Osman, Suzanne L
Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fernandez, Yolanda M; Marshall, W L
The purpose of the present study was to compare the responses of 27 incarcerated rapists and 27 incarcerated nonsexual offenders using the Rapist Empathy Measure (targeting victim specific empathy deficits) and to examine the relationship between empathy with self-esteem and psychopathy for both groups. The Social Self-Esteem Inventory was used as a measure of perceived social competence and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) was used as a measure of psychopathy. All participants completed the two self-report questionnaires on empathy and self-esteem; in addition, the rapists were required to complete an extra section of the empathy measure that assessed their empathic responses to their own victims. Demographic information and psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing institutional files. When psychopathy scores were not available, subjects participated in a semi-structured interview and were scored on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised by the researcher. Rapists demonstrated more empathy than the nonsexual offenders toward women in general and the same degree of empathy as the nonsexual offenders toward a woman who had been a victim of a sexual assault by another male. Of particular importance were the within-group comparisons across victim type for the rapists which revealed significant empathy deficits toward their own victim(s). Interestingly, no differences were found between the rapists and nonsexual offenders in terms of self-esteem and psychopathy, and neither self-esteem nor psychopathy significantly predicted empathy for either group. It was concluded from the present study that rapists may suppress empathy primarily toward their own victim rather than suffer from a generalized empathy deficit. It is suggested that empathy deficits in rapists might better be construed as cognitive distortions specific to their victims and should be addressed in that manner in treatment.
Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.
Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)
Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J.; Forrest-Bank, Shandra S.; Bender, Kimberly A.; Dieterich, William A.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Background: Interventions aimed at reducing bullying behavior commonly target the development of empathy. Yet, few longitudinal studies have investigated how empathy levels vary with bullying and victimization over time, especially during the transition to middle school. Objective: To that end, the purpose of the present study was to: (1) examine…
Full Text Available When we see a child crying, the urge to help him and to comfort him comes to us spontaneously. We understand what he is experiencing, and feel in us something of his sadness, his distress: this is what we call empathy. This sense of the other is the fruit of our evolutionary history and is hardwired in our biology. Empathy has interested a lot of thinkers and in particular the Scottish philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment such as Adam Smith or Hume. More recently, the philosophers Robert Gordon (St Louis, Missouri and Alvin Goldman (Tuscon, Arizona proposed the theory of simulation according to which when we understand the other, we simulate the other’s point of view and we use this prospective to understand the other and predict his behavior. The French neuropscyhologist Jean Decety adopted this point of view. He specifies that the empathy is the capacity to mentally simulate the subjectivity of the other, to put ourselves in the shoes of another: it lies on biological systems.
Full Text Available Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention.
Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.
Empathy--putting oneself in another's shoes--has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would...
Full Text Available Empathy--putting oneself in another's shoes--has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would reduce empathy toward female violence victims. Participants (N = 154 were randomly assigned to play a violent-sexist game, a violent-only game, or a non-violent game. After gameplay, measures of identification with the game character, traditional masculine beliefs, and empathy for female violence victims were assessed. We found that participants' gender and their identification with the violent male video game character moderated the effects of the exposure to sexist-violent video games on masculine beliefs. Our results supported the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs, which occurred for male (but not female participants who were highly identified with the game character. Masculine beliefs, in turn, negatively predicted empathic feelings for female violence victims. Overall, our study shows who is most affected by the exposure to sexist-violent video games, and why the effects occur. (200 words.
Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J
Empathy--putting oneself in another's shoes--has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would reduce empathy toward female violence victims. Participants (N = 154) were randomly assigned to play a violent-sexist game, a violent-only game, or a non-violent game. After gameplay, measures of identification with the game character, traditional masculine beliefs, and empathy for female violence victims were assessed. We found that participants' gender and their identification with the violent male video game character moderated the effects of the exposure to sexist-violent video games on masculine beliefs. Our results supported the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs, which occurred for male (but not female) participants who were highly identified with the game character. Masculine beliefs, in turn, negatively predicted empathic feelings for female violence victims. Overall, our study shows who is most affected by the exposure to sexist-violent video games, and why the effects occur. (200 words).
Niculescu, A.I.; Ge, S.S.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; Li, Haizhou; See, Swan Lan
In this paper we explore how simple auditory/verbal features of the spoken language, such as voice characteristics (pitch) and language cues (empathy/humor expression) influence the quality of interaction with a social robot receptionist. For our experiment two robot characters were created: Olivia,
Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.
Empathy—putting oneself in another’s shoes—has been described as the “social glue” that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would reduce empathy toward female violence victims. Participants (N = 154) were randomly assigned to play a violent-sexist game, a violent-only game, or a non-violent game. After gameplay, measures of identification with the game character, traditional masculine beliefs, and empathy for female violence victims were assessed. We found that participants’ gender and their identification with the violent male video game character moderated the effects of the exposure to sexist-violent video games on masculine beliefs. Our results supported the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs, which occurred for male (but not female) participants who were highly identified with the game character. Masculine beliefs, in turn, negatively predicted empathic feelings for female violence victims. Overall, our study shows who is most affected by the exposure to sexist-violent video games, and why the effects occur. (200 words) PMID:27074057
van Lisdonk, J.; van Bergen, D.D.; Hospers, H.; Keuzenkamp, S.
In this survey study, the impact of gender and gender nonconformity on Dutch same-sex-attracted youth's perceived experiences of same-sex sexuality-related victimization was systematically compared across social contexts. Participants were between ages 16 and 18 and enrolled in secondary education
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students
McLaughlin, Laura Pierce
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…
van Lisdonk, Jantine; van Bergen, Diana D.; Hospers, Harm J.; Keuzenkamp, Saskia
In this survey study, the impact of gender and gender nonconformity on Dutch same-sex-attracted youth's perceived experiences of same-sex sexuality-related victimization was systematically compared across social contexts. Participants were between ages 16 and 18 and enrolled in secondary education
Empathy is attracting increased attention within and beyond the academy. In this essay I review relevant theories of empathy and their place within rhetoric and composition. I propose two approaches to teaching empathy: as rhetoric and as disposition. A rhetorical approach incorporates a necessary critical awareness of empathy's enticements and…
Rock, Elizabeth A.; Hammond, Marsha; Rasmussen, Sandra
A qualitative study examined empathy in the easily aroused child. Participants were interviewed about their experience of empathy, and cognitive process used to choose responses. Children identified emotions of victims drawing on experience as victims. Two themes were empathetic response and cognition leading to action. Participants used cognition…
van Beusekom, Gabriël; Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M.W.; Overbeek, Geert J.; Sandfort, Theo G.M.
We assessed whether homophobic name-calling accounts for the relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health (social anxiety and psychological distress) in a sample of 1,026 Dutch adolescents (boys: n = 517) aged 11–16 years (Mage = 13.4). We also explored whether this hypothesized mediation differs by sexual attraction and biological sex. Data were collected by means of paper–pencil questionnaires at five secondary schools located in urban areas in the Netherlands. Mediation analysis indicated that gender nonconformity was related with both social anxiety and psychological distress partially via homophobic name-calling. Moderated mediation analysis further showed that the mediating role of homophobic name-calling varied according to levels of same-sex attraction (SSA) and biological sex. The mediation effects increased in magnitude when levels of SSA increased and were significant only for adolescents with mean and high levels of SSA. The mediation effects were significant for boys and girls in general, although the mediation effects were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings emphasize the importance of research and school-level interventions to focus on factors that promote acceptance of cross-gender behaviour among adolescents. PMID:26099017
van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter
Professional decision making in forensic clinical practice may have lifelong consequences for offenders. Although information on moral development is important for prediction of reoffending and referral to adequate treatment, conclusions regarding moral development are still largely based on unstructured clinical judgment instead of assessment instruments. For this study, the authors examined to what extent unstructured clinical judgment of both moral judgment and victim empathy concurred with test results in a group of young sex offenders. Moral judgment was measured with the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF), whereas victim empathy was measured with an extended version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). No significant associations were found between clinical judgment of moral judgment and the mean scores on the SRM-SF. However, clinical judgment of victim empathy was significantly associated with victim empathy on the Victim Empathy Scale but not consistently in the expected direction. Juvenile sex offenders, who were judged by clinicians to show little victim empathy, displayed lower mean scores on the Victim Empathy Scale than juvenile sex offenders who were evaluated to lack victim empathy or to have intact victim empathy. This study showed unstructured clinical judgment of moral development not to concur with test results. To improve decision-making processes regarding moral development, clinicians are advised to rely on instruments that assess moral development to inform clinical judgment. Further research is needed to examine which predictions are more accurate and to establish the predictive validity of moral development evaluations.
Full Text Available Aims: Numerous factors have been identified that can influence eyewitness memory. These factors lead to an increased susceptibility to the misinformation effect, potentially resulting in critical errors in testimony. One other potential influencing factor may be empathy. Empathy is considered as the reactions of an individual to something another person is experiencing. Research has indicated empathy to be a multidimensional construct, combining cognitive and emotional concepts. Empathy has yet to be investigated as an influencing factor, therefore, the current research sought to examine the effect of empathy on eyewitness memory. Method: Participants (n = 60 completed an online survey consisting of a short video, followed by reading a short narrative containing correct and misinformation. One group of participants (N=31 also received an empathy induction. They then completed empathy measures, a cued recall memory test and a recognition memory test. The memory test contained questions relating to the correct and misinformation. Results: Overall there was no difference between groups on general empathy. The empathy induction group had more event related empathy, however, there was no effect of empathy on memory accuracy. For cued recall, participants were more accurate on questions relating to correct (89% information compared to misleading (37% information. For the recognition questions, participants were about as accurate for the correct (63% and misleading (60% information. Conclusions: These findings indicate that feelings of empathy toward the victim of a crime may not improve the accuracy of witness memory. Cued recall results in superior memory performance for correct information, but very poor performance for misleading information. Recognition recall is moderately accurate for both correct and misleading information.
Knafo, Ariel; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Davidov, Maayan; Van Hulle, Carol; Robinson, JoAnn L; Rhee, Soo Hyun
We investigated the genetic and environmental origins of children's empathy toward a distress victim and its correlates with emotional symptoms and affective knowledge. The cognitive (hypothesis testing) and affective (empathic concern) empathy of 122 twin pairs in response to simulated pain by an adult examiner was observed at 3.5 years of age. Moderate (0.19 to 0.44) heritabilities were estimated for individual differences in empathy, and the nonshared environment and error accounted for the rest of the variance. Hypothesis testing and empathic concern were moderately correlated, mainly through overlapping genetic effects. Although children's affective knowledge did not correlate with their empathy, affective knowledge interacted with mother-rated emotional symptoms in predicting empathy; knowledge about emotions was associated with greater empathy in children low in emotional symptoms. In contrast, among children with high degrees of emotional symptoms, those with better affective knowledge tended to show lower empathy.
Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.
Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…
Full Text Available Empathy is an important part of emotional intelligence and the latter is crucial for human relations, whether they be interpersonal relations, relations among people at work, or in a wider community. Therefore, empathy is important for adult education, for guidance counsellors, and for other adult educators. Adult educators must be empathic in order to understand the perspectives and needs of the participants in the educational process and empathy is a precondition for understanding. The development of empathy as a competence is a lifelong learning process. Namely, despite some biological predispositions for empathy, the latter can be learnt. It is the contention of the article that empathy is one of the most important intercultural competencies, because if a person is not empathic, other intercultural competencies vary rarely cannot develop to their full extent. Thus empathy is a precondition for successful intercultural dialogue.
Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip D; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Kashdan, Todd B; Kiuru, Noona; Conigrave, James
Based on prior theory and research (Ciarrochi & Heaven, 2009; Eagly & Wood, 1999), we hypothesized that the link between empathy and friendship would be moderated by sex: Girls will nominate empathic boys as friends, whereas boys will not tend to nominate empathic girls. We collected measures of empathy, friendship social support, and close friendship nominations in grade 10 across 1,970 students in 16 schools (M age = 15.70, SD = .44; males = 993, females = 977). Multilevel models revealed that boys high in cognitive empathy attracted an average of 1.8 more girl friendship nominations than did their low empathy counterparts, whereas empathic girls did not attract a greater number of opposite-sex friends. In addition, the more friendship nominations a boy received from either boys or girls, the more they felt supported by their friends; the number of friendship nominations received by girls, in contrast, had no effect on their felt support by friends. Regardless of the quantity of friendship nominations, empathy was linked to more supportive friendships for both males and females. These results inform a contextual understanding of the role of empathy in selecting and maintaining friendships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sheehan, Alexander H.; Dahlben, Brian; Gutchess, Angela H.
Objectives. Although empathy is a well-established motivation in younger adults for helping others, it is not known whether this extends to aging. Prioritization of socioemotional goals with age may increase the salience of helping others (i.e., prosocial behavior), but older adults also experience decreased cognitive empathy. Thus, we investigated age-related differences in relationships among empathy and prosocial behavior. Method. Participants were 24 younger (M = 19.8 years) and 24 older (M = 77.9 years) healthy adults. Whereas participants believed the study involved playing the dictator game, in reality, state emotional empathy was induced implicitly through a note from an opponent describing their experience with cancer. Prosocial behavior was measured by participants’ monetary offers to that opponent. Results. Older adults showed greater prosocial behavior due to the empathy induction than younger adults. There was a positive association between state emotional empathy ratings and prosocial behavior in older, but not in younger adults, and preliminary evidence for higher state emotional empathy levels in older adults with higher trait cognitive empathy. Discussion. This suggests that in contexts relevant to socioemotional goals, older adults may be more motivated than younger adults to help others and state emotional empathy may be a potential mechanism for greater prosocial behavior in aging. PMID:24115776
McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.
The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…
Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li
The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait of cognitive empathy among 2158 mono- and multilinguals. Data were collected through an online questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed that the knowledge of more languages was not linked to cognitive empathy. Bilingual upbringing and the experience of…
van der Graaff, J.
Empathy is the ability to understand and to share another’s emotional state, and is seen as an important social skill to maintain relationships, to and to inhibit aggression. Yet, there has been little longitudinal research investigating the development of empathy, especially when it comes to
Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.
E. Timucin Oral
Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the
Helen Riess MD
Full Text Available Empathy plays a critical interpersonal and societal role, enabling sharing of experiences, needs, and desires between individuals and providing an emotional bridge that promotes pro-social behavior. This capacity requires an exquisite interplay of neural networks and enables us to perceive the emotions of others, resonate with them emotionally and cognitively, to take in the perspective of others, and to distinguish between our own and others’ emotions. Studies show empathy declines during medical training. Without targeted interventions, uncompassionate care and treatment devoid of empathy, results in patients who are dissatisfied. They are then much less likely to follow through with treatment recommendations, resulting in poorer health outcomes and damaged trust in health providers. Cognitive empathy must play a role when a lack of emotional empathy exists because of racial, ethnic, religious, or physical differences. Healthcare settings are no exception to conscious and unconscious biases, and there is no place for discrimination or unequal care afforded to patients who differ from the majority culture or the majority culture of healthcare providers. Much work lies ahead to make healthcare equitable for givers and receivers of healthcare from all cultures. Self- and other-empathy leads to replenishment and renewal of a vital human capacity. If we are to move in the direction of a more empathic society and a more compassionate world, it is clear that working to enhance our native capacities to empathize is critical to strengthening individual, community, national, and international bonds.
Locher, Simon C; Barenblatt, Lisa; Fourie, Melike M; Stein, Dan J; Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla
Impaired empathy is regarded as a psychological consequence of childhood maltreatment, yet few studies have explored this relationship empirically. We investigated whether empathy differed in healthy and maltreated individuals by examining their emotional responses to people in distress. Forty-nine individuals (age 20 to 60) viewed short film clips from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission testimonies depicting dialogues between victims and perpetrators of gross human rights violations. Participants were divided into 3 groups based on their scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: control (n = 18), moderate maltreatment (n = 21), and severe maltreatment (n = 10). We employed a mixed-methods design to explore empathic responses to film clips both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative results indicated that self-reported empathy was lower in the moderate maltreatment group compared to the control group, but of similar strengths in the severe maltreatment and control groups. However, qualitative thematic analysis indicated that both maltreatment groups displayed themes of impaired empathy. Our results support the notion that childhood maltreatment is associated with impaired empathy, and suggest that such impairment may differ depending on the level of maltreatment: moderate maltreatment was associated with emotional blunting and impaired cognitive empathy, whereas severe maltreatment was associated with emotional over-arousal and diminished cognitive insight.
Shu, Jocelyn; Hassell, Samuel; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mobbs, Dean
With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets. Study 3 extended these findings by demonstrating that trait empathic concern-the tendency to feel concern and compassion for others-was associated with experiencing vicarious anxiety, whereas trait personal distress-the tendency to experience distress in stressful situations-was not. Study 4 manipulated state empathy to establish a causal relationship between empathy and experience of vicarious anxiety. Participants who took an empathic perspective when observing target victims, as compared to those who took an objective perspective using reappraisal-based strategies, reported experiencing greater anxiety, risk-aversion, and sleep disruption the following night. These results highlight the impact of one's social environment on experiencing anxiety, particularly for those who are highly empathic. In addition, these findings have implications for extending basic models of anxiety to incorporate interpersonal processes, understanding the role of empathy in social learning, and potential applications for therapeutic contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Many conflicts between people could be avoided or resolved if both parties could understand the situation as if they were in the other’s shoes. Putting oneself into another’s position, either consciously or unconsciously, is called empathy. Empathy should not be confused with sympathy, which involves condolence or pity for the other; empathy is a neutral process, leading to the inner knowledge of another person. Individuals differ in their level of empathic ability. This may be due to environmental factors – like their education or personal experiences – or it may be because they are not receptive to the feedback they obtain and so cannot...
Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents aged 12-18 (57% females) reported the frequency of involvement in bullying and victimization. Participants were categorized as bullies (14.3%), bully-victims (3.9%), and victims (9.7%). Moral judgment, moral justifications, and emotion attributions to a hypothetical perpetrator of a moral transgression (relational aggression) were assessed. Bullies showed more morally disengaged reasoning than non-involved students. Bully-victims more frequently indicated that violating moral rules is right. Victims produced more victim-oriented justifications (i.e., more empathy) but fewer moral rules. Among victims, the frequency of morally responsible justifications decreased and the frequency of deviant rules increased with age. The findings are discussed from an integrative moral developmental perspective. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
McCreary, John J.
For this study, empathy was defined as not only understanding and sharing another's mental state, but also responding from a perspective more closely resembling the observed rather than the observer. Based on evidence suggesting relationships between reading and empathy, between empathy and gender, and between reading and gender, the current study…
McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…
Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn
This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...... community level employment emerge as effective avenues to less crime...
Rieffe, Carolien; Camodeca, Marina
In this study, we aimed at gaining a better understanding of the individual differences contributing to feelings of empathy in adolescents. Therefore, we examined the extent to which emotion awareness (e.g., recognizing and appreciating one's own and the emotions of others) and a tendency for certain social roles (e.g., helping or teasing peers when being bullied) are related to adolescents' levels of empathy. The sample was comprised of 182 adolescents aged between 11 and 16. Empathy and emotion awareness were assessed using self-report measures. Peer reports were used to indicate adolescents' different social roles: Bullying, defending the victim, and outsider behaviour. Outcomes demonstrated that evaluating one's own and the emotions of others, and more defending nominations were associated with both affective and cognitive empathy, whereas aspects of emotion awareness which are linked with internalizing symptoms were related to empathic distress, suggesting maladaptive emotion appraisal. Furthermore, outsider behaviour was associated with empathic distress, emphasizing a self-focused orientation. In contrast, more bullying was negatively associated with cognitive empathy. Overall, these outcomes demonstrate that, besides social roles, emotion awareness is an important factor for adaptive empathic reactions, whereas emotion dysregulation might cause distress when witnessing the negative feelings of others. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
this section. It helps to identify and remove cognitive biases and unseen assumptions. THEORETICAL TIES TO EMPATHY We had been hopelessly labouring ...attempts to gauge the satisfaction of future circumstances and their sustainability in light of the anticipated future system as a whole. In simulating his
"Empathy" is a much-discussed term in the humanities these days. While some critics value it and argue that literature desirably promotes it, other critics worry that appeals to this emotion will neglect important matters of social context. In the literature classroom, the best approach is to take time to consider how texts complicate the impulse…
Therapeutic empathy has been an often-used construct by counseling professionals. Through that usage, the term has evolved in meaning and significance from its original presentation by Carl Rogers. This article traces that evolution by identifying its users and contributors over the past 20 years. (Author)
Eriksson, Karl; Englander, Magnus
A dominant conceptualization of empathy in social work practice and education, provided by Karen Gerdes and Elizabeth Segal, relies heavily on the simulation theory adopted directly from the cognitive neurosciences. The aim was to critically challenge such a view by reporting on some recent empirical findings from the field in which professional…
Three major meanings of "empathy" are discussed with reference to the widespread imprecision in its use. It is suggested that undifferentiated use of the term in social work education is dangerous, particularly in view of the positive valence associated with being empathetic. (Author/BH)
Bleda, Paul R.
In contrast to previous reviews that have dealt extensively with either situational determinants of intervention in emergencies or norms governing prosocial actions, the present paper focuses primarily on the role of empathy and sympathy in mediating helpful acts. To provide a meaningful context in which to integrate research in this area, two…
Williams, Julia; Stickley, Theodore
It is widely accepted that the ability of nurses to empathise with their patients is a desirable quality. There is however little discussion of the implications of this for nurse educators. This article reviews the nursing and counselling literature related to empathy. We begin with an exploration of different perspectives of empathy; from its behavioural and measurable characteristics to its less tangible, intuitive qualities. By drawing upon both policy and research, it is clear that patients want empathic and emotionally competent nurses. Nurse educators therefore have a responsibility to provide an education that engenders empathic understanding. We explore the implications of these findings for nurse education, identifying key areas for consideration in the preparation of emotionally skilled, empathic student nurses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite the importance of parenting in the development of empathy in children as well as their involvement in bullying behaviours, no study has ever examined the mediating role of empathy in the relationship between parental bonding and bullying and victimization. The present study aims in examining these relationships. Participants included 504 children (255 boys, 246 girls from different primary schools of Crete. The standard version of the Peer Experiences Questionnaire was used to assess experiences in bullying behaviours, the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess self-reported sense of care and overprotection from the mother and father separately, whereas empathy was assessed using the Greek version of Bryant’s Empathy Index. A series of multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that boys scored significantly higher on average with respect to Victimisation of Others, and girls scored higher to specific sub-factors of empathy. It was also found that in the case of Care Mother, Sadness and Understanding of Feelings were significant mediators of Victimization of Others. Further, in the subsample of boys it was revealed that Sadness and Understanding of Feelings were significant mediators of the relationship between Care Mother and Victimization of Others. Implications for counselling interventions are also discussed.
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
Ethicists have become increasingly skeptical about the importance of empathy in producing moral concern for others. One of the main claims made by empathy skeptics is a psychological thesis: empathy is not the primary psychological process responsible for producing moral concern. Some of the best...... evidence that could confirm or disconfirm this thesis comes from research on empathizing with animals. However, this evidence has not been discussed in any of the prominent critiques of empathy. In this paper, I investigate six different empirical claims commonly made about empathy toward animals. I find...... all six claims to be problematic, though some are more plausible than others, and argue that empathy is indeed not psychologically central to producing moral concern for animals. I also review evidence indicating that other moral emotions, particularly anger, are more strongly engaged with producing...
Barlińska, Julia; Szuster, Anna; Winiewski, Mikołaj
The purpose of this study was to investigate if affective (vicarious sharing of emotions) and cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) induction may stimulate adolescent online bystanders’ intervention in cyberbullying cases. The role of reporting the abuse is crucial because it is a form of active support to the victim, initiated by children, to stop the bullying. The effectiveness of empathy activation in decreasing negative cyberbystander reinforcing behavior has been proved in previous studies. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy activation on positive cyberbystander behavior, defined as reporting the bullying online, were explored in two follow-up studies N = 271 and N = 265. The influence of experiencing cyberbullying as perpetrator, victim, and as determined by gender on prosocial cyberbystander behavior was also controlled. The results indicate that only cognitive empathy activation increases the likelihood of intervening bystander behavior. Neither affective empathy induction, previous experience of cyberperpetration, cybervictimization, nor gender affected the engagement in prosocial bystander behavior. The conclusion of the research is that a program consequently activating more reflective cognitive empathy induction can contribute toward the establishment of healthier behavioral patterns among bystanders to cyberbullying, increasing the probability of their reporting the cyberbullying acts. PMID:29899715
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if affective (vicarious sharing of emotions and cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking induction may stimulate adolescent online bystanders’ intervention in cyberbullying cases. The role of reporting the abuse is crucial because it is a form of active support to the victim, initiated by children, to stop the bullying. The effectiveness of empathy activation in decreasing negative cyberbystander reinforcing behavior has been proved in previous studies. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy activation on positive cyberbystander behavior, defined as reporting the bullying online, were explored in two follow-up studies N = 271 and N = 265. The influence of experiencing cyberbullying as perpetrator, victim, and as determined by gender on prosocial cyberbystander behavior was also controlled. The results indicate that only cognitive empathy activation increases the likelihood of intervening bystander behavior. Neither affective empathy induction, previous experience of cyberperpetration, cybervictimization, nor gender affected the engagement in prosocial bystander behavior. The conclusion of the research is that a program consequently activating more reflective cognitive empathy induction can contribute toward the establishment of healthier behavioral patterns among bystanders to cyberbullying, increasing the probability of their reporting the cyberbullying acts.
Del Barrio et al. (2004) haben vor mehr als 10 Jahren versucht, eine direkte Beziehung zwischen Empathie und den Big Five herzustellen. Im Mittel hatten in ihrer Stichprobe Frauen höhere Werte in der Empathie und auf den Big Five-Faktoren mit Ausnahme des Faktors Neurotizismus. Zusammenhänge zu Empathie fanden sie in den Bereichen Offenheit, Verträglichkeit, Gewissenhaftigkeit und Extraversion. In unseren Daten besitzen Frauen sowohl in der Empathie als auch den Big Five signifikant höhere We...
Full Text Available Empathy is an emotional response to display of distress in others and reversed-empathy is an emotional response to non-distressed others in distressed subjects. Stress has memory enhancing effect on aversive experience. Here, I examine empathy and reversed empathy using the memory enhancing effects of stress in mice. Restrain stress enhanced aversive memory of a floor with electric shock, but restrain stress, with cage mates also restrained, reduced the enhancing effect. On the other hand, restrain stress with free-moving cage mates increased the memory enhancing effect, suggesting the stronger stress. This is the reversed-empathy. Level of corticosterone is the highest after the restrain with free-moving mates and lowest after the restrain with restrained mates.
Bialystok, Lauren; Kukar, Polina
The educational enthusiasm for both authenticity and empathy makes a number of assumptions about universal virtues, self-hood, the role of emotion in education, and the role of the teacher. In this article, we argue that authenticity and empathy are both nebulous virtues that teachers and students are called to embody with little reflection on how…
Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin
Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM.
Fretz, Bruce R.
A trait measure of empathy, a skill measure of empathy and an attitude scale on psychological effectiveness were administered to both counselor trainees and "natural helpers", i.e. persons in helping relationships who have not been formally trained as mental health professionals or paraprofessionals. The results indicated that the measures of…
Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette
The article analyzes the link between film viewing and human 'ultra-sociality' (Boyd and Richardson 1998), describing how empathy is supported by mirror resonances but also modified by appraisal mechanisms and how emotions are communicated, It further discusses how 'attainment' to film builds...... on mother-child communication and also how film genres of attachment use such attainment, especially by means of close-ups of human faces and shot-reverse shots. Finally it deals with how films boost development of cognitive and emotional intelligence...
Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.
Full Text Available Explaining human cooperation continues to present a challenge because it goes beyond what is predicted by established theories of kinship and reciprocal altruism. Little attention has been paid to the sexual selection hypothesis that proposes that cooperation can act as a display that attracts mates. The costs of cooperating are then offset not by kinship or reciprocation but by increased mating success. Here we present results from a series of experiments which show that, as predicted by the sexual selection hypothesis, people preferentially direct cooperative behavior towards more attractive members of the opposite sex. Furthermore, cooperative behavior increases the perceived attractiveness of the cooperator. Economically costly behaviors can therefore bring benefits through mate choice and sexual selection should be regarded as an evolutionary mechanism capable of promoting cooperation.
Decety, Jean; Cowell, Jason M
Morality and empathy are fundamental components of human nature across cultures. However, the wealth of empirical findings from developmental, behavioral, and social neuroscience demonstrates a complex relation between morality and empathy. At times, empathy guides moral judgment, yet other times empathy can interfere with it. To better understand such relations, we propose abandoning the catchall term of empathy in favor of more precise concepts, such as emotional sharing, empathic concern, and affective perspective-taking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Machackova, Hana; Pfetsch, Jan
Cyberbullying often takes place with the virtual presence or knowledge of bystanders. While we have some evidence about the determinants of bystanders' responses to offline bullying, we lack empirical studies concerning the variables that influence bystanders' responses to cyberbullying. The current study examines bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying incidents. Two types of responses were captured: support toward the victims and the reinforcement of bullies' actions. Using data from 321 German adolescents (ages 12-18; M = 14.99; 44% girls), the association between bystanders' responses and normative beliefs about verbal aggression and cyberaggression, and affective and cognitive empathy, were tested in a path model. Both types of normative beliefs positively predicted the reinforcement of bullies, and normative belief about verbal aggression also predicted support for the victims of offline bullying. Both types of empathy predicted support in offline bullying, but only affective empathy predicted support in cyberbullying. There was no link between affective or cognitive empathy to the reinforcement of bullies. Moreover, bystanders' tendencies to respond supportively to the victim or to reinforce the bully were rather consistent in both cyber- and offline bullying, but there was no link between support and reinforcement. The findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention and intervention efforts. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Belacchi, Carmen; Farina, Eleonora
This study aims at investigating the affective and cognitive components of empathy in relation to both emotion comprehension and prosocial/hostile behaviors in preschoolers. A total of 219 children (54% boys; aged between 3 and 6: mean age 4.10) and 20 teachers (two for each class: group A and group B) took part in this research. Pupils' empathy and hostile/prosocial roles were assessed by teacher reports [Belacchi and Farina, 2010] and children's emotion comprehension by a nonverbal test [Test of Emotion Comprehension: Pons and Harris, 2000; adapted by Albanese and Molina; 2008]. As expected, the results showed a significant influence of gender, with girls being more empathic than boys, according to all of the teachers' perception. Contrary to our expectations, no systematic age influence emerged. Regarding the relations of children's emotion comprehension with both empathy measures and their prosocial/hostile attitudes, we have found: (1) a low significant relation with the total empathy measure, according to all the teachers, but with the cognitive empathy only according to teachers B; (2) a robust negative relationship of both affective and cognitive empathy with Hostile roles and with Outsider role, contrary to a positive correlation of only affective empathy with Prosocial roles. No relationships emerged between empathy measures and Victim role. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of the scientific and public discourse of victimization on the example of Serbia. The analysis has two objectives: to review the justification for the use of the concept of victim defined in the traditional way - within the legal framework; and in relation to this, to offer a different view on victimization. The process of becoming a victim is recognized as a social construct, created as a result of negotiations between the (non- formal social structure: institutions, the media, and the audience - those who stand aside, criminals and victims. In the process, some of the victims are assigned a status of justified, while others are sacrificed. There are rearely true parallels between them. Thus, unlike justified, whose suffering is perceived by public and political structures as a cause for the introduction of penal populism, the sacrificed rarely encounter any empathy. Even when they are victimized by conventional crime, the victims do not have the power to mobilize the public in a loud protest and call for change in legal practice. In the final score, it seems that the role victims are assigned largely depend of their social scale position.
Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard
The purpose of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, it presents an argument for usage-based inheritance models over complete inheritance models in construction grammar. It is argued that, with the principle of inductive language learning as their foundation, usage-based inheritance models allow...... for redundancies and incongruities in construction networks which enables linguists to take into account details of language use, which would otherwise not be facilitated in complete inheritance models. Secondly, making use of the method of collostructional analysis, the article offers a corpus-based description...... of the use of the Danish ihjel-construction which accounts for patterns of attraction of construction-verb attraction, patterns of productivity, and various types of subconstructions, including item- and item-class-based ones and metaphorical extensions. The description of the ihjel-construction should also...
Pedersen, Paul B; Pope, Mark
Empathy is reported in the research literature as a necessary factor in counseling and psychotherapy, but psychologists have historically interpreted empathy through an exclusively individual focus. Most of the research on empathy has been predicated on a definition of empathy as occurring when one person vicariously experiences the feelings, perceptions, and thoughts of another. In Western cultures, the study of empathy focuses exclusively on the individual, whereas in traditional non-Western cultures, empathy more typically involves an inclusive perspective focusing on the individual and significant others in the societal context. This article explores the reframing of "empathy," based on an individualistic perspective, into "inclusive cultural empathy," based on a more relationship-centered perspective, as an alternative interpretation of the empathic process. Psychologists are both the problem and the solution to this dilemma, and the authors call upon the field to take leadership in applying this "inclusive cultural empathy" model. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur
Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain. PMID:26441569
Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur
Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens' faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.
Kamila Jankowiak Siuda
Full Text Available Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behaviour. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behaviour and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male were studied using fMRI method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioural effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.
This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…
Schumann, Karina; Zaki, Jamil; Dweck, Carol S
Empathy is often thought to occur automatically. Yet, empathy frequently breaks down when it is difficult or distressing to relate to people in need, suggesting that empathy is often not felt reflexively. Indeed, the United States as a whole is said to be displaying an empathy deficit. When and why does empathy break down, and what predicts whether people will exert effort to experience empathy in challenging contexts? Across 7 studies, we found that people who held a malleable mindset about empathy (believing empathy can be developed) expended greater empathic effort in challenging contexts than did people who held a fixed theory (believing empathy cannot be developed). Specifically, a malleable theory of empathy--whether measured or experimentally induced--promoted (a) more self-reported effort to feel empathy when it is challenging (Study 1); (b) more empathically effortful responses to a person with conflicting views on personally important sociopolitical issues (Studies 2-4); (c) more time spent listening to the emotional personal story of a racial outgroup member (Study 5); and (d) greater willingness to help cancer patients in effortful, face-to-face ways (Study 6). Study 7 revealed a possible reason for this greater empathic effort in challenging contexts: a stronger interest in improving one's empathy. Together, these data suggest that people's mindsets powerfully affect whether they exert effort to empathize when it is needed most, and these data may represent a point of leverage in increasing empathic behaviors on a broad scale. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Moyers, Theresa B; Miller, William R
One of the largest determinants of client outcomes is the counselor who provides treatment. Therapists often vary widely in effectiveness, even when delivering standardized manual-guided treatment. In particular, the therapeutic skill of accurate empathy originally described by Carl Rogers has been found to account for a meaningful proportion of variance in therapeutic alliance and in addiction treatment outcomes. High-empathy counselors appear to have higher success rates regardless of theoretical orientation. Low-empathy and confrontational counseling, in contrast, has been associated with higher drop-out and relapse rates, weaker therapeutic alliance, and less client change. The authors propose emphasis on empathic listening skills as an evidence-based practice in the hiring and training of counselors to improve outcomes and prevent harm in addiction treatment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.
Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
Quince, Thelma; Thiemann, Pia; Benson, John; Hyde, Sarah
Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow’s health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students’ empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students’ empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients’ experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have utility across large populations but are limited. Finally, there is a need for greater methodological rigor in investigating the possible determinants of clinical empathy in medical education. Greater
Jorge Luiz da Silva
Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students’ individual aspects.
da Silva, Jorge Luiz; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio; Braga, Iara Falleiros; Farias, Marilurdes Silva; da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi
This study's objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students' individual aspects.
Full Text Available This work examines in what extent a notion of empathy may clarify mindreading’s debate. Taking into account an interdisciplinary and integrative notion of empathy, compatibility with mental attribution strategies both mental simulation and theory-theory, in non pure versions, is evaluated. Firstly, new empirical research is supposed to contribute strengthening an integrative empathy instead of theory-theory or mental simulation `s points of view. Secondly, new empirical research will bring better tools to distinguish between empathy and simulation. Consequently, the relationship between empathy and mental attribution theories may be better delimited and a full mental attribution theory may possibly be proposed.
Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)
Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)
Seinfeld, S; Arroyo-Palacios, J; Iruretagoyena, G; Hortensius, R; Zapata, L E; Borland, D; de Gelder, B; Slater, M; Sanchez-Vives, M V
The role of empathy and perspective-taking in preventing aggressive behaviors has been highlighted in several theoretical models. In this study, we used immersive virtual reality to induce a full body ownership illusion that allows offenders to be in the body of a victim of domestic abuse. A group
Full Text Available The present study is aim to examine whether preservice preschool teachers' respond differently to physical, verbal and relational bullying, and how their years of study and trait empathy related their responses. There were 242 preservice teachers in the present study. Empathy was measured with the self-report Interpersonal Reactive Index; the Bullying Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess their perceptions of incident seriousness, their sympathy toward the victim of the bullying, and their possibility to intervene in the situation. The results revealed that the participants responded most to physical bullying and least to relational bullying. Interestingly, responses to relational bullying tended to decrease during the university period. The empathy dimensions played different roles in the participants' responses to bullying, while cognitive empathy have little relationship with the participants' responses to bullying, emotional empathy played a more complex role in the participants' responses to bullying: empathic concerns moderated the relationship between years of study and responses to bullying, and personal distress negatively predicted the participants' responses to all types of bullying. The implications for bullying intervention and the suggestion for teacher education are discussed.
Huang, Heqing; Liu, Yanchun; Chen, Yulu
The present study is aim to examine whether preservice preschool teachers' respond differently to physical, verbal and relational bullying, and how their years of study and trait empathy related their responses. There were 242 preservice teachers in the present study. Empathy was measured with the self-report Interpersonal Reactive Index; the Bullying Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess their perceptions of incident seriousness, their sympathy toward the victim of the bullying, and their possibility to intervene in the situation. The results revealed that the participants responded most to physical bullying and least to relational bullying. Interestingly, responses to relational bullying tended to decrease during the university period. The empathy dimensions played different roles in the participants' responses to bullying, while cognitive empathy have little relationship with the participants' responses to bullying, emotional empathy played a more complex role in the participants' responses to bullying: empathic concerns moderated the relationship between years of study and responses to bullying, and personal distress negatively predicted the participants' responses to all types of bullying. The implications for bullying intervention and the suggestion for teacher education are discussed. PMID:29515492
Persson, Björn N; Kajonius, Petri J
Research reports that empathy is on the decline in present-day society, together with an increasing trend in self-enhancing values. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis, we investigated whether these constructs are interlinked by analyzing the relationships between emotional and cognitive empathy and 10 universal values. In the first study, using a middle-aged U.S. sample, the results showed that empathy was strongly and positively related to altruistic values and negatively to self-enhancing values in a pattern that aligned with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In a second confirmation study, these findings were replicated and extended, while also controlling for the Big Five personality traits, to discount that empathy is only captured by basic personality. Only emotional empathy, not cognitive empathy, accounted for up to 18% additional variance in altruistic values, which further confirmed the emphasis on feelings, as postulated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis.
Moorlock, Greg; Draper, Heather
In this article we explore some of the ethical dimensions of using social media to increase the number of living kidney donors. Social media provides a platform for changing non-identifiable 'statistical victims' into 'real people' with whom we can identify and feel empathy: the so-called 'identifiable victim effect', which prompts charitable action. We examine three approaches to promoting kidney donation using social media which could take advantages of the identifiable victim effect: (a) institutionally organized campaigns based on historical cases aimed at promoting non-directed altruistic donation; (b) personal case-based campaigns organized by individuals aimed at promoting themselves/or someone with whom they are in a relationship as a recipient of directed donation; (c) institutionally organized personal case-based campaigns aimed at promoting specific recipients for directed donation. We will highlight the key ethical issues raised by these approaches, and will argue that the third option, despite raising ethical concerns, is preferable to the other two. © 2018 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Beck, Victoria; Rose, Chris
The goal of this study was to investigate whether the sexual objectification and virtual violence against females in video games increases negative attitudes toward females, when addressing a variety of noted methodological issues. Study participants were randomly assigned to a control group, where participants played Madden NFL 12, or an experimental group, where participants played Grand Theft Auto. In the experimental group, participants played the game with a confederate, who exposed participants to sexual objectification and violence against females. Study results indicated that both the experimental and control groups had equivalently low levels of rape myth acceptance prior to game play. Immediately after game play, there still was no statistically significant difference in rape myth acceptance between groups; however, there was a decrease in rape myth acceptance for the experimental group. The decrease in rape myth acceptance continued and magnified for the experimental group, over time, to the point of creating a statistically significant difference between the two groups for the follow-up measure at the end of the study.
LEONARDO ALBERTO RODRÍGUEZ CELY
Full Text Available This study intends to make a descriptive analysis of the interaction strategies used by the kidnapper withthe victim during captivity, based on information taken from selected documents containing the victim testimonies.Information was supplemented with data from bibliographic references, profound interviews to GAULAgroup members. Document content was analyzed by confronting the three information sources. The findingswere that there is not a single but a multiple type of kidnappers: kidnappers, persons taking care, commanders,negotiators and suppliers. Likewise, it was evident that the type of relationship that the kidnapper establisheswith the victim varies depending on his/her hierarchy in the group, the roll played, age, education, ideal-drivingmotivations and the empathy with the person kidnapped. Other important variables of the study were: kidnappingstage, location, duration and releasing aspects.
Full Text Available Thelma Quince, Pia Thiemann, John Benson, Sarah Hyde Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow's health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students' empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students' empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients' experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have
Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie
Previous studies have found mixed results on the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance. Emotional and cognitive components of empathy were hypothesised to play different roles in peer acceptance, and the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance differed across genders. In this study, 375 Chinese adolescents completed self-report measures of emotional and cognitive empathy. They also provided peer nominations that allowed for the determination of social preference and social impact scores. The results showed that a boy's cognitive empathy positively correlated with the extent to which he was liked by his male classmates, whereas a girl's cognitive empathy positively correlated with her social impact among her female classmates. This study suggests that empathy does not affect peer acceptance among adolescents uniformly; instead, gender plays a determinative role in the dialectics between social acceptance and empathy. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Bensalah, Leila; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Carre, Arnaud; Besche-Richard, Chrystel
We adapted the adult French version of the Basic Empathy Scale to French children aged 6-11 years, in order to probe the factorial structure underlying empathy. A total of 410 children (189 girls and 221 boys) were instructed to fill out the resulting Basic Empathy Scale in Children (BES-C). Results showed that, as in adulthood, the three-factor model of empathy (i.e., emotional contagion, cognitive empathy, and emotional disconnection) was more relevant than the one- and two-factor ones. This means that as early as 6 years of age, children's responses should reflect the same organization of the three components of empathy as those of adults. In line with the literature, cognitive empathy increased and emotional disconnection decreased in middle childhood, while emotional contagion remained stable. Moreover, girls exhibited greater emotional contagion than boys, with the reverse pattern being observed for emotional disconnection. No sex difference was found regarding cognitive empathy.
There is a convergence between cognitive models of imitation, constructs derived from social psychology studies on mimicry and empathy, and recent empirical findings from the neurosciences. The ideomotor framework of human actions assumes a common representational format for action and perception that facilitates imitation. Furthermore, the associative sequence learning model of imitation proposes that experience-based Hebbian learning forms links between sensory processing of the actions of others and motor plans. Social psychology studies have demonstrated that imitation and mimicry are pervasive, automatic, and facilitate empathy. Neuroscience investigations have demonstrated physiological mechanisms of mirroring at single-cell and neural-system levels that support the cognitive and social psychology constructs. Why were these neural mechanisms selected, and what is their adaptive advantage? Neural mirroring solves the "problem of other minds" (how we can access and understand the minds of others) and makes intersubjectivity possible, thus facilitating social behavior.
Clarke, Eric; DeNora, Tia; Vuoskoski, Jonna
In the age of the Internet and with the dramatic proliferation of mobile listening technologies, music has unprecedented global distribution and embeddedness in people's lives. It is a source of intense experiences of both the most intimate and solitary, and public and collective, kinds - from an individual with their smartphone and headphones, to large-scale live events and global simulcasts; and it increasingly brings together a huge range of cultures and histories, through developments in world music, sampling, the re-issue of historical recordings, and the explosion of informal and home music-making that circulates via YouTube. For many people, involvement with music can be among the most powerful and potentially transforming experiences in their lives. At the same time, there has been increasing interest in music's communicative and affective capacities, and its potential to act as an agent of social bonding and affiliation. This review critically discusses a considerable body of research and scholarship, across disciplines ranging from the neuroscience and psychology of music to cultural musicology and the sociology and anthropology of music, that provides evidence for music's capacity to promote empathy and social/cultural understanding through powerful affective, cognitive and social factors; and explores ways in which to connect and make sense of this disparate evidence (and counter-evidence). It reports the outcome of an empirical study that tests one aspect of those claims, demonstrating that 'passive' listening to the music of an unfamiliar culture can significantly change the cultural attitudes of listeners with high dispositional empathy; presents a model that brings together the primary components of the music and empathy research into a single framework; and considers both some of the applications, and some of the shortcomings and problems, of understanding music from the perspective of empathy.
Clarke, Eric; DeNora, Tia; Vuoskoski, Jonna
In the age of the Internet and with the dramatic proliferation of mobile listening technologies, music has unprecedented global distribution and embeddedness in people's lives. It is a source of intense experiences of both the most intimate and solitary, and public and collective, kinds - from an individual with their smartphone and headphones, to large-scale live events and global simulcasts; and it increasingly brings together a huge range of cultures and histories, through developments in world music, sampling, the re-issue of historical recordings, and the explosion of informal and home music-making that circulates via YouTube. For many people, involvement with music can be among the most powerful and potentially transforming experiences in their lives. At the same time, there has been increasing interest in music's communicative and affective capacities, and its potential to act as an agent of social bonding and affiliation. This review critically discusses a considerable body of research and scholarship, across disciplines ranging from the neuroscience and psychology of music to cultural musicology and the sociology and anthropology of music, that provides evidence for music's capacity to promote empathy and social/cultural understanding through powerful affective, cognitive and social factors; and explores ways in which to connect and make sense of this disparate evidence (and counter-evidence). It reports the outcome of an empirical study that tests one aspect of those claims, demonstrating that 'passive' listening to the music of an unfamiliar culture can significantly change the cultural attitudes of listeners with high dispositional empathy; presents a model that brings together the primary components of the music and empathy research into a single framework; and considers both some of the applications, and some of the shortcomings and problems, of understanding music from the perspective of empathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Although research has shown the effects of empathy manipulations on prejudice, little is known about the long-term relation between empathy and prejudice development, the direction of effects, and the relative effects of cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. Moreover, research has not examined within-person processes; hence, its practical…
Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu
Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490
Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean
Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask
secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...
Myyry, Liisa; Helkama, Klaus
Presents a comparison of the Schwartz typology of values and the Spranger-Allport-Vernon typology. Investigates the differences among students in business, social science, and technology in emotional empathy and the relationships of value priorities and emotional empathy in different fields. Includes references. (CMK)
Endacott, Jason L.
Historical empathy scholarship has evolved to the point where further progress necessitates empirical examinations from a variety of perspectives. Prior studies on historical empathy have largely focused on teachers' pedagogical approach and student outcomes. This qualitative study focuses on students as they engage in the process of historical…
Austring, Bennye Düranc; Sørensen, Merete Cornet
UCSJ-delen af den afsluttende rapport fra Nordplus-projektet "Qualified Empathy", der blev gennemført sammen med Metropolia, Helsinki, og NTNU, Trondheim, i 2015 og 15.......UCSJ-delen af den afsluttende rapport fra Nordplus-projektet "Qualified Empathy", der blev gennemført sammen med Metropolia, Helsinki, og NTNU, Trondheim, i 2015 og 15....
Matthews, Michael T.; Williams, Gregory S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.; McDonald, Jason K.
The notion of designer empathy has become a cornerstone of design philosophy in fields such as product design, human-computer interaction, and service design. But the literature on instructional designer empathy and learner analysis suggests that distance learning designers are generally quite removed from the learners with whom they could be…
Swan, Paul; Riley, Philip
Attending to the academic and social/emotional developmental needs of students has and continues to be a significant challenge for teachers and relatively little research examining the impact of teacher empathy exists. Empathy is an important skill for educators to facilitate the creation of a positive learning environment with students and…
Sørensen, Mariann B.
This presentation aims to trouble the concept of empathy in qualitative inquiry from two perspectives having a phenomenological approach. As a supervisor I see students regard interviews as untouchable and be reluctant to bring in theory in their analysis because of empathy towards the interviewees...
Jordan, Matthew R; Amir, Dorsa; Bloom, Paul
Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior. A series of factor analyses reveal that empathy and concern consistently load on different factors. Furthermore, they show that empathy and concern motivate different behaviors: concern for others is a uniquely positive predictor of prosocial action whereas empathy is either not predictive or negatively predictive of prosocial actions. Together these studies suggest that empathy and concern are psychologically distinct and empathy plays a more limited role in our moral lives than many believe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gold, Joshua M.
Entry-level counseling students (n=74) were surveyed to investigate the relationship between resolution of Erikson's psychosocial stage of intimacy/isolation and counselor trainee empathy. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between measures of psychosocial stage resolution and counselor empathy and a significant main effect for…
Schalkwijk, Frans; Stams, Geert Jan; Stegge, Hedy; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap
This study examines an emotion-based theory of the conscience, which provides forensic practitioners tools for assessing the state of the conscience. It is operationalized as an emotion-regulating function, making use of empathy, self-conscious emotions, such as shame, pride or guilt, and moral judgment. This was put to test in a questionnaire survey with 59 delinquent and 275 non-delinquent juveniles. As was hypothesized, the functioning of the conscience of these groups differed, with offenders having lower levels of some aspects of empathic capacity, being less prone to experiencing shame and guilt, being more prone to experiencing pride, and being more punishment oriented than victim oriented. The research confirmed that operationalization of the conscience in terms of empathy, self-conscious emotions, and moral orientation is feasible. © The Author(s) 2014.
Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…
Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees
The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also
Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.
An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…
The suffering of nonhuman animals has become a noted factor in deciding public policy and legislative change. Yet, despite this growing concern, skepticism toward such suffering is still surprisingly common. This paper analyzes the merits of the skeptical approach, both in its moderate and extreme forms. In the first part it is claimed that the type of criterion for verification concerning the mental states of other animals posed by skepticism is overly (and, in the case of extreme skepticism, illogically) demanding. Resting on Wittgenstein and Husserl, it is argued that skepticism relies on a misguided epistemology and, thus, that key questions posed by it face the risk of absurdity. In the second part of the paper it is suggested that, instead of skepticism, empathy together with intersubjectivity be adopted. Edith Stein's take on empathy, along with contemporary findings, are explored, and the claim is made that it is only via these two methods of understanding that the suffering of nonhuman animals can be perceived.
Cameron, C Daryl; Spring, Victoria L; Todd, Andrew R
Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias). In Experiment 1, imposing a fast (vs. slow) response deadline uniquely reduced Intentional Empathy. In Experiment 2, inducing imagine-self (vs. imagine-other) perspective-taking uniquely increased Unintentional Empathy. In Experiment 3, Intentional and Unintentional Empathy were stronger toward targets with typical (vs. atypical) pain outcomes, suggesting that outcome information matters and that effects on the PIT are not reducible to affective priming. Typicality of pain outcomes more weakly affected task performance when target stimuli were merely categorized rather than judged for painfulness, suggesting that effects on the latter are not reducible to semantic priming. In Experiment 4, Unintentional Empathy was stronger for participants who engaged in costly donation to cancer charities, but this parameter was also high for those who donated to an objectively worse but socially more popular charity, suggesting that overly high empathy may facilitate maladaptive altruism. Theoretical and practical applications of our modeling approach for understanding variation in empathy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Roorda, Berend; Joosten, Reinoud
We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary dynamics. For instance, each attractive evolutionarily stable strategy is an attractive evolutionarily stable equilibrium for certain barycentric ray-projection dynamics, and vice versa.
Full Text Available Empathy is considered to be a crucial ingredient in social work practice. Research on empathy is abundant although literature describing the teaching and learning of empathy, and in what contexts empathy might be taught best, is less common. The primary aim of this exploratory, classroom-based research undertaken in 2011 was to explore empathy with second year, social work students, thereby building on previous research, and linking it to education and practice. The findings suggest students may acquire a conceptual and definitional understanding of empathy by early in their course, but may need more proactive support to transform that learning into deeper empathy. A key speculation underpinning this exploratory inquiry, that cultivating empathy within an ‘ethics’ unit might prove more potent than within a ‘skills’ unit, was not supported. The need for further research into empathy, particularly cross-cultural empathy, is a recommendation of this research.
Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith
Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.
Datta, Sujit S; Gerrard, Dustin D; Rhodes, Travers S; Mason, Thomas G; Weitz, David A
We show how attractive interactions dramatically influence emulsion rheology. Unlike the repulsive case, attractive emulsions below random close packing, φ(RCP), can form soft gel-like elastic solids. However, above φ(RCP), attractive and repulsive emulsions have similar elasticities. Such compressed attractive emulsions undergo an additional shear-driven relaxation process during yielding. Our results suggest that attractive emulsions begin to yield at weak points through the breakage of bonds, and, above φ(RCP), also undergo droplet configurational rearrangements.
Van Goozen, Stephanie
Background: Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction\\ud exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to\\ud empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective\\ud empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. Methods: Participants were 8-12 year-old children\\ud at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N=114, 80.7% boys) and typically developin...
Mischkowski, Dominik; Crocker, Jennifer; Way, Baldwin M
Simulation theories of empathy hypothesize that empathizing with others' pain shares some common psychological computations with the processing of one's own pain. Support for this perspective has largely relied on functional neuroimaging evidence of an overlap between activations during the experience of physical pain and empathy for other people's pain. Here, we extend the functional overlap perspective to the neurochemical level and test whether a common physical painkiller, acetaminophen (paracetamol), can reduce empathy for another's pain. In two double-blind placebo-controlled experiments, participants rated perceived pain, personal distress and empathic concern in response to reading scenarios about another's physical or social pain, witnessing ostracism in the lab, or visualizing another study participant receiving painful noise blasts. As hypothesized, acetaminophen reduced empathy in response to others' pain. Acetaminophen also reduced the unpleasantness of noise blasts delivered to the participant, which mediated acetaminophen's effects on empathy. Together, these findings suggest that the physical painkiller acetaminophen reduces empathy for pain and provide a new perspective on the neurochemical bases of empathy. Because empathy regulates prosocial and antisocial behavior, these drug-induced reductions in empathy raise concerns about the broader social side effects of acetaminophen, which is taken by almost a quarter of adults in the United States each week. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sandy Overgaauw; Sandy Overgaauw; Carolien Rieffe; Evelien Broekhof; Eveline A. Crone; Eveline A. Crone; Berna Güroğlu; Berna Güroğlu
Empathy plays a crucial role in healthy social functioning and in maintaining positive social relationships. In this study, 1250 children and adolescents (10–15 year olds) completed the newly developed Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA) that was tested on reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and concurrent validity. The EmQue-CA aims to assess empathy using the following scales: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and intention to comfort. A Princ...
Kaitlyn N. Ryan
Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.
In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and
Christov-Moore, Leonardo; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Coudé, Gino; Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco; Ferrari, Pier Francesco
Evidence suggests that there are differences in the capacity for empathy between males and females. However, how deep do these differences go? Stereotypically, females are portrayed as more nurturing and empathetic, while males are portrayed as less emotional and more cognitive. Some authors suggest that observed gender differences might be largely due to cultural expectations about gender roles. However, empathy has both evolutionary and developmental precursors, and can be studied using implicit measures, aspects that can help elucidate the respective roles of culture and biology. This article reviews evidence from ethology, social psychology, economics, and neuroscience to show that there are fundamental differences in implicit measures of empathy, with parallels in development and evolution. Studies in nonhuman animals and younger human populations (infants/children) offer converging evidence that sex differences in empathy have phylogenetic and ontogenetic roots in biology and are not merely cultural byproducts driven by socialization. We review how these differences may have arisen in response to males’ and females’ different roles throughout evolution. Examinations of the neurobiological underpinnings of empathy reveal important quantitative gender differences in the basic networks involved in affective and cognitive forms of empathy, as well as a qualitative divergence between the sexes in how emotional information is integrated to support decision making processes. Finally, the study of gender differences in empathy can be improved by designing studies with greater statistical power and considering variables implicit in gender (e.g., sexual preference, prenatal hormone exposure). These improvements may also help uncover the nature of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in which one sex is more vulnerable to compromised social competence associated with impaired empathy. PMID:25236781
Rossi, Giulia; Tcheukam, Alain; Tembine, Hamidou
Strategic decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like reasoning, cognitive and emotional empathy which may be subject to age and gender differences. However, empathy-related changes in strategic decision-making and their relation to age, gender and neuropsychological functions have not been studied widely. In this article, we study a one-shot prisoner dilemma from a psychological game theory viewpoint. Forty seven participants (28 women and 19 men), aged 18 to 42 years, we...
Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend
We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary
Empathy as a research topic is receiving increasing attention, although there seems some confusion on the definition of empathy across different fields. Frans de Waal (de Waal FBM. Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy. Annu Rev Psychol 2008, 59:279-300. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093625) used empathy as an umbrella term and proposed a comprehensive model for the evolution of empathy with some of its basic elements in nonhuman animals. In de Waal's model, empathy consists of several layers distinguished by required cognitive levels; the perception-action mechanism plays the core role for connecting ourself and others. Then, human-like empathy such as perspective-taking develops in outer layers according to cognitive sophistication, leading to prosocial acts such as targeted helping. I agree that animals demonstrate many empathy-related phenomena; however, the species differences and the level of cognitive sophistication of the phenomena might be interpreted in another way than this simple linearly developing model. Our recent studies with chimpanzees showed that their perspective-taking ability does not necessarily lead to proactive helping behavior. Herein, as a springboard for further studies, I reorganize the empathy-related phenomena by proposing a combination model instead of the linear development model. This combination model is composed of three organizing factors: matching with others, understanding of others, and prosociality. With these three factors and their combinations, most empathy-related matters can be categorized and mapped to appropriate context; this may be a good first step to discuss the evolution of empathy in relation to the neural connections in human and nonhuman animal brains. I would like to propose further comparative studies, especially from the viewpoint of Homo-Pan (chimpanzee and bonobo) comparison. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1431. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1431 For further resources related to this article
Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz
Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...
Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel
Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.
van Zonneveld, Lisette; Platje, Evelien; de Sonneville, Leo; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna
Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. Participants were 8- to 12-year-old children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N = 114, 80.7% boys) and typically developing controls (N = 43, 72.1% boys). The high-risk children were recruited through an ongoing early identification and intervention project of the city of Amsterdam, focusing on the underage siblings or children of delinquents and those failing primary school. Video clips with neutral and emotional content (fear, happiness and pain) were shown, while heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded to measure affective empathy. Answers to questions about emotions in the clips were coded to measure cognitive empathy. Eye-tracking was used to evaluate visual scanning patterns towards social relevant cues (eyes and face) in the clips. The high-risk group did not differ from the control group in social attention and cognitive empathy, but showed reduced HR to pain and fear, and reduced SCL and SCRs to pain. Children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour show impaired affective empathy but unimpaired social attention and cognitive empathy. The implications for early identification and intervention studies with antisocial children are discussed. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Chaparro, Maria Paula; Grusec, Joan E.
Links among neuroticism, inconsistent discipline, and empathy were assessed in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Mothers', but not fathers', inconsistent discipline predicted decreases in empathy 2 years later, but only for adolescents who were low in neuroticism. For those who were high, there was no effect of inconsistent discipline.…
Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R
Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes--particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale--yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A
Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Saito, Daisuke N.; Mano, Yoko; Jung, Minyoung; Fujii, Takeshi; Yanaka, Hisakazu T.; Munesue, Toshio; Ishitobi, Makoto; Sato, Makoto; Okazawa, Hidehiko
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are thought to lack self-awareness and to experience difficulty empathizing with others. Although these deficits have been demonstrated in previous studies, most of the target stimuli were constructed for typically developing (TD) individuals. We employed judgment tasks capable of indexing self-relevant processing in individuals with and without ASD. Fourteen Japanese men and 1 Japanese women with high-functioning ASD (17–41 years of age) and 13 Japanese men and 2 TD Japanese women (22–40 years of age), all of whom were matched for age and full and verbal intelligence quotient scores with the ASD participants, were enrolled in this study. The results demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated in individuals with ASD in response to autistic characters and in TD individuals in response to non-autistic characters. Although the frontal–posterior network between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus participated in the processing of non-autistic characters in TD individuals, an alternative network was involved when individuals with ASD processed autistic characters. This suggests an atypical form of empathy in individuals with ASD toward others with ASD. PMID:25332405
Farber, Sharon K
Success in psychotherapy is correlated with the "fit" between patient and therapist, a factor related to attachment. For psychotherapists of any orientation, empathy and building the bond of attachment is our stock-in-trade. When empathy builds the bond of attachment with someone starved for connection, a therapist may inadvertently set him- or herself up to become a victim of a stalker. Because individuals who stalk others suffer from severe attachment disorders, their hunger for attachment motivates them to shadow psychotherapists, which makes being stalked a very real occupational hazard for psychotherapists. This was a painful discovery for me. I was stalked for 11 months, leaving me with post-traumatic stress disorder. After recovering, I deconstructed the experience to understand how and why it happened, and discovered that it was my empathy and compassion that contributed to and maintained the stalking. What I learned from the forensic literature provided the knowledge and confidence needed to end the stalking. In this paper recommendations are made about how to prevent stalking and to halt it if it does happens.
Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa
The considerable prevalence of cyberbullying and its noxious effects on all those concerned reveals the need for programs to prevent and/or intervene in this type of violence. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Cyberprogram 2.0 on "face-to-face" bullying, cyberbullying, and empathy. A sample of 176 adolescents of the Basque Country (Spain), aged between 13 and 15 years, who studied Compulsory Secondary Education, was used. Of them, 93 were randomly assigned to the experimental condition, and 83 to the control condition. The study used a pretest-posttest repeated measures design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered. The results confirmed that the program significantly stimulated: (a) a decrease in the amount of bullying and cyberbullying behaviors suffered and/or carried out (level of victimization, perpetration, aggressive-victimization); and (b) an increase in the capacity for empathy. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to prevent and reduce bullying and cyberbullying. The discussion analyzes aspects of the program that may account for the significant intervention effects.
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P
at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early......The present study set out to investigate predictors of first time adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV) among 238 female Grade 9 students from 30 schools in Denmark. A prospective research design was utilized to examine the relationship among five potential predictors as measured...... sexual onset and failing to signal sexual boundaries did not. The present study identifies specific risk factors for first time sexual victimization that are potentially changeable. Thus, the results may inform prevention initiatives targeting initial experiences of APSV....
Małgorzata K. Szerla
Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.
Diehl, Charlotte; Glaser, Tina; Bohner, Gerd
Prior research has shown that (1) better knowledge about the consequences of rape goes along with less rape-supportive attitudes and lower rape proclivity, and (2) empathy with the victims correlates negatively with sexual aggression. In two experiments, the authors combined these approaches in order to reduce sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) and the likelihood to sexually harass (LSH). In Study 1, 101 male and female university students read a report describing sexual harassment as either serious or harmless, and completed scales assessing dispositional empathy and SHMA. Results showed that higher empathy was associated with lower SHMA; furthermore, learning about the seriousness (vs. harmlessness) of sexual harassment led to lower SHMA, particularly in participants low in empathy. Gender differences in SHMA were fully explained by gender differences in empathy. In Study 2, perspective taking, a crucial aspect of empathy, was manipulated. One hundred nineteen male and female participants read either a neutral text or a description of a sexual harassment case, which was written either from the female target's or from the male perpetrator's perspective; then they completed scales measuring SHMA and (only male participants) LSH. The target's perspective led to lower SHMA and to lower LSH than did the neutral text, whereas no such effect was found for the perpetrator's perspective. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rasoal, Chato; Danielsson, Henrik; Jungert, Tomas
Engineers face challenges when they are to manage project groups and be leaders for organisations because such positions demand skills in social competence and empathy. Previous studies have shown that engineers have low degrees of social competence skills. In this study, the level of empathy as measured by the four subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, perspective taking, fantasy, empathic distress and empathic concern, among engineering students was compared to students in health care profession programmes. Participants were undergraduate students at Linköping University, 365 students from four different health care profession programmes and 115 students from two different engineering programmes. When the empathy measures were corrected for effects of sex, engineering students from one of the programmes had lower empathy than psychology and social worker students on the fantasy and perspective-taking subscales. These results raise questions regarding opportunities for engineering students to develop their empathic abilities. It is important that engineering students acquire both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills regarding empathy.
Karen E. Gerdes
Full Text Available This article presents a social work model of empathy that reflects the latest interdisciplinary research findings on empathy. The model reflects the social work commitment to social justice. The three model components are: 1 the affective response to another’s emotions and actions; 2 the cognitive processing of one’s affective response and the other person’s perspective; and 3 the conscious decision-making to take empathic action. Mirrored affective responses are involuntary, while cognitive processing and conscious decision-making are voluntary. The affective component requires healthy, neural pathways to function appropriately and accurately. The cognitive aspects of perspective-taking, self-awareness, and emotion regulation can be practiced and cultivated, particularly through the use of mindfulness techniques. Empathic action requires that we move beyond affective responses and cognitive processing toward utilizing social work values and knowledge to inform our actions. By introducing the proposed model of empathy, we hope it will serve as a catalyst for discussion and future research and development of the model. Key Words: Empathy, Social Empathy, Social Cognitive Neuroscience
Hojat, Mohammadreza; Axelrod, David; Spandorfer, John; Mangione, Salvatore
Empathy is an important component of physician competence that needs to be enhanced. To test the hypotheses that medical students' empathy can be enhanced and sustained by targeted activities. This was a two-phase study in which 248 medical students participated. In Phase 1, students in the experimental group watched and discussed video clips of patient encounters meant to enhance empathic understanding; those in the control group watched a documentary film. Ten weeks later in Phase 2 of the study, students who were in the experimental group were divided into two groups. One group attended a lecture on empathy in patient care, and the other plus the control group watched a movie about racism. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was administered pre-post in Phase 1 and posttest in Phase 2. In Phase 1, the JSE mean score for the experimental group improved significantly (p < 0.01); no change in the JSE scores was observed in the control group. In Phase 2, the JSE mean score improvement was sustained in the group that attended the lecture, but not in the other group. No change in empathy was noticed in the control group. Research hypotheses were confirmed.
MacFarlane, Peter; Anderson, Timothy; McClintock, Andrew S
Although empathy is one of most robust predictors of client outcome, there is little consensus about how best to conceptualize this construct. The aim of the present research was to investigate clients' perceptions and in-session experiences of empathy. Semi-structured, video-assisted interpersonal process recall interviews were used to collect data from nine clients receiving individual psychotherapy at a university psychology clinic. Grounded theory analysis yielded a model consisting of three clusters: (1) relational context of empathy (i.e., personal relationship and professional relationship), (2) types of empathy (i.e., psychotherapists' cognitive empathy, psychotherapists' emotional empathy, and client attunement to psychotherapist), and (3) utility of empathy (i.e., process-related benefits and client-related benefits). These results suggest that empathy is a multi-dimensional, interactional process that affects-and is affected by-the broader relationship between client and psychotherapist.
Barraza, Jorge A; Zak, Paul J
Empathy is related to a variety of prosocial behaviors, but the brain mechanisms producing the experience of empathy have not been fully characterized. This study investigated whether the experience of empathy raises oxytocin levels and affects subsequent generosity toward strangers. Short video clips of an emotional scene and an unemotional scene were used as stimuli. Participants rated the emotions they experienced and then played a $40 ultimatum game to gauge their generosity. We found that empathy was associated with a 47% increase in oxytocin from baseline. We also found the empathy-oxytocin response was stronger in women than in men. Higher levels of empathy were also associated with more generous monetary offers toward strangers in the ultimatum game. Our findings provide the first evidence that oxytocin is a physiologic signature for empathy and that empathy mediates generosity.
This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...... trafficking”; others were categorized as undocumented migrants—“criminals” guilty of violating immigration laws. Despite the growing political attention devoted to protecting victims of trafficking, I argue that in areas of Nigeria prone to economic insecurity and gender-based violence, the categories...
Hansen, Helle Rabøl
Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... and identifies a legally informed matrix, which points out unequivocal positions of perpetrators and victims. The policy document mixes the definition practices, which derive from the Olweus tradition on bullying research, into a law informed kind of discourse. Subsequently the policy document iterates...
Full Text Available There has been a great deal of international debate about introducing historical empathy as the focus in teaching history. However, as it is, the contents of the concept have been included in the curricula in many countries. Nevertheless, practising stepping into the shoes of a person from a previous era is still in its infancy in schools in many locations – Finland included. This article discusses Finnish class teacher students' understanding of historical empathy. The article is based on a study where 360 class teacher students played a game simulating the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their task was to assume the roles of the superpower leaders and make decisions on the basis of these roles. The simulation showed that a majority of the student teachers are able to attain a level of contextual historical empathy. They were able to empathize with the historical context in question and make such decisions that would have been possible for the historical actors. Some of the playing groups on the other hand, referred to their current knowledge and attitudes, which, according to Ashby and Lee's empathy classification, shows lower-level empathy. The study corroborates previous research results concerning great discrepancies in the understanding of empathy prevalent within one age group. Moreover, the study raises the question of how historical empathy should be handled in teaching if many future teachers have difficulties in understanding it.
Damiano, Rodolfo F; DiLalla, Lisabeth F; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Dorsey, J Kevin
Empathy is one component of medical student education that may be important to nurture, but there are many potential psychological barriers to empathy, such as student depression, burnout, and low quality of life or wellness behaviors. However, few studies have addressed how positive behaviors such as wellness and spirituality, in combination with these barriers, might affect empathy. We hypothesized a negative relationship between psychological distress and empathy, and a positive relationship between empathy and wellness behaviors. We also hypothesized that openness to others' spirituality would moderate the effects of psychological distress on empathy in medical students. This cross-sectional study included 106 medical students in a public medical school in the U.S. Midwest. Mailed questionnaires collected student information on specialty choice and sociodemographics, empathy, spirituality openness, religiosity, wellness, burnout, depression, anxiety, and stress. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted, with empathy as the dependent variable, psychological distress and all wellness behaviors as predictors, and spirituality openness as a moderator. Specialty choice, burnout, wellness behaviors, spirituality openness, and religiosity were significant independent predictors of empathy. In addition, when added singly, one interaction was significant: Spirituality Openness × Depression. Spirituality openness was related to empathy only in nondepressed students. Empathy of students with higher levels of depression was generally lower and not affected by spirituality openness. Nondepressed students who reported lower openness to spirituality might benefit most from empathy training, because these students reported the lowest empathy. Highly depressed or disengaged students may require interventions before empathy can be addressed. In addition, burnout was related to lower levels of empathy and wellness was related to higher levels. These provide
Horan, William P.; Jimenez, Amy M.; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Green, Michael F.
Although it has been proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by impaired empathy, several recent studies found intact neural responses on tasks measuring the affective subdomain of empathy. This study further examined affective empathy in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 21 healthy controls using a validated pain empathy paradigm with two components: (i) observing videos of people described as medical patients who were receiving a painful sound stimulation treatment; (ii) listening to th...
Violeta Pavlova Cone
The article is looking into theoretical and research relations between self-esteem, empathy and parenting. The empirical study was carried out among 199 undergraduate US students and measured empathy (Empathy Quotient and Interpersonal Reactivity Index), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and perceived parenting (Parental Bonding Instrument). The results showed no direct relation between empathy and self-esteem, as measured by the instruments in this sample. The care dimension of the p...
Elizabeth A. Segal; M. Alex Wagaman; Karen E. Gerdes
Social empathy, the ability to understand people from different socioeconomic classes and racial/ethnic backgrounds, with insight into the context of institutionalized inequalities and disparities, can inspire positive societal change and promote social well-being. The value of teaching social empathy and creating interventions that promote social empathy is enhanced by the ability to measure and assess it. This article provides a validation of the Social Empathy Index, a tool that practition...
Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.
The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…
Bayne, Hannah B.; Jangha, Awa
Empathy development is foundational to counselor training, yet there is scant research on techniques for teaching empathy aside from traditional microskills models. The authors discuss empathy as a skill set, highlight how improvisation (improv) can be used to enhance training, and describe how to incorporate improv activities within the classroom.
Burger, Dominik; Fueglistaller, Urs; Fust, Alexander
Salespersons' empathy has received recognition by scholars and sales representatives. Despite its importance, definitions and conceptualizations of salespersons' empathy are rather heterogeneous. Thus, we used the method of systematic literature review to analyze 42 empirical articles. A research agenda focusing on salespersons' empathy's measurement, antecedents and moderators as well as effects on performance and relationship outcomes is presented to advance the field.
Clark, Arthur J.
Expanding on a framework introduced by Carl Rogers, an integral model of empathy in counseling uses empathic understanding through 3 ways of knowing: Subjective empathy enables a counselor to momentarily experience what it is like to be a client, interpersonal empathy relates to understanding a client's phenomenological experiencing, and objective…
Micheli, Amelia C.
The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…
Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J; Jenson, Jeffrey M
We examined the effects of depressive symptoms, antisocial attitudes, and perspective-taking empathy on patterns of bullying and victimization during the transition from late elementary (4th grade to 5th grade) to middle school (6th grade) among 1,077 students who participated in the Youth Matters (YM) bullying prevention trial. Latent transition analysis was used to establish classes of bullying, victimization, bully-victimization, and uninvolvement. The intervention had a positive impact on children as they moved from elementary to middle school. More students in the YM group transitioned from the involved statuses to the uninvolved status than students in the control group during the move to middle school. Elementary school bullies with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less likely than other students to move to an uninvolved status in the first year of middle school. Students who held greater antisocial attitudes were more likely to be a member of the bully-victim status than the uninvolved status during the move to middle school. Perspective-taking empathy, however, was not a significant predictor of status change during the transition to middle school. Implications for school-based prevention programs during the move to middle school are noted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Duesenberg, Moritz; Weber, Juliane; Schulze, Lars; Schaeuffele, Carmen; Roepke, Stefan; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja
Emotion recognition and empathy are important aspects in the interaction and understanding of other people's behaviors and feelings. The Human environment comprises of stressful situations that impact social interactions on a daily basis. Aim of the study was to examine the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on emotion recognition and empathy. In this placebo-controlled study, 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women (mean age 24.5 years) received either 10mg of hydrocortisone or placebo. We used the Multifaceted Empathy Test to measure emotional and cognitive empathy. Furthermore, we examined emotion recognition from facial expressions, which contained two emotions (anger and sadness) and two emotion intensities (40% and 80%). We did not find a main effect for treatment or sex on either empathy or emotion recognition but a sex × emotion interaction on emotion recognition. The main result was a four-way-interaction on emotion recognition including treatment, sex, emotion and task difficulty. At 40% task difficulty, women recognized angry faces better than men in the placebo condition. Furthermore, in the placebo condition, men recognized sadness better than anger. At 80% task difficulty, men and women performed equally well in recognizing sad faces but men performed worse compared to women with regard to angry faces. Apparently, our results did not support the hypothesis that increases in cortisol concentration alone influence empathy and emotion recognition in healthy young individuals. However, sex and task difficulty appear to be important variables in emotion recognition from facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…
Kleim, David M.; And Others
Earlier research investigating the relationship between physical attractiveness and assertiveness found that physically attractive females were more assertive than other females. To investigate this relationship further and to broaden the scope of the study, 69 students were videotaped in groups of five to ten while responding to open-ended…
Højbjerg, Christian K.
Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...
Navarro-Abal, Yolanda; López-López, M José; Climent-Rodríguez, José A
To analyse the levels of engagement, resilience and empathy, and the relationship between them, in a sample of nursing assistants working in different private institutions in Huelva. A transversal, descriptive study. The sample comprised 128 nursing assistants working in private health centres of Huelva. They were given the following instruments: resilience scale Wagnild and Young, Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Utrech Work Engagement Scale. There is a relationship between the cognitive and emotional components of engagement and empathy. Certain sociodemographic variables associated with the organisation of work and working conditions are associated with level of engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman
Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.
Deschamps, Peter K. H.; Been, Marieke; Matthys, Walter
The present study aimed to assess empathy and prosocial behavior in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Results showed, first, lower levels of parent- and teacher-rated cognitive empathy, and similar levels of affective empathy in children with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) children. Second, emotion recognition…
Deschamps, Peter K. H.; Been, Marieke; Matthys, Walter
The present study aimed to assess empathy and prosocial behavior in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Results showed, first, lower levels of parent- and teacher-rated cognitive empathy, and similar levels of affective empathy in children with ASD compared to typically
Violeta Pavlova Cone
Full Text Available The article is looking into theoretical and research relations between self-esteem, empathy and parenting. The empirical study was carried out among 199 undergraduate US students and measured empathy (Empathy Quotient and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and perceived parenting (Parental Bonding Instrument. The results showed no direct relation between empathy and self-esteem, as measured by the instruments in this sample. The care dimension of the perceived parenting style of both parents predicted self-esteem levels. Future research is recommended to confirm findings and identify possible mediator between empathy and self-esteem.
Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Ronningstam, Elsa
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others' mental and affective states. The goal of this practice review is to bridge the gap between our psychobiological understanding of empathy and its clinical manifestations in NPD. We present 3 case studies highlighting the variability in empathic functioning in people with NPD. Additionally, we summarize the literature on empathy and NPD, which largely associates this disorder with deficient emotional empathy, and dysfunctional rather than deficient cognitive empathy. Because this research is limited, we also present empathy-based findings for related syndromes (borderline and psychopathy). Given the complexity of narcissism and empathy, we propose that multiple relationships can exist between these constructs. Ultimately, by recognizing the multifaceted relationship between empathy and narcissism, and moving away from an all or nothing belief that those with NPD simply lack empathy, therapists may better understand narcissistic patients' behavior and motivational structure. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Michael, John Andrew; Fardo, Francesca
There is currently a great deal of debate in philosophy and cognitive neuroscience about how best to conceptualize empathy, with much of the controversy centering on the issue of how to articulate the common intuition that empathy involves the sharing of emotional experiences. In a recent paper...... in Philosophy of Science, De Vignemont and Jacob (2012) defend the view that empathy involves interpersonal similarity between an empathizer and a target person with respect to their internal affective states. To support this, they home in on a specific type of empathy, namely empathy for pain, and propose...... a theory of the neural substrate of pain empathy. We point out several flaws in their interpretation of the data, and argue that currently available data does not differentiate between De Vignemont and Jacob’s model of empathy and alternative models. Finally, we offer some suggestions about how this might...
Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja
study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...
This article takes its inspiration from Wickramasekera II's empathic involvement theory of hypnosis. That model illuminates the mutual territory of hypnosis and empathy-common to much interaction between hypnotist and subject, and to the internal process of subjects as they enact suggestions of the hypnotist. However, the present article suggests that the overlap is not as ubiquitous as the empathic involvement theory asserts. Other aspects of hypnosis involve disengagement from real persons in the environment and dissociating from other ego states of the self. Amnesia and certain uses of focused attention in the hypnotic context run counter to empathy. The fantasizer type of high hypnotizables experiences hypnosis more empathically than do the equally hypnotizable dissociater type. This article also explores the relationship of hypnosis and empathy to other related states, including meditation, dreaming, and psychedelic drugs. The conclusion is that empathy is an important component of many hypnotic phenomena, but that the relationship is as partial and complex as the manner in which other traits, such as imagery ability and dissociation, map onto hypnosis.
Lam, Tony Chiu Ming; Kolomitro, Klodiana; Alamparambil, Flanny C.
Background: Empathy is an individual's capacity to understand the behavior of others, to experience their feelings, and to express that understanding to them. Empathic ability is an asset professionally for individuals, such as teachers, physicians and social workers, who work with people. Being empathetic is also critical to our being able to…
Jegerski, Jane A.; Upshaw, Harry S.
Hoffman's (1975) theory holds that altruism is based on cognitive development and mechanisms for empathic distress present from birth, with the individual going through stages of personal distress, empathic concern, and perspective taking. The Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a measure of empathy, contains four subscales: personal…
Grosseman, Suely; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Duke, Pamela M.; Mennin, Stewart; Rosenzweig, Steven; Novack, Dennis
We administered the Jefferson Scale of Empathy and the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale to 61 of 64 entering medical students who self-selected a problem-based learning curricular track and to 163 of 198 who self-selected a lecture-based track (response rates of 95.3% and 82.3%, respectively, with no statistically significant differences in mean…
Jordan, Kevin D.; Foster, Penni Smith
Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal…
This article is concerned with the incorporation of teaching culture into EFL teaching and learning, with a focus on the cultivation of culturally empathic ability for Chinese learners. The article first holds a discussion on the significance and basic concepts concerning intercultural empathy. Furthermore, it makes an attempt to analyze the…
Hysek, Cédric M.; Schmid, Yasmin; Simmler, Linda D.; Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Eisenegger, Christoph; Preller, Katrin H.; Quednow, Boris B.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) releases serotonin and norepinephrine. MDMA is reported to produce empathogenic and prosocial feelings. It is unknown whether MDMA in fact alters empathic concern and prosocial behavior. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), dynamic Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. We also assessed effects of MDMA on plasma levels of hormones involved in social behavior using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, cross-over design in 32 healthy volunteers (16 women). MDMA enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy in the MET and increased prosocial behavior in the SVO test in men. MDMA did not alter cognitive empathy in the MET but impaired the identification of negative emotions, including fearful, angry and sad faces, in the FERT, particularly in women. MDMA increased plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin, which are markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic activity, and of oxytocin, which has been associated with prosocial behavior. In summary, MDMA sex-specifically altered the recognition of emotions, emotional empathy and prosociality. These effects likely enhance sociability when MDMA is used recreationally and may be useful when MDMA is administered in conjunction with psychotherapy in patients with social dysfunction or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24097374
Arnstein Finset PhD
Full Text Available The clinician-patient relationship is asymmetric in the sense that clinicians and patients have different roles in the medical consultation. Yet, there are qualities of reciprocity and mutuality in many clinician-patient encounters, and we suggest that such reciprocity may be related to the phenomenon of empathy. Empathy is often defined as the capacity to place oneself in another’s position, but empathy may also be understood as a sequence of reciprocal turns-of talk, starting with the patient’s expression of emotion, followed by the perception, vicarious experience, and empathic response by the clinician. These patterns of reciprocity may also include the patient’s experience of and response to the clinician’s emotions. Researchers in different fields of research have studied how informal human interaction often is characterized by mutuality of lexical alignment and reciprocal adjustments, vocal synchrony, as well as synchrony of movements and psychophysiological processes. A number of studies have linked these measures of reciprocity and synchrony in clinical encounters to the subjective experience of empathy.
Goldstein, Thalia R.; Winner, Ellen
Social cognitive skills such as empathy and theory of mind are crucial for everyday interactions, cooperation, and cultural learning, and deficits in these skills have been implicated in pathologies such as autism spectrum disorder, sociopathy, and nonverbal learning disorders. Little research has examined how these skills develop after early…
Hysek, Cédric M; Schmid, Yasmin; Simmler, Linda D; Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Eisenegger, Christoph; Preller, Katrin H; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') releases serotonin and norepinephrine. MDMA is reported to produce empathogenic and prosocial feelings. It is unknown whether MDMA in fact alters empathic concern and prosocial behavior. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), dynamic Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. We also assessed effects of MDMA on plasma levels of hormones involved in social behavior using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, cross-over design in 32 healthy volunteers (16 women). MDMA enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy in the MET and increased prosocial behavior in the SVO test in men. MDMA did not alter cognitive empathy in the MET but impaired the identification of negative emotions, including fearful, angry and sad faces, in the FERT, particularly in women. MDMA increased plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin, which are markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic activity, and of oxytocin, which has been associated with prosocial behavior. In summary, MDMA sex-specifically altered the recognition of emotions, emotional empathy and prosociality. These effects likely enhance sociability when MDMA is used recreationally and may be useful when MDMA is administered in conjunction with psychotherapy in patients with social dysfunction or post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
What is common in aggression and in abusive/neglectful parenting is low levels of empathy. Fostering empathy--the ability to identify with another person's feelings--can serve as an antidote to aggression and is crucial to good parenting. Poor parenting and aggression cut across all socioeconomic levels of the community and, as such, empathy needs to be fostered in all children. During the period of rapid brain development, adversity has a devastating impact on the baby's developing brain. Repeated experiences of stress are hardwired into the brain, creating damaging pathways. Risk factors such as domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, maternal depression, maternal addictions, and poverty are not just additive to the vulnerable developing brain; they are multiplicative in their impact. The parent is the baby's lifeline, mitigating stress for them and helping them to learn to regulate their emotions. The impact of poor parenting on a child's life is profound, resulting in insecure attachments which lead to a spectrum of inadequate coping mechanisms, poor emotional regulation, diminished learning potential and low competence. Responsive and nurturing parenting is the key to optimal early childhood development; it allows the young brain to develop in a way that is less aggressive and more emotionally stable, social and empathic. Good early childhood development leads to good human development. We must match our investment where the opportunity is most ripe--building parenting capacity. The 'Roots of Empathy' program offers real hope in breaking the intergenerational transference of poor parenting and violence.
Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun
Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18-4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77-4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30-44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
This study shows a high and disquieting degree of similarity in physical attractiveness between dating partners, and suggests also that more similar partners tend to form stronger romantic attachments. (Author)
Reports an error in "The empathy impulse: A multinomial model of intentional and unintentional empathy for pain" by C. Daryl Cameron, Victoria L. Spring and Andrew R. Todd ( Emotion , 2017[Apr], Vol 17, 395-411). In this article, there was an error in the calculation of some of the effect sizes. The w effect size was manually computed incorrectly. The incorrect number of total observations was used, which affected the final effect size estimates. This computing error does not change any of the results or interpretations about model fit based on the G² statistic, or about significant differences across conditions in process parameters. Therefore, it does not change any of the hypothesis tests or conclusions. The w statistics for overall model fit should be .02 instead of .04 in Study 1, .01 instead of .02 in Study 2, .01 instead of .03 for the OIT in Study 3 (model fit for the PIT remains the same: .00), and .02 instead of .03 in Study 4. The corrected tables can be seen here: http://osf.io/qebku at the Open Science Framework site for the article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-01641-001.) Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias). In Experiment 1, imposing a fast (vs. slow) response deadline uniquely reduced Intentional Empathy. In Experiment 2, inducing imagine-self (vs. imagine
Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; de C. Williams, Amanda C.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. PMID:24953886
Albiero, Paolo; Matricardi, Giada; Speltri, Daniela; Toso, Diana
The present study examined the validity of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) [Jolliffe, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2006a). Development and validation of the Basic Empathy Scale. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 589-611; Jolliffe, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2006b). Examining the relationship between low empathy and bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 32(6), 540-550.] and found further evidence for the scale's good psychometric properties. The BES was administered to a sample of 655 Italian adolescents to examine the generalizability and reliability of its factor structure. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed a reasonable data fit with the two hypothesized BES domains of Cognitive Empathy and Affective Empathy. Scale reliability was also satisfactory, showing good internal consistency. Lastly, BES scores were significantly associated with other empathy questionnaire scores (the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale) and with a scale measuring prosocial behavior. Research and practice implications are discussed.
Hasan, S; Al-Sharqawi, N; Dashti, F; AbdulAziz, M; Abdullah, A; Shukkur, M; Bouhaimed, M; Thalib, L
To evaluate the level of empathy among medical students in Kuwait University Medical School and its association with sociodemographic factors, stress levels and personality. A cross-sectional survey of 264 medical students was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University. Empathy levels were measured using the Jefferson Scale, personality was assessed using the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure stress levels. Factors associated with empathy were evaluated using t test/ANOVA for categorical variables and correlation for continuous predictors. Mean empathy score was 104.6 ± 16.3. Empathy scores were significantly associated with gender, year of study, mother's level of education, household income, satisfactory relationship with the mother and stress levels. Male medical students in their clinical years also had significantly lower empathy levels. However, factors such as grade point average, desired specialty, marital status of parents, father's educational level and relationship with father were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with levels of empathy. Stress scores were significantly and positively associated with empathy (r = 0.13; p = 0.041). Medical students in Kuwait University had low empathy level and this may be a cause for concern; as such we suggest a possible inclusion of emphasis on empathy in the curriculum. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Amiruddin, Azhani; Fueggle, Simone N; Nguyen, An T; Gignac, Gilles E; Clunies-Ross, Karen L; Fox, Allison M
Past literature has proposed that empathy consists of two components: cognitive and affective empathy. Error monitoring mechanisms indexed by the error-related negativity (ERN) have been associated with empathy. Studies have found that a larger ERN is associated with higher levels of empathy. We aimed to expand upon previous work by investigating how error monitoring relates to the independent theoretical domains of cognitive and affective empathy. Study 1 (N = 24) explored the relationship between error monitoring mechanisms and subcomponents of empathy using the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy and found no relationship. Study 2 (N = 38) explored the relationship between the error monitoring mechanisms and overall empathy. Contrary to past findings, there was no evidence to support a relationship between error monitoring mechanisms and scores on empathy measures. A subsequent meta-analysis (Study 3, N = 125) summarizing the relationship across previously published studies together with the two studies reported in the current paper indicated that overall there was no significant association between ERN and empathy and that there was significant heterogeneity across studies. Future investigations exploring the potential variables that may moderate these relationships are discussed. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....
Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe
With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....
Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling
Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.
Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J
Why do people tend to care for upholding principles of justice? This study examined the association between individual differences in the affective, motivational and cognitive components of empathy, sensitivity to justice, and psychopathy in participants (N 265) who were also asked to rate the permissibility of everyday moral situations that pit personal benefit against moral standards of justice. Counter to common sense, emotional empathy was not associated with sensitivity to injustice for others. Rather, individual differences in cognitive empathy and empathic concern predicted sensitivity to justice for others, as well as the endorsement of moral rules. Psychopathy coldheartedness scores were inversely associated with motivation for justice. Moreover, hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-focused and other-focused orientations toward justice had opposing influences on the permissibility of moral judgments. High scores on psychopathy were associated with less moral condemnation of immoral behavior. Together, these results contribute to a better understanding of the information processing mechanisms underlying justice motivation, and may guide interventions designed to foster justice and moral behavior. In order to promote justice motivation, it may be more effective to encourage perspective taking and reasoning than emphasizing emotional sharing with the misfortune of others.
Coniglio, A [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Arcangelis, L de [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione and CNISM II Universita di Napoli, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Candia, A de [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Gado, E Del [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Fierro, A [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Sator, N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR (CNRS) 7600 Case 121, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
We discuss how the anomalous increase of the viscosity in colloidal systems with short-range attraction can be related to the formation of long-living clusters. Based on molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo numerical simulations of different models, we propose a similar picture for colloidal gelation at low and intermediate volume fractions. On this basis, we analyze the distinct role played by the formation of long-living bonds and the crowding of the particles in the slow dynamics of attractive colloidal systems.
Kirman, Alan; Teschl, Miriam
Empathy is a longstanding issue in economics, especially for welfare economics, but one which has faded from the scene in recent years. However, with the rise of neuroeconomics, there is now a renewed interest in this subject. Some economists have even gone so far as to suggest that neuroscientific experiments reveal heterogeneous empathy levels across individuals. If this were the case, this would be in line with economists' usual assumption of stable and given preferences and would greatly facilitate the study of prosocial behaviour with which empathy is often associated. After reviewing some neuroscientific psychological and neuroeconomic evidence on empathy, we will, however, criticize the notion of a given empathy distribution in the population by referring to recent experiments on a public goods game that suggest that, on the contrary, the degree of empathy that individuals exhibit is very much dependent on context and social interaction. PMID:20026468
Kirman, Alan; Teschl, Miriam
Empathy is a longstanding issue in economics, especially for welfare economics, but one which has faded from the scene in recent years. However, with the rise of neuroeconomics, there is now a renewed interest in this subject. Some economists have even gone so far as to suggest that neuroscientific experiments reveal heterogeneous empathy levels across individuals. If this were the case, this would be in line with economists' usual assumption of stable and given preferences and would greatly facilitate the study of prosocial behaviour with which empathy is often associated. After reviewing some neuroscientific psychological and neuroeconomic evidence on empathy, we will, however, criticize the notion of a given empathy distribution in the population by referring to recent experiments on a public goods game that suggest that, on the contrary, the degree of empathy that individuals exhibit is very much dependent on context and social interaction.
Gunther, Mary; Evans, Ginger; Mefford, Linda; Coe, Thomas R
Much of the nursing literature on leadership describes the qualities of existing nursing leaders, while emphasizing the need for leadership development in student nurses for both managerial and clinical practice. However, there is a lack of research literature on the characteristics of current students. Conducted by the University of Tennessee College of Nursing Empathy Research Group, this pilot study explores the relationship between leadership styles and empathy (cognitive and affective) levels. This correlational descriptive study involved self-report using 3 instruments. Hogan Empathy Scale (HES) and Emotional Empathy Tendency Scale (EETS) measured cognitive and affective empathy levels. The Multifactoral Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5x) was used to determine leadership style. Data analysis yielded evidence of a weak positive correlation between the predominant transformational leadership style and empathy levels in both junior and senior students. This correlation has implications for both nurse educators and future employers.
Full Text Available In the article the approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “investment attractiveness of enterprises” were analyzed. On the example of "Agrofirm Brusilov" depth analysis of the agricultural enterprises to evaluate of profitability, liquidity, solvency, financial stability, the timing of the return of invested funds and minimizing investment risks was conducted. To study methods of rating and system analysis were used. To justify the conditions of increasing investment attractiveness farms method of scoring was used. It was established as a result of the use of integrated evaluation of the financial position one can see problem aspects of financial position of the company and develop measures to enhance liquidity, solvency, identify potential for raising the efficiency of company and prevention of financial crisis. The analysis of financial position showed that the management of the enterprise doesn’t think about financial stability and solvency, does not understand the benefit of borrowed capital. Using research results in practice of agricultural enterprises allows us to give a real evaluation of investment attractiveness and justify ways to improve it. Key words: investments, investment attractiveness, potential business, financial position.
What is problematic in the study of empathy is his absence to the suffering of others. Euthanasia highlights the moral conflict about suffering or stop suffering facing at an irreversible and painful illness. I will analyze the conflict that has full respect of human dignity, laid down in Article 51 of the Civil and Commercial Code of Argentina, in relation to advance medical directives that involve a practice euthanasia, according to the Article 60 of the same legal body, should not be writt...
Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology is part of almost everyone’s everyday life in a variety of ways and in many fields. All people should have access to ICTs including those with various disabilities and those with health problems. The studies presented in this article represent a body of work outlining positive effects of playing games in the area of special education and health care in order to cultivate empathy.
Love has always been a central preoccupation in individual human lives, but there has been little consideration of it by psychologists or other scientists and little attempt to explain it as an evolutionary phenomenon. There are various possible behavioral precursors of love: animal "love", empathy, group feeling, sexuality, the mother/infant bond. The principal candidates are sexuality and the mother/infant bond. Sexuality has been favored as an origin by those few writers who have discussed...
The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they thought they had resolved. Being victimized can reinvoke shame that is rooted in failure or unwillingness to uphold masculine norms. For some gay men, victimization therefore has connotations of nonmasculinity that make being a victim an undesirable status, yet that status must be claimed to obtain a response from criminal justice or victim services. Men who experience homophobic abuse are helped by accepting a victim identity, but only if they can quickly move on from it by reconstructing a masculine gay (nonvictim) identity. This process can be facilitated by agencies such as the police and victim services, provided they help men exercise agency in "fighting back," that is, resisting further victimization and recovering.
Although tourism attractions are a basic resource for long term tourism developments, they are not given the proper attention, both, theoretical and practical. Therefore, rare studies of tourism attractions, especially those with the ambition of creating a functional system of tourism attractions, attract special attention. The aim of this paper is to present a new system of tourism attractions. This new system is based on the review of published research on tourism attractions, particularly ...
Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.
David, Shannon; Larson, Mary
Health care practitioners face increasing expectations to provide patient-centered care. Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance, and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes. There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. To gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded-theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-age Division I student-athletes (8 female, 7 male; 19.3 ± 1.2 y) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocol designed to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded-theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer (AT) representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the AT. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enabling the best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and approachability. Empathy
Lockwood, Patricia L; Ang, Yuen-Siang; Husain, Masud; Crockett, Molly J
Empathy - the capacity to understand and resonate with the experiences of other people - is considered an essential aspect of social cognition. However, although empathy is often thought to be automatic, recent theories have argued that there is a key role for motivation in modulating empathic experiences. Here we administered self-report measures of empathy and apathy-motivation to a large sample of healthy people (n = 378) to test whether people who are more empathic are also more motivated. We then sought to replicate our findings in an independent sample (n = 198) that also completed a behavioural task to measure state affective empathy and emotion recognition. Cognitive empathy was associated with higher levels of motivation generally across behavioural, social and emotional domains. In contrast, affective empathy was associated with lower levels of behavioural motivation, but higher levels of emotional motivation. Factor analyses showed that empathy and apathy are distinct constructs, but that affective empathy and emotional motivation are underpinned by the same latent factor. These results have potentially important clinical applications for disorders associated with reduced empathy and motivation as well as the understanding of these processes in healthy people.
Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B
In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Can art build up our capacity for empathy? Some argue that film and narrative arts-by providing nuanced case studies of characters who act for reasons-serve as cognitive tools that scaffold our imaginative, perceptual, and affective capacities and expand our empathic skillset [1,2]. There is evidence that narrative may be an effective tool for at least modest improvements in children's theory of mind development ; other studies suggest reading literary fiction later in life can enhance empathy and perspective-taking [4-7].
Pfetsch, Jan; Müller, Christin R.; Ittel, Angela
"Bei medial vermittelter Kommunikation sinkt sowohl die Hemmschwelle für aggressive Verhaltensweisen wie Cyberbullying als auch die Wahrscheinlichkeit empathischer Reaktionen. Im Fokus der vorliegenden Studie mit 979 Schülerinnen und Schülern der 4.-8. Klassen (M=12.01, SD=1.68 Jahre, 55% weiblich) stand die Frage, ob Cyberbullies geringere Ausprägungen für affektive, kognitive und medienbasierte Empathie aufweisen als Unbeteiligte. Empathie wurde im Selbst- und Peerbericht erhoben. Hypothese...
Dorte Marie Søndergaard
Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.
This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…
Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.
Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...... and heterogeneous traffic, add complexity to the timetable. The risk of spreading initial delays to other trains and parts of the network increases with the level of timetable complexity....
People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.
Brady, C; Bambury, R M; O'Reilly, S
Empathy is increasingly being recognized as a crucial component for an effective doctor-patient relationship. Using a mixed method approach, we surveyed 125 patients and 361 medical practitioners (doctors and medical students) views of the doctor-patient relationship. We qualitatively assessed patients' views of what constituted a good doctor and qualitatively measured empathy using a validated scale in medical practitioners. Patients desire a doctor that is both clinically proficient 66 (55%) and caring 32 (27%). Doctors who have a personal experience of illness have a statistically higher empathy score. These doctors may be well placed to help develop and foster empathy in our profession.
Seeman, Mary V
Antipsychotics are effective in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia, but they may induce adverse effects, some of which-those that impact negatively on physical appearance-have not been sufficiently discussed in the psychiatric literature. Through a narrative review, to catalog antipsychotic side effects that interfere with physical attractiveness and to suggest ways of addressing them. PubMed databases were searched for information on the association between "antipsychotic side effects" and "attractiveness" using those two search phrases plus the following terms: "weight," "teeth," "skin," "hair," "eyes," "gait," "voice," "odor." Data from relevant qualitative and quantitative articles were considered, contextualized, and summarized. Antipsychotics, as a group, increase weight and may lead to dry mouth and bad breath, cataracts, hirsutism, acne, and voice changes; they may disturb symmetry of gait and heighten the risk for tics and spasms and incontinence, potentially undermining a person's attractiveness. Clinicians need to be aware of the impact of therapeutic drugs on appearance and how important this issue is to patients. Early in treatment, they need to plan preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Sulzer, Sandra H.; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Wendland, Claire
Introduction Empathy in doctor-patient relationships is a familiar topic for medical scholars, and a crucial goal for medical educators. Nonetheless, there are persistent disagreements in the research literature concerning how best to evaluate empathy among physicians, and whether empathy declines or increases across medical education. Some researchers have argued that the instruments used to study “empathy” may not be measuring anything meaningful to clinical practice or to patient satisfaction. Methods We performed a systematic review to learn how empathy is conceptualized in medical education research. How do researchers define the central construct of empathy, and what do they choose to measure? How well do definitions and operationalizations match? Results Among the 109 studies that met our search criteria, 20% failed to define the central construct of empathy at all, and only 13% had an operationalization that was well-matched to the definition provided. The majority of studies were characterized by internal inconsistencies and vagueness in both the conceptualization and operationalization of empathy, constraining the validity and usefulness of the research. The methods most commonly used to measure empathy relied heavily on self-report and cognition divorced from action, and may therefore have limited power to predict the presence or absence of empathy in clinical settings. Finally, the large majority of studies treated empathy itself as a black box, using global construct measurements that are unable to shed light on the underlying processes that produce empathic response. Discussion We suggest that future research should follow the lead of basic scientific research that conceptualizes empathy as relational—an engagement between a subject and an object—rather than a personal quality that may be modified wholesale through appropriate training. PMID:26896015
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research findings on prevalence and characteristics of cyberstalking in Serbia. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of respondents who were recruited by snowball sampling via e-mail. A total of 237 respondents completed the online questionnaire. The aim of the first part of this paper is to determine the notion of cyberstalking as well as, to review research about the prevalence and the nature of stalking. The main results are the following: 39,6 % of respondents reported stalking; every fourth stalking victim is a victims of cyberstalking; mostly, cyberstalking victims were female and perpetrators were male. Victims were stalked by: persistent sending of unwanted e-mails and telephone calls, spreading rumors, abusive and negative comments and threats, encouraged other users to harass, threaten or insult, manipulating with victim's personal data, sending malicious programs and files, etc. In Serbia, cyberstalking is not criminalized yet and there are no organizations to whom victims may appeal and ask for help. We are hoping that this research will raise the awareness on cyberstalking and serve as a base for further research and legal reforms regarding cyberstalking victimization in Serbia.
Clark, Arthur J.
From a humanistic orientation, Carl Rogers (1964) described 3 ways of knowing with reference to empathic understanding: subjective, interpersonal, and objective. In the context of a threefold perspective of knowledge, the author expands on Rogers's conception of empathy. As a consequence of a conceptual change in the direction of empathy,…
van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Stel, J.C.; van Langen, M.A.M.; van der Laan, P.H.
This study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour and may therefore be vital for successful
Peer van der Helm PhD; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.C. van der Stel; M.A.M. van Langen; P.H. van der Laan
The present study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour, and may therefore be vital for
Khan, J.V.; Dey, D.; Buchina, N.
Empathy induced altruism is believed to motivate people in a crowdsourcing environment to produce better quality work. However, there hasn’t been any considerable investigation regarding how empathy can be effectively conveyed through user interfaces (UI). We conducted a study to find the effects of
aan het Rot, Marije; Miloserdov, Kristina; Buijze, Anna L. F.; Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.
To examine whether acute changes in cognitive empathy might mediate the impact of light therapy on mood, we assessed the effects of a single light-therapy session on mood and cognitive empathy in 48 premenstrual women, including 17 who met Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool criteria for
The hypotheses of this investigation were derived by conceiving of automatic mimicking as a component of emotional empathy. Differences between subjects high and low in emotional empathy were investigated. The parameters compared were facial mimicry reactions, as represented by electromyographic (EMG) activity when subjects were exposed to pictures of angry or happy faces, and the degree of correspondence between subjects' facial EMG reactions and their self-reported feelings. The comparisons were made at different stimulus exposure times in order to elicit reactions at different levels of information processing. The high-empathy subjects were found to have a higher degree of mimicking behavior than the low-empathy subjects, a difference that emerged at short exposure times (17-40 ms) that represented automatic reactions. The low-empathy subjects tended already at short exposure times (17-40 ms) to show inverse zygomaticus muscle reactions, namely "smiling" when exposed to an angry face. The high-empathy group was characterized by a significantly higher correspondence between facial expressions and self-reported feelings. No differences were found between the high- and low-empathy subjects in their verbally reported feelings when presented a happy or an angry face. Thus, the differences between the groups in emotional empathy appeared to be related to differences in automatic somatic reactions to facial stimuli rather than to differences in their conscious interpretation of the emotional situation.
Recent research points to a 40% decline in college students' capacity for empathy over the past 4 decades (Konrath, O'Brien, & Hsing, 2011). In this article, the author reflects on undergraduates' reaction to the case study "Toys for Haiti," which the author created and designed to foster empathy in her students. She…
Niezink, Lidewij Welmoed
In the social psychological literature, empathy is seen as an emotional response which evokes the altruistic motivation to help others. One cognitive tool to increase the experience of empathy is perspective taking. The current dissertation investigates how different perspectives on the suffering of
Menardo, Dayne Arvin
This study examined the relationships amongst mindfulness, empathy, and intercultural sensitivity. Non-parametric analysis were conducted through Spearman and Hayes's PROCESS bootstrapping to examine the relationship between mindfulness and intercultural sensitivity, and whether empathy mediates the relationship between mindfulness and…
Peck, Nancy Farstad; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane
Empathy is a trait and skill necessary for teachers working with children and for partnering with families. This qualitative study focused on how teachers expressed empathy in the context of early childhood education. Diversity has increased in the United States and as diversity increases, the need for teachers to be able to empathize with…
Lockwood, Patricia L.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi
Theory and evidence suggest that empathy is an important motivating factor for prosocial behaviour and that emotion regulation, i.e. the capacity to exert control over an emotional response, may moderate the degree to which empathy is associated with prosocial behaviour. However, studies to date have not simultaneously explored the associations between different empathic processes and prosocial behaviour, nor whether different types of emotion regulation strategies (e.g. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour. One hundred–and-ten healthy adults completed questionnaire measures of empathy, emotion regulation and prosocial tendencies. In this sample, both affective and cognitive empathy predicted self-reported prosocial tendencies. In addition, cognitive reappraisal moderated the association between affective empathy and prosocial tendencies. Specifically, there was a significant positive association between empathy and prosocial tendencies for individuals with a low or average tendency to reappraise but not for those with a high tendency to reappraise. Our findings suggest that, in general, empathy is positively associated with prosocial behaviour. However, this association is not significant for individuals with a high tendency for cognitive reappraisal. PMID:24810604
Noorden, T.H.J. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Haselager, G.J.T.; Lansu, T.A.M.; Bukowski, W.M.
This study investigated how the bullying involvement of a child and a target peer are related to empathy. The role of gender was also considered. We hypothesized that empathy primarily varies depending on the bullying role of the target peer. Participants were 264 7-12-year-old children
Burke, M.; Mangen, Anne; Kuzmicova, Anezka; Schilhab, Theresa
The objective of this article is to review extant empirical studies of empathy in narrative reading in light of (a) contemporary literary theory, and (b) neuroscientific studies of empathy, and to discuss how a closer interplay between neuroscience and literary studies may enhance our understanding
Peterson, Candida C.
Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65…
Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. Luisa; Ugarte, M. Dolores; Cardelle-Elawar, Maria; Iriarte, M. Dolores; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. Teresa
Examined the effects of teaching self-regulation strategies and social skills to 40 middle school students who presented difficulties in self-reflection, self-inquiry, assertiveness, and empathy. Significant gains were observed in the experimental group in self-regulation of learning, self-control of behavior, assertiveness, empathy, and…
Pokorny, Thomas; Preller, Katrin H; Kometer, Michael; Dziobek, Isabel; Vollenweider, Franz X
Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behavior. Although the serotonin system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behavior, the relative contribution of the various serotonin receptor subtypes is still unknown. We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0.215 mg/kg p.o.) in healthy human subjects on different facets of empathy and hypothetical moral decision-making using the multifaceted empathy test (n=32) and the moral dilemma task (n=24). Psilocybin significantly increased emotional, but not cognitive empathy compared with placebo, and the increase in implicit emotional empathy was significantly associated with psilocybin-induced changed meaning of percepts. In contrast, moral decision-making remained unaffected by psilocybin. These findings provide first evidence that psilocybin has distinct effects on social cognition by enhancing emotional empathy but not moral behavior. Furthermore, together with previous findings, psilocybin appears to promote emotional empathy presumably via activation of serotonin 2A/1A receptors, suggesting that targeting serotonin 2A/1A receptors has implications for potential treatment of dysfunctional social cognition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Lockwood, Patricia L; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi
Theory and evidence suggest that empathy is an important motivating factor for prosocial behaviour and that emotion regulation, i.e. the capacity to exert control over an emotional response, may moderate the degree to which empathy is associated with prosocial behaviour. However, studies to date have not simultaneously explored the associations between different empathic processes and prosocial behaviour, nor whether different types of emotion regulation strategies (e.g. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour. One hundred-and-ten healthy adults completed questionnaire measures of empathy, emotion regulation and prosocial tendencies. In this sample, both affective and cognitive empathy predicted self-reported prosocial tendencies. In addition, cognitive reappraisal moderated the association between affective empathy and prosocial tendencies. Specifically, there was a significant positive association between empathy and prosocial tendencies for individuals with a low or average tendency to reappraise but not for those with a high tendency to reappraise. Our findings suggest that, in general, empathy is positively associated with prosocial behaviour. However, this association is not significant for individuals with a high tendency for cognitive reappraisal.
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…
Harton, Helen C.; Lyons, Patrick C.
We compared male and female psychology majors to psychology minors and nonmajors to understand the trends in a growing major in which women outnumber men. A total of 451 psychology majors, minors, and nonmajors from 4 institutions completed a questionnaire measuring empathy, career goals, and perceptions of the importance of empathy for therapy.…
Derksen, F.; Bensing, J.; Lagro-Janssen, A.
Background: Empathy as a characteristic of patient-physician communication in both general practice and clinical care is considered to be the backbone of the patient-physician relationship. Although the value of empathy is seldom debated, its effectiveness is little discussed in general practice.
Derksen, F.; Bensing, J.; Lagro-Janssen, A.
BACKGROUND: Empathy as a characteristic of patient-physician communication in both general practice and clinical care is considered to be the backbone of the patient-physician relationship. Although the value of empathy is seldom debated, its effectiveness is little discussed in general practice.
Birdi, Briony; Wilson, Kerry; Tso, Hin Man,
This article presents two recent studies, an AHRC-funded exploration of the role of empathy in community librarianship (Study 1) and an investigation of the role of empathy in service to minority ethnic users (Study 2). Qualitative elements of each methodology are presented, namely a series of focus groups with frontline staff, interviews with…
Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
Although socioemotional competencies have been identified as key components of youths' positive development, most studies on empathy are cross-sectional, and research on the role of the family has focused almost exclusively on parental socialization. This study examined the developmental course of empathy from age 7 to 14 and the within-person…
Ritter, Kathrin; Dziobek, Isabel; Preissler, Sandra; Rüter, Anke; Vater, Aline; Fydrich, Thomas; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Heekeren, Hauke R; Roepke, Stefan
The study's objective was to empirically assess cognitive and emotional empathy in patients with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). To date, "lack of empathy" is a core feature of NPD solely based on clinical observation. The study's method was that forty-seven patients with NPD, 53 healthy controls, and 27 clinical controls with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were included in the study. Emotional and cognitive empathy were assessed with traditional questionnaire measures, the newly developed Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). The study's results were that individuals with NPD displayed significant impairments in emotional empathy on the MET. Furthermore, relative to BPD patients and healthy controls, NPD patients did not show deficits in cognitive empathy on the MET or MASC. Crucially, this empathic profile of NPD is not captured by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). The study's conclusions were that while NPD involves deficits in emotional empathy, cognitive empathy seems grossly unaffected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective: In a context of disturbing rates of violent crime, this pilot study initiated examination of the association between empathy and aggressive behaviour in young Western Cape children. Establishing which empathy measures are appropriate for our context was a primary concern. Method: To capture various aspects of ...
Hatim S Attar
Full Text Available Aims: We aim to establish the role that perceived physician empathy plays in determining migraineurs′ outcomes and compliance with migraine management plans. We checked for associations between perceived physician empathy and clinical outcomes as well as compliance with management plans. Materials and Methods: 63 migraineurs were enrolled between July and September 2011. Questionnaire administered at the time of inclusion into the study included self-assessment of disability due to migraine (Migraine Disability Assessment Test followed by migraineurs′ assessment of physician empathy (Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure. Three months later, a telephonic questionnaire ascertained changes in disability due to migraine and compliance with migraine treatment. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2010 and analyzed using SPSS 17. Pearson′s correlation was employed to analyze the significance of relationship between variables. P-value of less than 0.05 has been considered statistically significant. Results: Statistically significant positive Pearson′s correlations are seen between perceived empathy and decrease in migraine disability and symptoms over three months (P < 0.05. Significant positive relationships are also seen between perceived empathy and compliance with diet/meal timings, exercising, de-stressing/sleep pattern modification and medications (P < 0.05. Self-reported compliance is significantly correlated with improved patient outcomes (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Substantial positive associations are found between perceived physician empathy and migraineurs′ outcomes and compliance with management plans. This emphasizes the importance of empathy in migraineur-physician communication.
Sanders, Duncan A; Swift, Michael R; Bowley, R M; King, P J
We present event-driven simulation results for single and multiple intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Under our vibratory conditions, the mean vertical position of a single intruder is governed primarily by a buoyancylike effect. Multiple intruders also exhibit buoyancy governed behavior; however, multiple neutrally buoyant intruders cluster spontaneously and undergo horizontal segregation. These effects can be understood by considering the dynamics of two neutrally buoyant intruders. We have measured an attractive force between such intruders which has a range of five intruder diameters, and we provide a mechanistic explanation for the origins of this force.
Kleih, Sonja C; Kübler, Andrea
Motivation moderately influences brain-computer interface (BCI) performance in healthy subjects when monetary reward is used to manipulate extrinsic motivation. However, the motivation of severely paralyzed patients, who are potentially in need for BCI, could mainly be internal and thus, an intrinsic motivator may be more powerful. Also healthy subjects who participate in BCI studies could be internally motivated as they may wish to contribute to research and thus extrinsic motivation by monetary reward would be less important than the content of the study. In this respect, motivation could be defined as "motivation-to-help." The aim of this study was to investigate, whether subjects with high motivation for helping and who are highly empathic would perform better with a BCI controlled by event-related potentials (P300-BCI). We included N = 20 healthy young participants naïve to BCI and grouped them according to their motivation for participating in a BCI study in a low and highly motivated group. Motivation was further manipulated with interesting or boring presentations about BCI and the possibility to help patients. Motivation for helping did neither influence BCI performance nor the P300 amplitude. Post hoc, subjects were re-grouped according to their ability for perspective taking. We found significantly higher P300 amplitudes on parietal electrodes in participants with a low ability for perspective taking and therefore, lower empathy, as compared to participants with higher empathy. The lack of an effect of motivation on BCI performance contradicts previous findings and thus, requires further investigation. We speculate that subjects with higher empathy who are good perspective takers with regards to patients in potential need of BCI, may be more emotionally involved and therefore, less able to allocate attention on the BCI task at hand.
Sonja C Kleih
Full Text Available Motivation moderately influences Brain-Computer Interface (BCI performance in healthy subjects when monetary reward is used to manipulate extrinsic motivation. However, the motivation to use a BCI of severely paralyzed patients, who are potentially in need for BCI, could mainly be internal and thus, an intrinsic motivator may be more powerful. Also healthy subjects who participate in BCI studies could be intrinsically motivated as they may wish to contribute to research and thus extrinsic motivation by monetary reward would be less important than the content of the study. In this respect, motivation could be defined as motivation-to-help. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether subjects with high motivation for helping and who are highly empathic would perform better with a BCI controlled by event-related potentials (P300-BCI. We included N=20 healthy young participants naïve to BCI and grouped them according to their motivation for participating in a BCI study in a low and highly motivated group. Motivation was further manipulated with interesting or boring presentations about BCI and the possibility to help patients. Motivation for helping did neither influence BCI performance nor the P300 amplitude. Post-hoc, subjects were re-grouped according to their ability for perspective taking. We found significantly higher P300 amplitudes on parietal electrodes in participants with a low ability for perspective taking and therefore, lower empathy, as compared to participants with higher empathy. The lack of an effect of motivation on BCI performance contradicts previous findings and thus, requires further investigation. We speculate that subjects with higher empathy were less able to focus attention on the BCI task. Good perspective takers with regards to patients in potential need of BCI, may be more emotionally involved and therefore, less able to allocate attention on the BCI task at hand.
OSTRELL, PER_OSCAR, OESTRELL
Per-Oscar Östrell DIAP PhD: Architettura e Costruzione-Spazio e Società Ciclo XXVI. Main advisors: Professor Benedetto Todaro and Professor Stefano Catucci. PROPHECY OF A NEW ARCHITECTURE Empathy Università Degli Studi Di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento Di Architettura e Progetto. My unique idea, is to open the minds of the people who read the book make them open for the beauty in the world and for fellowman. Yes this is a topic that is popular at the moment but my appro...
ÖSTRELL, PER-OSCAR; ÖSTRELL, GÖSTA PER_OSCAR
Per-Oscar Östrell DIAP PhD: Architettura e Costruzione-Spazio e Società Ciclo XXVI. Main advisors: Professor Benedetto Todaro and Professor Stefano Catucci. PROPHECY OF A NEW ARCHITECTURE Empathy Università Degli Studi Di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento Di Architettura e Progetto. My unique idea, is to open the minds of the people who read the book make them open for the beauty in the world and for fellowman. Yes this is a topic that is popular at the moment but my appro...
Jospe, Karine; Flöel, Agnes; Lavidor, Michal
Previous research has demonstrated that the Action-Observation Network (AON) is involved in both emotional-embodiment (empathy) and action-embodiment mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that interfering with the AON will impair action recognition and that this impairment will be modulated by empathy levels. In Experiment 1 (n = 90), participants were asked to recognize facial expressions while their facial motion was restricted. In Experiment 2 (n = 50), we interfered with the AON by applying transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the motor cortex. In both experiments, we found that interfering with the AON impaired the performance of participants with high empathy levels; however, for the first time, we demonstrated that the interference enhanced the performance of participants with low empathy. This novel finding suggests that the embodiment module may be flexible, and that it can be enhanced in individuals with low empathy by simple manipulation of motor activation.
Whereas empathy is most often looked upon as a virtue and essential skill in contemporary health care, the relationship to sympathy is more complicated. Empathic approaches that lead to emotional arousal on the part of the health care professional and strong feelings for the individual patient run the risk of becoming unprofessional in nature and having the effect of so-called compassion fatigue or burnout. In this paper I want to show that approaches to empathy in health care that attempt to solve these problems by cutting empathy loose from sympathy-from empathic concern-are mistaken. Instead, I argue, a certain kind of sympathy, which I call professional concern, is a necessary ingredient in good health care. Feeling oneself into the experiences and situation of the patient cannot be pursued without caring for the patient in question if the empathy is going to be successful. Sympathy is not only a thing that empathy makes possible and more or less spontaneously provides a way for but is something that we find at work in connection to empathy itself. In the paper I try to show how empathy is a particular form of emotion in which I feel with, about, and for the other person in developing an interpretation of his predicament. The with and for aspects of the empathy process are typically infused by a sympathy for the person one is empathizing with. Sympathy can be modulated into other ways of feeling with and for the person in the empathy process, but these sympathy-replacement feelings nevertheless always display some form of motivating concern for the target. Such an understanding of empathy is of particular importance for health care and other professions dealing with suffering clients.
Oceja, L.V.; Heerdink, M.W.; Stocks, E.L.; Ambrona, T.; López-Pérez, B.; Salgado, S.
Feeling empathy for a member of the group may result in either favoring this individual at the expense of the group or helping the entire group. We explain these intriguing findings by proposing that the combined influence of feeling empathy for one individual and awareness of others enhances
Nedim Bal, Pervin
This study aimed to examine the permanence of the effect of an Empathy Training Program, administered 8 months ago on gifted adolescents studying in 6th and 7th grades. The sample of this study consisted of 60 students with IQ scores of above 130 and studied in Enderun Gifted Children Center. Bryant's Empathy Scale for Children was administered to…
Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
Although socioemotional competencies have been identified as key components of youths’ positive development, most studies on empathy are cross-sectional, and research on the role of the family has focused almost exclusively on parental socialization. This study examined the developmental course of empathy from age 7 to 14 and the within-person associations between sibling warmth and conflict and youths’ empathy. On three occasions across 2 years, mothers, fathers, and the two eldest siblings from 201 White, working- and middle-class families provided questionnaire data. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for youths’ pubertal status and parental education, girls’ empathy increased during the transition to adolescence and then leveled off, but boys’ lower levels of empathy remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, controlling for parental responsiveness and marital love, at times when firstborns and second-borns reported more sibling warmth and less sibling conflict than usual, they also reported more empathy than usual. The within-person association between sibling warmth and empathy also became stronger over time. Findings highlight gender differences in empathy development and the unique role of siblings in shaping each other’s socioemotional characteristics during adolescence. PMID:22714744
Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.
This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles. Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.
Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.
Gordon, Gina M.
This study examined cognitive and affective empathy as predictors of proactive and reactive aggression. This study also explored whether levels of cognitive and affective empathy differed among children who use proactive and reactive aggression. Cognitive and affective empathy were measured by the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe & Farrington,…
Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.
Full Text Available Introduction: The patients’ families in intensive care units (ICUs experience excessive stress which may disrupt their performance in daily life. Empathy is basic to the nursing role and has been found to be associated with improved patient outcomes and greater satisfaction with care in patient and his/her family. However, few studies have investigated the nursing empathy with ICU patients. This study aimed to assess nursing empathy and its relationship with the needs, from the perspective of families of patients in ICU.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 418 subjects were selected among families of patients admitted to ICUs in Tabriz, Iran, by convenience sampling, from May to August 2012. Data were collected through Barrett-Lennard Relationship inventory (BLRI empathy scale and Critical Care Family Needs Intervention (CCFNI inventories and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Results: Findings showed that most of the nurses had high level of empathy to the patients (38.8%. There was also statistically significant relationship between nurses’ empathy and needs of patients’ families (p < 0.001. Conclusion: In this study we found that by increasing the nurse’s empathy skills, we would be able to improve providing family needs. Through empathic communication, nurses can encourage family members to participate in planning for the care of their patients. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the results.
Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane
Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tomei, Alexander; Besson, Jacques; Grivel, Jeremy
It has been demonstrated that people suffering from substance-related addictions are less empathic than their non-addicted counterparts. Our first aim was to verify if this is also true for behavioral addictions. We hypothesized that problem gamblers are less empathic than healthy controls. Our second aim was to identify a cognitive marker of empathy that could be targeted in cognitive rehabilitation strategies. We propose that a potential cognitive marker of empathy could be visuospatial perspective-taking. Specifically, we hypothesized that visuospatial perspective-taking performances are lower in problem gamblers compared to healthy controls and that these visuospatial performances predict empathy. Thirty-one non-gamblers, 24 healthy gamblers, and 21 problem gamblers performed a visuospatial perspective-taking task before completing the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980; Davis, 1983). Problem gamblers had decreased empathy and lower performance at the visuospatial perspective-taking task than non-gamblers and healthy gamblers. Furthermore, we confirmed that visuospatial perspective-taking abilities predict empathy on the IRI dimensions of interpersonal perspective-taking and personal distress. The present study provides new evidence that reduced empathy is not limited to subjects with substance-related addictions; rather, it extends to behavioral addictions. Visuospatial perspective-taking may be a viable cognitive marker for use as a rehabilitation target of empathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bonfils, Kelsey A; Lysaker, Paul H; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P
Affective empathy, or the emotional response one has to the experiences or emotional states of others, contributes to relationship-maintaining behaviors and is key in fostering social connections, yet no work has synthesized the body of literature for people with schizophrenia. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the extent to which those diagnosed with schizophrenia experience deficits in affective empathy. A literature search was conducted of studies examining empathy. Data were analyzed using a random effects meta-analytic model with Hedges' g standardized mean difference effect size. Individuals with schizophrenia exhibited significant, medium deficits in affective empathy (k=37). Measurement type moderated the affective empathy deficit such that performance-based measures showed larger schizophrenia group deficits than self-report measures. Consistent, significant deficits in affective empathy were found comparing people with schizophrenia to healthy controls, especially when using performance-based assessments. The medium effect suggests an important role for empathy in the realm of social cognitive research, and points to the need for further investigation of measurement techniques and associations with functional outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rameson, Lian T.; Lieberman, Matthew D.
Previous neuroimaging studies on empathy have not clearly identified neural systems that support the three components of empathy: affective congruence, perspective-taking, and prosocial motivation. These limitations stem from a focus on a single emotion per study, minimal variation in amount of social context provided, and lack of prosocial motivation assessment. In the current investigation, 32 participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing painful, anxious, and happy events that varied in valence and amount of social context provided. They also completed a 14-day experience sampling survey that assessed real-world helping behaviors. The results demonstrate that empathy for positive and negative emotions selectively activates regions associated with positive and negative affect, respectively. In addition, the mirror system was more active during empathy for context-independent events (pain), whereas the mentalizing system was more active during empathy for context-dependent events (anxiety, happiness). Finally, the septal area, previously linked to prosocial motivation, was the only region that was commonly activated across empathy for pain, anxiety, and happiness. Septal activity during each of these empathic experiences was predictive of daily helping. These findings suggest that empathy has multiple input pathways, produces affect-congruent activations, and results in septally mediated prosocial motivation. PMID:22887480
Morelli, Sylvia A; Rameson, Lian T; Lieberman, Matthew D
Previous neuroimaging studies on empathy have not clearly identified neural systems that support the three components of empathy: affective congruence, perspective-taking, and prosocial motivation. These limitations stem from a focus on a single emotion per study, minimal variation in amount of social context provided, and lack of prosocial motivation assessment. In the current investigation, 32 participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing painful, anxious, and happy events that varied in valence and amount of social context provided. They also completed a 14-day experience sampling survey that assessed real-world helping behaviors. The results demonstrate that empathy for positive and negative emotions selectively activates regions associated with positive and negative affect, respectively. In addition, the mirror system was more active during empathy for context-independent events (pain), whereas the mentalizing system was more active during empathy for context-dependent events (anxiety, happiness). Finally, the septal area, previously linked to prosocial motivation, was the only region that was commonly activated across empathy for pain, anxiety, and happiness. Septal activity during each of these empathic experiences was predictive of daily helping. These findings suggest that empathy has multiple input pathways, produces affect-congruent activations, and results in septally mediated prosocial motivation.
Full Text Available In times of economic crisis and globalization trends, the question of national identity has acquired special significance. This paper examines the individual differences and demographic factors that contribute to its preservation and strengthening. This research was conducted in order to establish the role of employment status and readiness for empathy in predicting individual differences in identification with a national group. In a sample of 107 respondents (66.4% female, 69.2% the employed aged from 21 to 62 years, we applied the following instruments: Readiness for empathy questionnaire, National identity scale and a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to investigate the prediction structure of national identity based on the employment status, and 4 dimensions of empathy: Empathy with positive emotional states, Empathy with negative emotional states, Emotional reactions provoked by empathy, and Empathy as a social role. The final model significantly explains 15 % of the variance of national identity. Employment and Empathy with negative emotional states were singled out as predictors of national identity as well as the Emotional reactions provoked by empathy, where a higher level is associated with less distinctive national identity. The results indicate the consequences of low socio-economic status of members of a nation on the level of their national identity, indicating the personal position of individuals in a group as the main source of identification with a national group. In other words, the identification of an individual with their national group depends on the degree to which it meets their basic needs. The factor which nevertheless contributes to identification with one's own nation and compatriots, regardless of personal economic status, is the ability to empathize with negative emotional states.
Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Lamm, Claus; Pripfl, Juergen; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail
Alexithymia, a deficit in emotional self-awareness, and deficits in empathy, which encompasses the awareness of other's emotions, are related constructs that are both associated with a range of psychopathological disorders. Neuroimaging studies suggest that there is overlap between the neural bases of alexithymia and empathy, but no systematic comparison has been conducted so far. The aim of this structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to disentangle the overlap and differences between the morphological profiles of the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, and to find out to what extent these differ between women and men. High-resolution T1 anatomical images were obtained from 125 healthy right-handers (18-42 years), 70 women and 55 men. By means of voxel-based morphometry, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed on gray matter volumes of several anatomically defined a-priori regions previously linked to alexithymia and empathy. Partial correlations were conducted within the female and male group using ROI parameter estimates as dependent variables and the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, respectively, as predictors, controlling for age. Results were considered significant if they survived Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The left amygdala was identified as a key substrate of both alexithymia and empathy. This association was characterized by an opposite pattern: The cognitive alexithymia dimension was linked to smaller, the two empathy dimensions to larger left amygdala volume. While sex-specific effects were not observed for empathy, they were evident for the affective alexithymia dimension: Men-but not women-with difficulty fantasizing had smaller gray matter volume in the middle cingulate cortex. Moreover, structural covariance patterns between the left amygdala and other emotion-related brain regions differed markedly between alexithymia and empathy. These differences
Geng, Yaoguo; Xia, Dan; Qin, Beibei
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). The Chinese version of BES was administered to a sample (n = 1,524) aged 9-18 and 65 males with conduct disorder aged 13-18. The result of confirmatory factor analysis showed a two-factor structure with four items deleted…
Dethier, Marie; Douws, Laetitia; Blairy, Sylvie
The purpose of this article is to assert the current state of the scientific literature on the issues regarding empathy in alcohol-dependents patients (ADs). We will first explain what the term « empathy » covers and the distinction made between cognitive and emotional empathy. We will describe then the different studies that got interested in the capacities for empathy in ADs patients. These studies concern predominantly one precise aspect of cognitive empathy: the capacity to infer an emoti...
Franklin, Michael A; Grossenbacher, Peter G
This response to Ian E. Wickramasekera II's article, Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self Are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy, is addressed from a joint perspective on consciousness comprising two related orientations: neuroscience and artistic imagination. We find that the central importance of empathy to empathic involvement theory (Wickramasekera II, 2015) reflects the pivotal nature of empathy in the brain and in the relational exchange implicit in the psychotherapeutic process, particularly when using art in therapy. We offer a preliminary unpacking of the roles related to key psychological processes, such as imagination, that are implicated in clinical uses of verbal and visual empathic resonance.
Häusser, Leonard F
Neurons firing both to specific actions performed by self and matching actions performed by others are classified as mirror neurons. Since its discovery in 1991, this phenomenon has been surveyed in the field of motor and sensorimotor function and incipiently in the field of language and emotions. The research group of Giacomo Rizzolatti assumes that mirror neurons form the biological basis of compassion and thereby of affective empathic experience. The research regarding mirror neurons is yet in early stages and further research is required to specify mirror neuron systems. In view of empathy it is the insula which is of central importance for the recognition of disgust. The discovery of mirror neurons allows a comprehension of empathy as an immediate and compassionate partaking of a response, enabling an understanding of the other persons feeling. At the same time, the resonating affect remains allocated to the other person, distinguishing this comprehensive process from a mere emotional contagion. At present, the phenomenon of mirror neurons is gaining clinical relevance in the field of autism spectrum disorders and apoplexia. One's own ability for empathy as well as promoting empathetic abilities of others is of central importance for the clinical praxis, in particular concerning the treatment of children and adolescents.
Seyed Reza Poorseyed
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to The Effect Social Interest Training on lifestyle in Bullying and Victim Adolescences. The research design was quasi-experimental with pretest posttest, two month Follow-up and two control groups.In this study statistical population was second and third high school grades bullying and victim boy students in Abarkooh in the academic year 2015-2016.Implement research after applying sociometry and running the Olweus Bulling/ victimization revised questionnaire, of among the students who based on the analysis of the results of sociometry and achieved scores in the Bulling/victimization revised questionnaire were classified as bullying and victimization adolescents, 40 students were randomly selected as bullying group and 40 students were selected as victimization group. Then each group was randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. Then they were completed Kern lifestyles questionnaire in pre-test. Experimental groups participated in Social Interest Training for 12 sessions (two sessions per week separately. Control group were placed on a waiting list to receive training. At the end of the sessions, both groups of experimental and control were reassessed via reappraisal. Mixed intra-between group Multivariate Variance analysis and pairwise comparisons results indicated that Social Interest Therapy could amelioration lifestyle in experimental groups than in post-test and follow-up. The results showed that Increasing Social Interest is certainly a beginning toward positive movement and caused the individual will create a lifestyle based on empathy, responsibility, cooperation goals that will increase the probability of successfully solving the life task.
Full Text Available Empathy plays a crucial role in healthy social functioning and in maintaining positive social relationships. In this study, 1250 children and adolescents (10–15 year olds completed the newly developed Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA that was tested on reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and concurrent validity. The EmQue-CA aims to assess empathy using the following scales: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and intention to comfort. A Principal Components Analysis, which was directly tested with a Confirmatory Factor Analysis, confirmed the proposed three-factor model resulting in 14 final items. Reliability analyses demonstrated high internal consistency of the scales. Furthermore, the scales showed high convergent validity, as they were positively correlated with related scales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983. With regard to concurrent validity, higher empathy was related to more attention to others’ emotions, higher friendship quality, less focus on own affective state, and lower levels of bullying behavior. Taken together, we show that the EmQue-CA is a reliable and valid instrument to measure empathy in typically developing children and adolescents aged 10 and older.
Tsao, Pamela; Yu, Catherine H
Physician empathy is associated with improved diabetes outcomes. However, empathy declines throughout medical school training. This study seeks to describe how comics on diabetes affect learning processes for empathy in medical students. All first- or second-year students at a Canadian medical school were invited to provide written reflections on two comics regarding diabetes and participate in a focus group. Responses were analyzed qualitatively for emergent themes. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) at baseline, after the comic, and after the focus group. Linear mixed model statistical analyses were performed. Thirteen first-year and 12 second-year students participated. Qualitative analysis revealed four themes: 1) Empathy decline and its barriers; 2) Impact of the comic and focus group on knowledge, attitudes and skills; 3) Role of the comic in the curriculum as a reminder tool of the importance of empathy; 4) Comics as an effective medium. Baseline mean JSPE scores were 116.4 (SD 10.5) and trended up to 117.2 (SD 12.5) and 119.6 (SD 15.2) after viewing the comics and participating in the focus groups, respectively (p = 0.08). Animated comics on diabetes are novel methods of reminding students about empathy by highlighting the patient perspective.
Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.
.... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...
Full Text Available Art is one of the finest means of shaping the personality, of access to aesthetic and moral values of society. The paper presents some of the elements of communication through art, in the double sense of this process, from the artwork (creator to the viewer, but also from the viewer to the work of art and creator. The key-element of this dual process is the empathy, the ability to feel the emotional states of others. It develops within a set of personality traits, including: emotional intelligence, emotional feelings diversity, cognitive skills, along with motivation and personal ideals. Art is a medium of communication but also an element of developing a general receptivity to the world and its authentic values.
Full Text Available The present article is an analysis of the role of akratic feelings on empathy and self-consciousness. It argues that akratic feelings create a meta-emotional platform that allows the installation of a type of empathic process, which simultaneously contributes for self-consciousness. The article shows in what way akratic feelings are crucial to further understand both ourselves and others.The article begins by describing the nature of akratic feelings and the way in which we can find them at various emotional levels. The second part points out how akratic feelings contribute to empathetic processes and their role in the formation of a meta-emotional platform in which people recognize their opacity. Finally, the article points out how this also contributes for self-awareness, and ultimately for a better understanding of emotional processes.
discussed in design. By evidence of a design course focusing on shared decision making (SDM), this paper promotes a blended set of methods, supporting enhanced understanding amongst stakeholders. The empirical data and the comparison with contemporary SDM studies indicate that student designers were able......Healthcare design requires empathetic understanding among all stakeholders and consequently the development of design for empathy. While design anthropological approaches are broadly discussed, spanning from social design to social innovation, analysis methods for human insights are less widely...... to address some of the most vividly discussed issues in the field: the adaption of SDM to the diversity of patients, the flow of information between the different stakeholders and the general knowledge on SDM by clinicians and the wider public. This paper provides design educators with a series of methods...
LaRocca, Michela A.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.
Examined the perceptions of sexual harassment of male and female college students and perceptions of perpetrator and victim traits. Results from 296 male and 295 female college students indicate that women see the presented scenario as more sexually harassing than males did and that both men and women were influenced by perpetrator attractiveness.…
Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839
In 1989, Pro-Pater, a private, nonprofit family planning organization in Brazil, used attractive ads with the message Vasectomy, An Act of Love to promote vasectomy. The number of vasectomies performed/day at Pro-Pater clinics increased from 11 to 20 during the publicity campaign and fell after the ads stopped but continued at higher levels. Word of mouth communication among friends, neighbors, and relatives who had vasectomies maintained these high levels. This type of communication reduced the fear that often involves vasectomies because men hear from men they know and trust that vasectomies are harmless and do not deprive them of potency. In Sao Paulo, the percentage of men familiar with vasectomies and how they are performed increased after the campaign, but in Salvador, knowledge did not increase even though the number of vasectomies in Pro-Pater clinics increased. Organizations in Colombia and Guatemala have also been effective in educating men about vasectomies. These successes were especially relevant in Latin American where machismo has been an obstacle of family planning programs. The no-scalpel technique 1st introduced in China in 1974 reduces the fear of vasectomy and has fewer complications than the conventional technique. Further trained physicians can perform the no-scalpel technique in about 10 minutes compared with 15 minutes for the conventional technique. In 1987 during a 1-day festival in Thailand, physicians averaged 57 no-scalpel vasectomies/day compared with only 33 for conventional vasectomies. This technique has not spread to Guatemala, Brazil, Colombia, the US, and some countries in Asia and Africa. Extensive research does not indicate that vasectomy has an increased risk of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, and myocardial infarction. Physicians are working on ways to improve vasectomy.
Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S
This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
McNulty, James K; Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R
Physical appearance plays a crucial role in shaping new relationships, but does it continue to affect established relationships, such as marriage? In the current study, the authors examined how observer ratings of each spouse's facial attractiveness and the difference between those ratings were associated with (a) observations of social support behavior and (b) reports of marital satisfaction. In contrast to the robust and almost universally positive effects of levels of attractiveness on new relationships, the only association between levels of attractiveness and the outcomes of these marriages was that attractive husbands were less satisfied. Further, in contrast to the importance of matched attractiveness to new relationships, similarity in attractiveness was unrelated to spouses' satisfaction and behavior. Instead, the relative difference between partners' levels of attractiveness appeared to be most important in predicting marital behavior, such that both spouses behaved more positively in relationships in which wives were more attractive than their husbands, but they behaved more negatively in relationships in which husbands were more attractive than their wives. These results highlight the importance of dyadic examinations of the effects of spouses' qualities on their marriages.
Stacy Yen-Lin Sim
Full Text Available Tennis and Dabbs (1975 reported that physically attractive males showed a positivity bias when rating the attractiveness of others. The opposite pattern was observed for females. We attempted to replicate and extend these findings by: (1 using self-assessed attractiveness rather than the experimentally derived attractiveness measure used in previous research, (2 using face-to-face interactions with targets as opposed to using photographs, and (3 examining the effect of another ego-involving attribute: intelligence. Consistent with previous research, attractiveness judgments made by men, but not women, correlated positively with their own self-perceived level of attractiveness (r = .51, p < .001. Attractiveness judgments made by women, but not men, correlated negatively with their intelligence (r = −.32, p = .001. Judgments of attractiveness are thus biased by a rater’s own attributes (e.g. attractiveness and intelligence, but these effects are not generalizable across men and women raters, and may be driven by different mechanisms.
Massen, Jorg J M; Gallup, Andrew C
Various studies and researchers have proposed a link between contagious yawning and empathy, yet the conceptual basis for the proposed connection is not clear and deserves critical evaluation. Therefore, we systematically examined the available empirical evidence addressing this association; i.e., a critical review of studies on inter-individual differences in contagion and self-reported values of empathy, differences in contagion based on familiarity or sex, and differences in contagion among individuals with psychological disorders, as well as developmental research, and brain imaging and neurophysiological studies. In doing so, we reveal a pattern of inconsistent and inconclusive evidence regarding the connection between contagious yawning and empathy. Furthermore, we identify study limitations and confounding variables, such as visual attention and social inhibition. Future research examining links between contagious yawning and empathy requires more rigorous investigation involving objective measurements to explicitly test for this connection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that social workers and other professional helpers who work with traumatized individuals run a risk of developing compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stress. Some researchers have hypothesized that helpers do this as a result of feeling too much empathy or too much compassion for their clients, thereby implying that empathy and compassion may be bad for the professional social worker. This paper investigates these hypotheses. Based on a review of current research about empathy and compassion it is argued that these states are not the causes of compassion fatigue. Hence, it is argued that empathy and compassion are not bad for the professional social worker in the sense that too much of one or the other will lead to compassion fatigue.
Full Text Available Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and Empathy. Patients had higher scores on Interpersonal Discomfort and lower scores on Basic Social Cognition than controls, but the two groups were the same on Empathy. Lower social performance was significantly correlated with poor Basic Social Cognition in patients and with high Interpersonal Discomfort in controls. While neurocognition was significantly associated with Basic Social Cognition in both groups, it was not associated with Empathy. Social cognitive interventions should emphasize improving basic social cognitive processing deficits, managing Interpersonal Discomfort, and utilizing preserved capacity for empathy as a potential strength in social interactions.
Maoz, Hagai; Gvirts, Hila Z; Sheffer, Maya; Bloch, Yuval
The current study compared empathy and theory of mind (ToM) between children with ADHD and healthy controls, and assessed changes in ToM among children with ADHD following administration of methylphenidate (MPH). Twenty-four children with ADHD (mean age = 10.3 years) were compared with 36 healthy controls. All children completed the interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), a self-reported empathy questionnaire, and performed the "faux-pas" recognition task (FPR). Children with ADHD performed the task with and without MPH. Children with ADHD showed significantly lower levels of self-reported empathy on most IRI subscales. FPR scores were significantly lower in children with ADHD and were improved, following the administration of MPH, to a level equal to that found in healthy controls. Children with ADHD show impaired self-reported empathy and FPR when compared with healthy controls. Stimulants improve FPR in children with ADHD to a level equal to that in healthy controls.
Tullett, Alexa M; Plaks, Jason E
Happiness is a topic that ignites both considerable interest and considerable disagreement. Thus far, however, there has been little attempt to characterize people's lay theories about happiness or explore their consequences. We examined whether individual differences in lay theories of happiness would predict empathy. In Studies 1a and 1b, we validated the Lay Theories of Happiness Scale (LTHS), which includes three dimensions: flexibility, controllability, and locus. In Study 2, higher dispositional empathy was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, controllable, and internal. In Studies 3 and 4, higher empathy toward a specific target was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, uncontrollable, and external In conjunction, Studies 2, 3, and 4 provide evidence that trait and state empathy are separable and can have opposing relationships with people's lay theories. Overall, these findings highlight generalized beliefs that may guide empathic reactions to the unhappiness of others. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Bearman, Margaret; Palermo, Claire; Allen, Louise M; Williams, Brett
Simulation is increasingly used as an educational methodology for teaching empathy to preservice health professional students. This systematic review aimed to determine if and how simulation, including games, simulated patients, and role-play, might develop empathy and empathetic behaviors in learners. Eleven databases or clearing houses including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and ERIC were searched for all articles published from any date until May 2014, using terms relating to (i) preservice health professional students, (ii) simulation, and (iii) empathy. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 9 randomized controlled trials. A narrative synthesis suggests that simulation may be an appropriate method to teach empathy to preservice health professional students and identifies the value of the learner taking the role of the patient.
Lind, Majse; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard
The present study investigates functions of personal and vicarious life stories focusing on identity and empathy. Two-hundred-and-forty Danish high school students completed two life story questionnaires: One for their personal life story and one for a close other’s life story. In both...... questionnaires, they identified up to 10 chapters and self-rated the chapters on valence and valence of causal connections. In addition, they completed measures of identity disturbance and empathy. More positive personal life stories were related to lower identity disturbance and higher empathy. Vicarious life...... stories showed a similar pattern with respect to identity but surprisingly were unrelated to empathy. In addition, we found positive correlations between personal and vicarious life stories for number of chapters, chapter valence, and valence of causal connections. The study indicates that both personal...
Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza
Introduction: Development of nurse–patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Results: Mean nurses’ empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = −0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization (r = −0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment (r = −0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02), depersonalization (P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses. PMID:28382057
Full Text Available Introduction: Development of nurse–patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Results: Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = −0.189, P = 0.04, depersonalization (r = −0.218, P = 0.02, and personal accomplishment (r = −0.265, P = 0.01. Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02, depersonalization (P = 0.04, and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14, respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004. One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045 and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04. Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.
Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza
Development of nurse-patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score ( r = -0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization ( r = -0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment ( r = -0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment ( P = 0.02), depersonalization ( P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion ( P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience ( r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score ( f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower ( f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.
Full Text Available Introduction. In the subject literature there were five conceptual dimensions of empathy defined which were specified as a human trait, the basis of professional work, communication process, a manifestation of concern and the special relations. Empathy is the essence of understanding the other person in nursing. The empathic competences have a significant meaning for building caring and therapeutic relations in the work of nurses.
Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver
Numerous theories posit a positive relation between perceiving emotion expressed in the face of a stranger (emotion perception) and feeling or cognitively understanding the emotion of that person (affective and cognitive empathy, respectively). However, when relating individual differences in emotion perception with individual differences in affective or cognitive empathy, effect sizes are contradictory, but often not significantly different from zero. Based on 4 studies (study ns range from 97 to 486 persons; n total = 958) that differ from one another on many design and sample characteristics, applying advanced modeling techniques to control for measurement error, we estimate relations between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and emotion perception. Relations are tested separately for each of the 6 basic emotions (an emotion-specific model) as well as across all emotions (an emotion-general model). Reflecting the literature, effect sizes and statistical significance with an emotion-general model vary across the individual studies (rs range from -.001 to .24 for emotion perception with affective empathy and -.01 to .39 for emotion perception with cognitive empathy), with a meta-analysis of these results indicating emotion perception is weakly related with affective (r = .13, p = .003) and cognitive empathy (r = .13, p = .05). Relations are not strengthened in an emotion-specific model. We argue that the weak effect sizes and inconsistency across studies reflects a neglected distinction of measurement approach-specifically, empathy is assessed as typical behavior and emotion perception is assessed as maximal effort-and conclude with considerations regarding the measurement of each construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Morelli, Sylvia A.; Rameson, Lian T.; Lieberman, Matthew D.
Previous neuroimaging studies on empathy have not clearly identified neural systems that support the three components of empathy: affective congruence, perspective-taking, and prosocial motivation. These limitations stem from a focus on a single emotion per study, minimal variation in amount of social context provided, and lack of prosocial motivation assessment. In the current investigation, 32 participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic response...
Full Text Available Empathy plays a central role in social decisions involving psychological conflict, such as whether to help another person at the cost of one’s own interests. Using the event-related potential (ERP technique, the current study explored the neural mechanisms underlying the empathic effect on the evaluation processing of outcomes in conflict-of-interest situations, in which the gain of others resulted in the performer’s loss. In the high-empathy condition, the beneficiaries were underprivileged students who were living in distress (stranger in need. In the low-empathy condition, the beneficiaries were general students without miserable information (stranger not in need. ERP results showed that the FRN was more negative-going for self no-gain than self gain, but showed reversed pattern for other’s outcome (i.e., more negative for gain than no-gain in the low-empathy condition, indicating that participants interpreted the gain of others as the loss of themselves. However, the reversed FRN pattern was not observed in the high-empathy condition, suggesting that the neural responses to one’s own loss are buffered by empathy. In addition, the P3 valence effect was observed only in the self condition, but not in the two stranger conditions, indicating that the P3 is more sensitive to self-relevant information. Moreover, the results of subjective rating showed that more empathic concern and altruistic motivation were elicited in the high-empathy condition than in the low-empathy condition, and these scores had negative linear correlations only with the FRN, but not with the P3. These findings suggest that when outcomes following altruistic decisions involve conflict of interest, the early stage of the processing of outcome evaluation could be modulated by the empathic level.
Sladoje-Bošnjak Biljana M.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to establish correlation between perceived empathy of teachers and students’ metacognitive strategies. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of this correlation, the aim was expanded to prediction of students’ metacognitive strategies based on components of teachers’ empathy. Teachers’ empathy was examined through presence of six different components: suffering, positive sharing, crying, emotional attention, feeling for others and identification, which were assessed by attribution theory. Students were the ones who evaluated teachers’ empathy. The following metacognitive strategies were explored: awareness of one’s own cognitive functioning, planning one’s own cognitive functioning and monitoring one’s own cognitive functioning. The research was conducted in two primary schools in the area of East Sarajevo on the sample of seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students, which yielded a total of 665 students. The obtained results show that there is a correlation between all variables used to examine teachers’ empathy and all variables used to explore students’ metacognitive strategies. Teachers’ suffering, as one of the components of teachers’ empathy, figures as an important predictor of metacognitive strategies as criterion variables. When it comes to development of metacognitive strategies, students preferred a positive attitude of teachers towards them, based on cognitive and affective balance. Since empathy plays an important role in application of learning strategies and promoting positive behaviour such as interpersonal understanding, helping others and inhibition of anti-social behaviour, empathy skills training should become an integral part of teacher education programmes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179020: Koncepcije i strategije obezbeđivanja kvaliteta bazičnog obrazovanja i vaspitanja
Sze, Jocelyn A.; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Levenson, Robert W.
Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-re...
Background Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. Aims To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. Method This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) ‘How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?’ and (b) ‘How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?’ The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. Results This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Conclusions Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of ’empathetic engagement’. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243463
Stansfield, R. Brent; Schwartz, Alan; O'Brien, Celia Laird; Dekhtyar, Michael; Dunham, Lisette; Quirk, Mark
Empathy is crucial for effective clinical care but appears to decline during undergraduate medical training. Understanding the nature of this decline is necessary for addressing it. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) is used to measure medical students' clinical empathy attitudes. One recent study described a 3-factor model of the JSE. This…
According to an influential view, empathy has, and should have, a role in ethics, but it is by no means clear what is meant by "empathy", and why exactly it is supposed to be morally good. Recently, Peter Goldie has challenged that view. He shows how problematic empathy is, and argues that taking an external perspective is morally…
According to an influential view, empathy has, and should have, a role in ethics, but it is by no means clear what is meant by 'empathy', and why exactly it is supposed to be morally good. Recently, Peter Goldie has challenged that view. He shows how problematic empathy is, and argues that taking an
Since 2003 Ernst and Young team has been releasing quarterly data that ranks national renewable energy markets, and their suitability for individual technologies. The Country Attractiveness Indices now track the relative attractiveness of 30 countries' renewable energy markets across a selection of technologies each quarter. The Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices publication scores and comments on various technologies, including: on-shore wind, off-shore wind, solar PV, solar CSP, biomass, and geothermal.
Reep-van den Bergh, Carin M.M.; Junger, Marianne
Objectives: Review the evidence provided by victim surveys in order to provide a rough estimate of the personal crime prevalence of the main types of cybercrime. Methods: We performed a search in databases, searched online, and contacted several Offices for National Statistics in Europe and selected
Chikovani, George; Babuadze, Lasha; Iashvili, Nino; Gvalia, Tamar; Surguladze, Simon
Excessive empathy has been associated with compassion fatigue in health professionals and caregivers. We investigated an effect of empathy on emotion processing in 137 healthy individuals of both sexes. We tested a hypothesis that high empathy may underlie increased sensitivity to negative emotion recognition which may interact with gender. Facial emotion stimuli comprised happy, angry, fearful, and sad faces presented at different intensities (mild and prototypical) and different durations (500ms and 2000ms). The parameters of emotion processing were represented by discrimination accuracy, response bias and reaction time. We found that higher empathy was associated with better recognition of all emotions. We also demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with response bias towards sad and fearful faces. The reaction time analysis revealed that higher empathy in females was associated with faster (compared with males) recognition of mildly sad faces of brief duration. We conclude that although empathic abilities were providing for advantages in recognition of all facial emotional expressions, the bias towards emotional negativity may potentially carry a risk for empathic distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex
Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending.
Morrison, Amanda S; Mateen, Maria A; Brozovich, Faith A; Zaki, Jamil; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with elevated negative and diminished positive affective experience. However, little is known about the way in which individuals with SAD perceive and respond emotionally to the naturally-unfolding negative and positive emotions of others, that is, cognitive empathy and affective empathy, respectively. In the present study, participants with generalized SAD (n = 32) and demographically-matched healthy controls (HCs; n = 32) completed a behavioral empathy task. Cognitive empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous ratings of targets' emotions, whereas affective empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous self-ratings of emotion. Individuals with SAD differed from HCs only in positive affective empathy: they were less able to vicariously share others' positive emotions. Mediation analyses revealed that poor emotional clarity and negative interpersonal perceptions among those with SAD might account for this finding. Future research using experimental methodology is needed to examine whether this finding represents an inability or unwillingness to share positive affect. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Candida C
Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65 deaf children of hearing parents) aged 4-13 years were therefore designed to (a) compare levels of empathy in deaf and hearing children, and (b) explore correlations of ToM with empathy in deaf and hearing groups. Results showed that (a) deaf children scored lower in empathy than their hearing peers and (b) empathy and ToM were significantly correlated for deaf children but not for the hearing. Possible reasons for these divergent developmental patterns were considered, along with implications for future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hojat, Mohammadreza; Vergare, Michael; Isenberg, Gerald; Cohen, Mitchell; Spandorfer, John
This study was designed to explore the underlying construct of measures of empathy, optimism, and burnout in medical students. Three instruments for measuring empathy (Jefferson Scale of Empathy, JSE); Optimism (the Life Orientation Test-Revised, LOT-R); and burnout (the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI, which includes three scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment) were administered to 265 third-year students at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University. Data were subjected to factor analysis to examine relationships among measures of empathy, optimism, and burnout in a multivariate statistical model. Factor analysis (principal component with oblique rotation) resulted in two underlying constructs, each with an eigenvalue greater than one. The first factor involved "positive personality attributes" (factor coefficients greater than .58 for measures of empathy, optimism, and personal accomplishment). The second factor involved "negative personality attributes" (factor coefficients greater than .78 for measures of emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization). Results confirmed that an association exists between empathy in the context of patient care and personality characteristics that are conducive to relationship building, and considered to be "positive personality attributes," as opposed to personality characteristics that are considered as "negative personality attributes" that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships. Implications for the professional development of physicians-in-training and in-practice are discussed.
Wallmark, Zachary; Deblieck, Choi; Iacoboni, Marco
The social cognitive basis of music processing has long been noted, and recent research has shown that trait empathy is linked to musical preferences and listening style. Does empathy modulate neural responses to musical sounds? We designed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to address this question. In Experiment 1, subjects listened to brief isolated musical timbres while being scanned. In Experiment 2, subjects listened to excerpts of music in four conditions (familiar liked (FL)/disliked and unfamiliar liked (UL)/disliked). For both types of musical stimuli, emotional and cognitive forms of trait empathy modulated activity in sensorimotor and cognitive areas: in the first experiment, empathy was primarily correlated with activity in supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and insula; in Experiment 2, empathy was mainly correlated with activity in prefrontal, temporo-parietal and reward areas. Taken together, these findings reveal the interactions between bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of empathy in response to musical sounds, in line with recent findings from other cognitive domains.
Full Text Available The social cognitive basis of music processing has long been noted, and recent research has shown that trait empathy is linked to musical preferences and listening style. Does empathy modulate neural responses to musical sounds? We designed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments to address this question. In Experiment 1, subjects listened to brief isolated musical timbres while being scanned. In Experiment 2, subjects listened to excerpts of music in four conditions (familiar liked (FL/disliked and unfamiliar liked (UL/disliked. For both types of musical stimuli, emotional and cognitive forms of trait empathy modulated activity in sensorimotor and cognitive areas: in the first experiment, empathy was primarily correlated with activity in supplementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and insula; in Experiment 2, empathy was mainly correlated with activity in prefrontal, temporo-parietal and reward areas. Taken together, these findings reveal the interactions between bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of empathy in response to musical sounds, in line with recent findings from other cognitive domains.
Morelli, Sylvia A; Ong, Desmond C; Makati, Rucha; Jackson, Matthew O; Zaki, Jamil
Individuals benefit from occupying central roles in social networks, but little is known about the psychological traits that predict centrality. Across four college freshman dorms ( n = 193), we characterized individuals with a battery of personality questionnaires and also asked them to nominate dorm members with whom they had different types of relationships. This revealed several social networks within dorm communities with differing characteristics. In particular, additional data showed that networks varied in the degree to which nominations depend on ( i ) trust and ( ii ) shared fun and excitement. Networks more dependent upon trust were further defined by fewer connections than those more dependent on fun. Crucially, network and personality features interacted to predict individuals' centrality: people high in well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and positive emotion) were central to networks characterized by fun, whereas people high in empathy were central to networks characterized by trust. Together, these findings provide network-based corroboration of psychological evidence that well-being is socially attractive, whereas empathy supports close relationships. More broadly, these data highlight how an individual's personality relates to the roles that they play in sustaining their community.
Waldrop, Deborah; Nochajski, Thomas; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude; Goldberg, Louis
The development of empathy and positive attitudes are essential elements of professional education. This study explored the nature of empathy and its association with attitudes about, and exposure to older patients in a sample of dental students. Students completed an adapted version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and answered questions about their exposure to older people. Factor analysis was used to identify four factors: (1) Empathy is Valuable, (2) Empathy is Demonstrated, (3) Empathy is not Influential, and (4) Empathy is Difficult to Accomplish. Higher empathy scores were related to the ASD subscale attitude of acceptability of aging and to greater exposure to older adults outside of clinical practice. There were no demographic predictors of higher empathy scores.
Lyons, Minna T; Brewer, Gayle; Bethell, Emily J
Previous research has demonstrated the influence of parenting on the development of children's empathy. However, few studies have considered the impact of parents on empathy in adulthood, specific components of empathy, or the importance of parent and child biological sex. In the present study, 226 participants (71 men) completed online versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10 1979), Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175 2004), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 1980). Paternal care and overprotection influenced affective empathy in men, whilst maternal overprotection predicted affective empathy in women. Further, maternal care related to cognitive empathy in men, whilst none of the parental care variables related to cognitive empathy in women. Findings are discussed in relation to sex differences in childhood parenting experiences on adult cognitive and affective empathy.
Levett-Jones, Tracy; Lapkin, Samuel; Govind, Natalie; Pich, Jacqueline; Hoffman, Kerry; Jeong, Sarah Yeun-Sim; Norton, Carol Anne; Noble, Danielle; Maclellan, Lorna; Robinson-Reilly, Melissa; Everson, Naleya
Although empathy is an integral component of professional practice and person-centred care, a body of research has identified that vulnerable patients groups frequently experience healthcare that is less than optimal and often lacking in empathy. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of an immersive point-of-view simulation on nursing students' empathy towards people with an Acquired Brain Injury. A convenience sample of 390 nursing students from a cohort of 488 participated in the study, giving a response rate of 80%. Students undertook the simulation in pairs and were randomly allocated to the role of either a person with Acquired Brain Injury or a rehabilitation nurse. The simulated 'patients' wore a hemiparesis suit that replicated the experience of dysphasia, hemianopia and hemiparesis. Characteristics of the sample were summarised using descriptive statistics. A two-group pre-test post-test design was used to investigate the impact of the simulation using the Comprehensive State Empathy Scale. t-Tests were performed to analyse changes in empathy pre post and between simulated 'patients' and 'rehabilitation nurses'. On average, participants reported significantly higher mean empathy scores post simulation (3.75, SD=0.66) compared to pre simulation (3.38 SD=0.61); t (398)=10.33, pempathy towards people with a disability. Research with other vulnerable patient groups, student cohorts and in other contexts would be beneficial in taking this work forward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.
Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…
Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling
Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…
This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...
Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....
Dion, Karen K.; Stein, Steven
Examines the hypothesis that attractive individuals should be more successful with opposite-sex peers but less successful with same-sex peers than unattractive individuals. Also investigates the influence strategies employed by persons differing in attractiveness since nothing is currently known about the actual behavior exhibited by attractive…
Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders
Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.
Evidence indicates an association between victimization and adolescent substance use, but the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. Some research focuses solely on the consequences of experiencing indirect victimization (e.g., witnessing violence), others examine direct victimization (e.g., being personally victimized), and still others combine both forms of victimization without assessing the relative impact of each on substance use. Furthermore, many of these studies only asses...
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of social interest training on lifestyle of bullying and victim adolescences. The research design was quasi-experimental with pretest posttest, two month Follow-up, and experimental and control groups. The population of the study consisted of bullying and victim male high school students in second and third grades in Abarkooh in the academic year 2015-2016. After administering sociometry and the Olweus Bulling/victimization Revised Questionnaire, on the basis of the results of sociometry those students who were classified as bully and victim were selected. 40 bullying students were assigned to bullying group and 40 students were assigned to victimization group. Then each group was randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. All groups were asked to complete Kern Lifestyle Questionnaire as the pre-test. The experimental groups participated in social interest training for 12 sessions (two sessions per week separately. The control groups were placed on a waiting list to receive training. At the end of the sessions, all groups were reassessed via reappraisal. Mixed intra-between group multivariate variance analysis and pairwise comparisons results indicated that social interest training improve the lifestyles in the experimental groups as compared to the control groups both in the post- and follow-up tests. The results showed that increasing social interest is certainly a beginning toward positive direction and would encourage the individual to create a lifestyle based on empathy, responsibility, cooperation goals as these would increase the probability of successfully solving the life task problems.
Guadagni, Veronica; Burles, Ford; Ferrara, Michele; Iaria, Giuseppe
Previous studies have shown that sleep loss has a detrimental effect on the ability of the individuals to process emotional information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this negative effect extends to the ability of experiencing emotions while observing other individuals, i.e. emotional empathy. To test this hypothesis, we assessed emotional empathy in 37 healthy volunteers who were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups: one group was tested before and after a night of total sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation group), a second group was tested before and after a usual night of sleep spent at home (sleep group) and the third group was tested twice during the same day (day group). Emotional empathy was assessed by using two parallel versions of a computerized test measuring direct (i.e. explicit evaluation of empathic concern) and indirect (i.e. the observer's reported physiological arousal) emotional empathy. The results revealed that the post measurements of both direct and indirect emotional empathy of participants in the sleep deprivation group were significantly lower than those of the sleep and day groups; post measurement scores of participants in the day and sleep groups did not differ significantly for either direct or indirect emotional empathy. These data are consistent with previous studies showing the negative effect of sleep deprivation on the processing of emotional information, and extend these effects to emotional empathy. The findings reported in our study are relevant to healthy individuals with poor sleep habits, as well as clinical populations suffering from sleep disturbances. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M
Evidence indicates an association between victimization and adolescent substance use, but the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. Some research focuses solely on the consequences of experiencing indirect victimization (e.g., witnessing violence), others examine direct victimization (e.g., being personally victimized), and still others combine both forms of victimization without assessing the relative impact of each on substance use. Furthermore, many of these studies only assess these relationships in the short-term using cross-sectional data. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to explore the impact of experiencing only indirect victimization, only direct victimization, both forms of victimization, and no victimization on substance use at two time points during adolescence. We find that of those adolescents who are victimized, the majority experience indirect victimization only, followed by experiencing both forms of victimization, and experiencing direct victimization only. Each of the victimization experiences were associated with increased contemporaneous substance use, with the strongest effects for those experiencing multiple forms of violence. For all victims, however, the impact on substance use declined over time.
Youssef, Farid F.; Nunes, Paula; Sa, Bidyadhar; Williams, Stella
Objectives: This study explored the empathy profile of students across five years of medical training. In addition the study examined whether the Jefferson Scale for Physician Empathy correlated with a measure of cognitive empathy, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and a measure of affective empathy, the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire. Methods: The study was a comparative cross-sectional design at one Caribbean medical school. Students were contacted in class, participation was voluntary and empathy was assessed using all three instruments Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between groups evaluated using non-parametric tests. Results: Overall 669 students participated (response rate, 67%). There was a significant correlation between the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy and the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (P = 0.48), both scales indicating a decline in medical student empathy scores over time. There was, however, little correlation between scores from the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Female students demonstrated significantly higher scores on all three measures. Conclusions: Medical students’ lower empathy scores during their final years of training appear to be due to a change in the affective component of empathy. These findings may reflect an adaptive neurobiological response to the stressors associated with encountering new clinical situations. Attention should be paid not only to providing empathy training for students but also to teaching strategies for improved cognitive processing capacity when they are encountering new and challenging circumstances. PMID:25341229
Chaitoff, Alexander; Sun, Bob; Windover, Amy; Bokar, Daniel; Featherall, Joseph; Rothberg, Michael B; Misra-Hebert, Anita D
To identify correlates of physician empathy and determine whether physician empathy is related to standardized measures of patient experience. Demographic, professional, and empathy data were collected during 2013-2015 from Cleveland Clinic Health System physicians prior to participation in mandatory communication skills training. Empathy was assessed using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy. Data were also collected for seven measures (six provider communication items and overall provider rating) from the visit-specific and 12-month Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Clinician and Group (CG-CAHPS) surveys. Associations between empathy and provider characteristics were assessed by linear regression, ANOVA, or a nonparametric equivalent. Significant predictors were included in a multivariable linear regression model. Correlations between empathy and CG-CAHPS scores were assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. In bivariable analysis (n = 847 physicians), female sex (P empathy scores. In multivariable analysis, female sex (P empathy scores. Of the seven CG-CAHPS measures, scores on five for the 583 physicians with visit-specific data and on three for the 277 physicians with 12-month data were positively correlated with empathy. Specialty and sex were independently associated with physician empathy. Empathy was correlated with higher scores on multiple CG-CAHPS items, suggesting improving physician empathy might play a role in improving patient experience.
Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.
Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet
Krnjajić Stevan B.
Full Text Available Implicit personality theories suggest that people draw conclusions about other persons by using a relatively small number of visible features. The formation of "the first impression" is influenced by the factors, such as sex, age, appearances, race or nationality. Frequently, conclusions based on those factors lead to developing social stereotypes. Attractiveness is a good example of "the first impression" effect, because physical attractiveness entails the creation of impression about another person along a relatively great number of dimensions. Experimental paradigm, introduced in the sphere of interpersonal perception around the mid-20th century, led to a relatively great number of studies on stereotype based on physical attractiveness. One of the most often quoted conclusions of studies on physical attractiveness is summarized by the idiom "what is beautiful is good". For example, socially desirable personality traits (responsibility kindness, energy quality, modesty, more successful private and professional life, are all attributed to physically attractive persons. In addition physical attractiveness is coupled with positive expectations, peer acceptance, academic achievement etc. On the basis of studies on the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype, we have situated our analysis within the domain of roles regulating social interaction between teachers and students i.e. effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectations, peer acceptance and academic achievement.
Full Text Available Introduction: Empathy is a multidimensional concept that encompasses the capacity to infer emotional states and respond to other people ́s emotions. It can be further divided in cognitive and emotional empathy and it is mainly influenced by early interaction with parental figures. Empathy is not exclusive of the human being and has been retained by evolution. It is the base of morality, socialization and pacifism. The empathic deregulation, which can be measured psychometrically, occurs in mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, affective diseases, and personality disorders, among others. Methods: It is a prospective longitudinal exploratory study that aims to evaluate the evolution of empathy, measured primarily by the Empathy Quotient (EQ at 0 months and at 9 months and secondarily the evolution of empathy in demographic and nosologic subgroups. For that purpose a convenience sample of 22 patients that participated in the psychiatric service’ day hospital in a suburban general hospital between September 2011 and June 2012 was used. In the day hospital, in addition to regular activities, the therapeutic activity “Empatias” was created. It consisted in the development of dyadic relations to promote empathy and a fortnightly therapeutic group focused on perspective taking. T-Student and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis.Results and Discussion: There were non-significant differences in EQ at 0 and 9 months (EQ=39,2 vs EQ=39,7, respectively, p=0,813 and stability of the empathic trait was observed. However, there are some limitations of this study, such as the presence of confounders, the short time of longitudinal observation and the absence of validation of the psychometric scale to the portuguese population.Conclusion: In this population of clinically stable patients enrolled in a Day Hospital programme, the empathic trait showed longitudinal stability. Although the role ascribed to empathy is well valued in the classification of
Full Text Available Although there is plenty of literature on the consequences of child sexual abuse, little research has been conducted regarding the risk of secondary victimization when a child victim testifies as a witness throughout the preliminary proceeding to the police, as well as the hearing in the court room. Even today, the credibility of the testimony of a child witness is strongly questioned. Child witnesses are often treated with greater distrust than adult witnesses as, according to traditional views, they don't have the same observing and mnemonic ability, they are more vulnerable to leading questions and they have difficulty in distinguishing reality from fantasy as well as truth from lie. The whole of literature emphasizes the responsibility of the interviewer who will determine the course of the interview and have a significant effect upon the disclosure procedure. His personal characteristics as well as his specialized knowledge and counselling skills will play a major role. Studies have demonstrated that empathy, patience, calm, sensitivity and warmth on the part of the interviewer are instrumental in rapport building and effective communication with the child. These qualities play a crucial role in obtaining a credible testimony and, at the same time, protecting the child from the risk of secondary victimization. The referred case study displays the need for the application of appropriate forensic interview techniques, as well as for the participation, specifically, of a counselling psychologist, as opposed to any mental health professional.
Full Text Available The emotions people feel can be simulated internally based on emotional situational contexts. In the present study, we assessed the behavioral and neuroelectric effects of seeing an unexpected emotional facial expression. We investigated the correct answer rate, response times and Event-Related Potential (ERP effects during an incongruence paradigm between emotional faces and sentential contexts allowing emotional inferences. Most of the 36 healthy participants were recruited from a larger population (1 463 subjects, based on their scores on the Empathy Questionnaire (EQ. Regression analyses were conducted on these ratings using EQ factors as predictors (cognitive empathy, emotional reactivity and social skills. Recognition of pragmatic emotional incongruence was less accurate (P < .05 and slower (P < .05 than recognition of congruence. The incongruence effect on response times was inversely predicted by social skills. A significant N400 incongruence effect was found at the centro-parietal (P < .001 and centro-posterior midline (P < .01 electrodes. Cognitive empathy predicted the incongruence effect in the left occipital region, in the N400 time window. Finally, incongruence effects were also found on the LPP wave, in frontal midline and dorso-frontal regions, (P < .05, with no modulation by empathy. Processing pragmatic emotional incongruence is more cognitively demanding than congruence (as reflected by both behavioral and ERP data. This processing shows modulation by personality factors at the behavioral (through self-reported social skills and neuroelectric levels (through self-reported cognitive empathy.
Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Zajkowski, Wojciech
From a multidimensional perspective, empathy is a process that includes affective sharing and imagining and understanding the emotions of others. The primary brain structures involved in mediating the components of empathy are the anterior insula (AI), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The AI and ACC are the main nodes in the salience network (SN), which selects and coordinates the information flow from the intero- and exteroreceptors. AI might play a role as a crucial hub – a dynamic switch between 2 separate networks of cognitive processing: the central executive network (CEN), which is concerned with effective task execution, and the default mode network (DMN), which is involved with self-reflective processes. Given various classifications, a deficit in empathy may be considered a central dysfunctional trait in narcissism. A recent fMRI study suggests that deficit in empathy is due to a dysfunction in the right AI. Based on the acquired data, we propose a theoretical model of imbalanced SN functioning in narcissism in which the dysfunctional AI hub is responsible for constant DMN activation, which, in turn, centers one’s attention on the self. This might hinder the ability to affectively share and understand the emotions of others. This review paper on neural mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism aims to inspire and direct future research in this area. PMID:24189465
Menendez, Mariano E; Chen, Neal C; Mudgal, Chaitanya S; Jupiter, Jesse B; Ring, David
To examine the relationship between patient-rated physician empathy and patient satisfaction after a single new hand surgery office visit. Directly after the office visit, 112 consecutive new patients rated their overall satisfaction with the provider and completed the Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure, the Newest Vital Sign health literacy test, a sociodemographic survey, and 3 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-based questionnaires: Pain Interference, Upper-Extremity Function, and Depression. We also measured the waiting time in the office to see the physician, the duration of the visit, and the time from booking until appointment. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with patient satisfaction. Patient-rated physician empathy correlated strongly with the degree of overall satisfaction with the provider. After controlling for confounding effects, greater empathy was independently associated with patient satisfaction, and it alone accounted for 65% of the variation in satisfaction scores. Older patient age was also associated with satisfaction. There were no differences between satisfied and dissatisfied patients with regard to waiting time in the office, duration of the appointment, time from booking until appointment, and health literacy. Physician empathy was the strongest driver of patient satisfaction in the hand surgery office setting. As patient satisfaction plays a growing role in reimbursement, targeted educational programs to enhance empathic communication skills in hand surgeons merit consideration. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aan Het Rot, Marije; Miloserdov, Kristina; Buijze, Anna L F; Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke C M
To examine whether acute changes in cognitive empathy might mediate the impact of light therapy on mood, we assessed the effects of a single light-therapy session on mood and cognitive empathy in 48 premenstrual women, including 17 who met Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome / premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD). Using a participant-blind between-groups design, 23 women underwent 30min of morning light therapy (5,000lx; blue-enriched polychromatic light, 17,000K) while 25 women had a sham session (200lx, polychromatic light, 5,000K). We administered the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule and the Affect Grid right before and after the intervention, and 60min later upon completion of a computerized empathic accuracy task. There were no significant effects of light condition on cognitive empathy as assessed using the computer task. Nonetheless, bright light reduced negative affect, specifically in women not using hormonal contraceptives. No effects of bright light on mood were observed in women who were using contraceptives. If a single light-therapy session does not alter cognitive empathy, then cognitive empathy may not mediate the impact of light therapy on mood in premenstrual women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tousignant, Béatrice; Eugène, Fanny; Jackson, Philip L
While empathy has been widely studied in philosophical and psychological literatures, recent advances in social neuroscience have shed light on the neural correlates of this complex interpersonal phenomenon. In this review, we provide an overview of brain imaging studies that have investigated the neural substrates of human empathy. Based on existing models of the functional architecture of empathy, we review evidence of the neural underpinnings of each main component, as well as their development from infancy. Although early precursors of affective sharing and self-other distinction appear to be present from birth, recent findings also suggest that even higher-order components of empathy such as perspective-taking and emotion regulation demonstrate signs of development during infancy. This merging of developmental and social neuroscience literature thus supports the view that ontogenic development of empathy is rooted in early infancy, well before the emergence of verbal abilities. With age, the refinement of top-down mechanisms may foster more appropriate empathic responses, thus promoting greater altruistic motivation and prosocial behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Casas, Rachel S; Xuan, Ziming; Jackson, Angela H; Stanfield, Lorraine E; Harvey, Nanette C; Chen, Daniel C
Empathy is a crucial skill for medical students that can be difficult to evaluate. We examined if self-reported empathy in medical students was associated with clinical competence. This study combined cross-sectional data from four consecutive years of medical students (N=590) from the Boston University School of Medicine. We used regression analysis to evaluate if self-reported empathy (Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE)) predicted scores in clinical clerkships, United States Medical Licensing Examinations, and OBJECTIVE: Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). We separately analyzed overall and OSCE communication scores based on interpersonal skills reported by standardized patients. We controlled for age, gender, debt, and specialty affinity. JSPE scores of medical students were positively associated with OSCE communication scores, and remained significant when controlling for demographics. We found that JSPE score was also predictive of overall OSCE scores, but this relationship was confounded by gender and age. JSPE scores were associated with performance in the Pediatrics clerkship, but not other clerkships or standardized tests. JSPE scores were positively associated with OSCE communication scores in medical students. This study supports that self-reported empathy may predict OSCE performance, but further research is needed to examine differences by gender and age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gao, Zaifeng; Ye, Tian; Shen, Mowei; Perry, Anat
Working memory (WM) and empathy are core issues in cognitive and social science, respectively. However, no study so far has explored the relationship between these two constructs. Considering that empathy takes place based on the others' observed experiences, which requires extracting the observed dynamic scene into WM and forming a coherent representation, we hypothesized that a sub-type of WM capacity, i.e., WM for biological movements (BM), should predict one's empathy level. Therefore, WM capacity was measured for three distinct types of stimuli in a change detection task: BM of human beings (BM; Experiment 1), movements of rectangles (Experiment 2), and static colors (Experiment 3). The first two stimuli were dynamic and shared one WM buffer which differed from the WM buffer for colors; yet only the BM conveyed social information. We found that BM-WM capacity was positively correlated with both cognitive and emotional empathy, with no such correlations for WM capacity of movements of rectangles or of colors. Thus, the current study is the first to provide evidence linking a specific buffer of WM and empathy, and highlights the necessity for considering different WM capacities in future social and clinical research.
Full Text Available The broad construct of empathy incorporates both cognitive and affective dimensions. Recent evidence suggests that the subjects with Autistic Spectrum disorder (ASD show a significant impairment in empathic ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and affective components of empathy in adolescents with ASD compared to controls. Fifteen adolescents with ASD and fifteen controls underwent paper and pencil measures and a computerized Multifaceted Empathy Test. All measures were divided into Mentalizing and Experience sharing abilities. Adolescents with ASD compared to controls showed deficits in all mentalizing measures: they were incapable of interpreting and understanding the mental and emotional states of other people. Instead, in the sharing experience measures, the adolescents with ASD were able to empathize with the emotional experience of other people when they express emotions with positive valence, but were not able to do so when the emotional valence is negative. These results were confirmed by the computerized task. In conclusion, our results suggest that adolescents with ASD show a difficulty in cognitive empathy, whereas the deficit in affective empathy is specific for the negative emotional valence.
Austring, Bennye Düranc
The article critically explores and refers to current psychological debate on empathy as a term.......The article critically explores and refers to current psychological debate on empathy as a term....
Jospe, Karine; Flöel, Agnes; Lavidor, Michal
Research suggests that the action-observation network is involved in both emotional-embodiment (empathy) and action-embodiment (imitation) mechanisms. Here we tested whether empathy modulates action-embodiment, hypothesizing that restricting imitation abilities will impair performance in a hand gesture comprehension task. Moreover, we hypothesized that empathy levels will modulate the imitation restriction effect. One hundred twenty participants with a range of empathy scores performed gesture comprehension under restricted and unrestricted hand conditions. Empathetic participants performed better under the unrestricted compared to the restricted condition, and compared to the low empathy participants. Remarkably however, the latter showed the exactly opposite pattern and performed better under the restricted condition. This pattern was not found in a facial expression recognition task. The selective interaction of embodiment restriction and empathy suggests that empathy modulates the way people employ embodiment in gesture comprehension. We discuss the potential of embodiment-induced therapy to improve empathetic abilities in individuals with low empathy.
Posick, Chad; Rocque, Michael; Rafter, Nicole
Empathy is related, directly or indirectly, to important elements in criminology such as the enactment of harsh penalties for repeat offenders, antisocial behavior, feelings of legitimacy toward the law, and attitudes toward the death penalty. Although empathy is beginning to find its way into criminological discourse, it is still not well understood nor often incorporated into quantitative research. This is likely due to issues regarding the conceptualization and measurement of empathy as well as the lack of measures of empathy incorporated into contemporary data sets. This study discusses the importance of empathy for criminology and uses a set of research examples to exemplify the relationships between empathy and outcomes important to criminology. Empathy emerges as an important predictor of criminal behavior, support for harsh laws, and perceptions of police effectiveness. Future research should incorporate measures of empathy when seeking to understand individual feelings and behaviors as they relate to important facets of criminology and criminal justice.
van Lissa, C.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, S.J.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often....... The hopes of (eventual) social belonging may in that sense work paradoxically as a strong agent in the denial of oppression and marginalization. The article is theoretically informed by poststructuralist conceptualizations and grounded in cases of bullying and marginalization (one of them involving rape......). One case is taken from the empirical data produced by the author and a research project on bullying among children (eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School). Two other cases are borrowed from publications of respectively B. Davies from Australia and A. Evaldsson from Shweden. The article opens insights...
Schein, Stevie S; Trujillo, Logan T; Langlois, Judith H
According to cognitive averaging theory, preferences for attractive faces result from their similarity to facial prototypes, the categorical central tendencies of a population of faces. Prototypical faces are processed more fluently, resulting in increased positive affect in the viewer.
Sari, N.; Utama, R.; Hidayat, A. R. T.; Zamrony, A. B.
Tourism attractions become one of the main components and they drive the tourism activity in a region. The quality of tourism attractions would affect tourists’ visits. Tourism power can basically be built on any conditions which can attract people to visit. Towns is full of activities which include their economic, social, cultural and physical features, if they are presented properly, they can be a tourist attraction. Kampung City, as a form of urban settlement, has the potential to be developed as a tourism attraction. Kampung is not only a physical area of housing but it has also productive activities. Even the city’s economic activities are also influenced by the productive activities of its Kampung. The shape of Kampung which varies in physical, social, economic and cultural raises special characteristics of each Kampung. When it is linked with the city’s tourism activities, these special characteristics of course could be one of the attractions to attract tourists. This paper studies about one of Kampung in the Malang City. Administratively located in the Penanggungan Village Lowokwaru District, but the potential will just be focused on RW 4. Main productive activities of this village are pottery. In contrast to ceramics, pottery is made from clay and its uniqueness in color and shape. Based on the history of pottery in the Malang, it is concentrated in Penanggungan Village. But along with its development, pottery is decreasingly in demand and number of craftsmen is dwindling. Based on these circumstances, a concept is prepared to raise the image of the region as the Kampung of pottery and to repack it as a tourism attraction of the city.
Krnjajić Stevan B.
Implicit personality theories suggest that people draw conclusions about other persons by using a relatively small number of visible features. The formation of "the first impression" is influenced by the factors, such as sex, age, appearances, race or nationality. Frequently, conclusions based on those factors lead to developing social stereotypes. Attractiveness is a good example of "the first impression" effect, because physical attractiveness entails the creation of impression about anothe...
Throughout their academic careers Carl Rogers and Heinz Kohut developed two contrasting definitions of empathy that influenced the ways in which both men sought to help their clients cope with emotional suffering. These two different understandings of empathy are contrasted to each other and finally compared with the understanding of empathy demonstrated in the teachings and actions of Jesus. It is hoped that through studying these ancient religious narratives we might be able to recover a deeper meaning of empathy.
Kato, Kazuo; Sasaki, Kotaro.
Non-magnetic material plates with inherent resistivity of greater than 20 μΩ-cm and thickness of less than 3 mm are used for the end plates of attracting electromagnets for closed type control rods. By using such control rod attracting electromagnets, the scram releasing time can be shortened than usual. Since the armature attracting side of the electromagnet has to be sealed by a non-magnetic plate, a bronze plate of about 5 mm thickness has been used so far. Accordingly, non-magnetic plate is inserted to the electromagnet attracting face to increase air source length for improving to shorten the scram releasing time. This method, however, worsens the attracting property on one hand to require a great magnetomotive force. For overcoming these drawbacks, in the present invention, the material for tightly closing end plates in an electromagnet is changed from bronze plate to non-magnetic stainless steel SUS 303 or non-magnetic Monel metal and, in addition, the plate thickness is reduced to less than 5 mm thereby maintaining the attracting property and shortening the scram releasing time. (K.M.)
Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J; Shah, N Jon; Fink, Gereon R; Piefke, Martina
Females frequently score higher on standard tests of empathy, social sensitivity, and emotion recognition than do males. It remains to be clarified, however, whether these gender differences are associated with gender specific neural mechanisms of emotional social cognition. We investigated gender differences in an emotion attribution task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either focused on their own emotional response to emotion expressing faces (SELF-task) or evaluated the emotional state expressed by the faces (OTHER-task). Behaviorally, females rated SELF-related emotions significantly stronger than males. Across the sexes, SELF- and OTHER-related processing of facial expressions activated a network of medial and lateral prefrontal, temporal, and parietal brain regions involved in emotional perspective taking. During SELF-related processing, females recruited the right inferior frontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus stronger than males. In contrast, there was increased neural activity in the left temporoparietal junction in males (relative to females). When performing the OTHER-task, females showed increased activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while there were no differential activations in males. The data suggest that females recruit areas containing mirror neurons to a higher degree than males during both SELF- and OTHER-related processing in empathic face-to-face interactions. This may underlie facilitated emotional "contagion" in females. Together with the observation that males differentially rely on the left temporoparietal junction (an area mediating the distinction between the SELF and OTHERS) the data suggest that females and males rely on different strategies when assessing their own emotions in response to other people.
Brazeau, Chantal M L R; Schroeder, Robin; Rovi, Sue; Boyd, Linda
Medical student burnout is prevalent, and there has been much discussion about burnout and professionalism in medical education and the clinical learning environment. Yet, few studies have attempted to explore relationships between those issues using validated instruments. Medical students were surveyed at the beginning of their fourth year using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Student Version, and the Professionalism Climate Instrument. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and Spearman correlation analysis was performed. Scores indicative of higher medical student burnout were associated with lower medical student empathy scores and with lower professionalism climate scores observed in medical students, residents, and faculty. Investigators observed relationships between medical student burnout, empathy, and professionalism climate. These findings may have implications for the design of curriculum interventions to promote student well-being and professionalism.
This article examines the role of message-induced state empathy in persuasion. Message-induced empathy is conceptualized as a perception-action process that consists of affective, cognitive, and associative components. Twenty professionally produced public service announcements (PSAs) were used as stimuli messages in a 2 (high vs. low empathy) x 2…
Empathy has captured attention in diverse fields, such as the arts, education, medicine, and entertainment. This article provides insight into the development of empathy through music-making experiences. Recent research has suggested that music educators can play a valuable role in promoting empathy in their students through specific music…
Batson, C. Daniel; And Others
Two studies tested the prediction that prior experience with a need increases empathy for those experiencing that need. In study 1, subjects (n=48) reported feelings of empathy after observing a same-sex peer endure mild electric shocks. In study 2, subjects (n=88) reported feelings of empathy after reading a transcript describing a same-sex…
Wellbery, Caroline; Saunders, Pamela A; Kureshi, Sarah; Visconti, Adam
As medical education curricula increasingly acknowledge the contributions of the social determinants of health to individual health, new methods of engaging students in the care of vulnerable groups are needed. Empathy is one way to connect students with patients, but little is known about how to nurture students' empathy on behalf of populations. This study examined the relationship between individual and social empathy as groundwork for cultivating students' empathy for vulnerable groups. In 2014-2015, first-year medical students completed the Social Empathy Index at the start and end of a two-semester population health course, and they completed a reflective writing assignment exploring the challenges of caring for vulnerable patients. Pre- and posttest mean survey scores were compared, and reflective writing assignments were analyzed for themes concerning social empathy. Data from 130 students were analyzed. Scores for the contextual understanding of systemic barriers domain increased significantly. There was a trend toward increased cumulative social empathy scores that did not reach statistical significance. Students' essays revealed three themes relating to individual empathy as the foundation for social empathy; civic and moral obligations; and the role of institutional practices in caring for vulnerable groups. This study extends understanding of empathy beyond care for the individual to include care for vulnerable groups. Thus, social empathy may function as a valuable concept in developing curricula to support students' commitment to care for the underserved. Educators first need to address the many barriers students cited that impede both individual and social empathy.
Kanthan, Sruti; Graham, James A.; Azarchi, Lynne
Empathy in college-age students is decreasing at unprecedented rates. Understanding empathy in children can act as primary prevention in tackling the problem. This study considers laugh tracks' capacity to bias reality, foster empathy, and investigate differences across time and gender in 181 fifth grade students. Findings from this…
Fletcher, Natalie M.
The concept of empathy has gained appeal in many educational initiatives in recent years, notably in the charitable sector, yet conceptual confusions endure and the challenges associated with educating for empathy tend not to receive the attention they deserve. This article strives to help clarify the concept of empathy for educative purposes by…
Lalama, Susana M.
The purpose of this study was to explore connections among perceived caring climate, empathy, and student social behaviors in high school bands. Nine high school band directors (N = 9 schools), along with their students (N = 203), completed an electronic questionnaire for variables of caring climate, cognitive empathy, affective empathy, social…
Costa, Patrício; Magalhães, Eunice; Costa, Manuel João
Empathy is a relevant attribute in the context of patient care. However, a decline in empathy throughout medical education has been reported in North-American medical schools, particularly, in the transition to clinical training. The present study aims to longitudinally model empathy during medical school at three time points: at the entrance,…
van Lissa, C.J.; Hawk, S.T.; de Wied, M.; Koot, Hans M.; Van Lier, Pol; Meeus, W.H.J.
This four-year study with annual measurements investigated the longitudinal interplay between affective and cognitive empathy in adolescents and their mothers. We studied 1) whether the developmental order of empathy in adolescence progresses from affective to cognitive empathy, or vice versa; 2)
Platsidou, Maria; Agaliotis, Ioannis
The role of empathy in the teaching profession has been vastly investigated in relation to its effect on students, but research on how teachers' empathy affects their own well-being at work is limited. This study investigated empathy and instructional assignment-related stress factors of primary school teachers serving in general or special…
Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaaar, Jan K.
It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in…
van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger
The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.
Fourie, Melike M; Stein, Dan J; Solms, Mark; Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla; Decety, Jean
Moral emotions elicited in response to others' suffering are mediated by empathy and affect how we respond to their pain. South Africa provides a unique opportunity to study group processes given its racially divided past. The present study seeks insights into aspects of the moral brain by investigating behavioral and functional MRI responses of White and Black South Africans who lived through apartheid to in- and out-group physical and social pain. Whereas the physical pain task featured faces expressing dynamic suffering, the social pain task featured victims of apartheid violence from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission to elicit heartfelt emotion. Black participants' behavioral responses were suggestive of in-group favoritism, whereas White participants' responses were apparently egalitarian. However, all participants showed significant in-group biases in activation in the amygdala (physical pain), as well as areas involved in mental state representation, including the precuneus, temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and frontal pole (physical and social pain). Additionally, Black participants reacted with heightened moral indignation to own-race suffering, whereas White participants reacted with heightened shame to Black suffering, which was associated with blunted neural empathic responding. These findings provide ecologically valid insights into some behavioral and brain processes involved in complex moral situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Full Text Available Internet enables the exchange of information with incredible speed, allowing at the same time users to share their feelings, thoughts and opinions. This exchange that can be carried out virally spreading the interest about people and events that transcends our geographical and social horizons, represents a civilizational progress when it’s not recognized just as technological progress, but also as an increasing process of humanization of man and society. Empathy, which was once reserved for the narrowest community, can now be expanded globally. This optimistic view, however, doesn’t take under consideration that human capacity for empathy isn't limitless. Perceptual, cognitive, and emotional overload can lead to saturation and desensitization or dissociation where there is apperception of others, but without any emotional involvement. The paradox of empathy lays within its possibility of being used as a means of control and manipulation: it’s then a pure mimicry of empathy. It can serve a better acquaintance, rapprochement and understanding of other people and cultures, or, on the contrary, non-relations such as impersonation, inauthentic communication, and ultimately online harassment. Therefore, the possibility that Internet gives us to be connected to others is less important than the personal attitude that each individual has towards it and to others via the network. Internet isn't empathic by itself, but it can help one’s basic empathy, which is developing in vivid interpersonal contacts in the real world, to expand to the remote and sensory unobservable others. In this article we’ll analyze the empathic potential of social networks, as well as their features that can narrow or even shut down empathy.
Full Text Available Sara Calderoni,1 Pamela Fantozzi,1 Sandra Maestro,1 Elena Brunori,1 Antonio Narzisi,1 Giulia Balboni,2 Filippo Muratori1,31Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, 2Department of Surgery, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, 3Department of Developmental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyBackground: A growing, but conflicting body of literature suggests altered empathic abilities in subjects with anorexia nervosa-restricting type (AN-R. This study aims to characterize the cognitive and affective empathic profiles of adolescents with purely AN-R.Methods: As part of a standardized clinical and research protocol, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, a valid and reliable self-reported instrument to measure empathy, was administered to 32 female adolescents with AN-R and in 41 healthy controls (HC comparisons, matched for age and gender. Correlational analyses were performed to evaluate the links between empathy scores and psychopathological measures.Results: Patients scored significantly lower than HC on cognitive empathy (CE, while they did not differ from controls on affective empathy (AE. The deficit in CE was not related to either disease severity nor was it related to associated psychopathology.Conclusion: These results, albeit preliminary, suggest that a dysfunctional pattern of CE capacity may be a stable trait of AN-R that should be taken into account not only for the clinical management, but also in preventive and therapeutic intervention.Keywords: anorexia nervosa-restricting type, cognitive empathy, affective empathy, female adolescents, Interpersonal Reactivity Index
Kataoka Hitomi U
Full Text Available Abstract Background The measurement of empathy is important in the assessment of physician competence and patient outcomes. The prevailing view is that female physicians have higher empathy scores compared with male physicians. In Japan, the number of female physicians has increased rapidly in the past ten years. In this study, we focused on female Japanese physicians and addressed factors that were associated with their empathic engagement in patient care. Methods The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE was translated into Japanese by using the back-translation procedure, and was administered to 285 female Japanese physicians. We designed this study to examine the psychometrics of the JSE and group differences among female Japanese physicians. Results The item-total score correlations of the JSE were all positive and statistically significant, ranging from .20 to .54, with a median of .41. The Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. Female physicians who were practicing in “people-oriented” specialties obtained a significantly higher mean empathy score than their counterparts in “procedure-” or “technology-oriented” specialties. In addition, physicians who reported living with their parents in an extended family or living close to their parents, scored higher on the JSE than those who were living alone or in a nuclear family. Conclusions Our results provide support for the measurement property and reliability of the JSE in a sample of female Japanese physicians. The observed group differences associated with specialties and living arrangement may have implications for sustaining empathy. In addition, recognizing these factors that reinforce physicians’ empathy may help physicians to avoid career burnout.
The authors derive a reformulation of statistical thermodynamics for fluids of molecules which interact by highly directional attraction. The molecular model consists of a repulsive core and several sites of very short-ranged attraction. The authors explore the relationship between graph cancellation in the fugacity expansion and three types of steric incompatibility between repulsive and attractive interactions involving several molecules. The steric effects are used to best advantage in a limited regrouping of bonds. This controls the density parameters which appear when articulation points are eliminated in the graphical representation. Each density parameter is a singlet density for a species consisting of molecules with a specified set of sites bonded. The densities satisfy subsidiary conditions of internal consistency. These conditions are equivalent to a minimization of the Helmholtz free energy A. Graphical expressions for A and for the pressure are derived. Analogs of the s-particle direct correlation functions and of the Ornstein-Zernike equation are found
Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong
This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....
Nakao, Hisashi; Itakura, Shoji
In this paper, we will examine and untangle a conflict mainly between a developmental psychologist, Martin Hoffman and a social psychologist, Daniel Batson. According to Hoffman, empathic distress, a vicarious feeling through empathy, is transformed into an altruistic motivation. Batson and others on the other hand, criticize Hoffman, claiming that empathic altruism has no relation with empathic distress. We will point out some problems with Batson's position by referring to the results of fMRI experiments that suggest empathic distress and empathic altruism share a common basis, and defend Hoffman's argument. This will also offer new insights into the evolution of empathy.
Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B
Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.
It is observed that the magnetic knots associated with active regions on the Sun have an attraction for each other during the formative period of the active regions, when new magnetic flux is coming to the surface. The attraction disappears when new flux ceases to rise through the surface. Then the magnetic spots and knots tend to come apart, leading to disintegration of the sunspots previously formed. The dissolution of the fields is to be expected, as a consequence of the magnetic repulsion of knots of like polarity and as a consequence of the hydromagnetic exchange instability.The purpose of this paper is to show that the mutual attraction of knots during the formative stages of a sunspot region may be understood as the mutual hydrodynamic attraction of the rising flux tubes. Two rising tubes attract each other, as a consequence of the wake of the leading tube when one is moving behind the other, and as a consequence of the Bernoulli effect when rising side by side
G Mandela Fernández-Grandon
Full Text Available Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124 for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354 for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development.
Greenberg, Larrie; Agrawal, Dewesh; Toto, Regina; Blatt, Benjamin
Empathy is a critical competency in medicine. Prior studies demonstrate a longitudinal decrease in empathy during residency; however, they have not included pediatric residents. The relations among the expression of empathy, sense of power (ability to influence other's behavior), and personality traits in residents also have not been addressed. Lastly, there are no data on how residents compare with the general nonmedical population in their expression of empathy. The purposes of our study were to assess whether empathy, sense of power, and personality type were statistically correlated; if resident empathy declines over time; and how resident empathy compares with that of nonmedical peers. In 2010, a cohort of individuals entering pediatric residency were given three validated survey instruments at the beginning of their first and third years of training to explore longitudinal changes in empathy, sense of power, and major personality traits. We found no decrease in resident empathy in 2 years of pediatric training, no changes in their sense of power, and no statistically significant correlation between empathetic tendencies and sense of power. When compared with the general nonmedical population, pediatric residents rated themselves higher in empathy. As expected, the two components of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking) were moderately correlated. Of the major personality traits, only agreeableness showed significant correlation with empathy. Pediatric resident empathy did not decrease longitudinally, unlike studies in other residents. There was no inverse relation between self-perceptions of sense of power and empathy as is present in the business literature. Finally, pediatric resident empathy was significantly higher when compared with a general nonmedical population.
Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.
Богдан Миколайович Головкін
Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1) the emergence of criminal threats; 2) increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3) the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations); 4) increase the number of victims of crimes as regis...
Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC
Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim
This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...
Michael, John Andrew
about how to conceptualize empathy, and then analyze the potential contribution of empathy to interpersonal understanding. However, it is not at all clear that such a consensus will soon be forthcoming, given that different people have fundamentally conflicting intuitions about the concept of empathy....... Thus, instead of trying to resolve this controversy, I will try to show that a fair amount of consensus is within reach about how empathy can be a source of interpersonal understanding even in the absence of a consensus about how to conceptualize empathy. As we shall see, the main controversy concerns...
Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, Susan J. T.
This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective
Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.
This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.
Carvalho, A.B. de.
This paper shows the effects of the nuclear accident in the victims, in their lives, changes in the behaviour, neurosis including all the psychological aspects. The author compare the victims with nuclear accident like AIDS patients, in terms of people's discrimination. There is another kind of victims. They are the people who gave helpness, for example physicians, firemen and everybody involved with the first aids that suffer together with the victims trying to safe them and to diminish their suffering, combating the danger, the discrimination and the no information. (L.M.J.)
Green, Jennifer Greif; Felix, Erika D; Sharkey, Jill D; Furlong, Michael J; Kras, Jennifer E
Schools frequently assess bullying and the Olweus Bully/Victimization Questionnaire (BVQ; Olweus, 1996) is the most widely adopted tool for this purpose. The BVQ is a self-report survey that uses a definitional measurement method--describing "bullying" as involving repeated, intentional aggression in a relationship where there is an imbalance of power and then asking respondents to indicate how frequently they experienced this type of victimization. Few studies have examined BVQ validity and whether this definitional method truly identifies the repetition and power differential that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. This study examined the concurrent validity of the BVQ definitional question among 435 students reporting peer victimization. BVQ definitional responses were compared with responses to a behavioral measure that did not use the term "bullying" but, instead, included items that asked about its defining characteristics (repetition, intentionality, power imbalance). Concordance between the two approaches was moderate, with an area under the receiver operating curve of .72. BVQ responses were more strongly associated with students indicating repeated victimization and multiple forms of victimization, than with power imbalance in their relationship with the bully. Findings indicate that the BVQ is a valid measure of repeated victimization and a broad range of victimization experiences but may not detect the more subtle and complex power imbalances that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Martin Christoph Melchers
Full Text Available Empathy is an important human ability associated with successful social interaction. It is currently unclear how to optimally measure individual differences in empathic processing. Although the Big Five model of personality is an effective model to explain individual differences in human experience and behavior, its relation to measures of empathy is currently not well understood. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the Big Five personality concept and two commonly used measures for empathy (Empathy Quotient (EQ, Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI in four samples from China, Germany, Spain and the United States of America. This approach was designed to advance the way the Big Five personality model can be used to measure empathy. We found evidence of medium effect sizes for associations between personality and empathy, with agreeableness and conscientiousness as the most important predictors of affective and cognitive empathy (measured by the respective IRI subscales as well as a for a one-dimensional empathy score (measured by the EQ. Empathy in a fictional context was most closely related to openness to experience while personal distress was first of all related to neuroticism. In terms of culture, we did not observe any distinct pattern concerning cultural differences. These results support the cross-cultural applicability of the Empathy Quotient and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and indicate structurally similar associations between personality and empathy across cultures.
Lelorain, Sophie; Sultan, Serge; Zenasni, Franck; Catu-Pinault, Annie; Jaury, Philippe; Boujut, Emilie; Rigal, Laurent
Clinical empathy, i.e. the ability of physicians to adopt patient perspective, is an essential component of care, which depends in part on empathic concern, i.e. compassionate emotions felt for others. However, too much empathic concern can be challenging for physicians. Aim of this study was to examine physician practice characteristics that could explain clinical empathy beyond empathic concern. We were also interested in testing whether professional reflective activities, such as Balint group attendance or clinical supervision, might make clinical empathy less dependent on empathic concern. A total of 295 French general practitioners (response rate of 37%) completed self-reported questionnaires on empathic concern and clinical empathy, using the Toronto empathy questionnaire (TEQ) and the Jefferson scale of physician empathy (JSPE), respectively. We also recorded information on their professional practice: professional experience, duration of consultations, and participation in Balint groups or being a clinical supervisor. Hierarchical regression analyses were carried out with clinical empathy as dependent variable. Empathic concern was an important component of clinical empathy variance. The physician practice characteristics 'consultation length' and 'being a Balint attendee or a supervisor,' but not 'clinical experience' made a significant and unique contribution to clinical empathy beyond that of empathic concern. Participating to one reflective activity (either Balint group attendance or clinical supervision) made clinical empathy less dependent on empathic concern. Working conditions such as having enough consultation time and having the opportunity to attend a professional reflective activity support the maintenance of clinical empathy without the burden of too much empathic concern.
Shannon Scott Clark
Full Text Available Empathy plays a role in social competence and intelligence, and can serve as a buffer against antisocial tendencies. Numerous studies highlight the relationship between empathy, prosocial behaviors, and the predictive utility of music preferences. This study examined participant differences in music preferences and empathy as a function of age, and whether preferred music genre predicted empathy (as a correlate to prosocial behavior. A new measure was devised to assess music preferences more accurately (i.e. with better face/construct validity than existing measures. The Basic Empathy Scale measured empathy as a multidimensional construct. Younger participants exhibited greater empathy than older ones. Each music preference factor contributed uniquely to empathy variance in multiple regression models. Younger and older participants differed on music preferences (arguably associated with age-related sociocultural influences. Conclusions were drawn regarding the age differences in empathy and music preferences, the systematically greater influences of music preferences on cognitive compared to affective empathy, and the greater associations with empathy of specific music preferences. Limitations and implications for government policy and further research are considered.
Grace Y. Kim
Full Text Available The virtues of gratitude, empathy, and compassion are associated with various psychological and relational benefits. Past research suggests that gratitude and empathy are correlated and that compassion is in fact derived from empathy. However, limited research exists concerning the direct relationship between gratitude and compassionate love (i.e., a more enduring form of compassion. This study examined the relationship between the two constructs, with empathy as a potential mediator in this relationship. Two hundred undergraduate students from a religiously affiliated university were recruited and completed an online, multi-section questionnaire that includes measures of gratitude, empathy, and compassionate love. Statistical analyses revealed a significant partial mediation effect, with gratitude being both directly and indirectly (via empathy associated with compassionate love. In other words, higher levels of gratitude produced greater compassionate love through increased feelings of empathy. Further analyses indicated that among the three types of empathy explored (cognitive empathy, emotional contagion, and emotional disconnection, cognitive empathy best mediated the relationship between gratitude and compassionate love. These findings have important implications in both a clinical and research context, including the utilization of gratitude and empathy interventions to increase protection against clinician burnout and improve client health and well-being. Future research is warranted in further exploring the relationship among these variables utilizing more objective forms of measurement.
Haynie, Denise L.; Nasel, Tonja; Eitel, Patricia; Crump, Aria Davis; Saylor, Keith; Yu, Kai; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Surveyed middle school students on incidents of bullying and victimization. Found that psychosocial and behavioral predictors such as problem behaviors, attitudes toward deviance, peer influences, depressive symptoms, school-related functioning, and parenting linearly separated never bullied or victimized students from the victim group, from the…
Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…
Bruneau, Emile G.; Cikara, Mina; Saxe, Rebecca
In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members) across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets’ group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets’ mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets’ mental states are particularly effective. PMID:26505194
Full Text Available Research suggests that both life-time experience of reading fiction and the extent to which a reader feels ‘transported’ by the narrative are associated with empathy. This study examined these relationships further by delineating empathy into cognitive and affective components. Thirty-three participants were tested on prior exposure to fiction, transportation, and different measures of cognitive empathy, affective empathy and helping tendency. The results revealed that exposure to fiction was associated with trait cognitive, but not affective, empathy, while the experience of being transported was associated with story-induced affective empathy. Story-induced affective empathy was also associated with helping tendency. The results are discussed by considering implications for relationships between reactions to fictional worlds and reactions to real-world behaviours.
Lee, Phong Teck; Loh, Julian; Sng, Gerald; Tung, Joshua; Yeo, Khung Keong
Empathy and burnout are two entities that are important in a physician's career. They are likely to relate to each other and can be heavily influenced by surrounding factors, such as medical education, local practices and cultural expectations. To our knowledge, empathy and burnout studies have not been performed in Singapore. This study was designed to evaluate empathy and burnout levels using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) among residents in Singapore, and compare them with the United States (US) literature. The JSPE, MBI and a self-designed questionnaire were completed by 446 trainees at a residency-sponsoring institution in Singapore. Residents in Singapore had lower empathy and higher rates of burnout compared to US literature. Physician empathy was associated with burnout: residents with higher empathy scores had higher personal accomplishment (p burnout scores compared to the US literature. Further research into the underlying cause is imperative to guide intervention. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Lamm, Claus; Majdandžić, Jasminka
In the last decade, the phenomenon of empathy has received widespread attention by the field of social neuroscience. This has provided fresh insights for theoretical models of empathy, and substantially influenced the academic and public conceptions about this complex social skill. The present paper highlights three key issues which are often linked to empathy, but which at the same time might obscure our understanding of it. These issues are: (1) shared neural activations and whether these can be interpreted as evidence for simulation accounts of empathy; (2) the causal link of empathy to our presumed mirror neuron system; and (3) the question whether increasing empathy will result in better moral decisions and behaviors. The aim of our review is to provide the basis for critically evaluating our current understanding of empathy, and its public reception, and to inspire new research directions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Andrei C Miu
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of voluntarily empathizing with a musical performer (i.e., cognitive empathy on music-induced emotions and their underlying physiological activity. N = 56 participants watched video-clips of two operatic compositions performed in concerts, with low or high empathy instructions. Heart rate and heart rate variability, skin conductance level (SCL, and respiration rate (RR were measured during music listening, and music-induced emotions were quantified using the Geneva Emotional Music Scale immediately after music listening. Listening to the aria with sad content in a high empathy condition facilitated the emotion of nostalgia and decreased SCL, in comparison to the low empathy condition. Listening to the song with happy content in a high empathy condition also facilitated the emotion of power and increased RR, in comparison to the low empathy condition. To our knowledge, this study offers the first experimental evidence that cognitive empathy influences emotion psychophysiology during music listening.
Cheon, Bobby K; Im, Dong-Mi; Harada, Tokiko; Kim, Ji-Sook; Mathur, Vani A; Scimeca, Jason M; Parrish, Todd B; Park, Hyun Wook; Chiao, Joan Y
Cultures vary in the extent to which people prefer social hierarchical or egalitarian relations between individuals and groups. Here we examined the effect of cultural variation in preference for social hierarchy on the neural basis of intergroup empathy. Using cross-cultural neuroimaging, we measured neural responses while Korean and American participants observed scenes of racial ingroup and outgroup members in emotional pain. Compared to Caucasian-American participants, Korean participants reported experiencing greater empathy and elicited stronger activity in the left temporo-parietal junction (L-TPJ), a region previously associated with mental state inference, for ingroup compared to outgroup members. Furthermore, preferential reactivity within this region to the pain of ingroup relative to outgroup members was associated with greater preference for social hierarchy and ingroup biases in empathy. Together, these results suggest that cultural variation in preference for social hierarchy leads to cultural variation in ingroup-preferences in empathy, due to increased engagement of brain regions associated with representing and inferring the mental states of others. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elliott, Craig M; Toomey, Robert J; Goodman, Brooke A; Barbosa, Peter
Short-term medical missions are common in medical educational settings and could possibly affect student learning. Little research has been conducted about the potential of these missions on students' transformative learning, in particular as it relates to empathy and multicultural awareness. Eight podiatric medical students who participated in short-term medical missions in 2008 and 2009 completed an electronic survey to investigate the effect of their experience as it relates to their learning. The empathy and multicultural awareness impact of the mission experience was emphasized. Qualitative questions in the survey were coded, themed, and triangulated with the quantitative responses. Six students (75%) "strongly agreed" that participating in the medical mission was a significant positive experience in their podiatric medical training. Six students felt that their experiences in serving these communities increased their personal awareness of multicultural/diversity needs in general. All of the students agreed that they will become better podiatric physicians because of their experiences in the medical missions. The qualitative data also indicate that the experience had an effect on the students' views of health care and increased empathy toward their patients. Short-term medical missions could play a significant role in the transformative learning experience in podiatric medical education. This could affect the empathy and multicultural awareness of podiatric medical students. Further and more extensive evaluations of the potential impact of short-term medical missions in podiatric medical education should be explored because it could influence curriculum and global health in the field of podiatric medicine.
This study examined the effect of the active pursuit of ballet as a hobby on personality. The study group consisted of 62 members of the junior ballet of the Finnish National Opera, ranging in age from 9 to 17 with the majority under 14. The dancers were given four self-esteem questionnaires which measured empathy, creativity, and other…
Teacher preparation is critical in cultivating good teachers, but more importantly in helping teachers learn how to meet the academic and emotional needs of preK-12 students. Teaching and training the socio-emotional trait of empathy is an important skill for pre-service teachers to develop. However, due to the multiple definitions, fields of…
In this article, I argue that the recent emphasis on compassion in healthcare practice lacks conceptual richness and clarity. In particular, I argue that it would be helpful to focus on a larger concept of empathy rather than compassion alone and that compassion should be thought of as a component of this larger concept of empathy. The first part of the article outlines a critique of the current discourse of compassion on three grounds. This discourse naturalizes, individualizes, and reifies compassion leading to a decontextualized and simplified understanding of failures in healthcare practice. The second part uses resources from phenomenology and contemporary moral philosophy to construct a "hybrid" concept of empathy that includes both pre-reflective/intuitive and cognitive/imaginative components. This "hybrid" concept of empathy leads to a more complex understanding of the multiple responses to others' distress. I conclude that there are no straightforward normative naturalistic responses to others' distress. Rather than conceptualizing compassion as a naturalistic impulse or a character-based trait, we need to consider the complexity of our empathic recognition of vulnerable others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Warren, Chezare A.; Hotchkins, Bryan K.
The concept "False Empathy" posited by critical race theory luminary Richard Delgado ("Calif Law Rev" 84(1):61-100, 1996) easily obscures White teacher's good intentions to be effective educators of racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse students. It is argued here that critical race theory is useful for isolating and…
Solhaug, Trond; Osler, Audrey
In recent decades, Norwegian schools have experienced increased cultural diversification among students. Growing heterogeneity in origin and culture may enhance the risk of student marginalisation, segregation and exclusion. In response to these challenges, this paper examines students' intercultural empathy and, particularly, how schools can…
Empathy is the ability to understand and feel for the situation of another human being and is shaped by seeing others react when distressed; by imitating what they see, children develop a repertoire of empathic responses. When children see other people in pain, their brains become active in the same regions that process the experience of pain…
According to a recent study in "Personality and Social Psychology Review," empathy is on the decline among college students. How might academic courses invite students to increase empathic behaviors? Additionally, how might service-learning projects aid academic course objectives to help students increase empathic behavior? To explore…
Horan, William P; Jimenez, Amy M; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Green, Michael F
Although it has been proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by impaired empathy, several recent studies found intact neural responses on tasks measuring the affective subdomain of empathy. This study further examined affective empathy in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 21 healthy controls using a validated pain empathy paradigm with two components: (i) observing videos of people described as medical patients who were receiving a painful sound stimulation treatment; (ii) listening to the painful sounds (to create regions of interest). The observing videos component incorporated experimental manipulations of perspective taking (instructions to imagine 'Self' vs 'Other' experiencing pain) and cognitive appraisal (information about whether treatment was 'Effective' vs 'Not Effective'). When considering activation across experimental conditions, both groups showed similar dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI) activation while merely observing others in pain. However, there were group differences associated with perspective taking: controls showed relatively greater dACC and AI activation for the Self vs Other contrast whereas patients showed relatively greater activation in these and additional regions for the Other vs Self contrast. Although patients demonstrated grossly intact neural activity while observing others in pain, they showed more subtle abnormalities when required to toggle between imagining themselves vs others experiencing pain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Savenije, G.M.; de Bruijn, P.
Museums, memorial centres and other heritage institutions use various strategies to evoke an emotional response that serves to elicit empathy with the historical events and actors that are portrayed in exhibitions. To increase historical understanding, however, both emotional engagement with and
Ma. Lulu L. Loyola
Full Text Available This study looked into the demographic profile and empathy level of helping professionals enrolled at West Visayas State University, College of Education, Graduate School taking up Master of Education (M.Ed. major in Guidance and Counseling and Doctor of Philosophy in Education (Ph.D. in Ed. major in Psychology and Guidance. Results showed that the participants taking graduate education in the field of teacher education, psychology, guidance and counseling were generally female, younger and are actively teaching. Majority were beginners in the Ph.D. program. Except for the category on sex where females had significantly higher empathy level than males, all the participants had an average level of empathy. However, looking at their individual mean scores, it appeared that the older respondents, married, are teaching and are finishing their degrees had higher mean. These results seem to imply that the females, those with more experience, married, in the field of teaching, and have more training had higher levels of empathy.
Full Text Available Empathy is an emotional mode associating the point of view of other people to physiological sensations. This phenomena tends to be more significant with certain people than others. And yet, there are sometimes good moral reasons to promote a more egalitarian empathy. Our hypo- thesis of moral psychology is that it is possible to use imagination – and in particular its volon- tary dimension and its openness to emotions – to modify certain empathic biaises.RÉSUMÉL'empathie est un mode émotionnel qui associe le point de vue d'autrui à des sensations phy- siologiques. Ce phénomène a tendance à être plus important envers certaines personnes qu'en- vers d'autres. Or, il existe parfois de bonnes raisons morales de promouvoir une empathie plus égalitaire. Notre hypothèse de psychologie morale est qu'il est possible d'utiliser l'imagination, et en particulier sa dimension volontaire et sa transparence aux émotions, pour corriger certains biais empathiques.
Derksen, F.; Olde Hartman, T.C.; Bensing, J.; Lagro-Janssen, T.
Empathie speelt een belangrijke rol in de patiënt-huisartscommunicatie met het oog op persoonsgerichte zorg. Een empathische houding levert de huisarts meer informatie op over de situatie van de patiënt, verbetert de onderlinge relatie en maakt dat patiënten zich meer op hun gemak voelen. In de
This article explores the intersection of work in media education, religious education, concerns about digital cultures' impact on human relationality, and the possible role that mirror neurons might play in the development of empathy. Digital story telling--particularly as embodied in the work of the Center for Digital Storytelling…
van Rooij, Shahron Williams
Graduate students enrolled in professional education degree programs are increasingly challenged by the need to acquire the complex skills/competencies of their respective professions on the one hand, while retaining empathy for the individuals they will be serving on the other hand. This paper suggests a technique which uses the Persona, a…
Kingston, Skylar T.; Medlin, Richard G.
The purpose of the present study was to compare empathy, altruism, moral reasoning, and prosocial behavior in home schooled children and children attending public schools, and to assess attitudes toward religion and values in their parents. Homeschooling parents were more concerned with teaching their children their values and religious beliefs,…
Segal, Elizabeth A.; Wagaman, M. Alex
Social work education stresses training students to understand oppressive structural barriers and promote social and economic justice. Social empathy, which is rooted in a deep understanding of those who are different from us through contextual understanding and macro perspective-taking, offers a framework for teaching social justice that…
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Van Bruggen, Marnix
Previous studies have shown empathy to be an important aspect of a high quality intimate relationship. Likewise, positive illusions about a partner's characteristics have been shown to contribute to relationship quality. The present study connects these issues by examining the degree to which
Full Text Available This paper aims at the dissemination of a new course design, which reports and shares our experience of designing a new course to meet the new needs in the society. The higher education has been focusing on developing students’ logical thinking or reasoning skills through debate, believing that such skills would make the students succeed in the society after graduation. However, from the view point of resilience in the society after a natural disaster, which usually demolishes the fundamental infrastructure as well as human bonding through trust, the communication with empathy to build trust seems to play a more important role than the skill to debate. Is there any way to incorporate such advanced communication skill with empathy in the higher education responding to the current needs from the society before the students become members of the society? Kansai University has developed a new experimental course for advanced communication with empathy to be implemented in the general education enhanced with ICT. This paper reports Kansai University’s successful problem-solving process and endeavor in the curriculum development for the communication with empathy.
This study investigated the impact of social studies curriculum on the affective dispositions of students of Colleges of Education in North-West Zone of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of NCE I and NCE III students' affective dispositions in the area of empathy. One research question and one ...
You, Sukkyung; Lee, June; Lee, Yunoug; Kim, Ann Y.
In efforts to increase the field and society's understanding of bullying, the authors investigated how various forms of attachment (mother, peer, and school) are directly and indirectly related to bullying behavior through empathy, and whether these relationships are moderated by gender. Adolescents, of grades 7 through 9, from one middle school…
Baker, Diane F.
Researchers in behavioral ethics seek to understand how individuals respond to the ethical dilemmas in their lives. In any given situation, multiple social and psychological variables interact to influence ethical decision making. The purpose of this article is to explore how one such variable, empathy, affects the ethical decision-making process…
Full Text Available Can multiculturalism work? Can people from different religious and ethnic backgrounds live side by side peacefully and, even better, enrich each other? There are two ways social scientists can deal with this question. The first one, which I would label as “macro”, focuses on statistics and opinion surveys. A macro approach would, for instance, analyze the effects of an increase in religious and ethnic diversity on social indicators such as trust in neighbors, civic engagement or political participation. The second one, which I would label as “micro”, focuses on the skills citizens need for a better management of cultural diversity. This paper falls into the second category and will provide support for two claims: (1 training for intercultural communication should focus first and foremost on empathy; (2 ancient rhetorical exercises offer an effective way to develop empathy. To support the first claim, it will be argued that for a multicultural society to be peaceful, citizens need to be willing and able to use empathy when interacting with their fellow citizens of different religious, ethnic or ideological background (section I. A method to develop empathy using rhetorical exercises will then be described (section II. Finally, I present the results of an experiment to test its effectiveness with secondary school teachers (section III.
Jeffers, Carol S.
This paper re/considers empathy and its implications for learning in the art classroom, particularly in light of relevant neuroscientific investigations of the mirror neuron system recently discovered in the human brain. These investigations reinterpret the meaning of perception, resonance, and connection, and point to the fundamental importance…
Ramsøy, Thomas Zoëga; Skov, Martin; Macoveanu, Julian; Siebner, Hartwig R; Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt
Decision-making in social dilemmas is suggested to rely on three factors: the valuation of a choice option, the relative judgment of two or more choice alternatives, and individual factors affecting the ease at which judgments and decisions are made. Here, we test whether empathy-an individual's relative ability to understand others' thoughts, emotions, and intentions-acts as an individual factor that alleviates conflict resolution in social decision-making. We test this by using a framed, iterated prisoners' dilemma (PD) game in two settings. In a behavioral experiment, we find that individual differences in empathic ability (the Empathy Quotient, EQ) were related to lower response times in the PD game, suggesting that empathy is related to faster social choices, independent of whether they choose to cooperate or defect. In a subsequent neuroimaging experiment, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we find that EQ is positively related to individual differences in the engagement of brain structures implemented in mentalizing, including the precuneus, superior temporal sulcus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that empathy is related to the individual difference in the engagement of mentalizing in social dilemmas and that this is related to the efficiency of decision-making in social dilemmas.
We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this
Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.
’ can help us understand the attractiveness of constantly being ‘on the move’. Qualitative data from three exemplars of this elite group of workers is used to illustrate how the ideal of being mobile is perceived as an often problematic imperative, but also as one which is nevertheless rewarding...
Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Sheng, Elisa; Imel, Zac E.; Baer, John; Atkins, David C.
Empathy is a basic psychological process that involves the development of synchrony in dyads. It is also a foundational ingredient in specific, evidence-based behavioral treatments like motivational interviewing (MI). Ratings of therapist empathy typically rely on a gestalt, “felt sense” of therapist understanding and the presence of specific verbal behaviors like reflective listening. These ratings do not provide a direct test of psychological processes like behavioral synchrony that are theorized to be an important component of empathy in psychotherapy. To explore a new objective indicator of empathy, we hypothesized that synchrony in language style (i.e., matching how statements are phrased) between client and therapists would predict gestalt ratings of empathy over and above the contribution of reflections. We analyzed 122 MI transcripts with high and low empathy ratings based on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) global rating scale. Linguistic inquiry and word count was used to estimate language style synchrony (LSS) of adjacent client and therapist talk turns. High empathy sessions showed greater LSS across 11 language style categories compared to low empathy sessions (p empathy vs. low empathy sessions (d = 0.62). Regression analyses showed that LSS was predictive of empathy ratings over and above reflection counts; a 1 SD increase in LSS is associated with 2.4 times increase in the odds of a high empathy rating, controlling for therapist reflections (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.36, 4.24, p empathy ratings are related to synchrony in language style, over and above synchrony of content as measured by therapist reflections. Novel indicators of therapist empathy may have implications for the study of MI process as well as the training of therapists. PMID:25892166
Wu, Nan; Li, Zhi; Su, Yanjie
Oxytocin exerts well accepted effects on one of the key social processes: empathy. Previous researches have demonstrated that oxytocin promotes emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy, by exogenous administration as well as on gene level. However, the effect of diverse gene locus haplotypes of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) on trait empathy lacks reliable evidence. Participants consisted of 101 genetically unrelated, non-clinical Chinese subjects (46 males and 55 females). Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was applied to measure the trait empathy from four dimensions: empathy concern, personal distress, perspective taking and fantasy. Fantasy and perspective taking measured cognitive aspect of empathy, while empathy concern and personal distress measured emotional aspect of empathy. Ten single tagging SNPs on OXTR rs2268491, rs1042778, rs53576, rs7632287, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs237897, rs237887, rs4686302, and rs2268493 were tested. Genotype difference in emotional empathy was found on rs237887 and rs4686302 whereas cognitive empathy varied on SNPs rs2268491 and rs2254298 between homozygous and variant carriers. For IRI score, there is a genotype and gender interaction on rs4686302 and rs13316193. The sample sizes from the current study were not so optimal that these results should have to be interpreted with caution when amplified into a larger population. The findings demonstrate that natural variants of OXTR associated with trait empathy; specifically, individuals with certain OXTR genotype did perform better on trait empathy, while others did not. Our findings also provide genetic evidence for gender-related difference on empathy, indicating the popular fact that females who displayed more empathy than males could be likely to trace back to the genetic variants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carmel-Gilfilen, Candy; Portillo, Margaret
Designers can and should play a critical role in shaping a holistic healthcare experience by creating empathetic design solutions that foster a culture of care for patients, families, and staff. Using narrative inquiry as a design tool, this case study shares strategies for promoting empathy. Designing for patient-centered care infuses empathy into the creative process. Narrative inquiry offers a methodology to think about and create empathetic design that enhances awareness, responsiveness, and accountability. This article shares discoveries from a studio on empathetic design within an outpatient cancer care center. The studio engaged students in narrative techniques throughout the design process by incorporating aural, visual, and written storytelling. Benchmarking, observations, and interviews were merged with data drawn from scholarly evidence-based design literature reviews. Using an empathy-focused design process not only motivated students to be more engaged in the project but facilitated the generation of fresh and original ideas. Design solutions were innovative and impactful in supporting the whole person. Similarities as well as differences defined empathetic cancer care across projects and embodied concepts of design empowerment, design for the whole person, and design for healing. By becoming more conscious of empathy, those who create healthcare environments can better connect holistically to the user to take an experiential approach to design. Explicitly developing a mind-set that raises empathy to the forefront of the design process offers a breakthrough in design thinking that bridges the gap between what might be defined as "good design" and patient-centered care. © The Author(s) 2015.
S. Shaun Ho
Full Text Available Mothers need to make caregiving decisions to meet the needs of children, which may or may not result in positive child feedback. Variations in caregivers’ emotional reactivity to unpleasant child-feedback may be partially explained by their dispositional empathy levels. Furthermore, empathic response to the child’s unpleasant feedback likely helps mothers to regulate their own stress. We investigated the relationship between maternal dispositional empathy, stress reactivity, and neural correlates of child feedback to caregiving decisions. In Part 1 of the study, 33 female participants were recruited to undergo a lab-based mild stressor, the Social Evaluation Test (SET, and then in Part 2 of the study, a subset of the participants, fourteen mothers, performed a Parenting Decision Making Task (PDMT in an fMRI setting. Four dimensions of dispositional empathy based on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were measured in all participants – Personal Distress, Empathic Concern, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy. Overall, we found that the Personal Distress and Perspective Taking were associated with greater and lesser cortisol reactivity, respectively. The four types of empathy were distinctly associated with the negative (versus positive child feedback activation in the brain. Personal Distress was associated with amygdala and hypothalamus activation, Empathic Concern with the left ventral striatum, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC, and supplemental motor area (SMA activation, and Fantasy with the septal area, right SMA and VLPFC activation. Interestingly, hypothalamus-septal coupling during the negative feedback condition was associated with less PDMT-related cortisol reactivity. The roles of distinct forms of dispositional empathy in neural and stress responses are discussed.
Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri
Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.
Examines the relationship between victimization of characters in television drama and susceptibility to the viewers' cultivation of a sense of personal risk in the real world. Found that viewers whose fictional counterparts are more likely to be shown as victims show stronger associations between viewing and perceived vulnerability. (PD)
Kosovski, E.; Piedade Junior, H.; Mayr, E.
This book shows some aspects and the effects of several types of accidents in the victims, including the psychological considerations, changes in theirs behaviour, concepts, clinical diagnostic, etc. Victims of nuclear, transit terrorism and work accidents are studied. (C.G.C.)
Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy
For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…
Ballard, Carol N.
Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)
Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray
One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…
... these requirements has merely been re-worked for clarity. Under the proposed rule SAAs must identify... victim populations will allow OVC and SAAs to better tailor their training and technical assistance and... SAAs may use for these purposes. Funding victim service programs located in adjacent States. Program...
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.
In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…
Kapa, Ryan R.; Luke, Jeremy; Moulthrop, Dorothy; Gimbert, Belinda
Background: Victimization in schools is not limited to students. Teachers increasingly face threats and attacks from their students. An authoritative school environment, characterized by high structure and support, has been associated with lower rates of victimization. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between authoritative…
Rijken, Conny; Rijken, Conny; Piotrowicz, Ryszard; Uhl, Baerbel Heide
Historically, protection and assistance to victims of human trafficking in many countries is anchored in migration law and dependent on whether or not a residence permit is granted to the victim. Apart from some limited exceptions, cooperation with law enforcement authorities in criminal
Katsu, Noriko; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki
We investigated the use of vocalizations called "grunts," "girneys," and "coos" accompanied by post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents (reconciliation) in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Although reconciliation functions to repair bonds, such interactions sometimes entail risks of receiving further aggression. Vocalizations can be used at a distance from the former opponent; thus, we predict that vocalizations are used particularly by victims of a conflict, and are frequently used in situations of uncertainty when it is difficult for them to estimate whether the former opponent will resume aggression. In addition, we predict that vocalizations are effective in preventing further aggression. To test these hypotheses, we conducted observations of post-conflict and matched-control situations in female Japanese macaques living in a free-ranging group. We found that former opponents tended to be attracted to each other within the first minute following a conflict, thus demonstrating reconciliation behavior. Vocalizations were more frequently used by the victims in post-conflict interactions than under control situations; however, this tendency was not found in aggressors. When affiliation with the former opponent occurred, victims were more likely to use vocalizations towards less familiar opponents. These findings suggest that Japanese macaques used vocalizations more often when interacting with less predictable former opponents. Victims were more likely to receive aggression from former aggressors when engaged in affiliations with them than under no such affiliations. No significant differences were found in the probability of the victims receiving aggression, regardless of whether they used vocalizations; thus, whether the victim benefits from using vocalizations in these contexts remains unclear. Japanese macaques form despotic societies and therefore, further aggression was inevitable, to some degree, after a conflict. The use of
Full Text Available We investigated the use of vocalizations called "grunts," "girneys," and "coos" accompanied by post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents (reconciliation in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata. Although reconciliation functions to repair bonds, such interactions sometimes entail risks of receiving further aggression. Vocalizations can be used at a distance from the former opponent; thus, we predict that vocalizations are used particularly by victims of a conflict, and are frequently used in situations of uncertainty when it is difficult for them to estimate whether the former opponent will resume aggression. In addition, we predict that vocalizations are effective in preventing further aggression. To test these hypotheses, we conducted observations of post-conflict and matched-control situations in female Japanese macaques living in a free-ranging group. We found that former opponents tended to be attracted to each other within the first minute following a conflict, thus demonstrating reconciliation behavior. Vocalizations were more frequently used by the victims in post-conflict interactions than under control situations; however, this tendency was not found in aggressors. When affiliation with the former opponent occurred, victims were more likely to use vocalizations towards less familiar opponents. These findings suggest that Japanese macaques used vocalizations more often when interacting with less predictable former opponents. Victims were more likely to receive aggression from former aggressors when engaged in affiliations with them than under no such affiliations. No significant differences were found in the probability of the victims receiving aggression, regardless of whether they used vocalizations; thus, whether the victim benefits from using vocalizations in these contexts remains unclear. Japanese macaques form despotic societies and therefore, further aggression was inevitable, to some degree, after a conflict
Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta
In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.
To be a success, a website has to attract-and keep--visitors. This Mini Missing Manual shows you how to attract new and return visitors and use the power of keywords and Web search engines to rise up in the rankings of search results. You'll also learn how to use a powerful-and free--service that tracks visitor activity on your site so you know which of your Web pages they love, and-just as important--which pages don't work for them. Using this information, you can fine-tune your site to keep the visitors coming. This Mini Missing Manual is excerpted from Creating a Web Site: The Missing Man
Hydroelectricity will continue to be important for meeting power requirements in developing countries. Much of the funding required for hydroelectric projects must come from non-government source; hydroelectric projects will therefore need to be attractive to private investors. This note explores the risks investors face, how this can be mitigated, and how the World Bank group can offer advice (as well as finance) to member countries to facilitate investment in hydro electric projects. 3 refs., 1 fig
Han, Jing L; Pappas, Theodore N
There has been much discussion in the medical literature about the importance of empathy and physician communication style in medical practice. Empathy has been shown to have a very real positive effect on patient outcomes. Most of the existing literature speaks to its role in medical education, with relatively little empiric study about empathy in the surgical setting. Review of empathy and its importance as it pertains to the surgeon-patient relationship and improving patient outcomes, and the need for increased education in empathy during surgical training. The published, peer-reviewed literature on patient-physician and patient-surgeon communication, medical student and resident education in empathy, and empathy research was reviewed. PubMed was queried for MESH terms including "empathy," "training," "education," "surgery," "resident," and "communication." There is evidence of a decline in empathy that begins during the clinical years of medical school, which continues throughout residency training. Surgeons are particularly susceptible to this decline as by-product of the nature of their work, and the current lack of formalised training in empathic patient communication poses a unique problem to surgical residents. The literature suggests that empathy training is warranted and should be incorporated into surgical residencies through didactics, role-playing and simulations, and apprenticeship to empathic attending role models. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mazza, Monica; Tempesta, Daniela; Pino, Maria Chiara; Nigri, Anna; Catalucci, Alessia; Guadagni, Veronica; Gallucci, Massimo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele
The aim of this study is to evaluate the empathic ability and its functional brain correlates in post-traumatic stress disorder subjects (PTSD). Seven PTSD subjects and ten healthy controls, all present in the L'Aquila area during the earthquake of the April 2009, underwent fMRI during which they performed a modified version of the Multifaceted Empathy Test. PTSD patients showed impairments in implicit and explicit emotional empathy, but not in cognitive empathy. Brain responses during cognitive empathy showed an increased activation in patients compared to controls in the right medial frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus. During implicit emotional empathy responses patients with PTSD, compared to controls, exhibited greater neural activity in the left pallidum and right insula; instead the control group showed an increased activation in right inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, in the explicit emotional empathy responses the PTSD group showed a reduced neural activity in the left insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus. The behavioral deficit limited to the emotional empathy dimension, accompanied by different patterns of activation in empathy related brain structures, represent a first piece of evidence of a dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in PTSD patients. The present findings support the idea that empathy is a multidimensional process, with different facets depending on distinct anatomical substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Sivalal Sadasivan,2 Amudha Kadirvelu,2 Alexander Olaussen11Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Melbourne, Australia; 2Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sunway Campus, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: The literature indicates that medical practitioners experience declining empathy levels in clinical practice. This highlights the need to educate medical students about empathy as an attribute early in the academic curriculum. The objective of this study was to evaluate year one students' self-reported empathy levels following a 2-hour empathy workshop at a large medical school in Malaysia.Methods: Changes in empathy scores were examined using a paired repeated-measures t-test in this prospective before and after study.Results: Analyzing the matched data, there was a statistically significant difference and moderate effect size between mean empathy scores before and 5 weeks after the workshop (112.08±10.67 versus 117.93±13.13, P<0.0001, d=0.48 using the Jefferson Scale Physician Empathy (Student Version.Conclusion: The results of this observational study indicate improved mean self-reported empathy scores following an empathy workshop.Keywords: empathy, medical students, Malaysia
Yuguero, Oriol; Ramon Marsal, Josep; Esquerda, Montserrat; Vivanco, Luis; Soler-González, Jorge
Burnout is a growing problem among healthcare professionals and may be mitigated and even prevented by measures designed to promote empathy and resilience. We studied the association between burnout and empathy in primary care practitioners in Lleida, Spain and investigated possible differences according to age, sex, profession, and place of practice (urban versus rural). All general practitioners (GPs) and family nurses in the health district of Lleida (population 366 000) were asked by email to anonymously complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) between May and July 2014. Tool consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's α, the association between empathy and burnout by Spearman's correlation coefficient, and the association between burnout and empathy and sociodemographic variables by the χ 2 test. One hundred and thirty-six GPs and 131 nurses (52.7% response rate) from six urban and 16 rural practices participated (78.3% women); 33.3% of respondents had low empathy, while 3.7% had high burnout. The MBI and JSPE were correlated (P empathy (P empathy. Although burnout was relatively uncommon in our sample, it was associated with low levels of empathy. This finding and our observation of lower empathy levels in rural settings require further investigation. [Box: see text].
Smith, Matthew J; Horan, William P; Cobia, Derin J; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Reilly, James L; Breiter, Hans C
Empathic deficits have been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but this work is mostly limited to self-report data. This study examined whether performance-based empathy measures account for incremental variance in social competence and social attainment above and beyond self-reported empathy, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Given the importance of working memory in theoretical models of empathy and in the prediction of functioning in schizophrenia, we also examined whether empathy mediates the relationship between working memory and functioning. Sixty outpatients and 45 healthy controls were compared on performance-based measures of 3 key components of empathic responding, including facial affect perception, emotional empathy (affective responsiveness), and cognitive empathy (emotional perspective-taking). Participants also completed measures of self-reported empathy, neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social competence and attainment. Patients demonstrated lower accuracy than controls across the 3 performance-based empathy measures. Among patients, these measures showed minimal relations to self-reported empathy but significantly correlated with working memory and other neurocognitive functions as well as symptom levels. Furthermore, cognitive empathy explained significant incremental variance in social competence (∆R (2) = .07, P working memory and social competence. Performance-based measures of empathy were sensitive to functionally relevant disturbances in schizophrenia. Working memory deficits appear to have an important effect on these disruptions in empathy. Empathy is emerging as a promising new area for social cognitive research and for novel recovery-oriented treatment development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mackelprang, Emily; Becker, Judith V
The present study investigated the effects of gender and attractiveness on judgments of bail requirements, incarceration, and sex offender registration lengths, and attitudes toward offenders and victims in a teacher-student sexual perpetration scenario. Researchers presented 432 undergraduate students at a large southwestern university with one of four vignettes detailing a sexual relationship between a 35-year-old teacher and a 14-year-old student. Vignettes varied by both attractiveness and gender of the offender (using heterosexual offender-victim dyads). Results indicate that both gender and attractiveness affect judgments of sex offenders; specifically, female sexual offenders were viewed more leniently and judged less punitively than male sexual offenders. Although attractive female sexual offenders were given particularly lenient treatment, attractiveness did not affect judgments toward male sex offenders. In addition, although male and female participants tended to rate male offenders similarly, male participants were more lenient toward female offenders than were female participants. Finally, post hoc analyses revealed that, for many variables, unattractive female sexual offenders may not be viewed differently from male sexual offenders. These results have serious implications for the legal system, sex offender management, and societal views regarding male and female sexual offenders and their victims.
Full Text Available Hannah Arendt is against the idea that Jews were only the victims of history. Starting from the idea that the Age of Enlightenment and the Jewish emancipation put the Jewish tradition and history in crisis, she is adamant that this same history is not only full of suffering, but includes a hidden tradition of activism that is important to uncover and to claim. The aim of these pages is to analyse the Arendtian thinking of the 30s and 40s in order to show some elements that can help us to understand what the loss of humanity means today and to indicate the possibilities of claiming and recovering it.
Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei
We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....
Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie
To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.
Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane
Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Eizirik, Mariana; Schestatsky, Sidnei; Kruel, Letícia; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena Freitas
To identify demographic and clinical correlates associated with therapists' countertransference feelings on the first visit of women victims of sexual violence. Forty patients were seen by 26 therapists, during 2 consecutive years, at the Center for the Study and Treatment of Psychological Trauma, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil. After the first visit with the patient, the therapist completed the Assessment of Countertransference Scale and the patient was evaluated with the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Defense Style Questionnaire. The therapists showed a predominance of feelings of closeness (Mean = 5.42, SD = 1.25) in relation to the feelings of indifference (Mean = 1.82, SD = 1.22) and distance (Mean = 1.57, SD = 1.08) [p countertransference feelings and clinical characteristics of patients. The gender of the therapists did not influence the pattern of countertransference feelings. In the subgroup of female therapists, we detected an inverse correlation between a higher probability of patients' personality disorders and feelings of closeness in the therapists. We did not detect a differential pattern of countertransference feelings associated with specific clinical characteristics. Therapists of both genders presented a similar pattern of feelings of empathy towards women victims of sexual violence, although the gender of the therapist may moderate the feelings evoked by patients with increased likelihood of personality disorders.
Seinfeld, S; Arroyo-Palacios, J; Iruretagoyena, G; Hortensius, R; Zapata, L E; Borland, D; de Gelder, B; Slater, M; Sanchez-Vives, M V
The role of empathy and perspective-taking in preventing aggressive behaviors has been highlighted in several theoretical models. In this study, we used immersive virtual reality to induce a full body ownership illusion that allows offenders to be in the body of a victim of domestic abuse. A group of male domestic violence offenders and a control group without a history of violence experienced a virtual scene of abuse in first-person perspective. During the virtual encounter, the participants' real bodies were replaced with a life-sized virtual female body that moved synchronously with their own real movements. Participants' emotion recognition skills were assessed before and after the virtual experience. Our results revealed that offenders have a significantly lower ability to recognize fear in female faces compared to controls, with a bias towards classifying fearful faces as happy. After being embodied in a female victim, offenders improved their ability to recognize fearful female faces and reduced their bias towards recognizing fearful faces as happy. For the first time, we demonstrate that changing the perspective of an aggressive population through immersive virtual reality can modify socio-perceptual processes such as emotion recognition, thought to underlie this specific form of aggressive behaviors.
Ćopić Sanja M.
Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.
McFarland, Daniel C; Malone, Adriana K; Roth, Andrew
A reason for empathy decline during medical training has not been fully elucidated. Empathy may decrease acutely during an inpatient hematology-oncology rotation because of the acuity of death exposures. This study aimed to explore physician trainee empathy, distress, death exposures, and their attributed meaning for the trainee. Internal medicine interns and residents at a single academic center were evaluated before and after hematology-oncology ward rotations using Interpersonal Reactivity Index for empathy, previously cited reasons for empathy decline, Impact of Event Scale-Revised for distress, death exposures (no. of dying patients cared for) and attributed sense of meaning (yes/no) (post-rotation). Fifty-six trainees completed both pre-rotation and post-rotation questionnaires (58% response). Empathy averaged 58.9 (SD 12.0) before and 56.8 (SD 11.1) after the rotation (2.1 point decrease) (p = 0.018). Distress was elevated but did not change significantly during the rotation. Residents cared for 4.28 dying patients. Seventy-three percent reported that death was the most stressful event during the rotation, yet 68% reported that they derived a sense of meaning from caring for dying patients. Empathy and distress scales were positively correlated before the rotation (r = 0.277, p = 0.041) but not after (r = .059, p = 0.69). This study suggests that an acute drop in empathy can occur over several weeks in residents rotating through inpatient hematology-oncology, similar to empathy decline associated with years of training in other studies. Empathy decline may be associated with elevated distress and death exposures on the hematology-oncology ward and should be explored further in other medical training environments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Empathy is a critical function regulating human social life. In particular, empathy for pain is a source of deep emotional feelings and a strong trigger of pro-social behavior. We investigated the existence of a racial bias in the emotional reaction to other people’s pain and its link with implicit racist biases. Measuring participants’ physiological arousal, we found that Caucasian observers reacted to pain suffered by African people significantly less than to pain of Caucasian people. The reduced reaction to the pain of African individuals was also correlated with the observers’ individual implicit race bias. The role of others’ race in moderating empathic reactions is a crucial clue for understanding to what extent social interactions, and possibly integration, may be influenced by deeply rooted automatic and uncontrollable responses.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.
Derntl, B.; Michel, T. M.; Prempeh, P.
no significant deficit in the CHR group. Functional data analysis revealed hyperactivation in a frontotemporoparietal network including the amygdala in the CHR group compared with the other two groups. Conclusions Despite normal behavioural performance, the CHR group activated the neural empathy network...... differently and specifically showed hyperactivation in regions critical for emotion processing. This could suggest a compensatory mechanism reflecting emotional hypersensitivity or dysfunctional emotion regulation. Further investigations should clarify the role of these neural alterations for development...... high risk for psychosis. Method Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured 15 individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR group) and compared their empathy performance with 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients with schizophrenia. Results Behavioural data analysis indicated...
Full Text Available The comprehension of other peoples’ mental condition and the identifi cation with their emotional experience are not only the basis of social life but also the foundation of the relationship between the health worker and and ill patient. Empathy pushes people to join up together and helps them in establishing emotional and social relationships with others. Although the value of empathy was already recognised in the 1850’s, it has often been considered as an epiphenomenon only, without any scientific ground, rather than an actual cognitive function. Scientists have investigated empathic capacity for a long time but, just recently, Social Neuroscience has shed light on this subject, showing its importance not only for the individual but above all for the whole community.
This essay discusses critical approaches to culture, difference, and empathy in health care education through a reading of Junot Diaz's "Wildwood" chapter from the 2007 novel The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. I begin with an analysis of the way that Diaz's narrative invites readers to imagine and explore the experiences of others with subtlety and complexity. My reading of "Wildwood" illuminates its double-edged injunction to try to imagine another's perspective while recognizing the limits to-or even the impossibility of-that exercise. I draw on post-colonial theory and feminist science studies to illuminate a text that is created and interpreted in a post-colonial context-the Dominican diaspora in the United States. The essay offers a model of historical and critical analysis that health care educators can use to frame the concept of empathy in the classroom and the clinic.
Full Text Available Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.
Navarro-Abal, Yolanda; López-López, María José; Climent-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Gómez-Salgado, Juan
To analyse the differences in perceived burden between family caregivers who are users of patient associations and those who are not; to assess the relationship between burden, resilience, and empathy levels. Retrospective ex post facto study of two groups, one of them quasi control. The sample was composed of 155 informal caregivers (28 men and 155 women); 109 of them were users of patient relatives' associations and 46 were not. Both descriptive and bivariate comparative analyses were carried out. Caregivers who were members of patient associations showed lower burden and empathy levels than those who were not. This highlighted that the higher their level of perceived burden, the lower their level of resilience. Belonging to carers' associations results in a lower level of perceived burden and a lower risk of developing compassion fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio
Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men. PMID:27298635
Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang
Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by
Chen, Andrew; Hanna, Jessie J; Manohar, Adithya; Tobia, Anthony
Empathy plays an important role for physicians, but the literature demonstrates that it often deteriorates during medical school. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of the interactive video game "That Dragon, Cancer" as a tool to teach empathy to third-year medical students. The authors gave a modified, Jefferson Scales of Physician Empathy (JSPE) to 84 third-year medical students in their psychiatry clerkship before and after they played and completed "That Dragon, Cancer" during the 2016-2017 academic calendar year. The average level of empathy in the students as measured by least squares means of the answers to the truncated JSPE improved after playing through "That Dragon, Cancer" (5.7738 vs 6.2322, p empathy through video games was preferable and more effective than traditional didactics. Interactive video games such as "That Dragon, Cancer" may be useful as part of innovative curricula to improve empathy among third-year medical students.
Stanger, Nicholas; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher
Although the empathy-aggression relationship has been well documented, research has yet to establish whether emotions mediate and gender moderates this relationship in athletes, under conditions of low and high provocation. In this experiment, we assigned team-sport athletes to either a high (n = 40) or a low (n = 40) empathy group, and asked them to compete in a reaction-time task against a (fictitious) opponent, under conditions of low and high provocation. Empathy reduced aggression (i.e., intensity of electrical shock administered to the opponent) at low provocation in men, and at both low and high provocation in women. Guilt mediated the effect of empathy on aggression at low provocation in men; anger did not mediate any effects of empathy on aggression. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory effect of empathy on aggression and the mediating role of guilt are moderated by provocation and gender.
Kiersma, Mary E.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.
Objective. To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. Methods. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults’ experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. Results. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Conclusion. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients. PMID:26396274
Chen, Aleda M H; Kiersma, Mary E; Yehle, Karen S; Plake, Kimberly S
To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy--Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults' experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients.
Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang
Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg(2+) ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg(2+) or Na(+), benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg(2+) bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.
Studies on memory, imagination, and empathy have largely progressed in isolation. Consequently, humans’ empathic tendencies to care about and help other people are considered independent of our ability to remember and imagine events. Despite this theoretical autonomy, work from across psychology, and neuroscience suggests that these cognitive abilities may be linked. In the present paper, I tentatively propose that humans’ ability to vividly imagine specific events (as supported by constructi...
de Greck, Moritz; Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Xiangyu; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui
Interdependent cultures (such as the Chinese) and independent cultures (such as the German) differ in their attitude towards harmony that is more valued in interdependent cultures. Interdependent and independent cultures also differ in their appreciation of anger--an emotion that implies the disruption of harmony. The present study investigated if interdependent and independent cultures foster distinct brain activity associated with empathic processing of familiar angry, familiar neutral, and unfamiliar neutral faces. Using functional MRI, we scanned Chinese and German healthy subjects during an intentional empathy task, a control task (the evaluation of skin color), and a baseline condition. The subject groups were matched with regard to age, gender, and education. Behaviorally, Chinese subjects described themselves as significantly more interdependent compared to German subjects. The contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline' revealed several regions, including the left inferior frontal cortex, the left supplementary motor area, and the left insula, that showed comparable hemodynamic responses in both groups. However, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had stronger hemodynamic responses in Chinese subjects in the contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline'. Germans, in contrast, showed stronger hemodynamic responses in the right temporo-parietal junction, right inferior and superior temporal gyrus, and left middle insula for the same contrast. Hemodynamic responses in the latter three brain regions correlated with interdependences scores over all subjects. Our results suggest that enhanced emotion regulation during empathy with anger in the interdependent lifestyle is mediated by the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Increased tolerance towards the expression of anger in the independent lifestyle, in contrast, is associated with increased activity of the right inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the left middle
Schott, G D
The study of empathy, a translation of the term 'Einfühlung', originated in 19th century Germany in the sphere of aesthetics, and was followed by studies in psychology and then neuroscience. During the past decade the links between empathy and art have started to be investigated, but now from the neuroscientific perspective, and two different approaches have emerged. Recently, the primacy of the mirror neuron system and its association with automaticity and imitative, simulated movement has been envisaged. But earlier, a number of eminent art historians had pointed to the importance of cognitive responses to art; these responses might plausibly be subserved by alternative neural networks. Focusing here mainly on pictures depicting pain and evoking empathy, both approaches are considered by summarizing the evidence that either supports the involvement of the mirror neuron system, or alternatively suggests other neural networks are likely to be implicated. The use of such pictures in experimental studies exploring the underlying neural processes, however, raises a number of concerns, and suggests caution is exercised in drawing conclusions concerning the networks that might be engaged. These various networks are discussed next, taking into account the affective and sensory components of the pain experience, before concluding that both mirror neuron and alternative neural networks are likelyto be enlisted in the empathetic response to images of pain. A somewhat similar duality of spontaneous and cognitive processes may perhaps also be paralleled in the creation of such images. While noting that some have repudiated the neuroscientific approach to the subject, pictures are nevertheless shown here to represent an unusual but invaluable tool in the study of pain and empathy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Braadbaart, L; de Grauw, H; Perrett, D I; Waiter, G D; Williams, J H G
Empathy involves experiencing emotion vicariously, and understanding the reasons for those emotions. It may be served partly by a motor simulation function, and therefore share a neural basis with imitation (as opposed to mimicry), as both involve sensorimotor representations of intentions based on perceptions of others' actions. We recently showed a correlation between imitation accuracy and Empathy Quotient (EQ) using a facial imitation task and hypothesised that this relationship would be mediated by the human mirror neuron system. During functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), 20 adults observed novel 'blends' of facial emotional expressions. According to instruction, they either imitated (i.e. matched) the expressions or executed alternative, pre-prescribed mismatched actions as control. Outside the scanner we replicated the association between imitation accuracy and EQ. During fMRI, activity was greater during mismatch compared to imitation, particularly in the bilateral insula. Activity during imitation correlated with EQ in somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus and premotor cortex. Imitation accuracy correlated with activity in insula and areas serving motor control. Overlapping voxels for the accuracy and EQ correlations occurred in premotor cortex. We suggest that both empathy and facial imitation rely on formation of action plans (or a simulation of others' intentions) in the premotor cortex, in connection with representations of emotional expressions based in the somatosensory cortex. In addition, the insula may play a key role in the social regulation of facial expression. © 2013.
Kanske, Philipp; Böckler, Anne; Singer, Tania
Most instances of social interaction provide a wealth of information about the states of other people, be it sensations, feelings, thoughts, or convictions. How we represent these states has been a major question in social neuroscience, leading to the identification of two routes to understanding others: an affective route for the direct sharing of others' emotions (empathy) that involves, among others, anterior insula and middle anterior cingulate cortex and a cognitive route for representing and reasoning about others' states (Theory of Mind) that entails, among others, ventral temporoparietal junction and anterior and posterior midline regions. Additionally, research has revealed a number of situational and personal factors that shape the functioning of empathy and Theory of Mind. Concerning situational modulators, it has been shown, for instance, that ingroup membership enhances empathic responding and that Theory of Mind performance seems to be susceptible to stress. Personal modulators include psychopathological conditions, for which alterations in empathy and mentalizing have consistently been demonstrated; people on the autism spectrum, for instance, are impaired specifically in mentalizing, while spontaneous empathic responding seems selectively reduced in psychopathy. Given the multifaceted evidence for separability of the two routes, current research endeavors aiming at fostering interpersonal cooperation explore the differential malleability of affective and cognitive understanding of others.
Helena R Murphy
Full Text Available Much research on bullying behaviour in schools among students has been carried out since the 1970’s, when Olweus started a large-scale project in Norway which is now generally regarded as the first scientific study on bullying. Yet, there has been little research on how teachers respond to reports of bullying and tackle bullying behaviour in post-primary schools. This paper reports on a preliminary study investigating teacher empathy levels and their preparedness for tackling bullying in a post-primary school in Ireland. There were two research questions central to this research. The first looked at how empathic are teachers in this school? The second examined to what extent it prepares them for tackling bullying? In answering these questions we relied on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI to gather data on empathy levels among teachers (n=10, with findings related to existing research in the field. The results showed that teacher empathy is an important factor in creating and maintaining a positive school climate, which in turn leads to a prevention of bullying situations.
Olsson, Andreas; McMahon, Kibby; Papenberg, Goran; Zaki, Jamil; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N
Empathy and vicarious learning of fear are increasingly understood as separate phenomena, but the interaction between the two remains poorly understood. We investigated how social (vicarious) fear learning is affected by empathic appraisals by asking participants to either enhance or decrease their empathic responses to another individual (the demonstrator), who received electric shocks paired with a predictive conditioned stimulus. A third group of participants received no appraisal instructions and responded naturally to the demonstrator. During a later test, participants who had enhanced their empathy evinced the strongest vicarious fear learning as measured by skin conductance responses to the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the demonstrator. Moreover, this effect was augmented in observers high in trait empathy. Our results suggest that a demonstrator's expression can serve as a "social" unconditioned stimulus (US), similar to a personally experienced US in Pavlovian fear conditioning, and that learning from a social US depends on both empathic appraisals and the observers' stable traits. © The Author(s) 2015.
Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew
Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Minoo Yaghmaei; Alireza Monajemi; Kamran Soltani-Arabshahi
Background: Empathy is a cognitive characteristic defined as the ability to understand people’s experiences, interests, and viewpoints and the capacity to share this understanding. Empathy constitutes the foundation for the patient-physician relationship, leading to both the patients’ and physicians’ satisfaction, and is effective on the patients’ cooperation and clinical outcomes. Many studies have shown that the level of empathy decreases in students during their clinical course. Learning l...
This study examined the influence of Empathie Teaching Climate on Mathematics Learnmg'andMathematics and General School Self-Concepts, in sateen schools in Dublin, Ireland. The study required the design development and validation of the Student-Teacher Interaction Questionnaire (STIQ), which measures specific behavioural indices of classroom Teaching Empathy. The research monitored the effects of Teaching Empathy on students (N=387) in their first year of secondary schooling, as they complete...
Chen, Po-Jui; Huang, Chien-Da; Yeh, San-Jou
The cultivation of empathy for healthcare providers is an important issue in medical education. Narrative medicine (NM) has been shown to foster empathy. To our knowledge, there has been no research that examines whether a NM programme affects multi-professional healthcare providers' empathy. Our study aims to fill this gap by investigating whether a NM programme effects multi-professional healthcare providers' empathy. A pre-post questionnaire method was used.142 participants (n = 122 females) who attended the NM programme were divided into single (n = 58) and team groups (n = 84) on the basis of inter-professional education during a period of 2 months. Perceptions of the NM programme were collected using our developed questionnaire. Empathy levels were measured using the Chinese version of Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Healthcare Providers Version (JSE-HP) - at three time points: prior to (Time 1), immediately after (T2), and 1.5 years (T3) after the programme. Participants' perceptions about the NM programme (n = 116; n = 96 females) suggested an in enhancement of empathy (90.5%). Empathy scores via the JSE-HP increased after the NM programme (T1 mean 111.05, T2 mean 116.19) and were sustainable for 1.5 years (T3 mean 116.04) for all participants (F(2297) = 3.74, p empathy scores was found (F(1298) = 5.33, p empathy scores at T2, sustaining at T3, but males demonstrating a slow rise in empathy scores over time. NM programme as an educational tool for empathy is feasible. However, further research is needed to examine gender difference as it might be that males and females respond differently to a NM programme intervention.
William P. Horan
Conclusions: Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrated largely normal patterns of neural activation across the finger movement and facial expression tasks, they reported decreased self perceived empathy and failed to show the typical relationship between neural activity and self-reported empathy seen in controls. These findings suggest that patients show a disjunction between automatic neural responses to low level social cues and higher level, integrative social cognitive processes involved in self-perceived empathy.
Oliver, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Derek G V; Dziobek, Isabel; MacKinley, Julia; Coleman, Kristy; Rankin, Katherine P; Finger, Elizabeth C
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy primarily affecting social cognition and emotion, including loss of empathy. Many consider empathy to be a multidimensional construct, including cognitive empathy (the ability to adopt and understand another's perspective) and emotional empathy (the capacity to share another's emotional experience). Cognitive and emotional empathy deficits have been associated with bvFTD; however, little is known regarding the performance of patients with bvFTD on behavioural measures of emotional empathy, and whether empathic responses differ for negative versus positive stimuli. 24 patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls completed the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET; Dziobek et al., 2008), a performance-based task that taps both cognitive and emotional facets of empathy, and allows for the discrimination of responses to negative versus positive realistic images. MET scores were also compared with caregiver ratings of patient behaviour on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which assesses patients' everyday demonstrations of perspective taking and empathic concern. Patients with bvFTD were less accurate than controls at inferring mental states for negative and positive stimuli. They also demonstrated lower levels of shared emotional experience, more positive emotional reactions, and diminished arousal to negative social stimuli relative to controls. Patients showed reduced emotional reactions to negative non-social stimuli as well. Lastly, the MET and IRI measures of emotional empathy were found to be significantly correlated within the bvFTD group. The results suggest that patients with bvFTD show a global deficit in cognitive empathy, and deficient emotional empathy for negative, but not positive, experiences. Further, a generalized emotional processing impairment for negative stimuli was observed, which could contribute to the
Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel
Background: The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-mak...
Vossen, H.G.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Previous research with adolescents has reported a negative relationship between media violence and empathy. There are, however, two important conceptual issues in this earlier literature that deserve further research attention. First, studies often treat empathy as a one-dimensional construct while it consists of both an affective and cognitive component. Second, while aiming to measure empathy, several studies have measured sympathy instead. Driven by these concerns, this study was designed ...
Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M
Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.
This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…
Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving
To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....
Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others
Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)
.... The study identifies discursive and linguistic features, which realize cognitive, emotive, parallel and reactive empathy and suggests that imitation, simulation and representation could be non...
Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel
Background The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. Methods On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player (“Proposer”) splits ten dollars with another player (“Responder”) who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For unfair offers (i.e., offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. Conclusions High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may be involved in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead facilitate social relationships. PMID:22237008
Kim, Seung Jun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Han, Kiwan; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Jae Jin; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Ji Woong
Empathy is the ability to identify with or make a vicariously experience of another person's feelings or thoughts based on memory and/or self-referential mental simulation. The default mode network in particular is related to self-referential empathy. In order to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying empathy, we investigated the functional connectivity of the default mode network in subjects from a general population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 19 low-empathy subjects and 18 medium-empathy subjects. An independent component analysis was used to identify the default mode network, and differences in functional connectivity strength were compared between the two groups. The low-empathy group showed lower functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann areas 9 and 32) within the default mode network, compared to the medium-empathy group. The results of the present study suggest that empathy is related to functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network. Functional decreases in connectivity among low-empathy subjects may reflect an impairment of self-referential mental simulation. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.
Mann, Stephen K F; Cheng, Viviana
The present study assessed how empathy and vertical collectivism are related to moral competency in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese university students (N = 153; 70 men, 83 women). The Emotional Tendency Scale, Individualism-Collectivism Scale, and Moral Judgment Test were used to quantify empathy, vertical collectivism, and moral competency, respectively. Results showed that empathy was not statistically significantly correlated with moral judgment. The interaction of vertical collectivism and empathy predicted a theoretically important portion of the variance in moral competency. The role of culture in moral development was discussed.
Moore, Raeanne C; Dev, Sheena I; Jeste, Dilip V; Dziobek, Isabel; Eyler, Lisa T
Empathy is thought to be a mechanism underlying prosocial behavior across the lifespan, yet little is known about how levels of empathy relate to individual differences in brain functioning among older adults. In this exploratory study, we examined the neural correlates of affective and cognitive empathy in older adults. Thirty older adults (M=79 years) underwent fMRI scanning and neuropsychological testing and completed a test of affective and cognitive empathy. Brain response during processing of cognitive and emotional stimuli was measured by fMRI in a priori and task-related regions and was correlated with levels of empathy. Older adults with higher levels of affective empathy showed more deactivation in the amygdala and insula during a working memory task, whereas those with higher cognitive empathy showed greater insula activation during a response inhibition task. Our preliminary findings suggest that brain systems linked to emotional and social processing respond differently among older adults with more or less affective and cognitive empathy. That these relationships can be seen both during affective and non-emotional tasks of "cold" cognitive abilities suggests that empathy may impact social behavior through both emotional and cognitive mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel
The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player ("Proposer") splits $10 with another player ("Responder") who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For "unfair" offers (i.e. offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision-making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may play a role in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead be involved in facilitating social relationships.
Jonna K Vuoskoski
Full Text Available Empathy and social cognition arguably play a crucial role in our engagement with music. In response to the account offered by Greenberg, Rentfrow, and Baron-Cohen, this commentary considers an alternative—yet complementary—explanation for how music making and music listening might be able to evoke empathy and affiliation. This alternative explanation stems from the perception—action model of empathy, and the affiliation-evoking effects of mimicking and synchronized actions. In light of this alternative account, I will also explore the potential contribution of dispositional empathy to music preferences and music perception as suggested by Greenberg and colleagues.
Full Text Available The main goal of the study is to introduce the Czech version of Emotional Empathy Scale (EES-R and its psychometric characteristics. The scale, developed from the Emotional Empathy Scale (EES by Caruso and Mayer (1998, is devoted to self-report assessment in the frame of multidimensional emotional empathy construct. Partial objectives of this study focus on the factor structure, reliability and validity of the scale with regard to verification of application possibilities. One of the objectives is aimed at a description of the subscales of EES-R, especially for the research use. The data were obtained on the sample of 317 respondents aged from 19 to 62 years, namely 44.2 % men and 55.8 % women. Besides the Czech translation of EES and the Czech version of the scale (EES-R, 3 subscales from the Business-focused Inventory of Personality (BIP were used for the verification of the parallel validity. The exploratory factor analysis led to the three-factor solution. Three resulted subscales of the scale, labelled as Compassion – solidarity, Emotional feeling and Positive sharing, represented individual factors and showed an adequate prop in both data and theory. The confirmatory factor analysis conducted with EES-R confirmed a corresponding match between the model and data. The internal consistency of subscales items showed a reliability ranging from 0.72 to 0.87, with the value of 0.89 for the whole scale. Satisfactory values of test-retest reliability were obtained for the subscales (0.69 to 0.83 and the whole scale (.79 after three months. Results of the parallel validity for the emotional empathy construct measured by EES-R correspond with previous research findings. In case of growing emotional empathy also sensitivity and sociability were slightly growing. On the contrary, the emotional stability was slightly decreasing. The characteristics of EES-R were described on our sample with respect to gender and age. This method demonstrated good
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.
Full Text Available Web 2.01 has redefined the virtual life of ordinary individuals and has given wide opportunities to internet users including women to exchange ideas, interact with like minded people and participate in the development of virtual societies as per one's own choices. Social networking websites (SNWs, a segment of Web 2.0 is very popular among the internet users. However, there is a dark side of these SNW's too. They have become havens for offenders to victimize women, the most vulnerable targets in the internet, after children. In this paper, we examine the victimization of women in the social networking websites in general, analyze the trends of such victimization from socio - legal - victimological angle and ascertain the reasons for the growth of such victimization.
Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.
To assess the effects of a program for the prevention of political violence on empathy, expression of feelings of anger, and the capacity to define peace-violence. This study used a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest repeated measures and a control group. The sample comprised 276 adolescents aged between 15 and 17 years (191 in the experimental group, 85 in the control group; 127 boys and 149 girls). A battery of three assessment instruments was administered before and after the intervention. The aim of the program was to increase sensitivity to the victims of political violence, promote respect for human rights, and prevent violence. The intervention consisted of 10 sessions over 3 months. MANOVA analyses revealed that the program increased participants' capacity of empathy (perspective-taking), anger control in annoying situations, and capacity to define peace-violence. This study has practical educational implications and provides an intervention tool that enhances the development of personality during adolescence and may have a preventive effect on violent behavior. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Thirioux, Bérangère; Birault, François; Jaafari, Nematollah
Burnout is a multidimensional work-related syndrome that is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization-or cynicism-and diminution of personal accomplishment. Burnout particularly affects physicians. In medicine as well as other professions, burnout occurrence depends on personal, developmental-psychodynamic, professional, and environmental factors. Recently, it has been proposed to specifically define burnout in physicians as "pathology of care relationship." That is, burnout would arise, among the above-mentioned factors, from the specificity of the care relationship as it develops between the physician and the patient. Accordingly, experimental studies and theoretical approaches have suggested that burnout and empathy, which is one of the most important skills in physicians, are closely linked. However, the nature of the relation between burnout and empathy remains not yet understood, as reflected in the variety of theoretical and contradictory hypotheses attempting to causally relate these two phenomena. Firstly, we here question the epistemological problem concerning the modality of the burnout-empathy link. Secondly, we hypothesize that considering the multidimensional features of both burnout and empathy, on one hand, and on the other hand, the distinction between empathy and sympathy enables to overcome these contradictions and, consequently, gives a better understanding of the relationship between burnout and empathy in physicians. Thirdly, we propose that clarifying the link between burnout, empathy and sympathy would enable developing specific training in medical students and continuous professional formation in senior physicians and would potentially contribute to the prevention of burnout in medical care.
Full Text Available Burnout is a multidimensional work-related syndrome that is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization – or cynicism – and diminution of personal accomplishment. Burnout particularly affects physicians. In medicine as well as other professions, burnout occurrence depends on personal, developmental-psychodynamic, professional and environmental factors. Recently, it has been proposed to specifically define burnout in physicians as pathology of care relationship. That is, burnout would arise, among the above-mentioned factors, from the specificity of the care relationship as it develops between the physician and the patient. Accordingly, experimental studies and theoretical approaches have suggested that burnout and empathy, which is one of the most important skills in physicians, are closely linked. However, the nature of the relation between burnout and empathy remains not yet understood, as reflected in the variety of theoretical and contradictory hypotheses attempting to causally relate these two phenomena. Firstly, we here question the epistemological problem concerning the modality of the burnout-empathy link. Secondly, we hypothesize that considering the multidimensional features of both burnout and empathy, on one hand, and on the other hand, the distinction between empathy and sympathy enables to overcome these contradictions and, consequently, gives a better understanding of the relationship between burnout and empathy in physicians. Thirdly, we propose that clarifying the link between burnout, empathy and sympathy would enable developing specific training in medical students and continuous professional formation in senior physicians and would potentially contribute to the prevention of burnout in medical care.
Thirioux, Bérangère; Birault, François; Jaafari, Nematollah
Burnout is a multidimensional work-related syndrome that is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization—or cynicism—and diminution of personal accomplishment. Burnout particularly affects physicians. In medicine as well as other professions, burnout occurrence depends on personal, developmental-psychodynamic, professional, and environmental factors. Recently, it has been proposed to specifically define burnout in physicians as “pathology of care relationship.” That is, burnout would arise, among the above-mentioned factors, from the specificity of the care relationship as it develops between the physician and the patient. Accordingly, experimental studies and theoretical approaches have suggested that burnout and empathy, which is one of the most important skills in physicians, are closely linked. However, the nature of the relation between burnout and empathy remains not yet understood, as reflected in the variety of theoretical and contradictory hypotheses attempting to causally relate these two phenomena. Firstly, we here question the epistemological problem concerning the modality of the burnout-empathy link. Secondly, we hypothesize that considering the multidimensional features of both burnout and empathy, on one hand, and on the other hand, the distinction between empathy and sympathy enables to overcome these contradictions and, consequently, gives a better understanding of the relationship between burnout and empathy in physicians. Thirdly, we propose that clarifying the link between burnout, empathy and sympathy would enable developing specific training in medical students and continuous professional formation in senior physicians and would potentially contribute to the prevention of burnout in medical care. PMID:27303328
Full Text Available Several disciplines have investigated the interconnected empathic abilities behind the proverb “to walk a mile in someone else’s shoes” to determine how the presence, and absence, of empathy-related phenomena affect prosocial behavior and intergroup relations. Empathy enables us to learn from others’ pain and to know when to offer support. Similarly, virtual reality (VR appears to allow individuals to step into someone else’s shoes, through a perceptual illusion called embodiment, or the body ownership illusion. Considering these perspectives, we propose a theoretical analysis of different mechanisms of empathic practices in order to define a possible framework for the design of empathic training in VR. This is not intended to be an extensive review of all types of practices, but an exploration of empathy and empathy-related phenomena. Empathy-related training practices are analyzed and categorized. We also identify different variables used by pioneer studies in VR to promote empathy-related responses. Finally, we propose strategies for using embodied VR technology to train specific empathy-related abilities.
Carmen Herrera, M.; Herrera, Antonio; Expósito, Francisca
Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers' ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim's self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men's perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The st...