusing psychoactive substances, drugs and alcohols, and is often finding a way out in suicide behaviour, and therefore it becomes one of its dominant causes. Before that, it is, of course, usually manifested as a consequence of different forms of victimization; generally, it implies social conditions, either at macro or micro levels, and inadequate response of a person to them, but also criminal or any other negative acts, doings or omissions that could endanger or destruct any human good and put the man in a position of victim. In this way, depression "is closing its magic circle of causes and consequences", in which the man has three allies: himself community or other people, and time. Strength, quality and duration of allied assistance are reversely proportional to victimization dimension of depression.

  5. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  6. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna

    2010-11-23

    Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  7. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Thérèse

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. Method The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0. All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Results Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Conclusions Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  8. Gender Differences and Social Support: Mediators or Moderators between Peer Victimization and Depressive Feelings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwelse, Mieneke; Bolman, Catherine; Lodewijkx, Hein; Spaa, Marguerite

    2011-01-01

    Using self-report questionnaires, a survey among 606 Dutch primary school children aged 10 to 12 years examined relationships among social support, gender, victimization, and depressive feelings. Hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that victims and bully/victims would report more depressive feelings than uninvolved children. There was no…

  9. Psychopathology, Psychiatric Symptoms and their Demographic Correlates in Female Adolescents Flood Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitwat, Aisha; Asad, Sara; Yousaf, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the incidence of psychopathology, frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and their demographic correlates in flood affected female adolescents. Descriptive study. District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from July to October 2011. Female adolescent flood victims, aged 13 - 19 years, were recruited. Screening was done and Diagnostic Questionnaire for Psychiatric Disorders was administered to confirm the diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR. Demographic information was also obtained regarding nature of personal and financial damages to the participants due to flood. The mean age of 205 participants was 15.78 ±2.13 years. Post-flood diagnoses of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) had the highest frequency rates in female adolescents flood victims i.e., 4 (2%), 2 (1%) and 2 (1%), respectively. Psychiatric symptoms of GAD and PTSD were reported most by the screened-out participants; whereas participants who were still living in personal tents and received late arrival of any kind of aid, reported more psychopathology. Flood and consequent financial damages may pose a risk factor for development of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology. Results have implications for the need of improved mental health services for female adolescent flood victims.

  10. Peer Victimization as a Predictor of Depression and Body Mass Index in Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The current study examined the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) as mediated by self-concept for physical appearance in both obese and non-obese adolescents. It was thought that this pathway would be particularly important for obese adolescents because, compared to non-obese adolescents,…

  11. The impact of peer victimization and psychological symptoms on quality of life in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Selcuk; Sahin, Sezgin; Durcan, Gizem; Adrovic, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Bilgic, Ayhan; Bahali, Kayhan; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2017-06-01

    There is no documentation about the association between peer victimization, psychological status, and quality of life (QOL) in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between peer victimization, psychological symptoms, and QOL in a cohort of children and adolescents with SLE. Forty-one patients (aged 9-18 years) participated in this study. The control group (n = 49) was composed of healthy children and adolescents from local community. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the peer victimization, psychological status, and QOL of children and adolescents with and without SLE. No significant difference was found between the study and control groups for peer victimization, depression, state and trait anxiety, and QOL scores. The peer victimization, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem scores were negatively correlated with psychosocial and total subscale scores of QOL in the study group. According to regression analyses, trait anxiety had a negative predictive effect on the physical health domain scores of QOL, whereas trait anxiety and peer victimization had a negative effect on the psychosocial domain and total scores of QOL in the SLE patients. This study suggests that trait anxiety and peer victimization are risk factors for poor QOL in adolescents with SLE.

  12. Depression and depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, Kristin Lie; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Barrett, Elizabeth Ann; Faerden, Ann; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and pattern of lifetime Diagnostic and Structural Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth version) major depressive episodes, and the relationship between patient characteristics and current severity of depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis patients (FEPP). A total of 122 FEPP from the ongoing longitudinal thematically organized psychosis research study were included at first treatment. A total of 58 patients (48%) had experienced one or more major depressive episodes; 21 (17%) before onset of psychosis and 37 (30%) during or after onset of psychosis. Poor premorbid childhood adjustment, substance abuse, and excitative symptoms at start of treatment were statistically significant associated with higher current severity of depressive symptoms. Alcohol use was significantly associated with current severity of depression in men, while excitative symptoms were associated in women. Thus depressive symptoms are frequent among FEPP, with indications of gender specific differences in patient characteristics that might imply different approaches to treatment.

  13. Peer victimization as reported by children, teachers, and parents in relation to children's health symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mæhle Magne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache were reported by the children. Frequencies of victimization reported by different informants were compared by the marginal homogeneity test for paired ordinal data, concordance between informants by cross-tables and Spearman's rho, and associations of victimization with health symptoms were estimated by logistic regression. Results The concordance of peer victimization reported by children, teachers, and parents varied from complete agreement to complete discordance also for the highest frequency (weekly/daily of victimization. Children's self-reported frequency of victimization was strongly and positively associated with their reports of emotional and somatic symptoms. Frequency of victimization reported by teachers or parents showed similar but weaker associations with the children's health symptoms. Conclusion The agreement between children and significant adults in reporting peer victimization was low to moderate, and the associations of reported victimization with the children's self-reported health symptoms varied substantially between informants. It may be useful to assess prospectively the effects of employing different sources of information related to peer victimization.

  14. Peer victimization as reported by children, teachers, and parents in relation to children's health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løhre, Audhild; Lydersen, Stian; Paulsen, Bård; Mæhle, Magne; Vatten, Lars J

    2011-05-06

    Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache) were reported by the children.Frequencies of victimization reported by different informants were compared by the marginal homogeneity test for paired ordinal data, concordance between informants by cross-tables and Spearman's rho, and associations of victimization with health symptoms were estimated by logistic regression. The concordance of peer victimization reported by children, teachers, and parents varied from complete agreement to complete discordance also for the highest frequency (weekly/daily) of victimization. Children's self-reported frequency of victimization was strongly and positively associated with their reports of emotional and somatic symptoms. Frequency of victimization reported by teachers or parents showed similar but weaker associations with the children's health symptoms. The agreement between children and significant adults in reporting peer victimization was low to moderate, and the associations of reported victimization with the children's self-reported health symptoms varied substantially between informants. It may be useful to assess prospectively the effects of employing different sources of information related to peer victimization.

  15. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    .942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak...

  16. Different patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijens, S.E.M.; Spek, V.R.M.; van Son, M.J.M.; Oei, S.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the US Preventive Services Task Force has advocated to screen pregnant and postpartum women for depression. However, we questioned the meaning of a single elevated depression score: does it represent just one episode of depression or do these symptoms persist throughout the entire

  17. Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known how...... different measures of fatigue are associated with depressive symptoms among general older populations. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults reporting mobility-related or general feelings fatigue. The study population consisted...... of 75-year-old community-living individuals (n = 561). Both, mobility-related and general fatigue, were associated in a stepwise relationship with depressive symptoms: a higher level of fatigue was related to higher level of depressive symptoms. Especially major general fatigue was strongly associated...

  18. A latent profile analysis of intimate partner victimization and aggression and examination of between-class differences in psychopathology symptoms and risky behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Peasant, Courtney; Jaquier, Véronique; Johnson, Clinesha; Sullivan, Tami P

    2017-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with heightened psychopathology symptoms and risky behaviors. However, extant investigations are limited by their focus on IPV victimization, despite evidence to suggest that victimization and aggression frequently co-occur. Further, research on these correlates often has not accounted for the heterogeneity of women who experience victimization. The present study utilized latent profile analysis to identify patterns of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization and aggression in a convenience sample of 212 community women experiencing victimization (Mage = 36.63, 70.8% African American), as well as examined differences in psychopathology symptoms (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and depressive symptoms) and risky behaviors (i.e., drug problems, alcohol problems, deliberate self-harm (DSH), HIV-risk behaviors) across these classes. Four classes of women differentiated by severities of victimization and aggression were identified. Greater psychopathology symptoms were found among classes defined by greater victimization and aggression, regardless of IPV type. Risky behaviors were more prevalent among classes defined by greater sexual victimization and aggression in particular. Findings highlight the importance of developing interventions that target the particular needs of subgroups of women who experience victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Observed Eating in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Reina, Samantha A.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Courville, Amber B.; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12–17y (15.3 ± 1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8–17y (13.0 ± 2.8; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children’s Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9,835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352

  20. Developmental cascade models linking peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Zhou, Ying

    2017-10-04

    This study explored the longitudinal relations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese primary school students. Participants were N = 945 fourth-grade students (485 boys, 460 girls; Mage  = 10.16 years, SD = 2 months) attending elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Three waves of data on peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement were collected from peer nominations, self-reports, and school records, respectively. The results indicated that peer victimization had both direct and indirect effects on later depression and academic achievement. Depression also had both direct and indirect negative effects on later academic achievement, but demonstrated only an indirect effect on later peer victimization. Finally, academic achievement had both direct and indirect negative effects on later peer victimization and depression. The findings show that there are cross-cultural similarities and differences in the various transactions that exist among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Peer victimization directly and indirectly relates to depression and academic achievement. Depression directly and indirectly relates to academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to depression. What the present study adds? A developmental cascade approach was used to assess the interrelations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Academic achievement mediates the relation between peer victimization and depression. Depression is related to peer victimization through academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to peer victimization. Academic achievement is related to depression through peer victimization. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD WITH SEVERE DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS WITH ACUTE PSYCHOTIC IN PATIENT WITH HISTORY AS A PEDOPHILE VICTIMS AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN 22 YEARS OLD MAN : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Agus Indra Adhiputra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD is a disorder that is fairly common in thecommunity. Every event in the life will have its own meaning in later, especially eventsthat occur in childhood. Data in the U.S. showed 60% men and 50% women have atraumatic experience, which develops into PTSD approximately 6.7% of the entirepopulation. While data from the Indonesian National Commission of Women, since 20072010there has been 91311 cases of sexual violence against women, as well as cases ofchild sexual abuse reported to reach 250 cases. Presenting symptoms can range fromanxiety disorders, depression, until psychotic. The severity of symptoms depends on eachself-defense mechanism thus the PTSD symptoms are very diverse.

  2. Seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in unipolar major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Bryan S; Coryell, William H; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Keller, Martin; Solomon, David A; Endicott, Jean; Potash, James B; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    2014-11-01

    Retrospective and cross-sectional studies of seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in unipolar major depression have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a long-term prospective cohort - the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). The sample included 298 CDS participants from five academic centers with a prospectively derived diagnosis of unipolar major depression who were followed for at least ten years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Generalized linear mixed models were utilized to investigate the presence of seasonal patterns. In a subset of 271 participants followed for at least 20 years, the stability of a winter depressive pattern was assessed across the first two decades of follow-up. A small increase in proportion of time depressed was found in the months surrounding the winter solstice, although the greatest symptom burden was seen in December through April with a peak in March. The relative burden of winter depressive symptoms in the first decade demonstrated no relationship to that of the second decade. The onset of new episodes was highest October through January, peaking in January. There exists a small but statistically significant peak in depressive symptoms from the month of the winter solstice to the month of the spring equinox. However, the predominance of winter depressive symptoms did not appear stable over the long-term course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal Variation of Depressive Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Bryan S.; Coryell, William H.; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Keller, Martin; Solomon, David A.; Endicott, Jean; Potash, James B.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective and cross-sectional studies of seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in unipolar major depression have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a long-term prospective cohort – the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). Methods The sample included 298 CDS participants from five academic centers with a prospectively derived diagnosis of unipolar major depression who were followed for at least ten years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Generalized linear mixed models were utilized to investigate the presence of seasonal patterns. In a subset of 271 participants followed for at least 20 years, the stability of a winter depressive pattern was assessed across the first two decades of follow-up. Results A small increase in proportion of time depressed was found in the months surrounding the winter solstice, although the greatest symptom burden was seen in December through April with a peak in March. The relative burden of winter depressive symptoms in the first decade demonstrated no relationship to that of the second decade. The onset of new episodes was highest October through January, peaking in January. Conclusions There exists a small but statistically significant peak in depressive symptoms from the month of the winter solstice to the month of the spring equinox. However, the predominance of winter depressive symptoms did not appear stable over the long-term course of illness. PMID:25176622

  4. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Brown, Richard A.; LaChance, Heather R.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2008-01-01

    Because different psychopathologic components of depressive symptoms may have distinct etiologies, examining their differential effects on smoking cessation may elucidate mechanisms underlying the smoking-depression relationship. Negative affect (NA), somatic features (SF), low positive affect/anhedonia (PA), and interpersonal disturbance (IP) have been identified as unique dimensions of depression that can be measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). This s...

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  6. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better ... are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I ... many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be successfully ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. ...

  1. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  2. Maternal depressive symptoms following autism spectrum diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the week following their child's ASD diagnosis, with some 37.3% continuing to report clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Depressive symptoms immediately following diagnosis were not related to initial global characteristics of child functioning, but were related to reported child problem behaviors and financial barriers at follow-up. Results of this study underscore the importance of attention to caregiver distress and depression within models of autism detection and intervention.

  3. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard B; Mason, Tiffany M; Canlas, Jerevie M; Wang, Dahua; Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H

    2013-08-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that low marital satisfaction is a significant risk factor for depression, little research has examined this relationship in cultures outside of the U.S. and Europe. The validity of the marital discord model of depression in Chinese culture was tested by studying 391 couples living in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. Results of structural equation modeling using an actor-partner interdependence model strategy indicated that husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction was significantly predictive of their own depressive symptoms. In addition, wives' marital satisfaction significantly predicted husbands' depressive symptoms. These results provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression is useful in understanding the role of marital dissatisfaction as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in collectivistic societies, such as China. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  4. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  5. Depressive symptoms and early retirement intentions among Danish eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm; Sejbaek, Camilla Sandal

    2015-01-01

    of the Danish eldercare sector. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and the impact of different levels of depressive symptoms (severe, moderately severe, moderate, mild and none) and changes in depressive symptoms (worsened, improved, unaffected) on early retirement intentions...... were analysed with multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis all levels of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with retirement intentions before the age of 62 years. Similar associations were found prospectively. Depressive symptoms and worsened depressive...

  6. Bidirectionality Between Sleep Symptoms and Core Depressive Symptoms and Their Long-Term Course in Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Conradi, Henk Jan; Bos, Elisabeth H; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bidirectional dynamic relationship between sleep symptoms and core depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups differing with respect to their course. METHODS: The weekly state of depressive symptoms in depressed primary care patients (N = 267) was assessed

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social ... items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social ... items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social ... (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social ... (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  11. Impact of Physical and Relational Peer Victimization on Depressive Cognitions in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Keneisha R.; Cole, David A.; Dukewich, Tammy; Felton, Julia; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Maxwell, Melissa A.; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Jacky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find longitudinal evidence of the effect of targeted peer victimization (TPV) on depressive cognitions as a function of victimization type and gender. Prospective relations of physical and relational peer victimization to positive and negative self-cognitions were examined in a 1-year, 2-wave longitudinal study.…

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... sure why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to ... you trust, and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ... the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...

  20. Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Association between Emotional Neglect and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Won; Bae, Geum Ye; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Lee, Seung Jae; Chang, Sung Man; Kim, Byung-Soo; Won, Seunghee

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that childhood maltreatment experiences could induce biological and psychological vulnerability in depressive disorders. However, it is still unclear that type-specific effects of childhood maltreatment on psychological resilience, depressive symptoms and interactions among childhood maltreatment experiences, resilience, and depressive symptoms. A total of 438 medical students were included in the study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, the Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used for measuring childhood maltreatment experiences, psychological resilience, and depressive symptoms, respectively. We investigated the effects of childhood maltreatment experiences on resilience and depressive symptoms using correlation analysis. In addition, we analyzed the mediating effect of resilience on the association between childhood maltreatment and symptoms of depression. Among childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect was a significant predictor of the scores of low resilience and high depressive symptoms in both gender groups (all psresilience was found to be a mediator connecting emotional neglect experiences with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that emotional neglect has detrimental effects on mood and resilience, and clinicians need to focus on the recovery of resilience when they deal with depressive symptoms in victims of childhood maltreatment.

  1. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Santiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals.

  2. Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. AIMS: To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli

  3. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  4. Maternal Depressive Symptoms following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…

  5. Lack of Control as a Predictive Factor for Stress-related Symptoms in Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Sombke, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Researchers have agreed that most rape victims vii experience stress-related symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder. There have also been numerous studies that have tried to predict the severity of those stress-related symptoms, but the literature is inconclusive. Lack of perceived control is consistently mentioned in the rape research literature as being present in rape victims, but no study has empirically examined the relationship between perceived control and a rape victim's s...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so ... Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Brain's insular cortex mediates approach and ...

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    Full Text Available ... type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways ... waves reflect different types of learning Bright light therapy at midday helped patients with bipolar depression Stress ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for Research Progress Coalition for Research Progress Legislative Activities Research Priorities Research Priorities Home Research Areas Policies ... vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of sadness, guilt, ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Education Health & Education Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials ... not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to thoughts of suicide. ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... get out of the house. I was in college so I wouldn't go to classes at ... all alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can ... family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried to do things but I ... depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... classes at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia ( ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News ... ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ... closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and how ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... this reason, NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that ... during pregnancy and risk of birth defects Quick evaluation can predict whether drugs, talk therapy work better ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press ... Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... with depression are different from those without the illness, but we aren't sure why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... I couldn't. I didn't read a book, didn't really do, I barely went to ... National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute ... and through her I think I started really thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH Home Research Areas Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & Events News & ... alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I had one really good therapist and through her I think I started ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Criteria (RDoC) Funding Funding Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research ... not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or blue ... lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of sadness, guilt, and worthlessness, and have trouble ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Education Health & Education Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ... 443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov Press Resources Mental Health Information Summaries of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ... I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... yet completely understood. We do know that the brains of people with depression are different from those ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I had one really good therapist and ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News ... for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Health & Education Health & Education Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical ... ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Labs at NIMH ... National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment ... Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool Expenditures and Results Recommendations for Reporting on Suicide ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can ... Feed NIMH Widget Subscribe to NIMH Email Updates Type email address... Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... with depression are different from those without the illness, but we aren't sure why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... go to classes at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can ... became easier. I totally think it is a lot easier when people know. I think that was ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ... during pregnancy and risk of birth defects Quick evaluation can predict whether drugs, talk therapy work better ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia ( ...

  7. Longitudinal pathways of sexual victimization, sexual self-esteem, and depression in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months. Depression and sexual self-esteem were measured at each wave. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for individual differences in depression and sexual self-esteem, showed that sexual assault at T1 predicted depression and lower sexual self-esteem at T2, and depression and lower self-esteem at T2 predicted sexual assault victimization at T3. In addition, significant paths were found from T1 depression to T2 sexual assault victimization and from T2 sexual assault victimization to depression at T3. Sexual victimization at T1 was indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3 via depression at T2. Both depression and sexual self-esteem at T1 were indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3. The paths did not differ significantly between men and women. Sexual assault victimization was shown to be a risk factor for both depression as a general mental health indicator and lowered sexual self-esteem as a specific outcome in the domain of sexuality. Moreover, depression and sexual self-esteem increased the vulnerability for sexual assault victimization, which has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Obese and Overweight Youth: Risk for Experiencing Bullying Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2018-01-22

    Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Girls’ Challenging Social Experiences in Early Adolescence Predict Neural Response to Rewards and Depressive Symptoms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hipwell, Alison; McAloon, Rose L.; Hoffmann, Amy M.; Keenan, Kathryn; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. PMID:24397999

  10. Girls' challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Guyer, Amanda E; Hipwell, Alison E; McAloon, Rose L; Hoffmann, Amy M; Keenan, Kathryn E; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-04-01

    Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  12. Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, Nitin; Voshaar, Richard C Oude; Hardicre, Jayne; Byrne, Jane; McCollum, Charles; Burns, Alistair

    2006-09-01

    The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. In a cohort of 142 patients with dementia (72 with Alzheimer's disease and 70 with vascular dementia), the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli and clinically relevant depressive symptoms was examined using multiple logistic regression analyses. Spontaneous cerebral emboli were significantly more frequent in the patients with clinically relevant depressive symptoms (66 v. 37%, P=0.03). After adjustment for age, gender, Mini-Mental State Examination score, type of dementia and significant cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship remained significant (OR=3.47, 95% CI 1.10-10.97). Spontaneous cerebral emboli are associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms in dementia, and further research is needed to explore the nature of this relationship.

  13. Increased mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase in dorsal raphe nucleus of depressive suicide victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanchez-Bahillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A Sanchez-Bahillo1, V Bautista-Hernandez1, Carlos Barcia Gonzalez1, R Bañon2, A Luna2, EC Hirsch3, Maria-Trinidad Herrero11Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED; 2Department of Legal Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia 30100, Spain; 3INSERM U679 Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC. These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of

  14. Cognitions, depressive symptoms, and development in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, J; Weiss, B; Shanley, N

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the generalizability of cognitive models of depression to adolescents and explored developmental differences with regard to depressotypic cognitions. Self-reported depressive symptoms and various hypothesized cognitive correlates (e.g., automatic thoughts, attributions, dysfunctional attitudes) were investigated in a sample of 688 adolescents in grades 7 through 12. Measures of normative adolescent cognitions (e.g., egocentrism, self-consciousness) also were included. There was a strong association between negative thinking and depression in adolescents. There was no association between depressogenic thinking and age, nor did the strength of the association between negative cognitions and depression vary from early to middle adolescence. Finally, negative cognitions were associated with self-report measures of both depressive and anxious symptoms.

  15. Peer victimization predicts psychological symptoms beyond the effects of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2014-12-30

    Experiences of peer victimization have been repeatedly associated with psychological symptoms and disorders. However, as peer victimization is correlated with child maltreatment occurring within the family, it remains unclear whether the pathological effect of peer victimization is an artifact that can be attributed to previous aversive events. To separate the effects of peer victimization from child maltreatment, we studied both event types as well as psychological symptoms in a mixed clinical sample of ambulant and psychiatric patients (N=168), a self-selected community sample recruited through the internet (N=995), and a student sample (N=272). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for child maltreatment, peer victimization accounted for an incremental proportion of the variance of different symptom dimensions in each sample. These results indicate that peer victimization is an independent predictor of psychopathology.

  16. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to violence in relation to depressive symptoms among male and female adolescent students in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Poudel, Krishna C; Yasuoka, Junko; Yi, Songky; Palmer, Paula H; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-03-01

    In spite of the apparent increases in family and community violence, research into its effects on adolescent mental health has received limited attention in Cambodia. This study examines the association between exposure to violence and depressive symptoms among adolescents controlling for the effects of several factors in family and school domains. We randomly selected 993 male and 950 female students proportionally from 11 junior high schools and high schools in Battembang provincial city. Students were questioned about the violence to which they were subjected and which they witnessed in their family and community. The Asian adolescent depression scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. In this study, 27.9% of male students and 21.5% of female students had been victimized in at least one case of family violence, while 18.0% of male and 5.8% of female students had been victimized in at least one case of community violence. After adjustment, increased levels of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with being the victim of or witnessing family or community violence among both male and female students. However, the positive association between the levels of depressive symptoms and being a witness to community violence was found only in female students. Efforts to prevent depression in adolescent students should focus on reducing family and community violence; such efforts should also consider gender differences.

  18. Patterns of depressive symptoms in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Nikolaos I; Gatzonis, Stergios; Kararizou, Evangelia; Papageorgiou, Charalampos C

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and extent of depressive symptoms among patients with epilepsy. Ninety patients were investigated over a three-month period: 42 were suffering from generalized epilepsy, 29 from focal epilepsy and 19 from undetermined epilepsy. All completed the Zung self-rating scale for assessment of the depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven patients felt stigmatized because of epilepsy (67%): 73.6% in the undetermined epilepsy group, 55.1% in the focal epilepsy group and 88% in the generalized epilepsy group. Moreover, among the 90 epileptic patients studied, symptoms of irritability, indecisiveness, personal devaluation and emptiness showed a constant increasing trend for their presence from the undetermined epilepsy group through the generalized epilepsy group to the focal epilepsy group. These findings indicate that although the focal epilepsy patients felt less stigmatized, they did not differ greatly in terms of depressive symptoms, in relation to the undetermined epilepsy and generalized epilepsy patients.

  19. Depression and immunity: Inflammation and depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Stefan M.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that patients with major depressive disorder show alterations in immunological markers including increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and inflammation. Animal models of a depression-like syndrome called sickness behavior have clearly shown that cytokines are implicated in the development of these symptoms. Inflammation of the CNS is a pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients affected by this disease also show a high incidence of depression. In light of accumulating evidence for cytokine-mediated sickness behavior from animal studies, it is possible that some aspects of depression and fatigue in multiple sclerosis may be linked to inflammatory markers. Here, we review the current knowledge in the field and illustrate how the sickness behavior model may be applied to investigate depressive symptoms in inflammatory neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:19389584

  20. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  1. The impact of loneliness on self-rated health symptoms among victimized school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løhre Audhild

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loneliness is associated with peer victimization, and the two adverse experiences are both related to ill health in childhood and adolescence. There is, however, a lack of knowledge on the importance of loneliness among victimized children. Therefore, possible modifying effects of loneliness on victimized school children’s self-rated health were assessed. Methods A population based cross-section study included 419 children in grades 1–10 from five schools. The prevalence of loneliness and victimization across grades was analyzed by linear test for trend, and associations of the adverse experiences with four health symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache were estimated by logistic regression. Results In crude regression analysis, both victimization and loneliness showed positive associations with all the four health symptoms. However, in multivariable analysis, the associations of victimization with health symptoms were fully attenuated except for headache. In contrast, loneliness retained about the same strength of associations in the multivariable analysis as in the crude analysis. More detailed analyses demonstrated that children who reported both victimization and loneliness had three to seven times higher prevalence of health symptoms compared to children who reported neither victimization nor loneliness (the reference group. Rather surprisingly, victimized children who reported no loneliness did not have any higher prevalence of health symptoms than the reference group, whereas lonely children without experiences of victimization had almost the same prevalence of health symptoms (except for stomach ache as children who were both victimized and lonely. Conclusions Adverse effects of loneliness need to be highlighted, and for victimized children, experiences of loneliness may be an especially harsh risk factor related to ill health.

  2. Psychometric properties of the Spanish-language child depression inventory with Hispanic children who are secondary victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carmen Soto; Gómez, José Rodriguez; Pastrana, Maria C Vélez

    2009-01-01

    The Child Depression Inventory (CDI), a self-report instrument that measures depressive symptomatology in children, has been shown to have adequate construct validity (Kovacs, 1983, 1992). However, limited research has been conducted with minority children and adolescents. In the present study, the construct validity of the Spanish-language version of the Child Depression Inventory (CDI-S) ages 8-12 years (N = 100). The CDI was developed by Maria Kovacs (1992) and has been a widely used instrument for screening depression in children. Fifty of the children had witnessed domestic violence (secondary victims of domestic violence) and received psychological services for victims of domestic violence, and fifty had not witnessed domestic violence. To identify the group of non-victims of domestic violence, their mothers completed the Conflict Tactic Scale (CIS). The CDI is a self-report instrument used to measure symptoms of depression. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed including the 27 items that make up the instrument, using principal component analysis as the extraction method and Varimax rotations. This analysis revealed that the CDI measures five dimensions of depression in the child. However, differences were found in the factor structure of the Spanish CDI when compared with the original version. Additionally, its internal consistency was documented.

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I had one really good therapist and ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... get out of the house. I was in college so I wouldn't go to classes at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : ... choice. Depression can be successfully treated in many people, but sometimes treatments fall short. For this reason, NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... benefits from them the most, and how to make better, more effective ones. For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be ... totally think it is a lot easier when people know. I think that was one of the ... work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... does not affect effectiveness Neuroscientists shed light on causes of postpartum depression using new research model More News From the Field... Contact Us The National Institute of Mental Health Information Resource Center Hours: 8:30 a.m. ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... get out of the house. I was in college so I wouldn't go to classes at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov ... on Suicide News from the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Helping the ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2012 2011 2010 2009 Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov ... on Suicide News from the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert CMU and ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral ... TTY: 1-301-443-8431 TTY (toll-free): 1-866-415-8051 Available in English and Spanish Live Online Chat: Talk to a ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov ... on Suicide News from the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Study explores ...

  17. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Alcohol Use: The Mediating Role of Youth Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Saavedra, Lissette M.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Novak, Scott P.; Warner, Tara D.; Fishbein, Diana H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on adolescent alcohol use among a sample of Latino/Latina youth aged 10 to 16 years from a high-risk community. Direct and mediating effects of youth depressive symptoms, controlling for levels of concurrent emotion dysregulation, on alcohol use were examined.…

  18. Coexisting Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Rebecca L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Doering, Lynn V.; Chung, Misook L.; Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among patients with heart failure (HF), anxiety symptoms may co-exist with depressive symptoms. However, the extent of overlap and risk factors for anxiety symptoms have not been thoroughly described. Purpose To describe the coexistence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and to determine the predictors of anxiety symptoms in patients with HF. Methods The sample consisted of 556 outpatients with HF (34% female, 62±12 years, 54% NYHA class III/IV) enrolled in a multicenter HF quality of life registry. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-anxiety subscale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). We used a cut-point of 0.35 to categorize patients as having anxiety symptoms or no anxiety symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine whether age, gender, minority status, educational level, functional status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant use were predictors of anxiety symptoms. Results One-third of patients had both depressive and anxiety symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms; higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with a higher level of anxiety symptoms. Younger age (OR= 0.97, p = .004, 95% CI 0.95–0.99) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.25, p depressive symptoms are at high risk for experiencing anxiety symptoms. Clinicians should assess these patients for comorbid anxiety symptoms. Research is needed to test interventions for both depressive and anxiety symptoms. PMID:24408885

  19. Cigarette demand among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: an experimental comparison with low depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2017-11-15

    Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R (2) = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R (2) = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.

  20. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina B. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.

  1. Emotion work within eldercare and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise M.; Jorgensen, Anette F. B.; Thomsen, Birthe L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Danish professional caregivers have high rates of depressive symptoms. One proposed cause is exposure to emotion work. However, emotion work is usually measured by self-report which may bias results. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of emotion work......, externally observed at the workplace, with self-reported depressive symptoms of professional caregivers. Design and data sources: The study was a cross-sectional observational study. Data was collected by 9 observers who assessed emotion work stressors and emotion work resources in 124 individual......) a sample of 205 observed and non-observed professional caregivers with full information on covariates working in one of the 56 observed work units. Methods: Using multilevel regression models we analysed associations of individual and work unit averaged levels of emotion work with depressive symptoms among...

  2. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Nishola Rawatlal; Wendy Kliewer; Basil J Pillay

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates...

  3. Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Concurrent and Stable Roles and Psychological Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Modena, Marco; Tani, Franca

    2009-01-01

    From an initial sample of 1,278 Italian students, the authors selected 537 on the basis of their responses to a self-report bully and victim questionnaire. Participants' ages ranged from 13 to 20 years (M = 15.12 years, SD = 1.08 years). The authors compared the concurrent psychological symptoms of 4 participant groups (bullies, victims,…

  4. Longitudinal Examination of PTSD Symptoms and Problematic Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Adolescent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Kofler, Michael J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD…

  5. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  6. Prevalence of depressive symptoms amongst pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To ascertain the existence and prevalence of depressive symptoms amongst Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients. Materials and Methods: A consecutive recruitment of 105 patients affected by tuberculosis seen at the chest clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (U.N.T.H) over a six-week period was done.

  7. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disorders reported in childhood and adolescence. Strydom et al.[9] found that even ... Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a .... between family communication and conflict on depressive symptoms reported by adolescents.

  8. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  9. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % in men. For women, depressive symptoms were associated with increased childhood adversity (aOR 1.34 95% CI 1.116, 1.55); drug use (aOR 1.98 CI 1.17, 3.35); experience of intimate partner violence (aOR 2.21 CI 1.16, 3.00); sexual ...

  11. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  12. Protective factors promoting resilience in the relation between child sexual victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Alba; Guilera, Georgina; Pereda, Noemí; Jarne, Adolfo

    2017-10-01

    Sexual victimization has been one of the most frequently studied forms of child victimization. Its effects are common and diverse; however, not all children and youth exposed to sexual victimization eventually develop adjustment problems. A total of 1105 children and youth (590 male and 515 female) aged between 12 and 17 from northeastern Spain were assessed regarding their experiences of sexual victimization, symptoms of psychopathology, and protective factors. The results showed that all forms of sexual victimization were associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems. However, the presence of a low Negative Cognition, high Social Skills and high Confidence seem to act buffering internalizing problems. Additionally, a significant interaction between Sexual Victimization and low Negative Cognition was observed (pfactors in relation to externalizing symptoms, in this case without any interaction effect. The strong relationship found with emotional and behavioral problems highlights the importance of continuing the research on the protective factors underlying resilience in the relationship between sexual victimization and psychopathological symptoms. The findings also support the multi-dimensional and specific nature of resilience and identify some of the protective factors that should be regarded as key intervention targets in adolescents with a history of sexual victimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Northstone, Kate; Evans, Jonathan; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associate with cardiovascular and other health benefits, but little is known about mental health benefits or risks. To determine whether self-identification of vegetarian dietary habits is associated with significant depressive symptoms in men. Self-report data from 9668 adult male partners of pregnant women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) included identification as vegetarian or vegan, dietary frequency data and the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS). Continuous and binary outcomes were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression taking account of potential confounding variables including: age, marital status, employment status, housing tenure, number of children in the household, religion, family history of depression previous childhood psychiatric contact, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Vegetarians [n = 350 (3.6% of sample)], had higher depression scores on average than non-vegetarians (mean difference 0.96 points [95%CI + 0.53, + 1.40]) and a greater risk for EPDS scores above 10 (adjusted OR = 1.67 [95% CI: 1.14,2.44]) than non-vegetarians after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Vegetarian men have more depressive symptoms after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. Nutritional deficiencies (e.g. in cobalamin or iron) are a possible explanation for these findings, however reverse causation cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A; LaChance, Heather R; Kahler, Christopher W

    2008-03-01

    Because different psychopathologic components of depressive symptoms may have distinct etiologies, examining their differential effects on smoking cessation may elucidate mechanisms underlying the smoking-depression relationship. Negative affect (NA), somatic features (SF), low positive affect/anhedonia (PA), and interpersonal disturbance (IP) have been identified as unique dimensions of depression that can be measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). This study examined common and unique associations between CESD subscales and baseline smoking characteristics, nicotine withdrawal, and relapse in 157 participants enrolled in a smoking cessation trial for heavy social drinkers. Each dimension was univariately associated with negative and positive reinforcement smoking motives. Only SF had unique relations with tolerance smoking motives and univariate associations with nicotine dependence severity. Only PA predicted cessation-related changes in withdrawal symptoms on quit day. Analyses predicting abstinence at 8, 16, and 26 weeks post quit date showed that NA, SF, and PA each univariately predicted relapse, pspredicted poorer outcomes incrementally to the other dimensions, even when controlling for level of nicotine dependence, smoking frequency, and history of major depression, p = .0018. Interventions targeting anhedonia and low positive affect may be useful for smokers trying to quit.

  16. Normal levels of tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the dorsal raphe of depressed suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkale, Willy L; Murdock, Shayna; Janosky, Janine E; Austin, Mark C

    2004-02-01

    A variety of evidence suggests that serotonin neurotransmission is altered in the brain of suicide victims and depressed patients. While numerous post-mortem studies have investigated serotonin transporters and receptors, few studies have examined the biosynthetic integrity of the rate-limiting enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), in post-mortem specimens of depressed suicide subjects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the levels of TPH immunoreactivity (IR) are altered in specific subnuclei of the dorsal raphe (DR) in depressed suicide victims. Suicide victims with a confirmed diagnosis of major depression were matched with non-psychiatric controls based on age, gender and post-mortem interval. Frozen tissue sections containing the DR were selected from two anatomical levels and processed for TPH radioimmunocytochemistry. The optical density corresponding to the regional levels of TPH-IR was quantified in specific subnuclei of the DR from the film autoradiographic images. No significant differences in the levels of TPH-IR were found in any DR subnuclei between depressed suicide victims and control subjects. The lack of change in TPH-IR levels does not necessarily imply that serotonin synthesis or neurotransmission is not altered in the brain of depressed subjects. Many factors influence and regulate serotonin synthesis, and it is conceivable that alterations exist at other levels of regulation of serotonin biosynthesis in depression. Our findings indicate that TPH biosynthesis, at least at the protein level, is not significantly altered in the DR of depressed suicide victims.

  17. Avoidance symptoms and delayed verbal memory are associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms in female victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Young Ki

    2015-09-15

    Victimization by sexual violence is strongly associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While several psychological and cognitive factors are known to be associated with PTSD prognosis, multivariable analysis is scarce. This study examined factors affecting the severity of PTSD symptoms in early stage of traumatic experience of sexual violence, including initial post-traumatic symptoms and cognitive characteristics. Participants were recruited from the center for women and children victims of violence in a university hospital. Thirty-four sexual assault victims were assessed at the baseline and the second visit one to five months after the baseline. At the baseline, an array of posttraumatic symptoms and cognitive functions were measured: at follow-up, PTSD symptoms were determined by Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Stepwise multiple regression showed that avoidance symptoms (β = 0.551, P symptoms one to five month later. The regression model, factoring in avoidance and delayed verbal memory, showed a 34.9% explanatory power regarding the PTSD symptom severity. This study suggests that avoidance symptoms and verbal memory at the early stage of trauma are associated with later PTSD symptoms. It is also suggested that early intervention targeting avoidance symptoms may be beneficial in decreasing PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multidimensional Acculturation Attitudes and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between multidimensional acculturation attitudes and depressive symptoms in 78 Korean American adults. Approximately 30% of Korean Americans reported scores higher than 16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, indicating the presence of elevated depressive symptoms. In multiple regressions controlling for family income, integration was negatively related to depressive symptoms, whereas marginalization was positively linked to depressive symptoms. Findings can be used in developing an intervention program that targets increasing integration, decreasing marginalization, and therefore decreasing depressive symptoms of Korean Americans. PMID:19212867

  19. Association between burnout and depressive symptoms among Turkish dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Huri

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Dentists may face burnout and depressive symptoms during their professional life. Increased burnout level can give an idea on depressive symptoms, and may provide an opportunity to identify depression earlier. Creating and raising awareness about burnout are important to avoid and prevent depression among dentists. Further longitudinal studies analyzing the effects of interdisciplinary client-centered self-management programs for dentists on depressive symptoms and burnout must be planned.

  20. Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Maria K; Hansen, Jørgen V; Aldrich, Per T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work....... This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial...... workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. METHODS: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...

  1. Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murberg, Terje A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

  2. The trajectory of depressive symptoms across the adult life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutin, A.R.; Terracciano, A.; Milaneschi, Y.; An, Y.; Ferrucci, L.; Zonderman, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Long-term longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the trajectory of depressive symptoms across adulthood and to individuate factors that may contribute to increases in depressive symptoms in older adulthood. OBJECTIVES To estimate the trajectory of depressive symptoms across the

  3. Pathways from Depressive Symptoms to Low Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers.…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Fathers' and Young Children's Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Griffith, Shayl F; Rolon-Arroyo, Benjamin; Arnold, David H; Harvey, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-21

    Considerable research has examined the effects of maternal depression on children, but few studies have focused on the relation between paternal and child depressive symptoms, particularly during early childhood. Even fewer studies have been longitudinal, leaving open questions about how paternal and child depression covary over time. The present study sought to address this gap by examining the relation between fathers' and children's depressive symptoms over a 3-year period. Participants were 153 preschool children with behavior problems and their parents. Three longitudinal analytic approaches were used to examine how father and child depression change together and predict one another over time. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing problems or maternal depression might account for the associations between fathers' and children's depressive symptoms. Changes in paternal depression significantly predicted changes in father-reported and mother-reported child depressive symptoms. These effects were evident both in year-to-year fluctuations and in linear trajectories across the 3-year period. Cross-lagged analyses suggested that these relations may have been driven by father-effects; paternal depression at one time point predicted child depression at the next time point, but child depression did not significantly predict later paternal depression. We found little evidence that externalizing problems or maternal depression accounted for the relations between fathers' and children's depressive symptoms. Results provide convergent evidence that fathers' depression may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms in young children and underscore the importance of including fathers in studies of depression in families.

  5. Changes in Depressive Self-Schemata and Depressive Symptoms Following Cognitive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Terry M.; Dixon, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of 6-8 sessions of Beck's cognitive therapy on mildly and moderately depressed college students' (n=31) depressive symptoms and depressive self-schemata compared to no-treatment controls (n=43). Results supported efficacy of cognitive therapy in reducing depressive symptoms and depressive self-schemata, as measured by…

  6. Neglected Children, Shame-Proneness, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed. PMID:20724372

  7. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  8. Depressive symptoms and childhood sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carotenuto M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Antonio Pascotto,1 Michele Roccella21Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and mood regulation is well known, and some reports suggest a key role of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD in the development of the symptomatology of depression, even if no conclusive data are actually found in the clinical literature. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between SRBD and depressive symptoms in a population of school-aged children.Methods: The study population comprised 94 children affected by SRBD and 107 healthy children. To identify the severity of SRBD, an overnight respiratory evaluation was performed. All subjects filled out the Italian version of the Children Depression Inventory (CDI to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms.Results: The group with SRBD showed higher CDI scores than the group without SRBD, with a positive correlation found between CDI scores, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index values. Logistic regression showed that an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 3 and an oxygen desaturation index ≥ 1 could be risk factors for development of depressive symptoms. According to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff point for the apnea-hypopnea index that could cause a pathological CDI score (≥19 was >5.66, and the cutoff point for the oxygen desaturation index was >4.2. The limitations of this study are that our data are derived from one single psychometric test and not from a complete psychiatric evaluation, and our

  9. Early menarche, depressive symptoms, and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica; Marván, Ma Luisa

    2014-08-01

    During the time around menarche, young women must make many emotional and social adjustments to adapt to a new life stage. We compared depressive symptomatology and coping strategies between early and average maturer Mexican adolescents girls. The relationships between elapsed time since menarche and both depressive symptomatology and coping strategies were also studied. Three hundred eighty post-menarcheal students from 11 to 15 years completed the Children's Depression Scale and the Children's Situational Coping Scale. Early maturers showed more depressive symptoms than their peers, but they reported having used fewer non-productive coping strategies. Early maturers who experienced menarche one to three years previously reported more non-productive coping strategies than those who had experienced menarche four to six years ago. However, no differences were found in the results of the average maturers depending on the time elapsed since menarche. These findings are discussed in light of the psychosocial context of early maturers. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  11. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways: A Retrospective Study Linking Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem to Depression, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-02

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique within a structural equation modeling framework. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn, was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may, respectively, serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use.

  12. Myopia and depressive symptoms among older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yong; Niu, Mei-E; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Few population-based data support the hypothesis that refractive errors are associated with depressive symptoms. We aim to assess the impact of myopia on the risk of having depressive symptoms in a community-based cohort of elderly Chinese. A community-based cross-sectional study of 4611 Chinese adults aged 60 years or older was conducted. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression scale in 4597 adults. Refraction was determined by auto-refraction followed by subjective refraction. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) myopia as SE myopia. Myopia or high myopia was not associated with having moderate depressive symptoms. The impact of myopia on depressive symptoms was stronger in adults with no formal education compared with those with formal education. Myopia was related with the presence of depressive symptoms among older adults.

  13. Requestioning depression in patients with cancer: contribution of somatic and affective symptoms to Beck's Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, U; Koch, A; Röhrig, B; Pientka, L; Sauer, H; Höffken, K; Maurer, I

    2007-11-01

    Depressive symptoms are a major complaint reported by cancer patients. Somatic and affective symptoms can contribute to depression. We investigated the prevalence of somatic and affective depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in 213 hospitalized cancer patients prior to the start of chemotherapy. Seventeen of 213 patients (8%) were screened positive for major depression; 40 (19%) had mild to moderate depressive symptoms. The corresponding figures for somatic and affective symptoms were 33.3% and 2.8% in the patients with major depression and 23.0% and 8.0% in those with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Female patients, patients with solid tumour and those with functional limitations had significantly higher mean scores. All differences were related to higher scores in somatic and not in affective items. Most alterations in the BDI in cancer patients are related to somatic and not to affective symptoms and may be attributed not to depression but to severity of the underlying disease.

  14. Victimization and depression among youth with disabilities in the US child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, K L; Shiu, C-S; Msall, M E; Acharya, K

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence of victimization among a United States-wide cohort of youth with disabilities (YWD) investigated for maltreatment in the child welfare system (CWS) and their correlation with mental health. Data were drawn from baseline interviews in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national representative survey of youth involved in the CWS. Interviews took place between 2008 and 2009 and included 675 youth, 11-17 years old and residing with biological families across 83 counties nationwide. The sample consisted of 405 females (60.1%) and 270 males (39.9%), mean age = 13.5 years. We identified YWD if they reported one or more physical or neurodevelopmental health condition (n = 247). Reported victimization experiences and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) scores were analysed using weighted regression analyses. One-quarter of YWD in the CWS reported three or more victimizations during the prior year compared with 19% of youth without disabilities. The odds of YWD reporting a one-unit increase in level of victimization was 75% higher (P < 0.05) than youth without disabilities. Prevalence of clinical depression was significantly higher among YWD (14 vs. 5.5%; P < 0.05). Unlike youth without disabilities, the odds of clinical depression were 92% higher for every one-unit increase in victimization among YWD, controlling for covariates (P < 0.05). Of CWS-involved youth who reported three or more victimizations, 24.4% of YWD and 2.2% of non-disabled youth had CDI scores in the clinical range. YWDs in the US CWS are at high risk of experiencing victimization and clinical depression. Our findings suggest that health professionals need to screen CWS-involved YWD for multiple forms of victimization, and develop and implement trauma-informed services that target the mental health sequelae that may jeopardize their independence in adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in men with erectile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia were rated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, while the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used to rate depressive symptoms. Results. Thirty-three per cent of respondents had depressive symptoms, ...

  16. Causality and Pleiotropy in the Association Between Bullying Victimization in Adolescence and Depressive Episodes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Tropf, Felix C; Niezink, Nynke M D

    2018-02-01

    Children and adolescents who are victims or perpetrators of bullying victimization are at elevated risk for maladjustment problems, concurrently and in the long run. Previous studies suggest that this correlation is partly explained by genetic influence. However, whether the genetic correlation is independent of a causal effect of victimization on maladjustment remains unclear. Using data from 2,510 females from the TwinsUK registry, we applied an innovative extension of the Cholesky decomposition to investigate to what extent the association between victimization in adolescence and self-reported depressive episodes in adulthood is caused by shared genetic effects (pleiotropy), and to what extent it is due to a phenotypic causal relationship. We find that around 60% of the association between victimization and self-reported depressive episodes is due to a causal effect of victimization on depressive episodes, and 40% is due to pleiotropic effects. These findings underline the importance of integrating genetic information into social science research and demonstrate a neat strategy to elucidate causal mechanisms in the absence of experimental designs.

  17. Finnish Sixth Graders as Victims of Adult, Peer, and Co-Occurring Adult and Peer Violence: Depression, Somatization, and Violent Ideation in Relation to Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of peer and adult victimization of 737 12-year-old Finnish students. Of the respondents, 28.4% had experienced peer or adult, or both kinds of violence. Peer violence was the most common type of violence, while adult violence was rare. The associations between victimization and depression, somatization and…

  18. Association between C-reactive protein (CRP) with depression symptom severity and specific depressive symptoms in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler-Forsberg, Ole; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Tansey, Katherine E; Maier, Wolfgang; Hauser, Joanna; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Henigsberg, Neven; Souery, Daniel; Farmer, Anne; Rietschel, Marcella; McGuffin, Peter; Aitchison, Katherine J; Uher, Rudolf; Mors, Ole

    2017-05-01

    Population-based studies have associated inflammation, particularly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), with depressive severity, but clinical trials in major depressive disorder were rather non-specific without examining the role of gender. We aimed to investigate the association between CRP and overall depression severity including specific depressive symptoms and to examine potential gender differences. We included 231 individuals with major depressive disorder from the Genome-Based Therapeutics Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study. At baseline, we assessed high-sensitivity CRP levels and psychopathology with the Montgomery Aasberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We performed linear regression analyses to investigate the association between baseline CRP levels with overall MADRS severity and specific symptoms at baseline and adjusted for age, gender, anti-inflammatory and psychotropic drug treatment, body mass index, smoking, inflammatory diseases, and recruitment center. Higher CRP levels were significantly associated with greater overall MADRS symptom severity (p=0.02), which was significant among women (p=0.02) but not among men (p=0.68). Among women, higher CRP was associated with increased severity on observed mood, cognitive symptoms, interest-activity, and suicidality, but we found no significant associations among men. Interaction analyses showed no significant gender differences on the overall MADRS score or specific symptoms. Our results support the sickness syndrome theory suggesting that chronic low-grade inflammation may be associated with a subtype of depression. The potential gender differences in psychopathology may be explained by biological and/or psychosocial factors, e.g. differential modulation of immune responses by sex hormones. Clinical studies should investigate symptom-specific and/or gender-specific treatment guided by peripheral inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nature of fatigue moderates depressive symptoms and anxiety in sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kleijn, W.P.E.; Drent, M.; de Vries, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Fatigue, depressive symptoms, and anxiety are frequently reported in sarcoidosis. However, the relationship between these debilitating symptoms is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this prospective follow-up study was to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety in

  20. Transactional Relations Between Marital Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated dynamic, longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital processes. Two hundred ninety-six couples reported on marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and depressive symptoms yearly for three years. Observational measures of marital conflict were also collected. Results suggested that different domains of marital functioning related to husbands’ versus wives’ symptoms. For husbands, transactional relations between marital satisfaction and depre...

  1. Targeting Adolescent Mothers with Depressive Symptoms for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffant; Pickens, Jeffrey; Prodromidis, Margarita; Malphurs, Julie; Fox, Nathan, Bendell, Debra; Yando, Regina; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Infants with depressed mother are more likely to experience developmental delays if the mother remains depressed after 6 months. Discusses two studies that examined depressive symptoms in mothers of infants. Depressed mothers underwent a three-month intervention. Although the mothers who received the intervention continued to have depressive…

  2. Inferential Style, School Teachers, and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, Caroline M.; Pössel, Patrick; Lau, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students.…

  3. Additive Genetic Contribution to Symptom Dimensions in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Brick, Leslie A.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (N=1558) who participated in the NIMH Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed four depression symptom components: 1) appetite, 2) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), 3) insomnia, and 4) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (h2SNP ) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30% and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. PMID:27124715

  4. Depressive symptoms and birth outcomes among pregnant teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Stacy C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Roberts, Debra; Berg-Cross, Linda; Belcher, Harolyn M E

    2010-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of maternal depressive symptoms among adolescent women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on birth outcomes of infants born to adolescent mothers. The medical records of pregnant adolescent patients were examined. Information about maternal depressive symptoms and birth outcomes was collected. Data were collected at Washington Hospital Center, a nonprofit, community-based hospital that serves residents throughout the Washington, DC area. Participants were 294 African-American and Latina adolescent mothers. Mean age was 16.2 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.4). Based on self-reports of depressive symptoms, adolescents were categorized by the following: no reported symptoms, depressive symptoms without SI/SA (suicidal ideation or attempt), and depressive symptoms with SI/SA. Infant birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Over one-quarter of pregnant adolescents in this study reported symptoms of depression. Adolescents reporting depressive symptoms with SI/SA delivered babies that weighed 239.5 grams (98.3% confidence interval [CI] 3.9 to 475.1) less than babies born to mothers reporting depressive symptoms without SI/SA. There was no association between reported symptoms and gestational age. Results suggest that compared to nonpregnant teens and adults, pregnant teens may have an increased risk for depression. Additionally, pregnant adolescents with suicidal ideation are at greater risk for delivering infants of lower birth weight compared with teens reporting depressive symptoms without SI/SA and teens reporting no symptoms. This study supports the need for early screening and treatment of depression for young pregnant women. Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on disordered eating and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Jennifer D; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that shared genetic factors underlie relationships between eating disorder and depression diagnoses, but no studies to date have examined these associations using dimensional symptom measures. This study examined whether genetic associations observed between eating disorder and depression diagnoses extend to continuous measures of these phenotypes. The sample consisted of 292 young adult female twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Disordered eating was measured using the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Univariate twin models indicated that genetic factors accounted for 55% to 60% of the variance in disordered eating and depressive symptoms, with the remaining variance accounted for by nonshared environmental effects. Bivariate models indicated that genetic factors primarily accounted for associations between disordered eating and depressive symptoms (r(a) = .70). Phenotypic associations between disordered eating and depressive symptoms appear to be due to common genetic factors. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Motta de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Results: Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  7. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  8. Depressive symptoms and spiritual wellbeing in asymptomatic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Paul J; Wilson, Kathleen; Iqbal, Navaid; Iqbal, Fatima; Alvarez, Milagros; Pung, Meredith A; Wachmann, Katherine; Rutledge, Thomas; Maglione, Jeanne; Zisook, Sid; Dimsdale, Joel E; Lunde, Ottar; Greenberg, Barry H; Maisel, Alan; Raisinghani, Ajit; Natarajan, Loki; Jain, Shamini; Hufford, David J; Redwine, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Depression adversely predicts prognosis in individuals with symptomatic heart failure. In some clinical populations, spiritual wellness is considered to be a protective factor against depressive symptoms. This study examined associations among depressive symptoms, spiritual wellbeing, sleep, fatigue, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers in 132 men and women with asymptomatic stage B heart failure (age 66.5 years ± 10.5). Approximately 32 % of the patients scored ≥10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating potentially clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis predicting fewer depressive symptoms included the following significant variables: a lower inflammatory score comprised of disease-relevant biomarkers (p meaning (p peace (p meaning and peace, may be a potential treatment target for depressive symptoms asymptomatic heart failure.

  9. Maternal depressive symptoms during childhood and risky adolescent health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Maeve E; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L G; Colman, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child's age 4-15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother-youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Factors associated with depressive symptoms among Filipino university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Romeo B; Sta Maria, Madelene; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Depression can be prevented if its symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the rising rates of suicide among the group...

  11. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletić, Vladimira; Sapina, Lidija; Lozert, Marija; Lezaić, Zeljka; Morović, Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate attention is being paid to the anxiety and depressive symptoms in acute stroke, although these problems are known to influence the patients' neurological outcome. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the acute stage of ischemic stroke and to identify the factors associated with such problems. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 40 patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted during a period of one month. Statistical analyses were performed by the SigmaStat (Version 2.0) software. Study results showed 55% of study patients to suffer from depressive symptoms and 40% from both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. There was a correlation of depressive symptoms (HADS-D score) with MMSE (p symptoms (HADS-A score) with MMSE (p symptoms were more frequent in the acute stage ofischemic stroke. Study patients had a high prevalence of both groups of symptoms. Therefore, attention should be paid to the anxiety and depressive symptoms in stroke units and try to relieve the patients' emotional stress and personal suffering, which could improve their neurological outcome.

  12. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms...

  13. Longitudinal and Incremental Relation of Cybervictimization to Negative Self-Cognitions and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Nick, Elizabeth; Martin, Nina C; Roeder, Kathryn M; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents are among the most frequent users of social media websites, raising concern about the dangers of cyber bullying or cybervictimization (CV). A 12-month longitudinal study examined the unique, prospective relation of CV to the development of negative self-cognitions and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 827 children and young adolescents (ages 8-13; 55.1 % female) from the southeastern United States. Over and above conventional types of peer victimization, CV significantly predicted changes in self-referential negative cognitions, victimization-related cognitive reactions, and depressive symptoms, even after controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables. Results also showed that CV was significantly less stable than other forms of victimization and tended to increase slightly with time. The study highlights the unique effects of CV and has implications for research and practice.

  14. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J.

    2015-01-01

    Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient Introduction . Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method . We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Res...

  15. Overweight during childhood and internalizing symptoms in early adolescence: The mediating role of peer victimization and the desire to be thinner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Laura; Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Dubois, Lise; Japel, Christa; Falissard, Bruno; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M

    2016-09-15

    Overweight is associated with depression and anxiety among adults. It is unclear whether this association begins in childhood. Overweight among children is associated with a higher risk of peer victimization, and may mediate an association between overweight and internalizing symptoms. No study has tested this hypothesis in a longitudinal population-based sample using developmental trajectories of overweight in middle childhood. Data was drawn from the population-based Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. A three-group trajectory model of overweight development (6-12 years) was previously identified using a semi-parametric group-based approach (n=1678): "early-onset" (11.0%), "late-onset" (16.6%) and "never overweight" (72.5%). Mediation models tested the link between overweight status and child-reported depression and anxiety at 13 years via peer victimization and body dissatisfaction. Children on an early-onset overweight trajectory were at increased risk for both depression (B=.318, 95% CI=.141;.496) and anxiety (B=.262, 95% CI=.09;.44) at 13 years. These direct associations were mediated by peer victimization and subsequent desire to be thinner. Children on a late-onset childhood overweight trajectory were at increased risk for both depression (B=.332, 95% CI=.187;.477) and anxiety (B=.215; 95% CI=.072;.358) at 13 years, mediated by the desire to be thinner. We were unable to control for previous levels of body dissatisfaction. Our measure of peer victimization was not specific to weight-based teasing. Overweight during middle childhood increases risk of early adolescence internalizing symptoms. Peer victimization and body dissatisfaction are partly responsible for this link. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between religiosity and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleima Cogollo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Several studies report a significant association between religiosity and depressive symptoms among adolescents; but, other researches do not. Up to date, this relation has not investigated in adolescent students who live in a violent and low-income country. Objective: To establish the correlation between religiosity and depressive symptoms among students in Cartagena, Colombia. Method: A cross-sectional study was done with participation of adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Students completed two scales: the five-item form of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity (Francis-5, which asked about God, Jesus and prayer (higher scores suggest higher religiosity; and the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5 inquired depressive symptoms last two weeks (lower scores suggest higher depressive symptoms. It was accepted as a significant Pearson correlation (rho, r a coefficient value higher than 0.20. A total of 1,730 students answered the questionnaires. The mean age was 14.7 (SD = 1.2. According to gender, 912 (52.7% students were girls; and 818 (47.3%, boys. Francis-5 showed high internal consistency, coefficient alpha of 0.909; and coefficient omega of 0.910. WHO-5 presented coefficient alpha of 0.757; and omega of 0.759. The Francis-5 scores were between zero and twenty (Mean = 18.2, SD = 3.0, median = 20, mode = 20; and WHO-5 scores, between zero and fifteen (Mean = 10.2, SD = 3.1, median = 10, mode = 10. Religiosity had not significant correlation with depressive symptoms (r = 0.080. Conclusions: Religiosity is not associated with depressive symptoms among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. (DUAZARY 2013 No. 1, 15 - 19Keywords: Depressive symptoms; religiosity; adolescents; students; cross-sectional studyResumenIntroducción: varios estudios informan asociación significativa entre religiosidad y síntomas depresivos en adolescentes; sin embargo, otras investigaciones no. Hasta la fecha, esta relación no se

  17. Coping, Negative Cognitive Style and Depressive Symptoms in Children of Depressed Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Jennifer P; McKee, Laura; Rakow, Aaron; Watson, Kelly H; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-02-01

    Coping and negative cognitive style were studied in relation to depressive symptoms in children at risk for depression. In a sample of 165 children (ages 9-15) of depressed parents, the main and interaction effects of coping and negative cognitive style were examined in association with children's depressive symptoms measured by parent and child report on questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Negative cognitive style was related to three types of coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement). Furthermore, coping and negative cognitive style made independent contributions to depressive symptoms. Little support emerged for interactive effects on depressive symptoms. Implications for future research with this high-risk population of children are considered.

  18. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  20. Subclinical depressive symptoms during late midlife and structural brain alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Sørensen, Lauge; Rozing, Maarten

    2018-01-01

    exclusion of men (n = 3) with scores in the range of clinical depression the inverse correlation between depressive symptoms and hippocampal volume became insignificant (r = -13, p = .08). Depressive symptoms at age 59 correlated positively with hippocampal and amygdala texture-potential early markers...... of atrophy. Inverse relations with total gray matter and pallidum volumes lost significance when the analysis was adjusted for intracranial volume. In men, depressive symptoms at age 51 were associated with a reduced volume of the hippocampus at age 59 independent of later symptoms. Amygdala and hippocampal...

  1. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms from Adolescence into Young Adulthood: Building Strength through Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel S. Yeung; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated how changes in peer victimization were associated with changes in internalizing symptoms among 662 adolescents across a 4-year period. The moderating effects of initial levels of father, mother, and friend emotional support on this association were also examined. Gender and age group differences (early…

  2. CYBER BULLYING, CYBER VICTIMIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS: A STUDY IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Mustafa; AYDIN, Betul; Serkan Volkan SARI

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between cyber bullying, cyber victimization and psychological symptoms was investigated in adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 300 high school student adolescents who attend different types of high schools in Trabzon in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study, demographic data form, The Scale of Cyber bullying and Brief Symptom Inventory were used as data collection instruments. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients, One-Way ANOVA and independent samp...

  3. The Differential Victimization Associated With Depression and Anxiety in Cross-Cultural Perspective: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchang, Jin; Junyi, Li; Junxiu, An; Jing, Wu; Mingcheng, He

    2017-01-01

    Traditional bullying and cyberbullying have become serious worldwide issues. The meta-analysis in this article took a cross-cultural perspective to explore whether there were any differences between the effects of cyber victimization and traditional victimization on the presence of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents and to examine the effects of moderators in explaining these differences/similarities. Fifty-six empirical studies (generating 148 independent samples) were included with a total sample size of 214,819 participants. The results indicated that the effects of cyber victimization and the subtypes of traditional victimization on anxiety were significantly different, and there was a marginally significant difference for depression. The moderating effects of country of origin were found to be significant for depression, with the mean effect size in North America being significantly higher than in China and Europe, which suggested that culture was an important factor. The moderating effects of age were also found to be significant for the relationships between traditional victimization and depression, traditional victimization and anxiety, cyber victimization and depression, and cyber victimization and anxiety. In addition, the effect size for cyber victimization and depression has increased in more recent publication years.

  4. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  5. Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    harassed by colleagues, supervisors or subordinates. The results underline the importance of investigating sexual harassment from clients or customers and sexual harassment by colleagues, supervisors or subordinates as distinct types of harassment. We found no modification of the association between sexual......Background: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work....... This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial...

  6. [The effects of rumination on automatic thoughts and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Daiji; Matsunaga, Miki; Furutani, Kaichiro

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumination (reflective pondering and brooding) on automatic thoughts (both negative and positive) and depressive symptoms. University students (N=183; 96 men) completed the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R), and Response Style Scale (RSS). We conducted a path analysis which included gender as a factor. The results revealed that brooding was associated with negative automatic thoughts. Negative automatic thoughts contributed to the aggravation of depressive symptoms. In contrast, reflective pondering was associated with positive automatic thoughts. Positive automatic thoughts contributed to the reduction of depressive symptoms. These results indicate that rumination does not affect depressive symptoms directly. We suggest that rumination affects depressive symptoms indirectly through automatic thoughts, and that there are gender differences in the influence process.

  7. [An evaluation of anxiety and depression symptoms in fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Emanuella Barros; Quintans Junior, Lucindo José; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, José Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms was, respectively, 50% and 86% for individuals with fibromyalgia, and the mean trait-anxiety score was 59.38. An association was observed between trait and state anxiety. Anxiety and depression were frequent symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia. However, anxiety appeared as a secondary symptom to depression, appearing in a more severe form, and, therefore, this comorbidity should be more valued and studied.

  8. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Canadian Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Gorter, Jan Willem; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    We identified courses of depressive symptoms in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults. We used latent class growth modeling to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during a 14-year follow-up of 2825 Canadian youths aged 10 to 25 years enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth between 1994 and 2009. After adjustment for youth, parent, and family factors, the 3 distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms were minimal (55%; CES-D  18). All trajectories exhibited a parallel course, with peak symptoms at 15 to 17 years of age. Subclinical and clinical symptoms were more common than minimal symptoms in female youths and in respondents with lower self-concept, lower socioeconomic status, poorer interpersonal relations, and chronic health conditions (P stress theories of depression.

  9. Depressive symptom clusters are differentially associated with atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, B A A; Marijnissen, R M; Holewijn, S; Franke, B; Purandare, N; de Graaf, J; den Heijer, M; Buitelaar, J K; Voshaar, R C Oude

    2011-07-01

    Depression increases the risk of subsequent vascular events in both cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Atherosclerosis, the underlying process leading to vascular events, has been associated with depression. This association, however, may be confounded by the somatic-affective symptoms being a consequence of cardiovascular disease. While taking into account the differentiation between somatic-affective and cognitive-affective symptoms of depression, we examined the association between depression and atherosclerosis in a community-based sample. In 1261 participants of the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (NBS), aged 50-70 years and free of stroke and dementia, we measured the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery as a measure of atherosclerosis and we assessed depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Principal components analysis (PCA) of the BDI items yielded two factors, representing a cognitive-affective and a somatic-affective symptom cluster. While correcting for confounders, we used separate multiple regression analyses to test the BDI sum score and both depression symptom clusters. We found a significant correlation between the BDI sum score and the IMT. Cognitive-affective, but not somatic-affective, symptoms were also associated with the IMT. When we stratified for coronary artery disease (CAD), the somatic-affective symptom cluster correlated significantly with depression in both patients with and patients without CAD. The association between depressive symptoms and atherosclerosis is explained by the somatic-affective symptom cluster of depression. Subclinical vascular disease thus may inflate depressive symptom scores and may explain why treatment of depression in cardiac patients hardly affects vascular outcome.

  10. The Moderating Effect of Teacher Support on Depression and Relational Victimization in Minority Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, Stephanie T.; Witherspoon, Ryan G.; Harper, Meg E.; Sovran, Brittany A.

    2012-01-01

    Support provided by caring teacher-student relationships is essential for the emotional well-being of students who are bullied. The researchers were interested in discovering whether perceived teacher support would moderate the relationship between relational victimization and depression in low-income minority middle school students. A mixed…

  11. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal.

  12. The Moderating Effect of Physical Activity on the Association Between ADHD Symptoms and Peer Victimization in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tarrah B; Cooley, John L; Evans, Spencer C; Fite, Paula J

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with higher levels of victimization, but little is known about protective factors. The purpose of the study was to examine whether physical activity attenuated the associations among ADHD symptoms and physical and relational victimization 1.5 years later. Participants included 168 s through fourth grade students (M age = 8.43; 52.4 % boys) who completed self-reports of physical activity and victimization; teachers provided ratings of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in physical, but not relational, victimization among children who reported engaging in moderate/high levels of physical activity, especially out of the school context (moderate: β = .26, p = .03; high: β = .55, p victimization that they might experience.

  13. Minding the gap: Subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Mishra, Sandeep; Meadows, Tyler J S; Parmar, Priya; Huang, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has linked depressive symptoms to various indices of societal-level inequality and relative deprivation. A larger literature has also addressed cognitive vulnerability and correlates of depression. Despite this evidence, little research to date has examined the relationship of depressive symptoms with such downstream individual-level consequences of inequality as subjective relative deprivation, or whether relative deprivation is associated with cognitive vulnerability in depression. We conducted two investigations among four separate samples (total N = 2999) to examine associations between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms and cognitions. Across our studies and four different self-report measures of depressive symptoms, we found consistent significant positive associations between subjective relative deprivation and depression symptoms. Further, we found that subjective relative deprivation was predictive of depressive symptoms over and above other known vulnerability factors. Finally, we found that the relationship between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by negative automatic thoughts about self. These results provide further evidence of the importance of subjective deprivation in maintaining negative mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychomotor symptoms in depression: A diagnostic, pathophysiological and therapeutic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychomotor disturbances have been described repeatedly over many centuries. More recently, Sobin and Sackeim [Sobin, C., Sackeim, H.A., 1997. Psychomotor symptoms of depression. Am. J. Psychiatry. 154, 4–17.] discussed the relevance of psychomotor symptoms in depression in an extensive review.

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  16. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Pack, Allan I; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-02-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations.

  17. Depressive symptoms in the general population : a multifactorial social approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Vivian Petronella

    2004-01-01

    This book aims to provide a more systematic theoretical and empirical analysis of the relationships between social factors and depressive symptoms in the general population. A multifactorial social approach has been applied to study depressive symptoms in the general population more profoundly,

  18. Depression and burnout symptoms among Air Force family medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Derrick F; Foutch, Brian K

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of depression and burnout symptoms among family medicine providers on active duty in the US Air Force. Results demonstrated that 84% of those surveyed scored positive for degrees of depression symptoms; only sex differences were significant.

  19. Sexual Self-Schema and Depressive Symptoms after Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A.; Carpenter, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The years following prostate cancer (PC) treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schemas (SSS) are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually-relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Methods Men (N=66) treated for localized PC in the preceding two years were assessed at T1 and four months later (T2). Questionnaires included the CESD (Radloff, 1977), Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Men (Andersen et al., 1999), Sexual Experience Scale (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1979), and the EPIC (Wei et al., 2000). Results Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B=−.25, psexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. PMID:24920457

  20. Depression, subthreshold depression and comorbid anxiety symptoms in older Europeans: Results from the EURODEP concerted action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, A.W.; Copeland, J.R.M.; Delespaul, P.A.E.G.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Como, A.; Dewey, M.; Fichter, M.; Holwerda, T.J.; Lawlor, B.A.; Lobo, A.; Magnusson, H.; Prince, M.J.; Reischies, F.M.; Wilson, K.C.; Skoog, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the epidemiology of late life depression, few insights are available on the co-occurrence of subthreshold depression and comorbid symptoms of anxiety. The current study aims to describe prevalence patterns of comorbid anxiety symptoms across different levels of depression in old age,

  1. Children's Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  2. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators Between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler’s Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Tissot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.

  3. Benefits of expressive writing in lowering rumination and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortner, Eva-Maria; Rude, Stephanie S; Pennebaker, James W

    2006-09-01

    Depression-vulnerable college students (with both elevated prior depressive symptoms and low current depressive symptoms) wrote on 3 consecutive days in either an expressive writing or a control condition. As predicted, participants scoring above the median on the suppression scale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003) showed significantly lower depression symptoms at the 6-month assessment when they wrote in the expressive writing versus the control condition. Additional analyses revealed that treatment benefits were mediated by changes in the Brooding but not the Reflection scale of the Ruminative Response Scale (Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991). A "booster" writing session predicted to enhance treatment benefits failed to have a significant effect.

  4. Self-Stigma and Its Relationship with Victimization, Psychotic Symptoms and Self-Esteem among People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M A Horsselenberg

    Full Text Available Self-stigma is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and can be seen as an important factor leading to low self-esteem. It is however unclear how psychological factors and actual adverse events contribute to self-stigma. This study empirically examines how symptom severity and the experience of being victimized affect both self-stigma and self-esteem.Persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N = 102 were assessed with a battery of self-rating questionnaires and interviews. Structural equation modelling (SEM was subsequently applied to test the fit of three models: a model with symptoms and victimization as direct predictors of self-stigma and negative self-esteem, a model with an indirect effect for symptoms mediated by victimization and a third model with a direct effect for negative symptoms and an indirect effect for positive symptoms mediated by victimization.Results showed good model fit for the direct effects of both symptoms and victimization: both lead to an increase of self-stigma and subsequent negative self-esteem. Negative symptoms had a direct association with self-stigma, while the relationship between positive symptoms and self-stigma was mediated by victimization.Our findings suggest that symptoms and victimization may contribute to self-stigma, leading to negative self-esteem in individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Especially for patients with positive symptoms victimization seems to be an important factor in developing self-stigma. Given the burden of self-stigma on patients and the constraining effects on societal participation and service use, interventions targeting victimization as well as self-stigma are needed.

  5. Self-Stigma and Its Relationship with Victimization, Psychotic Symptoms and Self-Esteem among People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsselenberg, Ellen M A; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Aleman, Andre; Pijnenborg, Gerdine H M

    2016-01-01

    Self-stigma is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and can be seen as an important factor leading to low self-esteem. It is however unclear how psychological factors and actual adverse events contribute to self-stigma. This study empirically examines how symptom severity and the experience of being victimized affect both self-stigma and self-esteem. Persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N = 102) were assessed with a battery of self-rating questionnaires and interviews. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was subsequently applied to test the fit of three models: a model with symptoms and victimization as direct predictors of self-stigma and negative self-esteem, a model with an indirect effect for symptoms mediated by victimization and a third model with a direct effect for negative symptoms and an indirect effect for positive symptoms mediated by victimization. Results showed good model fit for the direct effects of both symptoms and victimization: both lead to an increase of self-stigma and subsequent negative self-esteem. Negative symptoms had a direct association with self-stigma, while the relationship between positive symptoms and self-stigma was mediated by victimization. Our findings suggest that symptoms and victimization may contribute to self-stigma, leading to negative self-esteem in individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Especially for patients with positive symptoms victimization seems to be an important factor in developing self-stigma. Given the burden of self-stigma on patients and the constraining effects on societal participation and service use, interventions targeting victimization as well as self-stigma are needed.

  6. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Depression has been shown to affect mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of depressive symptoms among CKD patients. Materials and Methods: A ...

  7. The association of depression status with menopause symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of Chinese rural midlife women do not experience depression. The relationship between depression, VMS and sleep disturbances tends to change with menopausal status in Chinese rural midlife women. Keywords: depression, poor sleep, vasomotor symptoms, menopause, rural women ...

  8. Symptoms and depression: it’s time to break up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R.B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Depressive patients differ strongly in their presented symptom patterns, in how they respond to treatment, and in how their depression develops over time. These differences are poorly understood and a likely reason for the lack of advances in depression research and clinical treatment. In his

  9. Transformational leadership and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between transformational leadership and depressive symptoms in employees working within healthcare. 447 employees completed a baseline survey and 274 completed a follow-up survey 18 months later. 188 completed both baseline and follow-up survey. Transformational leadership was measured using the Global Transformational Leadership Scale and depression was measured using with the Major Depression Inventory. Transformational leadership was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at baseline (beta=-0.31, ptransformational leadership style may help toward protecting employees from developing major depression.

  10. Depressive and paradepressive symptoms clinical features in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Sincha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, etiology and pathogenesis of which is still not completely uncovered and cause number of complications, decrease quality of life and hinder rehabilitation of the patients. Materials and metods. In order to establish depression and paradepressive symptoms features in patients with schizophrenia the next methods were used: clinical- psychopathological, anamnestic and catamnestic methods. 107 patients with schizophrenia (F20 and 30 patients with schizoaffective disorder, mixed type (F25 were examined. Conclusion. Correlative relationship between depressive, hallucinatory-delusional, deficits and neuroleptic manifestations symptoms has been indicated. factors of induction and amplification of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were determined. Ethiopsychopathogenic variants of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were obtained.

  11. AN EVALUATION OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS IN FIBROMYALGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Emanuella Barros dos; Quintans Junior, Lucindo Jose; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, Jose Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the S...

  12. A prospective study of predictors of depression symptoms in police

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Henn-Haase, Clare; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Tong, Huiqi; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Police work is one of the most stressful occupations. Previous research has indicated that work stress and trauma exposure may place individuals at heightened risk for the development of depression symptomatology. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to examine predictors of depression symptoms in police service.119 healthy police recruits from an ongoing prospective study were examined. Participants completed baseline measures of depression symptoms, childhood trauma exposure, ne...

  13. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for residual depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Tara; Dooley, Barbara; Bates, Anthony; Lawlor, Elizabeth; Malone, Kevin

    2007-06-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a new group-based intervention for prevention of relapse in recurrent depression which has not been scientifically evaluated regarding its clinical effectiveness for ameliorating residual depressive symptoms following a depressive episode. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of MBCT in reducing residual depressive symptoms in psychiatric outpatients with recurrent depression, and to particularly explore the effects of mindfulness techniques on rumination. The design of this study was a mixed model complex design. Design 1 consisted of a consecutive series of patients. They were assigned to either MBCT or TAU. The independent variables were time and group allocation, and dependent variables were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Rumination Scale. In Design 2, the TAU group proceeded to complete an MBCT group, and the BDI and Rumination Scale results of the two groups were collapsed. Nineteen patients with residual depressive symptoms following a depressive episode, and who were attending outpatient clinic, were assigned to either MBCT or treatment as usual (TAU), with the TAU group then proceeding to complete an MBCT group. Depressive and ruminative symptoms were assessed before, during, and after treatment, and at one-month follow-up. A significant reduction in depressive symptoms was found at the end of MBCT, with a further reduction at one-month follow-up. A trend towards a reduction in rumination scores was also observed. Group MBCT has a marked effect on residual depressive symptoms, which may be mediated through the mindfulness-based cognitive approach towards excessive negative ruminations in patients with residual depressive symptoms following a depressive episode.

  14. Cyberstalking Victimization, Depression, and Academic Performance: The Role of Perceived Social Support from Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2018-02-01

    Little attention has been given to adolescents' experience of cyberstalking and how such experiences relate to their depression and academic performance. It is less clear how other variables, such as perceived social support, might impact these associations. Addressing these gaps in the literature, this study investigated the potential moderating effect of perceived social support from parents on the association between cyberstalking victimization and depression and academic performance, each assessed 1 year later, from 11th to 12th grade. Participants were 413 adolescents (ages 17-19 years old; 54 percent female; M = 17.39 years, SD = 0.53) in the 12th grade from a Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on their self-reported face-to-face and cyberstalking victimization, depression, and perceived social support from parents. Adolescents' academic performance was also assessed using their school records. During the 12th grade, depression and academic performance were examined again. The findings indicated that the association between cyberstalking victimization and Time 2 depression was much more positive at lower levels of perceived social support, while such an association was more negative at higher levels of perceived social support. Opposite patterns were found for Time 2 academic performance. The results indicate the need for additional research focused on cyberstalking about adolescents.

  15. The depressive personality disorder inventory and current depressive symptoms: implications for the assessment of depressive personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K

    2011-10-01

    The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.

  16. Depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness in adolescence: Impact of two decades of war and political violence on adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.

  17. Depressive symptoms and white matter changes in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Karin; Jonsson, Michael; Karlsson, Ingvar; Sjögren, Magnus; Wallin, Anders; Edman, Ake

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if depressive symptoms in demented patients are associated with white matter changes (WMCs) in the brain. WMCs are frequently found in patients with dementia, as well as among elderly nondemented patients with depressive symptoms. However, it is less established whether or not WMCs are related to depressive symptoms in demented patients. 67 (26 men, 41 women) patients with primary degenerative dementia (Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia), vascular dementia (VaD), or mixed Alzheimer/VaD dementia were included in the study. The patients were young-old (mean 68.1, SD 7.3). All patients underwent a standardized examination procedure and MRI of the brain. The degree of WMCs was visually rated, blindly. Depressive symptoms were rated according to the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale (anxiety, fear-panic, depressed mood). No significant relationship was found between WMCs and depressive symptoms in the demented patients. The possible involvement of WMCs in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms in dementia is unclear. A link between disruptions of frontal-subcortical pathways, due to WMCs, and depressive symptomatology in dementia has been hypothesised from earlier findings, which would imply common elements of pathogenesis for depressive symptomatology and cognitive impairment in dementia. However, the results of the present study do not add further support to this hypothesis. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Negative Experiences on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances in Korean American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances among Korean American women. Forty-nine women completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. Overall, participants scored 12.56 (SD = 9.93 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 5.31 (SD = 3.01 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and -2.27 (SD = 1.64 on the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. Approximately 29% of the women (n = 14 scored 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale indicating that they had elevated depressive symptoms, and 39% (n = 19 scored 6 or higher on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which indicated that they had sleep disturbances. Results from the stepwise multiple regression, controlling for the degree of the women’s acculturation, indicated that sleep disturbances (β = .39, p = .004 were significantly positively related to depressive symptoms, F(2, 46 = 7.27, p = .002 and the model explained 24% of the variance in women’s depressive symptoms. When taking care of Korean American women who have elevated depressive symptoms, their sleep disturbances need to be assessed. Health practitioners need to assess for depressive symptoms in women with sleep disturbances.

  20. Clinical neuroprediction: Amygdala reactivity predicts depressive symptoms 2 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Whitney I; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Monk, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Depression is linked to increased amygdala activation to neutral and negatively valenced facial expressions. Amygdala activation may be predictive of changes in depressive symptoms over time. However, most studies in this area have focused on small, predominantly female and homogenous clinical samples. Studies are needed to examine how amygdala reactivity relates to the course of depressive symptoms dimensionally, prospectively and in populations diverse in gender, race and socioeconomic status. A total of 156 men from predominately low-income backgrounds completed an fMRI task where they viewed emotional facial expressions. Left and right amygdala reactivity to neutral, but not angry or fearful, facial expressions relative to a non-face baseline at age 20 predicted greater depressive symptoms 2 years later, controlling for age 20 depressive symptoms. Heightened bilateral amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions predicted increases in depressive symptoms 2 years later in a large community sample. Neutral facial expressions are affectively ambiguous and a tendency to interpret these stimuli negatively may reflect to cognitive biases that lead to increases in depressive symptoms over time. Individual differences in amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions appear to identify those at most risk for a more problematic course of depressive symptoms across time. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescent Students in Greek High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsironi, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Gialama, Fotini; Zacharopoulou, Georgia; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Avraam, Nikolaos; Prezerakos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-06

    Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the presence of depressive symptoms in Greek adolescent high school students and to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. For that purpose, a cross-sectional study design was conducted in two public schools in Megalopolis, Greece, from April 2012 to July 2012, using a self-administered questionnaire based on DSM-IV. The target population involved 222 high school students and the response rate was 74.75%. Data was analyzed using trend χ(2) test, student's t-test and bivariate analysis. The analysis of survey data was conducted using the SPSS (19.0). Main findings demonstrate that 3.6% had symptoms of major depressive episode. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in girls, while statistically significant relationships were found between students' physical (P<0.01) and mental health (P<0.008), students' experiences in school (P<0.02), students' experiences with friends (P<0.008) and the frequency of depressive symptoms. Overall, the study results reveal that depressive symptoms can occur in adolescents. Early diagnosis, as well as the need for psychological care at adolescence is necessary for the prevention of major depressive disorders.

  2. Exploring the Relations between Parent Depressive Symptoms, Family Religious Involvement, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Test of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…

  3. Associations Between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Breuk, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Lie, M.E.H.; Boonstra, A. M.; Swaab, H.J.T.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients (n = 202) and controls (n = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and

  4. Enhancing depression screening to identify college students at risk for persistent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2015-03-15

    Depressive symptoms in college students are prevalent and are associated with considerable academic impairment. Many universities have implemented depressive symptom screening programs and the number of students identified as in need of services following screening greatly exceeds available mental health resources. The present study sought to refine depressive symptom screening programs by identifying predictors of a persistent course of depressive symptoms and developing cut-scores for accurately identifying students who will experience a persistent symptom course. Students (n=262) who reported elevated depressive symptoms both an initial screening and baseline assessment (n=150) were invited to participate in telephone-based follow-up assessments 4, 8, and 12 months post-baseline. Two depressive symptom courses were identified: a persistently elevated depressive symptoms course and a decreasing depressive symptoms course. Baseline social disconnection and negative feedback-seeking both significantly predicted membership in the persistently elevated depressive symptoms course. Cut-scores that robustly discriminated between the two symptom courses were identified. The present sample was predominantly female and Hispanic; the four-month spacing of assessments may have resulted in a failure to identify individuals who experience brief, yet impairing, recurrent depressive episodes. These findings can inform approaches to identifying college students most in need of mental health services for depressive symptoms based on the presence of social disconnection and/or negative feedback-seeking. Screening cut-points on social disconnection and negative feedback-seeking measures can reduce the number of cases identified as needing mental health services while retaining the majority of cases who will experience a persistent depressive symptom course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic and inflammatory markers: associations with individual depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, F; Milaneschi, Y; de Jonge, P; Giltay, E J; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-09-11

    Literature has shown that obesity, metabolic syndrome and inflammation are associated with depression, however, evidence suggests that these associations are specific to atypical depression. Which of the atypical symptoms are driving associations with obesity-related outcomes and inflammation is unknown. We evaluated associations between individual symptoms of depression (both atypical and non-atypical) and body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome components and inflammatory markers. We included 808 persons with a current diagnosis of depression participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (67% female, mean age 41.6 years). Depressive symptoms were derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, educational level, depression severity, current smoking, physical activity, anti-inflammatory medication use, and statin use were performed. Increased appetite was positively associated with BMI, number of metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α. Decreased appetite was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Psychomotor retardation was positively associated with BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and insomnia with number of metabolic syndrome components. Increased appetite - in the context of a depressive episode - was the only symptom that was associated with both metabolic as well as inflammatory markers, and could be a key feature of an immuno-metabolic form of depression. This immuno-metabolic depression should be considered in clinical trials evaluating effectiveness of compounds targeting metabolic and inflammatory pathways or lifestyle interventions.

  6. Do depressive symptoms explain associations between binge eating symptoms and later psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E

    2016-12-01

    Prospective associations between binge eating symptoms (i.e., objective overeating [OOE] and loss of control [LOC] eating) and psychosocial functioning during emerging adulthood were examined using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We examined associations between OOE and LOC eating and psychosocial functioning variables with and without adjusting for concurrent depressive symptoms. Analyses revealed that OOE at Wave 3 (ages 18-28) was associated with depressive symptoms, social isolation, weight perception, and perceived attractiveness seven years later at Wave 4 (ages 25-35) and LOC eating at Wave 3 was associated with later depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, weight perception, social isolation, number of close friends, and sleep difficulty. Analyses adjusted for depressive symptoms at Wave 3 revealed that OOE at Wave 3 was associated with social isolation and perceived attractiveness at Wave 4 and LOC eating at Wave 3 was associated with later depressive symptoms, isolation, number of close friends, and sleep difficulty. Results show that binge eating symptoms are prospectively associated with psychosocial impairment during emerging adulthood even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Rather than simply screening for depressive symptoms, results highlight the utility of screening for binge eating symptoms as these symptoms are independently associated with psychosocial impairment in emerging adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Depressive symptoms in newly admitted nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Wilco; Pot, Anne Margriet; Kerkstra, Ada; Ribbe, Miel

    2006-12-01

    To study the relationship between the prevalence of depressive symptoms in newly admitted nursing home residents and their previous place of residence. In 65 nursing homes in the Netherlands trained physicians assessed 562 residents (mean age 78.5, range 28-101, 64.6% female) within 10 days after admission. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Minimum Data Set (MDS) Depression Rating Scale (DRS), and the MDS items: 'diagnosis of major or minor depression', 'change in depression' and 'indicators of persistent depressed, sad or anxious mood disorder present'. Previous place of residence was categorized as 'own home', 'hospital' or 'sheltered living facility'. Adjustments were performed for demographic and health related factors measured with the MDS. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (DRS > or = 3) for all 562 residents was 26.9%; it was higher in residents admitted from their own home (34.3%) than in residents admitted from the hospital (19.7%) (p = 0.002). Residents who were admitted from the hospital have an adjusted Odds Ratio for having many depressive symptoms of 0.54 (95% CI 0.31-0.94) compared to residents admitted from their own home. There is, after adjustment, no statistical significant difference between residents admitted from their own home, or residents admitted from a sheltered living facility. Depressive symptoms are very prevalent in nursing homes. Residents who are admitted from their own home, or from a residential facility, have more depressive symptoms than residents admitted from the hospital. This may reflect different conceptualizations or different adjustment patterns for those groups. For a better understanding of the factors associated with nursing home depression, future studies in detection, prevention and management of depressive symptoms should start prior to or directly after admission, especially for those who have no prior institutional history.

  8. Bidirectionality Between Sleep Symptoms and Core Depressive Symptoms and Their Long-Term Course in Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Conradi, Henk Jan; Bos, Elisabeth H; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the bidirectional dynamic relationship between sleep symptoms and core depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups differing with respect to their course. The weekly state of depressive symptoms in depressed primary care patients (N = 267) was assessed retrospectively every 3 months for 3 consecutive years. The bidirectional relationship between sleep and core symptoms was estimated by means of manifest Markov modeling. Data-driven subgroups were estimated with parallel processes-latent class growth analyses to identify differences in courses of sleep and core symptoms. In total, core symptoms were associated with next-week development (odds = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-1.67; p sleep symptoms (odds = 0.86; 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99, p = .033).Evidence was also found for a reverse pathway such that sleep symptoms were associated with the development (odds = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.05-1.50; p = .012) and remission of core symptoms (odds = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.76-0.99; p = .038). Three classes with different 3-year courses were derived. In class 1, the likelihood that core symptoms remitted was reduced if sleep symptoms were present, and symptoms remained present over 3 years. In class 2, symptoms were bidirectionally related and remitted over 3 years. In class 3, symptoms were not associated, and sleep symptoms declined less steeply than core depressive symptoms. The results suggest that sleep symptoms should be treated alongside core depressive symptoms in patients with an asynchronic decrease of sleep and core symptoms and in patients that do not respond to treatment to increase the chance of complete remission.

  9. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  10. Correlates of Irritability in College Students With Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment. PMID:24177482

  11. [Somatization Symptoms in Lung Cancer Patients and Correlative Analysis between Anxiety, Depression and Somatization Symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyao; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2017-07-20

    Lung cancer is a serious threat to human health and its morbidity and mortality in recent years has always been ranked first in the country. Lung cancer patients are often associated with anxiety, depression and other emotional problems, and anxiety, depression and other emotional problems will further lead to a series of somatic symptoms. At present, we lack the clinical understanding of somatization symptoms in patients with lung cancer and related clinical studies are not too much. This research is to study the features of clinical manifestation of lung cancer patients with somatization symptoms and correlative analysis between anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms in medical oncology department of general hospital. Lung cancer patients who met somatization symptoms diagnostic standard were assessed with the self-constructed somatic symptoms investigation questionnaire, the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and anxiety and depression were recorded by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). The detection rate of the anxiety, depression and the number of patients with different severity somatization symptoms were calculated, the relationship between the PHQ-15 scores and anxiety and/or depression and the distribution of the different frequency somatization symptoms were analyzed. There were 43 patients with anxiety and/or depression in the 50 lung cancer patients with somatization symptoms. Prevalence rates of anxiety, depression and anxiety combined with depression were 10%, 10% and 66% respectively. The more severity the somatization symptoms are, the higher detection rates of anxiety combined with depression are. Significant positive correlations were observed between PHQ-15 scores, PHQ-15 positive symptom numbers and HAMA scores (r=0.752, Psomatization symptoms were fatigue (96%), weakness (88%), sleep disturbance (84%), dizziness (82%), and pain in extremities (80%). There was no

  12. Symptom severity of depressive symptoms impacts on social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  13. Dopamine transporter availability and depressive symptoms during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, T P; Ahonen, A; Räsänen, P; Tiihonen, J

    1999-06-30

    Alcohol-related temporary depressive symptoms are hypothesized to be related to dopaminergic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not depressive symptoms correlate with reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. We studied the DAT availability in 28 alcoholic subjects with beta-CIT ([123-iodium]-2-betacarbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropa ne) single photon emission tomography (SPET) and found a reduction in DAT availability during withdrawal that subsequently showed a significant increase during sobriety. The relationship between DAT availability and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating scale scores, both during withdrawal and after sobriety, was assessed. The main finding was a statistically significant correlation between DAT variances and depressive symptom scores during both states. The findings indicate a possible dopaminergic etiology for depressive symptoms in alcohol withdrawal, which suggests that dopaminergic antidepressants might be beneficial in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

  14. Personality disorder symptoms and functioning in elderly depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, R C; Spielman, L A; Alexopoulos, G S; Klausner, E

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relationship of personality disorder symptoms to disability and social and interpersonal functioning in geriatric depression. Measures of personality disorder and cognitive, affective, social, interpersonal, medical, socioeconomic factors, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) status were administered to 47 elderly patients at various levels of remission from major depression. Total personality disorder scores were inversely associated with IADL, sociability, and presence of a satisfying relationship, both alone and in interaction with depression. The associations between personality disorder and functioning were most prominent in subjects with low residual depression. Symptoms of personality disorder in elderly patients may be associated with disability and impaired social and interpersonal functioning after an acute depressive episode; personality disorder symptoms may also have treatment implications for geriatric depression.

  15. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which...... adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... Depression Scale 15 (GDS) at baseline and after 3 years. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender and education. RESULTS: Among 606 participants (41% women, mean age 75 years) without anti-depressant medication, GDS scores at baseline did not differ for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 47...

  16. Identification of depressive symptoms during postpartum in adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agustinho Cardillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers and to characterize them regarding sociodemographic, behavioral and mental health aspects. An observational study, descriptive and cross-sectional, developed in health units with 72 adolescent mothers through the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Within the participants, 20.8% presented depressive symptoms by the EPDS. The most frequent questions referred to the feelings of guilt, anxiety, and ideas to self-harm. We highlighted the feelings of guilt (60% and feelings of not being worth living (40%. Most participants (73.3% did not recognize to be depressed. The results show the importance to have an individualized prenatal, when is possible to know vulnerabilities, psychosocial and family aspects, to include tracking of depressive symptoms in the anamnesis and, to use it the attention network, the reference and the counter-reference.

  17. Antidepressant Use and Depressive Symptoms in Intensive Care Unit Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sophia; Mosher, Chris; Gao, Sujuan; Kirk, Kayla; Lasiter, Sue; Khan, Sikander; Kheir, You Na; Boustani, Malaz; Khan, Babar

    2017-09-01

    Nearly 30% of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors have depressive symptoms 2-12 months after hospital discharge. We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms and risk factors for depressive symptoms in 204 patients at their initial evaluation in the Critical Care Recovery Center (CCRC), an ICU survivor clinic based at Eskenazi Hospital in Indianapolis, Indiana. Thirty-two percent (N = 65) of patients had depressive symptoms on initial CCRC visit. For patients who are not on an antidepressant at their initial CCRC visit (N = 135), younger age and lower education level were associated with a higher likelihood of having depressive symptoms. For patients on an antidepressant at their initial CCRC visit (N = 69), younger age and being African American race were associated with a higher likelihood of having depressive symptoms. Future studies will need to confirm these findings and examine new approaches to increase access to depression treatment and test new antidepressant regimens for post-ICU depression. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in elderly people. Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Sabrina; Verdier-Taillefer, Marie-Hélène; Dufouil, Carole; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2002-11-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive decline in elderly people, but the nature of their temporal relationship remains equivocal. To test whether depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline in elderly people with normal cognition. The Center for Epidemiologic Study depression scale (CES-D) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to evaluate depressive symptomatology and cognitive functioning, respectively. A sample of 1003 persons aged 59-71 years and with a MMSE score of 26 or over was selected. Cognitive decline was defined as a drop of at least 3 points on the MMSE at 4-year follow-up. Baseline high levels of depressive symptoms predicted a higher risk of cognitive decline at 4-year follow-up. The MMSE score of participants with depression was more likely to fall below 26 at 2-year follow-up and to remain below at 4-year follow-up than the MMSE score of those without depressive symptoms. Persistent but not episodic depressive episodes were associated with cognitive decline. High levels of depressive symptoms, when persistent, are associated with cognitive decline in a sample of elderly people.

  19. Predictors of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Hepworth, Joseph T; Coull, Bruce M

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common yet often unrecognized consequence of stroke, affecting between 25% and 70% of all survivors. Untreated depression post-stroke leads to a poorer prognosis and increased mortality. However, the pattern and profile of post-stroke depression in chronic stroke are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the independent predictors of depressive symptoms in chronic stroke. Community-dwelling stroke survivors (n = 100) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Functional disability and cognitive impairment were assessed using standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore potential independent predictors of depressive symptoms. Subjects were, on average, 70 ± 10 years old and 39 ± 49 months post-stroke. The majority were white/European-American (78%), college educated (79%), and retirees (77%). Annual income was $50 000 or greater for 32%. Hemiparesis was common (right side, 39%; left side, 42%); 35% had a Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale score of 16 or higher, and 21% had a history of major depression. Approximately 64% of the variance in depressive symptoms could be explained by the independent variables in the model: quality of life, sleep quality, social support, cognitive impairment, functional disability, months post-stroke, age, gender, history of major depression, and lesion location (R = 0.64, F12,87 = 12.97, P symptoms among these stroke survivors. Depressive symptoms are prevalent in chronic stroke survivors, even among an educated and economically advantaged population. Our findings are similar to reports by others that poor quality of life and low social support are major contributors to depressive symptoms in chronic stroke and should be routinely assessed and monitored to improve long-term rehabilitation

  20. Depression Symptom Patterns and Social Correlates among Chinese Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES. The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education, physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients’ ethnocultural backgrounds.

  1. What are 'good' depression symptoms?: Comparing the centrality of DSM and non-DSM symptoms of depression in a network analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fried, E.I; Epskamp, S; Nesse, R.M; Tuerlinckx, F; Borsboom, D

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms for Major Depression (MD) defined in the DSM-5 differ markedly from symptoms assessed in common rating scales, and the empirical question about core depression symptoms is unresolved...

  2. Children’s Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children’s depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children’s EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using parent-report of Children’s Depression Inventory. The key findings are the interaction effects between baseline and film frontal EEG asymmetry on child depressive symptoms. Specifically, relative right frontal EEG asymmetry while watching happy or sad film clip was associated with elevated depressive symptoms for children who also exhibited right frontal EEG asymmetry at baseline. Results suggest that right frontal EEG asymmetry that is consistent across situations may be an marker of depression-prone children. PMID:21894523

  3. Predictive factors of depression symptoms among adolescents in the 18-month follow-up after Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Cheryl H K; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Li, Rong-Hui; Fan, Mei; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Yuan-Hao; Ou, Guo Jing; Jiang, Zhe; Tong, Yu-Zhen; Fang, Ding-Zhi

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear about the change and risk factors of depression among adolescent survivors after earthquake. This study aimed to explore the change of depression, and identify the predictive factors of depression among adolescent survivors after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The depression among high school students at 6, 12 and 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake were investigated. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used in this study to assess the severity of depression. Subjects included 548 student survivors in an affected high school. The rates of depression among the adolescent survivors at 6-, 12- and 18-month after the earthquake were 27.3%, 42.9% and 33.3%, respectively, for males, and 42.9%, 61.9% and 53.4%, respectively, for females. Depression symptoms, trauma-related self-injury, suicidal ideation and PTSD symptoms at the 6-month follow-up were significant predictive factors for depression at the 18-month time interval following the earthquake. This study highlights the need for considering disaster-related psychological sequela and risk factors of depression symptoms in the planning and implementation of mental health services. Long-term mental and psychological supports for victims of natural disasters are imperative.

  4. Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S

    2014-03-01

    Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (Pdepression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  5. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bathla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29% whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72% based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33% and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%. The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0% and among females was anxious mood (92.85%. Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  6. Evaluation of depressive symptoms and sleep alterations in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Estrella, Jesús; Pérez-Benítez, Hugo; Solís-Rodríguez, Francisco; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that sleep alterations could favor subsequent depression development. In order to identify the simultaneous occurrence of these parameters in young people, in this work we evaluated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, sleep habits, and possible sleep disturbances in college students. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to students registered at the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida (mean age 20.2 +/- 2.6 years). The final sample was composed of 340 (53%) women and 298 (47%) men. Reliability of the BDI and ESS was assessed by Cronbach's alpha method. Taking 10 as ESS cut-off point, it was found that 31.6% of the students had a high level of sleepiness. Students with depressive symptoms had a greater number of days with somnolence during class (p students without symptoms. In comparison to subjects without depressive symptoms, students with those symptoms rated their sleep quality as poor (p depressive symptoms. Educating students for appropriate sleep hygiene and encouraging them to seek professional advice to treat sleep disturbances may be useful to prevent depression.

  7. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  8. Depressive symptoms and psychosocial aspects of work in bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, M S S; Menezes, P R; Pastor-Valero, M; Lopes, C S

    2016-01-01

    The financial sector has seen an increase in the number of cases of violence and stress, which can result in adverse health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, but studies related to stress at work and depression for these workers are scarce. To investigate the association between exposure to psychosocial work stressors and depressive symptoms in bank employees. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample of bank employees in Pará and Amapá, Brazil. The survey assessed sociodemographic characteristics, mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), Demand-Control-Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI). Outcomes included two levels of depressive symptoms: major depressive symptoms (MDS) and other forms of depressive symptoms (ODS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between depressive symptoms, the two job stress models and relevant covariates. Of 2806 eligible subjects, there were 1445 respondents (52% response rate) and the final analyses included 1046 participants. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 32% (MDS = 18%; ODS = 14%), with no statistically significant difference between men and women. High demands, low levels of control and low social support were associated with MDS and/or ODS, adjusted for gender, age and other work-related conditions. High effort/low reward, over-commitment and ERI were also associated with MDS and ODS. Psychosocial conditions in banking activity involving high strain, low social support at work, high effort with low reward and over-commitment may represent possible risk factors for depressive symptoms in bank employees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Exploring the relationship between physical health, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnoses in Hispanic dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.

  10. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: Prospective changes following first depression onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R.; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors’ roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every three months over the course of two years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of stress sensitization and generation processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression. PMID:25123081

  11. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  12. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-01-01

    disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent...... in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients...... and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed....

  13. Seasonal variation of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Ahmed; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Zhang, Tao; Potash, James B; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Solomon, David A; Coryell, William H

    2013-06-01

    Analyses of seasonal variation of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder in retrospective studies examining admission data have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a prospective cohort with long-term follow-up: the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). The CDS included participants from five academic centers with a prospective diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder. The sample was limited to those who were followed for at least 10 years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Time series analyses and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to assess seasonal patterns of manic and depressive symptoms. A total of 314 individuals were analyzed (bipolar I disorder, n = 202; bipolar II disorder, n = 112), with both disorders exhibiting the lowest frequency of depressive symptoms in summer and the highest around the winter solstice, though the winter peak in symptoms was statistically significant only with bipolar I disorder. Variation of manic symptoms was more pronounced in bipolar II disorder, with a significant peak in hypomanic symptomatology in the months surrounding the fall equinox. Significant seasonal variation exists in bipolar disorder, with manic/hypomanic symptoms peaking around the fall equinox and depressive symptoms peaking in the months surrounding the winter solstice in bipolar I disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Depressive symptoms, unemployment, and loss of income: The CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooley, Mary A; Kiefe, Catarina I; Chesney, Margaret A; Markovitz, Jerome H; Matthews, Karen; Hulley, Stephen B

    Previous studies have suggested an association between depression and low socioeconomic status, but few have empirically examined the effect of depressive symptoms on income and employment over time. To determine whether depressive symptoms are associated with subsequent unemployment or loss of family income. We performed a prospective cohort study of 5115 adults aged 18 to 30 years. These participants included approximately equal numbers of African Americans and whites and men and women from 4 cities in the United States who completed the 1990-1991 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. For this analysis, we included 2334 participants who were employed full or part time and who reported an annual family income of $25 000 or more. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and were considered to have depressive symptoms if they scored 16 or higher on the 60-point scale. We evaluated self-reported unemployment and annual family income during 5 years of follow-up. Thirty-three percent (118/354) of participants with depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score >/=16) in 1990-1991 and 21% (335/1581) of participants without substantial depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score education, history of unemployment, current part-time (vs full-time) employment, and cigarette smoking (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.0; P =.001). Seventeen percent (62/371) of participants with depressive symptoms and 7% (113/1631) of participants without substantial depressive symptoms in 1990-1991 reported that their family income had decreased below $25 000 by 1995-1996 (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.8; P<.001). This association also remained strong after adjusting for potential confounding variables (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.7; P<.001). Depressive symptoms are associated with subsequent

  15. Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area (M age = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

  16. Postpartum depression symptoms among Amazonian and Northeast Brazilian women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corrêa, H; Castro E Couto, T; Santos, W; Romano-Silva, M A; Santos, L M P

    2016-01-01

    ... ≥11 was used to indicate symptoms of postpartum depression. After calculating the prevalence, univariate logistic regressions were performed separately for several possible risk factors (p<0.05...

  17. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy (psychotherapy) or medications. Cooney GM, et al. Exercise for depression. JAMA. 2014;311:2432. Peterson DM. The benefits ... Anxiety. 2016;33:870. Schuch FB, et al. Exercise as treatment for depression: A meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias. Journal ...

  18. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps Garth; Lowe Gillian A; Gibson Roger C; Halliday Sharon; Morris Amrie; Clarke Nelson; Wilson Rosemarie N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...

  19. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy. PMID:28133489

  20. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies and massage aromatherapy (7 studies were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy.

  1. Coping flexibility in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ji-Gang; Cao, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Yuan; Shi, Yan-Fang; Wang, Yu-Na; Yan, Chao; Abela, John R Z; Gan, Yi-Qun; Gong, Qi-Yong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2010-07-13

    The current study explored the prevalence of depressed mood among Chinese undergraduate students and examined the coping patterns and degree of flexibility of flexibility of such patterns associated with such mood. A set of questionnaire assessing coping patterns, coping flexibility, and depressive symptoms were administered to 428 students (234 men and 194 women). A total of 266 participants both completed the entire set of questionnaires and reported a frequency of two or more stressful life events (the criterion needed to calculate variance in perceived controllability). Findings showed that higher levels of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher levels of both event frequency (r = .368, p Depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with cognitive flexibility (variance of perceived controllability; r = .031, p = .527), Gender was not a significant moderator of any of the reported associations. Findings indicate that Chinese university students with depressive symptoms reported experiencing a greater number of negative events than did non-depressed university students. In addition, undergraduates with depressive symptoms were more likely than other undergraduates to utilize maladaptive coping methods. Such findings highlight the potential importance of interventions aimed at helping undergraduate students with a lower coping flexibility develop skills to cope with stressful life events.

  2. Driving in mild cognitive impairment: The role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papatriantafyllou, John; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. Twenty-four individuals with MCI (mean age = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age = 65.13, SD = 7.21) were introduced in the study. A valid driving license and regular car use served as main inclusion criteria. Data collection included a neurological/neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator evaluation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant interaction effects indicating a greater negative impact of depressive symptoms in drivers with MCI than in cognitively healthy drivers were observed in the case of various driving indexes, namely, average speed, accident risk, side bar hits, headway distance, headway distance variation, and lateral position variation. The associations between depressive symptoms and driving behavior remained significant after controlling for daytime sleepiness and cognition. Depressive symptoms could be a factor explaining why certain patients with MCI present altered driving skills. Therefore, interventions for treating the depressive symptoms of individuals with MCI could prove to be beneficial regarding their driving performance.

  3. Depressive symptom clusters are differentially associated with atherosclerotic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B.A.A.; Marijnissen, R.M.; Holewijn, S.; Franke, B.; Purandare, N.; Graaf, J. de; Heijer, M. den; Buitelaar, J.K.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression increases the risk of subsequent vascular events in both cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Atherosclerosis, the underlying process leading to vascular events, has been associated with depression. This association, however, may be confounded by the somatic-affective symptoms

  4. Depressive symptom clusters are differentially associated with atherosclerotic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Marijnissen, R. M.; Holewijn, S.; Franke, B.; Purandare, N.; de Graaf, J.; den Heijer, M.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude

    Background. Depression increases the risk of subsequent vascular events in both cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Atherosclerosis, the underlying process leading to vascular events, has been associated with depression. This association, however, may be confounded by the somatic-affective symptoms

  5. Factors associated with depressive symptoms among Filipino university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B Lee

    Full Text Available Depression can be prevented if its symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the rising rates of suicide among the group. Evidence is needed to systematically identify and assist students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. We carried out a survey to determine the social and demographic factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among 2,436 Filipino university students. The University Students Depression Inventory with measures on lethargy, cognition-emotion, and academic motivation, was used. Six of the 11 factors analyzed were found to be statistically significantly associated with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, not living with biological parents, dissatisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. Sex, age category, course category, year level and religion were not significantly related. In identifying students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to lifestyle, financial condition, parents and peers are crucial. There is a need to carry out more surveys to develop the pool of local knowledge on student depression.

  6. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factor associations were tested using Pearson's χ2 tests and logistic regression. Results. There were 1 008 respondents (mean (standard deviation) age 68.9 (7.4) years), of whom 503 (49.1%) did not meet criteria for depressive symptoms. Of the 505 (50.1%) respondents who met the CES-D 10 criteria for depressive ...

  7. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression in adolescents is a matter of concern because of its high prevalence, potential recurrence and impairment of functioning in the affected individual. The study sought to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi (Kenya) public secondary schools; make a ...

  8. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  9. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  10. Effect of person centered counselling on depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of person centered counselling on depressive symptoms among Type II diabetic patients attending the general outpatient Clinic of A Tertiary Hospital in North Central Nigeria. ... It is recommended that family physicians be trained to provide person centered counselling for depressed type II diabetes mellitus patients.

  11. Symptoms of Depression as Expressed by Elderly Persons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many elderly persons suffer from numerous types of psychosomatic problems ranging from health, psychological, social, depression, loneliness to economic problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate symptoms of depression as expressed by the elderly in Ibadan metropolis. Systematic sampling procedure was ...

  12. Depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Andersen, Christina M; Denollet, Johan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and co-morbid depression are at greater risk of poor quality of life and premature death. We examined if treatment expectations predict depressive symptoms 12months post implant. METHODS: First-time implant patients from...

  13. Correlates of Irritability in College Students With Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to char...

  14. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and affective patterns of tobacco withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Ameringer, Katherine J; Osborn, Elly; Zvolensky, Michael J; Langdon, Kirsten J

    2013-12-01

    The complex concordance and discordance across and within anxiety and depressive symptoms complicates understanding of the relation between emotional symptoms and manifestations of tobacco withdrawal. The goal of this study was to parse the broad variation in anxiety and depressive symptoms into conceptually discrete components and explore their relative predictive influence on affective patterns of acute tobacco withdrawal. We employed a within-participant experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence design involving: (i) a baseline visit at which past-week depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed and (ii) two counterbalanced experimental visits-one after ad lib smoking and one after 16-h of tobacco abstinence-at which state affect was assessed. Participants were community-dwelling adults (N=187) smoking 10+ cig/day for at least two years without an active mood disorder. Anxiety-related general distress symptoms (e.g., tension, nervousness) predicted greater abstinence-induced increases in various negative affective states but not changes in positive affect (βs .17-.33). Depression-related general distress symptoms (e.g., sadness, worthlessness) predicted greater abstinence-induced increases in acute depressed affect only (βs .24-.25). Anhedonic symptoms (e.g., diminished interest, lack of pleasure) predicted larger abstinence-induced decreases in acute positive affect only (βs .17-.20). Anxious Arousal symptoms (e.g., shakiness, heart racing) predicted larger abstinence-induced increases in fatigue and depressive affect (βs .15-.24). Different components of anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with unique affective patterns of acute tobacco withdrawal. These results provide insight into the affective mechanisms underlying tobacco dependence and could inform smoking cessation treatment approaches tailored to individuals with emotional distress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lä hteenmä ki, L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark

  16. Transgender women of color: discrimination and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Kevin; Neilands, Torsten B; Sevelius, Jae

    2013-01-01

    Trans women of color contend with multiple marginalizations; the purpose of this study is to examine associations between experiencing discriminatory (racist/transphobic) events and depression symptoms. It uses a categorical measure of combined discrimination, and examines a protective association of transgender identity on depression symptoms. Data from a subset of trans women of color participants in the Sheroes study were analyzed with linear and logistic regression. Associations of depression symptoms with racist and transphobic events, combined discrimination, coping self-efficacy, and transgender identity were assessed with odds ratios. Exposure to discriminatory events and combined discrimination positively associated with depression symptom odds. Increased transgender identity associated with increased coping self-efficacy, which negatively associated with depression symptom odds. Cross-sectional study data prohibits inferring causality; results support conducting longitudinal research on discrimination's health effects, and research on transgender identity. Results also support operationalizing intersectionality in health research. The study's categorical approach to combined discrimination may be replicable in studies with hard to reach populations and small sample sizes. Health programs could pursue psychosocial interventions and anti-discrimination campaigns. Interventions might advocate increasing participants' coping self-efficacy while providing space to explore and develop social identity. There is a need for policy and health programs to center trans women of color concerns. This study examines combined discrimination and identity in relation to depression symptoms among trans women of color, an underserved population. Research paper.

  17. Depressive symptoms associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease: a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón

    The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.

  18. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic...... effect of melatonin in adult patients against depression or depressive symptoms. A search was performed in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO for published trials on November 14th 2013. Inclusion criteria were English language, RCTs or crossover trials. Our outcome was measurement...... of depression/depressive symptoms with a validated clinician-administered or self-rating questionnaire. PRISMA recommendations were followed and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool used. Ten studies in 486 patients were included in the final qualitative synthesis and four studies, 148 patients, were included in two...

  19. Workplace bullying and depressive symptoms: a prospective study among junior physicians in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Weigl, Matthias; Li, Jian; Glaser, Jürgen; Degen, Christiane; Angerer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between workplace bullying and depression may be bi-directional. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the depressogenic effect of bullying may only become evident after reasonable periods of follow-up (i.e., >1 year). As prospective evidence remains sparse and inconsistent, we used data from a three-wave prospective study to disentangle this potentially bi-directional relationship. In 2004, 621 junior hospital physicians participated in a survey and were followed-up 1.2 years and 2.8 years later. Prospective analyses were restricted to participants with complete data at all assessments (n=507 or 82%). To measure workplace bullying, a description of bullying at work was provided followed by an item inquiring whether the respondent felt she/he had been exposed. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the state scale of the German Spielberger's State-Trait Depression Scales. Multivariate linear regression suggested that workplace bullying at baseline predicted increased depressive symptoms both after 1 year (b=1.43, p=0.01) and after 3 years of follow-up (b=1.58, p=0.01). Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that the depressive symptom z-score at baseline was associated with an increased risk of bullying at the 3-year follow-up (relative risk [RR]=1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13-1.97). This association was less pronounced after 1 year of follow-up (RR=1.19, 95% CI=0.90-1.59). Our study suggests bi-directional associations between depressive symptoms and victimization from bullying at the workplace. Future prospective studies are needed to examine underlying biopsychosocial mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations of Parent–Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms When a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9–15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptoms. Linear Mixed Models analyses controlling for the alternate parent and child symptoms indicated that both parent and child depressive symptoms and parent and child anxious symptoms were positively associated. Parental depressive symptoms were not positively associated with child anxious symptoms, and parental anxious symptoms were not positively associated with child depressive symptoms. The findings provide evidence for positive specific links between parent and child development of same-syndrome, but not cross-syndrome, symptoms when a caregiver has a history of depression. PMID:25844031

  1. Freqency of depressive symptoms among grammar school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Vesel

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 180 pupils (90 boys, 90 girls of Grammar school Kočevje a frequency of depressive symptoms among adolescents has been researched as well as the impact of gender, learning achievements and age on a depressive reaction phenomenon. A Depressive Moods Scale (Vesel, 1999 has been used, which is very reliable (0,93. A factor analysis has shown that it measures one common factor - depressive reactions, which illustrate 31 % variance. It has been established that one third of pupils are experiencing depressive symptoms frequently or very frequently. Disappointment with oneself because of one's own mistakes is the most frequent, then concentration difficulties and rambling of thoughts, which have been frequently or very frequently experienced by 40 % of pupils. Among five groups of depressive symptoms, cognitive and emotional ones are the most frequent. A high score on the Depressive Moods Scale has been achieved by 10 % of boys and 32 % of girls included in our sample, which shows that girls have more difficulties in experiencing depressive reactions, while learning achievements as well as age do not seem to have any impact on differences in experiencing depressive reactions.

  2. Depressive symptoms and sleep: a population-based polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laura Siqueira; Castro, Juliana; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Quarantini, Lucas Castro; Kauati, Adriana; Mello, Luiz Eugenio; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-12-30

    The goals of the present study were to determine the prevalence of depression in the adult population of Sao Paulo, Brazil and to explore the relationship among sociodemographic, physical and psychological factors, sleep-related symptoms and polysomnography parameters. Participants of a cross-sectional study (N = 1101) were administered questionnaires and submitted to polysomnography. A score > 20 in the Beck Depression Inventory was used to describe depression. Results revealed that the prevalence of depression was 10.9%. Estimates were higher in women and were significantly higher among housewives, non-workers and individuals with lower education and income. A combination of sleep-related symptoms and impaired quality of life was 2.5 times more frequent among depressed than non-depressed. Co-morbid insomnia and anxiety were positively associated to depressive symptomatology. There were no alterations in the polysomnography parameters, in either group. The occurrence of sleep apnea with values on the apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 was similar and frequent in both groups (around 30%). The findings suggest that depressive symptoms were associated with low education, low income, severe comorbid symptomatology, and impaired quality of life. Considering the high prevalence of sleep apnea, these results point to potential social and financial burdens associated with the depressive symptomatology and various sleep diagnoses. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression symptom dimensions as predictors of antidepressant treatment outcome: replicable evidence for interest-activity symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, R; Perlis, R H; Henigsberg, N; Zobel, A; Rietschel, M; Mors, O; Hauser, J; Dernovsek, M Z; Souery, D; Bajs, M; Maier, W; Aitchison, K J; Farmer, A; McGuffin, P

    2012-05-01

    Symptom dimensions have not yet been comprehensively tested as predictors of the substantial heterogeneity in outcomes of antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder. We tested nine symptom dimensions derived from a previously published factor analysis of depression rating scales as predictors of outcome in 811 adults with moderate to severe depression treated with flexibly dosed escitalopram or nortriptyline in Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP). The effects of symptom dimensions were tested in mixed-effect regression models that controlled for overall initial depression severity, age, sex and recruitment centre. Significant results were tested for replicability in 3637 adult out-patients with non-psychotic major depression treated with citalopram in level I of Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D). The interest-activity symptom dimension (reflecting low interest, reduced activity, indecisiveness and lack of enjoyment) at baseline strongly predicted poor treatment outcome in GENDEP, irrespective of overall depression severity, antidepressant type and outcome measure used. The prediction of poor treatment outcome by the interest-activity dimension was robustly replicated in STAR*D, independent of a comprehensive list of baseline covariates. Loss of interest, diminished activity and inability to make decisions predict poor outcome of antidepressant treatment even after adjustment for overall depression severity and other clinical covariates. The prominence of such symptoms may require additional treatment strategies and should be accounted for in future investigations of antidepressant response.

  4. Depressive symptoms and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.

  5. What are 'good' depression symptoms? : Comparing the centrality of DSM and non-DSM symptoms of depression in a network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.I.; Epskamp, S.; Nesse, R.M.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms for Major Depression (MD) defined in the DSM-5 differ markedly from symptoms assessed in common rating scales, and the empirical question about core depression symptoms is unresolved. Here we conceptualize depression as a complex dynamic system of interacting symptoms to

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Migraine Comorbidity among Pregnant Peruvian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    May Cripe, Swee; Sanchez, Sixto; Lam, Nelly; Sanchez, Elena; Ojeda, Nely; Tacuri, Silvia; Segura, Carmen; Williams, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Migraine and depression are known to be comorbid conditions in non-pregnant women and men. However, the migraine-depression comorbidity among pregnant women, particularly women in developing countries has not been evaluated. Therefore, we evaluated the migraine-depressive symptom relationship in a large cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods Women who delivered singleton infants (N=2,293) at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima, Peru were interviewed during the postpartum hospital stay. Women were asked questions related to their lifetime and pregnancy experiences with headaches and migraines. Responses to these questions enabled the classification of “probable” and “strict” migraines according to the International Headache Society diagnostic criteria. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Subset. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Approximately 32% of the women reported a history of migraine, while 41% reported experiencing moderate to severe depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Compared with women without a history of migraine, women with strict migraine had AORs of 2.12 (95% CI 1.54–2.93), 1.85 (95% CI 1.16–2.96) and 2.23 (95% CI 1.08–4.62) for moderate, moderately severe and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Conclusion This is the first report of a cross-sectional association between migraine and depressive symptoms in pregnant women. If our findings are confirmed, pregnant women with a history of migraine may benefit from increased vigilance for screening and treating depressive symptoms. PMID:19695709

  7. Gender differences in depression severity and symptoms across depressive sub-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; Paterson, Amelia; Anderson, Josephine; Hong, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime rates of depression are distinctly higher in women reflecting both real and artefactual influences. Most prevalence studies quantifying a female preponderance have examined severity-based diagnostic groups such as major depression or dysthymia. We examined gender differences across three depressive sub-type conditions using four differing measures to determine whether any gender differences emerge more from severity or symptom prevalence, reflect nuances of the particular measure, or whether depressive sub-type is influential. A large clinical sample was recruited. Patients completed two severity-weighted depression measures: the Depression in the Medically Ill 10 (DMI-10) and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report (QIDS-SR) and two measures weighting symptoms and illness correlates of melancholic and non-melancholic depressive disorders - the Severity of Depressive Symptoms (SDS) and Sydney Melancholia Prototype Index (SMPI). Analyses were undertaken of three diagnostic groups comprising those with unipolar melancholic, unipolar non-melancholic and bipolar depressive conditions. Women in the two unipolar groups scored only marginally (and non-significantly) higher than men on the depression severity measures. Women in the bipolar depression group, did however, score significantly higher than men on depression severity. On measures weighted to assessing melancholic and non-melancholic symptoms, there were relatively few gender differences identified in the melancholic and non-melancholic sub-sets, while more gender differences were quantified in the bipolar sub-set. The symptoms most commonly and consistently differentiating by gender were those assessing appetite/weight change and psychomotor disturbance. Our analyses of several measures and the minimal differentiation of depressive symptoms and symptom severity argues against any female preponderance in unipolar depression being contributed to distinctly by these depression rating measures

  8. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipps Garth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p  Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  9. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-09-21

    The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  10. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St

  11. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups.

  12. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may ...

  13. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get motivated, exercise can make a big difference. Exercise helps prevent and improve a number of health problems, including high blood pressure, diabetes and arthritis. Research on depression, anxiety and exercise shows that the psychological and ...

  14. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Correlates of depressive symptoms in individuals attending outpatient stroke clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Julianne; Rice, Danielle; McIntyre, Amanda; Viana, Ricardo; Macaluso, Steven; Teasell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Depressive symptoms are common post-stroke. We examined stroke deficits and lifestyle factors that are independent predictors for depressive symptomology. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for patients' post-stroke who attended outpatient clinics at a hospital in Southwestern Ontario between 1 January 2014 and 30 September 2014. Demographic variables, stroke deficits, secondary stroke risk factors and disability study measures [Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)] were analyzed. Results Of the 221 outpatients who attended the stroke clinics (53% male; mean age = 65.2 ± 14.9 years; mean time post-stroke 14.6 ± 20.1 months), 202 patients were used in the final analysis. About 36% of patients (mean = 5.17 ± 5.96) reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5). Cognitive impairment (CI), smoking, pain and therapy enrollment (p symptoms. Patients reporting CI were 4 times more likely to score highly on the PHQ-9 than those who did not report CI (OR = 4.72). While controlling for age, MoCA scores negatively related to depressive symptoms with higher PHQ-9 scores associated with lower MoCA scores (r= -0.39, p symptoms are common in the chronic phase post-stroke and were partially related to cognition, pain, therapy enrollment and lifestyle factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke patients who report cognitive deficits, pain, tobacco use or being enrolled in therapy may experience increased depressive symptoms. A holistic perspective of disease and lifestyle factors should be considered while assessing risk of depressive symptoms in stroke patients. Patients at risk for depressive symptoms should be monitored at subsequent outpatient visits.

  16. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Min; Seo, Hye-Jin; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hur, Min Hee; Song, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity. Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction. These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity.

  17. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  18. The 'Dhat syndrome': a culturally determined symptom of depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, D B

    1996-09-01

    The status of the 'Dhat syndrome' is called into question by the results of an epidemiological study of men attending general medical clinics in Lahore. The Dhat complaint was reported by 30% of men attending medical clinics, and to an equal extent by patients with 'functional' and 'organic' diagnoses. It was strongly associated with depressed mood, fatigue symptoms, and a DSM-III-R diagnosis of depression. It is argued that the Dhat complaint should be primarily regarded not as the focus of a culture-bound syndrome, but as a culturally determined symptom associated with depression.

  19. Peer victimization and school disaffection: exploring the moderation effect of social support and the mediation effect of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galand, Benoît; Hospel, Virginie

    2013-12-01

    Peer victimization is associated with increased internalizing problems and reduced school adjustment. Research into the main effect and the buffering effect of social support on these internalizing problems has produced inconsistent findings, and none has tested the buffering effect of social support on school adjustment. Moreover, recent studies have underlined the importance of taking various sources of social support into account. This study aims to test the relationships between peer victimization and school disaffection, the moderation effect of parental, peer and teacher social support, and the mediation effect of depression. Four hundred seventh and eighth graders participated in this study. Students filled out a questionnaire assessing peer victimization, depression, academic self-efficacy, school disaffection, and perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers. Peer victimization was negatively associated with self-efficacy and positively associated with school disaffection. Regression analyses showed a main negative effect of social support (especially teacher support) on depression and school disaffection and a positive effect on self-efficacy. No significant interactions emerged between victimization and social support or between sources of social support. Path analyses indicated that the effects of victimization on self-efficacy and school disaffection were fully mediated by depression, but that the effects of social support are partially independent of depression. Multigroup analyses indicated that these relationships were parallel among boys and girls. The results of this study are consistent with the main effect model of social support. They also highlight the importance of teacher support for school adjustment. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The relationship of anxiety, stress, and depression with suicidal thoughts among female adolescents: The meditating role of victim of bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Najafi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a form of low-level violence in the school environment that if unnoticed to become dangerous forms of violence occurs. The aim of this study was examining the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and female adolescents' suicidal thoughts with the meditating role of the victim of bullying. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive and has used the correlation method. For this purpose in the academic year 2016-2017, 300 students of high school girl students (seventh and eighth grade of public schools of Pakdasht city were selected by random cluster sampling method and they filled in the suicidal thoughts, anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying questionnaire. For data analysis, Pearson’s correlation method and structural equation modeling were used by using SPSS-19 and LISRELV8.80 software. Results: Pearson’s correlational results showed that there is a positive and meaningful relation between anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying with suicidal thoughts (P≤0.01. Also the victim of bullying variable has a meditating role in relation among research variable and all of the direct and indirect effects of anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying on suicidal thoughts are meaningful.  Conclusion: The results indicate that anxiety, stress, depression along with victim of bullying in female adolescents cause suicidal thoughts therefore preventing and reducing the risk at schools is absolutely necessary.

  1. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A; Alvarado, German F

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  2. Longitudinal analyses of adoptive parents' expectations and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; South, Susan C

    2017-12-01

    Grounded in a theoretical model specific to adoptive parents, we examined the relationship between parental expectations and depressive symptoms across time. Assessments of 129 adoptive parents of 64 children were performed at three time points before and after placement of an adopted child with the family: 4-6 weeks pre-placement and 4-6 weeks and 5-6 months post-placement. Expectations were assessed in four dimensions: expectations of self as parents, of the child, of family and friends, and of society. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Associations between parental expectations and depressive symptoms were analyzed, and longitudinal multilevel modeling was conducted to explore influences on expectations over time. Parental expectations changed from pre- to post-placement. With the exception of expectations of self as parent, adoptive parents' pre-adoption expectations were affirmed in the post-adoption time periods. In each expectation dimension, higher affirmation of expectations was correlated with decreased depressive symptoms before and after placement of a child. While parental expectations are not unique to adoptive parents, the essence and characteristics of certain expectations are unique to these parents. When working with adoptive parents, nurses who care for families should assess expectations both pre- and post-placement with awareness of their relationship to depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorela Flores-Cornejo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Conclusions: Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  4. Lacunar Infarcts, Depression, and Anxiety Symptoms One Year after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba, Francesco; Ali, Myzoon; Quinn, Terence J; Hankey, Graeme J; Lees, Kennedy R; Inzitari, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Mood disorders are frequent after stroke and are associated with poorer quality of life. Previous studies have reported conflicting results as to stroke subtype in the incidence of poststroke mood disorders. We explored the relationship between subcortical ischemic stroke subtype (lacunar) and presence of such symptoms at 1 year after stroke. Anonymized data were accessed from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive. Stroke subtypes were classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We investigated independent predictors of depression and anxiety symptoms using a logistic regression model. Data were available for 2160 patients. Almost one fifth of the patients developed both anxiety and depression at 1-year follow-up. After adjusting for confounders, the lacunar subtype was least associated with both anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = .61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .46-.80) and depression symptoms (OR = .71; CI = .55-.93) versus other stroke subtypes. Lacunar strokes have a weaker association with presence of anxiety and depression symptoms compared with other subtypes. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  6. Sexual Orientation Identity Change and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. PMID:25690912

  7. The relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms in patients with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lily Y L; Stewart, Kurtis; Woo, Cindy; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Lam, Raymond W

    2015-02-01

    Burnout - physical or psychological fatigue in the personal, work and client-related work domains - appears to share numerous overlapping characteristics with major depressive episodes. However, whether burnout and depression are in fact separate conditions is still ambiguous. Our aim was to examine burnout in a clinically depressed patient sample. Outpatients with a DSM-IV depressive episode (major depressive episode and dysthymic disorder) completed the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) and the Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Rated (QIDS-SR). The relationship between CBI-defined burnout and depressive symptoms was examined using correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Depressed patients had high rates of CBI-defined burnout as well as significant correlations between burnout scores and overall depression severity scores. Individual depressive symptoms were significantly higher between patients with and without burnout, and significantly correlated with burnout scores, with the exception of guilt/worthlessness. Multiple regression analysis identified changes in sleep and fatigue as significant predictors of burnout. The main limitations of the study were the sample size, the broad definition of depression, and the cross-sectional design. The high burnout scores and correlations between burnout and depression severity observed in this study highlight the importance of understanding burnout in depressed patients. Despite the significant overlap between burnout and depression, the relationship between these two concepts still requires further clarification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Morawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO, and orientation towards the host culture (HC. Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI. Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9, while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7. Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3 reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001. In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001, lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001, and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001 were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9. Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  9. Older Adults with and without Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilani Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment represents a common mental health problem in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults, and the prevalence increases with age. Multidisciplinary teams are often asked to assess cognitive and functional impairment in this population. The Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota was created by occupational therapists for this purpose and is frequently used, but has not been extensively validated. This study examined the performance of the CAM and compared it to the MMSE with 113 outpatient clinic patients over the age of 60. Subgroups were established based on scores on a depression inventory to determine if the presence of depressed mood altered the relationship between the measures. Both measures demonstrated good internal consistency. The overall correlation between the two measures was high, statistically significant and remained high regardless of depression status. We offer recommendations about the utility of each measure in screening cognitive functioning for older adults.

  10. Peer Victimization, Cue Interpretation, and Internalizing Symptoms: Preliminary Concurrent and Longitudinal Findings for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined hostile intent and causal, critical self-referent attributions for ambiguous peer cues to examine the hypothesis that these latter interpretations would be uniquely associated with symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and loneliness. Critical self-referent attributions were assessed in 116 kindergarteners (Study 1) and 159…

  11. An audit on public awareness of depression symptoms in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayer Al-Azzam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Depression is acommon mental health disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the level of public awareness regarding this illness, its symptoms, associated factors, available forms of treatment, and the attitude towards depressed people. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was filled in by approximately 5000 individuals selected from various regions of Jordan. Results: The majority of participants thought that depression is a treatable condition that can affect patient at any age, and may be controlled by the will power. Loss of interest in things and presence of negative feelings were the most commonly recognized symptoms of depression, while, unemployment and poverty were found to be the most recognized risk factors for depression. In addition, most participants considered support from family and friends (93.6% as well as exercise (80.4% to be the best available forms of depression treatment. Respondents found it acceptable to work, make friends with, or marry depressed individuals. The first choice persons for seeking help by most participants were family members and friends (49.8%. Conclusion: Collectively, the level of awareness of depression was acceptable. However, further efforts are necessary to establish public educational programs related to depression in order to raise awareness regarding the disease.

  12. Depression history, depressive symptoms, and incident dementia: the 3C Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Hermine; Dufouil, Carole; Auriacombe, Sophie; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Ritchie, Karen; Tzourio, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether depression assessed by different markers predicts the risk of incident dementia in elderly individuals. Data was derived from the 3C cohort study conducted in community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over, randomly recruited from electoral rolls of three French areas and followed up for four years (1999-2001 through 2004) with assessments every 2 years. The study sample comprised 7989 dementia-free individuals (mean age, 74.0 years; 61% women) assessed at baseline for current or past Major Depressive Episodes (MDE) based on MDE module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, self-reported lifetime treated depression, and level of depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were applied to examine the risk of incident dementia associated with these markers of depression. MDE and self-reported lifetime treated depression did not increase incident dementia risk. Conversely, high level of depressive symptoms at baseline was associated with a 50% increased risk of dementia (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% Confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.2). This result was driven by a five-fold increased risk of vascular dementia (HR, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.2-10.7; p depressive symptoms is predictive of vascular dementia within a few years. This close temporal association suggests that depression is less a risk factor for than a prodromal symptom of vascular dementia.

  13. Depressive symptom profiles and severity patterns in outpatients with psychotic vs nonpsychotic major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that patients with psychotic major depression (PMD) may differ from those with nonpsychotic major depression (NMD) not only in psychotic features but also in their depressive symptom presentation. The present study contrasted the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients diagnosed with PMD vs NMD. The sample consisted of 1112 patients diagnosed with major depression, of which 60 (5.3%) exhibited psychotic features. Depressive symptoms were assessed by trained diagnosticians at intake using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and supplemented by severity items from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Patients with PMD were more likely to endorse the presence of weight loss, insomnia, psychomotor agitation, indecisiveness, and suicidality compared with NMD patients. Furthermore, PMD patients showed higher levels of severity on several depressive symptoms, including depressed mood, appetite loss, insomnia, psychomotor disturbances (agitation and retardation), fatigue, worthlessness, guilt, cognitive disturbances (concentration and indecisiveness), hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. The presence of psychomotor disturbance, insomnia, indecisiveness, and suicidal ideation was predictive of diagnostic status even after controlling for the effects of demographic characteristics and other symptoms. These findings are consistent with past research suggesting that PMD is characterized by a unique depressive symptom profile in addition to psychotic features and higher levels of overall depression severity. The identification of specific depressive symptoms in addition to delusions/hallucinations that can differentiate PMD vs NMD patients can aid in the early detection of the disorder. These investigations also provide insights into potential treatment targets for this high-risk population.

  14. Depressive Symptom Profiles and Severity Patterns in Outpatients with Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that patients with psychotic major depression (PMD) may differ from those with nonpsychotic major depression (NMD) not only in terms psychotic features, but also in their depressive symptom presentation. The present study contrasted the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients diagnosed with PMD versus NMD. Method The sample consisted of 1,112 patients diagnosed with major depression, of which 60 (5.3%) exhibited psychotic features. Depressive symptoms were assessed by trained diagnosticians at intake using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and supplemented by severity items from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results PMD patients were more likely to endorse the presence of weight loss, insomnia, psychomotor agitation, indecisiveness, and suicidality compared to NMD patients. Furthermore, PMD patient showed higher levels of severity on several depressive symptoms, including depressed mood, appetite loss, insomnia, psychomotor disturbances (agitation and retardation), fatigue, worthlessness, guilt, cognitive disturbances (concentration and indecisiveness), hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. The presence of psychomotor disturbance, insomnia, indecisiveness, and suicidal ideation were predictive of diagnostic status even after controlling for the effects of demographic characteristics and other symptoms. Conclusions These findings are consistent with past research suggesting that PMD is characterized by a unique depressive symptom profile in addition to psychotic features and higher levels of overall depression severity. The identification of specific depressive symptoms in addition to delusions/hallucinations that can differentiate PMD versus NMD patients can aid in the early detection of the disorder. These investigations also provide insights into potential treatment targets for this high-risk population. PMID:18702928

  15. Relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating; A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, S.T.P.; Stice, E.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Strien, T. van; Croon, M.A.; Heck, G.L. van

    2006-01-01

    Temporal relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating are tested through three competing models that demonstrate the relationship between future binge eating, dietary restraint and depressive symptoms. The pattern of relations and effect sizes suggest that depressive

  16. Gender and stress in predicting depressive symptoms following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazure, Carolyn M; Weinberger, Andrea H; Pittman, Brian; Sibon, Igor; Swendsen, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes, and women are likely to experience PSD more than men. Although stress is related to depression, and women report greater emotional reactivity to stressful life events, the link between stress and gender is yet to be examined relative to PSD. Further, electronic momentary assessment (EMA), a mobile technology, has not been used to assess stressful life events and PSD in real time and in the natural environments of daily life. The purpose of the current study was to examine gender differences in the relationship of stress and PSD using EMA. Individuals admitted to the Stroke Center at the University of Bordeaux were contacted for participation in a prospective study of symptoms and experiences in daily life using ambulatory monitoring. Forty-three post-stroke patients (47% female) completed electronic assessments of life events, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms (i.e., sad mood, anhedonia, fatigue, concentration difficulties, appetite change, negative thoughts, hopelessness) during their daily life for one week. Patients also completed a clinician-administered standardized depression scale at baseline and three-month follow-up. Using EMA, participants responded to 83.7% of the electronic interviews for a total of 1,140 observations across diverse daily life contexts. Stressful events of any degree of negativity were reported at over one-third (37.3%) of all EMA assessments. The severity of depressive symptoms as assessed in daily life through EMA was greater in women following stroke than in men. Further, there was a significant association between EMA-assessed depressive symptoms and daily life stress for women, but not men. This association was due primarily to three specific depressive symptoms: sad mood, fatigue, and appetite change. No difference was observed between men and women in standardized depression assessments administered during clinic visits at baseline or

  17. Retrospective Cyberbullying and Suicide Ideation: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Thwarted Belongingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sean M; Seegan, Paige L; Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Sustaíta, Michael A; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2016-02-09

    Research suggests that being cyberbullied is associated with increased risk for suicide ideation; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of this relation, and fewer have examined this relation within a theory of suicide. Specifically, the interpersonal theory of suicide posits that thwarted belongingness (indicated by loneliness and a lack of reciprocal caring relationships) and perceived burdensomeness (indicated by feelings of liability and self-hatred) increase risk for suicide ideation. The current study aimed to examine depressive symptoms, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness as mediators between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation. Participants were college students (N = 348) who completed assessments of retrospective peer victimization, thwarted interpersonal needs (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness), and suicide ideation. The results indicated that after adjusting for sexual orientation, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the relation between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation. Furthermore, depressive symptoms and perceived burdensomeness serially mediated the relation between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation; however, thwarted belongingness was not a significant mediator. Clinical and research implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antenatal depression is one of the common problems during pregnancy with a magnitude of 20% to 30% globally. It can negatively endanger women's and off springs lives. As there are scarce reports on this area in Northern Ethiopia, it is important to carry out different studies that explore the magnitude of the ...

  19. Prevalence of Antenatal Depressive Symptoms and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression is one of the common problems during pregnancy with a magnitude of 20% to 30% globally. It can negatively endanger women's and off springs lives. As there are scarce reports on this area in Northern Ethiopia, it is important to carry out different studies ...

  20. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health. PMID:25222474

  1. Spiritual well-being and depressive symptoms among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F; Dale, Jennifer; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Buelna, Christina; Nuñez, Alicia; Espinoza, Rebeca; Talavera, Gregory A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is common among patients diagnosed with cancer and may be inversely associated with spiritual well-being. While numerous strategies are employed to manage and cope with illness, spiritual well-being has become increasingly important in cancer survivorship research. This study examined the association between spiritual well-being and depressive symptoms. This cross-sectional study utilized self-report data from 102 diverse cancer survivors recruited from peer-based cancer support groups in San Diego County. Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) and spiritual well-being was measured with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) comprised of two subscales (Meaning/Peace and Faith). Hierarchal regression analysis indicated that Meaning/Peace significantly predicted depressive symptoms after adjusting for socio-demographics, cancer stage, time since diagnosis, and Faith (p Meaning/Peace has a unique advantage over Faith in protecting cancer survivors from the effects of depression symptoms; therefore, turning to Faith as source of strength may improve psychological well-being during survivorship. Future programs and healthcare providers should be cognizant of the influential role of spiritual well-being in depression symptoms in an effort to improve psychological well-being among cancer survivors.

  2. Generalized atherosclerosis, cognitive decline, and depressive symptoms in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, D J; Stek, M L; van der Mast, R C; de Craen, A J M; Le Cessie, S; Jolles, J; Westendorp, R G J; Gussekloo, J

    2005-07-12

    Atherosclerosis may be linked to cognitive decline and depression in old age. The Leiden 85-Plus Study is a prospective population-based study of 599 subjects from age 85 onward. The generalized atherosclerotic burden was rated by the number of cardiovascular pathologies at baseline, as assessed by history taking from treating physicians and EKG. Cardiovascular pathologies included myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or myocardial ischemia, claudicatio intermittens, and arterial surgery. Global cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), attention (Stroop Test), processing speed (Letter Digit Coding Test), immediate recall memory (Word Learning Test-Immediate Recall), delayed recall memory (Word Learning Test-Delayed Recall), and depressive symptoms (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale) were assessed each year from ages 85 through 90. The prospective associations between both the generalized atherosclerosis rating and stroke with cognitive function and depressive symptoms were analyzed by linear mixed models adjusted for sex and level of education. During follow-up, there was a significant cognitive decline and a significant increase of depressive symptoms. At baseline, a history of stroke was correlated with lower global cognitive function, slower processing speed, impaired immediate and delayed recall memory, and more depressive symptoms. In addition, a higher generalized atherosclerosis rating was correlated with impaired global cognitive function, lower attention, and a slower processing speed at baseline. During follow-up, a higher generalized atherosclerosis rating was associated with an accelerated decline of immediate recall memory and delayed recall memory. In contrast, there was no relation between the generalized atherosclerosis rating and depressive symptoms, either in the cross-sectional analysis or in the prospective analysis. In the population at large, generalized atherosclerosis contributes to cognitive decline in old age but not to

  3. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnin R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ran Jinnin,1 Yasumasa Okamoto,1 Koki Takagaki,1 Yoshiko Nishiyama,1 Takanao Yamamura,1 Yuri Okamoto,2 Yoshie Miyake,2 Yoshitake Takebayashi,3 Keisuke Tanaka,4 Yoshinori Sugiura,5 Haruki Shimoda,6 Norito Kawakami,6 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Shigeto Yamawaki1 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 2Health Service Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduated School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan; 5Graduated School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 6Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year.Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50, who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II. We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling.Results: First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained

  4. Impact of depressive symptoms on outcome of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita de Paula Eduardo Garavello

    Full Text Available Abstract There is no consensus in the medical literature about the impact of depressive symptoms on the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objective: To compare the evolution of AD patients, with and without depressive symptoms, in terms of cognition, functionality and caregiver stress. Methods: The study entailed 2 stages: an initial retrospective stage involving review of medical charts of patients with mild and moderate AD. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms, defined by medical interview and questions on depressed mood from the CAMDEX (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated, 37.9% with depression (Group D+ and 62.1% without depression (Group D-. The groups were compared regarding demographic and medical characteristics, cognitive and functional performance, presence of apathy as a separate symptom, and caregiver stress, using standardized tests and questionnaires. In the second transversal step, the same tools were reapplied after 2 to 4 years of follow-up, and evolution for the two groups was compared. Results: The two groups were highly homogeneous in demographic and clinic characteristics, as well as in length of follow-up, and presented no significant difference in cognitive or functional evaluation at the time of diagnoses or after follow-up. Only caregiver stress was greater in Group D+ at the two time points (p<0.001. Conclusions: No differences in the evolution of AD patients with or without depressive symptoms were evident. Nevertheless, these symptoms were associated to emotional burden of caregivers.

  5. Perceived Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Oxidative DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanoe, Chisato; Hara, Megumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Yamada, Yosuke; Li, Yun-Shan; Kasai, Hiroshi; Kawai, Kazuaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2017-07-12

    Psychosocial stress may influence the risk of disease through its association with oxidative DNA damage. We examined whether perceived stress and depressive symptoms were associated with urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), with mutual interaction on 8-OHdG. This cross-sectional study included 6,517 individuals aged 45-74 years who participated, between 2010 and 2012, in a follow-up survey of an ongoing cohort study. Perceived stress during the past year was measured using a self-report questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Urinary 8-OHdG concentrations were measured using a column switching high-pressure liquid chromatography system coupled to an electrochemical detector. Higher perceived stress was significantly associated with higher 8-OHdG (2.1% increase per one category increase of stress; Ptrend = .025), even after controlling for sex, age, supplement use, psychosocial factors, psychotropic medication use, smoking, and body mass index. This association was modestly attenuated after further adjustment for physical activity, suggesting possible mediation or confounding by this factor. Depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with 8-OHdG. No significant interaction was detected between perceived stress and depressive symptoms on 8-OHdG. In a general Japanese population, we found a weak positive association between perceived stress and urinary excretion of 8-OHdG, whereas no association was observed between depressive symptoms and 8-OHdG. Further studies are needed to examine whether the association between perceived stress and 8-OHdG is modified by depressive symptoms.

  6. Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless men on parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Albarran, Cynthia; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N =157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated that 40% of the participants were classified as experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10). Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the following were predictors of depressive symptoms (p <.05): physical abuse in childhood, non-residential alcohol treatment, violent behaviors, low self-esteem, and disengagement coping. Being Mexican-American, Mexican, American Indian, or Asian, and not displaying cognitive problems was inversely related to depressive symptoms in the final model (B =-2.39, p <.05). Findings support proper use of both prison and community assessment services to at-risk individuals eligible for parole to increase self-esteem and coping.

  7. Depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Mendonça da Cunha

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the presence of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease in the preoperative period for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 63 hospitalized patients prior to CABG. Two instruments were used for data collection; one for the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and the other to evaluate the presence of depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results. The mean age was 58 years; most were male (60.3%; with a partner (81% low educational level (71.4% attended school through elementary school. Among the patients, 36.5% were classified with dysphoria, and 25.4% had some degree of depression (6.3% mild, 17.5% moderate, and 1.6% severe. The group of patients with lower educational level presented higher depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Six of every ten patients with coronary artery disease showed dysphoria or some degree of depression. The results of this study can support the planning of nursing care for patients before and after CABG, as well as the development of public health policies to ensure complete, quality care for these patients, understanding depression as a variable that can interfere with recovery after cardiac surgery.

  8. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms among Chinese older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianrong; Wang, Dahua; Li, Chunhua; Miller, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders among older people. Consistent with the Marital Discord Model of Depression (MDMD), research in Western cultures has found that marital distress is one of the risk factors for depression among older adults. However, the effect of marital distress on depression among older adults has not been examined in a collectivistic society, such as China. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in a sample of Chinese older adults. Considering the dyadic nature of the data, the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to test for the actor and partner effects. The study investigated 139 older couples who were recruited from communities in Beijing, the capital of China. The Lock-Wallace Marital Adjustment and the CES-D scales were administered to the participants. The results indicated that neither of the actor effects was significant. One of the partner effects was significant, with the husbands' marital satisfaction predicting their wives' depressive symptoms. The MDMD was only partially supported among older couples in China. An asymmetrical pattern of cross-spouse effects was found, suggesting that the husbands' perception of marital dissatisfaction could significantly predict their wives' depressive symptoms.

  9. Muscle fatigability and depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J; Badreddine, Dala; Roose, Steven P; Rutherford, Bret; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Yaffe, Kristine; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Goodpaster, Bret

    2017-02-15

    Fatigability is the degree to which performance decreases during a specific activity of a given intensity and duration. Depression is known to heighten subjective fatigue, but whether its association with physical fatigability is unknown. Further, whether fatigability is a precursor or risk factor for the development of subsequent depressive symptoms is also unclear. Data are from the Health Aging and Body Composition Study with fatigability assessed using isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors at year 3, and depressive symptoms ascertained longitudinally using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The relationship between fatigability and depressive symptoms was evaluated using linear and Cox regression models. There was a significant cross-sectional association between fatigability and depressive symptomatology (β = -0.06, p = 0.02), after adjusting for demographic variables, medical comorbidities, cognition, gait speed, and physical activity levels. Greater fatigability was associated with greater adjusted scores on the 10-item CES-D (F2, 1695  = 38.65, p < 0.001), with individuals with greater fatigability on average reporting an adjusted CES-D score 0.5 point greater than those individuals with higher levels of resistance to fatigability (mean of 70% or better; p < 0.001). Fatigability however was not associated with the development of depression at follow-up (p = 0.828). This study found an association between skeletal muscle fatigability and higher depressive symptoms in older adults, but no longitudinal association was identified. These findings suggest that age-related changes in energy capacity may affect the phenomenology of late life depression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Psychosocial factors predicting postnatal anxiety symptoms and their relation to symptoms of postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Laura Elena; Lara-Cantú, María Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Morales, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    To study perinatal anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican mothers. A) To evaluate the effect of certain psychosocial factors during pregnancy on anxiety symptoms at two postpartum time intervals; and B) to determine whether this symptomatology is related to symptoms of postnatal depression. In this secondary data analysis, 156 women were interviewed during pregnancy (T1): 149 were interviewed again at 6 weeks postpartum (T2) and 156 at 4-6 months postpartum (T3). Subjects were selected from women seeking prenatal attention at three health centers in Mexico City who presented with depressive symptomatology and/or previous history of depression. Two models were subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the influence of psychosocial factors in pregnancy (age, education, partner status, social support [APGAR], stress events, self-esteem [Coopersmith], depressive symptomatology [BDI-II], and anxiety [SCL-90]) on anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) in T2 and T3. Two additional linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of prenatal anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) on postpartum depression symptoms (BDI-II), one for each postnatal period (T2, T3). The variables that predicted postpartum anxiety symptomatology in T2 were anxiety symptoms and lack of social support; in T3 they were anxiety symptoms, lack of a partner, and lack of social support. Prenatal anxiety symptoms predicted postpartum depressive symptomatology at both postpartum intervals (T2, T3). Untreated prenatal anxiety symptomatology is predictive of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the postpartum period, suggesting the need for timely detection and treatment. Women lacking social support or partners are a population particularly vulnerable to anxiety symptoms, and merit interventions that address these issues.

  11. Do depressive symptoms predict paranoia or vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Göritz, Anja S; McLean, Benjamin; Westermann, Stefan; Brodbeck, Jeannette

    2017-09-01

    Affective versus nonaffective psychoses are today no longer regarded as mutually exclusive disorders. Theorists have recently highlighted the role of affective symptoms in the formation of paranoid beliefs, particularly negative beliefs about the self, interpersonal sensitivity, sleep disturbances, and worrying, which exist along a continuum in the general population. For the present study, we tested the bidirectional causal relationships between paranoia and affect. A large population sample (N = 2,357) was examined at three time-points (baseline, six months, two years) as to the severity of subclinical paranoid beliefs (Paranoia Checklist, PCL) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9). Worrying and avoidance were measured with items from the Maladaptive and Adaptive Coping Style Questionnaire (MAX). Depression and paranoid symptoms were strongly cross-sectionally related (r = 0.69) and showed high stability (r > 0.72). Depressive symptoms at T2 predicted paranoid symptoms at T3 (beta = 0.16; no significant relationship from T1 to T2), whereas paranoid symptoms predicted depressive symptoms from T1 to T2 (beta = 0.09; no significant relationship from T2 to T3). Results should be replicated in a sample of paranoid patients, as risk factors for subclinical versus manifest paranoia may differ. Some constructs were measured with single items derived from a new scale. The predictive association of depression to subsequent paranoia was small and confined to the long interval from T2 to T3. Treatments should target both paranoia and depression - irrespective of their causal relationship - particularly as patients with psychosis consider treatment of their emotional problems a priority. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The effect of pramipexole on depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Naoko; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio

    2011-02-02

    Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pramipexole is a dopamine agonist that has been used to treat both motor and non-motor symptoms associated with PD. We conducted a study to elucidate the effect of pramipexole on each of the depressive symptoms as assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Twenty patients with PD were treated with pramipexole 1.5-3.0 mg daily for 2-3 months. The SDS and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Score (UPDRS) were measured in each subject before and after the treatment. Both the SDS and the UPDRS decreased significantly after treatment with pramipexole. Individual assessment of each item in the SDS indicated that "crying spell", "confusion", "psychomotor retardation", "emptiness", and "dissatisfaction" symptoms improved significantly following treatment, while "depressed affect", "decreased libido", "constipation", and "indecisiveness" symptoms were worse after the treatment. As the symptom of "indecisiveness" did not respond to treatment, it might be an essential symptom in patients with PD.

  13. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, and alexithymia in an Italian sample of flood victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craparo G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Craparo,1 Alessio Gori,2 Elvira Mazzola,1 Irene Petruccelli,1 Monica Pellerone,1 Giuseppe Rotondo3 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Department of Psychology, Unit of Psychotraumatology, San Raffaele Giglio Hospital of Cefalù, Cefalù, Italy Background: Several studies have demonstrated a significant association between dissociation and posttraumatic symptoms. A dissociative reaction during a traumatic event may seem to predict the later development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, several researchers also observed an alexithymic condition in a variety of traumatized samples.Methods: A total of 287 flood victims (men =159, 55.4%; women =128, 44.6% with an age range of 17–21 years (mean =18.33; standard deviation =0.68 completed the following: Impact of Event Scale–Revised, Dissociative Experiences Scale II, Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire.Results: We found significant correlations among all variables. Linear regression showed that peritraumatic dissociation plays a mediator role between alexithymia, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress symptoms.Conclusion: Our results seem to confirm the significant roles of both dissociation and alexithymia for the development of posttraumatic symptoms. Keywords: peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic symptoms, PTSD

  14. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, L H H; van Strien, T; Brouwer, I A; Penninx, B W J H; Visser, M; Lähteenmäki, L

    2017-11-14

    To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Data were collected in Denmark (n = 1522), Spain (n = 1512) and the Netherlands (n = 1439). Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses segregated by country were used to test associations of four mindful eating domains (Mindful Eating Behaviour Scale; MEBS) with depressive symptoms (continuous score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CES-D) and depression (score above the CES-D cut-off value, and/or use of antidepressants, and/or psychological treatment). Moderation by change in appetite was tested with bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals. The domains Focused Eating, Eating with Awareness and Eating without Distraction were significantly negatively associated with depressive symptoms and depression in all three countries (e.g. Focused Eating Denmark: B = - 0.71, 95% CI: - 0.87, - 0.54; OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.93). The domain Hunger and Satiety Cues (only measured in the Netherlands) was significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms in the adjusted models (B = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.16), but not with depression (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.05). These associations were found for both people with and without increased appetite. The cross-sectional design, which makes it impossible to draw causal conclusions. The present study indicates that higher scores on three mindful eating domains are consistently associated with a lower level of depressive symptoms and a lower likelihood of having depression in three European countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  16. Occupational Hazard Exposures and Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2017-12-15

    To explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to ≥4 hazards had more access to such services (p burnout, lower job control, and reduced workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.

  17. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Aims We examined whether social relations are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and furthermore, whether social relations modify the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. We hypothesized that the risk of developing T2DM would be lower...... for individuals with stronger social relations compared to those with weaker social relations, and that the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM would be attenuated for those with stronger social relations. Methods Non-diabetic participants (n = 7662) of the “English Longitudinal Study...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....

  18. Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-09-12

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  19. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck ...

  20. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rothon, C; Edwards, P.; Bhui, K.; Viner, RM; Taylor, S; Stansfeld, SA

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The frequency of mental illness amongst adolescents and its potential long-term consequences make it an important topic to research in relation to risk and protective factors. Research on the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents is limited. There is a particular lack of evidence from longitudinal studies. This study examines the relationship between depression and physical activity using the Research with East London Adolescents: Co...

  1. Symptom dimensions of anxiety following myocardial infarction : Associations with depressive symptoms and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.M.; Heideveld, A.; Martens, E.J.; de Jonge, P.; Denollet, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of

  2. Symptom Dimensions of Anxiety Following Myocardial Infarction : Associations With Depressive Symptoms and Prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Heideveld, Anne; Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Denollet, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of

  3. Associations between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, Denise; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Breuk, Minda; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Lie, Maria E. H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swaab, Hanna J. T.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients ("n" = 202) and controls ("n" = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and validated measures on ADHD…

  4. Sleep quality during pregnancy: associations with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Aukia, Linda; Karlsson, Hasse; Karlsson, Linnea; Paavonen, E Juulia

    2017-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common during pregnancy, yet underdiagnosed and under-investigated. We evaluated sleep quality during pregnancy and assessed associated factors, especially depressive and anxiety symptoms. A total of 78 healthy pregnant women from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study were studied twice prospectively during pregnancy (in mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy). Sleep quality was evaluated by the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, depressive symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and anxiety symptoms by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Poor general sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, the number of nocturnal awakenings per night, and too-early morning awakenings increased in late pregnancy compared with mid-pregnancy (all p-values sleep latency increased (p = 0.005), but sleep duration and preferred sleep duration did not change. Women tended to snore more often in late pregnancy, but apneas remained rare. Almost one-fourth of the women reported both morning and daytime sleepiness, but the frequencies did not increase during the follow up. In late pregnancy, depressive and anxiety symptoms were cross-sectionally related to sleep disturbances, but depressive or anxiety symptoms in mid-pregnancy were not associated with sleep disturbances in late pregnancy. We found deterioration in sleep quality across pregnancy. However, no increase in negative daytime consequences was found, presumably indicating a compensatory capacity against sleep impairment. Additionally, depressive and anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbances were only cross-sectionally associated. Our study calls for further research on the factors that influence sleep disturbances during pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothon, Catherine; Edwards, Phil; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Viner, Russell M; Taylor, Stephanie; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2010-05-28

    The frequency of mental illness amongst adolescents and its potential long-term consequences make it an important topic to research in relation to risk and protective factors. Research on the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents is limited. There is a particular lack of evidence from longitudinal studies. This study examines the relationship between depression and physical activity using the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). This was a prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited from three Local Education Authority boroughs in East London in 2001 from year 7 (aged 11-12) and year 9 (aged 13-14) and were followed-up in 2003. All pupils in the 28 schools that took part were eligible for the study. Of the total 3,322 pupils eligible for the survey the overall response rate was 84% (2,789 pupils). A total of 2,093 (75%) pupils were also followed-up in 2003. The sample was multiethnic (73% of respondents were non-white) and deprived. Just under half of the sample was male (49%). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. After adjustments, there was evidence for a cross-sectional association between physical activity and depressive symptoms for both boys and girls at baseline, with a decrease in the odds of depressive symptoms of about 8% for each additional hour of exercise undertaken per week (boys: odds ratio (OR) = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99; girls: OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.00). There was no evidence for an association between a change in physical activity from baseline to follow-up and depressive symptoms at follow-up. This study provides some evidence for an association between level of physical activity and decreased depressive symptoms in adolescents. Further

  6. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of mental illness amongst adolescents and its potential long-term consequences make it an important topic to research in relation to risk and protective factors. Research on the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents is limited. There is a particular lack of evidence from longitudinal studies. This study examines the relationship between depression and physical activity using the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited from three Local Education Authority boroughs in East London in 2001 from year 7 (aged 11-12 and year 9 (aged 13-14 and were followed-up in 2003. All pupils in the 28 schools that took part were eligible for the study. Of the total 3,322 pupils eligible for the survey the overall response rate was 84% (2,789 pupils. A total of 2,093 (75% pupils were also followed-up in 2003. The sample was multiethnic (73% of respondents were non-white and deprived. Just under half of the sample was male (49%. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results After adjustments, there was evidence for a cross-sectional association between physical activity and depressive symptoms for both boys and girls at baseline, with a decrease in the odds of depressive symptoms of about 8% for each additional hour of exercise undertaken per week (boys: odds ratio (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99; girls: OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.00. There was no evidence for an association between a change in physical activity from baseline to follow-up and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Conclusions This study provides some evidence for an association between level of physical activity and

  7. Physical fitness and depressive symptoms during army basic combat training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shannon K; Wilkinson, Larrell L; Wigfall, Lisa T; Reynolds, Alexandria M; Muraca, Stephanie T; Glover, Saundra H; Wooten, Nikki R; Sui, Xuemei; Beets, Michael W; Durstine, J Larry; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2015-01-01

    Mental health-related problems are a significant cause of attrition during basic combat training (BCT). Evidence in civilian populations suggests that physical fitness is associated with psychological benefits in civilians, but little is known about the association between physical fitness and psychological adjustment during BCT. This study prospectively examined the association between physical fitness and depressive symptoms in 300 BCT soldiers from May to July 2012 at Fort Jackson, Columbia, SC. Soldiers completed a baseline Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) and survey within 1 wk of arriving at BCT and an end-of-cycle survey after 8 wk of BCT. Soldiers were assigned to the "high" fitness category if they had a passing score on the standard APFT of greater than or equal to 180 out of 300 points. Soldiers scoring less than 180 points on the APFT were assigned to the "low" fitness category. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for baseline demographics, self-reported sleep before BCT, BCT confidence, Army identification, and depressive symptoms, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 60% lower for soldiers in the high fitness category (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.84) compared with soldiers in the low fitness category. Analogous to other positive outcomes of soldier fitness, improvement of soldier physical fitness before BCT might improve soldiers' psychological health outcomes.

  8. Gender differences in depressive symptoms among older Korean American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A

    2011-01-01

    Despite consistent reports over many years of a greater prevalence of depression among women, mechanisms underlying the gender difference remain unclear. Mechanisms relevant to immigrant elderly populations are virtually unexplored. The present study examined gender variations in depressive symptoms using a community sample of 230 older Korean American immigrants (M(age) = 69.8; standard deviation = 7.05) in Florida. We were interested in examining not only mean differences but gender differences in the impact of demographic variables (age, marital status, and education), health constraints (chronic conditions and functional disability), and personal resources (sense of control, social network, and acculturation) on depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous literature, women scored higher on depressive symptoms than men. In a hierarchical regression model, women and those with more chronic conditions, greater functional disability, and lower sense of control were found to have more depressive symptoms. The interaction of gender-by-chronic conditions was found to be significant, and further analysis indicated that the association of chronic conditions with mental well-being was stronger for women. The findings suggest that among older Korean immigrants, women are at particular risk of declining psychological well-being in the face of physical health problems and call attention to the need for interventions designed to promote their physical and mental health.

  9. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores.

  10. Italian neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, G; Serrati, C; Zolo, P; Cataldo, N; Ripellino, C

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cognition is an important part of major depressive disorder (MDD) evaluation and a crucial issue is the physicians' perception of cognitive dysfunction in MDD that remains nowadays a little known matter. The present study aims at investigating the understanding of neurologists' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD. An on-line survey addressed to 85 Italian neurologists in the period between May and June 2015 was performed. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first section collecting information on neurologists' socio-demographic profile, the second investigating cognitive symptoms relevance in relation with different aspects and the third one explicitly focusing on cognitive symptoms in MDD. Cognitive symptoms are considered most significant among DSM-5 symptoms to define the presence of a Major Depressive Episode in a MDD, to improve antidepressant therapy adherence, patients' functionality and concurrent neurological condition, once resolved. Furthermore, an incongruity came to light from this survey: the neurologists considered cognitive symptoms a not relevant aspect to choose the antidepressant treatment in comparison with the other DSM-5 symptoms on one side, but they declared the opposite in the third part of the questionnaire focused on cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms appeared to be a relevant aspect in MDD and neurologists have a clear understanding of this issue. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms and the antidepressant treatment highlights the feeling of an unmet need that could be filled increasing the awareness of existing drugs with pro-cognitive effects.

  11. Emotion Regulation Protects Against Recurrence of Depressive Symptoms Following Inpatient Care for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, David D; Hopfinger, Lisa; Bockting, Claudi L H; Berking, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Relapse following response in psychotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major concern. Emotion regulation (ER) has been discussed as a putative emerging and maintaining factor for depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether ER protects against recurrence of depression over and above residual symptoms of depression following inpatient care for MDD. ER skills (ERSQ-ES) and depression (HEALTH-49) were assessed in 193 patients with MDD (age, M = 47.4, SD = 9.6, 75.1% female, 100% Caucasian) at treatment discontinuation, 3 and 12 months after treatment. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to examine general and specific ER as predictors of depressive symptoms at follow-ups. Higher general ER predicted lower depression over and beyond residual symptoms of depression at 3-month follow-up among treatment responders but not among treatment nonresponders. With regard to specific ER skills, readiness to confront and acceptance of undesired emotions predicted lower depressive symptoms beyond residual symptoms of depression 12 months, respectively 3 and 12 months after treatment. Findings of the present study indicate that targeting general ER might be more important for remitted and less important for nonremitted patients. Enhancing ER should hence be realized in a sequential treatment design, in which a continuation phase treatment with a specific focus on ER directly follows, once patients sufficiently responded to treatment. Acceptance of undesired emotion and readiness to confront situations that cue these emotions appear to be particularly important for protecting against recurrence of depression. Future research should clarify whether findings can be generalized to outpatient care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Profile of Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms among Patients in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Davari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Culture may place a differential emphasis on particular emotions. The aim of this study is to find the most frequent symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder in Tehran. Method: 509 patients were recruited from 5 treatment settings. The sample was used from the project of assessing psychometric properties of CIDI in the Iranian population. The patients were evaluated by conducting clinical interviews and using DSM-IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 for major depressive disorder. Results: Depressed mood (98.7%, sleep change (92.1% and, fatigue / energy loss (89.4% were the three highest-ranking symptoms. As cognitive factors, guiltiness and worthlessness were among the lowest ranking symptoms. There were no significant differences between men and women in frequency of symptoms with the exception of suicidal thoughts. Men had significantly higher suicidal thoughts than women. (P: 0. 01 Conclusion: Data were presented on the depressive symptomatology in population of Tehran. Key findings included a high rate of somatic symptoms in patients who suffered from MDD in this population.

  13. How does social support relieve depression among flood victims? The contribution of feelings of safety, self-disclosure, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Rui; Quan, Lijuan; Zhou, Xiao

    2018-03-15

    Depression is one of the most common post-trauma symptoms that can be alleivated by social support. The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediating effects of social support on depression via feelings of safety, disclosure, and negative cognition. One hundred and eighty-seven flood victims in Wuhu City, an area affected most severely by a flood during July 2016, were selected to complete a self-report questionnaire package. Social support has four indirect negative effects on depression, including a one-step indirect path to self-disclosure, 2 two-step paths from feelings of safety to self-disclosure, and from self-disclosure to negative cognition about self, and a three-step indirect path from feelings of life safety via self-disclosure to negative self-cognition. All variables were measured using self-report scales. Social support may relieve depression in flood victims by inducing feelings of safety and self-disclosure, and by relieving negative cognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening anxious-depressive symptoms and pain in medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Rigardetto, R; Vaccarino, P; Maggioni, M; Iannoccari, G; Teriaca, M J

    2008-09-01

    Several studies indicate a relationship among depression, anxiety, pain and hospitalization. Depression has a bidirectional relationship with cardiovascular disease, and it is observed in HIV-positive individuals, in cancer patients and it often complicates chronic pain. In order to assess dimensionally depressive and anxious symptoms and pain in medical inpatients, 327 non-psychiatric inpatients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Visual Analogical Scale (for pain, VAS). Inpatients were hospitalized for neurovascular disease, chronic medical illness, cancer, infectious disease, cardiovascular illness, orthopaedic surgery and general surgery. Very high anxiety levels were discovered in cardiovascular, general surgery, infectious and neurovascular patients, whereas depression levels were higher among cardiovascular and chronic patients. The highest levels of pain were found among patients admitted to the Oncology Unit and those suffering from chronic medical illness. A stronger, direct relationship was obtained between anxiety and depression than between pain and anxiety or depression. No statistical differences were found in men and women. Statistically speaking significant differences were found in wards. Pain is a significant predictive variable for anxiety and depression (PScreening for anxiety and depression should be included in the clinical interview carried out by the nurse at the moment of admission to the ward.

  15. Pubertal timing and vulnerabilities to depression in early adolescence: differential pathways to depressive symptoms by sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Hamlat, Elissa J; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-02-01

    Although research implicates pubertal processes in the emergence of the sex difference in depression during adolescence, few studies have examined how cognitive and affective vulnerabilities influence the effect of pubertal timing on depressive symptoms. The current study prospectively examined whether early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescents with more negative cognitive styles and lower emotional clarity, and whether this risk was specific to adolescent girls. In a diverse sample of 318 adolescents, early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent boys and girls with more negative cognitive styles and adolescent girls with poor emotional clarity. These findings suggest that earlier pubertal maturation may heighten the risk of depression for adolescents with pre-existing vulnerabilities to depression, and that early maturing adolescent girls with lower levels of emotional clarity may be particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms, representing one pathway through which the sex difference in depression may emerge. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo; Mitsuma, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson’s disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our departmen...

  17. Italian psychiatrists' perception on cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Umberto; Brugnoli, Roberto; Caraci, Filippo; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Di Sciascio, Guido; Tortorella, Alfonso; Vampini, Claudio; Cataldo, Nazarena; Pegoraro, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Differently than Schizophrenia, the investigation of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) attracted the interest of research only recently. Therefore, it is worth understanding clinicians' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD and raising awareness about this issue. Between December 2014 and January 2015, 128 Italian psychiatrists participated in an on-line survey aiming at understanding psychiatrists' perception about cognitive symptoms in MDD. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first investigating psychiatrists' socio-demographic profile, the second assessing cognitive symptoms relevance without mentioning that they represented the study focus and the third explicitly investigating cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms were considered as a relevant dimension of MDD and appeared among the most frequently cited residual symptoms influencing patients' work and relapse risk. About 70% of psychiatrists declared that cognitive symptoms significantly influence antidepressant choice. However, in the second questionnaire section cognitive symptoms appeared less frequently considered for antidepressant choice. Results revealed a clear understanding of cognitive symptoms relevance in MDD. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between psychiatrists' perception and their therapeutical choices underlines the presence of an unmet-need that should be addressed increasing the awareness about the positive effects on cognitive symptoms of existing drugs, which could allow a more symptom-oriented therapeutical intervention. Key points Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder often associated with deficits in cognitive function. Psychiatrists considered cognitive symptoms among the most relevant residual symptoms in MDD patients that compromise patients working and influence the relapse risk. The importance given to residual cognitive symptoms seemed not to be reflected by psychiatrists' therapeutical choice

  18. Serum testosterone and depressive symptoms in severe OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, R M; Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Cojocaru, E; Mihaescu, T

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), also characterised by hypoxia-related sleep- fragmentation, has been studied in relation to depression and serum testosterone deficit. In middle-aged men, it has been reported the association between depressive mood and low serum testosterone level; however, no data are available about this association in OSA patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in adult obese males, affected by severe OSA, the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and depressive symptoms, in order to identify among all measured parameters (serum testosterone morning concentration, polysomnography parameters, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) those predictors for OSA-related depression. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OSA and forty subjects for the control-matched group were enroled in the study. The results indicated that the serum testosterone in OSA group was significantly lower than in controls. In addition, the OSA group presented a level of depression although moderate, yet significantly higher than controls. Furthermore, a statistically significant inverse correlation has been found between serum testosterone level and depressive symptoms. Among all variables, serum testosterone level was shown to be the only independent variable significantly predictor for depression in OSA patients. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Depressive symptoms and academic performance of North Carolina college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Thompson, Michael E; Huber, Larissa R Brunner; Arif, Ahmed A

    2012-01-01

    Depression negatively affects cognitive functioning and, consequently, academic performance. Studies of this association have yielded conflicting results and have not fully considered other factors that may play a role in academic performance. This study examines the relation between depression and academic performance in students at a large urban university in North Carolina. We analyzed data from student responses to the 2008 cross-sectional National College Health Assessment to create categories of depressive symptomatology. E-mail invitations to participate in the assessment were sent to 8,000 students at the university in an effort to obtain at least 900 responses, the minimum number considered valid for a campus of its size. We analyzed the responses of the 1,280 undergraduates who completed the survey. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between depressive symptoms and academic performance in this group. Students in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of depressive symptomatology had increased, though statistically non-significant, odds of having a lower cumulative grade average, even after adjustment for age, sex, year in school, race/ethnicity, substance use, and level of credit-card debt. This difference was most pronounced among students in the second quartile of depressive symptomatology. This cross-sectional study did not allow for evaluation of causality. In addition, the self-report nature of this questionnaire could have led to some inaccuracy in reporting. Students reporting even a small number of depressive symptoms may be at increased risk for academic problems.

  20. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  1. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential

  2. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2008-08-19

    Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential for helpful longer-term effects was found for autogenic

  3. Body image and depressive symptoms in person suffering from psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Monika; Rzepa, Teresa; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard

    2017-12-30

    The purpose of the research study was specifying the relationship between severity of psoriasis and body image and self-reported depressive symptoms, taking into account the differences between the sexes. The research study involved 54 psoriasis patients, including 30 men and 24 women aged from 19 to 82. The level of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, and body image - using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. The disease severity was objectively assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. The female psoriasis patients were more critical of their appearance than the men (p< 0.01), and at the same time they were more appearance-oriented (p< 0.05). The men rated their fitness level (p< 0.01) and care for good physical condition (p< 0.01) higher than the women. The women showed less satisfaction with their body parts than the men (p< 0.01) and more fear of obesity (p< 0.05) and overweight (p< 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between men and women with regard to general evaluation of body image and self-reported depressive symptoms. Moreover, it was established that in the case of both women and men there was a correlation between lowered mood and psoriasis severity (R = 0.416), as well as body image (R = - 0.282). In relation to individual scales, there was a statistically significant relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and appearance evaluation (R = - 0.519), health evaluation (R = - 0.585), satisfaction with body parts (R = - 0.462), as well as appearance orientation (R = 0.425). Distortion of body image is correlated with self-reported depressive symptoms in psoriasis patients.

  4. [Depressive symptoms in women with chronic pelvic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Rosa Azevedo da; Rodrigues, Flavia Melo; Vila, Vanessa Silva Carvalho; Deus, Jose Miguel de; Lima, Kezia Porto

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the presence of depressive symptoms in women with chronic pelvic pain. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 years or older, diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain, with no pregnancy history in the previous year, and with no cancer history. The sample was established by calculating the representative sample, estimated as 50 women. All women were undergoing treatment at a gynecology outpatient clinic, referred by the primary health care network of the Brazilian national health system. Data collection was performed from October 2009 to May 2010. The women's sociodemographic, economic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Pain intensity was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. The depressive symptoms were investigated using Beck's Depression Inventory. Statistical analysis was performed using position measures (mean, median), dispersion (standard deviation) and the χ² test. Values of p ≤ .05 were considered statistically significant. The participants' mean age was 41.6 ± 9.4 years. The following features predominated: secondary education level; pardo (brown) skin color; Catholic religion; and living with a steady partner. Most (98%) were economically active and worked with general domestic services. Regarding the participants' subjective perception of pain, 52% reported experiencing intense pain, while 48% reported experiencing moderate pain. Most women (52%) had been living with pain for five years or less, and 30%, for over 11 years. The mean BDI score was 17.4 (± 9.4). It was observed that 58% of the women presented mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms according to the BDI. The most frequent depressive symptoms were fatigability, loss of libido, irritability, difficulty to work, somatic preoccupations, crying, dissatisfaction, sadness, and insomnia. Depressive symptoms were frequent among these women suffering with chronic pelvic pain.

  5. Alcohol use is not directly related to the perceived control of depression in patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie eSkule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment seeking patients (N= 233 were recruited as they started a course of relapse prevention and coping with depression. The mean Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II score was 26 points, indicating a moderate degree of depression. The sample was recruited from different outpatient clinics and screened for alcohol-related problems with The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. More than 40% of the total sample had a score on AUDIT >8 indicating an alcohol problem. A specific instrument, Perceived Uncontrollability of Depression (UNCONTROL, was used to measure the persons’ perceived control of depressive symptoms. Alcohol problems were not found to be significantly associated with the perceived control of ongoing depressive symptoms and did not moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and the perceived control of depressive symptoms. The results question the assumption that alcohol use is related to coping with depressive symptoms in patients with alcohol abuse and depression.

  6. Zinc transporters protein level in postmortem brain of depressed subjects and suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalo-Ulinska, Anna; Piotrowska, Joanna; Kryczyk, Agata; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Misztak, Paulina; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A; Datka, Wojciech; Nowak, Gabriel; Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious psychiatric illness, associated with an increasing rate of suicide. The pathogenesis of depression may be associated with the disruption of zinc (Zn) homeostasis. In the brain, several proteins that regulate Zn homeostasis are present, including Zn transporters (ZnTs) which remove Zn from the cytosol. The present study was designed to investigate whether depression and suicide are associated with alterations in the expression of the ZnTs protein. Protein levels of ZnT1, ZnT3, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZnT6 were measured in postmortem brain tissue from two different cohorts. Cohort A contained 10 subjects diagnosed with MDD (7 were suicide victims) and 10 psychiatrically-normal control subjects and cohort B contained 11 non-diagnosed suicide victims and 8 sudden-death control subjects. Moreover, in cohort A we measured protein level of NMDA (GluN2A subunit), AMPA (GluA1 subunit) and 5-HT1A receptors and PSD-95. Proteins were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using Western blotting. In addition, Zn concentration was measured using a voltammetric method. There was a significant increase in protein levels of ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 in the PFC in MDD, relative to control subjects, while ZnT3 protein level was decreased in MDD. There was no significant difference in the Zn concentration in the PFC between control and MDD subjects. Similarly, in the PFC of suicide victims (non-diagnosed), an increase in protein levels of ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZnT6 was observed. Conversely, protein levels of ZnT3 were decreased in both suicide victims and subjects with MDD, in comparison with control subjects. There was also a significant decrease in the protein level of GluA1, GluN2A, PSD-95 and 5-HT1A in MDD. Our studies suggest that alterations in Zn transport proteins are associated with the pathophysiology of MDD and suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Ramos, Marco A.; Torre, Matthew; Segal, J. Bradley; Peluso, Michael J.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Medical students are at high risk for depression and suicidal ideation. However, the prevalence estimates of these disorders vary between studies. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in medical students. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, psycARTICLES, and psycINFO without language restriction for studies on the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation in medical students published before September 17, 2016. Studies that were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used validated assessment methods were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Information on study characteristics; prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation; and whether students who screened positive for depression sought treatment was extracted independently by 3 investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using stratified meta-analysis and meta-regression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Point or period prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation as assessed by validated questionnaire or structured interview. RESULTS Depression or depressive symptom prevalence data were extracted from 167 cross-sectional studies (n = 116 628) and 16 longitudinal studies (n = 5728) from 43 countries. All but 1 study used self-report instruments. The overall pooled crude prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 27.2% (37 933/122 356 individuals; 95% CI, 24.7% to 29.9%, I2 = 98.9%). Summary prevalence estimates ranged across assessment modalities from 9.3% to 55.9%. Depressive symptom prevalence remained relatively constant over the period studied (baseline survey year range of 1982–2015; slope, 0.2% increase per year [95% CI, −0.2% to 0.7%]). In the 9 longitudinal studies that assessed depressive symptoms before and during

  8. Personality, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and their influence on postnatal depression in Spanish pregnant Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.

  9. Anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with dengue fever and their correlation with symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Ali M; Butt, Zeeshan; Idrees, Zaidan; Niazi, Mehreen; Yousaf, Zohaib; Haider, Syed Furqan; Bhatti, Muhammad R

    2012-01-01

    To study the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with dengue and to examine their correlation with symptom severity. In this cross sectional study, 531 consecutive patients who met the World Health Organization criteria for dengue fever admitted to Mayo Hospital, Lahore between September and November 2011 were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In addition to the HADS, the severity of their symptoms, like headache, myalgias/arthralgias, fever, and retro/periorbital pain, was assessed on a 3-point scale (mild, moderate, and severe). About 60% of the patients in our study met the criteria for anxiety and 62.2% of the patients met criteria for depression. Severity of fever, headache, myalgias and arthralgias, and retro/periorbital pain was positively correlated with both anxiety (Correlation coefficients: 0.148, 0.247, 0.184, 0.184 respectively and P severity of headache and scores for both anxiety and depression. Both mean anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher in patients with platelet count below median (30,000/mm3) than in patients with platelet count above median (9.1 +/- 4.7 vs 8.2 +/- 4.7, P anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychiatric evaluation should be done in all Dengue patients so timely treatment can be initiated.

  10. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  11. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  12. Do better executive functions buffer the effect of current parental depression on adolescent depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Shiri; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2016-07-15

    Offspring of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and especially those exposed to a current episode of parental depression have been found to be at increased risk for developing depression themselves. Exposure to a current parental depressive episode also reduces the efficacy of interventions in high risk or depressed adolescents. This highlights the need to identify protective factors for adolescents exposed to a current parental depressive episode. Executive functions serve as an important cognitive resource, involved in the ability to regulate mood and thoughts and cope with stressful events. This study examined the buffering role of two components of executive functioning, inhibitory control and mental flexibility, in the association between a current parental episode of MDD and adolescent depressive symptoms. A high-risk sample of 288 adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent major depressive disorder completed an Affective Go/No Go and a Verbal Fluency task. Parents and adolescents underwent psychiatric interviews. In the presence of a current parental depressive episode in the parent, adolescents with better inhibitory control and mental flexibility had fewer depressive symptoms after controlling for age, gender and IQ. Participants were the offspring of depressed parents and it is not clear whether the protective effects of executive functioning observed here would generalise to other populations. Executive functions may protect against adolescent depression in the presence of a parental depressive episode. It may be beneficial to target executive functions in preventive programs for individuals at high-risk for depression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct and indirect influences of childhood abuse on depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yumi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-10-14

    It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES), which are self-report scales. Results were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), by using SPSS AMOS 21.0. Childhood abuse directly predicted the severity of depression and indirectly predicted the severity of depression through the mediation of personality. Negative life change score of the LES was affected by childhood abuse, however it did not predict the severity of depression. This study is the first to report a relationship between childhood abuse, personality, adulthood life stresses and the severity of depression in depressed patients. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depression. These results suggest the need for clinicians to be receptive to the possibility of childhood abuse in patients suffering from depression. SEM is a procedure used for hypothesis modeling and not for causal modeling. Therefore, the possibility of developing more appropriate models that include other variables cannot be excluded.

  15. Lung cancer stigma, anxiety, depression and symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K; Brodsky, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Compared to other cancers, lung cancer patients report the highest levels of psychological distress and stigma. Few studies have examined the relationship between lung cancer stigma (LCS) and symptom burden. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between LCS, anxiety, depression and physical symptom severity. This study employed a cross-sectional, correlational design to recruit patients online from lung cancer websites. LCS, anxiety, depression and physical symptoms were measured by patient self-report using validated scales via the Internet. Hierarchical multiple regression was performed to investigate the individual contributions of LCS, anxiety and depression to symptom severity. Patients had a mean age of 57 years; 93% were Caucasian, 79% were current or former smokers, and 74% were female. There were strong positive relationships between LCS and anxiety (r = 0.413, p severity (r = 0.483, p severity beyond that of age, anxiety and depression, by 1.3% (p < 0.05). Because LCS is associated with psychosocial and physical health outcomes, research is needed to develop interventions to assist patients to manage LCS and to enhance their ability to communicate effectively with clinicians. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Group-Level Symptom Networks in Depression Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Borsboom, Denny; Schoevers, Robert A.

    In Reply In our publication in JAMA Psychiatry,1 we reported that the structure of symptom networks is related to the course of depression. Our findings are based on a between-patients design. Although we agree with Bos and Wanders that this has implications for the interpretation of our results, we

  17. The association of depression status with menopause symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of depression status with menopause symptoms among rural midlife women in China. Hongyan Zang1, Lianping He2 , Yan Chen2, Jianfeng Ge2, Yingshui Yao2. 1. Hongyan Zang, Women's health department, Yancheng Maternal and Child Health Hospital,. Yancheng 224400, Jiangsu, People's Republic ...

  18. Physical exercises, functional capacity and depressive symptoms in Brazilian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Manuela Crispim Nascimento

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of 16 weeks of multimodal exercise on functional capacity components, general functional fitness and depressive symptoms in the elderly. Fifty-five elderly (67.3 ± 5.8 years participated inthe study. The groups were distributed according to the participation on the proposed protocol: a trained group (TG composed of 27 participants who attended at least 75% of the total generalized physical exercise sessions for16 weeks; and b control group (CG, participants who did not attend any regular physical activity program. Functional capacity was assessed using theAAHPERD battery of motor tests for elderly, which consists of five tests: coordination, flexibility, muscular resistance, agility/dynamic balance, and overall aerobic endurance. Depressive symptoms were measured using the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. The results showed that elderly on TG had better performance on motor tests. Depressive symptoms did not change for both groups. Thus, our results indicate that 16 weeks is sufficient to improve general functional fitness in elderly, while those who remain sedentary tend to decrease their overall physical fitness. The proposed program could not induce significant changes in the elderly with low levels ofdepressive symptoms reported for this variable. The evidence of this study allows the prediction that a generalized program can help prevent chronic diseases, reduce functional decline and produce positive effects on quality oflife.

  19. Serotonin Transporter Gene, Depressive Symptoms, and Interleukin-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Zhao, Jinying; Bremner, J. Douglas; Miller, Andrew H.; Tang, Weining; Bouzyk, Mark; Snieder, Harold; Novik, Olga; Afzal, Nadeem; Goldberg, Jack; Vaccarino, Viola

    2009-01-01

    Background-We explored the relationship of genetic variants of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, a key regulator of the serotonergic neurotransmission, with both depressive symptoms and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Methods and Results-We genotyped 20 polymorphisms in 360 male twins (mean

  20. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…