WorldWideScience

Sample records for viciifolia scop sainfoin

  1. The glycosyl moiety of lectin from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, Scop.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namen, A E; Hapner, K D

    1979-09-29

    A lectin isolated from the seeds of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, Scop. var Eski) has been shown to be a glycoprotein containing 2.6% (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and 1.6% (w/w) glucosamine (Hapner, K.D. and Robbins, J.E. (1979) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 580, 186--197) A homogeneous glycopeptide accounting for 70% of the original glycoprotein carbohydrate was isolated from pronase digests of the lectin by gel filtration chromatography. Gas-liquid chromatographic and amino acid analyses showed the glycosyl portion to contain glucosamine, mannose, xylose and fucose in molar ratio to glycopeptide of 1.8 : 1.8 : 0.7 : 0.9. The amino acid sequence was determined as H2N-Ser-Asn(glycosyl)-glu-Thr-COOH. The glycosyl moiety was attached to the peptide through N-glycosidic linkage between asparagine and glucosamine.

  2. Lectin from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia scop.). Complete amino acid sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchalakos, R N; Bates, O J; Bradshaw, R A; Hapner, K D

    1984-04-10

    The complete amino acid sequence of a lectin from sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia Scop . var. Eski ) has been determined by sequential Edman analyses of the intact protein and peptides derived from digests with trypsin and thermolysin. Peptides were purified by pH fractionation, by gel filtration, and by cation-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Seven segments of continuous sequence, accounting for the entire protein, were aligned through sequence comparison with several homologous leguminous lectins to give the final structure. Sainfoin lectin monomer, a glycoprotein which contains a single polypeptide chain of 236 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26 509, has amino- and carboxyl-terminal residues of alanine and threonine, respectively. A single residue of cysteine, located at position 33, is the only sulfur-containing amino acid present. Asparagine-118 is the single oligosaccharide attachment site. At least two apparent allelomorphic forms of the protein, having valine or isoleucine at position 49 in equal amounts, were detected. The amino acid sequence of sainfoin lectin exhibits circular permutation relative to that of the homologous protein concanavalin A.

  3. Drought Effects on Proanthocyanidins in Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) Are Dependent on the Plant's Ontogenetic Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Carsten S; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Kölliker, Roland; Engström, Marica T; Suter, Daniel; Studer, Bruno; Lüscher, Andreas

    2016-12-14

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) is a forage legume, which improves animal health and the environmental impact of livestock farming due to its proanthocyanidin content. To identify the impact of drought on acetone/water-extractable proanthocyanidin (PA) concentration and composition in the generative and vegetative stages, a rain exclosure experiment was established. Leaves of 120 plants from 5 different sainfoin accessions were sampled repeatedly and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results showed distinct differences in response to drought between vegetative and generative plants. Whereas vegetative plants showed a strong response to drought in growth (-56%) and leaf PA concentration (+46%), generative plants showed no response in growth (-2%) or PA concentration (-9%). The PA composition was stable across environments. The five accessions varied in PA concentrations and composition but showed the same pattern of response to the experimental treatments. These results show that the ontogenetic stage at which drought occurs significantly affects the plant's response.

  4. Isolation and properties of a lectin from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, Scop.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapner, K D; Robbins, J E

    1979-09-29

    A glycoprotein capable of binding simple carbohydrates and causing hemagglutination has been isolated from seeds of the legume plant sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, Scop. var Eski). The phytolectin was prepared by affinity chromatography of pH 7.0 sodium phosphate extracts on columns of Sepharose-4B containing covalently attached D-mannose. Molecular weight determinations showed the lectin to be a dimer consisting of 26 000 dalton, non-covalently associated monomers. Amino acid analyses indicated high amounts of aspartate, glutamate, threonine and serine which accounted for 41% of all amino acids. One residue of cysteine was present and methionine was totally absent. The lectin contained 2.6% (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and two residues of N-acetylglucosamine/monomer. Carbohydrate-binding specificity was directed toward D-mannose and D-glucose and their alpha-glycosidic derivatives. The purified protein agglutinated cat erythrocytes at 5 micrograms/ml. Antiserum to seed lectin showed a single common immunoprecipitation line in Ouchterlony double diffusion against both the seed and root antigen. Lectin isolated from sainfoin seedling roots showed molecular weight, amino acid and carbohydrate values similar to that of the seed lectin.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Iranian and Exotic Sainfoin Accessions (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop Based on Morphological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarabiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. is widely grown as forage and pasture legume in Iran and is tolerant to environmental stresses. To investigate the genetic diversity among 56 accessions of sainfoin germplasm (including 46 Iranian and 10 foreign based on morphological and agronomic characteristics, present experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm during 2010-2011. The results of analysis of variance indicated considerable variation between studied germplasm for all traits and the better performance for Iranian accessions. The estimation of broad sense heritability for plant height, number of stems per plant, number of stems per meter square and number of nods per stem was high suggesting contribution of the major genes for controlling these traits. On the basis of means comparison, the forage yield was greatest for the first cutting as compared to the second cutting. Also the highest yield obtained from second year. Regarding the palatability (based on leaf to stem ratio the exotic accessions had higher values. Developing of superior cultivars may be possible through combining high yield and palatability in breeding programs.

  6. Stimulatory Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Phytochemical Properties, Mitotic Behaviour, and Nutritional Composition of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mohajer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. Syn. Onobrychis sativa L. is a bloat-safe forage crop with high levels of tannins, which is renowned for its medicinal qualities in grazing animals. Mutagenesis technique was applied to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation at 30, 60, 90, and 120 Gy on mitotic behavior, in vitro growth factors, phytochemical and nutritional constituents of sainfoin. Although a percentage of plant necrosis and non-growing seed were enhanced by irradiation increment, the germination speed was significantly decreased. It was observed that gamma irradiated seeds had higher value of crude protein and dry matter digestibility compared to control seeds. Toxicity of copper was reduced in sainfoin irradiated seeds at different doses of gamma rays. Anthocyanin content also decreased in inverse proportion to irradiation intensity. Accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was enhanced by gamma irradiation exposure in leaf cells. HPLC profiles differed in peak areas of the two important alkaloids, Berberine and Sanguinarine, in 120 Gy irradiated seeds compared to control seeds. There were positive correlations between irradiation dose and some abnormality divisions such as laggard chromosome, micronucleus, binucleated cells, chromosome bridge, and cytomixis. In reality, radiocytological evaluation was proven to be essential in deducing the effectiveness of gamma irradiation to induce somaclonal variation in sainfoin.

  7. Stimulatory effects of gamma irradiation on phytochemical properties, mitotic behaviour, and nutritional composition of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Sadegh; Taha, Rosna Mat; Lay, Ma Ma; Esmaeili, Arash Khorasani; Khalili, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. Syn. Onobrychis sativa L.) is a bloat-safe forage crop with high levels of tannins, which is renowned for its medicinal qualities in grazing animals. Mutagenesis technique was applied to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation at 30, 60, 90, and 120 Gy on mitotic behavior, in vitro growth factors, phytochemical and nutritional constituents of sainfoin. Although a percentage of plant necrosis and non-growing seed were enhanced by irradiation increment, the germination speed was significantly decreased. It was observed that gamma irradiated seeds had higher value of crude protein and dry matter digestibility compared to control seeds. Toxicity of copper was reduced in sainfoin irradiated seeds at different doses of gamma rays. Anthocyanin content also decreased in inverse proportion to irradiation intensity. Accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was enhanced by gamma irradiation exposure in leaf cells. HPLC profiles differed in peak areas of the two important alkaloids, Berberine and Sanguinarine, in 120 Gy irradiated seeds compared to control seeds. There were positive correlations between irradiation dose and some abnormality divisions such as laggard chromosome, micronucleus, binucleated cells, chromosome bridge, and cytomixis. In reality, radiocytological evaluation was proven to be essential in deducing the effectiveness of gamma irradiation to induce somaclonal variation in sainfoin.

  8. Condensed tannins in the tissue culture of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1986-08-01

    Two forage legumes, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.), containing condensed tannins in their leaves and stems were used as source material to study condensed tannins in tissue culture. More protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll tissue of a low tannin-containing strain of birdsfoot trefoil than from a high tannin-containing strain, but more tannin-filled protoplasts were observed in the latter. Growth rates of leaf explant-derived callus tissue were greater for the high-tannin than for the low-tannin strain. In sainfoin, callus cultures from leaf explants produced numerous tannin-filled cells by 21 days. Explants from sainfoin cotyledons and roots, tissues which normally do not contain tannins, also formed callus with tannin-filled cells in 21 days but in almost every case, a cytokinin was required for tannin formation to occur. The occurrence of tannin-filled cells in callus from root and cotyledon explants was variable and genotype specific. These results show that endogenous tannins can affect protoplast isolation and possibly callus growth in birds-foot trefoil, and that the formation of condensed tannins in sainfoin callus culture can be influenced by a growth regulator.

  9. Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants between Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa, lucerne) and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y G; Tanner, G J; Delves, A C; Larkin, P J

    1993-12-01

    This paper reports on the production of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between two sexually incompatible legume species. Medicago sativa (alfalfa, lucerne) leaf protoplasts were inactivated by lethal doses of iodoacetamide. Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) suspension-cell protoplasts were gamma-irradiated at lethal doses. Following electrofusion under optimized conditions about 50,000 viable heterokaryons were produced in each test. The fusion products were cultured with the help of alfalfa nurse protoplasts. Functional complementation permitted only the heterokaryons to survive. A total of 706 putative heterokaryon-derived plantlets were regenerated and 570 survived transplantation to soil. Experimentation was aimed at the introduction of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) from sainfoin, a bloat-safe plant, to alfalfa, a bloat-causing forage crop; however, no tannin-positive regenerant plants were detected. Most regenerant plants have shown morphological differences from the fusion parents, although, as expected, all resembled the "recipient" parent, alfalfa. Southern analysis using an improved total-genomic probing technique has shown low levels of sainfoin-specific DNA in 43 out of 158 tested regenerants. Cytogenetic analysis of these asymmetric hybrids has confirmed the existence of euploid (2n=32; 17%) as well as aneuploid (2n=30, 33-78; 83%) plants. Pollen germination tests have indicated that the majority of the hybrids were fertile, while 35% had either reduced fertility or were completely sterile.

  10. Effect of Weeds and Some Methods for their Control in Seed Production Stands of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2007-2009 period in the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Cropsa study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effect of weeds and somemethods for their control in seed production stands of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop..The trial was carried out on a slightly leached chernozem on an area with a natural backgroundof weed infestation. As a result of the study it was found:Establishment of very uniform and productive seed production stands of sainfoinrequired effective weed control concentrated mainly in the first year when the degree ofweed infestation was the highest and reached to a number of 245 plants/m2 and the freshweed biomass to 1311 g/m2.The chemical control method showed the highest efficacy had the highest efficiencywhen, in the year of stand establishment at the stage of second-fourth true leaf of sainfoin,the treatment was conducted with imazamox 40g/l (Pulsar 40 at the dose of 48 g a.i./haor with the system of Bentazon 600 g/l (Basagran 600 SL – 900 g a.i./ha – fluazifop-P-butylg/l (Fusilad Forte – 120 g a.i./ha. In the years of seed production in spring at the beginningof vegetation, the treatment was conducted with imazamox 40 g/l (Pulsar 40 at the doseof 20 g a.i./ha + adjuvant DESH at the dose of 1000 ml/ha.An alternative to the chemical method is to sow sainfoin under cover of spring barleyachieving more complete use of the area in the first year, a weed suppressive and ecologicaleffect, but some negative residual effect on the crop was also observed;The pure stands of sainfoin with chemical control of weeds had the highest seed productivity,exceeding the zero check by 24 to 28%, followed by the stands with spring barleyas a cover crop with an increase of 12% and the mixed stands of sainfoin with crestedwheatgrass had the lowest productivity.

  11. Natural glyphosate tolerance in sainfoin (onybrychis viciifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainfoin (Onybrychis viciifolia Scop.), a non-bloating forage legume, is purported to have tolerance to glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine]. The effect on biomass yield (BMY) and survival of eight rates of glyphosate on seedlings and mature plants were determined. Treatment rates were 0.0, 0....

  12. Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia): a forgotten crop for dairy cows with future potential SUMMARY The world population growth and rising incomes are expected to increase the consumption of animal-derived foods such as meat, eggs and milk. However, livestock production

  13. Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Huyen, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia): a forgotten crop for dairy cows with future potential SUMMARY The world population growth and rising incomes are expected to increase the consumption of animal-derived foods such as meat, eggs and milk. However, livestock production should not only be directed towards increasing productivity but should also incorporate environmental, food safety and animal welfare aspects. Therefore, farm businesses have to respond to the high environment impact of their acti...

  14. Protoplast-derived streptomycin resistant plants of the forage legume Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, J D; Ahuja, P S; Davey, M R; Cocking, E C

    1986-12-01

    Approximately 10(6) protoplast-derived cell colonies of sainfoin were stressed with streptomycin and two resistant colonies were recovered. Plants regenerated from these colonies could be recallused on streptomycin-containing medium three years after growth in the absence of the antibiotic.Ultrastructural studies showed cells of resistant callus grown in the presence of streptomycin to contain chloroplasts with internal thykaloids and grana. Such mutant plants should be useful in designing biochemical selection schemes to recover somatic hybrids and cybrids.

  15. Physiological responses of the M1sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop) plants to gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaz, Ramazan; Sancak, Cengiz; Yildiz, Çiğdem; Kuşvuran, Şebnem; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the M 1 sainfoin plants were investigated. Seeds of sainfoin ecotype 'Koçaş' were exposed to 0, 400, 500 and 600Gy from a 6 0 Co source at a dose rate of 0.483 kGyh -1 . Irradiated and unirradiated seeds were sown into culture vessels containing MS-basal medium to be cultured for 30 days under in vitro conditions. At the end of this period, seedlings, which germinated from the radiated and unirradiated seeds, were transferred into pots in a growth chamber for 30 days more. Chlorophyll contents, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as contents of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDA) and proline were examined in unirradiated and irradiated 60-day-old seedlings. Overall, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GR) and contents of chlorophyll and proline in the leaves tended to increase after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, the activity of APX decreased. The lipid peroxidation characterized by the MDA content remained unchanged, except after irradiation to 500Gy. The highest CAT activity and the highest proline content were observed after irradiation to the highest dose of 600Gy. The highest SOD and GR activities were observed after irradiation to the lowest tested dose of 400Gy. This is the first study that provided basic information on the impact of gamma radiation on physiological responses of sainfoin and its radiosensitivity. These findings will be useful in development of a mutation breeding program of sainfoin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prolific shoot regeneration from immature embryo explants of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, S; Sevimay, C S; Yildiz, M; Sancak, C; Ozgen, M

    1996-12-01

    Immature cotyledons and embryo axes of sainfoin were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to induce adventitious shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration occurred following an initial callus growth on a MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP and 2 mg/l NAA. Immature embryo axes showed higher regeneration capacity than immature cotyledons, however, shoot elongation was best achieved on immature cotyledons. Regenerated shoots were excised and rooted in half strength MS medium with 1 mg/l indole-butyric acid (IBA) or 1 mg/l NAA. The rooted plantlets were finally transferred to compost.

  17. An assessment of the cultural capabilities of Trifolium repens L. (white clover) and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin) mesophyll protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, P S; Lu, D Y; Cocking, E C; Davey, M R

    1983-10-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts isolated from white clover and sainfoin divided to form callus under similar cultural conditions. White clover protoplasts showed varietal differences in their plating efficiency. Sainfoin tissues regenerated readily by forming shoots, but induction of morphogenesis in white clover was only achieved after testing several media and culture sequences. Many of the white clover shoots were abnormal in being fused together to form green plate-like structures, but the latter still developed into plantlets while attached to the parent callus. The ability to isolate, culture, and regenerate mesophyll protoplasts of these two forage legumes is discussed in relation to future attempts to produce somatic hybrids between high tannin containing bloat-safe sainfoin and other major forage legumes such as alfalfa, white clover, and red clover.

  18. Effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) Condensed Tannins on Growth and Proteolysis by Four Strains of Ruminal Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G A; McAllister, T A; Muir, A D; Cheng, K J

    1994-04-01

    Sainfoin leaf condensed tannins inhibited growth and protease activity in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38 and Streptococcus bovis 45S1 but had little effect on Prevotella ruminicola B(1)4 or Ruminobacter amylophilus WP225. Tannins bound to cell coat polymers in all strains. Morphological changes in B. fibrisolvens and S. bovis implicated the cell wall as a target of tannin toxicity.

  19. Effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) Condensed Tannins on Growth and Proteolysis by Four Strains of Ruminal Bacteria †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. A.; McAllister, T. A.; Muir, A. D.; Cheng, K.-J.

    1994-01-01

    Sainfoin leaf condensed tannins inhibited growth and protease activity in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38 and Streptococcus bovis 45S1 but had little effect on Prevotella ruminicola B14 or Ruminobacter amylophilus WP225. Tannins bound to cell coat polymers in all strains. Morphological changes in B. fibrisolvens and S. bovis implicated the cell wall as a target of tannin toxicity. Images PMID:16349244

  20. Effect of bioactive compounds from Sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) on the in vitro larval migration of Haemonchus contortus: role of tannins and flavonol glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, E; Fabre, N; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2005-10-01

    Anthelmintic bioactivity against gastrointestinal nematodes has been associated with leguminous forages supporting the hypothesis of a role of condensed tannins. However, the possibility that other compounds might also been involved has received less consideration. Using bio-guided fractionation, the current study aimed at characterizing the biochemical nature of the active compounds present in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia ), previously identified as an anthelmintic leguminous forage. The effects of sainfoin extracts were evaluated on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus by using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Comparison of extracts obtained with several solvent systems showed that the bioactivity was associated with the 70ratio30 acetone/water extract. Further fractionation of the later allowed the separation of phenolic compounds. By use of a dialysis method, compounds were separated with a molecular weight cut-off of 2000 Da. The in vitro anthelmintic effect of the fraction with condensed tannins was confirmed. In the fraction containing molecules of MW <2000 Da, 3 flavonol glycosides were identified as rutin, nicotiflorin and narcissin. At 1200 mug/ml, each inhibited significantly the migration of larvae. Addition of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVPP) to both fractions before incubation restored larval migration. These results confirmed the role of both tannins and flavonol glycosides in the anthelmintic properties of sainfoin.

  1. Large Variability of Proanthocyanidin Content and Composition in Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Carsten S; Lüscher, Andreas; Baert, Nicolas; Engström, Marica T; Studer, Bruno; Fryganas, Christos; Suter, Daniel; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2015-12-02

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) are of interest to ameliorate the sustainability of livestock production. However, sainfoin forage yield and PA concentrations, as well as their composition, require optimization. Individual plants of 27 sainfoin accessions from four continents were analyzed with LC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS for PA concentrations and simple phenolic compounds. Large variability existed in PA concentrations (23.0-47.5 mg g(-1) leaf dry matter (DM)), share of prodelphinidins (79-96%), and mean degree of polymerization (11-14) among, but also within, accessions. PAs were mainly located in leaves (26.8 mg g(-1) DM), whereas stems had less PAs (7.8 mg g(-1) DM). Overall, high-yielding plants had lower PA leaf concentrations (R(2) = 0.16, P < 0.001) and fewer leaves (R(2) = 0.66, P < 0.001). However, the results show that these two trade-offs between yield and bioactive PAs can be overcome.

  2. Micropropagation of Bioencapsulation and Ultrastructural Features of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Grown In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mohajer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the potential of in vitro rapid regeneration, three varieties (Golpaygan-181, Orumieh-1763, and Gorgan-1601 of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. syn. Onobrychis sativa L. were evaluated. For the first time, an encapsulation protocol was established from somatic embryogenic callus in torpedo and cotyledonary stages to create artificial seeds. Callus derived from different concentrations of Kinetin (0–2.0 mg L−1 and Indole-3-acetic acid (0–2.0 mg L−1 was coated with sodium alginate and subsequently cultured either in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium or in soil substrate. Adventitious shoots from synthetic beads developed into rooting in full and half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. Prolonged water conservation of black and red soils (1 : 1 had the highest rate of survival plantlets in the acclimatization process. Diverse resistance techniques in Onobrychis viciifolia were evaluated when the plants were subjected to water deficiency. Higher frequency of epicuticular waxes was observed in in vivo leaves compared to in vitro leaves. Jagged trichomes nonsecreting glands covered by spines were only observed in the lower leaf side. Ultimately, stomata indices were 0.127 (abaxial, 0.188 (adaxial in in vivo and 0.121 (abaxial, 0.201 (adaxial in in vitro leaves.

  3. Micropropagation of bioencapsulation and ultrastructural features of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) grown in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Sadegh; Mat Taha, Rosna; Mohajer, Minoo; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2014-01-01

    To explore the potential of in vitro rapid regeneration, three varieties (Golpaygan-181, Orumieh-1763, and Gorgan-1601) of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. syn. Onobrychis sativa L.) were evaluated. For the first time, an encapsulation protocol was established from somatic embryogenic callus in torpedo and cotyledonary stages to create artificial seeds. Callus derived from different concentrations of Kinetin (0-2.0 mg L(-1)) and Indole-3-acetic acid (0-2.0 mg L(-1)) was coated with sodium alginate and subsequently cultured either in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or in soil substrate. Adventitious shoots from synthetic beads developed into rooting in full and half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. Prolonged water conservation of black and red soils (1:1) had the highest rate of survival plantlets in the acclimatization process. Diverse resistance techniques in Onobrychis viciifolia were evaluated when the plants were subjected to water deficiency. Higher frequency of epicuticular waxes was observed in in vivo leaves compared to in vitro leaves. Jagged trichomes nonsecreting glands covered by spines were only observed in the lower leaf side. Ultimately, stomata indices were 0.127 (abaxial), 0.188 (adaxial) in in vivo and 0.121 (abaxial), 0.201 (adaxial) in in vitro leaves.

  4. Proanthocyanidin diversity in the EU 'HealthyHay' sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) germplasm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringano, Elisabetta; Hayot Carbonero, Christine; Smith, Lydia M J; Brown, Ronald H; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated 37 diverse sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) accessions from the EU 'HealthyHay' germplasm collection for proanthocyanidin (PA) content and composition. Accessions displayed a wide range of differences: PA contents varied from 0.57 to 2.80 g/100 g sainfoin; the mean degree of polymerisation from 12 to 84; the proportion of prodelphinidin tannins from 53% to 95%, and the proportion of trans-flavanol units from 12% to 34%. A positive correlation was found between PA contents (thiolytic versus acid-butanol degradation; P<0.001; R(2)=0.49). A negative correlation existed between PA content (thiolysis) and mDP (P<0.05; R(2)=-0.30), which suggested that accessions with high PA contents had smaller PA polymers. Cluster analysis revealed that European accessions clustered into two main groups: Western Europe and Eastern Europe/Asia. In addition, accessions from USA, Canada and Armenia tended to cluster together. Overall, there was broad agreement between tannin clusters and clusters that were based on morphological and agronomic characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-α-Rhap(1→6)-β-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Galp or O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of benzyladenine on condensed tannin formation and callus growth in cultures from sainfoin (Onobrychis viccifolia Scop.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1988-05-01

    Cotyledons from aseptically grown seedlings of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) were used as explant material to grow callus tissue for periods of 21 and 31 days. The formation of cells containing condensed tannins was induced by adding a range of BAP concentrations to an mB5 culture medium containing 2,4-D. After 21 days the fresh weight of calli treated with BAP was much greater than the control and appeared highest at the 0.6 mg/L level. Fresh weight was reduced at high BAP levels (2 to 8 mg/L) but still remained well above the control. The formation of tannin-filled cells was genotype-specific but occurred in all treatments with BAP. After 21 days in culture, fresh weight and tannin formation increased with the BAP level at the lower BAP concentrations. After 31 days, the growth rate slowed in the control and the lower BAP concentration, but continued at a high rate in the remaining treatments; the number of tannin-filled cells appeared to decline. The results show that in sainfoin callus culture, BAP induces the formation of condensed tannin, a secondary metabolite, and concomitantly produces a high growth rate.

  7. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, O.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing anthelmintic-resistance in nematodes of ruminants emphasises the need for sustainable parasite control. Condensed tannin-containing legume forages such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) have shown promising anthelmintic properties in small ruminants but this has never been...

  8. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N. T.; Desrues, O.; Alferink, S. J. J.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.; Pellikaan, W. F.

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow

  9. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy

  10. The effect of dietary sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia) on local cellular responses to Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-de Alvarez, L; Greer, A W; Jackson, F; Athanasiadou, S; Kyriazakis, I; Huntley, J F

    2008-08-01

    The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) hay consumption on the pathophysiology and local cellular responses of growing lambs during infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated. Thirty-two lambs, 16 weeks of age, were allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n=8) that were offered either grass (G) or sainfoin (S) hay while concurrently either infected (+), or not (-) with 12,000 L3 T. colubriformis larvae per week for 6 weeks. Liveweight gains were affected by diet (P=0.002) and reduced by infection (P0.05).Feeding sainfoin appeared to enhance immune cell development with tissue eosinophils, mast cells and pan T cells present in greater concentrations in S+ than in G+ animals. However, further studies are required to determine if the enhanced immune cell development is a consequence of a greater nutrient supply or a direct influence of sainfoin metabolites on local inflammatory responses to the gastrointestinal nematode T. colubriformis.

  11. Influence of cutting regime on sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) yield

    OpenAIRE

    Demdoum, Samir Farouk; Delgado Enguita, Ignacio; Muñoz Pérez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Giant variety ‘Reznos’ differed from common variety ‘Cotswold Common’ on leaflet and stem number, root and crown weight and leaf proportion. No difference was found in aboveground weight, which decreased dramatically after the first cut.

  12. Polyphenols, condensed tannins, and other natural products in Onobrychis viciifolia (Sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, J P; Mueller-Harvey, I; Brandt, E V; Ferreira, D

    2000-08-01

    An acetone/water extract of the fodder legume Onobrychis viciifolia afforded arbutin, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, afzelin, the branched quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside), the amino acid L-tryptophan, the inositol (+)-pinitol, and relatively high concentrations of sucrose (ca. 35% of extractable material). Acid-catalyzed cleavage of the condensed tannins with phloroglucinol afforded catechin, epicatechin and gallocatechin as the terminal and extender units, but epigallocatechin was only present in extender units. The condensed tannins in O. viciifolia presumably consist of hetero- and homopolymers containing both procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Comparison of data from the present study and the literature suggests that sainfoin tannins have a highly variable composition with cis:trans ratios ranging from 47:53 to 90:10 and delphinidin:cyanidin ratios from 36:64 to 93:7. The composition of terminal and extender units in sainfoin tannins seems to be cultivar specific.

  13. In vivo effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on parasitic nematodes in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T.V.A.

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a fodder legume containing condensed tannins known to improve protein self-sufficiency, animal health and environment. In addition, anthelmintic effects have been demonstrated in vitro against cattle nematodes, and in vivo against nematodes of small ruminants......, but in vivo effects against gastro-intestinal parasites (GIN) of cattle still remains to be proven. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine the in vivo effects of sainfoin against the most important trichostrongylids of cattle the brown stomach worm Ostertagia ostertagi...... , and the intestinal worm Cooperia oncophora. Jersey male calves (2-4 months) reared indoor and GIN naive, were stratified for live weight and randomly allocated into a test group (SF; n=9) which was fed 80% sainfoin (cv. Perly) pellets and hay, and a control group (CO; n=6) fed hay and compound feed. Daily intake...

  14. Polyphenol metabolism provides a screening tool for beneficial effects of Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Jana; Regos, Ionela; Farag, Mohamed A; Ahmad, Asma F; Kusek, Justyna; Castro, Ana; Schlangen, Karin; Carbonero, Christine Hayot; Gadjev, Ilya Z; Smith, Lydia M J; Halbwirth, Heidi; Treutter, Dieter; Stich, Karl

    2012-10-01

    Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) is a traditional fodder legume showing multiple benefits for the environment, animal health and productivity but weaker agronomic performance in comparison to other legumes. Benefits can be mainly ascribed to the presence of polyphenols. The polyphenol metabolism in O. viciifolia was studied at the level of gene expression, enzyme activity, polyphenol accumulation and antioxidant activity. A screening of 37 accessions regarding each of these characters showed a huge variability between individual samples. Principal component analysis revealed that flavonols and flavan 3-ols are the most relevant variables for discrimination of the accessions. The determination of the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonol synthase provides a suitable screening tool for the estimation of the ratio of flavonols to flavan 3-ols and can be used for the selection of samples from those varieties that have a specific optimal ratio of these compounds for further breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from the forage legume sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regos, Ionela; Urbanella, Andrea; Treutter, Dieter

    2009-07-08

    Phenolic compounds of sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia ) variety Cotswold Common are assumed to contribute to its nutritive value and bioactive properties. A purified acetone/water extract was separated by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography. Sixty-three phenolic and other aromatic compounds were identified by means of chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. Reverse phase HPLC with diode array and chemical reaction detection was used to investigate the phenolic composition of different plant organs. All plant parts showed specific phenolic profiles. Moreover, there were considerable variations in the phenolic content among individual plants of the same variety. The three most abundant phenolic compounds were found to be arbutin [predominant in petiols, 17.7 mg/g of dry weight (DW)], rutin (predominant in leaves, 19.9 mg/g of DW), and catechin (predominant flavanol in petiols, 3.5 mg/g of DW). The present study reveals that the phenolic profile of sainfoin is even more complex than hitherto assumed.

  16. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O; Alferink, S.J.J

    2016-01-01

    cow rations in northwestern Europe is still relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sainfoin silage on nutrient digestibility, animal performance, energy and N utilization, and CH4 production. Six rumen-cannulated, lactating dairy cows with a metabolic body weight...... were greater for the SAIN than for the CON diet. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of N intake tended to be greater for the SAIN diet. These results suggest that inclusion of sainfoin silage in dairy cow rations reduces CH4 per kilogram of DM intake and nutrient digestibility. Moreover, sainfoin......Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy...

  17. In vivo and in vitro efficacy of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Eimeria spp in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratsis, Anastasios; Regos, Ionela; Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Treuter, Dieter; Joachim, Anja; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2012-08-13

    The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against ovine coccidia was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. In 3 in vivo trials weaned lambs were allocated into two treatment groups receiving diets with either lucerne (Medicago sativa) or sainfoin. During the trials, which lasted for 7 (trial 1) or 8 weeks (trials 2 and 3), oocysts per gram of faeces (OPGs), faecal scores and weight gain were recorded. In two of the experiments (trials 1 and 3) a reduction in the mean oocyst excretion rates was observed, starting three to four weeks after sainfoin hay feeding. This reduction ranged between 21.3% (trial 1) and 61.7% (trial 3) compared to the control values. As a result, a decrease in the total number of oocysts excreted (expressed as the mean area under the curve of the OPG) was observed from week 4 to the end of the two trials, respectively (trial 1: 42.6% reduction, p=0.05; trial 3: 52.4% reduction, p=0.06). The results did not show any significant diet effect on lamb growth rates and faecal scores. In the in vitro experiments the effect of 39 sainfoin extracts were tested in an oocyst sporulation inhibition assay. The Eimeria oocysts sporulation inhibition throughout the experiments did not exceed 10.7%, showing that extracts of this forages do not have a significant inhibitory effect on Eimeria oocyst sporulation. This was an initial attempt to investigate a possible anticoccidial effect of sainfoin and further studies are needed in order to better understand its mode of action against Eimeria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro effects of extracts and purified tannins of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against two cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novobilský, A; Stringano, E; Hayot Carbonero, C; Smith, L M J; Enemark, H L; Mueller-Harvey, I; Thamsborg, S M

    2013-09-23

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a condensed tannin (CT)-containing legume and has anthelmintic potential against gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants. This study investigated in vitro effects of acetone/water extracts and derived CT fractions from different types of sainfoin (i.e. accessions) against larvae of Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi by applying the larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA). Seven sainfoin accessions were extracted and tested with L1 larvae at 10 and 40 μg extract/ml. In addition, CT in extracts from 4 accessions were fractionated according to polymer size and tested by LFIA at two concentrations (2 and 10 μg CT fraction/ml). All sainfoin extracts caused significant inhibition of L1-feeding of both C. oncophora and O. ostertagi with varying intensity compared to the control (phosphate buffered saline). For both nematode species the in vitro effect was positively correlated with CT content in the extracts, but not with any of the structural CT parameters. In contrast, the 16 CT fractions revealed significant correlations between in vitro effect and CT content, polymer size (mean degree of polymerisation, mDP) and monomeric composition (prodelphinidin percentage, % PD). These differences between crude extracts and purified fractions may stem from the fact that extracts contain complex CT mixtures, which may mask and thus suppress CT structural effects. This study provides the first indication that, apart from CT and % PD content, polymer size also contributes to anthelmintic activity of CTs. The results, therefore, suggest that the inter-accession variability in CT content and composition needs to be taken into account in future plant breeding programmes which seek to enhance the anthelmintic properties of sainfoin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Marker-trait association analysis for agronomic and compositional traits in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, K; Malisch, C S; Grieder, C; Widmer, F; Kölliker, R

    2017-01-23

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a perennial forage legume with great potential for use in sustainable agriculture due to its low input requirements, good drought tolerance, and production of forage rich in polyphenolic compounds, which are beneficial for animal health. However, its distribution and cultivation are limited due to its moderate agronomic performance and a general lack of well adapted, highly yielding cultivars. Faster progress in breeding is imperative, but is often hampered by the complex inheritance of traits and limited knowledge on the genetic composition of this tetraploid, outbreeding species. Molecular genetic tools might aid phenotypic selection; however, to date no information on marker-trait associations is available for sainfoin. Hence, the goal of the present study was to detect marker-trait associations in a biparental F 1 population. Single plants were screened for recently developed genetic markers and phenotyped for important agronomic traits and concentrations of different polyphenolic compounds. Significant trait-associated markers (TAM) were detected for plant height (11), plant vigor (1), and seed yield (7). These three traits were positively correlated with each other and shared some TAMs. Correlations among markers suggested that two independent loci control these three vigor-related traits. One additional, independent TAM was detected for the share of prodelphinidins in total condensed tannins. Our results provide insight into the genetic control of important traits of sainfoin, and the TAMs reported here could assist selection in combination with phenotypic assessment.

  20. Effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage and hay on established populations of Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Felix; Häring, Dieter Adrian; Maurer, Veronika; Zinsstag, Jakob; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2006-12-20

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on established populations of Haemonchus contortus (abomasum) and Cooperia curticei (small intestine) in lambs under controlled conditions. Twenty-four parasite naïve lambs were inoculated with a single dose of infective larvae of these parasites 28 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment. Twenty-four days post-infection, 4 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment, animals were allocated to four groups according to egg excretion, live weight and sex. Groups A and B received sainfoin hay and control hay, respectively, for 16 days. Groups C and D were fed on sainfoin silage or control silage for the same period. Feeds were offered ad libitum and on the basis of daily refusals were supplemented with concentrate in order to make them isoproteic and isoenergetic. Individual faecal egg counts on a dry matter basis (FECDM) were performed every 3-4 days and faecal cultures and packed cell volume (PCV) measurements were done weekly. After 16 days of experimental feeding, all animals were slaughtered and adult worm populations were determined. The consumption of conserved sainfoin was associated with a reduction of adult H. contortus (47% in the case of hay, P<0.05; 49% in the case of silage, P=0.075) but had little effect on adult C. curticei. Compared to the controls, H. contortus specific FECDM was reduced by 58% (P<0.01) in the sainfoin hay group and by 48% (P=0.075) in the sainfoin silage group. For both sainfoin feeds FECDM specific to C. curticei were significantly decreased when compared to the control feeds (hay 81% and silage 74%, both tests P<0.001). Our data suggest that different mechanisms were responsible for the reduction in FECDM in response to feeding tanniferous fodder. For H. contortus, the decrease seemed to be due to a nematocidal effect towards adult H. contortus. In contrast for C. curticei, the reduction in FECDM appeared to

  1. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen, N T; Desrues, O; Alferink, S J J; Zandstra, T; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-05-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow rations in northwestern Europe is still relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sainfoin silage on nutrient digestibility, animal performance, energy and N utilization, and CH4 production. Six rumen-cannulated, lactating dairy cows with a metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of 132.5±3.6kg were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or a sainfoin (SAIN)-based diet over 2 experimental periods of 25 d each in a crossover design. The CON diet was a mixture of grass silage, corn silage, concentrate, and linseed. In the SAIN diet, 50% of grass silage dry matter (DM) of the CON diet was exchanged for sainfoin silage. The cows were adapted to 95% of ad libitum feed intake for a 21-d period before being housed in climate-controlled respiration chambers for 4 d, during which time feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N and energy balance, and CH4 production was determined. Data were analyzed using a mixed model procedure. Total daily DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber intake did not differ between the 2 diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were, respectively, 5.7, 4.0, 15.7, and 14.8% lower for the SAIN diet. Methane production per kilogram of DM intake was lowest for the SAIN diet, CH4 production as a percentage of gross energy intake tended to be lower, and milk yield was greater for the SAIN diet. Nitrogen intake, N retention, and energy retained in body protein were greater for the SAIN than for the CON diet. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of N intake tended to be greater for the SAIN diet. These results suggest that inclusion of sainfoin

  2. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated.

  3. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrues, Olivier; Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Hansen, Tina V A; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-06-10

    Increasing anthelmintic-resistance in nematodes of ruminants emphasises the need for sustainable parasite control. Condensed tannin-containing legume forages such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) have shown promising anthelmintic properties in small ruminants but this has never been explored in cattle. Therefore, our aim was to examine the efficacy of sainfoin against cattle nematodes in vivo. Fifteen Jersey male calves (2-4 month-old) were allocated into two groups and fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets mainly composed of sainfoin pellets (Group SF; n = 9, three pens) or concentrate and grass-clover hay (Group CO; n = 6, two pens). After 16 days of adaptation, all animals were experimentally infected with 10,000 and 66,000 third-stage larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, respectively. Egg excretion, blood parameters and bodyweights were recorded throughout the study. Worms were harvested by sieving for quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 42 days post-infection (dpi) when the calves were necropsied. The number of O. ostertagi adults in the abomasum was reduced by 50 % in Group SF compared with Group CO (P  0.05). Likewise, no statistical difference in total worm burdens of C. oncophora was found between the groups. Weight gains were lower for Group SF (P < 0.05), which may reflect lower digestibility and phosphorus levels in the SF diet, despite similar feed intake at pen-level. Overall, the effect of sainfoin on abomasal nematodes corroborates results from studies with small ruminants and encourages further investigations of the use of this crop for control of cattle nematodes.

  4. In situ analysis and structural elucidation of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) tannins for high-throughput germplasm screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, An; Stringano, Elisabetta; Brown, Ron H; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2011-01-26

    A rapid thiolytic degradation and cleanup procedure was developed for analyzing tannins directly in chlorophyll-containing sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia ) plants. The technique proved suitable for complex tannin mixtures containing catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin flavan-3-ol units. The reaction time was standardized at 60 min to minimize the loss of structural information as a result of epimerization and degradation of terminal flavan-3-ol units. The results were evaluated by separate analysis of extractable and unextractable tannins, which accounted for 63.6-113.7% of the in situ plant tannins. It is of note that 70% aqueous acetone extracted tannins with a lower mean degree of polymerization (mDP) than was found for tannins analyzed in situ. Extractable tannins had between 4 and 29 lower mDP values. The method was validated by comparing results from individual and mixed sample sets. The tannin composition of different sainfoin accessions covered a range of mDP values from 16 to 83, procyanidin/prodelphinidin (PC/PD) ratios from 19.2/80.8 to 45.6/54.4, and cis/trans ratios from 74.1/25.9 to 88.0/12.0. This is the first high-throughput screening method that is suitable for analyzing condensed tannin contents and structural composition directly in green plant tissue.

  5. Diversity of condensed tannin structures affects rumen in vitro methane production in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Hayot Carbonero, C.; Stringano, E.; Sales, L.F.; Smith, L.M.J.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Sainfoin is a non-bloating temperate forage legume with a moderate-to-high condensed tannin (CT) content. This study investigated whether the diversity of sainfoin accessions in terms of CT structures and contents could be related to rumen in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production and fermentation

  6. Characterization of novel SSR markers in diverse sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Katharina; Mora-Ortiz, Marina; Smith, Lydia M J; Kölliker, Roland; Skøt, Leif

    2016-08-30

    Sainfoin is a perennial forage legume with beneficial properties for animal husbandry due to the presence of secondary metabolites. However, worldwide cultivation of sainfoin is marginal due to the lack of varieties with good agronomic performance, adapted to a broad range of environmental conditions. Little is known about the genetics of sainfoin and only few genetic markers are available to assist breeding and genetic investigations. The objective of this study was to develop a set of SSR markers useful for genetic studies in sainfoin and their characterization in diverse germplasm. A set of 400 SSR primer combinations were tested for amplification and their ability to detect polymorphisms in a set of 32 sainfoin individuals, representing distinct varieties or landraces. Alleles were scored for presence or absence and polymorphism information content of each SSR locus was calculated with an adapted formula taking into account the tetraploid character of sainfoin. Relationships among individuals were visualized using cluster and principle components analysis. Of the 400 primer combinations tested, 101 reliably detected polymorphisms among the 32 sainfoin individuals. Among the 1154 alleles amplified 250 private alleles were observed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 24 with an average of 11.4 alleles. The average polymorphism information content reached values of 0.14 to 0.36. The clustering of the 32 individuals suggested a separation into two groups depending on the origin of the accessions. The SSR markers characterized and tested in this study provide a valuable tool to detect polymorphisms in sainfoin for future genetic studies and breeding programs. As a proof of concept, we showed that these markers can be used to separate sainfoin individuals based on their origin.

  7. Potential to reduce Escherichia coli shedding in cattle feces by using sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) forage, tested in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Natalie C; Holley, Richard A; McAllister, Tim A; Ominski, Kim H; Wittenberg, Karin M; Bouchard, Kristen S; Bouchard, Jenelle J; Krause, Denis O

    2009-02-01

    There is a growing concern about the presence of pathogens in cattle manure and its implications on human and environmental health. The phytochemical-rich forage sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and purified phenolics (trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid) were evaluated for their ability to reduce the viability of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, including E. coli O157:H7. MICs were determined using purified phenolics and acetone extracts of sainfoin and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a non-tannin-containing legume. Ground sainfoin or pure phenolics were mixed with fresh cattle feces and inoculated with a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain of E. coli, O157:H7, to assess its viability at -20 degrees C, 5 degrees C, or 37 degrees C over 14 days. Forty steers were fed either a sainfoin (hay or silage) or alfalfa (hay or silage) diet over a 9-week period. In the in vitro study, the MICs for coumaric (1.2 mg/ml) and cinnamic (1.4 mg/ml) acids were 10- to 20-fold lower than the MICs for sainfoin and alfalfa extracts. In the inoculated feces, the -20 degrees C treatment had death rates which were at least twice as high as those of the 5 degrees C treatment, irrespective of the additive used. Sainfoin was less effective than coumaric acid in reducing E. coli O157:H7 Cip(r) in the inoculated feces. During the animal trial, fecal E. coli numbers declined marginally in the presence of sainfoin (silage and hay) and alfalfa silage but not in the presence of hay, indicating the presence of other phenolics in alfalfa. In conclusion, phenolic-containing forages can be used as a means of minimally reducing E. coli shedding in cattle without affecting animal production.

  8. Potential To Reduce Escherichia coli Shedding in Cattle Feces by Using Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Forage, Tested In Vitro and In Vivo▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Natalie C.; Holley, Richard A.; McAllister, Tim A.; Ominski, Kim H.; Wittenberg, Karin M.; Bouchard, Kristen S.; Bouchard, Jenelle J.; Krause, Denis O.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the presence of pathogens in cattle manure and its implications on human and environmental health. The phytochemical-rich forage sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and purified phenolics (trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid) were evaluated for their ability to reduce the viability of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, including E. coli O157:H7. MICs were determined using purified phenolics and acetone extracts of sainfoin and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a non-tannin-containing legume. Ground sainfoin or pure phenolics were mixed with fresh cattle feces and inoculated with a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain of E. coli, O157:H7, to assess its viability at −20°C, 5°C, or 37°C over 14 days. Forty steers were fed either a sainfoin (hay or silage) or alfalfa (hay or silage) diet over a 9-week period. In the in vitro study, the MICs for coumaric (1.2 mg/ml) and cinnamic (1.4 mg/ml) acids were 10- to 20-fold lower than the MICs for sainfoin and alfalfa extracts. In the inoculated feces, the −20°C treatment had death rates which were at least twice as high as those of the 5°C treatment, irrespective of the additive used. Sainfoin was less effective than coumaric acid in reducing E. coli O157:H7 Cipr in the inoculated feces. During the animal trial, fecal E. coli numbers declined marginally in the presence of sainfoin (silage and hay) and alfalfa silage but not in the presence of hay, indicating the presence of other phenolics in alfalfa. In conclusion, phenolic-containing forages can be used as a means of minimally reducing E. coli shedding in cattle without affecting animal production. PMID:19098216

  9. Exploring variation in proanthocyanidin composition and content of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuhnwi, Blasius N; Boller, Beat; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Hess, Hans D; Kreuzer, Michael; Stringano, Elisabetta; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-07-01

    To maximise the potential benefits to ruminants from sainfoin, plant breeding should focus on developing varieties with predictable condensed tannin (CT) profiles. Little is known about whether and to what extent accession and environment influence sainfoin CT structures. We sought to investigate the likely extent of accession and environment effects on CT characteristics of sainfoin. Four single-flowering (Communis) accessions and two multiple-flowering (Bifera) accessions, grown at three sites and collected at two harvest times were used. Sainfoin CTs were characterised by thiolytic degradation and by high-performance liquid chromatography-gel permeation chromatography (HPLC-GPC). Also, CT concentration measured earlier by the HCl-butanol method was compared with that from thiolysis. Thiolysis revealed that accession and harvest influenced most CT structural attributes. Bifera CTs eluted as single peaks (Mp  < 6220 Da) in HPLC-GPC across the two harvests and two sites, whereas Communis generated two to three CT peaks, which included a peak (Mp  ≤ 9066 Da) in the second harvest. A discrepancy was observed in CT concentrations measured by the two methods. CTs from Bifera accessions had more stable and predictable characteristics across harvests and sites and this could be of interest when breeding sainfoin. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. In vivo effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on parasitic nematodes in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2014-01-01

    Sainfoin is a fodder legume containing condensed tannins known to improve protein self-sufficiency, animal health and environment. In addition, anthelmintic effects have been demonstrated in vitro against cattle nematodes, and in vivo against nematodes of small ruminants, but in vivo effects...... against gastro-intestinal parasites (GIN) of cattle still remains to be proven. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine the in vivo effects of sainfoin against the most important trichostrongylids of cattle the brown stomach worm Ostertagia ostertagi, and the intestinal worm Cooperia...... oncophora. Jersey male calves (2-4 months) reared indoor and GIN naive, were stratified for live weight and randomly allocated into a test group (SF; n=9) which was fed 80% sainfoin (cv. Perly) pellets and hay, and a control group (CO; n=6) fed hay and compound feed. Daily intake was monitored and protein...

  11. Tanniferous forage plants with anthelmintic properties: the example of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Heckendorn, Felix; Maurer, Veronika; Häring, Dieter; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Sainfoin is a high-quality condensed tannin containing forage plant. The knowledge about anthelmintic effects against sheep nematodes and about the influence of plant preservation (e.g. ensiling) on the anthelmintic activity is limited. Method: 36 parasite naïve lambs (6 groups of 6 animals each) were infected with H. contortus (7,000 L3) and C. curticei (15,000 L3). From day 28 until day 44 p.i., groups A1, B1 and C1 received fresh, dried or ensiled sainfoin. Groups A2, B2 a...

  12. The response of various ecotypes of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L. to the foliar application of nitrogen, iron and zinc in a cold climate of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali tadayon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L. is a forage crop belonging to the legume family. The crop is characterized by numerous favorable criteria such as the capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically. In order to study the response of various ecotypes of common sainfoin to the foliar application of nitrogen and micronutrients, such as iron and zinc, two separate field experiments were conducted using a spilt-plot design with completely randomized block replicated three times. In the first experiment, the main plots included five different ecotypes of common sainfoin, and the sub-plots included four rates of urea application (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg N/ha. In the second experiment, the main plots included seven different ecotypes of common sainfoin, and the sub-plots included four rates of micronutrients (0, 0.04 % Fe, 0.04 % Zn and 0.04 % Fe + 0.04 % Zn. The foliar application of urea, Fe and Zn with increasing nutrient concentrations had a statistically significant (p

  13. Sodium Hydroxide Enhances Extractability and Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Ensiled Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Aina; Drake, Chris; Grosse Brinkhaus, Anja; Girard, Marion; Copani, Giuseppe; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Bee, Giuseppe; Niderkorn, Vincent; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2015-11-04

    Little information exists on the effects of ensiling on condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins. The acetone-butanol-HCl assay is suitable for measuring proanthocyanidin contents in a wide range of samples, silages included, but provides limited information on proanthocyanidin composition, which is of interest for deciphering the relationships between tannins and their bioactivities in terms of animal nutrition or health. Degradation with benzyl mercaptan (thiolysis) provides information on proanthocyanidin composition, but proanthocyanidins in several sainfoin silages have proved resistant to thiolysis. We now report that a pretreatment step with sodium hydroxide prior to thiolysis was needed to enable their analysis. This alkaline treatment increased their extractability from ensiled sainfoin and facilitated especially the release of larger proanthocyanidins. Ensiling reduced assayable proanthocyanidins by 29%, but the composition of the remaining proanthocyanidins in silage resembled that of the fresh plants.

  14. Optimization of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of complex polyphenol mixtures and application for sainfoin extracts (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regos, Ionela; Treutter, Dieter

    2010-10-01

    A pentafluorophenylpropyl (PFP) stationary phase was tested for the simultaneous determination of several classes of phenolic compounds. The chromatographic results were compared with those obtained by using a bifunctional phase constituted of octadecyl and phenylpropyl bonded silica and three conventional C18 columns. The elution gradient was optimized with 5% formic acid and sodium acetate in combination with acetic acid as additives and methanol as solvents. For these evaluations, a complex phenolic extract of Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) and test mixtures containing 54 standard substances including 2 simple phenolic compounds, 1 amino acid, 4 hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), 6 hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), 3 flavan-3-ols, 9 anthocyanins, 2 dihydroflavonols, 1 chalcone, 4 flavones, 1 isoflavone and 21 flavonols have been assayed. The perfluorinated column showed good resolution for the studied phenolic compounds which have the following elution order: HBA, HCA, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, dihydroflavonols, flavones, flavonols and isoflavones. Compared with other columns, it provides longer elution ranges for HBA, HCA and flavan-3-ols and increased retention times for all compound classes except anthocyanins which were similarly retained on a C18 column. Its selectivity is different from C18 and bifunctional phases. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) and post-column derivatization with p-dimethyl-aminocinnamic aldehyde (DMACA) has been validated for the analysis of individual phenolic compounds from a sainfoin plant extract (O. viciifolia). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Deciphering the complexity of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) proanthocyanidins by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry with a judicious choice of isotope patterns and matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringano, Elisabetta; Cramer, Rainer; Hayes, Wayne; Smith, Celia; Gibson, Trevor; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2011-06-01

    Use of superdihydroxybenzoic acid as the matrix enabled the analysis of highly complex mixtures of proanthocyanidins from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Proanthocyanidins contained predominantly B-type homopolymers and heteropolymers up to 12-mers (3400 Da). Use of another matrix, 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone, revealed the presence of A-type glycosylated dimers. In addition, we report here how a comparison of the isotopic adduct patterns, which resulted from Li and Na salts as MALDI matrix additives, could be used to confirm the presence of A-type linkages in complex proanthocyanidin mixtures. Preliminary evidence suggested the presence of A-type dimers in glycosylated prodelphinidins and in tetrameric procyanidins and prodelphinidins.

  16. Effect of feeding dehydrated and ensiled tanniferous sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on nitrogen and mineral digestion and metabolism of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, Anna; Arrigo, Yves; Gutzwiller, Andreas; Wyss, Ueli; Hess, Hans D; Kreuzer, Michael; Dohme, Frigga

    2007-10-01

    The effects of tanniferous sainfoin on digestion and metabolism have been investigated in 12 lambs in an incomplete cross-over design (n = 6). Effects of condensed tannins (CT) were evaluated by comparing dehydrated and ensiled sainfoin treated with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG). Dehydrated and ensiled grass-clover mixtures served as controls. The lambs were fed the treatment diets, including a mineral supplement, for 21 d. During the last 7 d excreta, rumen fluid and blood were sampled. The CT of sainfoin decreased rumen fluid ammonia concentration (p < 0.001) and increased the plasma concentration mainly of essential amino acids (p < 0.001). Body retention of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium was lower with sainfoin compared to PEG-treated sainfoin (p < 0.05). Sainfoin without PEG resulted in lower digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre than sainfoin with PEG and the grass-clover mixture (p < 0.001). Ensiling of sainfoin led to the lowest N-retention. In conclusion, the reduction in ruminal ammonia and urine-N losses by sainfoin CT did not improve N-retention.

  17. Effects of condensed tannins in wrapped silage bales of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on in vivo and in situ digestion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, K; Aufrère, J; Andueza, D; Le Morvan, A; Picard, F; Pourrat, J; Baumont, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the condensed tannins (CTs) in wrapped silage bales of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and examine their potential action on in vivo and in situ digestive characteristics in sheep. Silage was made from sainfoin, cut at two phenological stages. The first phenological stage, at which silage was made, was from the first vegetation cycle at the end of flowering and the second stage silage was made from regrowth, 5 weeks after the first cut, but before flowering. The silages made from the two phenological stages were fed to 12 rumen-fistulated sheep in a crossover design. Of the 12 sheep, six received polyethylene glycol (PEG) to bind with and remove the effects of CT, whereas the other six were dosed with water. Organic matter digestibility, total-tract N digestibility and N (N) balance were measured over 6 days. Kinetic studies were performed on total N, ammonia N (NH3-N) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in rumen fluid before and 1.5, 3 and 6 h after feeding. The kinetics of degradation of dry matter and N from Dacron bags suspended in the rumen were also determined. Biological activity of CT (protein-binding capacity) and CT concentration were greater for the silage made from sainfoin at the early flowering stage. Total-tract N digestibility was increased by the addition of PEG (P < 0.001) to the sainfoin silage before flowering (P < 0.001). CTs decreased N excretion in urine (P < 0.05) and increased faecal N excretion (P < 0.001), but had no effect on body N retention, which is beneficial for the animal. Ruminal N degradability was smaller in the presence of active CT (P < 0.001) at both phenological stages; however, soluble N (P = 0.2060) and NH3-N (P = 0.5225) concentrations in rumen fluid remained unchanged. The results of this experiment indicate that CT in the sainfoin retain their ability to affect the nutritive value of preserved forage legumes.

  18. Nitrogen and mineral balance of lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus and fed tanniferous sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, A; Heckendorn, F; Arrigo, Y; Hertzberg, H; Gutzwiller, A; Hess, H D; Kreuzer, M; Dohme, F

    2008-08-01

    Tanniferous temperate legumes are assumed to possess anthelmintic properties, but it is unclear whether this is the direct result of condensed tannins (CT) or is mediated indirectly via an improved metabolic protein supply. A metabolism experiment was conducted to differentiate between these factors by feeding the CT plant sainfoin (19.7% CP in DM) to lambs infected with the abomasal blood-sucking nematode Hemonchus contortus. A total of 18 infected lambs were fed sainfoin either untreated or treated with polyethylene glycol, a CT-inactivating agent, or a grass-clover mixture (13.2% CP in DM) over 3 wk (n = 6). Six uninfected lambs received the grass-clover mixture as a control. In addition to indicators of infection (fecal egg count, packed-cell volume, abomasal worm burden, and serum protein), nutrient digestibility, the balance of N and selected minerals, ruminal fluid characteristics, and plasma AA levels were determined mostly in the final experimental week. The specific effects of the sainfoin CT, the extra CP with sainfoin, and the infection were statistically evaluated by contrast analysis. The sainfoin CT exerted no beneficial effects on resilience to nematode infection and exerted only minor effects on ruminal ammonia or blood urea concentrations and the excretory pattern of N. Plasma alanine, aspartate, and proline concentrations tended to be greater (P < or = 0.09) because of the sainfoin CT, whereas the other AA remained unaffected. Intake of the mineral supplement was lower (P < 0.001) for lambs fed sainfoin compared with those fed sainfoin treated with polyethylene glycol. Feeding the high-protein sainfoin instead of the grass-clover mixture increased (P < 0.001) N retention and apparent OM digestibility, whereas digestibility of NDF and ADF were decreased (P < 0.001). Feeding sainfoin also decreased (P < or = 0.04) plasma alanine, glycine, isoleucine, and total nonessential AA compared with the grass-clover mixture. Although fecal egg count, worm

  19. Structural comparison of the lectin from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) with concanavalin A and other D-mannose specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, N M; Williams, R E; Roy, C; Yaguchi, M

    1982-01-01

    The D-mannose specific lectin from sainfoin was prepared by affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and its circular dichroism (CD), metal content, antigenic character, and N-terminal amino acid sequence were compared with those of four lectins from Vicieae plants and concanavalin A. The sainfoin lectin was only slightly more closely related to these other D-mannose specific lectins, than to lectins of leguminous plants in general. The CD and antigenic experiments also confirmed the close relationship of the four Vicieae lectins. The N-terminal sequence showed sainfoin has two isolectins, differing in sequence at residue four. The sequence was homologous to N-terminal sequences of several other lectins; hence, despite some structural and specificity similarities, the sainfoin lectin does not show the circular permutation of sequence unique to concanavalin A. This region also contained the sole cysteine residue, at position 33. The carbohydrate-binding properties of the sainfoin lectin were studied by gradient affinity chromatography. Its apparent Ka for methyl alpha-D-glucoside was approximately 10(3) M-1, close to the Ka of the pea lectin. However, in the relative binding behaviour of methyl alpha-D-mannoside, maltose, and methyl alpha-D-glucoside, it resembled concanavalin A more than the pea lectin.

  20. In vitro effects of extracts and purified tannins of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against two cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, A.; Stringano, E.; Hayot Carbonero, C.

    2013-01-01

    .e. accessions) against larvae of Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi by applying the larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA). Seven sainfoin accessions were extracted and tested with L1 larvae at 10 and 40 μg extract/ml. In addition, CT in extracts from 4 accessions were fractionated according to polymer...... size and tested by LFIA at two concentrations (2 and 10 μg CT fraction/ml). All sainfoin extracts caused significant inhibition of L1-feeding of both C. oncophora and O. ostertagi with varying intensity compared to the control (phosphate buffered saline). For both nematode species the in vitro effect...

  1. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F

    2017-01-01

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close...

  2. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2017-01-01

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to

  3. Fermentation kinetics of sainfoin hay with and without PEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, S; Guglielmelli, A; Iannaccone, F; Danieli, P P; Tudisco, R; Ruggiero, C; Piccolo, G; Cutrignelli, M I; Infascelli, F

    2012-10-01

    The in vitro gas production technique was applied to evaluate the biological activity of tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) hay cut at four progressive phenological stages. The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen fluid was used as inoculum, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added as specific binding agent and an alfalfa hay (AH) was used as control. All samples were analysed for chemical composition and condensed tannin (CTs). According to the phenological stage of sainfoin, crude protein gradually decreased [from 219 to 122 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increased (from 391 to 514 g/kg DM). Condensed tannins showed the highest value at the first phenological stage [31.5 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g DM], and their level significantly decreased at the subsequent growth stages. Gas production and fermentation rate were significantly affected by substrate type and PEG addition. The first stage of sainfoin showed the lowest value of gas and volatile fatty acids production and the slowest fermentation kinetics compared with the other samples, when incubated without PEG, because of the CTs effect. The incubation with PEG improved the fermentation process of the first stage of sainfoin, but no effect was registered on AH, where CTs were not detected. Among the sainfoin samples, the slowest kinetics with PEG was observed in the hay harvested at the fourth stage, probably due to its chemical composition. The use of PEG allowed to verify the effect of tannins on the in vitro fermentation characteristics of sainfoin hay. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Ultrastructural changes in the third-stage, infective larvae of ruminant nematodes treated with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, S; Fourquaux, I; Hoste, H

    2011-12-01

    Plants rich in condensed tannins are an alternative to chemical anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in ruminants. Previous functional studies have shown that sainfoin extracts affect the two forms of infective larvae (L3), ensheathed and exsheathed. However, the mechanisms of action remain unknown. The aim of this study was thus to compare ultrastructural changes in ensheathed and exsheathed L3 of two GIN species after in vitro contact with sainfoin extracts using transmission electron microscopy. The main changes identified were an alteration of the hypodermis, the presence of numerous vesicles in the cytoplasm and degeneration and/or death of muscular and intestinal cells. The changes suggested similar and nonspecies-specific lesions in the two nematode species. Comparison of the modifications found in the ensheathed vs. exsheathed L3s revealed different locations of the main cellular changes depending on the larval form. It is hypothesized that these spatial differences in lesions are mainly influenced by the presence of the sheath which favors contact between the active compounds and either the cuticle or the digestive tract. Overall, our observations suggest that the functional changes observed in the biology of GIN L3s after contact with sainfoin extracts are mediated through a direct mode of action, i.e. different interactions between the bioactive plant metabolites and the nematode structure depending on the route of contact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) cultivar differences on nitrogen balance and fecal egg count in artificially infected lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuhnwi, B N; Hertzberg, H; Arrigo, Y; Gutzwiller, A; Hess, H D; Mueller-Harvey, I; Torgerson, P R; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2013-05-01

    Research in ruminant nutrition and helminth control with forages, which contain condensed tannins (CT), suggests that varying responses may depend not only on CT concentration but also on CT composition. An experiment was designed to test this by feeding 2 dried sainfoin cultivars (Visnovsky and Perly), which differed in CT properties, to lambs that were artificially infected with the abomasal blood-sucking nematode Haemonchus contortus. Twenty-four infected lambs received 1 of these 2 cultivars; the feeds were either untreated or treated with the CT-binding polyethylene glycol over 4 wk (n = 6). The 2 cultivars were also fed to 2 × 6 uninfected lambs. Nutrient digestibility, N balance, ADG, plasma urea, together with indicators of infection [fecal egg count (FEC), abomasal worm count, per capita female fecundity, erythrocytic indices, and serum protein], were determined. The specific effects of sainfoin cultivar, CT, and infection were evaluated by contrast analysis. Digestibility of both NDF and ADF were less (P < 0.001) with Perly compared with Visnovsky. The apparent nutrient digestibility was reduced (P < 0.001) by CT. However, no clear cultivar effects were evident on N excretion and retention. Condensed tannins reduced (P = 0.05) body N retention and shifted (P < 0.001) N excretion from urine to feces. Unlike cultivar and CT, infection decreased (P = 0.002) ADG. Plasma urea concentration was decreased (P = 0.007) in Perly- compared with Visnovsky-fed lambs and was decreased (P < 0.001) by CT. Plasma concentrations of essential and semiessential AA were increased (P < 0.001) by CT. The groups of infected lambs did not clearly differ in abomasal worm counts and erythrocytic indicators. In the last 2 to 3 wk of the experiment, FEC was decreased (P ≤ 0.01) when feeding CT. The lack of substantial cultivar effects suggests that the differences in CT properties may have been too small to result in nutritional and anthelmintic effects. The present results

  6. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-02-22

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2.3% of DM; expt 1) compared with the rumen and intestines, along with higher mean size and prodelphinidins percentage, corroborating CTs efficacy reported only against Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum. In expt 2, the dietary levels of CTs were probably too low to demonstrate anthelmintic effects in the rumen. Overall, the level of CTs accessible to thiolysis is favored under the acidic conditions of the abomasum, which seems critical for anthelmintic activity.

  7. Efficacy of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) pellets against multi resistant Haemonchus contortus and interaction with oral ivermectin: Implications for on-farm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Elodie; Simon, Margaux; Quijada, Jessica; Schelcher, François; Sutra, Jean-François; Lespine, Anne; Hoste, Hervé

    2016-08-30

    The worldwide spread of resistance to anthelmintic (AH) drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) imposes to explore alternative solutions. Amongst those, the possible use of tannin-containing nutraceuticals appears as a relevant option to replace (or decrease the frequency of) chemical-based treatments. Our objectives were to test the AH efficacy of sainfoin pellets against a multiresistant strain of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs and to examine possible interaction between ivermectin (IVM) and condensed tannins (CT)-rich ressource. In vivo study was performed with twenty-four lambs were inoculated (Day 0) with multiresistant H. contortus infective larvae. On D21 Post-Infection, the lambs were assigned to two dietary treatments (sainfoin vs lucerne control pellets). On D39, half of the animals per group received 0.25ml/kg of an oral ivermectin treatment. On D47, animals were slaughtered to count worms. The consumption of sainfoin was associated with higher packed cell volume (PCV) values (P<0.05) and reduced faecal egg counts (FECs) (P<0.05). For the experimental feeding period, FECs were overall reduced by 50% in the sainfoin group. The diet did not have significant effect on the worm number but sainfoin significantly reduced female fertility. Decrease in plasma IVM concentrations was observed in the sainfoin-fed animals and was associated with a decrease of IVM efficiency when compared with the control group. Incubating tannin in vitro with ivermectin and rumen fluid showed a blocking of ivermectin by the tannins. This suggests that tannins lower the IVM intestinal absorption compromising thereby drug plasma bioavailability and efficacy. Tannin-containing nutraceuticals alter the biology of multiresistant nematodes, thus representing an option for their sustainable control. In vivo and in vitro interactions between nutraceuticals and chemicals impose caution when both tannin-rich diet and drug-based treatments are combined. Further

  8. Effects of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract and monomers of condensed tannins on the association of abomasal nematode larvae with fundic explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, S; Jackson, F; Hoste, H

    2008-06-01

    Tannin-rich forages offer an alternative to anthelmintic chemicals to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, the mode of action of such bioactive plants still needs to be assessed. Previous studies have shown that extracts of tannin-rich plants interfere with the first phase of host invasion, i.e., the exsheathment of infective larvae (L3s). In the current study, we examined the hypothesis that exposure to tannins could also affect the second phase of larval establishment, i.e., the tissue association/penetration of the exsheathed L3s into the digestive mucosae. An in vitro direct challenge technique using fundic explants was applied in this study. The main parasite model was Haemonchus contortus. The objectives were to verify: (i) whether a modification of the association/penetration of L3s with the mucosae occurred after contact with sainfoin extract; (ii) whether this is a dose-dependent phenomenon; (iii) whether tannins were responsible for these effects; (iv) whether these effects were dependent on the parasite species; and (v) how the biochemical structure of tannins might influence these effects. Following 3h contact with sainfoin extract at 1,200 microg/ml, the penetration of exsheathed L3s of H. contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta into fundic explants was significantly reduced. Moreover, a dose-response relationship was found for H. contortus. For both nematodes, the changes were totally alleviated after addition of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, to the sainfoin extract, suggesting that tannins play a major role in the observed effects. Comparison of results obtained with different monomers of condensed tannins confirms a relationship between structure and activity, the prodelphinidin monomers and galloyl-derivatives being more effective than the procyanidin monomers. Combined with the delay or the inhibition of larval exsheathment previously shown, these effects could explain how tanniniferous plants reduce the establishment

  9. Palatability in sheep and in vitro nutritional value of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), and chicory (Cichorium intybus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, Anna; Arrigo, Yves; Gutzwiller, Andreas; Soliva, Carla R; Wyss, Ueli; Kreuzer, Michael; Dohme, Frigga

    2007-12-01

    Three temperate forages, sainfoin, birdsfoot trefoil, and chicory, characterized by elevated contents of plant secondary compounds, were compared to a ryegrass-clover mixture (control) in dried (Experiment 1) and ensiled form (Experiment 2) in their palatability and nutritional value. Palatability was measured in adult wethers (n = 6) allowed to choose between the familiar control forage and one of the three test plants. Palatability index was calculated from differences in intake of control and test plants measured after given times. Generally at first contact, palatability of the unfamiliar plants was low. Lag time until palatability index approached or exceeded a value of 100 was 2-5 d, but could not be related to the content of condensed tannins. Sainfoin had a high palatability, the highest content of condensed tannins (77.4 +/- 10.23 g/kg DM), a high content of duodenally utilisable crude protein (94.7 +/- 16.87 g/100 g CP), and a high content of metabolizable energy (9.5 +/- 0.38 MJ ME/kg DM), making this plant most promising for various purposes including anthelmintic action.

  10. Impact of variation in structure of condensed tannins from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatew, B; Stringano, E; Mueller-Harvey, I; Hendriks, W H; Carbonero, C Hayot; Smith, L M J; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-04-01

    Our study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on rumen in vitro methane (CH4 ) production and fermentation characteristics by incubating lucerne in buffered rumen fluid in combination with different CT extracts at 0 (control), 40, 80 and 120 g CT/kg of substrate DM. Condensed tannins were extracted from four sainfoin accessions: Rees 'A', CPI63763, Cotswold Common and CPI63767. Gas production (GP) was measured using a fully automated GP apparatus with CH4 measured at distinct time points. Condensed tannins differed substantially in terms of polymer size and varied from 13 (Rees 'A') to 73 (CPI63767) mean degree of polymerization, but had relatively similar characteristics in terms of CT content, procyanidin: prodelphinidin (PC: PD) and cis:trans ratios. Compared to control, addition of CT from CPI63767 and CPI63763 at 80 and 120 g CT/kg of substrate DM reduced CH4 by 43% and 65%, and by 23% and 57%, respectively, after 24-h incubation. Similarly, CT from Rees 'A' and Cotswold Common reduced CH4 by 26% and 46%, and by 28% and 46% respectively. Addition of increasing level of CT linearly reduced the maximum rates of GP and CH4 production, and the estimated in vitro organic matter digestibility. There was a negative linear and quadratic (p < 0.01) relation between CT concentration and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Inclusion of 80 and 120 g CT/kg of substrate DM reduced (p < 0.001) branched-chain VFA production and acetate: propionate ratio and was lowest for CPI63767. A decrease in proteolytic activity as indirectly shown by a change in VFA composition favouring a shift towards propionate and reduction in branched-chain VFA production varied with type of CT and was highest for CPI63767. In conclusion, these results suggest that tannin polymer size is an important factor affecting in vitro CH4 production which may be linked to the CT interaction with dietary substrate or microbial cells. Journal of Animal Physiology and

  11. Diversity of sainfoin (Onobrychis Mill. collection samples according to the spectra of storage proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatova Kulpash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sainfoin (Onobrychis Mill. is a valuable forage plant of the legume family (Fabaceae. In Kazakhstan the sainfoin introduced as field fodder in the 50s of the XX century and because of its biological features widely spread as a promising crop for forage resources increasing. The electrophoresis of seed storage proteins of Onobrychis viciifolia, Onobrychis arenaria and Onobrychis transcaucasica species was carried out. Considerable diversity of the number, mobility and intensity of components was determined.

  12. Population genetic variation in sainfoin (Fabaceae) revealed by RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Houshang NOSRATI; Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour FEIZI; Sona Seyed TARRAH; Ahmad Razban HAGHIGHI

    2012-01-01

    Studies on plants show that populations growing on the stressful environments indicate higher levels of genetic diversity, and that in outcrossing species majority of total genetic variation allocated to within population rather than between populations. We compared the level of genetic variation between populations growing in stressful and normal environments, and measured levels of within- and between population genetic variations in Onobrychis viciifolia L. (Sainfoin, Fabaceae) based on RA...

  13. Interspecific variation for thermal dependence of glutathione reductase in sainfoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, S P; Mahan, J R; Matches, A G

    1990-05-01

    Understanding the biochemical and physiological consequences of species variation would expedite improvement in agronomically useful genotypes of sainfoin (Onobrychis spp.) Information on variation among sainfoin species is lacking on thermal dependence of glutathione reductase (B.C. 1.6.4.2.), which plays an important role in the protection of plants from both high and low temperature stresses by preventing harmful oxidation of enzymes and membranes. Our objective was to investigate the interspecific variation for thermal dependency of glutathione reductase in sainfoin. Large variation among species was found for: (i) the minimum apparent Km (0.4-2.5 μM NADPH), (ii) the temperature at which the minimum apparent Km was observed (15°-5°C), and (iii) the thermal kinetic windows (2°-30°C width) over a 15°-45°C temperature gradient. In general, tetraploid species had narrower (≤17°C) thermal kinetic windows than did diploid species (∼30°C), with one exception among the diploids. Within the tetraploid species, the cultivars of O. viciifolia had a broader thermal kinetic window (≥7°C) than the plant introduction (PI 212241, >2 °C) itself.

  14. Evaluation of Cultivars, Experimental Lines and Plant Introduction Collection of Sainfoin for Resistance to Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, D S; Gray, F A

    1987-01-01

    Stands of several cultivars and experimental lines of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were severely reduced (92% average loss) in a field naturally infested with Meloidogyne hapla. Stands of two alfalfa cultivars included in the test were unaffected. In studies conducted in the greenhouse with plants inoculated at the time of seeding, average mortality was 55% for sainfoin entries and 7% for Ladak alfalfa. Little mortality occurred when plants were inoculated after establishment. Three months after inoculation, all sainfoin entries were heavily galled (range of 3.3-3.7 on a scale of 1-4) while roots of Ladak were only slightly galled (rating of 1.6). Intermating of plants selected in the field plots for resistance to M. hapla showed a slight increase in resistance. Of the 147 plant introduction lines tested in the greenhouse, none were resistant to M. hapla.

  15. Evidence and consequences of self-fertilisation in the predominantly outbreeding forage legume Onobrychis viciifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Katharina; Grieder, Christoph; Walter, Achim; Widmer, Franco; Reinhard, Sonja; Kölliker, Roland

    2015-10-07

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a promising alternative forage plant of good quality, moderate nutrient demand and a high content of polyphenolic compounds. Its poor adoption is caused by the limited availability of well performing varieties. Sainfoin is characterised as tetraploid and mainly outcrossing, but the extent of self-fertilisation and its consequences was not investigated so far. This study aimed at assessing the rate of self-fertilisation in sainfoin under different pollination regimes and at analysing the consequences on plant performance in order to assist future breeding efforts. The self-fertilisation rate was assessed in three sainfoin populations with artificially directed pollination (ADP) and in three populations with non-directed pollination (NDP). Dominant SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) and codominant SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers were used to detect self-fertilisation in sainfoin for the first time based on molecular marker data. High rates of self-fertilisation of up to 64.8% were observed for ADP populations in contrast to only up to 3.9% for NDP populations. Self-fertilisation in ADP populations led to a reduction in plant height, plant vigour and, most severely, for seed yield. Although sainfoin is predominantly outcrossing, self-fertilisation can occur to a high degree under conditions of limited pollen availability. These results will influence future breeding efforts because precautions have to be taken when crossing breeding material. The resulting inbreeding depression can lead to reduced performance in self-fertilised offspring. Nevertheless the possibility of self-fertilisation also offers new ways for hybrid breeding based on the development of homogenous inbred lines.

  16. Genetic variation for clonal propagation and trait association with field performance in sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayareh Irani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plant materials with identical genotypes may be used to precisely detect environmental effects and genotype x environment interactions resulting in a more accurate estimate of genetic parameters in plant genetic analysis. In sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, knowledge on genetic variation for clonal propagation and its association with field performance is limited. Eleven natural ecotypes of sainfoin from wide geographical areas of Iran were used to evaluate genetic variation for clonal propagation and its association with related traits. From each ecotype 11‒21 genotypes were cloned via cuttings. Then, clones of a hundred genotypes from 10 ecotypes were transplanted to the field. High genetic variation was found between ecotypes of sainfoin for producing viable clones. The mean values for viable clones varied from 50% (Borujen ecotype to 97% (Najafabad ecotype. The values of within-ecotype coefficient of variation were higher than the genetic coefficient of variation. The highest heritability estimates were obtained for sensitivity to powdery mildew, plant height and number of stems per plant. Dry matter yield (DMY in the field was significantly and positively correlated with plant height and number of stems per plant, inflorescence length and growth score. An association between DMY and percent of viable clones was found indicating the possibility of selection during the early stages of clonal propagation. According to principal component analysis, Baft and Fereydunshahr ecotypes have potential for improving production of sainfoin if introduced into breeding programs. These issues warrant further study.Keywords: Clone viability, genetic variability, Onobrychis viciifolia, phenotypic  correlation, principal component analysis.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(438-46

  17. Population genetic variation in sainfoin (Fabaceae revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang NOSRATI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on plants show that populations growing on the stressful environments indicate higher levels of genetic diversity, and that in outcrossing species majority of total genetic variation allocated to within population rather than between populations. We compared the level of genetic variation between populations growing in stressful and normal environments, and measured levels of within- and between population genetic variations in Onobrychis viciifolia L. (Sainfoin, Fabaceae based on RAPDs. Our results show that populations growing on he stressful environment i.e. saline soils indicated either the lowest 0.2466 or highest (0.3186 within-population genetic variation based on Nei’s diversity. That disagrees with Niche-Width Variation Theory, which expects highest genetic diversity within stressful populations. Partitioning the total genetic variation by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that 89.03% of total genetic diversity allocated to within populations while 10.97% of this variation dedicated to among populations, indicating predominantly outcrossing mode of pollination in sainfoin. The two population pairs growing under similar environmental stresses (cold climate and saline soil showed higher genetic similarity. This may suggest that RAPDs patterns reflex selection rather than random drift.

  18. Effects of a tannin-rich legume (Onobrychis viciifolia) on in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M.A.; Peláez, F.R.; Martínez, A.L.; Avilés, C.; Peña, F.

    2016-11-01

    There is still controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of fatty acids (FA) and improve the lipid profile of milk or meat without conferring a negative response in the digestive utilization of the diet. Based on this, an in vitro trial using batch cultures of rumen microorganisms was performed to compare the effects of two legume hays with similar chemical composition but different tannin content, alfalfa and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), on the BH of dietary unsaturated FA and on the ruminal fermentation. The first incubation substrate, alfalfa, was practically free of tannins, while the second, sainfoin, contained 3.5% (expressed as tannic acid equivalents). Both hays were enriched with sunflower oil as a source of unsaturated FA. Most results of the lipid composition analysis (e.g., greater concentrations of 18:2n-6, cis-9 18:1 or total polyunsaturated FA in sainfoin incubations) showed the ability of this tannin-containing legume to inhibit the BH process. However, no significant differences were detected in the accumulation of cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and variations in trans-11 18:1 and trans-11 cis-15 18:2 did not follow a regular pattern. Regarding the rumen fermentation, gas production, ammonia concentration and volatile FA production were lower in the incubations with sainfoin (‒17, ‒23 and ‒11%, respectively). Thus, although this legume was able to modify the ruminal BH, which might result in improvements in the meat or milk lipid profile, the present results were not as promising as expected or as obtained before with other nutritional strategies. (Author)

  19. Effects of a tannin-rich legume (Onobrychis viciifolia on in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is still controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the ruminal biohydrogenation (BH of fatty acids (FA and improve the lipid profile of milk or meat without conferring a negative response in the digestive utilization of the diet. Based on this, an in vitro trial using batch cultures of rumen microorganisms was performed to compare the effects of two legume hays with similar chemical composition but different tannin content, alfalfa and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, on the BH of dietary unsaturated FA and on the ruminal fermentation. The first incubation substrate, alfalfa, was practically free of tannins, while the second, sainfoin, contained 3.5% (expressed as tannic acid equivalents. Both hays were enriched with sunflower oil as a source of unsaturated FA. Most results of the lipid composition analysis (e.g., greater concentrations of 18:2n-6, cis-9 18:1 or total polyunsaturated FA in sainfoin incubations showed the ability of this tannin-containing legume to inhibit the BH process. However, no significant differences were detected in the accumulation of cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and variations in trans-11 18:1 and trans-11 cis-15 18:2 did not follow a regular pattern. Regarding the rumen fermentation, gas production, ammonia concentration and volatile FA production were lower in the incubations with sainfoin (-17, -23 and -11%, respectively. Thus, although this legume was able to modify the ruminal BH, which might result in improvements in the meat or milk lipid profile, the present results were not as promising as expected or as obtained before with other nutritional strategies.

  20. In vivo and in situ measurements of the digestive characteristics of sainfoin in comparison with lucerne fed to sheep as fresh forages at two growth stages and as hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufrère, J; Dudilieu, M; Poncet, C

    2008-09-01

    In vivo and in situ digestive characteristics of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L., a tannin-rich forage) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L., a tannin-free forage) were compared to evaluate the effects of condensed tannins (CT) and growth stage (vegetative v. early flowering) in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the hays of the two forages, harvested at early flowering, were compared. Ingestibility, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and nitrogen (N) retention were measured in sheep fed sainfoin and lucerne fresh forages and hays. The loss of dry matter (DM) and N from polyester bags suspended in the rumen, abomasum and small intestine was also measured using rumen fistulated sheep and other intestine fistulated sheep. Nitrogen content was lower in sainfoin than in lucerne. Content of CT in sainfoin decreased with growth stage (3.5 to 2.5 g CT/kg DM) and was lower for sainfoin hay (0.6 g CT/kg DM). Ingestibility and OMD did not differ between fresh-fed forage species. Total N tract digestibility in vivo was much lower for sainfoin than for lucerne fresh forages (mean value 0.540 v. 0.721, P < 0.001) and for sainfoin hay than lucerne hay (0.464 v. 0.683, P < 0.001). In both species, N digestibility was not altered by growth stage. The rumen degradation of N was lower in sainfoin than in lucerne, resulting in a lower proportion of N intake excreted in urine. The intestinal digestibility of sainfoin was also lower than that of lucerne, resulting in a higher N excretion in faeces. Hence the efficiency of N utilisation by sheep (ENr) was similar (mean value 0.205 and 0.199 g N retained/g N intake for fresh sainfoin and lucerne, respectively). The coefficient of N retention by the animal was higher for sainfoin at the vegetative stage than for all the other forages. Nitrogen degradability in the rumen determined by the nylon bag technique (DegN) was lower for sainfoin than for lucerne when forages were studied both fresh (mean value 0.608 and 0.818, respectively) and as hays

  1. Are sainfoin or protein supplements alternatives to control small strongyle infection in horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, C; Sallé, G; Dumont, B; Cabaret, J; Cortet, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Fleurance, G

    2018-02-01

    The spread of anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyle nematodes has become a major problem, advocating for the development of alternative control for strongyles. Our study consisted of both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We investigate for the first time the efficacy of a short-term consumption of tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or extra proteins in naturally infected horses. We used 30 horses allocated into three groups of 10 individuals that received for 18 days either (i) a tannin-rich diet with 70% DM sainfoin pellets (Sd), (ii) a protein-rich diet with 52% DM Italian rye-grass pellets and 18% DM grinded linseed expeller (Pd), or (iii) a control diet with 45% DM barley and 25% DM cereal-based pellets (Cd). The three diets were isoenergetic, covering 94% of animal energy requirements on average, and the Sd and Pd diets were isoproteic and provided extra proteins (227% of protein requirements v. 93% for the Cd diet). Pd and Cd were compared to test for benefits of receiving extra proteins, while Sd and Pd were compared to account for the effect of sainfoin secondary metabolites. There were no between-diet differences in faecal egg counts (FEC) or in worm burden evaluated from worm counts in faeces of drenched horses at the end of the experiment. However, coprocultures from the faeces collected in each group at the beginning and at the end of the experiment suggested a lower rate of strongyle larval development in the Sd group at the end of the experiment (Sd=8.1%, Pd=30.5%, Cd=22.6%). In vitro tests using sainfoin solutions evidenced the influence of sainfoin on strongyle larval development: adding 29% of sainfoin pellets to faeces reduced the strongyle egg development into infective larvae by 82% (P<0.001) and using solutions with sainfoin concentrations higher than 7.5 mg/ml reduced egg hatching by 37% (P<0.05). The short-term use of tannin-rich plants in horse diet could thus constitute a promising strategy to reduce the risk of infection

  2. Effects of supplementing endophyte-infected tall fescue with sainfoin and polyethylene glycol on the physiology and ingestive behavior of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Villalba, J J

    2014-02-01

    Tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue [E+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and attenuate toxicosis. If so, supplementing E+ with sainfoin will increase use of E+ by sheep, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-a polymer that selectively binds to tannins-will reduce such response. To test these predictions, thirty-six 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (12 lambs/treatment). During exposure, all lambs were individually penned and fed E+ supplemented with beet pulp (CTRL), fresh-cut sainfoin and beet pulp (SAIN), or fresh-cut sainfoin plus PEG mixed in beet pulp (SAIN+PEG). Feed intake was measured daily. Rectal temperatures and jugular blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of exposure. After exposure, all lambs were offered choices between endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) and orchardgrass, and preference for E- was assessed. Then, all lambs were allowed to graze a choice of E+ and sainfoin or a monoculture of E+. The foraging behavior of lambs was recorded. When sainfoin was in mid-vegetative stage, lambs in SAIN ingested more E+ than lambs in CTRL (P = 0.05), but no differences were detected between lambs in SAIN+PEG and CTRL (P = 0.12). Sainfoin supplementation improved some physiological parameters indicative of fescue toxicosis. Lambs in SAIN had lower rectal temperatures (P = 0.02), greater numbers of leukocytes (P 0.05). On the other hand, when they grazed on a monoculture of E+, lambs in SAIN+PEG showed greater acceptance of E+ than lambs in SAIN or in CTRL (P < 0.05). In summary, sainfoin supplementation alleviated several of the classic signs of fescue toxicosis and increased intake of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tannins in sainfoin partially accounted for this benefit since feeding a polymer that selectively binds to tannins (PEG) attenuated some these responses. However, sainfoin supplementation during initial exposure to E+ did not lead to an increased

  3. Comparison of kinetic properties of amine oxidases from sainfoin and lentil and immunochemical characterization of copper/quinoprotein amine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajoncová, L; Frébort, I; Luhová, L; Sebela, M; Galuszka, P; Pec, P

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic properties of novel amine oxidase isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were compared to those of typical plant amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) from lentil (Lens culinaris). The amine oxidase from sainfoin was active toward substrates, such as 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) with K(m) of 0.09 mM and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) with K(m) of 0.24 mM. The maximum rate of oxidation for cadaverine at saturating concentration was 2.7 fold higher than that of putrescine. The amine oxidase from lentil had the maximum rate for putrescine comparable to the rate of sainfoin amine oxidase with the same substrate. Both amine oxidases, like other plant Cu-amine oxidases, were inhibited by substrate analogs (1,5-diamino-3-pentanone, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone and aminoguanidine), Cu2+ chelating agents (diethyltriamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, imidazole, sodium cyanide and sodium azide), some alkaloids (L-lobeline and cinchonine), some lathyrogens (beta-aminopropionitrile and aminoacetonitrile) and other inhibitors (benzamide oxime, acetone oxime, hydroxylamine and pargyline). Tested by Ouchterlony's double diffusion in agarose gel, polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from sainfoin, pea and grass pea cross-reacted with amine oxidases from several other Fabaceae and from barley (Hordeum vulgare) of Poaceae, while amine oxidase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger did not cross-react at all. However, using Western blotting after SDS-PAGE with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, some degree of similarity of plant amine oxidases from sainfoin, pea, field pea, grass pea, fenugreek, common melilot, white sweetclover and Vicia panonica with the A. niger amine oxidase was confirmed.

  4. Technical note: utilization of sainfoin by grazing steers and a method for predicting daily gain from small-plot grazing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, D P; Matches, A G; Preston, R L

    1992-07-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.) is adapted to the calcareous soils of the southern Great Plains and can provide early season forage that does not induce bloating; however, little is known about performance by ruminants grazing sainfoin. Our objective was to determine the effect of plant growth stage and grazing pressures on potential animal production from sainfoin as predicted from energy intake as a multiple of maintenance. Nitrogen-fertilized (100 kg of N/ha) Renumex sainfoin was grown under irrigation on a Pullman clay loam (fine, mixed, thermic Torretic Paleustoll) near Lubbock, TX. Light (L), medium (M), and heavy (H) grazing pressures were applied with steers grazing sainfoin that was at the bud (B), flower (F), and seed shatter (S) stages of growth. The L, M, and H pressures were grazed to remove 50, 75, and 90% of the standing plant height. Across growth stages, L, M, and H grazing pressures averaged 52, 69, and 87% removal of pregrazed herbage mass. Dry matter intake as a percentage of BW of steers averaged 3.9, 2.8, and 1.7 for L, M, and H grazing pressures. Across growth stages, predicted live weight gain for L, M, and H grazing pressures averaged .86, .67, and .03 kg/d. Our findings indicate that the multiple of maintenance method may be useful for evaluating treatments from small-plot grazing experiments.

  5. Direct and Indirect Selection for Forage Yield and Its Components in Sainfoin under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Majidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection based on indices is an effective method for breeding complex traits. To assess the efficiency of different selection methods, twenty one accessions of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia were evaluated in two environments including drought stress and non-stress conditions according to a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2010. In this study, the selection indices of Smith-Hazel and Pesek-Baker were determined based on the percentage of dry matter yield, stem percent, plant height and number of stem per plant under both conditions. Also response to selection and relative selection efficiency were estimated for studied traits and dry matter yield. The highest estimated selection efficiency for genetically improvement of dry matter yield was obtained via selection for stem percent and number of stem per plant. Therefore, these traits can be used as an appropriate selection criterion for improvement of forage yield. In Smith-Hazel indices under normal environment plant height and under stress environment stem percent had the highest gain, while in Pesek-Baker index, under both moisture conditions percentage of dry matter yield had the highest gain. The results indicated that Smith-Hazel index 1 had the most selection efficiency and could be used in sainfoin breeding programs.

  6. Enhanced N2-fixing ability of a deletion mutant of arctic rhizobia with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, D K; Bordeleau, L M

    1990-12-01

    Mutagenesis provoked by exposure at elevated temperature of the cold-adapted, arctic Rhizobium strain N31 resulted in the generation of five deletion mutants, which exhibited loss of their smaller plasmid (200 kb), whereas the larger plasmid (> 500 kb) was still present in all mutants. Deletion mutants did not show differences from the wild type in the antibiotic resistance pattern, the carbohydrates and organic acids utilization, and the growth rate at low temperature. However, deletion mutants differed from the wild type and among themselves in the ex planta nitrogenase activity, the nodulation index, and the symbiotic effectiveness. The deletion mutant N31.6rif (r) showed higher nodulation index and exhibited higher nitrogenase activity and symbiotic efficiency than the other deletion mutants and the wild type. The process of deletion mutation resulted in the improvement of an arctic Rhizobium strain having an earlier and higher symbiotic nitrogen fixation efficiency than the wild type.

  7. Peculiarities of chemical composition of sainfoin seeds powder

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Tarasenko; Elena Aleksandrovna Butina; Evgeny Olegovich Gerasimenko

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying chemical composition of the powder of the seeds of non-traditional legume, sainfoin. The experimental studies showed that crushed seeds of sainfoin make a flowing fine powder of light brown color with a pleasant unpronounced specific smell with floral notes. The taste is grassy with the after-taste typical for legumes. The chemical composition of sainfoin seeds is dominated by proteins and fiber, and fat content does not exceed 8%. The total content of amino-...

  8. [Selection and identification of salt tolerant line of sainfoin from the seeds of first post-flight plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y Y; Wang, M G; Jia, J F

    2001-03-01

    Seeds of sainfoin (Onobrychis vicaefolia Scop.) were carried in the recoverable satellite 940703 and recovered from earth orbit from China in 1994. The progeny seeds were obtained by producing in field. The salt tolerant calluses were selected by screening seedling and callus on 1.5% NaCl-containing medium, reviving growth on NaCl- free medium and selecting callus on 1.2% NaCl-containing medium. The salt tolerant line callus maintained the normal ability to regenerate plant. The salt tolerant line callus exhibited cross-resistance to PEG stress. The variant appeared higher efficiency than control to accumulate proline under salt stress, however, under nonstress condition it had lower proline level than control, which suggested that the higher efficiency to synthesize proline under stress condition may be more important than higher level in tissue under nonstress condition. The mechanism of proline synthesis in the selected callus was considered to result from the alteration in gene sensitivity to water regulation at transcription level. Acrylamide gradient electrophoresis showed that new isoenzyme form with MW 175 kD and 75 kD of superoxide dismutase and esterase respectively appeared in salt torlerant callus. It was indicated that the combination of space mutagenesis with tissue culture could be used for the selection of salt tolerant sainfoin line in vitro.

  9. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  10. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  11. Valeur agronomique et alimentaire du Sainfoin

    OpenAIRE

    Aufrere, Jocelyne; Theodoridou, Aikaterini; Baumont, René

    2013-01-01

    Le sainfoin est une légumineuse en tannins condensés. Bien que moins productif et moins pérenne que la luzerne, il possède des qualités nutritionnelles indéniables pour les ruminants et présente un intérêt pour limiter les rejets d'azote lessivable et de méthane émis par les animaux dans l'environnement. La production du sainfoin en climat tempéré dépend de facteurs agronomiques (conditions de culture, variétés, mode d'utilisation, rendement, maladies) ici présentés. Selon leur teneur et ...

  12. SCOP/PHLPP and its functional role in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kimiko; Mackenzie, Scott M.; Storm, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    SCOP (suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian oscillatory protein) was originally identified in 1999 in a differential display screen of the rat SCN for genes whose expression were regulated in a circadian manner (K. Shimizu, M. Okada, A. Takano and K. Nagai, FEBS Lett., 1999, 458, 363–369). The SCN is the principle pacemaker of the circadian clock, and expression of SCOP protein in the SCN was found to oscillate, increasing during the subjective night, even when animals were housed in constant darkness. SCOP interacts with and inhibits multiple proteins important for intracellular signaling, either by directly binding to K-Ras or by dephosphorylating p-Akt and p-PKC. Since the functions of K-Ras, Akt, and PKC are considerably divergent, SCOP may have several roles. We recently discovered that SCOP participates in the formation of long-term hippocampus-dependent memories, and other investigators have examined its role in cell proliferation and survival. In this review, we introduce SCOP from its molecular structure to its physiological functions, focusing mainly on its role in ERK1/2 activation and memory consolidation. PMID:20024065

  13. Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 Properties of Purple Prairie Clover and Sainfoin Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannins (CT from purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent. and sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia were assessed for anti-Escherichia coli activity by comparing their ability to react with proteins and liposome, cause cell aggregation, and alter outer membrane (OM morphology and permeability. The PPC CT had greater (P < 0.01 protein-precipitating capacity than SF CT using either bovine serum albumin or ribulose 1,5-disphosphate carboxylase as model proteins. Minimum inhibitory concentration of PPC CT for two strains of E. coli and five strains of E. coli O157:H7 was four to six times lower than that of SF CT. E. coli exposed to 10 µg/mL of both CT had higher (P < 0.05 OM permeability than controls and was greater (P < 0.05 for PPC than for SF CT. Addition of both CT at 50 and 200 µg/mL caused cell aggregation which was more evident (P < 0.05 for PPC than for SF CT. Transmission electron microscopy showed electron dense material on the cell surface when cells were exposed to 50 µg/mL of PPC CT. The greater anti-E. coli activity of PPC than SF CT was due to its enhanced ability to precipitate protein that increased OM permeability and promoted cell aggregation.

  14. Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 properties of purple prairie clover and sainfoin condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Li; Hao, Yong-Qing; Jin, Long; Xu, Zhong-Jun; McAllister, Tim A; Wang, Yuxi

    2013-02-08

    Condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent.) and sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia) were assessed for anti-Escherichia coli activity by comparing their ability to react with proteins and liposome, cause cell aggregation, and alter outer membrane (OM) morphology and permeability. The PPC CT had greater (P < 0.01) protein-precipitating capacity than SF CT using either bovine serum albumin or ribulose 1,5-disphosphate carboxylase as model proteins. Minimum inhibitory concentration of PPC CT for two strains of E. coli and five strains of E. coli O157:H7 was four to six times lower than that of SF CT. E. coli exposed to 10 µg/mL of both CT had higher (P < 0.05) OM permeability than controls and was greater (P < 0.05) for PPC than for SF CT. Addition of both CT at 50 and 200 µg/mL caused cell aggregation which was more evident (P < 0.05) for PPC than for SF CT. Transmission electron microscopy showed electron dense material on the cell surface when cells were exposed to 50 µg/mL of PPC CT. The greater anti-E. coli activity of PPC than SF CT was due to its enhanced ability to precipitate protein that increased OM permeability and promoted cell aggregation.

  15. Population dynamics of Lanyu Scops Owls (Otus elegans botelensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Severinghaus

    1997-01-01

    Monthly visits to Lanyu Island have been made to study Lanyu Scops Owls (Otus elegans botelensis) since 1986. This population has been surveyed by regular census and playback counts, by color banding, by monitoring the survival, reproduction and movements of individual owls, and by mapping and documenting the change in nest trees.

  16. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, O.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    reflected in higher albumin (P egg excretion in Group SF was not significantly different from that of the controls (P > 0.05). Likewise, no statistical......) or concentrate and grass-clover hay (Group CO; n = 6, two pens). After 16 days of adaptation, all animals were experimentally infected with 10,000 and 66,000 third-stage larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, respectively. Egg excretion, blood parameters and bodyweights were recorded throughout...

  17. Data growth and its impact on the SCOP database: new developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Andreeva, Antonina; Howorth, Dave; Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.; Hubbard, Tim J.P.; Chothia, Cyrus; Murzin, Alexey G.

    2007-11-13

    The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a comprehensive ordering of all proteins of known structure, according to their evolutionary and structural relationships. The SCOP hierarchy comprises the following levels: Species, Protein, Family, Superfamily, Fold and Class. While keeping the original classification scheme intact, we have changed the production of SCOP in order to cope with a rapid growth of new structural data and to facilitate the discovery of new protein relationships. We describe ongoing developments and new features implemented in SCOP. A new update protocol supports batch classification of new protein structuresby their detected relationships at Family and Superfamily levels in contrast to our previous sequential handling of new structural data by release date. We introduce pre-SCOP, a preview of the SCOP developmental version that enables earlier access to the information on new relationships. We also discuss the impact of worldwide Structural Genomics initiatives, which are producing new protein structures at an increasing rate, on the rates of discovery and growth of protein families and superfamilies. SCOP can be accessed at http://scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop.

  18. Assessment of Yield and Drought Tolerance in Iranian Sainfoin Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    S. Irani; M. M. Majidi; A. Mirlohi

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate 30 sainfoin cultivars in terms of yield, agronomic and morphological traits under water stress condition, using different drought tolerannce indices. A randomized complete block design with three replications was employed during two years at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Effect of cultivars were significant for all of the measured traits at p

  19. SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins--extended, integrating SCOP and ASTRAL data and classification of new structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Naomi K; Brenner, Steven E; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Structural Classification of Proteins-extended (SCOPe, http://scop.berkeley.edu) is a database of protein structural relationships that extends the SCOP database. SCOP is a manually curated ordering of domains from the majority of proteins of known structure in a hierarchy according to structural and evolutionary relationships. Development of the SCOP 1.x series concluded with SCOP 1.75. The ASTRAL compendium provides several databases and tools to aid in the analysis of the protein structures classified in SCOP, particularly through the use of their sequences. SCOPe extends version 1.75 of the SCOP database, using automated curation methods to classify many structures released since SCOP 1.75. We have rigorously benchmarked our automated methods to ensure that they are as accurate as manual curation, though there are many proteins to which our methods cannot be applied. SCOPe is also partially manually curated to correct some errors in SCOP. SCOPe aims to be backward compatible with SCOP, providing the same parseable files and a history of changes between all stable SCOP and SCOPe releases. SCOPe also incorporates and updates the ASTRAL database. The latest release of SCOPe, 2.03, contains 59 514 Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries, increasing the number of structures classified in SCOP by 55% and including more than 65% of the protein structures in the PDB.

  20. Structural SCOP superfamily level classification using unsupervised machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Ulavappa B; Venkatesulu, M

    2012-01-01

    One of the major research directions in bioinformatics is that of assigning superfamily classification to a given set of proteins. The classification reflects the structural, evolutionary, and functional relatedness. These relationships are embodied in a hierarchical classification, such as the Structural Classification of Protein (SCOP), which is mostly manually curated. Such a classification is essential for the structural and functional analyses of proteins. Yet a large number of proteins remain unclassified. In this study, we have proposed an unsupervised machine learning approach to classify and assign a given set of proteins to SCOP superfamilies. In the method, we have constructed a database and similarity matrix using P-values obtained from an all-against-all BLAST run and trained the network with the ART2 unsupervised learning algorithm using the rows of the similarity matrix as input vectors, enabling the trained network to classify the proteins from 0.82 to 0.97 f-measure accuracy. The performance of ART2 has been compared with that of spectral clustering, Random forest, SVM, and HHpred. ART2 performs better than the others except HHpred. HHpred performs better than ART2 and the sum of errors is smaller than that of the other methods evaluated.

  1. [Molecular identification of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between alfalfa and sainfoin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Q; Jia, J F

    2000-03-01

    Somatic hybrid plants between alfalfa and sainfoin were regenerated by protoplast fusion and culture. DNA samples of the hybrid plants, hydroxyproline-resistant sainfoin plants, alfalfa cell line transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens 702 were isolated with a new and simple method. The hybridity was identified by random amplified polymorphic DNAs and Southern hybridization. Significant differences can be seen in the sequences amplified, which are specific for each parent/primer combination under the amplification conditions used. In 20 random oligonucleotide primers used, six could amplified more DNA fragments and had better polymorphisms. The results suggested that besides containing nuclear substances of two parents, the hybrid genome was inclined to eliminate sainfoin chromosome with DNA reconstruction. However, the somatic genome also could produce the sainfoin-specified DNA fragments which further confirmed by Southern hybridization. The hybrids were asymmetric and had certain regeneration ability just because the intervention of sainfoin DNA.

  2. A high level interface to SCOP and ASTRAL implemented in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqi Mansoor AS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benchmarking algorithms in structural bioinformatics often involves the construction of datasets of proteins with given sequence and structural properties. The SCOP database is a manually curated structural classification which groups together proteins on the basis of structural similarity. The ASTRAL compendium provides non redundant subsets of SCOP domains on the basis of sequence similarity such that no two domains in a given subset share more than a defined degree of sequence similarity. Taken together these two resources provide a 'ground truth' for assessing structural bioinformatics algorithms. We present a small and easy to use API written in python to enable construction of datasets from these resources. Results We have designed a set of python modules to provide an abstraction of the SCOP and ASTRAL databases. The modules are designed to work as part of the Biopython distribution. Python users can now manipulate and use the SCOP hierarchy from within python programs, and use ASTRAL to return sequences of domains in SCOP, as well as clustered representations of SCOP from ASTRAL. Conclusion The modules make the analysis and generation of datasets for use in structural genomics easier and more principled.

  3. A Network of SCOP Hidden Markov Models and Its Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Layne T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP database uses a large number of hidden Markov models (HMMs to represent families and superfamilies composed of proteins that presumably share the same evolutionary origin. However, how the HMMs are related to one another has not been examined before. Results In this work, taking into account the processes used to build the HMMs, we propose a working hypothesis to examine the relationships between HMMs and the families and superfamilies that they represent. Specifically, we perform an all-against-all HMM comparison using the HHsearch program (similar to BLAST and construct a network where the nodes are HMMs and the edges connect similar HMMs. We hypothesize that the HMMs in a connected component belong to the same family or superfamily more often than expected under a random network connection model. Results show a pattern consistent with this working hypothesis. Moreover, the HMM network possesses features distinctly different from the previously documented biological networks, exemplified by the exceptionally high clustering coefficient and the large number of connected components. Conclusions The current finding may provide guidance in devising computational methods to reduce the degree of overlaps between the HMMs representing the same superfamilies, which may in turn enable more efficient large-scale sequence searches against the database of HMMs.

  4. Lessons from making the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) and their implications for protein structure modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Antonina

    2016-06-15

    The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database has facilitated the development of many tools and algorithms and it has been successfully used in protein structure prediction and large-scale genome annotations. During the development of SCOP, numerous exceptions were found to topological rules, along with complex evolutionary scenarios and peculiarities in proteins including the ability to fold into alternative structures. This article reviews cases of structural variations observed for individual proteins and among groups of homologues, knowledge of which is essential for protein structure modelling. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Impact of variation in structure of condensed tannins from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Stringano, E.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W.H.; Carbonero, C.H.; Smith, L.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Our study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on rumen in vitro methane (CH4) production and fermentation characteristics by incubating lucerne in buffered rumen fluid in combination with different CT extracts at 0 (control), 40, 80 and 120 g CT/kg of substrate DM. Condensed tannins

  6. Sexual size dimorphism in the critically endangered Seychelles Scops Owl Otus insularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, D.; Mateman, A.C.; Lessells, C.M.; Fanchette, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Seychelles Scops Owl Otus insularis is a critically endangered species restricted to the forests of Mahé in the Republic of Seychelles, Western Indian Ocean. This study presents the first biometric data collected from live individuals and investigates the occurence of sexual size dimorphism.

  7. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P < 0.004; 8.9 vs. 8.1% GEI; P < 0.008) was greater at early, rather than at later, growth. When fed as hay (Exp. 2), sainfoin, compared with alfalfa, had greater digestibility of OM (60.5 vs. 50.3%; P = 0.007), lower digestibility of CP (64.2 vs. 68.8%; P = 0.004), yet there was no difference between the legume hays for CH4 emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for

  8. Pathogenicity of Two Populations of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood on Alfalfa and Sainfoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, D S; Gray, F A; Eckert, J W

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two populations of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, population 1 (P1) from alfalfa and population 2 (P2) from sainfoin, was studied on both alfalfa and sainfoin for 25 weeks. Alfalfa and sainfoin plants inoculated with P2 had significantly (P sainfoin, respectively. The increased virulence of P2 was again shown when means of plant species were combined (inoculation x week of count interaction). Plants inoculated with P2 had significantly higher mortality than either those inoculated with P1 or the uninoculated control beginning at week 7 and continuing through week 25. Plant stands over species at 25 weeks for the uninoculated control, P1, and P2 were 82.5, 29.0, and 18.0%, respectively. Sainfoin was significantly more susceptible to either population than alfalfa (plant species x week of count interaction). Separation between species first occurred after week 7 and continued until week 25. Percentages of plants remaining for alfalfa and sainfoin were 61.5 and 25.0 after 25 weeks. Significantly higher reproduction occurred in the alfalfa plants remaining after 25 weeks in P2 than in P1. Mean number of eggs per root system were 60,371 for P1 and 104,438 for P2, a difference of 42%. The results of this study indicate a need for breeders to adequately sample nematode populations present in the intended area of cultivar use and to design screening procedures to account for population pathogenicity variability.

  9. Assessment of Yield and Drought Tolerance in Iranian Sainfoin Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Irani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate 30 sainfoin cultivars in terms of yield, agronomic and morphological traits under water stress condition, using different drought tolerannce indices. A randomized complete block design with three replications was employed during two years at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Effect of cultivars were significant for all of the measured traits at p<0.01. Also, the interactions of cultivars by moisture environment were significant for number of days to 50% flowering; inflorescence length, fresh and dry matter yield and leaf to stem ratio, indicating that different genotypes had different responses to moisture environments. Among different drought tolerance and susceptibility indices STI, GMP and MP had high correlation coefficients with yield under stress and non stress conditions, indicating that these indices are more suitable as criterion for selection of drought-tolerant cultivars. According to the studied indices and principle component analysis, cultivars 16 (Bardsir, 21 (Fereydunshahr 2, 23 (Najafabad 2 and 27 (Borujerd were found to be the most desirable ones and can be considered as drought tolerant genotypes for future studies.

  10. SCANPS: a web server for iterative protein sequence database searching by dynamic programing, with display in a hierarchical SCOP browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas P; Webber, Caleb; Searle, Stephen; Sturrock, Shane S; Barton, Geoffrey J

    2008-07-01

    SCANPS performs iterative profile searching similar to PSI-BLAST but with full dynamic programing on each cycle and on-the-fly estimation of significance. This combination gives good sensitivity and selectivity that outperforms PSI-BLAST in domain-searching benchmarks. Although computationally expensive, SCANPS exploits onchip parallelism (MMX and SSE2 instructions on Intel chips) as well as MPI parallelism to give acceptable turnround times even for large databases. A web server developed to run SCANPS searches is now available at http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/www-scanps. The server interface allows a range of different protein sequence databases to be searched including the SCOP database of protein domains. The server provides the user with regularly updated versions of the main protein sequence databases and is backed up by significant computing resources which ensure that searches are performed rapidly. For SCOP searches, the results may be viewed in a new tree-based representation that reflects the structure of the SCOP hierarchy; this aids the user in placing each hit in the context of its SCOP classification and understanding its relationship to other domains in SCOP.

  11. Antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of edible flower of Sophora viciifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Zhigang; Cai, Le; Dai, Lin; Dong, Liuhong; Wang, Mingfeng; Yang, Yabin; Cao, Qiue; Ding, Zhongtao

    2011-06-15

    The antioxidant activities of crude extract and its derived soluble fractions from the flower of Sophora viciifolia were evaluated in five different test systems (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidant models) for the first time. The ethylacetate soluble fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant effect. Correlation analysis suggested that the flavonoids might be the major contributors for the high antioxidant activity of this flower. In addition, 11 compounds were isolated from this flower, and the antioxidant capacities of 5 flavonoids were evaluated by DPPH assay. Compound 3 (luteolin) had a significant DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and was also present at the highest concentration (5.56mg/gdrysample), implying an important role of 3 for the antioxidant activity of this flower. The study suggests that the flower of S. viciifolia can provide valuable functional ingredients and can be used for the prevention of diseases related to various oxidant by-products of human metabolism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. L'OSTRYA CARPINIFOLIA SCOP. SUL LITORALE DELLE MARCHE (ITALIA CENTRALE)

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    THE OSTRYA CARPINIFOLIA SCOP. ON THE COASTAL ZONE OF THE MARCHE (CENTRAL ITALY). Ostrya carpinifolia has been found along the coast of the Marche, this species is present in the appice at Monte Conero in the southern part of Ancona and in a few wood formations in the vicinity of the coast. These wood formations in this particular work belong to the Ostryo-Quercetum ilicis Trinajstić and the Asparago (acutifolii) - Ostryetum carpinifoliae as a new association. In the North-Eastern part of M...

  13. Collection and determination of morphological traits of sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa L. populations from Antalya natural flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiha ÇEÇEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and prior subjects in forage breeding programmes is to cultivate the wild forms of plants. In the present study; the seeds of sainfoin wild forms which are available within Antalya natural flora were collected between 2008-2011. Collected seeds were sown and between 2012-2013 years morphological traits were recorded. According to the data results of 25 populations of the sainfoin species that collected from different sites; number of days to the flowering varied between 153-159 and the number of days to the physiological maturity were 165-192 days. The color of flower was observed as purple and pink. Plant height was found as 29-98 cm. One thousand seeds weight were determined as 20-29 g. The number of flowers in the raceme changed between 12-38 while, the number of seed in the fruit changed between 2-3. It can be said that there was a wide genetic variation in terms of morphological traits. The collected genetic material can be evaluated to develop sainfoin varieties in the future breeding studies.

  14. Nutritive value and anthelmintic effect of sainfoin pellets fed to experimentally infected growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, H; Hoste, H; Gidenne, T

    2017-09-01

    Alternative strategies to synthetic chemical drugs are needed in livestock and are a key issue in organic farming today. This study aimed at examining the potentialities of sainfoin, a legume rich in condensed tannins, as a nutraceutical that combines nutritive and antiparasitic effects in rabbits. To test the effect of infection with a helminth (I: infected groups; NI: not infected groups) and the effect of substituting 40% of the alfalfa in a control diet (C) with sainfoin (diet S), four groups of 16 weaned rabbits were arranged according to a 2×2 bifactorial design. The sainfoin diet differed from the control by its tannin concentration (1.8% v. 1.0% tannic acid equivalent) and its ADL concentration (84 v. 43 g/kg). For each diet, 16 rabbits were infected with 2125 third-stage larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Growth, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and nematode faecal egg counts (FECs) were controlled for 6 weeks. A digestibility trial was performed. After necropsy, adult worms and eggs in utero per female were counted and egg-hatching rate calculated. Growth tended to be lower for S groups than for C groups (38.2 v. 39.5 g/day; P=0.06). Feed intake was higher for S groups compared with C groups (+5.2 g dry matter/day; P<0.01), as was the feed conversion ratio (3.2 v. 2.9; P<0.001), probably in relation to the dietary ADL level. Protein digestibility was reduced in S groups compared with C groups (-6.0 points; P<0.001), probably associated with the effect of the tannin concentration. Digestibility of hemicelluloses was reduced in infected rabbits compared with non-infected ones (-5 points; P=0.01). Using the substitution method, the digestible energy of dehydrated sainfoin pellets used as raw material was calculated at 11.12 MJ/kg and digestible proteins at 110 g/kg. The infection did not produce any clinical signs of digestive disorders. No differences were observed according to the diet, neither in the number of adult worms (972; P=0.50), the

  15. Antimicrobial, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities of Cotinus coggyria Scop. essential oil (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Çenet, Menderes; Oztürk, Bintuğ; Balcilar, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of Cotinus coggyria Scop.' leaves was found to be rich in α-pinene (43.1%), limonene (21.3%) and β-myrcene (8.5%). In the antimicrobial screening, essential oil was notably active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC BAA-977, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 using the disc diffusion and volatilisation assays. The fumigant assay of the essential oil caused 70% and 100% mortality on the two pest adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus and Tribolium castaneum at 80 μL L⁻¹ air concentration at 96 h, respectively. In the toxicity assay on weeds, a dose-dependent decrease was observed in the germination and seedling growth of Silybum marianum and Portulaca oleracea. The present results indicated that oil could be suggested as an effective biocontrol agent in various fields.

  16. Proteomic and metabolic profiles of Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket grown in the presence of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamalli, Manel; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Marrocco, Cristina; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello

    2015-04-01

    Recent physiological reports have documented how Cakile maritima Scop. Sea Rocket could accumulate high doses of Cd without altering its physiological parameters. In the present study, we performed an integrated proteomics (2DE) and metabolomics (HPLC-MS) investigation to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying cadmium (Cd) tolerance of this halophyte. Peculiar features were observed: (i) up-regulation of thiol compound anabolism, including glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis, which allows an intracellular chelation of Cd and its compartmentalization into vacuole by a significant up-regulation of vacuolar transporters; (ii) up-regulation of the PPP and Calvin cycle (both at the enzyme and metabolite level), which utterly promoted the maintenance of NADPH/NADP(+) homeostasis, other than the accumulation of triose-phosphates (serving as anabolic intermediates for triacylglycerol biosynthesis) and the glyoxylate precursor phosphoglycolate, to promote photorespiration and consequently CO2 release. An up-regulation of carbonic anhydrase was also observed. This halophyte is also correlated with a highly efficient antioxidant system, especially a high up-regulation of SOD1, resulting more efficient in coping with heavy metals stress than common plants. Interestingly, exposure to high Cd concentrations partly affected photosystem integrity and metabolic activity, through the up-regulation of enzymes from the Calvin cycle and glutathione-ascorbate homeostasis and PAP3 which stabilizes thylakoid membrane structures. In addition, up-regulation of Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase CYP38 increases stability and biogenesis of PSII. Finally, metabolomics results confirmed proteomics and previous physiological evidence, also suggesting that osmoprotectants, betaine and proline, together with plant hormones, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, might be involved in mediating responses to Cd-induced stress. Taken together, these peculiar features confirm that Cakile maritima

  17. Mixing sainfoin and lucerne to improve the feed value of legumes fed to sheep by the effect of condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufrère, J; Dudilieu, M; Andueza, D; Poncet, C; Baumont, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of sainfoin-based condensed tannins (CT) enhances feed value when given with tannin-free legumes (lucerne) to sheep. The experiments were conducted with fresh sainfoin and lucerne harvested at two stages (vegetative stage as compared with early flowering) in the first growth cycle. Fresh sainfoin and lucerne forages were combined in ratios of 100 : 0, 75 : 25, 25 : 75 and 0 : 100 (denoted S100, S75, S25 and S0, respectively). Voluntary intake, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and nitrogen (N) retention were measured in sheep fed the different sainfoin and lucerne mixtures. Loss of dry matter (DM) and N from polyester bags suspended in the rumen, abomasum and small intestine (SI) was also measured using rumen-fistulated sheep and intestinally fistulated sheep. The CT content in sainfoin (S100) decreased with increasing percentage of lucerne in the mixture (mean value from 58 g/kg DM for S100 to 18 g/kg DM for S25) and with growth stage (S100: 64 to 52 g/kg DM). OMD did not differ between different sainfoin/lucerne mixture ratios. Sainfoin and lucerne had an associative effect (significant quadratic contrast) on voluntary intake, N intake, total-tract N digestibility, N in faeces and urine (g/g N intake) and N retained (g/g N intake). Compared with lucerne mixtures (S0 and S25), high-sainfoin-content mixtures (S100 and S75) increased the in situ estimates of forage N escaping from the rumen (from 0.162, 0.188 for S0 and S25 to 0.257, 0.287 for S75 and S100) but decreased forage N intestinal digestibility (from 0.496, 0.446 for S0 and S25 to 0.469, 0.335 for S75 and S100). The amount of forage N disappearing from the bags in the SI (per g forage N) was the highest for high-sainfoin mixtures (from 0.082, 0.108 for S100 and S75 to 0.056, 0.058 for S25 and S0, P < 0.001). Rumen juice total N (tN) and ammonia N (NH3-N) values were the lowest in the high-sainfoin diet (mean tN 0.166 mg/g in S100 as compared with 0

  18. Use of Reflectance Measurements for the Detection of N, P, K, ADF and NDF Contents in Sainfoin Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Sebahattin

    2008-11-14

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (P), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa Lam.) pasture and canopy reflectance. Canopy reflectance measurements were made by using a portable spectroradiometer. An experiment was conducted in the Turkey in May and June in 2007 and 2008. Sainfoin pasture N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents correlated linearly with the reflectance ratios R780/650 (0.61≤ r² ≤0.80) and first derivatives of the reflectance ratios 760/630 (0.70≤ r² ≤0.84). Linear equations between each forage variable and reflectance or first derivatives reflectance had high r² (0.68≤ r² ≤0.83 and 0.79≤ r² ≤0.90, respectively) in R780 and R760 wavelengths. In stepwise regression of the reflectance (in 460, 550, 650 and 780 nm wavelengths), the r² of predicted and measured N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents of sainfoin pasture were (0.85, 0.85, 0.78, 0.81 and 0.74, respectively), in stepwise regression of the first derivatives of reflectance (in 440, 530, 630 and 760 nm wavelengths), the r² of predicted and measured N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents of sainfoin pasture were (0.87, 0.91, 0.83, 0.93 and 0.86, respectively). Our results suggest that canopy reflectance in blue, green, red and near infrared wavebands with NIR/Red and NDVI ratios can be used for nondestructive prediction of forage quality variables in sainfoin pasture.

  19. The application of multi-shoots cultures in micropropagation of willow herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium (L. Scop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreger, Mariola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Willow herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium (L. Scop. syn. Epilobium angustifolium L. from Onagraceae family is a valuable medicinal plant that has been used in the treatment of urogenital disorders including BPH (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. The raw material is a rich source of polyphenols as well as steroids, triterpenoids and fatty acids. The extracts show pharmacological activities: anti-androgen, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and analgesic properties. Due to frequent interspecific hybridization, plants collected in the wild display a diverse and variable content of active compounds. This poses a challenge in obtaining high quality and homogenous raw material. Application of the in vitro cultures and micropropagation techniques may offer a solution for alternative methods of cultivation. This work presents preliminary results of the implementation of Ch. angustifolium in vitro cultures to obtain raw material for the first time. Sterile seedlings were donors of explants, which were used for induction of multi-shoots culture according to a modified Turker’s protocol. Six different genotypes (lines originating from root explants were chosen for clonal propagation. Efficiency of the elaborated method was 16 – 20 shoots per explants. Finally, over 3000 acclimatized plants were obtained and used for field crops.

  20. Cotinus coggygria Scop.: An overview of its chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Anacardiaceae Lindl. family comprises of many species which are used in nutrition and in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of several human diseases. Cotinus coggygria Scop. commonly known as “smoke tree”, is a commercial ornamental plant with high medicinal usages, belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. The present review provides a comprehensive report of empirical investigations on important pharmacological activities and phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts. Relevant information was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic search using Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus. The plant has been extensively investigated in a broad range of studies to provide scientific evidence for folklore claims or to find new therapeutic uses. Numerous activities namely antioxidative, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antigenotoxic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory have been demonstrated for all parts of these plants by in vivo and in vitro studies. Essential oils and extracts showed various pharmacological and biological properties which make them an effective remedy for various kinds of illnesses. Considering data from the literature, it could be demonstrated that C. coggygria possesses diverse bioactive properties and immense utilization in medicine, health care, cosmetics and as health supplements.

  1. Effect of Fertilization on the Morphological Development of European Hophormbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şemsettin Kulaç

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to help the mass production of seedlings, the effect of fertilization on the morphological development of hornbeam leafy European hophornbeam (Ostry carpinifolia Scop seedlings were investigated. For this, seedlings, which were obtained from the seeds coming from different European hophornbeam populations (Düzce-Yığılca, Antalya-Finike, Antalya-Akseki, Kastamonu-Şehdağ ve Adana-Saimbeyli from various parts of Turkey, were used. European hophornbeam seedlings were treated with different fertilizers, including urea, ammonium sulphate, compound fertilizer 15-15-15 and 20-20-0, and 6-9 months Osmocote release fertilizer, and effects of these fertilizers on the morphological characters were investigated. Fertilization contained the same amount of nitrogen, and was made in three different ways; (1 mixing with habitat, (2 topical application and (3 liquid application. The development of germinated European hophornbeam seeds, which were spring-sowed in the same medium were monitored during the vegetation period. At the end of vegetation period, seedlings were removed from the soil and morphological characteristics of root (seedling length, root collar diameter, root length, fresh root and stem weight of the seedlings, dried root and stem weight of the seedlings and bud number were measured. As a result, it was observed that fertilization positively affects the development of seedlings and depending on the fertilization type the seedlings of European hophornbeam populations were found to exhibit different improvements/growing. In addition, 6-9 months Osmocote release fertilizers were determined to be the best fertilizers affecting the morphological (diameter and height development of European hophornbeam populations effectively, and among the populations, Düzce and Kastamonu populations showed the best improvement/growing.

  2. Condensed Tannin Changes along the Digestive Tract in Lambs Fed with Sainfoin Pellets or Hazelnut Skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Jessica; Drake, Christopher; Gaudin, Elodie; El-Korso, Ramzi; Hoste, Hervé; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2018-02-21

    The variable anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins (CT) against gastrointestinal nematodes may depend on CT concentration, composition, or fate along the digestive tract. We analyzed CT concentration and composition by acetone-HCl-butanol and thiolysis coupled to HPLC-MS in digesta and feces of lambs. Lambs had been infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis and received sainfoin pellets and hazelnut skins of contrasting prodelphinidin/procyanidin ratios. The digesta and feces had lower CT concentrations than the original feeds but similar concentration patterns across the digestive compartments. The changes in assayable CT concentrations between rumen, abomasum, and small intestine may be due to complex formation between CT and other dietary components. However, the large CT disappearance (61-85%) from feed to feces could also indicate that CT may have been structurally modified, degraded, or absorbed during digestion. Interestingly, there were no changes in the structural features of assayable CT in the digesta.

  3. Attelabus Nitens (Scop.) – an Abundant but Biologically Little Known Species from the Family of Attelabidae (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeňka Urbanová; Jaroslav Urban

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with the biology of Attelabus nitens (Scop.) in the Brno region. In the growing season of 2014, 35 field inspections were made at 10 sites in the intervals of three‑to‑seven days. Leaf rolls were found on Quercus petraea, Q. dalechampii, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. cerris, rarely on Castanea sativa. Hibernating in the shed leaf rolls are larvae of the second instar. These pupate in the rolls during the second half of April and beginning of May. At the turn of April and May, ...

  4. The kinetics of exsheathment of infective nematode larvae is disturbed in the presence of a tannin-rich plant extract (sainfoin) both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, S; Aufrere, J; El Babili, F; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2007-08-01

    The mode of action of bioactive plants on gastrointestinal nematodes remains obscure. Previous in vitro studies showed that exsheathment was significantly disturbed after contact with tannin-rich extracts. However, the role of important factors (extract concentration, parasite species) has not been assessed and no information is available on the occurrence in vivo. These questions represent the objectives of this study. The model incorporated the parasites Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis with sainfoin as the bioactive plant. A set of in vitro assays was performed, measuring the changes observed, after 3 h of contact with increasing concentrations of sainfoin, on the rate of artificial exsheathment. The results indicated that sainfoin extracts interfered with exsheathment in a dose-dependent manner and the process overall was similar for both nematodes. The restoration of control values observed after adding PEG to extracts confirms a major role for tannins. A second study was performed in vivo on rumen-cannulated sheep fed with different proportions of sainfoin in the diet to verify these in vitro results. The consumption of a higher proportion of sainfoin was indeed associated with significant delays in Haemonchus exsheathment. Overall, the results confirmed that interference with the early step of nematode infection might be one of the modes of action that contributes to the anthelmintic properties of tanniniferous plants.

  5. Use of Reflectance Measurements for the Detection of N, P, K, ADF and NDF Contents in Sainfoin Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Albayrak

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (P, acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents of sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa Lam. pasture and canopy reflectance. Canopy reflectance measurements were made by using a portable spectroradiometer. An experiment was conducted in the Turkey in May and June in 2007 and 2008. Sainfoin pasture N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents correlated linearly with the reflectance ratios R780/650 (0.61≤ r² ≤0.80 and first derivatives of the reflectance ratios 760/630 (0.70≤ r² ≤0.84. Linear equations between each forage variable and reflectance or first derivatives reflectance had high r² (0.68≤ r² ≤0.83 and 0.79≤ r² ≤0.90, respectively in R780 and R760 wavelengths. In stepwise regression of the reflectance (in 460, 550, 650 and 780 nm wavelengths, the r2 of predicted and measured N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents of sainfoin pasture were (0.85, 0.85, 0.78, 0.81 and 0.74, respectively, in stepwise regression of the first derivatives of reflectance (in 440, 530, 630 and 760 nm wavelengths, the r2 of predicted and measured N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents of sainfoin pasture were (0.87, 0.91, 0.83, 0.93 and 0.86, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy reflectance in blue, green, red and near infrared wavebands with NIR/Red and NDVI ratios can be used for nondestructive prediction of forage quality variables in sainfoin pasture.

  6. A new species of extinct scops owl (Aves: Strigiformes: Strigidae: Otus) from São Miguel Island (Azores Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Olson, Storrs L; Pieper, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The extinct São Miguel Scops Owl Otusfrutuosoi n. sp. is described from fossil bones found in Gruta de Água de Pau, a volcanic tube in São Miguel Island (Azores Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean). It is the first extinct bird described from the Azores and, after the Madeiran Scops Owl (O. mauli Rando, Pieper, Alcover & Olson 2012a), the second extinct species of Strigiformes known in Macaronesia. The forelimb elements of the new taxon are shorter, the hindlimb elements are longer, and the pelvis is shorter and broader than in the Eurasian Scops Owl (O. scops Linnaeus). The new species differs from O. mauli in the smaller size of many of its bones, especially the ulna and tibiotarsus. Its measurements (estimated weight, wing area, and wing loading, and the ratio of humerus + ulna + carpometacarpus length/femur length) indicate weak powers of flight and ground-dwelling habits. The latest occurrence of the new species, as evidenced by a radiocarbon date of 1970 ± 40 BP from bone collagen, indicates a Late Holocene extinction event subsequent to 49 cal BC, and was probably linked to human arrival and subsequent habitat alterations.

  7. Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes: Otus with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie David

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The island of Madagascar and surrounding volcanic and coralline islands are considered to form a biodiversity hotspot with large numbers of unique taxa. The origin of this endemic fauna can be explained by two different factors: vicariance or over-water-dispersal. Deciphering which factor explains the current distributional pattern of a given taxonomic group requires robust phylogenies as well as estimates of divergence times. The lineage of Indian Ocean scops-owls (Otus: Strigidae includes six or seven species that are endemic to Madagascar and portions of the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos; little is known about the species limits, biogeographic affinities and relationships to each other. In the present study, using DNA sequence data gathered from six loci, we examine the biogeographic history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls. We also compare the pattern and timing of colonization of the Indian Ocean islands by scops-owls with divergence times already proposed for other bird taxa. Results Our analyses revealed that Indian Ocean islands scops-owls do not form a monophyletic assemblage: the Seychelles Otus insularis is genetically closer to the South-East Asian endemic O. sunia than to species from the Comoros and Madagascar. The Pemba Scops-owls O. pembaensis, often considered closely related to, if not conspecific with O. rutilus of Madagascar, is instead closely related to the African mainland O. senegalensis. Relationships among the Indian Ocean taxa from the Comoros and Madagascar are unresolved, despite the analysis of over 4000 bp, suggesting a diversification burst after the initial colonization event. We also highlight one case of putative back-colonization to the Asian mainland from an island ancestor (O. sunia. Our divergence date estimates, using a Bayesian relaxed clock method, suggest that all these events occurred during the last 3.6 myr; albeit colonization of the Indian Ocean islands were not synchronous

  8. Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes: Otus) with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Goodman, Steven M; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Melo, Martim; Bowie, Rauri C K; Currie, David; Safford, Roger; Virani, Munir Z; Thomsett, Simon; Hija, Alawi; Cruaud, Corinne; Pasquet, Eric

    2008-07-09

    The island of Madagascar and surrounding volcanic and coralline islands are considered to form a biodiversity hotspot with large numbers of unique taxa. The origin of this endemic fauna can be explained by two different factors: vicariance or over-water-dispersal. Deciphering which factor explains the current distributional pattern of a given taxonomic group requires robust phylogenies as well as estimates of divergence times. The lineage of Indian Ocean scops-owls (Otus: Strigidae) includes six or seven species that are endemic to Madagascar and portions of the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos; little is known about the species limits, biogeographic affinities and relationships to each other. In the present study, using DNA sequence data gathered from six loci, we examine the biogeographic history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls. We also compare the pattern and timing of colonization of the Indian Ocean islands by scops-owls with divergence times already proposed for other bird taxa. Our analyses revealed that Indian Ocean islands scops-owls do not form a monophyletic assemblage: the Seychelles Otus insularis is genetically closer to the South-East Asian endemic O. sunia than to species from the Comoros and Madagascar. The Pemba Scops-owls O. pembaensis, often considered closely related to, if not conspecific with O. rutilus of Madagascar, is instead closely related to the African mainland O. senegalensis. Relationships among the Indian Ocean taxa from the Comoros and Madagascar are unresolved, despite the analysis of over 4000 bp, suggesting a diversification burst after the initial colonization event. We also highlight one case of putative back-colonization to the Asian mainland from an island ancestor (O. sunia). Our divergence date estimates, using a Bayesian relaxed clock method, suggest that all these events occurred during the last 3.6 myr; albeit colonization of the Indian Ocean islands were not synchronous, O. pembaensis diverged from O. senegalensis

  9. Patterns of in vitro rumen fermentation of silage mixtures including sainfoin and red clover as bioactive legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Copani, Giuseppe; Ginane, Cécile; Le Morvan, Aline; Niderkorn, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effects of the inclusion in silages of bioactive legumes containing condensed tannins (CF) or polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ensiled alone or in mixture with one grass species, on in vitro rumen fermentations. Six mini-silos were prepared in triplicate as follows: pure sainfoin (SF), pure red clover (RC), pure timothy (T, control without bioactive compounds); binary mixtures T-SF and T-RC (in g/kg on a DM basis, 500:500); ternary mixture T-SF-RC (in g/kg on a DM basis,...

  10. Lack of effects of quebracho and sainfoin hay on incoming third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, V; Prevot, F; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2005-09-01

    The effects of tannins on adult populations of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta in goats are characterised mainly by a decrease in egg excretion without any significant changes in worm number. In contrast, the impact of tannins on T. colubriformis or T. circumcincta third-stage larvae (L3) is associated with a significant reduction in worm establishment. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of quebracho extract tannins on H. contortus L3. The consequences of consumption of sainfoin hay were also examined. Twenty-one naïve kids were divided into three experimental groups. Group Q received quebracho extract and group S received sainfoin hay from days D3 to D5. Group C remained as an infected control group. All kids received 1500 L3 H. contortus on D0, D1 and D2. On D18, post-infection, the kids were slaughtered and the worm populations compared in the different groups. Compared to the control values, the worm counts decreased, respectively, by 33% and 38% in groups Q and S but the differences were not significant. No differences were found in pathophysiological measurements between the three groups. The results confirm differences in tannin effect according to nematode species but not parasitic stage.

  11. Global changes and animal phenotypic responses: melanin-based plumage redness of scops owls increased with temperature and rainfall during the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Paolo; Rubolini, Diego; Sacchi, Roberto; Fasola, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    The ecological effects of global climate changes include shifts of species' distribution and changes in migration strategies and phenotype. Colour polymorphism, which can be envisaged as a species' evolutionary response to alternating conditions or to a wide range of habitats, may be affected by climate changes as well. The scops owl (Otus scops) shows two main colour morphs, dark- and pale-reddish, as well as intermediate morphs. We investigated temporal trends in an index of plumage colour of Italian scops owls from museum collections (1870–2007). We found a significant increase in plumage redness over the last century, which was correlated with an increase in temperature and rainfall of the years before specimen collection. However, the temporal increase in plumage redness persisted after controlling for climatic variables, suggesting that other environmental factors could be involved. Our study indicates that ongoing climate changes might have either shifted the selective balance between colour morphs, or differentially affected migration and movement patterns of colour morphs. PMID:19411274

  12. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( < 0.001) and 1esser concentrations of MUFA ( < 0.001). The inclusion of forage legumes in the silage favored the accumulation of 18:3 -3 ( < 0.001), with the greatest concentrations being observed in SF-RC. This latter diet also led to the greatest percentage of 18:2 -6 ( < 0.001). Forage legumes decreased the -11 18:1 to 30% of T in rumen digesta ( < 0.001). Forage legumes decreased the total concentration of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen digesta (on average, -28%; < 0.001), this effect being less marked (-17%; = 0.014) in T-RC in comparison with T. The dietary treatment tended to affect the proportion of MUFA ( = 0.081) and of PUFA ( = 0.079) in the i.m. fat of the LM, respectively, at the highest and lowest numerical value in the T group. The sum of -3 fatty acids was less in the T and T-SF groups compared with the mixture of legumes without T (SF-RC; < 0.001 and < 0.008, respectively). The latter group had also a lesser -6-to--3 ratio than the T-SF group ( = 0.01). -11 18:1 was greater ( < 0.03) in lambs given T

  13. In vitro protein degradation of 38 sainfoin accessions and its relationship to tannin content by different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Martin M; Hayot Carbonero, Christine; Smith, Lydia; Udén, Peter

    2012-05-23

    This study compared 38 sainfoin and 2 Lotus accessions to their respective tannin contents, N buffer solubility, and in vitro protein degradation. Tannin contents were measured by a protein precipitation method using either bovine serum albumin or Rubisco and by the colorimetric HCl/butanol method. Precipitation of bovine serum albumin and Rubisco was highly correlated (R(2) = 0.939). Correlations between the protein precipitation variants and the HCl/butanol method were relatively low (R(2) < 0.6). Protein degradation was measured at 4 h of incubation in an inhibited in vitro system and could not be explained by any of the tannin assays (R(2) < 0.03) and only partially by N buffer solubility (R(2) ≤ 0.433). Decisive factors other than the quantity of tannins or their ability to precipitate proteins must be considered. Resistance of soluble protein toward degradation can possibly be caused by tannin protein binding.

  14. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2004-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. Therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (Rubus fructicosus, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. Because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchlus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The effects of plant extracts varied according to the plant sources, the parasite species and stages. For the woody plants, significant inhibitory effects were obtained on both stages of abomasal species. Results for T. colubriformis were more variable. Effects of sainfoin extracts were significant on T. colubriformis and H. contortus L3, and on abomasal adult worms. In order to assess the implications of tannins, polyethylene glycol (PEG), an inhibitor of tannins, was added to hazel tree, oak and sainfoin extracts. Without PEG, significant inhibitory effects on L3 and adult worms were confirmed. After addition of PEG, the larval migration and motility of adult worms were restored in most cases. These results confirm variations in effects depending on factors related to plants or parasites and suggest that tannins are partly responsible for the effects.

  15. Effects of the repeated distribution of sainfoin hay on the resistance and the resilience of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, V; De La Farge, F; Prevot, F; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2005-02-28

    Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats, the need to explore novel approaches to control nematodes and to reduce the exclusive reliance on chemotherapy is strongly demanded in this host species. In sheep, several studies have shown that the consumption of tannin-rich legume forages was associated with positive effects on host resilience and resistance to parasite infection. In goats, studies on such interactions between tanniferous plants and nematode infections remain few. The objectives of the current study were to examine under natural conditions the effects of consumption of sainfoin hay by goats on the parasite populations and on host resilience. Eighteen adult cull goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were used in the study. At the start of the assay, the goats were allocated into two groups, balanced according to weight and the levels of egg excretion. The two groups grazed separate pastures for 3 months with similar stocking rates. Goats from group S received each month indoors, for 7 days, sainfoin hay and control goats (group C) received hay of ryegrass. The diets in both groups were made isoenergetic and isoproteic and the refusals measured. Individual parasitological and pathophysiological measurements were performed fortnightly in order to compare host resistance and resilience. At the end of the study, five goats per group were necropsied. The distribution of sainfoin was associated with: (1) a higher consumption of hay; (2) significant, lower levels of nematode egg excretion which was associated with a decrease in worm fertility but no change in worm population; however, the number of intestinal worms was reduced by 50% in group S; (3) a better host resilience. In particular, after 2 months of grazing, two control goats died and half of the remaining animals needed to be treated whereas this was not the case in group S. These differences were related to

  16. Attelabus Nitens (Scop. – an Abundant but Biologically Little Known Species from the Family of Attelabidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Urbanová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the biology of Attelabus nitens (Scop. in the Brno region. In the growing season of 2014, 35 field inspections were made at 10 sites in the intervals of three‑to‑seven days. Leaf rolls were found on Quercus petraea, Q. dalechampii, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. cerris, rarely on Castanea sativa. Hibernating in the shed leaf rolls are larvae of the second instar. These pupate in the rolls during the second half of April and beginning of May. At the turn of April and May, beetles fly onto host woody plants of the 1st age class. They damage about 30 cm2 of leaves in two months. Females create about 30 leaf rolls into which they lay 1 to 5 (on average 1.1 eggs. The species develops through two larval instars, which damage 1.7 to 2.3 cm2 of leaves and come of age towards the end of the growing season. On the primary shoots of oaks (with relatively large leaves, the females rolled below‑average sized leaves. On the secondary shoots (with relatively small leaves, they rolled leaves of average to above‑average size. The female gnaws a deep mine into the main vein (in a third of its length from the adaxial side first. Then she makes a cross cut into the blade from both sides up to the main vein, which is damaged only on the surface. Into thicker sections of veins she bites out (mainly from the abaxial side on average 350 cross cuts. Only then, the female folds the wilted leaf part adaxially along the main vein and after having laid an egg (eggs, she rolls the blade from the end into a transversal cylindrical roll. On the leaves of Quercus spp. with an average area of 14.3 cm2, the females roll on average 11.9 cm2 (83.2 %. During the growing period, 36 % of individuals died in the leaf rolls on primary shoots and 28 % of individuals died in the leaf rolls on secondary shoots.

  17. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  18. [Bacteria closely related to Phyllobacterium trifolii according to their 16S rRNA gene are discovered in the nodules of Hungarian sainfoin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭmiev, Al Kh; Baĭmiev, An Kh; Gubaĭdullin, I I; Kulikova, O L; Chemeris, A V

    2007-05-01

    The population genetic diversity and phylogeny of the bacteria entering the symbiosis with sainfoin that grows on the Chesnokovskaya Mountain, Ufa region, Republic of Bashkortostan, have been studied. RAPD analysis of DNA polymorphism of the microbial strains grown from the nodules of 20 plants using several random primers detected a high degree of genetic homogeneity in their population as compared with the populations of rhizobia of other leguminous plants growing at the same site. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of the three most different samples have demonstrated that these genes were identical and display 99.9% homology with the sequence of Phyllobacterium trifolii 16S rRNA gene.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  20. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae; Boraginales to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae, and the identity of the species of Firensia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Feuillet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae.

  1. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae).

  2. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae; Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Feuillet

    2013-01-01

    Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Laurace...

  3. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Milena; Gospodarek, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg-1 and 18 g kg-1). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. After six weeks from soil contamination and five weeks from sowing the seeds, observations of the effect of petroleum-derived substances on traits of three successive generations of aphids were conducted. Aphids were inoculated separately on leaves using cylindrical cages hermetically closed on both sides. Contamination of aphid occurred through its host plant. Results showed that all tested substances adversely affected A. fabae life history traits and population dynamics: extension of the prereproductive period, reduction of fecundity and life span, reduction of the population intrinsic growth rate. In broad bean, leaf, roots, and shoot growth was also impaired in most conditions, whereas nutrient and heavy metal content varied according to substances, their concentration, as well as plant part analysed. Results indicate that soil contamination with petroleum-derived substances entails far-reaching changes not only in organisms directly exposed to these pollutants (plants), but also indirectly in herbivores (aphids) and consequently provides information about potential negative effects on further links of the food chain, i.e., for predators and parasitoids.

  4. Efeitos de hexazinone e diuron, e suas misturas, no controle de capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop em cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp Effects of hexazinone and diuron and mixtures on crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop control on sugarcane (Saccharum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido em 1976 /77, um experimento de campo em área do Centro de Tecnologia da Copersucar, em Piracicaba, SP , com a finalidade de se conhecer o efeito dos herbicidas hexazinone e diuron , assim como o de suas misturas, no controle do capim-de -colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop em avançado estádio de desenvolvimento vegetativo infestando cultura de cana-deaçúcar (Saccharum spp. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação pós - emergente de hexazinone a 0,30, 0,35, 0,45 e 0, 65 kg/h a; de diuro na 0, 88 , 1, 20 e 2, 50 kg/h a; de hexazinone -i - diuron a 0,30 0,88, 0,35 + 1 , 2 0 e 0 , 4 5 + 1 , 3 6 kg / ha . Foram incluídos mais dois tratamentos com herbicidas ( ter - bacila 0,9 6 kg/ ha e metribuzin a 1,5 0 kg/ ha e um sem herbicida, mantidos empreno limpo com o auxílio de enxada. Esses 13 tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados também os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a produção de cana -de-açúcar no campo e sobre suas características tecnológicas (Brix, Pol, Pureza, Fibra. Os melhores resultados de controle da gramínea , aos 15 dias da aplicação dos herbicidas , foram obtidos com a mistura de hexazinone a 0, 45 kg/h a com diuron a 1, 36 kg/h a. Hexazinon e a 0,6 4 kg /h a, aplicado isolado, também apresentou bons resultados de controle. Nos tratamentos com hexazinone apareceram sintomas de fitotoxicidade na cana-de-açúcar, os quais desapareceram posteriormente, sem interferir na produção. Os demais tratamentos também não foram prejudiciais à cana de-açúcar.A field experiment was carried out at the Centre of Technology of Copers ucar, Piracicaba , SP, to know the action of hexazinone and diuron and mixtures on crab grass (Digitaria sanguinali s (L . Scop control, at advanced stage of development in sugarcane crop. Treatments were post -emergence aplication of hexazinone at 0,30; 0,35; 0,45 and 0,64 kg/ha; diuron at 0,88; 1,20 ; 1,36 and 2, 50 kg/h a

  5. In vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and utilisable CP supply of sainfoin and birdsfoot trefoil silages and their mixtures with other legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Wyss, U; Arrigo, Y; Girard, M; Bee, G; Zeitz, J O; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2017-04-01

    The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) - sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) - were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined. The supply of duodenally utilisable CP (uCP) in the forages was emphasised. The legumes were each harvested from three field sites. After 24 h of wilting on the field, the legumes were ensiled in laboratory silos for 86 days. Proximate constituents, silage fermentation characteristics, CT content and CP fractions were determined. Subsequently, silage samples and 1 : 1 mixtures of the CT-containing and CT-free silages were incubated for 24 h in batch cultures using ruminal fluid and buffer (1 : 2, v/v). Each treatment was replicated six times in six runs. The effects on pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations, protozoal counts, and total gas and methane production were determined. uCP content was calculated by considering the CP in the silage and the ammonia in the incubation fluid from treatments and blanks. Statistical evaluation compared data from single plants alone and together with that from the mixtures. Among treatments, SF silage contained the least CP and the most CT. The non-protein nitrogen content was lower, favouring neutral detergent soluble and insoluble protein fractions, in the SF and RC silages. Absolute uCP content was lowest in SF and SF mixtures, although the ratio to total CP was the highest. In comparison with LU, the ammonia concentration of the incubation fluid was lower for SF, RC and BTB and for the mixture of SF with LU. The total gas and methane production was similar among the treatments, and the

  6. Seasonal and spatial root biomass and water use efficiency of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... A field study was conducted to determine seasonal root biomass, root spatial distribution and water use efficiency (WUE) in milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and Lespedeza davurica (L. davurica) grown in semiarid region on the ...

  7. INFRACŢIUNI CONTRA PATRIMONIULUI, SĂVÂRŞITE ÎN LIPSA UNUI SCOP SPECIAL (art.193, 197 şi 199 CP RM: ASPECTE TEORETICE ŞI PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu BRÎNZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prezentul articol este dedicat analizei juridico-penale a infracţiunilor contra patrimoniului, săvârşite în lipsa unui scop special. Acestea sunt prevăzute la art.193, 197 şi 199 CP RM. Sunt examinate elementele constitutive (obiectul, latura obiectivă, latura subiectivă şi subiectul, precum şi elementele circumstanţiale agravante ale infracţiunilor în cauză. Sunt propuse criterii de delimitare a infracţiunilor specificate la art.193, 197 şi 199 CP RM de faptele conexe de factură penală sau nepenală. Regulile de calificare a faptelor conform acestor articole, precum şi procedeele de interpretare a art.193, 197 şi 199 CP RM, urmăresc scopul eficientizării aplicării răspunderii pentru faptele infracţionale corespunzătoare. OFFENCES AGAINST PATRIMONY, COMMITED IN THE ABSENCE OF A SPECIAL PURPOSE (art.193, 197 and 199 PC RM: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTSThis article is dedicated to the legal-penal analysis of the offences against patrimony, committed in the absence of a special purpose. The offences mentioned above are included in art.193, 197 and 199 PC RM; there are examined the constituents (the object, objective side, subjective side and the subject, as well as the circumstantial aggravating elements of the offences in question. There are also proposed delimitation criteria of the offences specified at art.193, 197 and 199 PC RM from the ancillary penal or non-penal acts. The rules of qualification of the acts under these articles, including the methods of interpretation of art.193, 197 and 199 PC RM, aim to streamline the application of penal liability for the appropriate criminal acts. 

  8. Erzrum Çevresinde Köy Göçmen (Cirsium arvense) (L) Scop) ve Kıvırcık Labada (Rumex crispus L.) mn Köklerindeki Eriyebilir Karbonhidratlarda Gelişme Mevsimi Boyunca Meydana Gelen Değişiklikler

    OpenAIRE

    Güncan, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    ÖZETGelişme mevsimi boyunca her 15 günde bir 20-25 cm derinliktenKöy giJ"çüren (Cirsium arvl!nsr! (L.) Scop) ve Kmrcık fabada (R:ımexcrispus) L.) kiJ"kleri alınarak 105 oC de 24 saat kurutuldu ve ShaffeSmogni Metodu ilı:: eriyebilir karbonhidratları tayin edildi. GaekKöy göçüren ve gerekse Kıvırcık fabada ilkbaharda yeni topraktançıkarken köklerindeki karbonhidrat miktarı asgari ...

  9. Caracterización agronómica, genética y composición química de una colección de variedades de esparceta

    OpenAIRE

    Demdoum, Samir

    2012-01-01

    La esparceta (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) es una leguminosa forrajera tradicional en Europa, apreciada por los ganaderos por su apetecibilidad, alto valor nutritivo y no producir meteorismo en los animales. A pesar del descenso habido en las superficies cultivadas desde los años 60, el cambio hacia una agricultura más sostenible ha reactivado el interés por esta planta. Para mejorar en el conocimiento del cultivo, la presente tesis ha tenido como objetivos estudiar la variabilidad de una col...

  10. Efecto del sistema de alimentación de la oveja durante la lactación sobre los contenidos de vitaminas liposolubles en los tejidos del cordero categoría ternasco

    OpenAIRE

    Rufino Moya, Pablo; Lobón Ascaso, Sandra; Blanco Alibés, Mireia; Bertolín, J.R.; Joy Torrens, Margalida

    2017-01-01

    La alfalfa (Medicago saliva L.) y la esparceta (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) pueden ser pastadas por ovino como alternativa a la alimentación estabulada con una mezcla completa. Ambas leguminosas tienen un alto valor nutritivo y una gran capacidad productiva, pero difieren en la presencia de taninos condensados, que tiene la esparceta. La alimentación con forrajes frescos incrementa la concentración de vitaminC!s liposolubles en los tejidos y en la leche frente a la alimentació...

  11. Individual administration of three tanniferous forage plants to lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Felix; Häring, Dieter Adrian; Maurer, Veronika; Senn, Markus; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2007-05-15

    We investigated direct anthelmintic effects associated with the feeding of fresh tanniferous forages against established populations of Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei in lambs. Twenty-four parasite naive lambs were inoculated with a single dose of infective larvae of these two parasites 27 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment. Lambs were individually fed with either chicory (Cichorium intybus), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or a ryegrass/lucerne mixture (control) for 17 days. Animals where then united to one flock and subjected to control feeding for another 11 days to test the sustainability of potentially lowered egg excretion generated by tanniferous forage feeding. When compared to the control, administration of all tanniferous forages was associated with significant reductions of total daily faecal egg output specific to H. contortus (chicory: 89%; birdsfoot trefoil: 63%; sainfoin: 63%; all tests P<0.05) and a tendency of reduced H. contortus worm burden (chicory: 15%; birdsfoot trefoil: 49% and sainfoin: 35% reduction). Irrespective of the condensed tannin (CT) containing fodder, no anthelmintic effects were found against C. curticei. Cessation of CT-feeding followed by non-CT control feeding did not result in a re-emergence of faecal egg counts based on faecal dry matter (FECDM) in any group, suggesting that egg output reductions are sustainable. The moderate to high concentrations of CTs in birdsfoot trefoil (15.2 g CTs kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) and sainfoin (26.1 g CTs kg(-1) DM) were compatible with the hypothesis that the antiparasitic effect of these forages is caused by their content of CTs. For chicory (3 g CTs kg(-1) DM), however, other secondary metabolites need to be considered. Overall, birdsfoot trefoil and in particular sainfoin seem promising candidates in contributing to an integrated control strategy against H. contortus not only by mitigating parasite related health

  12. Diet of the critically endangered Seychelles Scops Owl, Otus insularis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pellets comprised exclusively of invertebrate remains: Orthoptera (64%), Coleoptera (14%), arachnids (11%) and other invertebrates (11%). Similarly, 111 (76%) of all items identified during 145 provisioning visits at two nests were invertebrates. Seventy-three (66%) were identified to morphospecies and comprised ...

  13. Aphis fabae Scop. : en aanverwante soorten in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, C.J.H.

    1927-01-01

    The black beanfly was known as Aphis rumicus L. until the studies of Börner and Janisch began in 1915. They distinguished 9 spp. with little morphological difference but with great biological differences. The group were of great economic importance because of direct damage through sucking

  14. Effect of feeding bioactive forages on infection and subsequent development of Haemonchus contortus in lamb faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrábano, J; Calvete, C; Uriarte, J

    2010-08-27

    Contrasting dried herbage diets were offered to lambs to evaluate their effects on Haemonchus contortus infection and on subsequent development of larvae in faeces. Artificially infected lambs (n=24, 4 months old) were allocated to one of four treatment groups (n=6) and fed on hay of lucerne (Medicago sativa; Lu), sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Su), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia; Sa) or wormwood (Artemisia absinthium; Wo) included as 20% in ground lucerne pellets. While voluntary intake was similar, lamb growth rates were notably affected by diet. Additionally, necropsies carried out 30 days post-infection showed that worm burden was reduced by 8 (Su), 13 (Sa) and 49% (Wo) with respect to that found in lambs fed on lucerne, though only the difference with wormwood was significant. Faecal egg excretion expressed on a dry matter basis was also reduced by 22 (Su), 54 (Sa) and 73% (Wo), but differences were significant only for wormwood and sainfoin, which was associated with a decrease in female fecundity. Sulla and sainfoin diets significantly reduced egg hatching rates but increased the percentage of L(3) in the faeces of the host animal, particularly in the case of sulla hay compared to other forages. Consequently, the potential risk of infection derived from faecal excretion could be notably altered. Further work is needed to validate these findings and their implications in an applied farming system. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Karyotype analysis of some Onobrychis (sainfoin) species in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akçelik Somay Esra; Avci S.; Uzun S.; Sancak C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, karyotype analysis of the species of Onobrychis sp. was undertaken using the squash method. The results showed that the chromosome number of Onobrychis tournefortii (Willd.) Desv., O. gracilis Besser, O. hypargyrea Boiss. is 2n = 14 and O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss., 2n = 16. The karyotype formula of O. tournefortii (Willd.) Desv. is 4m+3sm, of O. hypargyrea Boiss. and O. gracilis Besser 3m+4sm, and of O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss. 2m+ 5sm+1 st.

  16. Karyotype analysis of some Onobrychis (sainfoin species in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akçelik Somay Esra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, karyotype analysis of the species of Onobrychis sp. was undertaken using the squash method. The results showed that the chromosome number of Onobrychis tournefortii (Willd. Desv., O. gracilis Besser, O. hypargyrea Boiss. is 2n = 14 and O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss., 2n = 16. The karyotype formula of O. tournefortii (Willd. Desv. is 4m+3sm, of O. hypargyrea Boiss. and O. gracilis Besser 3m+4sm, and of O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss. 2m+ 5sm+1 st.

  17. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Three Onobrychis Species from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Karamian , Mostafa Asadbegy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant phenolic compounds are a main group of plant natural products and flavonoids are the largest and best studied natural phenols. These substances possess a series of biological properties and act on biological systems as antioxidants. In present research, the aim is to determine in vitro total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of three Onobrychis species belonging to the family Fabaceae, namely O. sosnovskyi Grossh., O. viciifolia Scop. and O. melanotricha Boiss. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify any correlations between total phenolic content of the extracts with their antioxidant activities Methods: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different test systems, namely 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DPPH, metal-chelation activity and ß-carotene/linoleic acid model. Results: Results indicated that O. viciifolia extract contains the highest total phenolic content (10.38 ± 0.33mg GAE/g of dry extract. However, the species are not remarkable different (P 0.55 to 0.98. Conclusion: Our results showed that the examined Onobrychis extracts represent strong antioxidant activity; hence, they can be suggested as antioxidant agents for special use in future.

  18. Fructan storage and regeneration of perennial weeds: Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop and Tussilago farfara (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nkurunziza, Libère; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrate storage in underground organs of perennial weeds will increase because of the increasing temperatures and CO2 concentrations that increase photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to understand the effects of temperature and shoot age on the storage of fructan, the main carbohydrate storage, and the depletion associated with regeneration during the early growth. We subjected juvenile and mature plants of Canada thistle and Coltsfoot to different temperatures, in growth cha...

  19. Spatial analysis of the habitat and distribution of Osmoderma eremita (Scop. in trees outside of woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dodelin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The endangered and specialised saproxylic beetle Osmoderma eremita occurs in veteran trees, a habitat particularly threatened by changes in agricultural landscapes. Its conservation requires information about populations and key features of host trees. Surveys of 8,014 trees (pollarded or in hedgerows were carried out and analysed, based on habitat description (tree level and spatial information (hedgerow length and distance to the nearest inhabited tree. A suitable cavity was present in 61% of the trees and O. eremita was detected in 42 trees, mainly in Salix (30 observations, the most common tree amongst those surveyed. A small or absent crown was a significant factor in explaining the beetle’s presence, as was the distance to the nearest inhabited tree. The largest population of O. eremita, 19 inhabited trees, was found in a wide and continuous area formed by trees with suitable cavities, with distances of less than 250m from each another. Seven smaller areas, with 7, 5 or 1 inhabited trees, were also found. When analysing inhabited trees on a 1km² grid, 17km2 hosted O. eremita, corresponding to a dense network of 63km of hedges. The presence of O. eremita significantly increased per km² with increasing length of hedges and this variable was thus used to guide forthcoming investigations directed toward Osmoderma. As the hedgerows existing in 1999 had decreased by 6.1% in 2009, it is concluded that the long term survival of O. eremita is under threat. The preservation of trees outside woodlands is urgent and has already started, in connection with Natura 2000 policies. Regeneration and creation of new hedgerows is also ongoing and can be reinforced both by using Salix and by promoting pruning to increase formation of cavities.

  20. Enige opmerkingen over de aanpassing van de zeeraket (Cakile maritima Scop.) aan het strand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    It has been assumed that the sea-rockets, Cakile Mill., are adapted to life on the beach. It is here suggested that the habit of the plants, their annual cycle, the structure of the fruit and the consequent distribution by the sea cannot be regarded as typical, special adaptations to the sandy

  1. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of wild-growing Micromeria thymifolia (Scop. Fritsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA A. MARIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Micromeria Benth. (Lamiaceae, Nepetoideae includes about 130 species, often aromatc. The essential oil and extracts of some Micromeria species have significant antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Micromeria thymifolia is endemic species of the Balkan peninsula. It has been traditionally used in the Mediterranean area as condiment and medicinal plant. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of essential oil of wild Micromeria thymifolia against four Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli SY252, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Salmonella enterica ATCC13076 and human patogen Burkholderia cepacia ATCC25416, four Gram positive bacteria (Enterococcus fecalis ATCC29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Listeria innocua ATCC33090 and two fungi strains (Candida albicans ATCC10231 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC9763. The MICs of M. thymifolia essential oil against tested bacteria and fungi was assessed using microtitre plate-based antimicrobial assay. MHB was used as growth media for bacteria, with exception of L. innocua when BHI was used, YPD was used for fungi. The results of our investigation showed that the essential oil of wild-growing M. thymifolia possess significant antimicrobial activity against all tested strains except the P. aeruginosa.

  2. Biological flora of the British Isles: Cakile maritima Scop

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Anthony John; Scott, Red; Cordazzo, César Vieira

    2006-01-01

    1 This account reviews information on all aspects of the biology of Cakile maritime that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles : distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history and conservation. 2 Cakile maritime (...

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity in natural European hophornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. populations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semsettin Kulac

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is a crucial component for plant survivability and fitness in terms of adaptation, genetic stability and variability. In this study, a total of 160 genotypes were investigated using 12 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers to understand the genetic structure and diversity of nine naturally distributed Ostrya carpinifolia populations in Turkey. Twelve RAPD primers yielded 111 clearly identifiable DNA bands, of which 71 bands were found to be polymorphic (64%. Observed number of alleles (Na, effective number of alleles (Ne and Nei's gene diversity (h were found as 2, 1.53 and 0.32, respectively. Total genetic variation (HT, within-population genetic variation (HS and Nei's genetic differentiation coefficient (GST were found as 0.32, 0.09 and 0.70, respectively. Genetic diversity analysis (AMOVA revealed highly significant (P < 0.001 genetic variations among and within populations. 69.94% of total variation was observed among populations while 26.69% was within populations. Gene flow value was calculated as 0.21 (Nm < 0.5, which could homogenize the genetic structure of a population. Two geographically isolated populations demonstrated high gene diversity and polymorphic loci ratio, indicating a relationship between geographic distribution of populations and eco-geographic factors. The findings of this study will pave the way for understanding the genetic diversity between inter- and intra-populations of O. carpinifolia species, as well as they would provide valuable information for management, conservation and utilization of in situ and ex situ Ostrya germplasms.

  4. NEW CYTOKINlNS - META-METHOXYTOPOLlNS IN MICROPROPAGATION OF COTINUS COGGYGRIA SCOP. 'ROYAL PURPLE'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podwyszynska, M.; Wegrzynowicz-Lesiak, E.; Doležal, Karel; Krekule, Jan; Strnad, Miroslav; Saniewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2012), s. 220-228 ISSN 1311-9109 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BA-derivatives * early senescence * in vitro propagation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.492, year: 2012 http://www.journal-pop.org/2012_12_4_220-228.html

  5. The effects of temperature on the dormancy and germination of Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bochenek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological regulation of seed dormancy in perennial species and those with a varied life cycle has not been studied in detail yet. That is why an attempt has been made to determine the Cirsium arvense seed water relations during stratification and afterripening at different temperatures and germination at constant or fluctuating temperatures on the basis of the hydrotime model. The obtained results showed that breaking of the primary dormancy of achenes took place only during the first stratification month at moderate temperatures, mainly due to an increase in the average water-stress tolerance in a seed population. The induction of secondary seed dormancy during after-ripening at all temperatures resulted mostly from a substantial loss of the seeds' ability to tolerate water stress. Fluctuating temperatures affected neither seed germination nor the hydrotime model parameters. The analysis of the variations of hydrotime model parameters allows a better understanding of the physiological basis of seed dormancy relief and induction.

  6. Direct and indirect effects of bioactive tannin-rich tropical and temperate legumes against nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Martinez-Ortiz-De-Montellano, C; Manolaraki, F; Brunet, S; Ojeda-Robertos, N; Fourquaux, I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2012-05-04

    Parasitic infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) represent a major pathological threat associated with the outdoor production of various livestock species. Up to now, the control of these parasitic diseases essentially relied on the use of commercial anthelmintic drugs. However, resistance to anthelmintics is nowadays widespread in worm populations. Recent results indicate that bioactive tanniniferous plants represent a valuable option as an alternative to commercial drugs for the control of GINs. The pertinent use of tannin-containing fodders as nutraceuticals supposes a clear understanding of the mode of action against the worms. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to discuss the nature and quantity of the active molecules involved in the anthelmintic activity; and (2) to review and analyze the changes provoked to the various parasitic stages. The possible involvement of some main polyphenols to explain the bioactivity of some tannin-rich plants will be discussed as well as the possible effects on the various nematode stages, relying on data obtained either with the temperate forage, sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifoliae) or with the tropical legume tree (Lysiloma latisiliquum). The information on the mode of action will be related to the potential consequences for better field applications under entirely different environmental and ecological conditions of productions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. [Transformation of sainfoin by Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 Bin19 and regeneration of transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Q; Ma, H J; Hao, J G; Jia, J F

    2000-03-01

    Hypocotyl segments of Onobrychis viciaefolia were transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 which harboured pBin19 and pRi1855. Seedling age and preculture time of hypocotyl segments influenced the transformation frequency. Paper electrophoresis revealed that 70% of single hairy root cultures could synthesize agropine. Calli were induced from hairy root segments on MS medium containing 0-9.05 mumol/L 2,4-D and 0-2.22 mumol/L 6-BA at first, then they were transferred onto MS0 medium without kanamycin for regeneration. Constitution and concentration of phytohormones in callus induction media affected subsequent regeneration of calluses on MS0 medium remarkably. Regeneration frequency and shoot number per callus declined when 2,4-D concentration in callus induction media increased from 4.52 to 9.05 mumol/L, while they ascended when 6-BA in callus induction media increased from 0 to 2.22 mumol/L. On MS medium supplemented with 4.52 mumol/L 2,4-D and 2.22 mumol/L 6-BA, only 14.2% hairy root segments could produce calluses, but the regeneration frequency reached 58.1% and the shoot number per callus was 37.2. In 32 analysed plants regenerated from 8 kanamycin resistant hairy root lines, 25 were nptII positive and showed different copy numbers.

  8. EARLY GROWTH AND SEEDLING MORPHOLOGY OF SPECIES OF Sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae, robinieae DESENVOLVIMENTO INICIAL E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DAS PLÂNTULAS DE ESPÉCIES DE Sesbania SCOP. (LEGUMINOSAE, ROBINIEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Ann Veasey

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize 17 accessions of Sesbania, representing S. exasperata, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, S. tetraptera and S. virgata at the seedling stage, and to evaluate the initial development during the first two months after planting. The trial was conducted in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, with 4 replications and 5 plants per plot. The traits recorded were: plant height (PH, from four observations at 15-day intervals, at 17, 32, 47 and 62 days after planting; length of hypocotyl (LH and epicotyl (LEP; length (LE1 and width (WE1 of the first eophyll; and number of leaflet pairs of the second metaphyll (NLP, evaluated 17 days after planting. Univariate analyses of variance were performed, estimating the genetic parameters: coefficient of genotypic determination (b and of genetic variation (CVg. Cluster analysis was also obtained, using the average Euclidean distance and Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA method. At 17 days after planting, S. exasperata presented the highest PH, followed by S. virgata. At 62 days after planting, S. sesban registered the highest PH. Length of hypocotyl displayed inter but not intraspecific variation. The characters LEP, LE1, WE1 and NLP showed both inter and intraspecific variation. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of 7 groups, separating the species and revealing intraspecific variation as well. The occurrence in low frequencies of two unifoliolate opposite eophylls for some species was observed, as well as bi- or trifoliolate first eophylls for one of the S. sesban accessions. These informations are basic for the selection of traits to be utilized for characterization and differentiation of Sesbania germplasm at the juvenile phase.Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar 17 acessos de Sesbania, representando as espécies S. exasperata, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, S. tetraptera e S. virgata no estágio de plântula, avaliando também o desenvolvimento inicial nos primeiros dois meses após o plantio. O ensaio foi instalado em casa-de-vegetação, em blocos casualizados com 4 repetições e 5 plantas por parcela. Avaliaram-se os seguintes caracteres: altura da planta (AP em 4 avaliações, espaçadas de 15 dias, aos 17, 32, 47 e 62 dias após o plantio; comprimento do hipocótilo (CH e do epicótilo (CEP; comprimento (CE1 e largura (LE1 do eófilo 1; e número de pares de folíolos do metáfilo 2 (NPF. A primeira AP e os demais caracteres foram avaliados aos 17 dias do plantio. Foram realizadas análises de variância univariada, estimando-se os parâmetros genéticos: coeficiente de determinação genotípica (b e de variação genética (CVg, e uma análise de agrupamento, usando distância Euclideana média e método UPGMA (Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic average. Aos 17 dias do plantio, S. exasperata apresentou maior AP, seguida de S. virgata. Aos 62 dias do plantio, S. sesban apresentou a maior AP. O caráter CH apresentou variação inter mas não intraespecífica. Já os caracteres CEP, CE1, LE1 e NPF mostraram variação tanto inter como intraespecífica. A análise de agrupamento indicou a existência de 7 grupos, separando as espécies e mostrando variação intraespecífica. Foi também observada a ocorrência, em baixas freqüências, de dois eófilos unifoliolados e opostos para algumas espécies, bem como a ocorrência de eófilos nº 1 bi- ou trifoliolados para um dos acessos de S. sesban. Estas informações são básicas para a escolha de caracteres a serem utilizados na fase juvenil para a diferenciação e caracterização de germoplasma de Sesbania.

  9. Les Scop (Sociétés Coopératives et Participatives) : des entreprises au management participatif ?

    OpenAIRE

    Stervinou, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    National audience; By essence, workers cooperatives, due to their law status and to the first aim centered on a collective project, have to develop a participative management. In the following study, thanks to an enquiry driven with chief executives and employees of worker cooperatives, it appears that the employees participation is obvious, both under financial and non-financial forms. However, the implementation of participative management is not going without posing some difficulties such ...

  10. Do heterotrophic growth factors determine occurrence and distribution of the creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. in the landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heilmann, Hartmut

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixotrophic plants take - aside the sun’s energy - energetic advantage of organic sources which can be described as parasitism, probiosis, symbiosis or saprotrophism. Holoparasites like broomrape (Orobanche minor L. or clover dodder (Cuscuta epithymum ssp. trifolii are limited to their host plants. Orchids live on different probioses and symbioses. Also thistles (Cirsium arvense L occur as mixotroph plants and develop to weeds. Their occurrence shows different nutritional patterns. Aspects of new scientific results are discussed. Hints to regulation of thistles on this basis are given.

  11. The Study of Perennial Grasses and Legumes Mixtures in the Environmental Conditions Part 1: The Evolution of Mixtures Productivity from Someşelor Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin-Benone Pleşa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lately it is a high interest in the establishing of temporary grasslands, these being considered a valuable source of fodder from the quantitative and qualitative point of view. Temporary grasslands can be established instead of degraded permanent grasslands or in arable lands. In the paper are presented the results of the research which took place in 2010 and 2011, regarding the fodder evolution of a double factor experience; A factor – mixtures (8 complex mixtures of perennial grasses and legumes and one alfalfa pure crop, considered as a witness,B factor – levels of fertilization (0N0P2O5, 60N70P2O5,120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1. In 2010 the highest productions (13.16 SU t·ha-1 were obtained at all the cycles from the 5th mixture composed from red clover and 4 species of grasses Trifolium pratense L., Dactylis glomerata L., Festulolium Asch. & Graebn., Phleum pratense L., Lolium perenne L.. In 2011, mixture number 3, recognized as being recommended for the forest steppe area and composed from Lotus corniculatus L.,Onobrychis viciifolia Scop., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca pratensis Huds., Bromus inermis Leyss, presented the highest productions (4.82 t·ha-1 for the 60N70P2O5 and 120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1 levels of fertilization.

  12. Testing for direct anthelmintic effects of bioactive forages against Trichostrongylus colubriformis in grazing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadou, S; Tzamaloukas, O; Kyriazakis, I; Jackson, F; Coop, R L

    2005-02-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate potential direct anthelmintic effects of forages that contain plant secondary metabolites (PSM) towards the intestinal nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. For this purpose, we introduced an experimental design, which enabled us to investigate the direct anthelmintic effects of PSM-rich forages, without significant interference of possible indirect immunological effects of PSM. Sixty parasite naive sheep were infected with 8000 T. colubriformis L(3) on day 1 of the experiment. On day 28, sheep entered one of the experimental plots, which consisted of four PSM-rich forages and one control: Lotus pedunculatus (lotus), Hedysarium coronarium (sulla), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens (grass/clover). On day 35 of the experiment, all sheep were re-infected with 8000 T. colubriformis L(3) and were killed on day 42. By day 42, all parasites of the primary infection would have been recovered as adults, whereas those of the secondary challenge would have only developed to the fourth stage larvae within a week (i.e. days 35-42). The first batch of larvae would enable us to investigate possible direct anthelmintic effects of PSM-rich forages against adult T. colubriformis, whereas the second one whether grazing on the PSM-rich forages could affect the establishment of the incoming infective larvae. Sheep grazing on lotus tended to have a lower FEC compared to sheep grazing on grass/clover (P = 0.06), whereas daily faecal output was higher in sheep grazing lotus compared to those grazing on the other forages (P forages for a period of 2 weeks did not affect the immature and adult parasite populations. Although the present experimental design enabled us to test the experimental hypothesis, the lack of evidence on a direct anthelmintic effect of PSM-rich forages can not be considered conclusive, as the composition of PSM-rich forages is variable within and across

  13. A study of the effect of the FertilMate™ scrotum cooling patch on male fertility. SCOP trial (scrotal cooling patch - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male infertility is a significant contributor to the need for fertility treatment. Treatment currently involves correcting any identifiable adverse lifestyle factors in men with suboptimal sperm parameters, and if these measures are unsuccessful, assisted conception is offered, which can be quite expensive. Raised scrotal temperature is one of the least studied but easily corrected risk factors for male infertility. In a recent review of the literature, sperm count, motility and morphology improved with scrotal cooling devices. The devices used to achieve testicular cooling were, however, not practical for day-to-day use. A potentially more practical device for scrotal cooling has recently been developed. The Babystart® FertilMate™ Scrotum Cooling Patch is a hydrogel pad which allows for comfortable application. The aims of this study were to investigate whether exposing the scrotum to lower temperatures by means of these new patches could improve semen parameters, thereby improving fertility, and to assess the feasibility of a clinical trial. Methods/design This is a randomised controlled trial set in a university teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. The proposed sample size was 40 men with mild, moderate or severe oligoasthenospermia, of whom 20 would be randomised to wearing the scrotum cooling patch for 90 days and 20 men would be acting as controls and not wearing the patches. The primary outcome measure was the change in sperm concentration. Secondary outcome measures included the change in sperm volume, motility and morphology; endocrine parameters; metabolomic biomarkers; testicular volume and blood flow. Reasons for dropping out and non-compliance were also going to be noted and reported. Discussion The study started recruiting in October 2011 and as of November 2011 four men had been consented and were participating in the study. No operational challenges had been encountered at the time of the submission of this manuscript. Although the study also aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a definitive study, the change in sperm count after 90 days of wearing the scrotal cooling patches was made the primary outcome measure because a statistically significant improvement in sperm parameters with the scrotal patches would in itself be a definitive finding. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN94041896

  14. Allelopathic effects of water extracts of Sorghum halepense (L. Pers., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Cirsium arvense Scop. on early seedling growth of some leguminous crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Golubinova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the allelopathic effect of aboveground dry biomass of Sorghum halepense, Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense on seed germination and early seedling growth of Pisum sativum (L., varieties Mir (winter form and Kerpo (spring form; Vicia sativa (L., variety Tempo, and Medicago sativa (L., variety Dara, a laboratory experiment was conducted at the Institute of Forage Crops - Pleven. Four concentrations: 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% were applied to each weed biotype used to study allelopathic effects. The results showed that weed extracts significantly decreased germination percentage, shoot and root length (cm, shoot and root weight (g, and seed vigor index (SVI1 and SVI2 of the tested species. In general, the variable effects are related to the weed species and extract concentrations.

  15. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  16. Soil redistribution and nutrient delivery in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem with different crops and management: environmental and economic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are characterised by fragmented fields and patched vegetation. This shape governs the spatial patterns of water, soil and nutrient redistribution. Rainfall parameters, human infrastructures, crop management, support practices, and land use changes (set aside crops, land abandonment) control the magnitude of these processes. Under rain-fed water supply conditions, runoff generation and soil water content are two important factors in determining crop yield. Soil erosion and nutrient delivery are two of the factors which limit crop yield and thus, the gross earning of the landowner. In hilly landscapes, farmers usually supply extra soil to fill in the ephemeral gullies, and nutrient replenishment with fertilizers is a common practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental (runoff yield, soil erosion and nutrient delivery) and economic (replenishment of soil and nutrient losses with new soil and fertilizers) consequences of different conventional and conservative practices (fallow/crop rotation, cover crops, land abandonment, buffer strips) in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem (27 ha) with vineyards, cereal crops, cultivated and abandoned olive orchards, several trails and patches of natural vegetation. The five winter cereal fields (wheat and barley) follow fallow/crop rotation. The four vineyards are devoted to the Garnacha variety: one planted in 2007 with white wine grapes, and three planted in 2008 with red wine grapes. The inter-crop strips are managed with a mixture of plant species as cover crop (CC), including: i) spontaneous vegetation, and ii) plantation of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The maintenance of the CC includes one mowing pass at the end of spring, between May and June. The appearance and development of ephemeral gullies and the deposition of soil at the bottom of the hillslope are two of the main concerns of the landowners. In some places, the accumulation of soil complicates grape

  17. The value of protein structure classification information-Surveying the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Naomi K; Brenner, Steven E; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2015-11-01

    The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) and Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology (CATH) databases have been valuable resources for protein structure classification for over 20 years. Development of SCOP (version 1) concluded in June 2009 with SCOP 1.75. The SCOPe (SCOP-extended) database offers continued development of the classic SCOP hierarchy, adding over 33,000 structures. We have attempted to assess the impact of these two decade old resources and guide future development. To this end, we surveyed recent articles to learn how structure classification data are used. Of 571 articles published in 2012-2013 that cite SCOP, 439 actually use data from the resource. We found that the type of use was fairly evenly distributed among four top categories: A) study protein structure or evolution (27% of articles), B) train and/or benchmark algorithms (28% of articles), C) augment non-SCOP datasets with SCOP classification (21% of articles), and D) examine the classification of one protein/a small set of proteins (22% of articles). Most articles described computational research, although 11% described purely experimental research, and a further 9% included both. We examined how CATH and SCOP were used in 158 articles that cited both databases: while some studies used only one dataset, the majority used data from both resources. Protein structure classification remains highly relevant for a diverse range of problems and settings. © 2015 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The value of protein structure classification information—Surveying the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Naomi K.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) and Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology (CATH) databases have been valuable resources for protein structure classification for over 20 years. Development of SCOP (version 1) concluded in June 2009 with SCOP 1.75. The SCOPe (SCOP–extended) database offers continued development of the classic SCOP hierarchy, adding over 33,000 structures. We have attempted to assess the impact of these two decade old resources and guide future development. To this end, we surveyed recent articles to learn how structure classification data are used. Of 571 articles published in 2012–2013 that cite SCOP, 439 actually use data from the resource. We found that the type of use was fairly evenly distributed among four top categories: A) study protein structure or evolution (27% of articles), B) train and/or benchmark algorithms (28% of articles), C) augment non‐SCOP datasets with SCOP classification (21% of articles), and D) examine the classification of one protein/a small set of proteins (22% of articles). Most articles described computational research, although 11% described purely experimental research, and a further 9% included both. We examined how CATH and SCOP were used in 158 articles that cited both databases: while some studies used only one dataset, the majority used data from both resources. Protein structure classification remains highly relevant for a diverse range of problems and settings. Proteins 2015; 83:2025–2038. © 2015 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26313554

  19. Experience in Rearing Common Carder Bees (Bombus pascuorum Scop., with Some Notes on Three Similar Species: Shrill Carder Bee (B. sylvarum L., Red-shanked Carder Bee (B. ruderarius Müll., and Brown-banded Carder Bee (B. humilis Ill. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Ptáček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearing method under controlled conditions known for Bombus terrestris was successful in initiating egg-laying for 83% of B. pascuorum queens. After larvae had hatched, fresh pollen pellets needed to be inserted into brood pockets daily. After the first workers had emerged, colony development was advanced by placing them outdoors and supplying them with a sugar solution and pollen. The bees were able to use tightly pressed pollen from small plastic pots inserted near the brood. This feeding resulted in large colonies that produced dozens of young queens. In contrast, colonies managed in the laboratory were unable to utilize pollen in a similar manner. They raised only a few workers and several queens. Mating young queens was easy. It was stimulated by daylight, but in the case of B. humilis by direct sunshine. Several B. pascuorum and B. sylvarum queens were overwintered and began the new generation under artificial conditions. However, a lack of fresh pollen limited the development of colonies outside of the vegetation period.

  20. Validation of a Best-Fit Pharmacokinetic Model for Scopolamine Disposition after Intranasal Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S-L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Motion Sickness. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were determined per Investigative New Drug (IND) evaluation guidance by the Food and Drug Administration. Earlier, we reported the development of a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine (SCOP) concentrations using data collected from an IND clinical trial with INSCOP. This data analysis project is designed to validate the reported best fit PK model for SCOP by comparing observed and model predicted SCOP concentration-time profiles after administration of INSCOP.

  1. Analysis on sliding helices and strands in protein structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    2007-06-16

    Holm ... enable identification of conserved core of a protein fold it is not clear if the quality of .... Percentage of pairs of secondary structural elements for various SCOP classes (a) alpha helices (b) beta strands. Number of pairs.

  2. Monitoring birds, reptiles and butterflies in the St Katherine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sylvia leucomelaena) and Upcher's warbler (Hippolais languida); and residents such as Verreaux's Eagle (Aquila verreauxi), Hume's Tawny Owl (Strix butleri) and Striated Scops Owl (Otus brucei). Estimates of bird density and descriptions of ...

  3. Formation of ectomycorrhizae following inoculation of containerized Sitka spruce seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.G. Shaw; R. Molina

    1980-01-01

    Containerized Sitka spruce, [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] were inoculated at sowing with pure cultures of either Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, Laccaria laccata (Scop. ex Fr.) Berk. & Br., Astraeus pteridis (Shear) Feller, Amanita pantherina...

  4. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Seema; Sangma, Tultul; Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2015-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) is commonly known as cinnamon in traditional system of medicine having antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and other activities. The present study was designed to assess the effect of extract of CZ bark on cognitive performance of scopolamine (SCOP)-treated rats and on associated altered oxidative stress markers in the brain of rats. The extract was administered orally in three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for a period of 21 days. SCOP was administered in the dose of 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance step-down tasks were performed to assess cognitive functions. At the end of the study, oxidative stress parameters namely, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also analyzed in the brain tissue of rats. SCOP-treated group showed significantly impaired acquisition and retention of memory as compared to the saline- and vehicle-treated groups. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 21 days significantly reversed SCOP-induced amnesia as evidenced by increased step-down latency in passive avoidance and decreased latency in Morris water maze test compared to the SCOP-treated group. SCOP administration also caused the increase of MDA and reduction of GSH levels. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and increase in GSH levels as compared to the SCOP-treated animals. The results suggest that CZ can induce cognitive improvement in SCOP-treated rats and this effect can be attributed to a certain extent to decreased oxidative stress.

  5. D-cycloserine attenuates scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, R J; Ince, E S; Carlezon, W A; Dunn, R W

    1993-03-01

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (SCOP; 1.0 mg/kg, ip) impaired both the acquisition of a learning task in the Morris water maze (MWM) and choice accuracy in the T-maze reinforced alternation procedure in rats. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) have been shown to attenuate these deficits. D-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex, was investigated for its effects on SCOP-induced dementia in the MWM and T-maze paradigms. Combined administration of SCOP and DCS (3.0, 10.0, or 30.0 mg/kg, ip; 30 min pretreat) significantly reversed SCOP-induced deficits in the T-maze as measured by percentage correct choices. In addition, DCS (3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, ip) significantly attenuated SCOP-induced deficits in the MWM as measured by latency to find the submerged platform. For comparison, the long-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galanthamine (GAL) was tested in the T-maze (1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg, ip) and the MWM (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg, ip). GAL attenuated SCOP-induced deficits in both learning and memory models similar to DCS. These data suggest that the strychnine-insensitive partial glycine agonist, D-cycloserine, may be efficacious in disease states of central cholinergic hypofunction such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Moisture dependent of some physical and morphological properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... properties of sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa Lam.), grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd.) seeds. J. Appl. Sci. 6(6): 1373-1379. Altuntas E (2007). Some physical properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) seeds. Tarım Bilimleri. Dergisi. 14(1): ...

  7. TDZ-induced plant regeneration in Astragalus cicer L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Adventitious root formation is very important for the vegetative propagation and a key step in micropropagated systems. Low frequency of rooting has been reported for some forage legumes such as sainfoin. (Pupilli et al., 1989) and alfalfa (Özgen et al., 1998) which appears to be a problem in regenerated ...

  8. SOLID participatory research from Denmark: Use of herbs in pastures for dairy cows: Farmers’ experience, pasture coverage analyses, and literature survey of Danish research results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Karydi, Emmanouela; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    chicory and salad burnet. In both fields, birdsfoot trefoil, yellow sweet clover, Sainfoin and starflower never established although the originally seed mixture had a quite high content of their seeds. The plant coverage analyses of the fields which were one to six years old, generally, dandelions...

  9. Crop growth rate differs in warm season C4-grasses grown in pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-23

    Jul 23, 2014 ... sainfoin-grass. Competition for nutrients among neighbouring roots occurs when their individual nutrient depleted volumes overlap, causing a reduction in nutrient uptake. Plants with contrasting root architecture (root length and numbers) may reduce the extent of competition among neighbouring root ...

  10. Voluntary intake of several planted pastures by sheep and an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pastures observed included ryegrass, cocksfoot, C. dactylon, Smuts finger, triticale, E. curvula, Eragrostis - lucerne combination, lucerne and sainfoin. Nitrogen content of oesophageal samples varied between 2, 3 and 5, 15 NDF between 33 and 65% and IVDOM between 50 and 80%. Intake of grass DOM varied from 24, ...

  11. [Energy and nutrient characteristics of Carex lanceolata in Ziwuling of Loess Plateu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-ling; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2008-01-01

    The study on the energy and nutrient characteristics of Carex lanceolata, a dominant companion species in different plant communities in Ziwuling forest area of Loess Plateau showed that the ash free caloric values of the aboveground and underground parts of the species tended to decline in the communities experienced different successional stages. The aboveground part of C. lanceolata had the highest ash free caloric value in Sophora viciifolia community and the lowest in Hippophae rhamnoides community. The underground part of C. lanceolata had the highest ash free caloric value in S. viciifolia community and the lowest in Quercus liaotungensis community. The aboveground part of C. lanceolata had a remarkably higher caloric value than its underground part, and the underground part appeared to extremely significantly differ in gross and ash-free caloric values among different communities. The caloric value of C. lanceolata varied greatly in the communities going through their early successional stages (S. viciifolia, H. rhamnoides, Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla communities), and less greatly in the communities experiencing their later successional stages (Pinus tabulaeformis and Q. liaotungensis communities). There was a significant positive correlation between the gross caloric value and the C/N ratio in the underground part of C. lanceolata.

  12. Novel peptide VIP-TAT with higher affinity for PAC1 inhibited scopolamine induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Yang, Yanxu; Cui, Zekai; Zheng, Lijun; Zeng, Zhixing; Zhang, Huahua

    2014-10-01

    A novel peptide VIP-TAT with a cell penetrating peptide TAT at the C-terminus of VIP was constructed and prepared using intein mediated purification with an affinity chitin-binding tag (IMPACT) system to enhance the brain uptake efficiency for the medical application in central nervous system. It was found by labeling VIP-TAT and VIP with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) that the extension with TAT increased the brain uptake efficiency of VIP-TAT significantly. Then short-term and long-term treatment with scopolamine (Scop) was used to evaluate the effect of VIP-TAT or VIP on Scop induced amnesia. Both short-term and long-term administration of VIP-TAT inhibited the latent time reduction in step-through test induced by Scop significantly, but long-term administration of VIP aggravated the Scop induced amnesia. Long-term i.p. injection of VIP-TAT was shown to have positive effect by inhibiting the oxidative damage, apoptosis and the cholinergic system activity reduction that induced by Scop, while VIP exerted negative effect in brain opposite to that in periphery system. The in vitro data showed that VIP-TAT had not only protective but also proliferative effect on Neuro2a cells which was inhibited by PAC1 antagonist PACAP(6-38). Competition binding assay and cAMP assay confirmed that VIP-TAT had higher affinity and activation for PAC1 than VIP. So it was concluded that the significantly stronger protective effect of VIP-TAT against Scop induced amnesia than VIP was due to (1) the enhanced brain uptake efficiency of VIP-TAT and (2) the increased affinity and activation of VIP-TAT for receptor PAC1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic substances on human thermoregulation during cold provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribukait, A; Nobel, G; Mekjavic, I B; Eiken, O

    2010-01-15

    The roles of histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the regulation of body temperature have been studied almost exclusively in animals. Recently, we have found that motion sickness, i.e. a condition where hippocampal cholinergic mismatch signals induce a release of histamine in the vomiting centre, accelerates the decline in body temperature in men during exposure to cold. In the present study we measured the thermoregulatory effects of two substances commonly used against motion sickness, i.e. the histamine (H1) receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine receptor blocker scopolamine (SCOP). In three trials, control (CN), DMH and SCOP, 10 male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90 min. The trials were separated by a minimum of three days and their order was alternated between subjects. In all trials the subject received, in a double blind fashion, a transdermal patch (SCOP or placebo) 12-14 h before immersion and a tablet (DMH or placebo) 1h before immersion. Mean skin temperature, rectal temperature (T(rec)), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (T(ff)), and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) were recorded. The fall in T(rec) was smaller in the DMH than in the CN and SCOP conditions. The recordings of T(ff) and VO(2) suggest that SCOP attenuates peripheral vasoconstriction while DMH increases shivering thermogenesis. Notably, thermal discomfort was reduced in the SCOP condition. Findings are thoroughly discussed in the context of animal studies on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of thermoregulation and motion sickness.

  14. Triticum aestivum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... NC, USA. Türk M, Çelik N (2005). Farklı sıra araları ve tohum miktarlarının korunga'nın (Onobrychis sativa L.) tohum verimi üzerine etkileri. Anadolu J. AARI, 15(2): 43-57. Türk M, Çelik N (2006). Correlation and path coefficient analyses of seed yield components in the Sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa L.). J. Biol.

  15. De verspreiding van virusziekten van de aardappel (Solanum tuberosum L.) door insekten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elze, D.L.

    1927-01-01

    The object was to study the relation between virus and the transmitting insect, especially the aphids Myzus persicae Sulz., Myzus pseudosolani Theob., Macrosiphum solanifold Ashm., Aphis rhamni Fonsc. and Aphis fabae Scop. The diseases studied were leafroll,

  16. Propuesta de un modelo asociativo de gestion exportadora a partir del analisis del sector de confecciones del departamento del Atlantico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olave Gutierrez, Jorge Eliecer

    2005-01-01

    ... competitividad, cadena de valor, asociatividad. Abstract The main target of this investigation was to identify the key factors, that have allowed to Pymes of the textile sector of the departmento del Atlantico to be successful in their exporting management of 1999-2003, characterizing them and diagnosing them by the different enterprise scop...

  17. Genome size unaffected by moderate changes in climate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nuclear DNA amount has been assessed in a set of 6 Mediterranean plant species including subshrubs, shrubs and trees (Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Erica multiflora L., Fumana ericoides (L.) Webb, Globularia alypum L., Pinus halepensis Mill and Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Genome size values have been assessed ...

  18. Registration and Release of Syn1RR tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service of the United States DepaRRment of Agriculture announces the release of the new tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] cultivar Syn1RR. Syn1RR is a rust tolerant tall fescue cultivar that exhibits...

  19. Evaluation of different methods to overcome in vitro seed dormancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... (Figure 3d). On the other hand, there were no significant ... The second better treatment .... hook is exposed to light, it opens because the elongation rate of the .... provenances of smoke-tree (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) seeds in.

  20. Studies on the weed pathosystems Cirsium arvense - Puccinia punctiformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzen, P.A.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The biology and epidemiology of the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis (Str.) Röhl was investigated to evaluate the potential of this rust as a biological agent against the clonal plant species Cirsium arvense (L) Scop., which is considered

  1. ASTRAL compendium enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Walker, Nigel; Lo Conte, Loredana; Koehl, Patrice; Levitt, Michael; Brenner, Steven E.

    2001-09-18

    The ASTRAL compendium provides several databases and tools to aid in the analysis of protein structures, particularly through the use of their sequences. It is partially derived from the SCOP database of protein domains, and it includes sequences for each domain as well as other resources useful for studying these sequences and domain structures. Several major improvements have been made to the ASTRAL compendium since its initial release 2 years ago. The number of protein domain sequences included has doubled from 15190 to 30867, and additional databases have been added. The Rapid Access Format (RAF) database contains manually curated mappings linking the biological amino acid sequences described in the SEQRES records of PDB entries to the amino acid sequences structurally observed (provided in the ATOM records) in a format designed for rapid access by automated tools. This information is used to derive sequences for protein domains in the SCOP database. In cases where a SCOP domain spans several protein chains, all of which can be traced back to a single genetic source, a 'genetic domain' sequence is created by concatenating the sequences of each chain in the order found in the original gene sequence. Both the original-style library of SCOP sequences and a new library including genetic domain sequences are available. Selected representative subsets of each of these libraries, based on multiple criteria and degrees of similarity, are also included. ASTRAL may be accessed at http://astral.stanford.edu/.

  2. Deleting Both PHLPP1 and CANP1 Rescues Impairments in Long-Term Potentiation and Learning in Both Single Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Jiandong; Wang, Yubin; Lopez, Dulce; Tran, Jennifer; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Calpain-1 (CANP1) has been shown to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, as its deletion in mice results in impairment in theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced LTP and various forms of learning and memory. Likewise, PHLPP1 (aka SCOP) has also been found to participate in learning and memory, as PHLPP1 overexpression…

  3. Global soil moisture from the aquarius satellite: Description and initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquarius satellite observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Although Aquarius was designed for ocean salinity mapping, our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scop...

  4. Catalogue of the Coreidae in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie : Part II. Coreinae, first part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1935-01-01

    STENOCEPHALINI Stenocephalus agilis Scop. 1-2. Staff, Fichtelgebirge, Bavaria. — 3. Toulon, 1894, Dr. Nodier. — 4-5. Cauterets. — 6. Rivièra, France, 1896, Brants. — 7. Capo di Ponte, Italia, August 1895, Fokker. — 8. Ivize, Spain, Schmiedeknecht. — 9. Finstermünz, Tyrol, Sept. 1895, Fokker. —

  5. Comparison between barn owl pellet and fox scat analysis in small mammal survey / Analisi di borre di barbagianni e di feci di volpe: confronto tra due metodologie per il rilevamento di piccoli mammiferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agnelli

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of a small mammal survey 100 barn owl (Tyto alba Scop. pellets and 50 fox (Vulpes vulpes L. scats were collected at "Villa Demidoff Park" (Florence, Italy during six weekly samp1ings in the spring. Scat and pellet analyses were compared in order to point out advantages and disadvantages of these techniques as a tool in small mammal surveys. Riassunto In uno studio sul popolamento di piccoli mammiferi nel "Parco di Villa Demidoff" (Firenze, Italia realizzato durante il periodo primaverile, sono state analizzate 100 borre di barbagianni (Tyto alba Scop. e 50 feci di volpe (Vulpes vulpes L., raccolte nel corso di sei campionamenti a frequenza settimanale. Queste due metodologie sono state messe a confronto evidenziandone applicabilità e funzionalità come strumento di indagine per il rilevamento di piccoli mammiferi.

  6. The ameliorating effects of cognition-enhancing Chinese herbs on scopolamine- and MK-801-induced amnesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Chun-Ju; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen

    2003-01-01

    The study was to investigate the ameliorating effects of three Chinese herbs--Achyranthes bidentata (AB), Ophiopogon japonicus (OJ) and Cnidium monnieri (CM) on scopolamine (SCOP)- and MK-801-induced amnesia by using a passive avoidance task in rats. AB, OJ and CM at 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg prolonged the step-through latency (STL) of the retention trial. In addition, AB, OJ and CM reversed the STL shortened by MK-801, but only AB reversed the STL shortened by SCOP. In conclusion, these Chinese herbs possess cognition-enhancing activities and anti-amnestic effects, but the mechanism of the effect of AB was different from those of OJ and CM.

  7. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  8. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities.

  9. Integration of knowledge-based, qualitative and numeric tools for real time dynamic systems supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez i Frigola, Joaquim

    1998-01-01

    The proposal presented in this thesis is to provide designers of knowledge based supervisory systems of dynamic systems with a framework to facilitate their tasks avoiding interface problems among tools, data flow and management.The approach is thought to be useful to both control and process engineers in assisting their tasks. The use of AI technologies to diagnose and perform control loops and, of course, assist process supervisory tasks such as fault detection and diagnose, are in the scop...

  10. Modeling the Role of Context Dependency in the Recognition and Manifestation of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Mithani, Murad A.; Veloz, Tomas; Gabora, Liane

    2013-01-01

    The paper uses the SCOP theory of concepts to model the role of environmental context on three levels of entrepreneurial opportunity: idea generation, idea development, and entrepreneurial decision. The role of contextual-fit in the generation and development of ideas is modeled as the collapse of their superposition state into one of the potential states that composes this superposition. The projection of this collapsed state on the socio-economic basis results in interference of the develop...

  11. Polypeptide Composition of Envelope Membranes Isolated from Chloroplasts of C_3, C_4, and CAM Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce G., Foster; Gerald E, Edwards; Department of Botany, Washington State University:(Present)United States Department of Agriculture, Appalachian Soil and Water Conservation Research Laboratory; Department of Botany, Washington State University

    1983-01-01

    Chloroplast envelopes were isolated from chloroplasts purified from Spinacea oleracea L. (C_3), Panicum miliaceum L. (NAD-malic enzyme-type C_4), Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. (NADP-malic enzyme-type C_4). Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier (constitutive CAM), and from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (inducible CAM) performing either C_3 photosynthesis or Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). For each species, methods were developed to isolate chloroplast envelopes free of thylakoid ...

  12. Supply chain collaboration and responsiveness : a comparison between Thai automotive and electronics industries

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors that promote firms to develop supply chain collaborations (SCC) with their partners and relationships between SCC and supply chain operational performances (SCOP), using a questionnaire survey on Thai automotive and electronics industries in 2012. This paper also carries out a comparative study on these questions between the electronics and automotive industries. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions verifY that supplier evaluation and audit is a foundation fo...

  13. D-cycloserine in prelimbic cortex reverses scopolamine-induced deficits in olfactory memory in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Portero-Tresserra

    Full Text Available A significant interaction between N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and muscarinic receptors has been suggested in the modulation of learning and memory processes. The present study further investigates this issue and explores whether d-cycloserine (DCS, a partial agonist at the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptors that has been regarded as a cognitive enhancer, would reverse scopolamine (SCOP-induced amnesia in two olfactory learning tasks when administered into the prelimbic cortex (PLC. Thus, in experiment 1, DCS (10 µg/site was infused prior to acquisition of odor discrimination (ODT and social transmission of food preference (STFP, which have been previously characterized as paradigms sensitive to PLC muscarinic blockade. Immediately after learning such tasks, SCOP was injected (20 µg/site and the effects of both drugs (alone and combined were tested in 24-h retention tests. To assess whether DCS effects may depend on the difficulty of the task, in the STFP the rats expressed their food preference either in a standard two-choice test (experiment 1 or a more challenging three-choice test (experiment 2. The results showed that bilateral intra-PLC infusions of SCOP markedly disrupted the ODT and STFP memory tests. Additionally, infusions of DCS alone into the PLC enhanced ODT but not STFP retention. However, the DCS treatment reversed SCOP-induced memory deficits in both tasks, and this effect seemed more apparent in ODT and 3-choice STFP. Such results support the interaction between the glutamatergic and the cholinergic systems in the PLC in such a way that positive modulation of the NMDA receptor/channel, through activation of the glycine binding site, may compensate dysfunction of muscarinic neurotransmission involved in stimulus-reward and relational learning tasks.

  14. Efficacy of EMG- and EEG-Biofeedback in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis and a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Anna Glombiewski; Kathrin Bernardy; Winfried Häuser

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Biofeedback (BFB) is an established intervention in the rehabilitation of headache and other pain disorders. Little is known about this treatment option for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of the present review is to integrate and critically evaluate the evidence regarding the efficacy of biofeedback for FMS. Methods. We conducted a literature search using Pubmed, clinicaltrials.gov (National Institute of Health), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, SCOP...

  15. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided.

  16. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2014-01-01

    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campan...

  17. Automatic classification of protein structures using physicochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Abhilash; Rao, M Divya; Sunderrajan, Shruthi; Pennathur, Gautam

    2014-09-01

    Protein classification is the first step to functional annotation; SCOP and Pfam databases are currently the most relevant protein classification schemes. However, the disproportion in the number of three dimensional (3D) protein structures generated versus their classification into relevant superfamilies/families emphasizes the need for automated classification schemes. Predicting function of novel proteins based on sequence information alone has proven to be a major challenge. The present study focuses on the use of physicochemical parameters in conjunction with machine learning algorithms (Naive Bayes, Decision Trees, Random Forest and Support Vector Machines) to classify proteins into their respective SCOP superfamily/Pfam family, using sequence derived information. Spectrophores™, a 1D descriptor of the 3D molecular field surrounding a structure was used as a benchmark to compare the performance of the physicochemical parameters. The machine learning algorithms were modified to select features based on information gain for each SCOP superfamily/Pfam family. The effect of combining physicochemical parameters and spectrophores on classification accuracy (CA) was studied. Machine learning algorithms trained with the physicochemical parameters consistently classified SCOP superfamilies and Pfam families with a classification accuracy above 90%, while spectrophores performed with a CA of around 85%. Feature selection improved classification accuracy for both physicochemical parameters and spectrophores based machine learning algorithms. Combining both attributes resulted in a marginal loss of performance. Physicochemical parameters were able to classify proteins from both schemes with classification accuracy ranging from 90-96%. These results suggest the usefulness of this method in classifying proteins from amino acid sequences.

  18. Seasonal performance for Heat pump with vertical ground heat exchanger in Riga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaundālders, S.; Stanka, P.; Rusovs, D.

    2017-10-01

    Experimental measurements of Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) for heating of 160 m2 household in Riga were conducted for operation of brine-water heat pump with vertical ground heat exchangers (GHE). Data regarding heat and electrical power consumption were recorded during three-year period from 2013 to 2016. Vapor compression heat pump has heat energy output of 8 kW. GHE consists of three boreholes. Each borehole is 60 m deep. Data regarding brine temperature for borehole input and output were presented and discussed. As far as house had floor heating, there were presented data about COP for B0/W35 and its dependence from room and outdoor temperature during heating season. Empirical equation was created. Average heat energy consumption during one year for heating was 72 kWh/m2 measured by heat meter. Detected primary energy consumption (electrical energy from grid) was 21 kWh/m2 which resulted in SCOP=3.8. These data were compared with SCOP for air-to-water heat pump in Latvia and available configuration software for heat pumps operation. Good agreement between calculated performance and reported experimental data were founded.

  19. The ASTRAL Compendium in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Hon, Gary; Walker, Nigel S.; Lo Conte, Loredana; Koehl, Patrice; Levitt, Michael; Brenner, Steven E.

    2003-09-15

    The ASTRAL compendium provides several databases and tools to aid in the analysis of protein structures, particularly through the use of their sequences. Partially derived from the SCOP database of protein structure domains, it includes sequences for each domain and other resources useful for studying these sequences and domain structures. The current release of ASTRAL contains 54,745 domains, more than three times as many as the initial release four years ago. ASTRAL has undergone major transformations in the past two years. In addition to several complete updates each year, ASTRAL is now updated on a weekly basis with preliminary classifications of domains from newly released PDB structures. These classifications are available as a stand-alone database, as well as available integrated into other ASTRAL databases such as representative subsets. To enhance the utility of ASTRAL to structural biologists, all SCOP domains are now made available as PDB-style coordinate files as well as sequences. In addition to sequences and representative subsets based on SCOP domains, sequences and subsets based on PDB chains are newly included in ASTRAL. Several search tools have been added to ASTRAL to facilitate retrieval of data by individual users and automated methods. ASTRAL may be accessed at http://astral.stanford.edu/.

  20. Searching protein 3-D structures for optimal structure alignment using intelligent algorithms and data structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosád, Tomáš; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith; Yang, Jack Y

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for measuring protein similarity based on their 3-D structure (protein tertiary structure). The algorithm used a suffix tree for discovering common parts of main chains of all proteins appearing in the current research collaboratory for structural bioinformatics protein data bank (PDB). By identifying these common parts, we build a vector model and use some classical information retrieval (IR) algorithms based on the vector model to measure the similarity between proteins--all to all protein similarity. For the calculation of protein similarity, we use term frequency × inverse document frequency ( tf × idf ) term weighing schema and cosine similarity measure. The goal of this paper is to introduce new protein similarity metric based on suffix trees and IR methods. Whole current PDB database was used to demonstrate very good time complexity of the algorithm as well as high precision. We have chosen the structural classification of proteins (SCOP) database for verification of the precision of our algorithm because it is maintained primarily by humans. The next success of this paper would be the ability to determine SCOP categories of proteins not included in the latest version of the SCOP database (v. 1.75) with nearly 100% precision.

  1. Structural descriptor database: a new tool for sequence-based functional site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Ana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Structural Descriptor Database (SDDB is a web-based tool that predicts the function of proteins and functional site positions based on the structural properties of related protein families. Structural alignments and functional residues of a known protein set (defined as the training set are used to build special Hidden Markov Models (HMM called HMM descriptors. SDDB uses previously calculated and stored HMM descriptors for predicting active sites, binding residues, and protein function. The database integrates biologically relevant data filtered from several databases such as PDB, PDBSUM, CSA and SCOP. It accepts queries in fasta format and predicts functional residue positions, protein-ligand interactions, and protein function, based on the SCOP database. Results To assess the SDDB performance, we used different data sets. The Trypsion-like Serine protease data set assessed how well SDDB predicts functional sites when curated data is available. The SCOP family data set was used to analyze SDDB performance by using training data extracted from PDBSUM (binding sites and from CSA (active sites. The ATP-binding experiment was used to compare our approach with the most current method. For all evaluations, significant improvements were obtained with SDDB. Conclusion SDDB performed better when trusty training data was available. SDDB worked better in predicting active sites rather than binding sites because the former are more conserved than the latter. Nevertheless, by using our prediction method we obtained results with precision above 70%.

  2. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  3. Cross-over between discrete and continuous protein structure space: insights into automatic classification and networks of protein structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pascual-García

    2009-03-01

    . As a domain set, we have selected a consensus set of 2,890 domains decomposed very similarly in SCOP and CATH. As an alignment algorithm, we used a global version of MAMMOTH developed in our group, which is both rapid and accurate. As a similarity measure, we used the size-normalized contact overlap, and as a clustering algorithm, we used average linkage. The resulting automatic classification at the cross-over point was more consistent than expert ones with respect to the structure similarity measure, with 86% of the clusters corresponding to subsets of either SCOP or CATH superfamilies and fewer than 5% containing domains in distinct folds according to both SCOP and CATH. Almost 15% of SCOP superfamilies and 10% of CATH superfamilies were split, consistent with the notion of fold change in protein evolution. These results were qualitatively robust for all choices that we tested, although we did not try to use alignment algorithms developed by other groups. Folds defined in SCOP and CATH would be completely joined in the regime of large transitivity violations where clustering is more arbitrary. Consistently, the agreement between SCOP and CATH at fold level was lower than their agreement with the automatic classification obtained using as a clustering algorithm, respectively, average linkage (for SCOP or single linkage (for CATH. The networks representing significant evolutionary and structural relationships between clusters beyond the cross-over point may allow us to perform evolutionary, structural, or functional analyses beyond the limits of classification schemes. These networks and the underlying clusters are available at http://ub.cbm.uam.es/research/ProtNet.php.

  4. The Protective Role of Selenium on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Aged Rats: The Involvement of TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Hasan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirci, Kadir; Övey, İshak Suat

    2017-05-01

    Inhibition of Ca2+ entry into the hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) through inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist drugs is the current standard of care in neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and peripheral pain. Oxidative stress activates Ca2+-permeable TRPM2 and TRPV1, and recent studies indicate that selenium (Se) is a potent TRPM2 and TRPV1 channel antagonist in the hippocampus and DRG. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of Se in primary hippocampal and DRG neuron cultures of aged rats when given alone or in combination with scopolamine (SCOP). Thirty-two aged (18-24 months old) rats were divided into four groups. The first and second groups received a placebo and SCOP (1 mg/kg/day), respectively. The third and fourth groups received intraperitoneal Se (1.5 mg/kg/ over day) and SCOP + Se, respectively. The hippocampal and DRG neurons also were stimulated in vitro with a TRPV1 channel agonist (capsaicin) and a TRPM2 channel agonist (cumene hydroperoxide). We found that Se was fully effective in reversing SCOP-induced TRPM2 and TRPV1 current densities as well as errors in working memory and reference memory. In addition, Se completely reduced SCOP-induced oxidative toxicity by modulating lipid peroxidation, reducing glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. The Se and SCOP + Se treatments also decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations, apoptosis, and caspase 3, caspase 9, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization values in the hippocampus. In conclusion, the current study reports on the cellular level for SCOP and Se on the different endocytotoxic cascades for the first time. Notably, the research indicates that Se can result in remarkable neuroprotective and memory impairment effects in the hippocampal neurons of rats. Graphical abstract Possible molecular pathways of involvement of selenium (Se) in scopolamine (SCOP) induced

  5. ECONOMIC VALUE OF SOME LEGUMINOUS PLANT SPECIES OF THE COLLECTIONS FROM THE BOTANICAL GARDEN (INSTITUTE OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru TELEUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the evaluation of the growth and development rates, the seed productivity, the green mass yield, the biochemical composition and the content of amino acids, phosphorous and calcium, the nutritive and energy value of the forage, as well as the biomethane productivity of local ecotypes of the leguminous species maintained in monoculture, in the collection of the Botanical Garden (Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (BG ASM: Astragalus ponticus, Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago falcata, Onobrychis arenaria and Trifolium repens are presented in this article. Control variants – the traditional forage crops: Medicago sativa and Onobrychis viciifolia. The local ecotypes of the studied leguminous species were characterized by different growth and development rates. Coronilla varia and Lotus corniculatus, in the 2nd-3rd years, could be harvested, for the first time, 5 days earlier than Medicago sativa, but Medicago falcata and Onobrychis viciifolia – 18 days later. The green mass yield varied from 0.83 kg/m2 to 4.08 kg/m2. The studied ecotypes reached amounts of 0.60-0.89 nutritive units/kg and metabolizable energy 8.05-9.90 MJ/kg of dry matter, the content of digestible protein, of 106.28-225.09 g/nutritive unit, met the zootechnical standards; seed production: 19.12-83.00 g/m2; the biomethane yield ranged from 692 to 3197 m3/ha. Higher yield of natural forage, dry matter and biomethane was produced by Onobrychis arenaria and Coronilla varia.

  6. The 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and an updated NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M; Rigden, Daniel J; Galperin, Michael Y

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue includes descriptions of 58 new molecular biology databases and recent updates to 123 databases previously featured in NAR or other journals. For convenience, the issue is now divided into eight sections that reflect major subject categories. Among the highlights of this issue are six databases of the transcription factor binding sites in various organisms and updates on such popular databases as CAZy, Database of Genomic Variants (DGV), dbGaP, DrugBank, KEGG, miRBase, Pfam, Reactome, SEED, TCDB and UniProt. There is a strong block of structural databases, which includes, among others, the new RNA Bricks database, updates on PDBe, PDBsum, ArchDB, Gene3D, ModBase, Nucleic Acid Database and the recently revived iPfam database. An update on the NCBI's MMDB describes VAST+, an improved tool for protein structure comparison. Two articles highlight the development of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database: one describes SCOPe, which automates assignment of new structures to the existing SCOP hierarchy; the other one describes the first version of SCOP2, with its more flexible approach to classifying protein structures. This issue also includes a collection of articles on bacterial taxonomy and metagenomics, which includes updates on the List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN), Ribosomal Database Project (RDP), the Silva/LTP project and several new metagenomics resources. The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/, has been expanded to 1552 databases. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  7. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L. Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans, which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the prevailing view that the fovea is a functional adaptation to diurnal color vision. The foveae of nocturnal taxa, such as tarsiers, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise has been central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether the fovea of tarsiers is a functionless anachronism or a nocturnal adaptation remains open. To address this question, we focused on the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius and scops owls (Otus, two taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence and competition. This prediction can be tested with an analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues, which integrate dietary information. As predicted, the isotopic niches of Tarsius and Otus overlapped. In both Borneo and the Philippines, the δ13C values were indistinguishable, whereas the δ15N values of Otus were marginally higher than those of Tarsius. Our results indicate that both diets consisted mainly of ground-dwelling prey and raise the possibility of some resource partitioning. Taken together, our isotopic analysis supports a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  8. ASH structure alignment package: Sensitivity and selectivity in domain classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Hiroyuki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structure alignment methods offer the possibility of measuring distant evolutionary relationships between proteins that are not visible by sequence-based analysis. However, the question of how structural differences and similarities ought to be quantified in this regard remains open. In this study we construct a training set of sequence-unique CATH and SCOP domains, from which we develop a scoring function that can reliably identify domains with the same CATH topology and SCOP fold classification. The score is implemented in the ASH structure alignment package, for which the source code and a web service are freely available from the PDBj website http://www.pdbj.org/ASH/. Results The new ASH score shows increased selectivity and sensitivity compared with values reported for several popular programs using the same test set of 4,298,905 structure pairs, yielding an area of .96 under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. In addition, weak sequence homologies between similar domains are revealed that could not be detected by BLAST sequence alignment. Also, a subset of domain pairs is identified that exhibit high similarity, even though their CATH and SCOP classification differs. Finally, we show that the ranking of alignment programs based solely on geometric measures depends on the choice of the quality measure. Conclusion ASH shows high selectivity and sensitivity with regard to domain classification, an important step in defining distantly related protein sequence families. Moreover, the CPU cost per alignment is competitive with the fastest programs, making ASH a practical option for large-scale structure classification studies.

  9. Blockade of muscarinic receptors impairs the retrieval of well-trained memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo eSoma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is known to play an important role in memory functions, and its deficit has been proposed to cause the cognitive decline associated with advanced age and Alzheimer’s disease (the cholinergic hypothesis. Although many studies have tested the cholinergic hypothesis for recently acquired memory, only a few have investigated the role of ACh in the retrieval process of well-trained cognitive memory, which describes the memory established from repetition and daily routine. To examine this point, we trained rats to perform a two-alternative forced-choice visual detection task. Each trial was started by having the rats pull upward a central-lever, which triggered the presentation of a visual stimulus to the right or left side of the display monitor, and then pulling upward a stimulus-relevant choice-lever located on both sides. Rats learned the task within 10 days, and the task training was continued for a month. Task performance was measured with or without systemic administration of a muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR antagonist, scopolamine (SCOP, prior to the test. After 30 min of SCOP administration, rats stopped manipulating any lever even though they explored the lever and surrounding environment, suggesting a loss of the task-related associative memory. Three hours later, rats were recovered to complete the trial, but the rats selected the levers irrespective of the visual stimulus, suggesting they remembered a series of lever-manipulations in association with a reward, but not association between the reward and visual stimulation. Furthermore, an m1-AChR, but not nicotinic AChR antagonist caused a similar deficit in the task execution. SCOP neither interfered with locomotor activity nor drinking behavior, while it influenced anxiety. These results suggest that the activation of mAChRs at basal ACh levels is essential for the recall of well-trained cognitive memory.

  10. Application of CHD1 Gene and EE0.6 Sequences to Identify Sexes of Several Protected Bird Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-C. Lin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many bird species, for example: Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela hoya, Collared Scops (Owl Otus bakkamoena, Tawny Fish Owl (Ketupa flavipes, Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus, and Grass Owl (Tyto longimembris... etc, are monomorphic, which is difficult to identify their sex simply by their outward appearance. Especially for those monomorphic endangered species, finding an effective tool to identify their sex beside outward appearance is needed for further captive breeding programs or other conservation plans. In this study, we collected samples of Black Swan (Cygmus atratus and Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica, two aviaries introduced monomorphic species served as control group, and Crested Serpent Eagle, Collared Scops Owl, Tawny Fish Owl, Crested Goshawk, and Grass Owl, five protected monomorphic species in Taiwan. We used sex-specific primers of avian CHD1 (chromo-helicase-DNA-binding gene and EE0.6 (EcoRI 0.6-kb fragment sequences to identify the sex of these birds. The results showed that CHD1 gene primers could be used to correctly identify the sex of Black Swans, Nicobar Pigeons and Crested Serpent Eagles, but it could not be used to correctly identify sex in Collared Scops Owls, Tawny Fish Owls, and Crested Goshawks. In the sex identification using EE0.6 sequence fragment, A, C, D and E primer sets could be used for sexing Black Swans; A, B, C, and D primer sets could be used for sexing Crested Serpent Eagles; and E primer set could be used for sexing Nicobar Pigeons and the two owl species. Correct determination of sex is the first step if a captive breeding measure is required. We have demonstrated that several of the existing primer sets can be used for sex determination of several captive breeding and indigenous bird species.

  11. Avian mycobacteriosis in free-living raptors in Majorca Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Negre, Nieves; Castellanos, Elena; de Juan, Lucía; Mateos, Ana; Parpal, Lluis; Aranaz, Alicia

    2010-02-01

    Avian mycobacteriosis is a chronic, infectious disease caused by different species of mycobacteria, usually belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. From 2004 to 2007, 589 raptors brought dead or sick to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) were necropsied. The birds belonged to 12 different species, chiefly common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n=297), scops owl (Otus scops) (n=109), barn owl (Tyto alba) (n=75), long-eared owl (Asio otus) (n=58), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n=27), and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) (n=13). Gross lesions compatible with mycobacteriosis were observed in 14 birds (2.4%) found in several locations in Majorca. They were 12 kestrels (prevalence in this species, 4.0%), one long-eared owl (1.7%) and one scops owl (0.9%), all the birds presenting white-yellowish nodules from pinpoint size to 1 cm in diameter in diverse organs, mainly in the liver, spleen and intestine. Affected organs were subjected to bacteriology and molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction and, in all cases, infection with M. avium subspecies avium was confirmed. The observed prevalences are similar to those previously observed in Holland, although the actual prevalence detected in this study is likely to be higher than reported because only birds with gross lesions were subjected to culture. Further molecular characterization with a set of six mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat loci was used to sub-type the isolates in order to show the existence of possible epidemiological links. Six different genotypes were found, which points to infection from multiple foci. No temporal or geographical aggregation of the cases was observed to be associated with the presence of positive birds or with the different variable number tandem repeat allelic profiles. The most feasible origin might be water or food sources, although the reservoir of mycobacteria remains unknown.

  12. Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Burnet Weed (Sanguisorba spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anestis KARKANIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis L. and small burnet (Sansguisorba minor Scop. are edible, perennial weeds widely distributed in the world. These are the most widespread Sanguisorba species. The bioactive components of Sanguisorba plants include phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids and neolignans and terpenoids. Large potential exists to use burnets as medicinal plants. Sanguisorba species are known to show anticancer properties, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Also, Sanguisorba extracts show anti-Alzheimer and anti-inflammatory properties. Small burnet extracts could also be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides for crop production. This review focuses on biological activities of Sanguisorba extracts and emphasizing their potential applications in pharmaceutical areas.

  13. Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Burnet Weed (Sanguisorba spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anestis KARKANIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis L. and small burnet (Sansguisorba minor Scop. are edible, perennial weeds widely distributed in the world. These are the most widespread Sanguisorba species. The bioactive components of Sanguisorba plants include phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids and neolignans and terpenoids. Large potential exists to use burnets as medicinal plants. Sanguisorba species are known to show anticancer properties, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Also, Sanguisorba extracts show anti-Alzheimer and anti-inflammatory properties. Small burnet extracts could also be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides for crop production. This review focuses on biological activities of Sanguisorba extracts and emphasizing their potential applications in pharmaceutical areas.

  14. PDP: protein domain parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Nickolai; Shindyalov, Ilya

    2003-02-12

    We have developed a program for automatic identification of domains in protein three-dimensional structures. Performance of the program was assessed by three different benchmarks: (i) by comparison with the expert-curated SCOP database of structural domains; (ii) by comparison with a collection of manual domain assignments; and (iii) by comparison with a set of 55 proteins, frequently used as a benchmark for automatic domain assignment. In all these benchmarks PDP identified domains correctly in more than 80% of proteins. http://123d.ncifcrf.gov/.

  15. RELAŢIILE SOCIALE ŞI INTERPERSONALE LA COPIII CU MALADII RESPIRATORII CRONICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ana TARNOVSCHI

    2015-01-01

    Cercetarea noastră a avut drept scop studierea preferinţelor în sistemul de relaţii sociale şi interpersonale la copiii cu maladii respiratorii cronice, evidenţiind următoarele aspecte ale funcţionalităţii sociale: studierea gradului de comunicabilitate a copilului în grup; studierea nivelului de conflictualitate, agresivitate, precum şi tendinţa de izolare; stabilirea relaţiilor interpersonale, aspecte care, în ansamblu, caracterizează gradul de adaptare socială a copilului. SOCIAL AND INTE...

  16. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Supplement for April 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-05-27

    by aircraft equipped vith infra-red (tod Hate) dutoo- tion devices * The teams vere inserted by I-CPLs, and supported by river patrol boets and the...ton» of civic action mttarli.]« uere distributed to the needy in the village and 17$ pursons received medical treatment* Another combined civic...Ko reply was received« At the safte tine the executive officer was able to exemins the contact using the Starlight Scop» ni^ht visual aid

  17. Structural classification of proteins and structural genomics: new insights into protein folding and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Antonina; Murzin, Alexey G

    2010-10-01

    During the past decade, the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) centres have become major contributors of new families, superfamilies and folds to the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database. The PSI results have increased the diversity of protein structural space and accelerated our understanding of it. This review article surveys a selection of protein structures determined by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG). It presents previously undescribed β-sheet architectures such as the double barrel and spiral β-roll and discusses new examples of unusual topologies and peculiar structural features observed in proteins characterized by the JCSG and other Structural Genomics centres.

  18. Biblioteca Naţională a României: obiective şi perspective în valorificarea patrimoniului cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tîrziman

    2008-01-01

    Biblioteca Naţională a României este implicată în proiecte internaţionale care au ca scop crearea de conţinut digital relevant pentru memoria culturală europeană: The European Library – TEL (Biblioteca europeană, Manuscriptorium şi ENRICH – European Networking Resources and Information concerning Cultural Heritage, proiecte coordonate de Biblioteca Naţională a Cehiei. Biblioteca Naţională a României a contribuit la proiectele Manuscriptorium / ENRICH prin carte românească veche din perioada corespunzătoare secolelor XVI-XVII.

  19. Identification and characterisation of potential biofertilizer bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Kenan; Kotan, Recep; Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Dadaşoǧlu, Esin

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed that isolation, identification and characterizations of PGPR strains from rhizosphere of legume plants. 188 bacterial strains isolated from different legume plants like clover, sainfoin and vetch in Erzurum province of Turkey. These three plants are cultivated commonly in the Erzurum province. It was screen that 50 out of 188 strains can fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphate. These strains were identified via MIS (Microbial identification system). According to MIS identification results, 40 out of 50 strains were identified as Bacillus, 5 as Pseudomonas, 3 as Paenibacillus, 1 as Acinetobacter, 1 as Brevibacterium. According to classical test results, while the catalase test result of all isolates are positive, oxidase, KOH and starch hydrolysis rest results are variable.

  20. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  1. Importance of grass-legume choices on cattle grazing behavior, performance, and meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, B; Provenza, F D; Tansawat, R; Maughan, C; Martini, S; Ward, R; Clemensen, A; Song, X; Cornforth, D; Villalba, J J

    2014-05-01

    We determined if tall fescue in a mixture with either tannin-containing sainfoin or saponin-containing alfalfa affected cattle foraging behavior, performance, meat quality, and consumer acceptance of meat. Foraging behavior, BW, and pasture biomass before and after grazing were monitored when cattle strip-grazed 3 replications of 2 treatments from May through September 2010 (12 calves/replication) and from June through September 2012 (8 calves/replication). Animals were allowed a choice between tall fescue and sainfoin (SAN) or tall fescue and alfalfa (ALF) growing in strips (fescue, legume, and fescue-legume mixture). Incidence of use (scan samples) of legumes increased from the beginning to the end of the trials (P 0.05). No incidences of bloat were detected. When cattle (3 calves/treatment in 2010 and 8 calves/treatment in 2012) were slaughtered in September to assess meat quality and consumer acceptance, carcasses were lean (4% to 6% fat content of the longissimus muscle), but compared with ALF, SAN had higher marbling scores, quality grades (Select versus Standard), and back fat thicknesses (P Meat samples from SAN and ALF showed some differences in unsaturated fatty acid profiles and volatiles concentrations (P 0.05). Thus, cattle incorporated a lower-quality grass into their diets even when legumes were available ad libitum during most grazing trials. Choices between tall fescue and legumes differing in the type of secondary compound (tannins vs. saponins) and bloating potential influenced patterns of forage use by cattle and led to differences in meat quality.

  2. Hematologic reference intervals and age effect in European Strigiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti Montolio, Susana; Molina López, Rafael; Cray, Carolyn; Lavín González, Santiago; Nicolás Francisco, Olga; Marco Sánchez, Ignasi; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Cuenca Valera, Rafaela

    2017-09-01

    The clinical importance of hematologic testing in avian veterinary medicine is reflected in the increasing number of studies for the establishment of hematologic RIs of Strigiformes and other species. Age is an important physiologic factor in birds and the effect on hematology variable should be understood. The objective of this study was to determine baseline data of hematologic variables in 5 species of Iberian Strigiformes in different age classes. Nocturnal birds of prey were sampled at Wildlife Health Centers. Packed cell volume was determined by the microhematocrit centrifugation method, and RBC and WBC counts were determined using the direct hemocytometer count method with Natt and Herrick solution. Hemoglobin concentration was measured spectrophotometrically. The MCV, MCHC, and MHC were calculated using the standard formulas. The differential WBC count was performed by the routine microscopic evaluation of 200 cells on a blood smear manually stained with Wright stain. Thrombocyte blood count estimate was obtained from the blood film. No differences were observed between juveniles and adults for any variable evaluated in Tawny owl, Little owl, Scops owl, Long-eared owl, and Barn owl. In addition, PCV, RBC, and HGB of chicks were statistically significantly lower than in juveniles and adults, and total WBC was significantly higher in Tawny owl, Little owl, Scops owl, and Long-eared owl. Our findings provide evidence that laboratory data from chicks of Strigiformes are different compared to juveniles and adults; therefore, separate RIs were defined. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Gnezdilke Parka Škocjanske jame (Kras, JZ Slovenija/ The breeding birds of Škocjan Caves Park (Kras, SW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figelj Jernej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study done in 2011 and 2012 was to identify the number of breeding bird species, to provide population estimates as well as to evaluate the conservational importance of Škocjan Caves Park for birds. Common bird species were surveyed using the territory mapping method. Rare species and nocturnally active species were surveyed using species-specific methods: observation, the playback method and the line transect method. 81 species were registered, 49 of which bred within the boundaries of the Park. The most abundant breeding species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla (260-320 breeding pairs, Robin Erithacus rubecula (250-310 breeding pairs, Blackbird Turdus merula (230-280 breeding pairs, Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs (230-280 breeding pairs and Marsh Tit Poecile palustris (200-240 breeding pairs. Qualifying species for the Special Protected Area (SPA Kras (SI5000023 also bred within the Park: Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus, Scops Owl Otus scops and Woodlark Lululla arborea. Eagle Owl Bubo bubo was also registered, but breeding attempts during the study period were unsuccessful due to the negative influence of several factors. One of the largest colonies of Alpine Swifts Apus melba, a rare and localized species in Slovenia, is also of conservation concern.

  4. Anatomy of Subterranean Organs of Medicinally Used Cardueae and Related Species and its Value for Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Elisabeth; Saukel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The presented study aims to narrow this gap by performing anatomical analyses of roots and rhizomes of 16 species belonging to the tribe Cardueae, of formerly and currently used drugs as well as their near relatives as potential adulterations (Carlina acaulis L., Carlina vulgaris L., Arctium lappa L., Arctium tomentosum Mill., Carduus defloratus L., Carduus personata (L.) Jacq, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop., Onopordum acanthium L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Rhaponticum scariosum Lam., Centaurea jacea L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Centaurea cyanus L., Cnicus benedictus L.). A detailed verbal and graphical survey of the analysed anatomical features is provided. Several characters were finally extracted which allow for discrimination of the examined species and may be effectively used for drug quality controls. PMID:21617780

  5. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  6. Molecular and morphological characterization of Dothiorella species associated with dieback of Ostrya carpinifolia in Slovenia and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draginja PAVLIC-ZUPANC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolates that resemble Dothiorella (Botryosphaeriaceae, Ascomycota species were isolated from dead twigs, asymptomatic and necrotized bark of European hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Eurasian smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria Scop. and common juniper (Juniperus communis L. growing in western Slovenia and northern Italy. They were identified based on anamorph morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the ITS rDNA and EF-1α sequences, and previously designated as Dothiorella sp. A, B and C. This study has clarified the identity of these species by comparing them with other Dothiorella species known from culture based on gene sequence data, as well as morphological characters of the anamorphs. The phylogenetic results revealed three species, Dothiorella iberica, Dothiorella parva, and a Dothiorella sp. Isolates identified in the phylogenetic analyses as D. parva differed from the original description of this species and are thus described here based on the anamorph morphology. Isolates of D. parva were identified from O. carpinifolia in western Slovenia and northern Italy, and C. coggygria in western Slovenia, and coexist with Dothiorella sp. on O. carpinifolia in northern Italy. Dothiorella iberica was identified on J. communis in western Slovenia, thus expanding the geographic range of this species. This is the first record of D. parva from these hosts and countries. Our results indicate that these Dothiorella species occur widely across the Mediterranean region, and on a variety of hosts.

  7. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunctions via Improving Cholinergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS is a derivative of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA. Tan IIA has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether STS possesses effect on AD remains unclear. This study aims to estimate whether STS could protect against scopolamine- (SCOP- induced learning and memory deficit in Kunming mice. Morris water maze results showed that oral administration of STS (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg and Donepezil shortened escape latency, increased crossing times of the original position of the platform, and increased the time spent in the target quadrant. STS decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT in the hippocampus and cortex of SCOP-treated mice. Oxidative stress results showed that STS increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and reactive oxygen species (ROS in hippocampus and cortex. In addition, western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. STS upregulated the protein expression of Bcl-2 and downregulated the proteins expression of Bax and Caspase-3. These results indicated that STS might become a promising therapeutic candidate for attenuating AD-like pathological dysfunction.

  8. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. K. [Johnson Research LLC, Pueblo West, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  9. Identification of family-specific residue packing motifs and their use for structure-based protein function prediction: II. Case studies and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Deepak; Huan, Jun; Prins, Jan; Snoeyink, Jack; Wang, Wei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes several case studies concerning protein function inference from its structure using our novel approach described in the accompanying paper. This approach employs family-specific motifs, i.e. three-dimensional amino acid packing patterns that are statistically prevalent within a protein family. For our case studies we have selected families from the SCOP and EC classifications and analyzed the discriminating power of the motifs in depth. We have devised several benchmarks to compare motifs mined from unweighted topological graph representations of protein structures with those from distance-labeled (weighted) representations, demonstrating the superiority of the latter for function inference in most families. We have tested the robustness of our motif library by inferring the function of new members added to SCOP families, and discriminating between several families that are structurally similar but functionally divergent. Furthermore we have applied our method to predict function for several proteins characterized in structural genomics projects, including orphan structures, and we discuss several selected predictions in depth. Some of our predictions have been corroborated by other computational methods, and some have been validated by independent experimental studies, validating our approach for protein function inference from structure.

  10. Interspecific and geographical differences in anticoagulant rodenticide residues of predatory wildlife from the Mediterranean region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Perea, Jhon J; Camarero, Pablo R; Molina-López, Rafael A; Parpal, Luis; Obón, Elena; Solá, Jessica; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We studied the prevalence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in the liver of 344 individuals representing 11 species of predatory wildlife that were found dead in the Mediterranean region of Spain (Catalonia and Majorca Island). Six different ARs (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen, difethialone, warfarin) were found in the liver of 216 (62.8%) animals and >1 AR co-occurred in 119 individuals (34.6%). The occurrence of ARs was positively correlated with the human population density. Catalonia and Majorca showed similar prevalence of AR detection (64.4 and 60.4%, respectively), but a higher prevalence was found in the resident population of Eurasian scops owl (Otus scops) from Majorca (57.7%) compared to the migratory population from Catalonia (14.3%). Birds of prey had lower levels of bromadiolone than hedgehogs, whereas no difference was found for other ARs. The risk of SGAR poisoning in wild predators in NE Spain is believed to be elevated, because 23.3% of the individuals exhibited hepatic concentration of ARs exceeding 200 ng/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. K-nearest uphill clustering in the protein structure space

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2016-08-26

    The protein structure classification problem, which is to assign a protein structure to a cluster of similar proteins, is one of the most fundamental problems in the construction and application of the protein structure space. Early manually curated protein structure classifications (e.g., SCOP and CATH) are very successful, but recently suffer the slow updating problem because of the increased throughput of newly solved protein structures. Thus, fully automatic methods to cluster proteins in the protein structure space have been designed and developed. In this study, we observed that the SCOP superfamilies are highly consistent with clustering trees representing hierarchical clustering procedures, but the tree cutting is very challenging and becomes the bottleneck of clustering accuracy. To overcome this challenge, we proposed a novel density-based K-nearest uphill clustering method that effectively eliminates noisy pairwise protein structure similarities and identifies density peaks as cluster centers. Specifically, the density peaks are identified based on K-nearest uphills (i.e., proteins with higher densities) and K-nearest neighbors. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply and develop density-based clustering methods in the protein structure space. Our results show that our density-based clustering method outperforms the state-of-the-art clustering methods previously applied to the problem. Moreover, we observed that computational methods and human experts could produce highly similar clusters at high precision values, while computational methods also suggest to split some large superfamilies into smaller clusters. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  12. High quality protein sequence alignment by combining structural profile prediction and profile alignment using SABER-TOOTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Florian; Minning, Jonas; Bastolla, Ugo; Porto, Markus

    2010-05-14

    Protein alignments are an essential tool for many bioinformatics analyses. While sequence alignments are accurate for proteins of high sequence similarity, they become unreliable as they approach the so-called 'twilight zone' where sequence similarity gets indistinguishable from random. For such distant pairs, structure alignment is of much better quality. Nevertheless, sequence alignment is the only choice in the majority of cases where structural data is not available. This situation demands development of methods that extend the applicability of accurate sequence alignment to distantly related proteins. We develop a sequence alignment method that combines the prediction of a structural profile based on the protein's sequence with the alignment of that profile using our recently published alignment tool SABERTOOTH. In particular, we predict the contact vector of protein structures using an artificial neural network based on position-specific scoring matrices generated by PSI-BLAST and align these predicted contact vectors. The resulting sequence alignments are assessed using two different tests: First, we assess the alignment quality by measuring the derived structural similarity for cases in which structures are available. In a second test, we quantify the ability of the significance score of the alignments to recognize structural and evolutionary relationships. As a benchmark we use a representative set of the SCOP (structural classification of proteins) database, with similarities ranging from closely related proteins at SCOP family level, to very distantly related proteins at SCOP fold level. Comparing these results with some prominent sequence alignment tools, we find that SABERTOOTH produces sequence alignments of better quality than those of Clustal W, T-Coffee, MUSCLE, and PSI-BLAST. HHpred, one of the most sophisticated and computationally expensive tools available, outperforms our alignment algorithm at family and superfamily levels, while the use of

  13. High quality protein sequence alignment by combining structural profile prediction and profile alignment using SABER-TOOTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastolla Ugo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein alignments are an essential tool for many bioinformatics analyses. While sequence alignments are accurate for proteins of high sequence similarity, they become unreliable as they approach the so-called 'twilight zone' where sequence similarity gets indistinguishable from random. For such distant pairs, structure alignment is of much better quality. Nevertheless, sequence alignment is the only choice in the majority of cases where structural data is not available. This situation demands development of methods that extend the applicability of accurate sequence alignment to distantly related proteins. Results We develop a sequence alignment method that combines the prediction of a structural profile based on the protein's sequence with the alignment of that profile using our recently published alignment tool SABERTOOTH. In particular, we predict the contact vector of protein structures using an artificial neural network based on position-specific scoring matrices generated by PSI-BLAST and align these predicted contact vectors. The resulting sequence alignments are assessed using two different tests: First, we assess the alignment quality by measuring the derived structural similarity for cases in which structures are available. In a second test, we quantify the ability of the significance score of the alignments to recognize structural and evolutionary relationships. As a benchmark we use a representative set of the SCOP (structural classification of proteins database, with similarities ranging from closely related proteins at SCOP family level, to very distantly related proteins at SCOP fold level. Comparing these results with some prominent sequence alignment tools, we find that SABERTOOTH produces sequence alignments of better quality than those of Clustal W, T-Coffee, MUSCLE, and PSI-BLAST. HHpred, one of the most sophisticated and computationally expensive tools available, outperforms our alignment algorithm at

  14. Structural alphabet motif discovery and a structural motif database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Shih-Yen; Hu, Yuh-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a general framework for structural motif discovery. The framework is based on a modular design in which the system components can be modified or replaced independently to increase its applicability to various studies. It is a two-stage approach that first converts protein 3D structures into structural alphabet sequences, and then applies a sequence motif-finding tool to these sequences to detect conserved motifs. We named the structural motif database we built the SA-Motifbase, which provides the structural information conserved at different hierarchical levels in SCOP. For each motif, SA-Motifbase presents its 3D view; alphabet letter preference; alphabet letter frequency distribution; and the significance. SA-Motifbase is available at http://bioinfo.cis.nctu.edu.tw/samotifbase/. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Bryophyte Diversity of Ljubljana (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skudnik Mitja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available .The authors studied the bryophyte flora of the city of Ljubljana (Slovenia, recording 104 bryophyte taxa within the inner ring-road of Ljubljana. The specimens were collected from randomly picked sampling sites during different seasons in 2011 and 2012. Interesting records include Barbula convoluta var. commutata (Jur. Husn., Grimmia trichophylla Grev., Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw. Wilson, Phascum cuspidatum Hedw. and Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz R. H. Zander, species last recorded in Slovenia more than 60 years ago. Some species rare and endangered in Slovenia were also recorded: Syntrichia papillosa (Willson Jur. and Lunularia cruciata (L. Lindb. Rhynchostegium rotundifolium (Scop. ex Brid. Schimp., a moss red-listed Europea-wide, was recorded in the investigated area.

  16. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  17. Functional annotation of proteomic sequences based on consensus of sequence and structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, David H; Badretdinov, Azat; Zhu, Zhan-yang; Velikanov, Mikhail; Edwards, David J; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Szalma, Sándor; Yan, Lisa

    2002-03-01

    To maximise the assignment of function of the proteins encoded by a genome and to aid the search for novel drug targets, there is an emerging need for sensitive methods of predicting protein function on a genome-wide basis. GeneAtlas is an automated, high-throughput pipeline for the prediction of protein structure and function using sequence similarity detection, homology modelling and fold recognition methods. GeneAtlas is described in detail here. To test GeneAtlas, a 'virtual' genome was used, a subset of PDB structures from the SCOP database, in which the functional relationships are known. GeneAtlas detects additional relationships by building 3D models in comparison with the sequence searching method PSI-BLAST. Functionally related proteins with sequence identity below the twilight zone can be recognised correctly.

  18. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed.

  19. Protein Classification Based on Analysis of Local Sequence-Structure Correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A T

    2006-02-13

    The goal of this project was to develop an algorithm to detect and calculate common structural motifs in compared structures, and define a set of numerical criteria to be used for fully automated motif based protein structure classification. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) contains more than 33,000 experimentally solved protein structures, and the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database, a manual classification of these structures, cannot keep pace with the rapid growth of the PDB. In our approach called STRALCP (STRucture Alignment based Clustering of Proteins), we generate detailed information about global and local similarities between given set of structures, identify similar fragments that are conserved within analyzed proteins, and use these conserved regions (detected structural motifs) to classify proteins.

  20. Fold Recognition Using Sequence Fingerprints of Protein Local Substructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtafovych, A A; Hvidsten, T; Komorowski, J; Fidelis, K

    2003-06-04

    A protein local substructure (descriptor) is a set of several short non-overlapping fragments of the polypeptide chain. Each descriptor describes local environment of a particular residue and includes only those segments that are located in the proximity of this residue. Similar descriptors from the representative set of proteins were analyzed to reveal links between the substructures and sequences of their segments. Using detected sequence-based fingerprints specific geometrical conformations are assigned to new sequences. The ability of the approach to recognize correct SCOP folds was tested on 273 sequences from the 49 most popular folds. Good predictions were obtained in 85% of cases. No performance drop was observed with decreasing sequence similarity between target sequences and sequences from the training set of proteins.

  1. NPIDB: Nucleic acid-Protein Interaction DataBase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsanov, Dmitry D; Zanegina, Olga N; Aksianov, Evgeniy A; Spirin, Sergei A; Karyagina, Anna S; Alexeevski, Andrei V

    2013-01-01

    The Nucleic acid-Protein Interaction DataBase (http://npidb.belozersky.msu.ru/) contains information derived from structures of DNA-protein and RNA-protein complexes extracted from the Protein Data Bank (3846 complexes in October 2012). It provides a web interface and a set of tools for extracting biologically meaningful characteristics of nucleoprotein complexes. The content of the database is updated weekly. The current version of the Nucleic acid-Protein Interaction DataBase is an upgrade of the version published in 2007. The improvements include a new web interface, new tools for calculation of intermolecular interactions, a classification of SCOP families that contains DNA-binding protein domains and data on conserved water molecules on the DNA-protein interface.

  2. Genetic Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Recovered from Birds of Prey in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Margarida; Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Sargo, Roberto; Benito, Daniel; Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Manageiro, Vera; Torres, Carmen; Caniça, Manuela; Poeta, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Wild animal populations in contact with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistant bacteria that are daily released into the environment are able to become unintentional hosts of these resistant microorganisms. To clarify this issue, our study evaluated the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants on coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered from birds of prey and studied their genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The unusual vga(A) and erm(T) genes, which confer resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin, respectively, were detected in Staphylococcus sciuri or Staphylococcus xylosus strains and the tet(K) gene in Staphylococcus kloosii. The PFGE patterns showed that three S. xylosus (isolated of Strix aluco and Otus scops) and two S. sciuri (recovered from Strix aluco and Milvus migrans) were clonally indistinguishable. These animals could be a source of unusual antimicrobial resistance determinants for highly used antibiotics in veterinary clinical practice.

  3. A whole transcriptomal linkage analysis of gene co-regulation in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Reid, William R; Zhang, Lee

    2013-01-01

    of the regulatory interaction of resistance genes. Our current study generated the first reference transcriptome from the adult house fly and conducted a whole transcriptome analysis for the multiple insecticide resistant strain ALHF (wild-type) and two insecticide susceptible strains: aabys (with morphological...... generated from the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 6159 (43%) of the contigs contained coding regions, among which 1316 genes were identified as being co-up-regulated in ALHF in comparison to both aabys and CS. The majority of these up-regulated genes fell within the SCOP categories of metabolism......, general, intra-cellular processes, and regulation, and covered three key detailed function categories: redox detailed function category in metabolism, signal transduction and kinases/phosphatases in regulation, and proteases in intra-cellular processes. The redox group contained detoxification gene...

  4. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  5. In vitro anticancer and cytotoxic activities of some plant extracts on HeLa and Vero cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugba Artun, Fulya; Karagoz, Ali; Ozcan, Gul; Melikoglu, Gulay; Anil, Sezin; Kultur, Sukran; Sutlupinar, Nurhayat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro anticancer and cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of 14 medicinal plants, 8 of which are endemic species in Anatolia, against the human HeLa cervical cancer cell line and to compare to the normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line (Vero) using the MTT colorimetric assay. Values for cytotoxicity measured by MTT assay were expressed as the concentration that causes 50% decrease in cell viability (IC50, μg/mL). The degree of selectivity of the compounds can be expressed by its selectivity index (SI) value. High SI value (>2) of a compound gives the selective toxicity against cancer cells (SI = IC50 normal cell/IC50 cancer cell). Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 293 mg/mL and >1000 mg/mL for Cotinus coggygria Scop., IC50 of 265 μg/mL and >1000 mg/mL for Rosa damascena Miller, IC50 of 2 μg/mL and 454 mg/mL for Colchicum sanguicolle K.M. Perss, IC50 of 427 μg/mL and >1000 μg/mL for Centaurea antiochia Boiss. var. praealta (Boiss & Bal) Wagenitz on the HeLa cells and the Vero cells, respectively. Four plants showed significant SI values which were 227 for Colchicum sanguicolle K.M. Perss (endemic species), >3.8 for Rosa damascena Miller, >3.4 for Cotinus coggygria Scop. and >2.3 for Centaurea antiochia Boiss. var. praealta (Boiss & Bal)Wagenitz (endemic species). According to our study, 4 methanolic extracts of 14 tested plants exhibit greater activity on the HeLa cell line and little activity on the Vero cell line, meaning that these plants can be evaluated for potential promising anticancer activity.

  6. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  7. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in

  8. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain. A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops and little owls (Athene noctua and tawny owls (Strix aluco. It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  9. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes) indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Kinsella, John M; Di Prisco, Francesca; Troisi, Sabatino; D'Alessio, Nicola; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Aznar, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain). A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops) and little owls (Athene noctua) and tawny owls (Strix aluco). It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  10. Space Motion Sickness - Analysis of Medical Debriefs Data for Incidence and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Younker, D.; Daniels, V.

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts use medications for the treatment of a variety of illnesses during space travel. Data mining efforts to assess minor clinical conditions occurring during Shuttle flights STS-1 through STS-94 revealed that space motion sickness (SMS) was the most common ailment during early flight days, occurring in approx.40% of crewmembers, followed by digestive system disturbances (9%) and infectious diseases, which most commonly involved the respiratory or urinary tracts. A more recent analysis of postflight medical debriefs data to examine trends with respect to medication use by astronauts during spaceflights indicated that 37% of all prescriptions recorded was for pain followed by sleep (22%), SMS (18%), decongestion (14%), and all others (14%). Further analysis revealed that about 150 of 317 crewmembers experienced symptoms of SMS. Nearly all (132 of 150) crewmembers took medication for the treatment of symptoms with a total of 387 doses. Promethazine was taken most often (201 doses); in most cases this resulted in alleviation of symptoms with 130 crewmembers (65%) reporting feeling much or somewhat better. Although fewer total doses of the combination of promethazine and dextroamphetamine (Phen/Dex) were taken (45 doses), slightly more than half of these doses resulted in improvement. The combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (Scop/Dex) was reported to be effective in only 37% of cases, with 36 of 97 total doses resulting in improvement. A higher percentage (24%) of Scop/Dex doses was reported to be ineffective compared with promethazine alone or as Phen/Dex (10% and 7%, respectively). Comparisons of the effectiveness of the different dosage forms of promethazine revealed that intramuscular injection was most effective in alleviating symptoms with 55% feeling much better, 16% feeling somewhat better, and only 7% feeling no effect or worse. Overall, it appears that promethazine alone was used more frequently during flight and was reported effective for

  11. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs' feeding behavior and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J J; Spackman, C; Goff, B M; Klotz, J L; Griggs, T; MacAdam, J W

    2016-02-01

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume such as sainfoin attenuates the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 legume species, sainfoin (SAN; 2.9% condensed tannins) or cicer milkvetch (CIC; without tannins) and a mixed ration containing tall fescue seed (50:30:20 seed:beet pulp:alfalfa) with 2 levels of endophyte infection (endophyte-infected tall fescue seed [E+; 3,150 ug/L ergovaline] or endophyte-free tall fescue seed [E-]). For a 10-d baseline period, half of the lambs were fed SAN and half were fed CIC and all lambs had ad libitum amounts of E-. In an ensuing 10-d experimental period, the protocol was the same except half of the lambs fed SAN or CIC received E+ instead of E-. Subsequently, all lambs could choose between their respective legume and seed-containing ration and between E+ and E-. Finally, an in vitro radial diffusion assay was conducted to determine whether tannins isolated from SAN would bind to alkaloids isolated from E+. All groups consumed similar amounts of E- during baseline period ( > 0.10), but lambs ate more E- than E+ during the experimental period ( 0.10), but lambs fed E+ had lower rectal temperatures per gram of feed ingested when supplemented with SAN than with CIC ( 0.10). All lambs preferred their treatment ration over their treatment legume, but lambs in the SAN and E+ treatment ate more legume + ration than lambs in the CIC and E+ (CIC-E+; tannins to protein was reduced by the E+ isolate ( tannin-alkaloid complexation but only from tannins extracted from SAN fed early in the experimental period. In summary, SAN supplementation increased intake of and preference for E+ and reduced rectal temperatures relative to CIC supplementation. Our results suggest that these effects were mediated by the condensed tannins in SAN through alkaloid inactivation, an interaction that declined with plant

  12. Herbage intake regulation and growth of rabbits raised on grasslands: back to basics and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G; Duprat, A; Goby, J-P; Theau, J-P; Roinsard, A; Descombes, M; Legendre, H; Gidenne, T

    2016-10-01

    Organic agriculture is developing worldwide, and organic rabbit production has developed within this context. It entails raising rabbits in moving cages or paddocks, which enables them to graze grasslands. As organic farmers currently lack basic technical information, the objective of this article is to characterize herbage intake, feed intake and the growth rate of rabbits raised on grasslands in different environmental and management contexts (weather conditions, grassland type and complete feed supplementation). Three experiments were performed with moving cages at an experimental station. From weaning, rabbits grazed a natural grassland, a tall fescue grassland and a sainfoin grassland in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Rabbit diets were supplemented with a complete pelleted feed limited to 69 g dry matter (DM)/rabbit per day in experiment 1 and 52 g DM/rabbit per day in experiments 2 and 3. Herbage allowance and fiber, DM and protein contents, as well as rabbit intake and live weight, were measured weekly. Mean herbage DM intake per rabbit per day differed significantly (Prabbit metabolic weight (live weight0.75) and herbage protein and fiber contents. Across experiments, a 10 g DM increase in herbage allowance and a 100 g increase in rabbit metabolic weight corresponded to a mean increase of 6.8 and 9.6 g of herbage DM intake, respectively. When including complete feed, daily mean DM intakes differed significantly among experiments (Prabbit per day in experiment 2 to 163.6 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 1. Metabolic weight of rabbits raised on grasslands increased linearly over time in all three experiments, yielding daily mean growth rates of 26.2, 19.2 and 28.5 g/day in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The highest growth rate was obtained on the sainfoin grassland despite lower concentrate supplementation. Thus, it seems possible to reduce complete feed supplementation without reducing animal performance. This possibility requires improving

  13. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolaraki, F; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Skampardonis, V; Volanis, M; Hoste, H

    2010-04-01

    The anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. Most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. The present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 Mediterranean plants on Haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. Significant inhibition was shown in vitro using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay for all extracts except that from Olea europaea var. koroneiki. After adding PVPP, the LMI values were restored to control levels for all plants except Pistacia lentiscus and Ceratonia siliqua, confirming a role for tannins in the activity. In the in vivo experiment, 48 lambs composed 6 groups, depending on diet. On Day 0, groups G1-G5 received H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and G6 remained uninfected. The various diets were distributed from Days 14 to 45: P. lentiscus (G1), Quercus coccifera (G2), C. siliqua (G3), Onobrychis viciifolia (G4), or Medicago sativa for the 2 control groups (G5, G6). Egg excretion, packed cell volumes (PCVs) and inorganic phosphate were measured weekly throughout the entire experimental period. At slaughter, the worms were enumerated and their fecundity assessed. Consumption of the 4 browser plants did not provoke differences in pathophysiological measurements but there were significant decreases in egg excretion, mainly explained by significant decreases in worm fecundity for both species, without any statistical difference in worm numbers.

  14. SCPRED: Accurate prediction of protein structural class for sequences of twilight-zone similarity with predicting sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structure prediction methods provide accurate results when a homologous protein is predicted, while poorer predictions are obtained in the absence of homologous templates. However, some protein chains that share twilight-zone pairwise identity can form similar folds and thus determining structural similarity without the sequence similarity would be desirable for the structure prediction. The folding type of a protein or its domain is defined as the structural class. Current structural class prediction methods that predict the four structural classes defined in SCOP provide up to 63% accuracy for the datasets in which sequence identity of any pair of sequences belongs to the twilight-zone. We propose SCPRED method that improves prediction accuracy for sequences that share twilight-zone pairwise similarity with sequences used for the prediction. Results SCPRED uses a support vector machine classifier that takes several custom-designed features as its input to predict the structural classes. Based on extensive design that considers over 2300 index-, composition- and physicochemical properties-based features along with features based on the predicted secondary structure and content, the classifier's input includes 8 features based on information extracted from the secondary structure predicted with PSI-PRED and one feature computed from the sequence. Tests performed with datasets of 1673 protein chains, in which any pair of sequences shares twilight-zone similarity, show that SCPRED obtains 80.3% accuracy when predicting the four SCOP-defined structural classes, which is superior when compared with over a dozen recent competing methods that are based on support vector machine, logistic regression, and ensemble of classifiers predictors. Conclusion The SCPRED can accurately find similar structures for sequences that share low identity with sequence used for the prediction. The high predictive accuracy achieved by SCPRED is

  15. EVEREST: automatic identification and classification of protein domains in all protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linial Nathan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins are comprised of one or several building blocks, known as domains. Such domains can be classified into families according to their evolutionary origin. Whereas sequencing technologies have advanced immensely in recent years, there are no matching computational methodologies for large-scale determination of protein domains and their boundaries. We provide and rigorously evaluate a novel set of domain families that is automatically generated from sequence data. Our domain family identification process, called EVEREST (EVolutionary Ensembles of REcurrent SegmenTs, begins by constructing a library of protein segments that emerge in an all vs. all pairwise sequence comparison. It then proceeds to cluster these segments into putative domain families. The selection of the best putative families is done using machine learning techniques. A statistical model is then created for each of the chosen families. This procedure is then iterated: the aforementioned statistical models are used to scan all protein sequences, to recreate a library of segments and to cluster them again. Results Processing the Swiss-Prot section of the UniProt Knoledgebase, release 7.2, EVEREST defines 20,230 domains, covering 85% of the amino acids of the Swiss-Prot database. EVEREST annotates 11,852 proteins (6% of the database that are not annotated by Pfam A. In addition, in 43,086 proteins (20% of the database, EVEREST annotates a part of the protein that is not annotated by Pfam A. Performance tests show that EVEREST recovers 56% of Pfam A families and 63% of SCOP families with high accuracy, and suggests previously unknown domain families with at least 51% fidelity. EVEREST domains are often a combination of domains as defined by Pfam or SCOP and are frequently sub-domains of such domains. Conclusion The EVEREST process and its output domain families provide an exhaustive and validated view of the protein domain world that is automatically

  16. SCOWLP: a web-based database for detailed characterization and visualization of protein interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently there is a strong need for methods that help to obtain an accurate description of protein interfaces in order to be able to understand the principles that govern molecular recognition and protein function. Many of the recent efforts to computationally identify and characterize protein networks extract protein interaction information at atomic resolution from the PDB. However, they pay none or little attention to small protein ligands and solvent. They are key components and mediators of protein interactions and fundamental for a complete description of protein interfaces. Interactome profiling requires the development of computational tools to extract and analyze protein-protein, protein-ligand and detailed solvent interaction information from the PDB in an automatic and comparative fashion. Adding this information to the existing one on protein-protein interactions will allow us to better understand protein interaction networks and protein function. Description SCOWLP (Structural Characterization Of Water, Ligands and Proteins is a user-friendly and publicly accessible web-based relational database for detailed characterization and visualization of the PDB protein interfaces. The SCOWLP database includes proteins, peptidic-ligands and interface water molecules as descriptors of protein interfaces. It contains currently 74,907 protein interfaces and 2,093,976 residue-residue interactions formed by 60,664 structural units (protein domains and peptidic-ligands and their interacting solvent. The SCOWLP web-server allows detailed structural analysis and comparisons of protein interfaces at atomic level by text query of PDB codes and/or by navigating a SCOP-based tree. It includes a visualization tool to interactively display the interfaces and label interacting residues and interface solvent by atomic physicochemical properties. SCOWLP is automatically updated with every SCOP release. Conclusion SCOWLP enriches

  17. Characterization and cultivation of a wild mushroom species isolated in Brazil Caracterização e cultivo de uma espécie de cogumelo silvestre isolado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Wild mushrooms were collected close to cattle manure in pasture areas in Tamarana (Paraná/Brazil, with the objective of finding and domesticating new non-exploited basidiomycetes. An edible basidiomycete of the Agaricales order was classified as belonging to the Macrolepiota bonaerensis species (=Lepiota procera, form bonaerensis (Speg. Rick or M. procera (Scop.:Fr Sing.. The mycelia was isolated and characterized for growth rate in different culture media. A vigorous growth was observed in PDA Medium (pH 5, ±25°C. The oat culture medium was the most appropriate for cultivation submersed. M. bonaerensis mycelia secretes lipase, cellulase and protease exoenzyme types. Cytological analyses confirmed the bi-nucleated condition of the mycelia, the presence of septa and clamp connections in the hypha. The fructification occurred in the substrate composed of sterilized humus + soil (1:9 plus casing layer with active carbon. Visando a busca e a domesticação de basidiomicetos ainda inexplorados, coletou-se cogumelos silvestres em regiões de pastagens e próximos a esterco de gado no município de Tamarana, PR. Um basidiomiceto comestível da ordem Agaricales foi classificado como pertencente à espécie Macrolepiota bonaerensis (=Lepiota procera, forma bonaerensis (Speg. Rick ou M. procera (Scop.:Fr. Sing.. O micélio foi isolado e caracterizado em relação à taxa de crescimento em diferentes meios de cultura. Observou-se um crescimento vigoroso em meio BDA (pH 5, ±25°C. O meio de aveia foi o mais adequado para cultivo submerso. O micélio de M. bonaerensis secreta enzimas dos tipos lipase, celulase e protease, e as análises citológicas confirmaram a condição binucleada do micélio, a presença de septos e de grampos de conexão nas hifas. A frutificação dos cogumelos ocorreu no substrato constituído de húmus + terra (1:9 esterilizados, acrescido de terra de cobertura e carvão ativado.

  18. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gerd

    2008-01-01

    . The hierarchical classification of PBRs is implemented into the SCOWLP database and extends the SCOP classification with three additional family sub-levels: Binding Region, Interface and Contacting Domains. SCOWLP contains 9,334 binding regions distributed within 2,561 families. In 65% of the cases we observe families containing more than one binding region. Besides, 22% of the regions are forming complex with more than one different protein family. Conclusion The current SCOWLP classification and its web application represent a framework for the study of protein interfaces and comparative analysis of protein family binding regions. This comparison can be performed at atomic level and allows the user to study interactome conservation and variability. The new SCOWLP classification may be of great utility for reconstruction of protein complexes, understanding protein networks and ligand design. SCOWLP will be updated with every SCOP release. The web application is available at http://www.scowlp.org.

  19. Identification of similar regions of protein structures using integrated sequence and structure analysis tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiland Randy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding protein function from its structure is a challenging problem. Sequence based approaches for finding homology have broad use for annotation of both structure and function. 3D structural information of protein domains and their interactions provide a complementary view to structure function relationships to sequence information. We have developed a web site http://www.sblest.org/ and an API of web services that enables users to submit protein structures and identify statistically significant neighbors and the underlying structural environments that make that match using a suite of sequence and structure analysis tools. To do this, we have integrated S-BLEST, PSI-BLAST and HMMer based superfamily predictions to give a unique integrated view to prediction of SCOP superfamilies, EC number, and GO term, as well as identification of the protein structural environments that are associated with that prediction. Additionally, we have extended UCSF Chimera and PyMOL to support our web services, so that users can characterize their own proteins of interest. Results Users are able to submit their own queries or use a structure already in the PDB. Currently the databases that a user can query include the popular structural datasets ASTRAL 40 v1.69, ASTRAL 95 v1.69, CLUSTER50, CLUSTER70 and CLUSTER90 and PDBSELECT25. The results can be downloaded directly from the site and include function prediction, analysis of the most conserved environments and automated annotation of query proteins. These results reflect both the hits found with PSI-BLAST, HMMer and with S-BLEST. We have evaluated how well annotation transfer can be performed on SCOP ID's, Gene Ontology (GO ID's and EC Numbers. The method is very efficient and totally automated, generally taking around fifteen minutes for a 400 residue protein. Conclusion With structural genomics initiatives determining structures with little, if any, functional characterization

  20. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000-2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Progress of structural genomics initiatives: an analysis of solved target structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Annabel E; Marsden, Russell L; Thornton, Janet M; Orengo, Christine A

    2005-05-20

    The explosion in gene sequence data and technological breakthroughs in protein structure determination inspired the launch of structural genomics (SG) initiatives. An often stated goal of structural genomics is the high-throughput structural characterisation of all protein sequence families, with the long-term hope of significantly impacting on the life sciences, biotechnology and drug discovery. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of solved SG targets to assess progress of these initiatives. Eleven consortia have contributed 316 non-redundant entries and 323 protein chains to the Protein Data Bank (PDB), and 459 and 393 domains to the CATH and SCOP structure classifications, respectively. The quality and size of these proteins are comparable to those solved in traditional structural biology and, despite huge scope for duplicated efforts, only 14% of targets have a close homologue (>/=30% sequence identity) solved by another consortium. Analysis of CATH and SCOP revealed the significant contribution that structural genomics is making to the coverage of superfamilies and folds. A total of 67% of SG domains in CATH are unique, lacking an already characterised close homologue in the PDB, whereas only 21% of non-SG domains are unique. For 29% of domains, structure determination revealed a remote evolutionary relationship not apparent from sequence, and 19% and 11% contributed new superfamilies and folds. The secondary structure class, fold and superfamily distributions of this dataset reflect those of the genomes. The domains fall into 172 different folds and 259 superfamilies in CATH but the distribution is highly skewed. The most populous of these are those that recur most frequently in the genomes. Whilst 11% of superfamilies are bacteria-specific, most are common to all three superkingdoms of life and together the 316 PDB entries have provided new and reliable homology models for 9287 non-redundant gene sequences in 206 completely sequenced genomes. From the

  2. SUPFAM: A database of sequence superfamilies of protein domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand B

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SUPFAM database is a compilation of superfamily relationships between protein domain families of either known or unknown 3-D structure. In SUPFAM, sequence families from Pfam and structural families from SCOP are associated, using profile matching, to result in sequence superfamilies of known structure. Subsequently all-against-all family profile matches are made to deduce a list of new potential superfamilies of yet unknown structure. Description The current version of SUPFAM (release 1.4 corresponds to significant enhancements and major developments compared to the earlier and basic version. In the present version we have used RPS-BLAST, which is robust and sensitive, for profile matching. The reliability of connections between protein families is ensured better than before by use of benchmarked criteria involving strict e-value cut-off and a minimal alignment length condition. An e-value based indication of reliability of connections is now presented in the database. Web access to a RPS-BLAST-based tool to associate a query sequence to one of the family profiles in SUPFAM is available with the current release. In terms of the scientific content the present release of SUPFAM is entirely reorganized with the use of 6190 Pfam families and 2317 structural families derived from SCOP. Due to a steep increase in the number of sequence and structural families used in SUPFAM the details of scientific content in the present release are almost entirely complementary to previous basic version. Of the 2286 families, we could relate 245 Pfam families with apparently no structural information to families of known 3-D structures, thus resulting in the identification of new families in the existing superfamilies. Using the profiles of 3904 Pfam families of yet unknown structure, an all-against-all comparison involving sequence-profile match resulted in clustering of 96 Pfam families into 39 new potential superfamilies. Conclusion SUPFAM

  3. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh, E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  4. Identification of similar regions of protein structures using integrated sequence and structure analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brandon; Moad, Charles; Youn, Eunseog; Buffington, Kris; Heiland, Randy; Mooney, Sean

    2006-03-09

    Understanding protein function from its structure is a challenging problem. Sequence based approaches for finding homology have broad use for annotation of both structure and function. 3D structural information of protein domains and their interactions provide a complementary view to structure function relationships to sequence information. We have developed a web site http://www.sblest.org/ and an API of web services that enables users to submit protein structures and identify statistically significant neighbors and the underlying structural environments that make that match using a suite of sequence and structure analysis tools. To do this, we have integrated S-BLEST, PSI-BLAST and HMMer based superfamily predictions to give a unique integrated view to prediction of SCOP superfamilies, EC number, and GO term, as well as identification of the protein structural environments that are associated with that prediction. Additionally, we have extended UCSF Chimera and PyMOL to support our web services, so that users can characterize their own proteins of interest. Users are able to submit their own queries or use a structure already in the PDB. Currently the databases that a user can query include the popular structural datasets ASTRAL 40 v1.69, ASTRAL 95 v1.69, CLUSTER50, CLUSTER70 and CLUSTER90 and PDBSELECT25. The results can be downloaded directly from the site and include function prediction, analysis of the most conserved environments and automated annotation of query proteins. These results reflect both the hits found with PSI-BLAST, HMMer and with S-BLEST. We have evaluated how well annotation transfer can be performed on SCOP ID's, Gene Ontology (GO) ID's and EC Numbers. The method is very efficient and totally automated, generally taking around fifteen minutes for a 400 residue protein. With structural genomics initiatives determining structures with little, if any, functional characterization, development of protein structure and function analysis tools are a

  5. Seropositivity and Risk Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Birds from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M.; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n = 610), Strigiformes (n = 260), Ciconiiformes (n = 156), Gruiformes (n = 21), and other orders (n = 32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1∶25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC95%:23.5–28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) “vulnerable” Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN “near threatened” red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is

  6. Application of data mining tools for classification of protein structural class from residue based averaged NMR chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun V; Ali, Rehana F M; Cao, Yu; Krishnan, V V

    2015-10-01

    The number of protein sequences deriving from genome sequencing projects is outpacing our knowledge about the function of these proteins. With the gap between experimentally characterized and uncharacterized proteins continuing to widen, it is necessary to develop new computational methods and tools for protein structural information that is directly related to function. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides powerful means to determine three-dimensional structures of proteins in the solution state. However, translation of the NMR spectral parameters to even low-resolution structural information such as protein class requires multiple time consuming steps. In this paper, we present an unorthodox method to predict the protein structural class directly by using the residue's averaged chemical shifts (ACS) based on machine learning algorithms. Experimental chemical shift information from 1491 proteins obtained from Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) and their respective protein structural classes derived from structural classification of proteins (SCOP) were used to construct a data set with 119 attributes and 5 different classes. Twenty four different classification schemes were evaluated using several performance measures. Overall the residue based ACS values can predict the protein structural classes with 80% accuracy measured by Matthew correlation coefficient. Specifically protein classes defined by mixed αβ or small proteins are classified with >90% correlation. Our results indicate that this NMR-based method can be utilized as a low-resolution tool for protein structural class identification without any prior chemical shift assignments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gap size effects on tree regeneration in afforestations of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercurio R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors deal with the problem of the re-naturalization of afforestations of Black pine in the Apennines (Central Italy. Gap-cutting of two different sizes (the gap diameter/stand height ratios were respectively 0.75 and 1.0 on age classes stands (respectively 50 and 90 years old have been carried out. The results of the dynamics of the tree regeneration established in the gaps 7 years after the beginning of the experiment are given. The Black pine represents the best regenerated tree species and its presence is increasing. Some broadleaves, Pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. and Holm oak (Quercus ilex L. particularly, and Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. and Manna-ash (Fraxinus ornus L. on a subordinate way, are also present in the gaps. These results confirm that the gap-cutting system represents an effective instrument for the natural regeneration priming and a low impact environmental treatment which is particularly fit for the re-naturalization of the conifers’ monocultures. According to this experience the gaps’ optimal sizes are 150-250 m2. These gaps should be distributed appropriately in space and time.

  8. Pathogenicity of Armillaria Isolates Inoculated on Five Quercus Species at Different Watering Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Metaliaj

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available One of three fungal isolates of Armillaria mellea (Vahl: Fr. P. Kummer, A. gallica Marxm. et Romagn. and A. tabescens (Scop.: Fr. Emel. was inoculated on 1,440 three-year-old potted seedlings of five Quercus species (Q. cerris L., Q. ilex L., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L. and Q. trojana Webb. grown at different watering regimes in a greenhouse. Inoculum was represented by a piece of an oak branch colonised with the fungus (or sterile, as a control, which was attached to the unwounded main root of each oak seedling. During the growing season, differences in water availability among seedlings were measured monthly using minimum water potential assessments on noninoculated seedlings receiving an equal amount of water. Although all three Armillaria isolates induced infection, the A. mellea isolate was most pathogenic in all cases, while the A. gallica isolate showed a statistically equal degree of pathogenicity only on the least watered seedlings. Of the Quercus species, Q. ilex showed the greatest number of infected seedlings, Q. robur the smallest. Reducing the water supply to potted oak seedlings could be a useful indicator for detecting differences in pathogenicity between Armillaria species.

  9. Combining classifiers for improved classification of proteins from sequence or structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Christina S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting a protein's structural or functional class from its amino acid sequence or structure is a fundamental problem in computational biology. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using discriminative learning algorithms, in particular support vector machines (SVMs, for classification of proteins. However, because sufficiently many positive examples are required to train such classifiers, all SVM-based methods are hampered by limited coverage. Results In this study, we develop a hybrid machine learning approach for classifying proteins, and we apply the method to the problem of assigning proteins to structural categories based on their sequences or their 3D structures. The method combines a full-coverage but lower accuracy nearest neighbor method with higher accuracy but reduced coverage multiclass SVMs to produce a full coverage classifier with overall improved accuracy. The hybrid approach is based on the simple idea of "punting" from one method to another using a learned threshold. Conclusion In cross-validated experiments on the SCOP hierarchy, the hybrid methods consistently outperform the individual component methods at all levels of coverage. Code and data sets are available at http://noble.gs.washington.edu/proj/sabretooth

  10. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  11. Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ragonezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone pine (Pinus pinea L., like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM, which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop. Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr. S.F. Gray fungi, were collected, pure cultured and used in in vitro co-culture with stone pine microshoots. Samples of P. arhizus and L. deliciosus for the in vitro co-cultures were collected from the pine stands southwest Portugal. The in situ characterization was based on their morphotypes. To confirm the identity of the collected material, ITS amplification was applied using the pure cultures derived from the sporocarps. Additionally, a molecular profile using PCR based genomic fingerprinting comparison was executed with other genera of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Our results showed the effectiveness of the techniques used to amplify DNA polymorphic sequences, which enhances the characterization of the genetic profile of ECM fungi and also provides an option to verify the fungus identity at any stage of plant mycorrhization.

  12. Digging as tactics of escape in two bumblebee species with different nesting ecology: Bombus terrestris L. and B. pascuorum Scopoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzińska, E J

    1988-01-01

    Hymenoptera respond to confinement by vigorous and persistent escape behavior. In a field study, workers of two bumblebee species, Bombus terrestris L. and B. pascuorum Scop., were tested in glass tubes plugged by soil at the open end, and with their other, closed end oriented towards the-sunlight, so that the bees could alternate between two escape tactics: photopositive behavior and digging behavior. The bees of both species proved to be able to sdve such an escape task, i.e. to dig their way out of the tube almost without exceptions. However, as expected, workers of B. terrestris, a species nesting in underground cavities connected with the outside world by long tunnels, performed better than workers of B. pascuorum, a surface-nesting species. The workers of B. terrestris started to dig earlier, were digging more persistently and more efficiently, and, consequently, escaped out the test tubes earlier than the workers of B. pascuorum. High intraspecific variability in all parameters characterizing digging behavior of the bumblebees was also recorded.

  13. PANDORA: analysis of protein and peptide sets through the hierarchical integration of annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Nadav; Fromer, Menachem; Schweiger, Regev; Linial, Michal

    2010-07-01

    Derivation of biological meaning from large sets of proteins or genes is a frequent task in genomic and proteomic studies. Such sets often arise from experimental methods including large-scale gene expression experiments and mass spectrometry (MS) proteomics. Large sets of genes or proteins are also the outcome of computational methods such as BLAST search and homology-based classifications. We have developed the PANDORA web server, which functions as a platform for the advanced biological analysis of sets of genes, proteins, or proteolytic peptides. First, the input set is mapped to a set of corresponding proteins. Then, an analysis of the protein set produces a graph-based hierarchy which highlights intrinsic relations amongst biological subsets, in light of their different annotations from multiple annotation resources. PANDORA integrates a large collection of annotation sources (GO, UniProt Keywords, InterPro, Enzyme, SCOP, CATH, Gene-3D, NCBI taxonomy and more) that comprise approximately 200,000 different annotation terms associated with approximately 3.2 million sequences from UniProtKB. Statistical enrichment based on a binomial approximation of the hypergeometric distribution and corrected for multiple hypothesis tests is calculated using several background sets, including major gene-expression DNA-chip platforms. Users can also visualize either standard or user-defined binary and quantitative properties alongside the proteins. PANDORA 4.2 is available at http://www.pandora.cs.huji.ac.il.

  14. PANDORA: keyword-based analysis of protein sets by integration of annotation sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Noam; Vaaknin, Avishay; Linial, Michal

    2003-10-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput methods and the application of computational tools for automatic classification of proteins have made it possible to carry out large-scale proteomic analyses. Biological analysis and interpretation of sets of proteins is a time-consuming undertaking carried out manually by experts. We have developed PANDORA (Protein ANnotation Diagram ORiented Analysis), a web-based tool that provides an automatic representation of the biological knowledge associated with any set of proteins. PANDORA uses a unique approach of keyword-based graphical analysis that focuses on detecting subsets of proteins that share unique biological properties and the intersections of such sets. PANDORA currently supports SwissProt keywords, NCBI Taxonomy, InterPro entries and the hierarchical classification terms from ENZYME, SCOP and GO databases. The integrated study of several annotation sources simultaneously allows a representation of biological relations of structure, function, cellular location, taxonomy, domains and motifs. PANDORA is also integrated into the ProtoNet system, thus allowing testing thousands of automatically generated clusters. We illustrate how PANDORA enhances the biological understanding of large, non-uniform sets of proteins originating from experimental and computational sources, without the need for prior biological knowledge on individual proteins.

  15. SA-Mot: a web server for the identification of motifs of interest extracted from protein loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regad, Leslie; Saladin, Adrien; Maupetit, Julien; Geneix, Colette; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2011-07-01

    The detection of functional motifs is an important step for the determination of protein functions. We present here a new web server SA-Mot (Structural Alphabet Motif) for the extraction and location of structural motifs of interest from protein loops. Contrary to other methods, SA-Mot does not focus only on functional motifs, but it extracts recurrent and conserved structural motifs involved in structural redundancy of loops. SA-Mot uses the structural word notion to extract all structural motifs from uni-dimensional sequences corresponding to loop structures. Then, SA-Mot provides a description of these structural motifs using statistics computed in the loop data set and in SCOP superfamily, sequence and structural parameters. SA-Mot results correspond to an interactive table listing all structural motifs extracted from a target structure and their associated descriptors. Using this information, the users can easily locate loop regions that are important for the protein folding and function. The SA-Mot web server is available at http://sa-mot.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr.

  16. CONCEPTUL DE PARADIGMĂ ÎN FORMAREA PROFESIONALĂ CONTINUĂ A CADRELOR DIDACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Guțu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available În articol este abordată problema privind formarea continuă a cadrelor didactice din perspectiva paradigmatică: este definită noţiunea „paradigmă”, analizată în plan comparativ paradigma educaţională tradiţională şi modernă, dedus un ansamblu de principii privind formarea continuă a cadrelor didactice. Autorii propun un concept de formare continuă axat pe nevoile individuale şi instituţionale, având ca scop profesionalizarea cadrelor didactice. CONCEPT OF PARADIGM IN TRAINING COURSES FOR TEACHERSThe article gave not address the ongoing training of teachers in terms of paradigmatic: it defines the notion of "paradigm", analyzed comparatively educational paradigm traditional and modern, dedicate a set of principles on training for teachers and propose a concept of continuous training focused on the needs of individual and institutional reforms aimed at professionalizing teachers.

  17. Analysis of HSP90-related folds with MED-SuMo classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppelt-Azeroual, Olivia; Moriaud, Fabrice; Delfaud, François; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2009-09-21

    Three-dimensional structural information is critical for understanding functional protein properties and the precise mechanisms of protein functions implicated in physiological and pathological processes. Comparison and detection of protein binding sites are key steps for annotating structures with functional predictions and are extremely valuable steps in a drug design process. In this research area, MED-SuMo is a powerful technology to detect and characterize similar local regions on protein surfaces. Each amino acid residue's potential chemical interactions are represented by specific surface chemical features (SCFs). The MED-SuMo heuristic is based on the representation of binding sites by a graph structure suitable for exploration by an efficient comparison algorithm. We use this approach to analyze one particular SCOP superfamily which includes HSP90 chaperone, MutL/DNA topoisomerase, histidine kinases, and alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase C (BCK). They share a common fold and a common region for ATP-binding. To analyze both similar and differing features of this fold, we use a novel classification method, the MED-SuMo multi approach (MED-SMA). We highlight common and distinct features of these proteins. The different clusters created by MED-SMA yield interesting observations. For instance, one cluster gathers three types of proteins (HSP90, topoisomerase VI, and BCK) which all bind the drug radicicol.

  18. Analyzing the Light Energy Distribution in the Photosynthetic Apparatus of C4 Plants Using Highly Purified Mesophyll and Bundle-Sheath Thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundel, E.; Nagel, E.; Meister, A.

    1996-11-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of mesophyll and bundle-sheath thylakoids from plant species with the C4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis were investigated using flow cytometry. Ten species with the NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) biochemical type of C4 photosynthesis were tested: Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Euphorbia maculata L., Portulaca grandiflora Hooker, Saccharum officinarum L., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., Zea mays L., and four species of the genus Flaveria. This study also included three species with NAD-ME biochemistry (Atriplex rosea L., Atriplex spongiosa F. Muell., and Portulaca oleracea L.). Two C4 species of unknown biochemical type were investigated: Cyperus papyrus L. and Atriplex tatarica L. Pure mesophyll and bundle-sheath thylakoids were prepared by flow cytometry and characterized by low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. In pure bundle-sheath thylakoids from many species with C4 photosynthesis of the NADP-ME type, significant amounts of photosystem II (PSII) emission can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. Simulation of fluorescence excitation spectra of these thylakoids showed that PSII light absorption contributes significantly to the apparent excitation spectrum of photosystem I. Model calculations indicated that the excitation energy of PSII is efficiently transferred to photosystem I in bundle-sheath thylakoids of many NADP-ME species.

  19. Computational and the real energy performance of a single-family residential building in Poland – an attempt to compare: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents energy use for heating and ventilation (one of the energy performance components determined in three ways. A case of a single family building located near Wroclaw in Poland is analyzed. The first and the second variant are both computational and the third presents actual measured energy consumption. Computational variants are based on the Polish methodology for the EPC (the Energy Performance Certificate. This methodology is based on ‘the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU’. Energy use for heating and ventilation is calculated using monthly method presented in EN ISO 13790. In the first computational option standard input data (parameters such as indoor and outdoor air temperature etc. are taken from standards and regulations are implemented. In the second variant this input data are partially taken from measurements. The results of energy use from both computational variants are compared to the actual measured energy consumption. On the basis of this comparison the influence of three factors: solar radiation heat gains, building air tightness and the SCOP of the heat pump on energy use calculations are analyzed. Conclusions aim to point the differences between them and the actual energy consumption.

  20. Columba: an integrated database of proteins, structures, and annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preissner Robert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural and functional research often requires the computation of sets of protein structures based on certain properties of the proteins, such as sequence features, fold classification, or functional annotation. Compiling such sets using current web resources is tedious because the necessary data are spread over many different databases. To facilitate this task, we have created COLUMBA, an integrated database of annotations of protein structures. Description COLUMBA currently integrates twelve different databases, including PDB, KEGG, Swiss-Prot, CATH, SCOP, the Gene Ontology, and ENZYME. The database can be searched using either keyword search or data source-specific web forms. Users can thus quickly select and download PDB entries that, for instance, participate in a particular pathway, are classified as containing a certain CATH architecture, are annotated as having a certain molecular function in the Gene Ontology, and whose structures have a resolution under a defined threshold. The results of queries are provided in both machine-readable extensible markup language and human-readable format. The structures themselves can be viewed interactively on the web. Conclusion The COLUMBA database facilitates the creation of protein structure data sets for many structure-based studies. It allows to combine queries on a number of structure-related databases not covered by other projects at present. Thus, information on both many and few protein structures can be used efficiently. The web interface for COLUMBA is available at http://www.columba-db.de.

  1. Calculations of elastic, ionization and total cross sections for inert gases upon electron impact: threshold to 2 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Antony, Bobby; Joshipura, K. N.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we report comprehensive calculations of total elastic (Qel), total ionization (Qion) and total (complete) cross sections (QT) for the impact of electrons on inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) at energies from about threshold to 2000 eV. We have employed the spherical complex optical potential (SCOP) formalism to evaluate Qel and QT and used the complex spherical potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method to derive Qion. The dependence of QT on polarizability and incident energy is presented for these targets through an analytical formula. Mutual comparison of various cross sections is provided to show their relative contribution to the total cross sections QT. Comparison of QT for all these targets is carried out to present a general theoretical picture of collision processes. The present calculations also provide information, hitherto sparse, on the excitation processes of these atomic targets. These results are compared with available experimental and other theoretical data and overall good agreement is observed.

  2. PROIECTAREA ŞI REPROIECTAREA SISTEMULUI DECIZIONAL ÎN ÎNTREPRINDERILE MODERNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana MIRONOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Importanţa deosebită a deciziilor în ansamblul proceselor de management impune o permanentă perfecţionare a acestora. Pentru a elabora decizii de calitate, care să conducă la o eficienţă şi la o competitivitate sporită a întreprinderii, este necesar de a fi creată o construcţie puternică a sistemului decizional. În acest scop, în prezentul articol oferim me-todologia proiectării şi reproiectării sistemului decizional, care este pe drept numit „sistemul nervos” al întreprinderii.PROJECTION AND REPROJECTION OF DECISIONAL SYSTEM IN MODERN ENTERPRISEThe great importance of making the whole management process requires its constant improvement. To develop quality decisions that lead to increased efficiency and competitiveness of the enterprise, it is necessary to create a strong construction decisional system. To this end, in this article we offer projection and reprojection methodology of decisional system, which is justly called the "nervous system" of the company.

  3. RNArchitecture: a database and a classification system of RNA families, with a focus on structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletto, Pietro; Magnus, Marcin; Almeida, Catarina; Zyla, Adriana; Astha, Astha; Pluta, Radoslaw; Baginski, Blazej; Jankowska, Elzbieta; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Wirecki, Tomasz K; Boniecki, Michal J; Stefaniak, Filip; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2018-01-04

    RNArchitecture is a database that provides a comprehensive description of relationships between known families of structured non-coding RNAs, with a focus on structural similarities. The classification is hierarchical and similar to the system used in the SCOP and CATH databases of protein structures. Its central level is Family, which builds on the Rfam catalog and gathers closely related RNAs. Consensus structures of Families are described with a reduced secondary structure representation. Evolutionarily related Families are grouped into Superfamilies. Similar structures are further grouped into Architectures. The highest level, Class, organizes families into very broad structural categories, such as simple or complex structured RNAs. Some groups at different levels of the hierarchy are currently labeled as 'unclassified'. The classification is expected to evolve as new data become available. For each Family with an experimentally determined three-diemsional (3D) structure(s), a representative one is provided. RNArchitecture also presents theoretical models of RNA 3D structure and is open for submission of structural models by users. Compared to other databases, RNArchitecture is unique in its focus on structure-based RNA classification, and in providing a platform for storing RNA 3D structure predictions. RNArchitecture can be accessed at http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/RNArchitecture/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Calibrating a spatially encoded time delay for transient absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly S.; Wong, Cathy Y.

    2017-08-01

    A novel spectroscopy termed single shot transient absorption (SSTA) is presented that can collect a transient absorption spectrum in 6 ms by using laser pulses with tilted wavefronts to spatially encode the delay between pump and probe pulse arrival times at the sample. The transient absorption technique determines the change in sample transmission that results from sample photoexcitation, and tracks this change as a function of the time delay between the arrival of the pump pulse and the probe pulse. Typically, these time delays are generated using a retroreflecting mirror mounted on a motorized translation stage, with a measurement collected at each translation stage position. Because these measurements must be performed in series, data collection requires a significant amount of time. This limits transient absorption to the measurement of systems that are static for the duration of the experiment. SSTA overcomes this restriction by employing pump and probe pulses which are each focused into a line and tilted with respect to each other to spatially encode time delays within the sample. Here, we describe the SSTA technique and instrumentation, demonstrate the principle of this spectroscopy, and present a method for calibrating the spatially encoded time delay by autocorrelation. This instrument will broaden the scop

  5. Optimum yields of dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans from Cynareae fruits, during their ripening, germination and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, determined by on-line chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szokol-Borsodi, Lilla; Sólyomváry, Anna; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya; Boldizsár, Imre

    2012-01-01

    Dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans are the physiologically active constituents of the achene fruits of Cynareae. These lignans occur in glycoside/aglycone forms: in the highest quantity of the arctiin/arctigenin, matairesinoside/matairesinol and tracheloside/trachelogenin pairs found in the fruits of Arctium lappa L., Centaurea scabiosa L. and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. To optimise the extraction yield of the arctiin/arctigenin, matairesinoside/matairesinol and tracheloside/trachelogenin glycoside/aglycone pairs, from the fruits of Arctium lappa, Centaurea scabiosa and Cirsium arvense, under the ripening, germination and enzymatic hydrolysis processes of the fruits. Identification and quantification of lignans were performed with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with UV and mass selective detections (HPLC-UV/MS). As novelties to the field it was confirmed that: (i) the unripe fruits provide a high amount of lignans, similar to the ripe fruit; (ii) the fruits of Arctium lappa and Cirsium arvense do have glycosidase activity to hydrolyse their lignan glycosides into free lignans; (iii) the glycosidase of Centaurea scabiosa fruit becomes activated under its germination process only; and (iv) the overwhelming part of the fruits lignan contents (80-94%) in all three species are accumulated in the embryo. The best sources of (i) lignan aglycones are the enzyme-hydrolysed embryos, separating spontaneously during the germination process, and (ii) lignan glycosides are the unripe fruits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of sulfuryl fluoride as a soil fumigant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Aocheng; Guo, Meixia; Yan, Dongdong; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Duan, Xiayu; Wang, Peisheng

    2014-02-01

    Root-knot nematodes and soil-borne diseases constrain the rapid development of protected agriculture in China, especially while phasing out methyl bromide (MB). The fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SF) is currently used as an alternative to MB for the disinfestation of buildings and post-harvest commodities. Our experiments aimed to evaluate a novel application of SF as a soil fumigant in greenhouses in China. Dose-response experiments indicated that SF has good efficacy on root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and moderate activity against Fusarium spp. and weeds (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Abutilon theophrasti Medicus). The field trials indicates that SF has good efficacy, between 80 and 94%, on Meloidogyne spp., and Fusarium spp. at the rates of 25-50 g m(-2) in tomato and cucumber in Beijing and Shandong Province. Marketable yield and plant vigour was not significantly different in SF and MB treatments. SF has lower emissions than MB during the fumigation operation. It is simple to apply, can be used at low temperature, and has a short plant-back time. SF was found to be an economically feasible alternative to MB for nematode control in China. SF can be used as a soil fumigant to control root-knot nematodes and to reduce the levels of key soil pathogens. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  8. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D.J.H.; Mexia, A.M.M.; Mumford, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010–2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance’s sensitivity on Terceira Island. PMID:28082349

  9. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry.

  10. Conversion trials in mixed coppices of Gargano (Puglia, Italy: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Six plots have been drawn in an mixed aged coppice stand, 40 years after last coppicing; they represent a typical expression of Doronico-Carpinetum phytosociological association and they are characteristic of many woods of Gargano’s territory, composed by Quercus cerris L. (turkey oak, Quercus pubescens Willd. (downy oak, Acer opalus Mill. (italian maple, Carpinus betulus L. (european hornbeam, Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. (hop hornbeam. Compared treatments are: natural evolution of the coppice without thinning versus two thinning regimes with different intensity, both aimed to convert the stands into high forests. 1200 and 1600 stems per hectare were released in the conversion plots. Plots, control and treated in 2001, have been measured before and immediately after thinning and remeasured five years later. At the present time, stands are characterized by a basically monolayered structure, in which turkey oak is prevalent in term of basal area. Moreover in thinned areas, losses on the released shoots number are unimportant both in absolute and in percent terms; in control plot, instead, competition by plants of upper storey on the dominated ones means high values of mortality.

  11. RELAŢIILE SOCIALE ŞI INTERPERSONALE LA COPIII CU MALADII RESPIRATORII CRONICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana TARNOVSCHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercetarea noastră a avut drept scop studierea preferinţelor în sistemul de relaţii sociale şi interpersonale la copiii cu maladii respiratorii cronice, evidenţiind următoarele aspecte ale funcţionalităţii sociale: studierea gradului de comunicabilitate a copilului în grup; studierea nivelului de conflictualitate, agresivitate, precum şi tendinţa de izolare; stabilirea relaţiilor interpersonale, aspecte care, în ansamblu, caracterizează gradul de adaptare socială a copilului. SOCIAL AND INTERPERSONAL CHILD RELATIONSHIPS WITH CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASESOur research aimed in studying preferences in social and interpersonal relationship systems to children with chronic respiratory diseases, highlighting the next aspects of the social functioning: studying the level of comunicability of a child in group, studying the level of conflituality, agresivity and the tendency of isolation; setting interpersonal relationships, aspects which, overall, characterizes the level of social adaptation of a child.

  12. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  13. Comprehensive comparative analysis and identification of RNA-binding protein domains: multi-class classification and feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandideh, Samad; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Zhi, Degui

    2012-11-07

    RNA-protein interaction plays an important role in various cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, post-transcriptional gene regulation, alternative splicing, and infections by RNA viruses. In this study, using Gene Ontology Annotated (GOA) and Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) databases an automatic procedure was designed to capture structurally solved RNA-binding protein domains in different subclasses. Subsequently, we applied tuned multi-class SVM (TMCSVM), Random Forest (RF), and multi-class ℓ1/ℓq-regularized logistic regression (MCRLR) for analysis and classifying RNA-binding protein domains based on a comprehensive set of sequence and structural features. In this study, we compared prediction accuracy of three different state-of-the-art predictor methods. From our results, TMCSVM outperforms the other methods and suggests the potential of TMCSVM as a useful tool for facilitating the multi-class prediction of RNA-binding protein domains. On the other hand, MCRLR by elucidating importance of features for their contribution in predictive accuracy of RNA-binding protein domains subclasses, helps us to provide some biological insights into the roles of sequences and structures in protein-RNA interactions.

  14. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  15. Ecodiagrams of common species of the forest herb layer in the Roztocze National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Czarnecka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents in graphic standardised form ("ecodiagrams" the conditions in which 24 common species of the herb layer of forest communities occur in the Roztocze National Park. After determining the soil type, its mechanical composition, active and exchangeable acidity, humus content and the content in the rhizosphere layer of nutrient components essential for plants, such as P, K, Na, Ca. Mg. AI, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, the habitats of common plants of the forest from the class Querco-Fagetea were classified as meso-, eu-meso- and cutrophic. Forest plants connected with communities from the class Vaccinio-Piceetea (Hierncium lachenalii Gmel., Melampyrum pratense L., Trientalis eurnpaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L. are generally associated with fresh, moderately poor and quite frequently also mesotrophic soils. Only Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. is a local species of dry hungry soils, poor in mineral and organic components. The group of accompanying species such as Fragaria vesca L., Galium vernum Scop., Luzula pilosa (L. Willd., Mycelis ruralis (L. Dum. and Oxalis ucetosella L.. show a much wider ecological amplitude-from oligotrophic to eutrophic habitats.

  16. Electron Impact Ionization of SOx, NOx and H2 SO4 - The Aerosol Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnav, B. G.; Patel, U. R.; Joshipura, K. N.; Pandya, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports our theoretical studies on electron impact ionization of reactive molecules SOx, NOx (x = 1-3) and H2 SO4, at incident energies from threshold to 2000 eV. Motivation for this work derives from the relevance of these molecules in connection with atmospheric aerosols analysis through mass spectrometric studies and quantification of mass concentrations amongst the aerosol species. The ionization efficiency of a molecule is directly proportional to ionization cross section, which represents the efficiency on a per-molecule basis. Study of electron impact ionization cross sections of molecules, like H2 SO4, versus number of electrons in the molecule can lead to information about mass concentrations of aerosol species. We have employed in this work, the well-known spherical complex potential formalism (SCOP), which provides total elastic as well as inelastic cross sections, wherein the latter includes ionization cross sections. We have developed a method to extract ionization cross section from calculated inelastic cross section by introducing a ratio function, in a semi-empirical formalism known as CSP-ic method. For SOx and NOx targets single-centre scattering calculations are performed, while for H2 SO4, the additivity rule augmented with overlap or screening corrections, has been employed. The calculated cross sections are examined as functions of incident electron energy along with comparisons (theoretical or experimental) as available.

  17. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  19. PEPTIDE BIOACTIVE ALGALE ŞI PERSPECTIVA DE UTILIZARE A LOR ÎN CALITATE DE AGENŢI TERAPEUTICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina BULIMAGA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dezvoltarea şi aplicarea tehnologiilor de inginerie enzimatică, folosind enzimele pentru hidroliza ficocianinei şi producerea peptidelor bioactive, deschide noi perspective de utilizare a lor în calitate de agenţi anticancer, antimicro-bieni, antioxidativi, antihipertensivi etc. Lărgirea spectrului de peptide produse în baza enzimolizei ficocianinei poate fi efectuată prin utilizarea în acest scop a enzimelor proteolitice cu specificitate diferită. În lucrare sunt analizate spectrele UV ale hidrolizatelor triptice sumare ale ficocianinei şi descrise unele metode de separare şi analiză a fracţiilor peptidice din hidrolizat.ALGAL BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES AND THEIR PERSPECTIVE USE AS THERAPEUTIC AGENTSDevelopment and application of enzyme engineering technologies using enzymes for the hydrolysis of Phycocyanin and production of bioactive peptides opens up new prospects for their use as anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypotensive agents. Diversification of the range of produced peptides can be performed by the enzymolysis and using of the proteolytic enzymes with diverse specificity for this purpose. The paper presents the UV spectra of summary tryptic phycocyanin hydrolysates and some methods of separation and analyzing of peptide fractions.

  20. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase overexpression in herbicide-resistant large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforest, Martin; Soufiane, Brahim; Simard, Marie-Josée; Obeid, Kristen; Page, Eric; Nurse, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes is increasing and this report of an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor-resistant Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop. from southwestern Ontario is another example. The identified weed escaped control in an onion and carrot rotation in which graminicides were used for several consecutive years. Our goal was to characterize the level and mechanism of resistance of the biotype. The biotype was resistant to all five ACCase inhibitor herbicides tested. Gene-expression profiling was performed because none of the mutations known to confer resistance in the ACCase gene were detected. RNASeq and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) results indicated that transcription of ACCase was 3.4-9.3 times higher in the resistant biotype than the susceptible biotype. ACCase gene copy number was determined by qPCR to be five to seven times higher in the resistant compared with the susceptible biotype. ACCase gene overexpression was directly related to the increase of the ACCase gene copy number. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that overexpression of the herbicide target gene ACCase confers resistance to the herbicide. This is the first reported case of target gene duplication conferring resistance to a herbicide other than glyphosate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry See related Article. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2014-03-04

    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campanula glomerata L. and Campanula olympica Boiss. Antibacterial activity against six bacteria was evaluated: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were most sensitive to the methanolic extract from A. europaeum. S. pyogenes was vulnerable to all used extracts of D. orientale. In addition, ethanolic or methanolic extracts of E. campestre, A. mollis, D. pentaphyllum, C. varia, R. angustifolius, C. glomerata and C. olympica displayed strong antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic extract from R. angustifolius showed a broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antitumour activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium-tumefaciens-induced potato disc tumour assay. Best antitumour activity was obtained with the aqueous extract from A. europaeum and methanolic extract from E. campestre (100% and 86% tumour inhibition, respectively).

  2. A graph-based clustering method applied to protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pooja; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2011-01-01

    The number of amino acid sequences is increasing very rapidly in the protein databases like Swiss-Prot, Uniprot, PIR and others, but the structure of only some amino acid sequences are found in the Protein Data Bank. Thus, an important problem in genomics is automatically clustering homologous protein sequences when only sequence information is available. Here, we use graph theoretic techniques for clustering amino acid sequences. A similarity graph is defined and clusters in that graph correspond to connected subgraphs. Cluster analysis seeks grouping of amino acid sequences into subsets based on distance or similarity score between pairs of sequences. Our goal is to find disjoint subsets, called clusters, such that two criteria are satisfied: homogeneity: sequences in the same cluster are highly similar to each other; and separation: sequences in different clusters have low similarity to each other. We tested our method on several subsets of SCOP (Structural Classification of proteins) database, a gold standard for protein structure classification. The results show that for a given set of proteins the number of clusters we obtained is close to the superfamilies in that set; there are fewer singeltons; and the method correctly groups most remote homologs.

  3. ПИТИÉ НА РУСИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djanfranco Djeraudo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available În articolul de faţă autorul îşi propune drept scop să puncteze principalii paşi în lupta împotriva alcoolismului dusă în Rusia din secolul al XI-lea până în epoca sovietică. Sunt aduse date cu privire la metodele de combatere a acestui fenomen în Rusia, printre care: politica ce vizează băuturile alcoolice şi monopolul asupra acestora, achiziţiile publice şi fiscalitatea, campaniile de propagandă sovietice (fără succes împotriva consumului excesiv de alcool, precum şi încercările de a promova băuturile salbe.DRINK IN RUSSIA This article is proposing major steps aimed at restoring the fight against alcoholism in Russia since the eleventh century until the Soviet era. Data are made with reference to the methods of struggle against this phenomenon in Russia, as well as policy on alcohol and their monopoly, public procurement and taxation, Soviet propaganda campaigns (unsuccessfully against alcohol abuse and attempts to promote weak drink.Keywords: alcohol, beverages, Russian Empire, Soviet Union, propaganda.

  4. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  5. Blurring contact maps of thousands of proteins: what we can learn by reconstructing 3D structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The present knowledge of protein structures at atomic level derives from some 60,000 molecules. Yet the exponential ever growing set of hypothetical protein sequences comprises some 10 million chains and this makes the problem of protein structure prediction one of the challenging goals of bioinformatics. In this context, the protein representation with contact maps is an intermediate step of fold recognition and constitutes the input of contact map predictors. However contact map representations require fast and reliable methods to reconstruct the specific folding of the protein backbone. Methods In this paper, by adopting a GRID technology, our algorithm for 3D reconstruction FT-COMAR is benchmarked on a huge set of non redundant proteins (1716) taking random noise into consideration and this makes our computation the largest ever performed for the task at hand. Results We can observe the effects of introducing random noise on 3D reconstruction and derive some considerations useful for future implementations. The dimension of the protein set allows also statistical considerations after grouping per SCOP structural classes. Conclusions All together our data indicate that the quality of 3D reconstruction is unaffected by deleting up to an average 75% of the real contacts while only few percentage of randomly generated contacts in place of non-contacts are sufficient to hamper 3D reconstruction. PMID:21232136

  6. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmaria F. Ferrazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H, ethanol (E, and water (W extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans.

  7. Classification of α-Helical Membrane Proteins Using Predicted Helix Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Sindy; Fuchs, Angelika; Hummel, Barbara; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant methodological advances in protein structure determination high-resolution structures of membrane proteins are still rare, leaving sequence-based predictions as the only option for exploring the structural variability of membrane proteins at large scale. Here, a new structural classification approach for α-helical membrane proteins is introduced based on the similarity of predicted helix interaction patterns. Its application to proteins with known 3D structure showed that it is able to reliably detect structurally similar proteins even in the absence of any sequence similarity, reproducing the SCOP and CATH classifications with a sensitivity of 65% at a specificity of 90%. We applied the new approach to enhance our comprehensive structural classification of α-helical membrane proteins (CAMPS), which is primarily based on sequence and topology similarity, in order to find protein clusters that describe the same fold in the absence of sequence similarity. The total of 151 helix architectures were delineated for proteins with more than four transmembrane segments. Interestingly, we observed that proteins with 8 and more transmembrane helices correspond to fewer different architectures than proteins with up to 7 helices, suggesting that in large membrane proteins the evolutionary tendency to re-use already available folds is more pronounced. PMID:24204844

  8. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; Bertrand, A.; Casares, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Oviedo University, Julian Claveria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Gonzalez, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: aidag@uniovi.es; Tames, R.S. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The effect of Cd on woody fleabane (Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter) and white birch (Betula celtiberica Rothm. and Vasc.) was examined. Woody fleabane and white birch were grown in vitro in Murashige, T., Skoog, F., [1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-479] (MS) plus Cd (10 mg Cd kg{sup -1}) and except for root length in white birch, plant development was inhibited when Cd was added. Cd accumulation in above-ground tissues showed differences among clones, reaching 1300 and 463 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry wt. in selected clones of woody fleabane and white birch, respectively. Tolerance of Paxillus filamentosus (Scop) Fr. to Cd was also examined before mycorrhization. Plants of mycorrhized white birch grown in the presence of Cd had a better development and accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the non-mycorrhized ones. The use of selected clones of woody fleabane and the mycorrhization of white birch enhance extraction efficiency from contaminated soils in phytoremediation programs. - The high accumulation of Cd observed in selected clones of Dittrichia viscosa and mycorrhized Betula celtiberica grown in vitro implies a potential application for phytoextraction.

  9. Clustering Protein Sequences Using Affinity Propagation Based on an Improved Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sizes of the protein databases are growing rapidly nowadays, thus it becomes increasingly important to cluster protein sequences only based on sequence information. In this paper we improve the similarity measure proposed by Kelil et al, then cluster sequences using the Affinity propagation (AP algorithm and provide a method to decide the input preference of AP algorithm. We tested our method extensively and compared its performance with other four methods on several datasets of COG, G protein, CAZy, SCOP database. We consistently observed that, the number of clusters that we obtained for a given set of proteins approximate to the correct number of clusters in that set. Moreover, in our experiments, the quality of the clusters when quantified by F-measure was better than that of other algorithms (on average, it is 15% better than that of BlastClust, 56% better than that of TribeMCL, 23% better than that of CLUSS, and 42% better than that of Spectral clustering.

  10. Structure-based prediction of RNA-binding domains and RNA-binding sites and application to structural genomics targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiying; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2011-04-01

    Mechanistic understanding of many key cellular processes often involves identification of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and RNA binding sites in two separate steps. Here, they are predicted simultaneously by structural alignment to known protein-RNA complex structures followed by binding assessment with a DFIRE-based statistical energy function. This method achieves 98% accuracy and 91% precision for predicting RBPs and 93% accuracy and 78% precision for predicting RNA-binding amino-acid residues for a large benchmark of 212 RNA binding and 6761 non-RNA binding domains (leave-one-out cross-validation). Additional tests revealed that the method makes no false positive prediction from 311 DNA binding domains but correctly detects six domains binding with both DNA and RNA. In addition, it correctly identified 31 of 75 unbound RNA-binding domains with 92% accuracy and 65% precision for predicted binding residues and achieved 86% success rate in its application to SCOP RNA binding domain superfamily (Structural Classification Of Proteins). It further predicts 25 targets as RBPs in 2076 structural genomics targets: 20 of 25 predicted ones (80%) are putatively RNA binding. The superior performance over existing methods indicates the importance of dividing structures into domains, using a Z-score to measure relative structural similarity, and a statistical energy function to measure protein-RNA binding affinity.

  11. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A; Kennedy, Michael A; Cort, John R; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T; Rost, Burkhard

    2009-05-15

    We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links.

  12. MANET: tracing evolution of protein architecture in metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano-Anollés Gustavo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular metabolism can be characterized by networks of enzymatic reactions and transport processes capable of supporting cellular life. Our aim is to find evolutionary patterns and processes embedded in the architecture and function of modern metabolism, using information derived from structural genomics. Description The Molecular Ancestry Network (MANET project traces evolution of protein architecture in biomolecular networks. We describe metabolic MANET, a database that links information in the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and phylogenetic reconstructions depicting the evolution of protein fold architecture. Metabolic MANET literally 'paints' the ancestries of enzymes derived from rooted phylogenomic trees directly onto over one hundred metabolic subnetworks, enabling the study of evolutionary patterns at global and local levels. An initial analysis of painted subnetworks reveals widespread enzymatic recruitment and an early origin of amino acid metabolism. Conclusion MANET maps evolutionary relationships directly and globally onto biological networks, and can generate and test hypotheses related to evolution of metabolism. We anticipate its use in the study of other networks, such as signaling and other protein-protein interaction networks.

  13. The AnnoLite and AnnoLyze programs for comparative annotation of protein structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dopazo Joaquín

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in structural biology, including structural genomics, have resulted in a rapid increase in the number of experimentally determined protein structures. However, about half of the structures deposited by the structural genomics consortia have little or no information about their biological function. Therefore, there is a need for tools for automatically and comprehensively annotating the function of protein structures. We aim to provide such tools by applying comparative protein structure annotation that relies on detectable relationships between protein structures to transfer functional annotations. Here we introduce two programs, AnnoLite and AnnoLyze, which use the structural alignments deposited in the DBAli database. Description AnnoLite predicts the SCOP, CATH, EC, InterPro, PfamA, and GO terms with an average sensitivity of ~90% and average precision of ~80%. AnnoLyze predicts ligand binding site and domain interaction patches with an average sensitivity of ~70% and average precision of ~30%, correctly localizing binding sites for small molecules in ~95% of its predictions. Conclusion The AnnoLite and AnnoLyze programs for comparative annotation of protein structures can reliably and automatically annotate new protein structures. The programs are fully accessible via the Internet as part of the DBAli suite of tools at http://salilab.org/DBAli/.

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXIX. Cnicin in species of the subgenus Acrolophus (Cass. Dobrocz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cnicin was isolated from 18 species or subspecies of the subgenus Acrolophus (Cass. Dobrocz.: Centaurea aplolepa Moretti subsp. aplolepa, C. aplolepa Moretti subsp. lunensis (Fiori Dostal, C. arenaria Bieb. ex Wild. subsp. arenaria, C. arenaria Bieb. ex Wild, subsp. odessana (Prodan Dostal, C. arenaria Bieb ex Wild. subsp. majorowii (Dumbadze Dostal, C. calvescens Pančić, C. cineraria L. subsp. cineraria, C. cineraria L. var, circae Somm., C. diffusa Lam. var. brevispina Boiss., C. grisebachi (Nyman Form. subsp. grisebachi, C. grisebachi (Nyman Form. subsp. confusa (Halácsy Dostal, C. leucophaea Jordan subsp. leucophaea, C. attica Nyman subsp. ossaea (Halácsy Dostal, C. pallidior Halácsy subsp. palidior, C. pelia DC., C. rhenana Boreau subsp. savranica (Klokow Dostal, C. tymphaea Hausskn subsp. tymphaea, C. tymphaea Hausskn subsp. brevispina Hausskn (Dostal. Chromatographic analysis has shown appearance of cnicin in 10 investigated species or subspecies of subgenus Acrolophus (Cass. Dobrocz.: Centaurea attica Nyman subsp. drakiensis (Freyn, Sint. Dostal, C. kartschiana Scop., C. aggregata Fisch. et Mey, C. cuneifolia Sibth. SM. subsp. pallida (Friv. Hayek, C. exarata Boiss. ex Cosson., C. mantoudii Georg., C. orphanidea Heldr. Sart. ex Boiss, subsp. orphanidea, C. spinosa L. subsp. spinosa, C. transiens Halácsy, C. zuccariniana DC.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from some traditional Mediterranean diet plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecka, M; Bzowska, M; Kozieł, J; Szuba, B; Dubiel, O; Riviera Núńez, D; Heinrich, M; Bereta, J

    2005-03-01

    It is believed that bioactive compounds from plant foods may have health beneficial effects and reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study extracts of 121 plants typical for the traditional Mediterranean diet have been screened for their potential anti-inflammatory activities. The ability of the extracts to inhibit cytokine-stimulated, iNOS-dependent synthesis of nitric oxide in murine endothelial cells, without affecting cell viability, was the primary indicator of their anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these experiments we selected eight plant extracts for further analysis: Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Scandix pecten-veneris L., Urospermum picroides (L.) Scop. Ex F. W. Smith, Amaranthus cf. graecizans L., Onopordum macracanthum Schousboe, Eryngium campestre L., Artemisia alba Turra and Merendera pyrenaica (Pourret) Fourn. Only the effects of Onopordum macracanthum could be non-specific since the extract strongly inhibited total protein synthesis. All remaining 7 extracts decreased nitric oxide and TNFalpha synthesis in the cells of monocyte origin activated with LPS, and 4 of them significantly reduced surface expression of VCAM1 on TNFalpha-stimulated endothelial cells. All seven plant extracts decreased cytokine or LPS-stimulated iNOS mRNA levels in both cell types. Further research to identify bioactive compounds influencing intracellular signaling pathways activated by cytokines and LPS will consequently be needed in order to better understand these in vitro effects.

  16. The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  17. Reakcii rastenij raznyh zhiznennyh form na izmenenija prirodnoj sredy [The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  18. Camps 2.0: exploring the sequence and structure space of prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and viral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Sindy; Hartmann, Holger; Martin-Galiano, Antonio J; Fuchs, Angelika; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2012-03-01

    Structural bioinformatics of membrane proteins is still in its infancy, and the picture of their fold space is only beginning to emerge. Because only a handful of three-dimensional structures are available, sequence comparison and structure prediction remain the main tools for investigating sequence-structure relationships in membrane protein families. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the structural families corresponding to α-helical membrane proteins with at least three transmembrane helices. The new version of our CAMPS database (CAMPS 2.0) covers nearly 1300 eukaryotic, prokaryotic, and viral genomes. Using an advanced classification procedure, which is based on high-order hidden Markov models and considers both sequence similarity as well as the number of transmembrane helices and loop lengths, we identified 1353 structurally homogeneous clusters roughly corresponding to membrane protein folds. Only 53 clusters are associated with experimentally determined three-dimensional structures, and for these clusters CAMPS is in reasonable agreement with structure-based classification approaches such as SCOP and CATH. We therefore estimate that ∼1300 structures would need to be determined to provide a sufficient structural coverage of polytopic membrane proteins. CAMPS 2.0 is available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/CAMPS2.0/. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Adopting oculopressure tonometry as a transient in vivo rabbit glaucoma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahnke T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma represents a group of eye disorders partly related to raised intraocular pressure (IOP leading to progressive optic nerve damage resulting in impaired vision and possibly blindness. To assess the suitability of new IOP lowering therapeutic strategies, such as the implantation of glaucoma drainage devices, appropriate animal models have to be used. Currently, a number of rodent glaucoma models are available [1], however, especially for surgical interventions rodent eyes are too small. Rabbits are much more suitable with respect to dimension. Unfortunately, rabbit glaucoma model systems described in literature are difficult to reproduce or fail totally, associated with a high level of discomfort and pain for treated animals. Therefore, development of an in vivo rabbit glaucoma model is one of the most important goals in glaucoma research. Here, we describe the adaptation of the oculopressure tonometry, an existing method to quantify the outflow of aqueous humor in humans, to generate a transient glaucoma model in rabbits. The existing suction-cup oculopressor (SCOP is extended with newly designed suction-cups, which are adjusted to the anatomy of the rabbit eye. The modification of the oculopressure tonometry method facilitates an increase in IOP over a time frame of 9 minutes by vacuum induced deformation of the rabbit eye. This method can be used to test functionality of fistulating glaucoma surgeries or implanted drainage devices in a long term follow-up without any side effects and suffering of the animals.

  20. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models.

  1. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, and Schinus molle L. (aroeira located at Rodolfo da Costa Dam in Itaara, RS, Brazil. Samples were taken every two weeks with a conical funnel made of tin plate (2mm, 70cm in diameter at the rim and 63cm in height. One sample per botanical species for each sampling date was taken, by shaking the branches, ten times over the funnel. Samples were sent to the Entomology Laboratory of the Crop Protection Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, where the material was analyzed. A total of nine Pentatomidae species were identified. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 was the species of highest ocurrence followed by Thyanta humilis (Bergroth, 1891. The botanical species S. mauritianum presented the greatest number of Pentatomidae species, with an occurrence of 26.9%.

  2. Influența proiectelor de infrastructura asupra competitivității tehnologice, economice și sociale a Republicii Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii ZAMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dezvoltarea infrastructurii din perspectiva calitativa si cantitativa a constituit dintotdeauna o prioritate majora si totodată o metoda de dezvoltare economica sau de relansare economica in perioade de criza. Pentru Republica Moldova decalajul substantial dintre nivelul local si cel regional de dezvoltare a infrastructurii reprezintă încă o dificultate majoră cu consecințe directe asupra competitivității economice-sociale, precum si cel al atragerii fluxurilor de investiții străine. Indiferent de orientarea prioritara a unei națiuni asupra infrastructurii sociale sau economice, ansamblul de interacțiuni dintre ambele direcții reflecta nivelul de dezvoltare si bunăstare a unei națiuni. Din cauza necesitaților intensive de capital necesar pentru promovarea proiectelor de infrastructura, Republica Moldova nu poate executa fără surse externe de finanțare investițiile necesare pentru accelerarea si menținerea ritmului de dezvoltare regional. Acest studiu are drept scop de a determinarea impactului si importantei pe care îl au sau îl pot avea proiectele de infrastructura asupra competitivității tehnologice, economice si sociale a Republicii Moldova.

  3. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  5. High COP rotating wheel solid desiccant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of a third-generation desiccant cooling unit approaching ARI (American Refrigeration Institute) design-point Coefficient of Performance (COP) for cooling of 0.95, at a design-point Energy Efficiency Ratio(EER) of over 20, and a Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) for heating of 0.75. Typically, solar-gas desiccant systems operate on open-cycle principles and can provide cooling, heating, ventilation, and/or humidification/dehumidification and use ambient air as the working fluid, thus avoiding the need for high-pressure, or highvacuum, sealed-refrigerant assemblies. Among several alternative solar-desiccant systems, the adiabatic, rotary-regenerative system is the most advanced open-cycle, solid-desiccant, heating-cooling system presently considered for solar applications. In addition to space heating and cooling, the system can inexpensively provide fresh makeup air due to its regenerative nature. Since 1974, two residential-size units have been under development, and laboratory, field, and manufacturing-cost evaluations have highlighted their potential advantages for space conditioning. Recently, a third ''advanced'' unit was designed, which incorporates identical technology to that of the earlier models and a higher effectiveness heat exchanger. Projected rated and seasonal cooling performance comparison between the ''advanced'' and earlier models are also presented for three climatic regions.

  6. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P.; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Cort, John R.; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F.; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links. PMID:19191354

  7. Extracting features from protein sequences to improve deep extreme learning machine for protein fold recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wisam; Abadeh, Mohammad Saniee

    2017-05-21

    Protein fold recognition is an important problem in bioinformatics to predict three-dimensional structure of a protein. One of the most challenging tasks in protein fold recognition problem is the extraction of efficient features from the amino-acid sequences to obtain better classifiers. In this paper, we have proposed six descriptors to extract features from protein sequences. These descriptors are applied in the first stage of a three-stage framework PCA-DELM-LDA to extract feature vectors from the amino-acid sequences. Principal Component Analysis PCA has been implemented to reduce the number of extracted features. The extracted feature vectors have been used with original features to improve the performance of the Deep Extreme Learning Machine DELM in the second stage. Four new features have been extracted from the second stage and used in the third stage by Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA to classify the instances into 27 folds. The proposed framework is implemented on the independent and combined feature sets in SCOP datasets. The experimental results show that extracted feature vectors in the first stage could improve the performance of DELM in extracting new useful features in second stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cruciferous weeds in oil seed rape – appearance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingenhagen, Günter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different cruciferous weeds were drilled in autumn 2011 and 2012 in a field near Münster. Beside common species like hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale Scop., shepherd`s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris, pennycress (Thlaspiarvense, tall hedge mustard (Sisymbrium loeselii and flixweed (Descurainia sophia, we tried to establish weeds that are not common on arable land in Germany until now. These were: Yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris, hoary cress (Lepidium draba and Turkish rocket (Bunias orientalis. In autumn 2011 emergence of the sown weeds was poor. In the second year of experiment we got good emergence of the named weeds excluding hoary cress (Lepidium draba. In autumn 2011 and 2012 different herbicidecombinations were applied across the stripes. The best results were achieved with Colzor Trio (clomazone + dimethachlor + napropamid which was applied in pre-emergence state, a spray sequence Butisan Gold (metazachlor + quinmerac + dimethenamid-P applied in pre-emergence followed by Salsa (ethametsulfuronmethyl + Trend (adjuvant in post-emergence and Clearfield-Vantiga (metazachlor + quinmerac + imazamox + Dash (adjuvant, also applied in post-emergence state of the weeds.

  9. Assessment and prediction of the invasiveness of some alien plants in conditions of climate change in the steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Lykholat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the steppe Dnieper region is characterized by an abundance of naturalized alien species, some of which colonised over the last decade. Climate change, associated primarily with increasing temperature, became clearly manifested in this period. We tested the hypothesis that there is an association between climate change and the initiation of invasiveness of some alien plant species in the steppe Dnieper region. For this purpose, comparative studies of the distribution boundaries of naturalized alien trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants were conducted. Along the research route numerous 5–10-year-old broadleaf linden trees (Tilia platyphyllos Scop. were found in the man-made plantation communities of Dnipro city in areas with moist soil; seeded undergrowth was located at a significant distance from the adult linden plants. Numerous groups of young 7–10-year-old plants of the smoke trees (Cotinus coggygria Scop., which had a seed origin, were found in the shelterbelt and urban recreational plantations. Young 10–12-year-old virginal and generative plants of the black cherry (Padus serotina Ehrh. were found in large numbers in both the semi-natural and artificial plant communities at great distances from the adult trees. The alien plant species common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. showed the ability to form fairly sparse seminal seedlings, which was presented by the plants at the age of 4–7 years in both the natural and urban plant communities. The perennial herbaceous plant common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L. was found in the course of the research in ruderal habitats, urban plant communities, and also in the agrocoenoses. The common milkweed reached its greatest abundance in fields of winter crops, where the spread of this species was accompanied by a sharp decrease in the number of other species of segetal plants. Our study results confirm that the extension of the distribution boundaries of alien species over the last

  10. Working in Cooperatives and Social Economy: Effects on Job Satisfaction and the Meaning of Work Travailler en coopérative et dans l’économie sociale, effets sur la satisfaction et le sens du travail Trabajar en cooperativa y en la economía social, efectos sobre la satisfacción y el sentido del trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy Castel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of social economics on job satisfaction. According to the hypothesis, the adoption of social economics’ goals and modes of work organization is a source of job satisfaction: reduction in the separation between conception and execution, increase in work’s interest and perceived usefulness, and better cohesion and coordination among workers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the workers in two consulting firms in sustainable development in France, one a cooperative and the other a private company. The results of the content analysis corroborate the hypothesis. The fact that social economy’s principles have positive impacts on job satisfaction in both companies also shows that social economy’s positive influence on well-being at work depends less on formal work organization than on the meaning given to work.Nous étudions les effets de l’économie sociale sur la satisfaction au travail. Selon l’hypothèse, l’adoption des finalités et des modes d’organisation du travail de l’économie sociale est source de satisfaction au travail : réduction de la séparation entre conception et exécution, augmentation de l’intérêt et de l’utilité perçue du travail, meilleure cohésion et coordination entre les travailleurs. Les résultats de l’analyse de contenu des entretiens semi-directifs menés auprès des salariés de deux entreprises exerçant dans le secteur du conseil en développement durable en France, l’une société coopérative (SCOP et l’autre entreprise privée, confirment cette hypothèse. Le fait que les principes d’économie sociale ont des conséquences positives sur la satisfaction au travail dans les deux entreprises montre par ailleurs que l’influence positive de l’économie sociale sur le bien-être au travail dépend moins des modes de structuration formels que du sens donné au travail.Este artículo estudia los efectos de la economía social sobre la

  11. Palinologia de espécies de Solanum L. (Solanaceae A. Juss. ocorrentes nas restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Palynology of species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae A. Juss. from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Patrícia Rodrigues Batista-Franklim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 21 táxons de Solanum L., com o objetivo de caracterizá-los palinologicamente e, assim, contribuir para a elaboração de um catálogo polínico da flora das restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os táxons examinados foram Solanum affine Sendtn., Solanum americanum Mill. var. americanum,Solanum argenteum Dunal ex Poir., Solanum aturense Dunal, Solanum caavurana Vell., Solanum capsicoides All., Solanum carautae Carv., Solanum cordifolium Dunal, Solanum curvispinum Dunal, Solanum echidnaeforme Dunal, Solanum gardneri Sendtn.,Solanum indigoferum A. St.-Hil., Solanum insidiosum Mart., Solanum mauritianum Scop., Solanum paludosum Moric., Solanum paniculatum L., Solanum paratyense Vell., Solanum pseudoquina A.St.-Hil., Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam., Solanum torvum Sw., Solanum velleum Sw. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, mensurados, descritos e fotomicrografados. A análise sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada, em grãos de pólen não acetolisados, para confirmar as descrições feitas sob microscopia de luz e, em alguns casos para confirmar as descrições de abertura e ornamentação. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são pequenos ou médios, isopolares, subprolatos a oblato-esferoidais, 3-colporados, sexina granulada, rugulado-granulada ou escabrada. Pela análise dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que os táxons analisados apresentam certa heterogeneidade polínica, quanto à forma, aos atributos das aberturas e à ornamentação da sexina, podendo-se usar estes caracteres na taxonomia do gênero.In this study 21 taxa of Solanum L. were investigated for palynological characterization and to contribute to the Pollen Catalog of the Flora of the Rio de Janeiro restingas. The taxa analysed were Solanum affine Sendtn., Solanum americanum Mill. var. americanum,Solanum argenteum Dunal ex Poir., Solanum aturense Dunal, Solanum caavurana Vell., Solanum capsicoides All., Solanum carautae Carv., Solanum

  12. Travailler en coopérative et dans l’économie sociale, effets sur la satisfaction et le sens du travail Working in a cooperative and social economics: Effects on job satisfaction and the meaning of work Trabajar en cooperativa y en la economía social, efectos sobre la satisfacción y el sentido del trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Durand-Delvigne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous étudions les effets de l’économie sociale sur la satisfaction au travail. Selon l’hypothèse, l’adoption des finalités et des modes d’organisation du travail de l’économie sociale est source de satisfaction au travail : réduction de la séparation entre conception et exécution, augmentation de l’intérêt et de l’utilité perçue du travail, meilleure cohésion et coordination entre les travailleurs. Les résultats de l’analyse de contenu des entretiens semi-directifs menés auprès des salariés de deux entreprises exerçant dans le secteur du conseil en développement durable en France, l’une société coopérative (SCOP et l’autre entreprise privée, confirment cette hypothèse. Le fait que les principes d’économie sociale ont des conséquences positives sur la satisfaction au travail dans les deux entreprises montre par ailleurs que l’influence positive de l’économie sociale sur le bien-être au travail dépend moins des modes de structuration formels que du sens donné au travail.This study investigates the impact of social economics on job satisfaction. According to the hypothesis, the adoption of social economics’ goals and modes of work organization is a source of job satisfaction: reduction in the separation between conception and execution, increase in work’s interest and perceived usefulness, and better cohesion and coordination among workers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the workers in two consulting firms in sustainable development in France, one a cooperative and the other a private company. The results of the content analysis corroborate the hypothesis. The fact that social economy’s principles have positive impacts on job satisfaction in both companies also shows that social economy’s positive influence on well-being at work depends less on formal work organization than on the meaning given to work.Este artículo estudia los efectos de la economía social sobre la

  13. Myxomycetes do Parque Zoobotânico de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Myxomycetes of the Parque Zoobotânico - Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Percília Moura Parente Ponte

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando ampliar o conhecimento sobre a mixobiota do Piauí, foram realizadas coletas no Parque Zoobotânico de Teresina (05º 05' 12'' S, 42º 48' 48'' WG. A vegetação do Parque caracteriza-se como um cerradão com representantes da mata de cocais, que oferecem substratos potencialmente favoráveis ao desenvolvimento de Myxomycetes. Esporocarpos foram coletados no período chuvoso e início da estiagem (março a junho de 1999, identificados e depositados no herbário UFP (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Foram obtidas 101 amostras, correspondentes a 19 espécies, distribuídas nas famílias Ceratiomyxaceae (Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (Mull. Macbr., Clastodermataceae (Clastoderma debaryanum Blytt, Cribrariaceae (Cribraria microcarpa (Schrad. Pers., C. violacea Rex, Dictydium canceilatum* (Batsch. Macbr., Enteridiaceae (Lycogala exiguum* Morgan., Physaraceae (Craterium aureum* (Schum. Rost., Physarum bogoriense* Racib., P. melleum (Berk. & Br. Massee, P. nucleatum Rex, P. pusilium* (Berk. & Curt. G. Lister, Trichiaceae (Arcyria denudata (L. Wett., A. cinerea (Bull. Pers., Hemitrichia calyculata (Speg. Farr, H. serpula (Scop. Rost., Metatrichia vesparium (Batsch Nann.-Brem., Perichaena depressa Lib. e Stemonitaceae (Comatricha typhoides (Bull. Rost., Stemonitis smithii Macbr.. Exceto H. calyculata e H. serpula, todos os táxons são referidos pela primeira vez para o município de Teresina; as espécies assinaladas com um asterisco constituem novos registros para o Piauí.Aiming to increase the knowledge about the myxobiota of Piauí State, Brazil, collections were done in the undertaken Zoobotanical Park of Teresina (05° 05' 12'' S, 42° 48' 48'' WG. The vegetation of the Park is a savanna ("cerradão" with "cocais" forest representative, offering substrates potentially favorable to the development of Myxomycetes. Sporocarps were collected in the rainy season (March to June 1999, identified and deposited at the UFP herbarium (Federal University

  14. Experimental evaluation of ALS point cloud ground extraction over different land cover in the Malopolska Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Klimczyk, Agata

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites in the Małopolska Province (Poland) with varying point density between 3-15points/m² and surface as well as land cover characteristics. In this paper the existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation and segmentation were compared. From the group of morphological filters, the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) proposed by Zhang K. et al. (2003) in LIS software was evaluated. From the progressive densification filter methods developed by Axelsson P. (2000) the Martin Isenburg's implementation in LAStools software (LAStools, 2012) was chosen. The third group of methods are surface-based filters. In this study, we used the hierarchic robust interpolation approach by Kraus K., Pfeifer N. (1998) as implemented in SCOP++ (Trimble, 2012). The fourth group of methods works on segmentation. From this filtering concept the segmentation algorithm available in LIS was tested (Wichmann V., 2012). The main aim in executing the automatic classification for ground extraction was operating in default mode or with default parameters which were selected by the developers of the algorithms. It was assumed that the default settings were equivalent to the parameters on which the best results can be achieved. In case it was not possible to apply an algorithm in default mode, a combination of the available and most crucial parameters for ground extraction were selected. As a result of these analyses, several output LAS files with different ground classification were achieved. The results were described on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses, both being in a formal description. The classification differences were verified on point cloud data. Qualitative verification of ground extraction was

  15. Use of a structural alphabet to find compatible folds for amino acid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Swapnil; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Offmann, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The structural annotation of proteins with no detectable homologs of known 3D structure identified using sequence-search methods is a major challenge today. We propose an original method that computes the conditional probabilities for the amino-acid sequence of a protein to fit to known protein 3D structures using a structural alphabet, known as "Protein Blocks" (PBs). PBs constitute a library of 16 local structural prototypes that approximate every part of protein backbone structures. It is used to encode 3D protein structures into 1D PB sequences and to capture sequence to structure relationships. Our method relies on amino acid occurrence matrices, one for each PB, to score global and local threading of query amino acid sequences to protein folds encoded into PB sequences. It does not use any information from residue contacts or sequence-search methods or explicit incorporation of hydrophobic effect. The performance of the method was assessed with independent test datasets derived from SCOP 1.75A. With a Z-score cutoff that achieved 95% specificity (i.e., less than 5% false positives), global and local threading showed sensitivity of 64.1% and 34.2%, respectively. We further tested its performance on 57 difficult CASP10 targets that had no known homologs in PDB: 38 compatible templates were identified by our approach and 66% of these hits yielded correctly predicted structures. This method scales-up well and offers promising perspectives for structural annotations at genomic level. It has been implemented in the form of a web-server that is freely available at http://www.bo-protscience.fr/forsa. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  16. Clusters of ancestrally related genes that show paralogy in whole or in part are a major feature of the genomes of humans and other species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Walker

    Full Text Available Arrangements of genes along chromosomes are a product of evolutionary processes, and we can expect that preferable arrangements will prevail over the span of evolutionary time, often being reflected in the non-random clustering of structurally and/or functionally related genes. Such non-random arrangements can arise by two distinct evolutionary processes: duplications of DNA sequences that give rise to clusters of genes sharing both sequence similarity and common sequence features and the migration together of genes related by function, but not by common descent. To provide a background for distinguishing between the two, which is important for future efforts to unravel the evolutionary processes involved, we here provide a description of the extent to which ancestrally related genes are found in proximity.Towards this purpose, we combined information from five genomic datasets, InterPro, SCOP, PANTHER, Ensembl protein families, and Ensembl gene paralogs. The results are provided in publicly available datasets (http://cgd.jax.org/datasets/clustering/paraclustering.shtml describing the extent to which ancestrally related genes are in proximity beyond what is expected by chance (i.e. form paraclusters in the human and nine other vertebrate genomes, as well as the D. melanogaster, C. elegans, A. thaliana, and S. cerevisiae genomes. With the exception of Saccharomyces, paraclusters are a common feature of the genomes we examined. In the human genome they are estimated to include at least 22% of all protein coding genes. Paraclusters are far more prevalent among some gene families than others, are highly species or clade specific and can evolve rapidly, sometimes in response to environmental cues. Altogether, they account for a large portion of the functional clustering previously reported in several genomes.

  17. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  18. Efficient protein alignment algorithm for protein search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zaixin; Zhao, Zhiyu; Fu, Bin

    2010-01-18

    Proteins show a great variety of 3D conformations, which can be used to infer their evolutionary relationship and to classify them into more general groups; therefore protein structure alignment algorithms are very helpful for protein biologists. However, an accurate alignment algorithm itself may be insufficient for effective discovering of structural relationships among tens of thousands of proteins. Due to the exponentially increasing amount of protein structural data, a fast and accurate structure alignment tool is necessary to access protein classification and protein similarity search; however, the complexity of current alignment algorithms are usually too high to make a fully alignment-based classification and search practical. We have developed an efficient protein pairwise alignment algorithm and applied it to our protein search tool, which aligns a query protein structure in the pairwise manner with all protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to output similar protein structures. The algorithm can align hundreds of pairs of protein structures in one second. Given a protein structure, the tool efficiently discovers similar structures from tens of thousands of structures stored in the PDB always in 2 minutes in a single machine and 20 seconds in our cluster of 6 machines. The algorithm has been fully implemented and is accessible online at our webserver, which is supported by a cluster of computers. Our algorithm can work out hundreds of pairs of protein alignments in one second. Therefore, it is very suitable for protein search. Our experimental results show that it is more accurate than other well known protein search systems in finding proteins which are structurally similar at SCOP family and superfamily levels, and its speed is also competitive with those systems. In terms of the pairwise alignment performance, it is as good as some well known alignment algorithms.

  19. Cum se traduce ‘rușinea’. Abordare traductologică (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Jeanrenaud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pornind de la sfera semantică și lexicală a conceptelor honte (limba franceză și, respectiv, rușine (limba română, îmi propun să examinez modul cum se traduce acesta în limba română pornind de la un studiu de caz. În acest scop, voi încerca să elaborez un studiu traductologic comparativ al lucrării lui Boris Cyrulnik, intitulată Mourir de dire. La honte (Éditions Odile Jacob, Paris, 2010 și a traducerii sale în limba română, intitulată Mai bine mor decît să spun. Rușinea (traducere din limba franceză de Valentin Protopopescu, Editura Trei, col. „Psihologia pentru toți”, București, 2012. Textul lui Cyrulnik are o particularitate: oscilează între factura literară și cea a unui text specializat. Din acest punct de vedere, transpunerea lui pune la încercare teoriile funcționaliste ale traducerii și, mai ales, teoria skopos-ului elaborată de Katharina Reiss și Hans Vermeer: este interesant de analizat cum „decodează” traducătorul „intenționalitatea” acestui tip de text, totuși specializat, cum decide el să transpună sfera sa semantică și lexicală în limba română.

  20. PTM-SD: a database of structurally resolved and annotated posttranslational modifications in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveur, Pierrick; Rebehmed, Joseph; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2014-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) define covalent and chemical modifications of protein residues. They play important roles in modulating various biological functions. Current PTM databases contain important sequence annotations but do not provide informative 3D structural resource about these modifications. Posttranslational modification structural database (PTM-SD) provides access to structurally solved modified residues, which are experimentally annotated as PTMs. It combines different PTM information and annotation gathered from other databases, e.g. Protein DataBank for the protein structures and dbPTM and PTMCuration for fine sequence annotation. PTM-SD gives an accurate detection of PTMs in structural data. PTM-SD can be browsed by PDB id, UniProt accession number, organism and classic PTM annotation. Advanced queries can also be performed, i.e. detailed PTM annotations, amino acid type, secondary structure, SCOP class classification, PDB chain length and number of PTMs by chain. Statistics and analyses can be computed on a selected dataset of PTMs. Each PTM entry is detailed in a dedicated page with information on the protein sequence, local conformation with secondary structure and Protein Blocks. PTM-SD gives valuable information on observed PTMs in protein 3D structure, which is of great interest for studying sequence-structure- function relationships at the light of PTMs, and could provide insights for comparative modeling and PTM predictions protocols. Database URL: PTM-SD can be accessed at http://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/dsimb_tools/PTM-SD/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

    2005-01-04

    Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants.

  2. Phenological observations on shrubs to predict weed emergence in turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, Roberta; Zuin, Maria Clara; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological events. If we can find easily recognizable events in common plants that precede or coincide with weed emergences, these plants could be used as indicators. Weed seedlings are usually difficult to detect in turf, so the use of phenological indicators may provide an alternative approach to predict the time when a weed appears and consequently guide management decisions. A study was undertaken to determine whether the phenological phases of some plants could serve as reliable indicators of time of weed emergence in turf. The phenology of six shrubs (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Sambucus nigra L., Syringa vulgaris L., Rosa multiflora Thunb., Ziziphus jujuba Miller) and a perennial herbaceous plant [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] was observed and the emergence dynamics of four annual weed species [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] were studied from 1999 to 2004 in northern Italy. A correlation between certain events and weed emergence was verified. S. vulgaris and F. viridissima appear to be the best indicators: there is a quite close correspondence between the appearance of D. sanguinalis and lilac flowering and between the beginning of emergence of E. indica and the end of lilac flowering; emergences of S. glauca and S. viridis were predicted well in relation to the end of forsythia flowering. Base temperatures and starting dates required to calculate the heat unit sums to reach and complete the flowering phase of the indicators were calculated using two different methods and the resultant cumulative growing degree days were compared.

  3. An evaluation of automated homology modelling methods at low target template sequence similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, James A R; Jackson, Richard M

    2007-08-01

    There are two main areas of difficulty in homology modelling that are particularly important when sequence identity between target and template falls below 50%: sequence alignment and loop building. These problems become magnified with automatic modelling processes, as there is no human input to correct mistakes. As such we have benchmarked several stand-alone strategies that could be implemented in a workflow for automated high-throughput homology modelling. These include three new sequence-structure alignment programs: 3D-Coffee, Staccato and SAlign, plus five homology modelling programs and their respective loop building methods: Builder, Nest, Modeller, SegMod/ENCAD and Swiss-Model. The SABmark database provided 123 targets with at least five templates from the same SCOP family and sequence identities Modeller as the common modelling program, 3D-Coffee outperforms Staccato and SAlign using both multiple templates and the best single template, and across the sequence identity range 20-50%. The mean model RMSD generated from 3D-Coffee using multiple templates is 15 and 28% (or using single templates, 3 and 13%) better than those generated by Staccato and Salign, respectively. 3D-Coffee gives equivalent modelling accuracy from multiple and single templates, but Staccato and SAlign are more successful with single templates, their quality deteriorating as additional lower sequence identity templates are added. Evaluating the different homology modelling programs, on average Modeller performs marginally better in overall modelling than the others tested. However, on average Nest produces the best loops with an 8% improvement by mean RMSD compared to the loops generated by Builder.

  4. Phytochemical analysis of young fustic (Cotinus coggygria heartwood) and identification of isolated colourants in historical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valianou, Lemonia; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Pavlidou, Eleni; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    Young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.; Anacardiaceae) has been used as a dyestuff since antiquity. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the heartwood has led to the isolation and structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (MS) of 3',4',6-trihydroxyaurone (sulfuretin) and 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavonol (fisetin) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanol (fustin), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavonol (quercetin), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanol (taxifolin), 4',7-dihydroxyflavanol, 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanone (butin), 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone (liquiritigenin), trans-2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone and trans-2',4,4'-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin). The isolated compounds were used as reference materials for the development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-MS method, which was then applied to analyse (1) fresh silk samples dyed with young fustic, (2) dyed silk subjected to artificially accelerated light ageing and (3) historical silk micro-samples, extracted from ecclesiastical post-Byzantine garments (fifteenth to eighteenth century), which belong to monasteries of Mount Athos. Sulfuretin and fisetin, which are usually used as markers for the identification of the yellow dye and, for the first time, some of the aforementioned flavonoid components of young fustic were identified in the historical extracts. Furthermore, preliminary experiments suggested that although the amounts of the dye components decrease with light ageing, the relative ratio of fisetin and sulfuretin, after a first step of ageing, seems to be almost unaffected by such degradation processes raised by light. The effect of the latter on the morphology of the dyed silk fibres is briefly investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Hierarchical classification of protein folds using a novel ensemble classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Zou, Ying; Qin, Ji; Liu, Xiangrong; Jiang, Yi; Ke, Caihuan; Zou, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of biological information from protein sequences is important for the study of cellular functions and interactions, and protein fold recognition plays a key role in the prediction of protein structures. Unfortunately, the prediction of protein fold patterns is challenging due to the existence of compound protein structures. Here, we processed the latest release of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP, version 1.75) database and exploited novel techniques to impressively increase the accuracy of protein fold classification. The techniques proposed in this paper include ensemble classifying and a hierarchical framework, in the first layer of which similar or redundant sequences were deleted in two manners; a set of base classifiers, fused by various selection strategies, divides the input into seven classes; in the second layer of which, an analogous ensemble method is adopted to predict all protein folds. To our knowledge, it is the first time all protein folds can be intelligently detected hierarchically. Compared with prior studies, our experimental results demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method, which achieved a success rate of 74.21%, which is much higher than results obtained with previous methods (ranging from 45.6% to 70.5%). When applied to the second layer of classification, the prediction accuracy was in the range between 23.13% and 46.05%. This value, which may not be remarkably high, is scientifically admirable and encouraging as compared to the relatively low counts of proteins from most fold recognition programs. The web server Hierarchical Protein Fold Prediction (HPFP) is available at http://datamining.xmu.edu.cn/software/hpfp.

  6. Comparative studies on the effects of the nootropic drugs adafenoxate, meclofenoxate and piracetam, and of citicholine on scopolamine-impaired memory, exploratory behavior and physical capabilities (experiments on rats and mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, V D; Mosharrof, A H; Petkov, V V

    1988-01-01

    The effects of adafenoxate (Adf), meclofenoxate (Mf), piracetam (Pc), and citicholine (CCh) on scopolamine (Scop)--impaired memory and exploratory behavior (experiments on rats) and on physical capabilities (experiments on mice) were studied. In the experiments with scopolamine (2 mg/kg i.p.) we used the step-through passive avoidance method to determine the memory changes. In the case of single treatment with the drugs tested scopolamine was injected immediately after training and Adf, Mf, and CCh at doses of 20 and 100 mg/kg and Pc at a dose of 100 mg/kg were administered immediately after scopolamine. In the case of multiple administration the drugs were applied at the same doses for 7 days before training. Scopolamine was injected immediately after training. Retention tests were given 3 and 24 hours later. All the four drugs tested prevented to a large extent or completely the scopolamine-induced retrograde amnesia. However, significant quantitative differences in the antiamnestic effects of the drugs tested were observed. The effects of the four drugs on exploratory behavior were tested in the Opto Varimex apparatus. After 7-day treatment with the drugs at the doses utilized, the behavior of experimental animals was observed for 10 min, checking out the changes in the frequency of rearing, ambulation, and rotation. Only Adf at a dose of 50 mg/kg significantly decreased rearing and ambulation frequencies; this effect was considered to be an expression of accelerated habituation. The physical capabilities of mice were studied, using the method of treadmill (revolving drum activity cage) training. Before the experiment the mice received orally Adf, Mf, and Pc at a dose of 100 mg/kg or were injected intraperitoneally with CCh at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg once daily for 7 days. The number of revolutions of the drum cages was counted for 4 hours. Only Pc significantly increased the physical capabilities of mice and much delayed the occurrence of fatigue.

  7. A hybrid clustering approach to recognition of protein families in 114 microbial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogarten J Peter

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grouping proteins into sequence-based clusters is a fundamental step in many bioinformatic analyses (e.g., homology-based prediction of structure or function. Standard clustering methods such as single-linkage clustering capture a history of cluster topologies as a function of threshold, but in practice their usefulness is limited because unrelated sequences join clusters before biologically meaningful families are fully constituted, e.g. as the result of matches to so-called promiscuous domains. Use of the Markov Cluster algorithm avoids this non-specificity, but does not preserve topological or threshold information about protein families. Results We describe a hybrid approach to sequence-based clustering of proteins that combines the advantages of standard and Markov clustering. We have implemented this hybrid approach over a relational database environment, and describe its application to clustering a large subset of PDB, and to 328577 proteins from 114 fully sequenced microbial genomes. To demonstrate utility with difficult problems, we show that hybrid clustering allows us to constitute the paralogous family of ATP synthase F1 rotary motor subunits into a single, biologically interpretable hierarchical grouping that was not accessible using either single-linkage or Markov clustering alone. We describe validation of this method by hybrid clustering of PDB and mapping SCOP families and domains onto the resulting clusters. Conclusion Hybrid (Markov followed by single-linkage clustering combines the advantages of the Markov Cluster algorithm (avoidance of non-specific clusters resulting from matches to promiscuous domains and single-linkage clustering (preservation of topological information as a function of threshold. Within the individual Markov clusters, single-linkage clustering is a more-precise instrument, discerning sub-clusters of biological relevance. Our hybrid approach thus provides a computationally efficient

  8. Adaptive Smith-Waterman residue match seeding for protein structural alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Christopher M; Rouquier, Mickaël; Tarrat, Nathalie; André, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    The POLYFIT rigid-body algorithm for automated global pairwise and multiple protein structural alignment is presented. Smith-Waterman local alignment is used to establish a set of seed equivalences that are extended using Needleman-Wunsch dynamic programming techniques. Structural and functional interaction constraints provided by evolution are encoded as one-dimensional residue physical environment strings for alignment of highly structurally overlapped protein pairs. Local structure alignment of more distantly related pairs is carried out using rigid-body conformational matching of 15-residue fragments, with allowance made for less stringent conformational matching of metal-ion and small molecule ligand-contact, disulphide bridge, and cis-peptide correspondences. Protein structural plasticity is accommodated through the stepped adjustment of a single empirical distance parameter value in the calculation of the Smith-Waterman dynamic programming matrix. Structural overlap is used both as a measure of similarity and to assess alignment quality. Pairwise alignment accuracy has been benchmarked against that of 10 widely used aligners on the Sippl and Wiederstein set of difficult pairwise structure alignment problems, and more extensively against that of Matt, SALIGN, and MUSTANG in pairwise and multiple structural alignments of protein domains with low shared sequence identity in the SCOP-ASTRAL 40% compendium. The results demonstrate the advantages of POLYFIT over other aligners in the efficient and robust identification of matching seed residue positions in distantly related protein targets and in the generation of longer structurally overlapped alignment lengths. Superposition-based application areas include comparative modeling and protein and ligand design. POLYFIT is available on the Web server at http://polyfit.insa-toulouse.fr. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZIYEH RAFEIE JAHED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rafeie Jahed R, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y. 2014. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 206-214. In the present work, we studied the effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran. Natural forest stands (including Acer velutinum Bioss., Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall, Parrotia persica (DC. C.A.Mey, Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey., Carpinus betulus L, Mixed planted stand (including Acer velutinum, Ulmus carpinifolia G. Suckow Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey, Carpinus betulus L., Tilia begonifolia Scop. Subsp. caucasia (Rupr. Loria; maple (Acer velutinum Bioss plantation, pine (Pinus taeda L. plantation and also clear-cut region (control were considered in this research. Soil samples were collected at two different depths, i.e., 0-15 and 15-30 cm, and characterized with respect to organic carbon (C, total nitrogen (N, available nutrient elements (P, K, Ca and Mg; pH and soil texture. The results showed that the highest amount of total N was found in mixed plantation. The highest amount of available P was detected in maple plantation and pine plantation had the highest available K and organic C than other treatments. The highest and the lowest available Ca and Mg were found in natural forest and control area, respectively. In addition, it was observed that nutrients accumulate in upper layers of the soil. Hardwood stands have been more successful than the conifers stands, so this should be considered in the sustainable management of forests.

  10. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT FROM MINT ON SELECTED CROP PESTS FEEDING AND SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of dried mint (Mentha piperita L. in concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10%, and fresh parts of this plant, in concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% on feeding of pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L. and survival of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop. on the leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L. variety "Bartek". In the studies of the effects of aqueous extracts of mint on the dynamics of Sitona lineatus feeding on the beans leaves, 9 laboratory’s observations in 12-hour intervals was made. Leaves injuries on their edge surface caused by adult individuals were measured. Observations were carried out in 6 replicates divided into males and females. In these researches on impact of water extracts from mint on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphids, 14 laboratory’s observations in the 8-hour intervals was made. Aqueous extracts of dry and fresh peppermint significantly limited the feeding of pea leaf weevil females, and the extracts from dried material were more effective. Extracts from peppermint to a greater extent caused mortality of black bean aphid larvae compared to wingless females, and the higher the concentration of the extract the more beneficial effect was observed. An extract from dried material at a concentration of 2% was too weak to effectively combat the larvae of A. fabae, while in the case of aphid females, an effectiveness was only demonstrated for the extracts at the highest concentrations, i.e., 10% of dried and 30% of fresh peppermint.

  11. CATHEDRAL: a fast and effective algorithm to predict folds and domain boundaries from multidomain protein structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Redfern

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present CATHEDRAL, an iterative protocol for determining the location of previously observed protein folds in novel multidomain protein structures. CATHEDRAL builds on the features of a fast secondary-structure-based method (using graph theory to locate known folds within a multidomain context and a residue-based, double-dynamic programming algorithm, which is used to align members of the target fold groups against the query protein structure to identify the closest relative and assign domain boundaries. To increase the fidelity of the assignments, a support vector machine is used to provide an optimal scoring scheme. Once a domain is verified, it is excised, and the search protocol is repeated in an iterative fashion until all recognisable domains have been identified. We have performed an initial benchmark of CATHEDRAL against other publicly available structure comparison methods using a consensus dataset of domains derived from the CATH and SCOP domain classifications. CATHEDRAL shows superior performance in fold recognition and alignment accuracy when compared with many equivalent methods. If a novel multidomain structure contains a known fold, CATHEDRAL will locate it in 90% of cases, with <1% false positives. For nearly 80% of assigned domains in a manually validated test set, the boundaries were correctly delineated within a tolerance of ten residues. For the remaining cases, previously classified domains were very remotely related to the query chain so that embellishments to the core of the fold caused significant differences in domain sizes and manual refinement of the boundaries was necessary. To put this performance in context, a well-established sequence method based on hidden Markov models was only able to detect 65% of domains, with 33% of the subsequent boundaries assigned within ten residues. Since, on average, 50% of newly determined protein structures contain more than one domain unit, and typically 90% or more of these

  12. Contribution of thermal–hydraulic validation tests to the standard design approval of SMART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Sik Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many thermal–hydraulic tests have been conducted at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for verification of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor design, the standard design approval of which was issued by the Korean regulatory body. In this paper, the contributions of these tests to the standard design approval of SMART are discussed. First, an integral effect test facility named VISTA-ITL (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents-Integral Test Loop has been utilized to assess the TASS/SMR-S (Transient and Set-point Simulation/Small and Medium safety analysis code and confirm its conservatism, to support standard design approval, and to construct a database for the SMART design optimization. In addition, many separate effect tests have been performed. The reactor internal flow test has been conducted using the SCOP (SMART COre flow distribution and Pressure drop test facility to evaluate the reactor internal flow and pressure distributions. An ECC (Emergency Core Coolant performance test has been carried out using the SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility to evaluate the safety injection performance and to validate the thermal–hydraulic model used in the safety analysis code. The Freon CHF (Critical Heat Flux test has been performed using the FTHEL (Freon Thermal Hydraulic Experimental Loop facility to construct a database from the 5 × 5 rod bundle Freon CHF tests and to evaluate the DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio model in the safety analysis and core design codes. These test results were used for standard design approval of SMART to verify its design bases, design tools, and analysis methodology.

  13. Polyphenolic Profile and Targeted Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Mediterranean Ethnomedicinal Plants on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Pollio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extracts of the aerial part of four ethnomedicinal plants of Mediterranean region, two non-seed vascular plants, Equisetum hyemale L. and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman, and two Spermatophyta, Juniperus communis L. (J. communis and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (C. coggygria, were screened against four human cells lines (A549, MCF7, TK6 and U937. Only the extracts of J. communis and C. coggygria showed marked cytotoxic effects, affecting both cell morphology and growth. A dose-dependent effect of these two extracts was also observed on the cell cycle distribution. Incubation of all the cell lines in a medium containing J. communis extract determined a remarkable accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase, whereas the C. coggygria extract induced a significant increase in the percentage of G1 cells. The novelty of our findings stands on the observation that the two extracts, consistently, elicited coherent effects on the cell cycle in four cell lines, independently from their phenotype, as two of them have epithelial origin and grow adherent and two are lymphoblastoid and grow in suspension. Even the expression profiles of several proteins regulating cell cycle progression and cell death were affected by both extracts. LC-MS investigation of methanol extract of C. coggygria led to the identification of twelve flavonoids (compounds 1–11, 19 and eight polyphenols derivatives (12–18, 20, while in J. communis extract, eight flavonoids (21–28, a α-ionone glycoside (29 and a lignin (30 were found. Although many of these compounds have interesting individual biological activities, their natural blends seem to exert specific effects on the proliferation of cell lines either growing adherent or in suspension, suggesting potential use in fighting cancer.

  14. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  15. Molecular modeling, mutational analysis and conformational switching in IL27: An in silico structural insight towards AIDS research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arundhati; Ray, Sujay

    2016-01-15

    The advancement in proteomics and bioinformatics provokes to discern the molecular-level probe for HIV inhibitor; human interleukin-27 (IL27). Documentation documents that tyrosine residues in IL27 play a pivotal role for interacting with HIV, causing apoptosis of the HIV+ cells. Primarily, 3D structure of human wild-type (WT) IL27 was built through manifold molecular modeling techniques after the satisfaction of stereo-chemical properties. Its essential tyrosine residues were identified. Two mutant models for IL27 were prepared following the similar protocol by first substituting the tyrosine residues with glycine (MT_G) and then with alanine (MT_A) in the WT protein. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to obtain a stable conformation. Conformational alterations in WT, MT_G and MT_A (before and after MD simulation) disclosed that MT_A was the steadiest one with the best secondary structure conformation supported by statistical significances. Though huge RMSD variations were observed on superimposing the MT structures on WT individually, the MTs were examined to share similar SCOP/CATH fold with TM-score=0.8, indicating that they retained their functionality even after mutation. Electrostatic surface potential again unveiled MT_A to be the most stable one. MT_A was thereby revealed to be the potent peptide inhibitor for HIV. This probe presents a pathway to investigate and compare the bio-molecular interaction of WT IL27 and MT_A IL27 (strongest model) with HIV in the future. This is the first report regarding the structural biology of IL27 accompanied by alteration at its genetic level and delving into the unknown residue-level and functional biochemistry for bringing about an annihilation towards AIDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leunissen Jack AM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.

  17. Modest enhancements to conventional grassland diversity improve the provision of pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Katherine A; Murray, Phil J; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Grassland for livestock production is a major form of land use throughout Europe and its intensive management threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes. Modest increases to conventional grassland biodiversity could have considerable positive impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, such as pollination, to surrounding habitats.Using a field-scale experiment in which grassland seed mixes and sward management were manipulated, complemented by surveys on working farms and phytometer experiments, the impact of conventional grassland diversity and management on the functional diversity and ecosystem service provision of pollinator communities were investigated.Increasing plant richness, by the addition of both legumes and forbs, was associated with significant enhancements in the functional diversity of grassland pollinator communities. This was associated with increased temporal stability of flower-visitor interactions at the community level. Visitation networks revealed pasture species Taraxacum sp. (Wigg.) (dandelion) and Cirsium arvense (Scop.) (creeping thistle) to have the highest pollinator visitation frequency and richness. Cichorium intybus (L.) (chichory) was highlighted as an important species having both high pollinator visitation and desirable agronomic properties.Increased sward richness was associated with an increase in the pollination of two phytometer species; Fragaria × ananassa (strawberry) and Silene dioica (red campion), but not Vicia faba (broad bean). Enhanced functional diversity, richness and abundance of the pollinator communities associated with more diverse neighbouring pastures were found to be potential mechanisms for improved pollination. Synthesis and applications. A modest increase in conventional grassland plant diversity with legumes and forbs, achievable with the expertise and resources available to most grassland farmers, could enhance pollinator functional diversity, richness and abundance

  18. Conformational characterization of disulfide bonds: a tool for protein classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, José Rui Ferreira; da Fonseca, Rute R; Drury, Brett; Melo, André

    2010-12-07

    Throughout evolution, mutations in particular regions of some protein structures have resulted in extra covalent bonds that increase the overall robustness of the fold: disulfide bonds. The two strategically placed cysteines can also have a more direct role in protein function, either by assisting thiol or disulfide exchange, or through allosteric effects. In this work, we verified how the structural similarities between disulfides can reflect functional and evolutionary relationships between different proteins. We analyzed the conformational patterns of the disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins that included twelve SCOP superfamilies: thioredoxin-like and eleven superfamilies containing small disulfide-rich proteins (SDP). The twenty conformations considered in the present study were characterized by both structural and energetic parameters. The corresponding frequencies present diverse patterns for the different superfamilies. The least-strained conformations are more abundant for the SDP superfamilies, while the "catalytic" +/-RHook is dominant for the thioredoxin-like superfamily. The "allosteric" -RHSaple is moderately abundant for BBI, Crisp and Thioredoxin-like superfamilies and less frequent for the remaining superfamilies. Using a hierarchical clustering analysis we found that the twelve superfamilies were grouped in biologically significant clusters. In this work, we carried out an extensive statistical analysis of the conformational motifs for the disulfide bonds present in a set of disulfide-rich proteins. We show that the conformational patterns observed in disulfide bonds are sufficient to group proteins that share both functional and structural patterns and can therefore be used as a criterion for protein classification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic characterization of oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates from wild birds indicates that genotype is associated with host species, diet and presence of pathognomonic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrero, M C; Sansano-Maestre, J; López Márquez, I; Obón, E; Ponce, C; González, J; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from Spain were studied. A total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centres and scientific bird-ringing campaigns were analysed from 2011 to 2013. The overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). Pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). The most commonly parasitized species were the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, 74.5%) and the rock pigeon (Columba livia, 79.4%). Host species in which the parasite has not been previously analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in Spain are also reported: Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Pica pica, A. gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Asio otus, Bubo bubo, Buteo buteo, Circus aeruginosus, Circus cyaneus, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Neophron percnopterus, Otus scops, Pernis apivorus and Strix aluco. Sequence analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 region revealed five different genotypes and also some mixed infections. A relationship between genotype and host species was observed, but only two genotypes (ITS-OBT-Tg-1and ITS-OBT-Tg-2) were widely distributed. Genotype ITS-OBT-Tg-1 was most frequently found in predator birds and statistically associated with pathognomonic lesions. Non-strict ornithophagous species were at higher risk to develop disease than ornithophagous ones. Genotypes ITS-OBT-Tcl-1 and ITS-OBT-Tcl-2 are new reports, and ITS-OBT-Tvl-5 is reported for the first time in Spain. They showed higher genetic homology to Trichomonas canistomae and Trichomonas vaginalis than to Trichomonas gallinae, indicating the possibility of new species within this genus.

  20. Improved detection of remote homologues using cascade PSI-BLAST: influence of neighbouring protein families on sequence coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Kaushik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of sensitive sequence search procedures for the detection of distant relationships between proteins at superfamily/fold level is still a big challenge. The intermediate sequence search approach is the most frequently employed manner of identifying remote homologues effectively. In this study, examination of serine proteases of prolyl oligopeptidase, rhomboid and subtilisin protein families were carried out using plant serine proteases as queries from two genomes including A. thaliana and O. sativa and 13 other families of unrelated folds to identify the distant homologues which could not be obtained using PSI-BLAST. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have proposed to start with multiple queries of classical serine protease members to identify remote homologues in families, using a rigorous approach like Cascade PSI-BLAST. We found that classical sequence based approaches, like PSI-BLAST, showed very low sequence coverage in identifying plant serine proteases. The algorithm was applied on enriched sequence database of homologous domains and we obtained overall average coverage of 88% at family, 77% at superfamily or fold level along with specificity of ~100% and Mathew's correlation coefficient of 0.91. Similar approach was also implemented on 13 other protein families representing every structural class in SCOP database. Further investigation with statistical tests, like jackknifing, helped us to better understand the influence of neighbouring protein families. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that employment of multiple queries of a family for the Cascade PSI-BLAST searches is useful for predicting distant relationships effectively even at superfamily level. We have proposed a generalized strategy to cover all the distant members of a particular family using multiple query sequences. Our findings reveal that prior selection of sequences as query and the presence of neighbouring families can be important for

  1. Natural history and immature stage morphology of Spialia Swinhoe, 1912 in the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Hernández-Roldán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new data on the ecology, natural history and geographic distribution of the recently described skipper Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila, 2016 and compare its immature stage morphology with the sympatric species S. sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. Spialia rosae uses species of Rosa L. (Rosaceae as larval host-plants and prefers montane habitats, while S. sertorius feeds on Sanguisorba minor Scop. (Rosaceae and inhabits lower altitudes. Rosa corymbifera Borkh. and R. tomentosa Sm. are documented for the first time as foodplants of S. rosae. We report Microgaster australis Thomson, 1895 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae as a larval parasitoid of S. rosae. Details of the immature stages of S. rosae and S. sertorius are shown using scanning electron microscope photographs, confirming the similar immature stage morphology, at least as regards the Iberian S. sertorius. In both species, the egg has high radial ribs, the last instar larva has branched setae covering the head, and the pupa has setae with pointed tips, barrel-like cuticular formations, and hairy mesothoracic tubercles. By extensive sampling of the species of Spialia in the region of Segovia, Central Spain, we extend the previously known geographic distribution of S. rosae to 56 new 100 km2 MGRS squares, which represents a 155 % increase. Spialia rosae is present in the northern part of the interior plateau and in the main mountain systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The main threats to the populations of S. rosae are its limited distribution range and the possible effects of climate change due to its specialization in montane habitats. The conservation status of S. rosae was previously regarded as Data Deficient (DD. With the addition of new data the species can now be evaluated as Least Concern (LC.

  2. A comparative study of corneal sensitivity in birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Rodrigo P; Obón, Elena; Peña, Maria T; Costa, Daniel; Ríos, Jose; Leiva, Marta

    2014-05-01

    To determine and compare the corneal sensitivity in healthy wild diurnal and nocturnal birds of prey (BP) indigenous to Catalonia (Spain), and to establish if age is a determining factor in corneal sensitivity in those species. Ophthalmic examination was performed in 105 BP. Only birds with no ocular abnormalities were included in the study (n = 81): 21 diurnal BP (Falco tinnunculus: 16 fledglings, 5 adults) and 60 nocturnal BP (20 Athene noctua [9 fledglings, 11 adults], 20 Strix aluco [15 fledglings, 5 adults], and 20 Otus scops [6 fledglings and 14 adults]). Corneal touch threshold (CTT) was determined for each eye in five different corneal regions. Five attempts to cause a blink reflex were made in each region, and when three or more reflexes were positive, the pressure was deemed the CTT. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t-test for independent data or an anova model. The results between species and age groups were compared using the Generalized Estimated Equations model. There were no significant differences between any of the corneal regions (P = 0.25), or between the right (CTT = 4.9 ± 1.7 cm) and left (CTT = 4.8 ± 1.7 cm) eye in any of the species (P = 0.692). No difference was found between diurnal and nocturnal species (P = 0.913). Considering all the species, a significant difference was found between the mean CTT of fledglings (5.4 ± 1.2 cm) and adults (4.1 ± 2 cm), P birds of prey. Age is a determining factor in the CTT of A. noctua and S. aluco, with fledglings having a significantly higher CTT. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. dcGOR: an R package for analysing ontologies and protein domain annotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Fang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available I introduce an open-source R package 'dcGOR' to provide the bioinformatics community with the ease to analyse ontologies and protein domain annotations, particularly those in the dcGO database. The dcGO is a comprehensive resource for protein domain annotations using a panel of ontologies including Gene Ontology. Although increasing in popularity, this database needs statistical and graphical support to meet its full potential. Moreover, there are no bioinformatics tools specifically designed for domain ontology analysis. As an add-on package built in the R software environment, dcGOR offers a basic infrastructure with great flexibility and functionality. It implements new data structure to represent domains, ontologies, annotations, and all analytical outputs as well. For each ontology, it provides various mining facilities, including: (i domain-based enrichment analysis and visualisation; (ii construction of a domain (semantic similarity network according to ontology annotations; and (iii significance analysis for estimating a contact (statistical significance network. To reduce runtime, most analyses support high-performance parallel computing. Taking as inputs a list of protein domains of interest, the package is able to easily carry out in-depth analyses in terms of functional, phenotypic and diseased relevance, and network-level understanding. More importantly, dcGOR is designed to allow users to import and analyse their own ontologies and annotations on domains (taken from SCOP, Pfam and InterPro and RNAs (from Rfam as well. The package is freely available at CRAN for easy installation, and also at GitHub for version control. The dedicated website with reproducible demos can be found at http://supfam.org/dcGOR.

  4. Moss functioning in different taiga ecosystems in interior Alaska : I. Seasonal, phenotypic, and drought effects on photosynthesis and response patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skre, O; Oechel, W C

    1981-02-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange rates in excised 2-year-old shoot sections of five common moss species were measured by infrared gas analysis in mosses collected from different stands of mature vegetation near Fairbanks, Alaska. The maximum rates of net photosynthesis ranged from 2.65 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in Polytrichum commune Hedw. to 0.25 in Spagnum nemoreum Scop. Intermediate values were found in Sphagnum subsecundum Nees., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G., and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. Dark respiration rates at 15°C ranged from 0.24 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in S. subsecundum to 0.57 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in H. splendens. The dark respiration rates were found to increase in periods of growth or restoration of tissue (i.e., after desiccation). There was a strong decrease in the rates of net photosynthesis during the winter and after long periods of desiccation.Due to increasing amounts of young, photosynthetically active tissue there was a gradual increase in the rates of net photosynthesis during the season to maximum values in late August. As an apparent result of constant respiration rates and increasing gross photosynthetic rates, the optimum temperature for photosynthesis at light saturation and field capacity increased during the season in all species except Polytrichum, with a corresponding drop in the compensation light intensities. Sphagnum subsecundum seemed to be the most light-dependent species.Leaf water content was found to be an important limiting factor for photosynthesis in the field. A comparison between sites showed that the maximum rates of net photosynthesis increased with increasing nutrient content in the soil but at the permafrostfree sites photosynthesis was inhibited by frequent moisture stress.

  5. Generating an optimal DTM from airborne laser scanning data for landslide mapping in a tropical forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Khamarrul Azahari; Santangelo, Michele; Van Westen, Cees J.; Straatsma, Menno W.; de Jong, Steven M.

    2013-05-01

    Landslide inventory maps are fundamental for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk. In tropical mountainous environments, mapping landslides is difficult as rapid and dense vegetation growth obscures landslides soon after their occurrence. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have been used to construct the digital terrain model (DTM) under dense vegetation, but its reliability for landslide recognition in the tropics remains surprisingly unknown. This study evaluates the suitability of ALS for generating an optimal DTM for mapping landslides in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. For the bare-earth extraction, we used hierarchical robust filtering algorithm and a parameterization with three sequential filtering steps. After each filtering step, four interpolations techniques were applied, namely: (i) the linear prediction derived from the SCOP++ (SCP), (ii) the inverse distance weighting (IDW), (iii) the natural neighbor (NEN) and (iv) the topo-to-raster (T2R). We assessed the quality of 12 DTMs in two ways: (1) with respect to 448 field-measured terrain heights and (2) based on the interpretability of landslides. The lowest root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.89 m across the landscape using three filtering steps and linear prediction as interpolation method. However, we found that a less stringent DTM filtering unveiled more diagnostic micro-morphological features, but also retained some of vegetation. Hence, a combination of filtering steps is required for optimal landslide interpretation, especially in forested mountainous areas. IDW was favored as the interpolation technique because it combined computational times more reasonably without adding artifacts to the DTM than T2R and NEN, which performed relatively well in the first and second filtering steps, respectively. The laser point density and the resulting ground point density after filtering are key parameters for producing a DTM applicable to landslide identification. The results showed that the

  6. PSPP: a protein structure prediction pipeline for computing clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein structures are critical for understanding the mechanisms of biological systems and, subsequently, for drug and vaccine design. Unfortunately, protein sequence data exceed structural data by a factor of more than 200 to 1. This gap can be partially filled by using computational protein structure prediction. While structure prediction Web servers are a notable option, they often restrict the number of sequence queries and/or provide a limited set of prediction methodologies. Therefore, we present a standalone protein structure prediction software package suitable for high-throughput structural genomic applications that performs all three classes of prediction methodologies: comparative modeling, fold recognition, and ab initio. This software can be deployed on a user's own high-performance computing cluster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pipeline consists of a Perl core that integrates more than 20 individual software packages and databases, most of which are freely available from other research laboratories. The query protein sequences are first divided into domains either by domain boundary recognition or Bayesian statistics. The structures of the individual domains are then predicted using template-based modeling or ab initio modeling. The predicted models are scored with a statistical potential and an all-atom force field. The top-scoring ab initio models are annotated by structural comparison against the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP fold database. Furthermore, secondary structure, solvent accessibility, transmembrane helices, and structural disorder are predicted. The results are generated in text, tab-delimited, and hypertext markup language (HTML formats. So far, the pipeline has been used to study viral and bacterial proteomes. CONCLUSIONS: The standalone pipeline that we introduce here, unlike protein structure prediction Web servers, allows users to devote their own computing assets to process a

  7. Pentatomídeos (Hemiptera associados a espécies nativas em Itaara, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garlet

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p91 Com o objetivo de determinar qualitativamente e quantitativamente os pentatomídeos associados a diferentes espécies botânicas nativas, no período de setembro de 2005 a setembro de 2006, foram coletados insetos em nove espécies: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, Schinus molle L. (aroeira, localizadas na barragem Rodolfo da Costa e Silva, município de Itaara, RS. Foram realizadas coletas quinzenais, com o auxílio de um funil cônico confeccionado com folha de flandres (2mm, com 70cm de diâmetro na maior abertura e 63cm de altura. Retirou-se uma amostra por espécie botânica por data de coleta, obtida através de dez sacudidas dos ramos sobre o funil. Realizadas as coletas, o material foi levado ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Departamento de Defesa Fitossanitária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, onde foi realizada a triagem e identificação do material. Foram identificadas nove espécies de Pentatomidae. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 foi à espécie com maior ocorrência, seguida de Thyanta humilis Bergroth, 1891. A espécie botânica S. mauritianum foi a que apresentou o maior número de espécies de Pentatomidae coletados, representando 26,9% do total.

  8. IMPACTUL PSIHIATRICO-LEGAL AL INFRACŢIUNILOR SEXUALE ÎMPOTRIVA MINORILOR ÎN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa MADAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Actuala cercetare are drept scop studierea şi relevarea structurii infracţiunilor sexuale împotriva minorilor din Republica Moldova şi determinarea urmărilor psihiatrice evidente. Studiului au fost supuse şi analizate 100 de cazuri de infracţiuni sexuale împotriva minorilor, cercetate în secţia clinică a Centrului de Medicină Legală din municipiul Chişinău, săvârşite în perioada anilor 2010-2015. Ulterior, în fişele medicale din arhiva Spitalului Clinic de Psihiatrie au fost căutate numele acestor victime, în vederea stabilirii prezenţei la ele a unor tulburări psihice. S-a stabilit impactul infracţiuni­lor sexuale asupra stării psihice a minorilor în funcţie de anumite criterii, folosind o fişă-schemă statistică anexată.THE FORENSIC AND PSYCHIATRIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE SEXUAL OFFENSES DIRECTED AGAINST THE MINORS FROM REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVAThe research purpose is to study and reveal the structure of sexual offenses against minors in Moldova with obvious psychiatric consequences. 100 cases of sexual offenses against children examined at Clincal Department of Forensic Medical Center and at the Archive of the Psychiatric Hospital from Moldova were studied, during the period of 2010-2015. It was established the impact of the sexual abuse to minors according by some points, using an annex statistics.

  9. Combining evolutionary information extracted from frequency profiles with sequence-based kernels for protein remote homology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Deyuan; Xu, Ruifeng; Xu, Jinghao; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Dong, Qiwen; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2014-02-15

    Owing to its importance in both basic research (such as molecular evolution and protein attribute prediction) and practical application (such as timely modeling the 3D structures of proteins targeted for drug development), protein remote homology detection has attracted a great deal of interest. It is intriguing to note that the profile-based approach is promising and holds high potential in this regard. To further improve protein remote homology detection, a key step is how to find an optimal means to extract the evolutionary information into the profiles. Here, we propose a novel approach, the so-called profile-based protein representation, to extract the evolutionary information via the frequency profiles. The latter can be calculated from the multiple sequence alignments generated by PSI-BLAST. Three top performing sequence-based kernels (SVM-Ngram, SVM-pairwise and SVM-LA) were combined with the profile-based protein representation. Various tests were conducted on a SCOP benchmark dataset that contains 54 families and 23 superfamilies. The results showed that the new approach is promising, and can obviously improve the performance of the three kernels. Furthermore, our approach can also provide useful insights for studying the features of proteins in various families. It has not escaped our notice that the current approach can be easily combined with the existing sequence-based methods so as to improve their performance as well. For users' convenience, the source code of generating the profile-based proteins and the multiple kernel learning was also provided at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/main/~binliu/remote/

  10. High COP rotating wheel solid desiccant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    Solar and solar-gas activated desiccant space-conditioning systems can be reasonably compact, simple and void of high technology components, with operation that is intrinsically safe, of potentially long-life, and with moderate servicing demands. They can, further, operate in any US climate and utilize, even under maximum design conditions, low-grade thermal input, typical of low-cost, flat-plate collectors. A technical assessment is presented of a third-generation desiccant cooling unit approaching ARI (American Refrigeration Institute) design-point Coefficient of Performance (COP) for cooling of 0.95, at a design-point Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of over 20, and a Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) for heating of 0.75. Typically, solar-gas desiccant systems operate on open-cycle principles and can provide cooling, heating, ventilation, and/or humidification/dehumidification and use ambient air as the working fluid, thus avoiding the need for high-pressure, or highvacuum, sealed-refrigerant assemblies. Among several alternative solar-desiccant systems, the adiabatic, rotary-regenerative system is the most advanced open-cycle, solid-desiccant, heating-cooling system presently considered for solar applications. In addition to space heating and cooling, the system can inexpensively provide fresh make-up air due to its regenerative nature. Since 1974, two residential-size units have been under development, and laboratory, field, and manufacturing-cost evaluations have highlighted their potential advantages for space conditioning. Recently, a third advanced unit was designed, which incorporates identical technology to that of the earlier models and a higher effectiveness heat exchanger. Projected rated and seasonal cooling performance comparison between the advanced and earlier models are also presented for three climatic regions.

  11. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  12. Determination of Mineral Contents of Some Legume and Cereal Forages Grown as Naturally in Pastures of Erzurum Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra GÜRSOY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the mineral substances such as macro and micro minerals of legume and cereal forages grown as naturally in the pastures of Erzurum province. In present study, clover, (Medicago sativa, mountain hispanic sainfoin (Hedysarum elegans, bird vetch (Vicia cracca, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, mountain vetch (Vicia alpestris, mountain clover (Trifolium montanum, caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum, the three-headed clover (Trifolium trichocephalum, tawny grass crown (Coronilla varia, the crown of the eastern horn of grass (Coronilla orientatis and yellow flowers gazelle (Lotus corniculatus from legume forages; cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, red fescue (Festuca rubra, sheep ball (Festuca ovina, tawny bromine (Bromus variegatus, blue split (Agropyron intermedium, kelp tail grass (Phleum pratense, meadow bluegrass (Poa pratensis from cereal forages were investigated. The obtained data were subjected to an analysis of variance by using SPSS 12.0 package program. Significant differences between means were tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Macro minerals such as Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg and Sulfur (S assigned for legume forages changed between 2.39- 3.30%, 1.16-1.28%, 0.70-2.69%, 0.56-1.61%, 0.11-0.51% and 0.16-0.27%, respectively. The amounts of micro mineral like Iron (Fe, Virgin (Cu, Zinc (Zn, Manganese (Mn and Boron (B of legume forages were determined to be 105.9-893.7 ppm, 2.22-12.36 ppm, 14.11-195 ppm, 18.18-66.58 ppm and 5.91-40.39 ppm, respectively. Instances of macro minerals of cereal forages were found for N 1.76-of 2.19%, P 1.10-1.19%, K 1.99-3.25%, Ca 0.09-1.15%, Mg 0.07-0.26% and S 0.22-0.36% in present study. Micro minerals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B determined for cereal forages changed between 74.90-630.6 ppm, 4-9.84 ppm, 31.49-335.6 ppm, 24.63-94.51 ppm and 0.35-26.64 ppm, respectively. In conclusion

  13. Comparison of species-rich cover crop mixtures in Hungarian vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Adam; Miglécz, Tamas; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Peter; Deák, Balazs; Kelemen, Andras; Zanathy, Gabor; Drexler, Dora

    2014-05-01

    In case of vine growing, agricultural practices of the past decades - as mechanical cultivation on steep vineyard slopes - can endanger the soil of vineyards. Moreover, climate change scenarios predict heavier rainstorms, which can also promote the degradation of the soil. These are some of the reasons why sustainable floor management plays an increasingly important role in viticulture recently. The use of cover crops in the inter-row has a special importance, especially on steep slopes and in case of organic farming to provide conditions for environmental friendly soil management. Species-rich cover crop seed mixtures may help to prevent erosion and create easier cultivation circumstances. Furthermore they have a positive effect on soil structure, soil fertility and ecosystem functions. However, it is important to find suitable seed mixtures for specific production sites, consisting ideally of native species from local provenance, adapted to the local climate/vine region/vineyard. Requirements for suitable cover crop species are as follows: they should save the soil from erosion and also from compaction caused by the movement of workers and machines, they should not compete significantly with the grapevines, or influence produce quality. We started to develop and apply several species-rich cover crop seed mixtures in spring 2012. During the experiments, three cover crop seed mixtures (Biocont-Ecovin mixture, mixture of legumes, mixture of grasses and herbs) were compared in vineyards of the Tokaj and Szekszárd vine regions of Hungary. Each mixture was sown in three consecutive inter-rows at each experimental site (all together 10 sites). Besides botanical measurements, yield, must quality, and pruning weight was studied in every treatment. The botanical survey showed that the following species of the mixtures established successfully and prospered during the years 2012 and 2013: Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia

  14. The domestic energy market in Europe. A legal comparison and structure comparison; Der Energiebinnenmarkt in Europa. Ein Rechts- und Strukturvergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Due to the directives power 96/92/EG and gas 98/30/EG of the European Union, the energy market in Europe grows together. The book under consideration supports a general view of the single markets as well as there practical regulations and developments. The main aim of this contribution is to describe the actual liberalization of the domestic energy market in Europe and to offer practical supports. The book consists of the subsequent contributions: (a) The European legal scope of the power market and gas market (Ines Zenke, Hans-Christoph Thomale); (b) Structure and legal boundary conditions of the energy market in the Federal Republic of Germany (Christian Held); (c) Competition in power economy and gas economy in the Federal Republic of Germany (Christian Theobald); (d) Ecologic targets of the Federal Republic of Germany under special consideration of a climate friendly energy policy (D'orte Annemarie Fouquet, J'org Kuhbier); (e) The balance cycle in the system of the Association's Agreement II Plus Power (Christian de Wyl); (f) Structure and legal boundary conditions of the French energy market (Marc Frangi); (g) The gas market in France and in foreign countries: economical, legal and political aspects (Cecile Clerc); (h) The institutional scop of the liberalised energy market in Greece (Anta Strogilaki); (i) The electricity market in Great Britain (Neil Upton); (j) Structure of the gas market in the United Kingdom (Lis Blunsdon); (k) State of the art of the liberalization of the power market in Italy (Gianfranco Puopolo, Frank J. Geffers); (l) The Green-Certificate-System in Italy (Gianfranco Puopolo, Frank J. Geffers); (m) Structure and legal boundary conditions of the Dutch energy market (Duco Drenth); (n) Legal boundary conditions of the subterranean storage of natural gas in The Netherlands (Duco Drenth); (o) The Austrian electricity market from the view of a affiliated company (Guenther Rabensteiner, Gabriele Patha); (p) Promotion of ecopower

  15. Impact of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents discussion of the results of studying the impact of environmental contamination because of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk city on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives. Objects of study were T. platyphyllos Scop., T. europaea L. and T. cordata Mill. Material was collected in September 2015 on two sampling areas: experimental plot – tree plantations adjacent to Pridneprovsk TPP which emissions mainly comprise the pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, with the share in total volume of emissions of the Plant being 67.3%, 18.7%, 13.3%, respectively; control plot (conditionally clean – territory of the Botanical garden of Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University. For research, two-year whips located in the apical portion of branches of the same order of branching were taken. Sections were made at the medium cross-line of the stem, and stained with the alcoholic solution of phloroglucinol. 30 sections for each species were measured on each sampling area. In the objects under study on technogenically contaminated area the changes in dimensions of histological elements of the stem were found and the nature of such changes had specific differences. T. platyphyllos and T. europaea under action of toxic emissions of TPP demonstrated the increase of total size of primary cortex of stem and width of its individual components (plug, collenchyma, cortex parenchyma, maintenance of stable dimensions of the bark and its histological elements (hard and soft bast, and in T. europaea the wood radius as well, which we considered as the indicators of relative stability of these species in technogenic environment. In T. cordata in the TPP emission zone we revealed the increase in the width of plug, cortex parenchyma, and total radius of primary cortex, which could provide certain tolerance of plants of this species in the adverse conditions of

  16. Antibacterial activity of some saturated polyoxotungstates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grama Lavinia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polioxometalaţii sunt compuşi anorganici importanţi care prezintă o gamă largă de proprietăţi farmacologice incluzând efecte antivirale, antibacteriene, antiparazitare sau antitumorale, chiar dacă mecanismul molecular de acţiune nu este pe deplin înţeles. Scop: În această lucrare am evaluat acţiunea antibacteriană a unor compuşi polioxowolframici saturaţi (POW, datorită faptului că dezvoltarea rezistenţei bacteriilor faţă de antibiotice reprezintă în prezent o problemă majoră de sănătate. Material şi metodă: Acţiunea antibacteriană a fost studiată prin metoda difuziei în agar ca posibilă metodă de screening şi prin metoda microdiluţiilor. Prin microdiluţii au fost calculate concentrația minimă inhibitorie şi concentrația minimă bactericidă pentru fiecare compus. Totodată am comparat fiabilitatea celor două metode de testare faţă de compuşii POW. Rezultate: Cea mai bună acţiune antibacteriană a prezentat-o H4[SiW12O40]*nH2O, iar cea mai slabă Na3[PW12O40]*nH2O, dar în schimb cu o acţiune foarte bună pe Staphylococcus spp., în special pe MRSA. POW îşi exercită acţiunea antibacteriană la concentraţii relativ mari, iar acţiunea lor este dependentă de specia bacteriană, având activitate foarte bună pe Staphylococcus spp. Cea mai fiabilă metodă pentru evaluarea acţiunii antibacteriene a POW este cea a microdiluţiilor. POW îşi pot găsi aplicaţie practică în decontaminarea spitalelor sau ca agenţi antibacterieni in vivo.

  17. Predicting the Interactome of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae for target selection and DB service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyong-Oh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs play key roles in various cellular functions. In addition, some critical inter-species interactions such as host-pathogen interactions and pathogenicity occur through PPIs. Phytopathogenic bacteria infect hosts through attachment to host tissue, enzyme secretion, exopolysaccharides production, toxins release, iron acquisition, and effector proteins secretion. Many such mechanisms involve some kind of protein-protein interaction in hosts. Our first aim was to predict the whole protein interaction pairs (interactome of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo that is an important pathogenic bacterium that causes bacterial blight (BB in rice. We developed a detection protocol to find possibly interacting proteins in its host using whole genome PPI prediction algorithms. The second aim was to build a DB server and a bioinformatic procedure for finding target proteins in Xoo for developing pesticides that block host-pathogen protein interactions within critical biochemical pathways. Description A PPI network in Xoo proteome was predicted by bioinformatics algorithms: PSIMAP, PEIMAP, and iPfam. We present the resultant species specific interaction network and host-pathogen interaction, XooNET. It is a comprehensive predicted initial PPI data for Xoo. XooNET can be used by experimentalists to pick up protein targets for blocking pathological interactions. XooNET uses most of the major types of PPI algorithms. They are: 1 Protein Structural Interactome MAP (PSIMAP, a method using structural domain of SCOP, 2 Protein Experimental Interactome MAP (PEIMAP, a common method using public resources of experimental protein interaction information such as HPRD, BIND, DIP, MINT, IntAct, and BioGrid, and 3 Domain-domain interactions, a method using Pfam domains such as iPfam. Additionally, XooNET provides information on network properties of the Xoo interactome. Conclusion XooNET is an open and free public

  18. Rolul diverşilor actori în realizarea procesului de descentralizare administrativă

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana CASTRAŞAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available În condiţiile actuale, când toată atenţia este concentrată asupra sarcinilor primordiale ale statului de drept, dezvoltarea culturii şi economiei, consolidarea statului de drept în societate, rolul administraţiei publice predomină ca sarcina principală a statului. Sistemul administraţiei publice este indisolubil legat de punerea în aplicare a politicii de stat prin activităţile pe care le efectuează. În special, subliniază rolul administraţiei locale ca factor de bază al dezvoltării localităţilor şi în atingerea obiectivelor propuse, ceea ce implică o responsabilitate specială transmisă oficialilor aleşi locali şi funcţionarilor publici. Ca o activitate, administraţia locală are ca scop obţinerea unor valori politice exprimate prin lege, iar cel mai important este satisfacerea interesului general al comunităţii locale. Astfel, fenomenul de descentralizare administrativă se va bucura de maximă atenţie, pentru că esenţa unui guvern local este că acesta este mai aproape de cetăţeni şi îi deserveşte. Și nevoia autorităţilor locale apare atunci când există o comunitate locală, care are interese comune. De aceea, este o analiză de ce problema descentralizării este un subiect actual permanent. Autonomia locală şi descentralizarea sunt principalele pietre de temelie ale organizării şi funcţionării autorităţilor administraţiei publice locale.

  19. Local descriptors of protein structure: a systematic analysis of the sequence-structure relationship in proteins using short- and long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Fidelis, Krzysztof

    2009-06-01

    Local protein structure representations that incorporate long-range contacts between residues are often considered in protein structure comparison but have found relatively little use in structure prediction where assembly from single backbone fragments dominates. Here, we introduce the concept of local descriptors of protein structure to characterize local neighborhoods of amino acids including short- and long-range interactions. We build a library of recurring local descriptors and show that this library is general enough to allow assembly of unseen protein structures. The library could on average re-assemble 83% of 119 unseen structures, and showed little or no performance decrease between homologous targets and targets with folds not represented among domains used to build it. We then systematically evaluate the descriptor library to establish the level of the sequence signal in sets of protein fragments of similar geometrical conformation. In particular, we test whether that signal is strong enough to facilitate correct assignment and alignment of these local geometries to new sequences. We use the signal to assign descriptors to a test set of 479 sequences with less than 40% sequence identity to any domain used to build the library, and show that on average more than 50% of the backbone fragments constituting descriptors can be correctly aligned. We also use the assigned descriptors to infer SCOP folds, and show that correct predictions can be made in many of the 151 cases where PSI-BLAST was unable to detect significant sequence similarity to proteins in the library. Although the combinatorial problem of simultaneously aligning several fragments to sequence is a major bottleneck compared with single fragment methods, the advantage of the current approach is that correct alignments imply correct long range distance constraints. The lack of these constraints is most likely the major reason why structure prediction methods fail to consistently produce adequate

  20. Improving Protein Fold Recognition by Extracting Fold-specific Features from Predicted Residue-residue Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwei; Zhang, Haicang; Li, Shuai Cheng; Wang, Chao; Kong, Lupeng; Sun, Shiwei; Zheng, Wei-Mou; Bu, Dongbo

    2017-08-16

    Accurate recognition of protein fold types is a key step for template-based prediction of protein structures. The existing approaches to fold recognition mainly exploit the features derived from alignments of query protein against templates. These approaches have been shown to be successful for fold recognition at family level, but usually failed at superfamily/fold levels. To overcome this limitation, one of the key points is to explore more structurally-informative features of proteins. Although residue-residue contacts carry abundant structural information, how to thoroughly exploit these information for fold recognition still remains a challenge. In this study, we present an approach (called DeepFR) to improve fold recognition at superfamily/fold levels. The basic idea of our approach is to extract fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts of proteins using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) technique. Based on these fold-specific features, we calculated similarity between query protein and templates, and then assigned query protein with fold type of the most similar template. DCNN has showed excellent performance in image feature extraction and image recognition; the rational underlying the application of DCNN for fold recognition is that contact likelihood maps are essentially analogy to images, as they both display compositional hierarchy. Experimental results on the LINDAHL dataset suggest that even using the extracted fold-specific features alone, our approach achieved success rate comparable to the state-of-the-art approaches. When further combining these features with traditional alignment-related features, the success rate of our approach increased to 92.3%, 82.5%, and 78.8% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively, which is about 18% higher than the state-of-the-art approach at fold level, 6% higher at superfamily level, and 1% higher at family level. An independent assessment on SCOP_TEST dataset showed

  1. USE OF THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DATA FOR VEGETATION INVENTORY ON URBAN A REAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubalska Joanna Lucyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology of the implementation of an inventory of vegetation in an urban area using photogrammetric data in the form of color NIR "true - orthophotomap" (true - ortho and the digital surface model (DSM created with data from airborne laser scanning, or alternatively, with an automatic correlation of images. The vegetation inventory was conducted by classification on the basis of the characteristics contained in pixels of georeferenced true - ortho while taking into account the elevation data in the form of gridded DSM. To carry out the classification Erdas Imagine software was used. The correct classification process was preceded by the creation of the input data for this task. This data was obtained from the processing of digital aerial photos taken by a Vexcel UltraCam camera with the ground resolution GSD = 10cm and point clouds acquired from ALS. This processing included the generation of digital terrain model in the SCOP++ environment and the digital surface model in an Opals and Inpho environment.T he Comparison of DSM created from two different sources of data showed the overall consistency and uniformity and the ability to use both models to generate a true - ortho product from digital aerial photographs. The work was performed on an INPHO photogrammetric workstation. "True - ortho" was generated from both the black and white NIR images and colour images. The classification carried out with the Erdas Imagine software proved that this software is suitable for classification based on the features extracted from the pixels with the simultaneous analysis of elevation data. Simultaneous use of data both from airborne laser scanning and colour infrared images made it possible to make an exact classification of vegetation on very difficult terrain, like built up urban areas. The results of the classification accuracy were evaluated by the visual verification in Google Street View application. At a time when airborne

  2. Comparison of extraction methods for the analysis of natural dyes in historical textiles by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valianou, Lemonia; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

    2009-12-01

    Different methods for the extraction of Dactylopius coccus Costa, Rubia tinctorum L., Isatis tinctoria L., Reseda luteola L., Curcuma longa L. and Cotinus coggygria Scop. from wool fibres are investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The efficiencies of five extraction methods which include the use of HCl (widely used extraction method), citric acid, oxalic acid, TFA and a combination of HCOOH and EDTA are compared on the basis of the (a) number, (b) relative quantities, measured as HPLC peak areas and (c) signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of the compounds extracted from the wool substrates. Flavonoid glycosides and curcuminoids contained in R. luteola L. and C. longa L., respectively, according to liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) identifications, are not detected after treating the fibres with HCl. All the other milder methods are successful in extracting these compounds. Experiments are performed using HPLC-DAD to compare the HPLC peak areas and the S/N of the following extracted compounds: indigotin, indirubin, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, fisetin, sulfuretin, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin, carminic acid, alizarin, puruprin and rubiadin. It is shown that the TFA method provides overall the best results as it gives elevated extraction yields except for fisetin, luteolin, apigenin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside and highest S/N except for fisetin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. It is noteworthy that treatment of the fibres with the typical HCl extraction method results overall in very low S/N. The TFA method is selected for further studies, as follows. First, it is applied on silk dyed samples and compared with the HCl method. The same relative differences of the TFA and HCl methods observed for the wool dyed samples are reported for the silk dyed samples too, except for rubiadin, luteolin and apigenin. Thus, in most cases, the nature of the substrate (wool or silk

  3. A cross-cultural comparison of folk plant uses among Albanians, Bosniaks, Gorani and Turks living in south Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Pieroni, Andrea; Pulaj, Bledar; Koro, Xhemajli; Quave, Cassandra L

    2015-05-12

    Kosovo represents a unique hotspot of biological and cultural diversity in Europe, which allows for interesting cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to document the state of traditional knowledge related to local (esp. wild) plant uses for food, medicine, and handicrafts in south Kosovo; and 2) to examine how communities of different ethnic groups in the region (Albanians, Bosniaks/Gorani, and Turks) relate to and value wild botanical taxa in their ecosystem. Field research was conducted in 10 villages belonging to the Prizren municipality and 4 villages belonging to the Dragash municipality, located in the Sharr Mountains in the southern part of Kosovo. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 139 elderly informants (61 Albanians, 32 Bosniaks/Gorani and 46 Turks), for participation in semi-structured interviews regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal, food, and handicraft purposes. Overall, we recorded the local uses of 114 species were used for medicinal purposes, 29 for food (wild food plants), and 20 in handicraft activities. The most important species used for medicinal purposes were Achillea millefolium L., Sambucus nigra L., Urtica dioica L., Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Hypericum perforatum L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Thymus serpyllum L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. Chamomilla recutita was the most highly valued of these species across the populations surveyed. Out of 114 taxa used for medicinal purposes, only 44 species are also included in the European Pharmacopoeia. The predominantly quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Comparison of the data recorded among the Albanian, Bosniak/Gorani, and Turkish communities indicated a less herbophilic attitude of the Albanian populations, while most quoted taxa were quoted by all three communities, thus suggesting a hybrid character of the Kosovar plant knowledge. Cross-cultural ethnobiological studies are crucial in

  4. Abnormalities in soluble CD147 / MMPs / TIMPs axis in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients with and without a history of Acute Anterior Uveitis / Anomalii ale axei CD147 solubil / MMPs / TIMPs la pacienții cu spondilită anchilozantă cu sau fără uveită acută anterioară

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitulescu Traian Costin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spondilita Anchilozantă (SA este prototipul formei axiale a spondiloartritelor. În pofida studiilor extinse, sunt încă incomplet înțelese mecansimele complexe legate de procesele celulare și moleculare anormale din SA. Printre mediatorii inflamației, cum ar fi citokinele proinflamatoare, NOS-2, chemokinele, care conduc la inflamație, metaloproteinazele de matrice (MMPs joacă un rol important în procesele inflamatoare care caracterizează SA. De aceea, ne-am propus să evaluăm dacă perturbări ale homeostaziei inductorului extracelular de MMPs (EMMPRIN/CD147, MMPs și inhibitorilor tisulari ai MMPs (TIMPs joacă un rol în evoluția SA în special la pacienții care au în istoricul lor Uveită Acută Anterioară (UAA. În acest scop seruri de la pacienți cu SA și de la donatori sănătoși (DS au fost analizate pentru nivelurile de CD147 solubil (sCD147, MMP-3 și TIMP-1 prin tehnica imunoenzimatica ELISA și pentru activitatea gelatinazelor MMP-2 si MMP-9 folosind gelatin zimografia. Rezultatele experimentale au arătat că nivelurile de sCD147, MMP-3 si TIMP-1 sunt semnificativ crescute la pacienții cu SA comparativ cu DS. sCD147 ca și raportul MMP-2/sCD147 a diferențiat pacienții cu UAA de cei fără UAA în istoricul lor. La pacienții cu SA rapoartele MMP-2/sCD147, MMP-3/sCD147 și MMP-3/TIMP-1 au sugerat dezechilibrul dintre MMPs și reglatorii lor. Aceste rezultate sugerează că rapoartele MMPs/sCD147 pot deveni biomarkeri potențiali pentru întărirea caracterizării pacienților cu SA și pentru a prognoza evoluția bolii. Corelațiile pozitive și negative dintre anumite caracteristici experimentale și/sau clinice ale pacienților cu SA și terapie subliniază de asemenea utilitatea evaluării acestor biomarkeri pentru a identifica o terapie individualizată și eficientă.

  5. ROC and confusion analysis of structure comparison methods identify the main causes of divergence from manual protein classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibrat Jean-Francois

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current classification of protein folds are based, ultimately, on visual inspection of similarities. Previous attempts to use computerized structure comparison methods show only partial agreement with curated databases, but have failed to provide detailed statistical and structural analysis of the causes of these divergences. Results We construct a map of similarities/dissimilarities among manually defined protein folds, using a score cutoff value determined by means of the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve. It identifies folds which appear to overlap or to be "confused" with each other by two distinct similarity measures. It also identifies folds which appear inhomogeneous in that they contain apparently dissimilar domains, as measured by both similarity measures. At a low (1% false positive rate, 25 to 38% of domain pairs in the same SCOP folds do not appear similar. Our results suggest either that some of these folds are defined using criteria other than purely structural consideration or that the similarity measures used do not recognize some relevant aspects of structural similarity in certain cases. Specifically, variations of the "common core" of some folds are severe enough to defeat attempts to automatically detect structural similarity and/or to lead to false detection of similarity between domains in distinct folds. Structures in some folds vary greatly in size because they contain varying numbers of a repeating unit, while similarity scores are quite sensitive to size differences. Structures in different folds may contain similar substructures, which produce false positives. Finally, the common core within a structure may be too small relative to the entire structure, to be recognized as the basis of similarity to another. Conclusion A detailed analysis of the entire available protein fold space by two automated similarity methods reveals the extent and the nature of the divergence between the automatically

  6. Indication of the condition of woody plants of parks in Dnipropetrovsk on morpho-physiological indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. E. Ivanchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition of woody plants of parks in the city of Dnipropetrovsk on morpho-physiological index of model trees was investigated. The highest values on the V.A. Alekseev vitality index were recorded for plants in Gagarin Park and Sevastopolskiy Park, the lowest values for Kalinin Park and Мolodezhnyj Park. The lowest values for length and thickness of annual sprouting relative to the control (Petrikovka Park were found in Kalinin, Globa and Molodezhnyj parks for all studied species of trees, the smallest difference from the control group of plants being found for Robinia pseudoacacia L. There was a lower quantity of leaves on the annual sprouting in plants in Globa, Kalinin and Мolodezhnyj parks. In other parks, the difference between the experiment and the control was not statistically significant. The area of leaves in the trees was lower in the city parks compared with those of the park in the village, with the exception of Gagarin Park. More important, relative to the above-mentioned parameters, were differences in the assimilation area of the annual sprouting, with the exception of Gagarin Park. The amount of chlorophyll a + b in leaves of woody plants of different parks of the city less than in control. The greatest differences of pigment concentration in the leaves of Acer platanoides L. and Tilia plathyphyllos Scop. were found in Kalinin Park. For the leaves of the R. pseudoacacia no significant differences were found between the content of the amount of chlorophyll a + b in the trees which grow in Gagarin, Khmelnitsky and Sevastopolskiy parks and the background values for this parameter. It was found that the amount of chlorophyll a + b in the leaves of T. plathyphyllos and R. pseudoacacia by weight of the leaves on the annual sprouting was lower in the city parks compared with the trees in the village park, with the exception of Gagarin Park. For A. platanoides this difference was found to be significant in all experimental sites

  7. Assessment of environmental and health risks in former polymetallic ore mining and smelting area, Slovakia: Spatial distribution and accumulation of mercury in four different ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árvay, Július; Demková, Lenka; Hauptvogl, Martin; Michalko, Miloslav; Bajčan, Daniel; Stanovič, Radovan; Tomáš, Ján; Hrstková, Miroslava; Trebichalský, Pavol

    2017-10-01

    Former long-term mining and smelting of pollymetallic ores in the Middle Spiš area caused a serious contamination problem of the environment with heavy metals and metalloids, especially mercury (Hg). Several studies have reported concentration of Hg in the area but this paper provides first detailed characterization of Hg contamination of different environmental components in agricultural, forest, grassland and urban ecosystems. The ecosystems are in different distances from emission sources - former mercury and copper smelting plants in NE Slovakia. Total Hg content was studied in soil/substrate samples (n = 234) and characteristic biological samples (Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth, Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer, Boletus edulis Bull., Cyanoboletus pulverulentus (Opat.) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini, Triticum aestivum (L.), Poa pratensis (L.)) (n = 234) collected in the above-mentioned ecosystems. The level of contamination and environmental risks were assessed by contamination factor (Cf), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and potential environmental risk index (PER). To determine the level of transition of Hg from abiotic to biotic environment, bioconcentration factor (BCF) was used. To determine a health risk resulting from regular and long-term consumption of the locally available species, the results of the Hg content were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for Hg defined by World Health Organization. The results suggest that almost 63% of the area belong to the very high risk category and 80% of the sampling sites shown very high contamination factor. Geoaccumulation index showed that almost 30% of the area is very strongly contaminated and only 8% is not contaminated with Hg. Spearman's correlation relationship confirmed that the values of PER, BCF, Cf and Igeo decreased with an increasing distance from the pollution source. The percentage of contribution to PTWI ranged between 5.76-69.0% for adults and 11.5-138% for children

  8. Automatic classification of protein structures relying on similarities between alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini Guillaume

    2012-09-01

    similarities prior to standard graph based clustering process by applying ternary similarity constraints i improves the separation of proteins of different classes and consequently ii improves the classification quality of standard graph based clustering algorithms according to the reference classification SCOP.

  9. Accuracy of structure-based sequence alignment of automatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byungkook

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate sequence alignments are essential for homology searches and for building three-dimensional structural models of proteins. Since structure is better conserved than sequence, structure alignments have been used to guide sequence alignments and are commonly used as the gold standard for sequence alignment evaluation. Nonetheless, as far as we know, there is no report of a systematic evaluation of pairwise structure alignment programs in terms of the sequence alignment accuracy. Results In this study, we evaluate CE, DaliLite, FAST, LOCK2, MATRAS, SHEBA and VAST in terms of the accuracy of the sequence alignments they produce, using sequence alignments from NCBI's human-curated Conserved Domain Database (CDD as the standard of truth. We find that 4 to 9% of the residues on average are either not aligned or aligned with more than 8 residues of shift error and that an additional 6 to 14% of residues on average are misaligned by 1–8 residues, depending on the program and the data set used. The fraction of correctly aligned residues generally decreases as the sequence similarity decreases or as the RMSD between the Cα positions of the two structures increases. It varies significantly across CDD superfamilies whether shift error is allowed or not. Also, alignments with different shift errors occur between proteins within the same CDD superfamily, leading to inconsistent alignments between superfamily members. In general, residue pairs that are more than 3.0 Å apart in the reference alignment are heavily (>= 25% on average misaligned in the test alignments. In addition, each method shows a different pattern of relative weaknesses for different SCOP classes. CE gives relatively poor results for β-sheet-containing structures (all-β, α/β, and α+β classes, DaliLite for "others" class where all but the major four classes are combined, and LOCK2 and VAST for all-β and "others" classes. Conclusion When the sequence

  10. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE BioR REMEDY ON THE MARKER INDICES OF ENDOTOXICOSIS AND HISTIDINE-DIPEPTIDES IN BLOOD SERUM IN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana MACARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was the study of the marker indices of endotoxicosis and histidine - dipeptides dynamics in the blood serum of quails treated with the BioR remedy. The study involved five groups of quails, in the process of reconditioning, (one control group and 4 experimental groups, 40 birds each group. BioR was administered twice: in different doses (0,5-1,5 ml/head of 0,05% BioR sol., while the control group received saline. The BioR remedy is well tolerated by adult quails, reduces the necrotic substances level, the average molecular weight substances levels, and induces a truthful histidine - dipeptides level increase, which explains the reduction of the catabolic processes and anabolism enhancement in quails.IMPACTUL REMEDIULUI BioR ASUPRA INDICILOR MARKERI AI ENDOTOXICOZEI ŞI DIPEPTIDELOR HISTIDINICE ÎN SERUL SANGUIN LA PREPELIŢENe-am propus ca scop să urmărim manifestările indicilor markeri ai endotoxicozei şi ai dipeptidelor histidinice în serul sanguin la prepeliţele tratate cu remediul BioR. Studiul a inclus 5 loturi de prepeliţe, puse la recondiţionare (1 lot martor şi 4 loturi experimentale, a câte 40 păsări. BioR-ul a fost administrat de 2 ori: în doze diferite (0,5-1,5 ml/cap sol. 0,05% BioR, în timp ce la lotul martor s-a administrat ser fiziologic. Remediul BioR este bine tolerat de prepeliţele adulte, reduce nivelul substanţelor necrotice, al substanţelor cu masă moleculară medie şi induce o creştere veridică a dipeptidelor histidinice, fapt ce demonstrează reducerea proceselor catabolice şi intensificarea anabolismului în organismul prepeliţelor.

  12. PASS2: an automated database of protein alignments organised as structural superfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowdhamini Ramanathan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional selection and three-dimensional structural constraints of proteins in nature often relates to the retention of significant sequence similarity between proteins of similar fold and function despite poor sequence identity. Organization of structure-based sequence alignments for distantly related proteins, provides a map of the conserved and critical regions of the protein universe that is useful for the analysis of folding principles, for the evolutionary unification of protein families and for maximizing the information return from experimental structure determination. The Protein Alignment organised as Structural Superfamily (PASS2 database represents continuously updated, structural alignments for evolutionary related, sequentially distant proteins. Description An automated and updated version of PASS2 is, in direct correspondence with SCOP 1.63, consisting of sequences having identity below 40% among themselves. Protein domains have been grouped into 628 multi-member superfamilies and 566 single member superfamilies. Structure-based sequence alignments for the superfamilies have been obtained using COMPARER, while initial equivalencies have been derived from a preliminary superposition using LSQMAN or STAMP 4.0. The final sequence alignments have been annotated for structural features using JOY4.0. The database is supplemented with sequence relatives belonging to different genomes, conserved spatially interacting and structural motifs, probabilistic hidden markov models of superfamilies based on the alignments and useful links to other databases. Probabilistic models and sensitive position specific profiles obtained from reliable superfamily alignments aid annotation of remote homologues and are useful tools in structural and functional genomics. PASS2 presents the phylogeny of its members both based on sequence and structural dissimilarities. Clustering of members allows us to understand diversification of

  13. The Harry Potter effect: The rise in trade of owls as pets in Java and Bali, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nijman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of species of wild-caught birds are offered for sale in the bird markets of Java and Bali, Indonesia, to meet the demand for the largely-domestic pet and songbird trade. In the past, owls were offered only in very small numbers in these bird markets but since the release of the Harry Potter series in Indonesia in the early 2000s their popularity as pets has increased. Whereas in the past owls were collective known as Burung Hantu (“Ghost birds”, in the bird markets they are now commonly referred to as Burung Harry Potter (“Harry Potter birds”. We made a retrospective quantitative assessment of the abundance of owls in the bird markets (1979–2010 and conducted 109 surveys in 20 bird markets in 2012–2016 to quantify owls in trade. In the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s owls were rarely recorded in Indonesia's bird markets, typically one or two and up to five per survey, and frequently no owls were recorded at all. The trade was largely confined to small scops owls. In the late 2000s more species were offered for sale, including barn and bay owls, and larger owl species such as wood-owls, eagle-owls and fish-owls; typically 10 + owls were observed per survey. In recent years, the number of owl species increased even more, and on average we recorded 17 owls per survey, yielding a total of 1810 owls, and in >90% of the surveys owls were present. In the larger bird markets in Jakarta and Bandung typically 30 to 60 owls are on offer of up to 8 species at a time. The number of owls as a proportion of all birds in the markets increased from 0.43% post 2008, suggesting a delayed Harry Potter effect. Over this period, common species have become cheaper and less common ones have become more expensive. The owls are largely, if not exclusively, wild-caught and are sold into the domestic pet market. The release of Harry Potter films and novels in Indonesia coincided with the rise of the Internet and social media and, with some delay, the

  14. IMPACTUL REMEDIULUI BioR ASUPRA UNOR PARAMETRI AI SISTEMULUI PROOXIDANT (OXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT LA PREPELIŢELE ADULTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana MACARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problema stimulării productivităţii în avicultură, pentru asigurarea consumatorilor cu alimente de înaltă calitate, devine din ce în ce mai stringentă la nivel mondial. Studiul a avut drept scop evaluarea efectelor remediului BioR asupra indicilor marker ai peroxidării lipidelor (PLO şi ai sistemului antioxidant (SAO la prepeliţele adulte crescute în condiţii fiziologice de producţie. Studiul a fost realizat pe 5 loturi de prepeliţe. Remediul BioR a fost administrat de două ori: la începutul studiului şi la 7-10 zile după prima administrare, în doze diferite. S-a constatat că administrarea remediului BioR determină îmbunătăţirea indicilor sistemului PLO - SAO şi activitatea majorităţii indicilor evaluaţi depinde direct sau indirect de doza utilizată, momente ce trebuie să fie luate în considerare atunci când se alege doza optimă a remediului.THE IMPACT OF THE BioR REMEDY ON THE PARAMETERS OF THE PRO-OXIDANT (OXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM IN ADULT QUAILSThe problem of aviculture productivity stimulation in order to ensure consumers with high quality food is becoming increasingly stringent worldwide. The study aimed to assess the effects of the BioR remedy on the marker indices of lipid peroxidation (LPO and antioxidant system (AOS in adult quails bred under physiological production conditions. The research was conducted on 5 lots of quails. The BioR remedy was administered twice: at the beginning of the study, and at the 7-10th day after the first administration, in different doses. It was found that the BioR remedy administration leads to the improvement of POL-SAO system indices, and the level or activity of the most evaluated indices depended directly or indirectly on the used dose, which must be taken into account when selecting the optimal dose of the remedy.

  15. The impact of pollutants on the antioxidant protection of species of the genus Tilia at different developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alexeyeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transport fumes and industrial waste on the activity of catalase, benzidine-peroxidase and guaiacol-peroxidase was studied in the dormant buds, leaves and seeds of the following species of the genus Tilia:T. platyphyllos Scop., T. europaea L., T. amurensis Rupr. and T. begoniifolia Stev. We tested the hypothesis that the action of pollutants changes the state of antioxidant protection at different stages of tree development in contaminated phytocenoses. An increase in catalase activity was observed in leaves of all linden species, and the action of transport fumes caused excess over control level by 118, 118, 196, and 61% respectively for T. platyphyllos, T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia. The action of industrial waste was accompanied by a slight decrease in catalase activity in T. europaea leaves, and increase in activity in leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (143% and 115%. Benzidine-peroxidase activity increased due to the influence of transport fumes on leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (103% and 44%, but decreased due to the effect of industrial waste on leaves of T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (46%, 30%, and 44% respectively, and was suppressed in the seeds of T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia both under the influence of transport (42%, 47% and 33% below control and industrial emissions (19%, 19% and 45%, and was reduced in buds of T. platyphyllos, T. europaea and T. amurensis due to the effect of transport fumes (21%, 9% and 20% respectively. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity decreased due to the influence of transport fumes in buds of T. platyphyllos, T. europaea and T. amurensis (41%, 14% and 47% below control, while it increased in the seeds of T. platyphyllos and T. amurensis (104% and 83%, as well as in leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia both due to the effect of transport (129% and 144% and of industrial emissions (respectively, 34% and 40% above control

  16. Ability of 3 tanniferous forage legumes to modify quality of milk and Gruyère-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, M; Dohme-Meier, F; Wechsler, D; Goy, D; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2016-01-01

    Condensed tannins (CT) may affect ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. A feeding experiment was conducted with 24 Holstein cows to evaluate whether diets containing CT from different forage legumes can increase polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 fatty acid content in milk and cheese, without affecting negatively their physicochemical and sensorial properties. Cows were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n=6) for 52 d, divided into 2 periods: a control period (CoP) and an experimental period (ExP). During the CoP, cows received a basal diet composed of hay, corn silage, ExtruLin (Trinova Handel & Marketing AG, Wangen, Switzerland), concentrate, and alfalfa (AF) in a ratio of 45:25:5:7:18. In the ExP, in 3 of the 4 groups AF was replaced by either sainfoin (SF; 19% CT in dry matter) or 1 of 2 cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil [Polom (BP), 3% CT; Bull (BB), 5% CT]. At the end of each period, milk was collected on 3 consecutive days and analyzed for milk gross composition and fatty acid profile and was processed to Gruyère-type cheese. A trained panel assessed the sensory quality of raw milk and cheese using discriminative and descriptive tests. This experimental design consisting of AF in both the CoP and ExP allowed us to quantify effects due to lactation stage and experimental diets. In both the CoP and ExP, dry matter intake and milk yield did not differ among treatment groups. From the CoP to the ExP, milk urea content was reduced by 23% with SF, remained unchanged with BP, and tended to increase with AF and BB. The odor of the raw BB milk was judged to be different from AF milk. With SF, switching from the CoP to the ExP resulted in a 17% increase of the 18:3n-3 proportion in milk and cheese lipids. In BP cheese, the increase was 3%, whereas it tended to decrease in BB cheese. Additionally, the 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 proportions tended to increase in SF cheese from the CoP to the ExP. Compared with the AF cheeses, cheeses from cows

  17. Sistemas de control de malezas en maiz (Zea mays L.: efecto de metodos de control, densidad y distribucion del cultivo Weed control systems in corn: effects of control methods, density and plant distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martinez

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de integrar diferentes prácticas culturales en un sistema de control de malezas en maíz, se instaló un ensayo en el Campo Experimental de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo (México (2250 msnm, precipitación media anual 550 mm, suelo franco, 1.7% M.O. bajo condiciones de secano, en donde se evaluaron dos densidades (44.400 y 66.600 pl/ha, dos distribuciones (normal y equidistante y siete métodos de control de malezas (cyanazine + alachlor (1,2 + 1,92 kg/ha, atrazine + alachlor (1,2 + 1,44 kg/ha, un escarda, dos escardas, testigo siempre desmalezado, testigo siempre desmalezado + dos escardas y testigo siempre enmalezado. Las principales malezas presentes fueron: quelite (Amaranthus sp., perlilla (Lopezia mexicana Jacq., rosilla chita (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., acahual (Encelia mexicana Mart., Sporobulus poiretti (Roem, et Sch. Hichc. y fresadilla (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop.. El aumento de la densidad de siembra no se reflejó en el control de malezas, incidencia de enfermedades, crescimiento vegetativo y reproductivo del cultivo. La distribución equidistante aparejó un mejor control de malezas, en relación a la distribución normal, pero la incidencia de enfermedades fue mayor, lo que quizá pudo haber determinado la ausencia de diferencias en crecimiento vegetativo, un menor número de mazorcas/ha y consecuentemente la ausencia de respuesta en rendimiento de grano. De los tratamientos químicos, atrazine + alachlor tuvo un comportamiento superior a cyanazine + alachlor, en control de malezas, aunque sólo fue detectable estadisticamente en las evaluaciones. No hubo diferencia entre ambos en la incidencia de enfermedades, ni en su efecto sobre el cultivo. aunque el rendimiento de cyanazine + alachlor fue ligeramente inferior. Los métodos químicos fueron superiores a los mecánicos en control de malezas, pero no difirie -ron en la incidencia de enfermedades ni en los parámetros de desarrollo del cultivo. La

  18. POLITICA DE RECRUTARE ȘI SELECȚIE A PERSONALULUI ACADEMIC ÎN ÎNVĂȚĂMÂNTUL SUPERIOR DIN RSS MOLDOVENEASCĂ. 1944-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana ROTARU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resursa umană este capitalul strategic al oricărei instituții de învățământ superior și o politică judicioasă de personal, în general, dar mai ales de recrutare și selecție a cadrelor didactico-științifice. Ea face posibilă realizarea misiunii învăță­mân­tului superior, implicit, prin cei care îl promovează. Cercetarea politicii de personal în școlile superioare din RSS Moldovenească în perioada de refacere a învățământului superior de după cel de-al Doilea Război Mondial a scos în evidență că aceasta era subordonată politicii naționale a statului sovietic, care presupunea formarea „omului nou” și integrarea acestuia în identitatea supraetnică numită „popor sovietic” – deznaționalizat, îndoctrinat cu ideologie marxist-leninistă, rusificat și rusianizat, care să aibă o patrie socialistă comună – Uniunea Sovietică și un scop comun – const­ruirea comunismului. Toate instrumentele și metodele de recrutare și selectare a personalului academic pentru insti­tuțiile de învățământ din RSS Moldovenească erau subordonate necesității creării unui corp didactico-științific în mare parte vorbitor și purtător de limbă și cultură rusă, puternic ideologizat și loial statului sovietic și partidului comunist, și mai apoi de o anumită competență profesională, toate acestea camuflate sub pregnanta idee de promovare a „elemen­tului autohton moldovenesc”.THE POLICY OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION OF ACADEMIC STAFF IN HIGHER EDUCATION OF MSSR. 1944-1950The human resource is the strategic capital of any higher education institutions and, in general, a judicious staff policy, but especially – a good policy of recruitment and selection of didactic and scientific staff makes possible to realize the higher education mission and, by default – the goals of those who are promoting it. The research of staff policy in high schools of MSSR during the higher education

  19. Comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolado e em mistura com outros herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em cafeeiros novos por dois anos consecutivos Effect of metribuzin, sprayed alone or in mixture with another herbicides, for weed control on young coffee trees, during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Para se conhecer o comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolaso ou em mistura com outros herbicidas residuais (napropamide, pendimethalin, alchlor, oryzalin e diuron no controle de plantas daninhas que comumente infestam cafeeiros em formação, foi conduzido um experimento de campo onde esse herbicida a 0,28; 0,42; 0,56 e 0,70 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha pendimethalin a 1,00 kg/ha, alachlor a 2,40kg/ha, oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha ou com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha, comparado com duas testemunhas , onde, em uma, o mato foi mantido a níveis não competitivos com a cultura, por meios mecânicos, e outra onde o mato foi deixado desenvolver-se naturalmente, sem nenhuma interferência. Foi incluído também um tratamento com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha. A infestação natural de plantas daninhas da área do experimento era formada pelas gramínas, capim-de-colçhão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop, capim - marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch capim-pé-de-galinha (Elcusine indica (L. Gaertn., Capim-favorito (Rhynchelitrum roseum (Nees Stapf eet Hubb, e pelas dicotiledôneas beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., picão-branco (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., caruru-de-mancha (Amarantus virides L., amendoim bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L., quebra-pedra (Phyllantus cordovadensis, Muell Arg. e falsa-serralha (Emilia sachifolia DC. Os resultados dos dois anos foram semelhantes para cada tratamento. Metribuzin a 0,28 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha, apresentam períodos de ação maior, seguidos da mistura de metribuzin, naquela mesma dose, com oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha. Não foi contatado a presença de qualquer sintoma de intoxicação nos cafeeiros, em todos os tratamentos, até a última observação, realizada 210 dias após a segunda aplicação dos herbicidas.This paper reports on two years field trials carried out in Araras, SP, Brazil, on coffee tress with twenty

  20. Controle químico de plantas daninhas na semeadura direta de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Weed control on direct seeded tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Ferreira

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Em dois ensaios, um conduzido em Viçosa, MG, e outro em Domingos Martins, ES, estudou-se o comportamento dos herbicidas metribuzin, chloramben, napropamide, diphenamid, pebulate e trifluralin, nas doses de 0,36; 2,40; 2,50; 2,00; 3,60 e 0,67 kg/ha, respectivamente, e a combinação de 0,35 kg/ha de metribuzin com cada um dos demais, nas mesmas doses, no controle de plantas daninhas e na tolerância da cultura do tomate semeado diretamente no local definitivo. Num terceiro ensaio, conduzido em Viçosa, fez-se o mesmo estudo, combinando pebulate, nas doses 4,32 e 5,76 kg/ha, com chloramben, napropamide, diphenamid e metribuzin, nas doses de 3,40; 3,00; 5,00 e 0,70 kg/ha, respectivamente, e também os mesmos compostos, isoladamente, nas mesmas doses. Todos os herbicidas avaliados exerceram controle sobre as plantas daninhas; entretanto, a eficiência de cada um foi muito influenciada pela espécie presente. Apenas pebulate apresentou eficiente controle da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L.. Chloramben, napropamide, diphenamid e trifluralin controlaram eficientemente capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch. e capim-colchão (Digitaria Sanguinalis (L. Scop.. Metribuzin apresentou excelente controle de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e botão-de-ouro (Galin-soga parviflora Cav.. As misturas demetribuzin ou de pebulate com os demais herbicidas aumentaram a eficiência de controle e o número de espécies controladas. Nenhum dos herbicidas, nas doses estudadas, causou danos à cultura e os maiores pesos de matéria verde da parte aérea das plantas de tomate foram obtidos nos tratamentos que proporcionaram maior controle de plantas daninhas.Three assays were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of several herbicides on direct seeded tomato. The compounds metribuzin, napropamide, chloramben, diphenamid, pebulate and trifluralin aplied separatly, at the dosage of .35; 3.40; 2.50; 2.00; 3.60 and .67 kg/ha respectively, and combined each one

  1. Hippocampal long term memory: effect of the cholinergic system on local protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Daniele; Cerbai, Francesca; Di Russo, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Giannetti, Ambra; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2013-11-01

    The present study was aimed at establishing a link between the cholinergic system and the pathway of mTOR and its downstream effector p70S6K, likely actors in long term memory encoding. We performed in vivo behavioral experiments using the step down inhibitory avoidance test (IA) in adult Wistar rats to evaluate memory formation under different conditions, and immunohistochemistry on hippocampal slices to evaluate the level and the time-course of mTOR and p70S6K activation. We also examined the effect of RAPA, inhibitor of mTORC1 formation, and of the acetylcholine (ACh) muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP) or ACh nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MECA) on short and long term memory formation and on the functionality of the mTOR pathway. Acquisition test was performed 30 min after i.c.v. injection of RAPA, a time sufficient for the drug to diffuse to CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by MALDI-TOF-TOF imaging. Recall test was performed 1 h, 4 h or 24 h after acquisition. To confirm our results we performed in vitro experiments on live hippocampal slices: we evaluated whether stimulation of the cholinergic system with the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) activated the mTOR pathway and whether the administration of the above-mentioned antagonists together with CCh could revert this activation. We found that (1) mTOR and p70S6K activation in the hippocampus were involved in long term memory formation; (2) RAPA administration caused inhibition of mTOR activation at 1 h and 4 h and of p70S6K activation at 4 h, and long term memory impairment at 24 h after acquisition; (3) scopolamine treatment caused short but not long term memory impairment with an early increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h followed by stabilization at longer times; (4) mecamylamine plus scopolamine treatment caused short term memory impairment at 1 h and 4 h and reduced the scopolamine-induced increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h and 4 h; (5

  2. CONSIDERAŢII PSIHOPEDAGOGICE ASUPRA MOTIVAŢIEI PENTRU ÎNVĂŢARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahem ASLA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Învăţarea şcolară este o activitate planificată, un model de acţiune dinamică, un plan de acţiune, prin care se recon­struieşte şi se dezvoltă sistematic cunoştinţe, idei şi moduri care ne ajută să fundamentăm, să examinăm şi să validăm adevăruri. Este activitatea de organizare şi autoorganizare a experienţei, de construcţie şi reconstrucţie a personalităţii elevului, de formare şi autoformare a propriei individualităţi bio-psiho-socioculturale. La rândul ei, motivaţia este şi rămâne o problemă importantă atât pentru profesorul care se confruntă cu situaţii benefice, cât şi pentru elevul care este motivat să înveţe şi are resurse energetice şi obiective clare, întrucât este pus să găsească instrumentele şi contextele de menţinere şi de valorificare maximă, de transformare a ei într-o resursă permanentă de dezvoltare. Motivaţia are nu doar un caracter energizator sau activator asupra comportamentului, ci totodată şi unul de direcţionare a comportamentelor. Astfel, putem conchide că motivaţia dispune de două segmente importante: unul de energizare, iar celălalt vectorizant, de orientare a comportamentului spre realizarea unui anumit scop.În articolul de faţă este efectuală o analiză a paradigmelor ştiinţifice care încearcă explicarea unui fenomen atât de complex precum motivaţia pentru învăţare ca componentă primordială în obţinerea performanţelor şcolare.PSYCHOPEDAGOGICAL REGARDS ON MOTIVATION FOR LEARNINGSchool learning is a planned activity, a model of dynamic action, an action plan that rebuilds and develops systematic knowledge, ideas and ways we can substantiate examine and validate truths. It is organizing activity and self-organization of experience, construction and reconstruction of the pupil's personality, training and self-training of individuals own bio-psycho-socio-cultural. In turn, the motivation is and remains an important issue for both

  3. Efeitos de herbicidas nos teores de macronutrientes e nas características tecnológicas da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.. I - Misturas de herbicidas em pós-emergência Effect of herbicides on the macronutrient levels and on the tecnologic characteristics of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. I - Mixtures of postemergence herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Victoria Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida em um Latossol Roxo, com 3,9% de matéria orgânica, na Usina São Carlos, município de Jaboticabal - SP com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento das principais misturas de herbicidas aplicadas em pós-emergência e suas possíveis interferências nos teores de macronutrientes, e no desenvolvimento da variedade CB 41-14. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do ingrediente ativo em kg/ha foram: ametryne + 2,4 - D (formulação comercial a 1,47 - 2,03, diuron + 2,4 -D a 1,60 + 2,16; ametryne + 2,4-D a 1,60 + 2,16; alachlor + 2,4-D a 1,09 + 1,80; asulam + ioxynil - 2,4-D a 2,80 + 1,75; MCPA + 2,4-D a 0,83 + 0,83; oxadiazon + 2,4 -D a 0,50 + 2,16; ametryne + simazine + 2,4-D a 1,25 + 1,25 + 2,16; ametryne + secbumetone + 2,4-D a 2,00 + 2,00 + 2,16; diuron + hexazinone + surfatante a 0,80 + 0,45 + 0,5% e MCPA + 2,3,6-TBA + pendimethalin + surfatante a 1,50 + 0,48 + 0,66 + 0,5%. O controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliado através de contagens por espécie botânica e por avaliações visuais . Sobre a cultura os efeitos foram constatados pela contagem da brotação inicial, avaliações visuais dos efeitos fitotóxicos, análise dos teores de macronutrientes aos 5 e 8 meses, medidas do comprimento dos colmos, análise dos teores de fibra, pol, brix, % de cana e pureza, assim como valores de pol/ha, e peso de colmos por hectare. Não houve interferência das diferentes misturas de herbicidas na brotação inicial, no comprimento médio dos colmos, e nos teores de fibra, pol, brix e pureza por ocasião da colheita. Em relação às principais plantas daninhas presentes na área, que eram capim-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. capim-coloniâo (Panicum maximum Jacq, beldroega (Portulacca oleracea L. e caruru (Amaranthus spp, as melhores porcentagens de controle foram obtidas com as misturas de ametryne + 2,4-D, MCPA + 2,4-D, oxadiazon + 2,4-D, ametryne + secbumetone, diuron + hexazinone e MCPA

  4. Cultural and wild plant species as bio indicators and phyto-remedies of PHC contaminated soils in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breus, I.; Larionova, N.; Semenova, E.; Breus, V. [Kazan State Univ., Dept. of Geography and Geoecology (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    of kerosene and 1- methyl-naphthalene-tri-decane mixture on plant seeds connected with the disturbance of water-air soil regime, but also the direct toxic one caused by penetration of 1-methyl-naphthalene into maize seeds (dry and swell). At the second stage plant roots and seedlings growth on soil contaminated with kerosene was studied. Hereby it was established that at low PHC-concentrations in soil (even at 1% of kerosene) the parameters of initial plant growth (especially root length and biomass) are more sensitive. Therefore they are more informative as bio-indication parameters and can be used for bio-indication at the levels of soil contamination by kerosene less than 5%. At the final stage for some cultural species the root and over-ground biomass and also the phyto-remediation effect in leached chernozem contaminated with kerosene were investigated. Here it must be noted that generally we have not found the overlap of plant tolerance to soil PHC-contamination (estimated on both seed germination and biomass accumulation) with their phyto-remediation capacity. From all studied plants the most clear phyto-remediation effect was established for sainfoin at 1 - 5% of kerosene in soil.

  5. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF ETHANOL MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS WITH ERYTHROMYCIN AGAINST SKIN STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCI WITH INDUCIBLE PHENOTYPE OF MLS-RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchyshyn O.I.

    2017-10-01

    decreased in 32-64 times and Geranium pratense L. rhizomes extract antimicrobial concentration was decreased in 64-256 times. Ethanol extracts of Betula verrucosa L. buds (average FICI 0.473±0.20, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. Spreng. leaves (average FICI 0.143±0.18 and Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. leaves (average FICI 0.189±0.29 showed synergic action with erythromycin against 71.4-85.7% tested strains. Ethanol extracts of Sanguisorba officinalis L. roots showed non-interactive action with antibiotic against 42.8% isolates of staphylococci. Additive interaction with erythromycin for this extract was observed against 28.6% and synergic action against 28.6% strains (average FICI 0.812±0.52. Biota orientalis (L. Endl. (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco fruits extract and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Rhus cotinus R. leaves extract exhibited non-interactive action with antibiotic against all tested strains (average FICI 2.0±0.0. Experimental data indicate that combination of plant extracts with macrolides in therapeutic regimens against MLS-resistant staphylococci is promising, particularly for the treatment of pyoderma. The introduction of combined chemotherapy in clinical practice can actually help to solve two problems of modern medicine - slow the process of microorganisms (such as staphylococcus resistance to antibiotics acquiring and improve treatment of infections caused by resistant strains. Detection of bacteria antibiotic resistance modifiers in various plants stimulates to their intensive phytochemical study for isolation and identification of the active components. It will help to investigate the mechanisms of synergy on the molecular level. Conclusion. BAC of medicinal and aromatic plants potentiate antimicrobial activity of macrolides against skin isolates of staphylococci with inducible MLS-resistance. Alnus incana L. fruits ethanolic extract demonstrates the best direct antimicrobial activity and in combination with ERY synergistically inhibits the growth of S

  6. EPISTEMOLOGIA EDUCAŢIEI – O ABORDARE INTERDISCIPLINARĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Olimpia AVRAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epistemologia educaţiei, ca parte, deopotrivă, a disciplinei filosofiei educaţiei (prin urmare, aparţinând domeniului filosofiei, poate să se constituie şi ca disciplină în cadrul ştiinţelor educaţiei. Un parcurs similar l-au avut şi alte discip­line considerate a fi „de graniţă” şi având o abordare interdisciplinară, care fac parte în acelaşi timp din două discipline distincte, cum ar fi, de exemplu, sociologia educaţiei, care este, deopotrivă, o ramură a sociologiei dar şi o subdisciplină a ştiinţelor educaţiei. Prin urmare, în contextul actual, de hibridare metodologică, conceptuală şi disciplinară, rolul epistemologiei educaţiei este acela de a întemeia cunoaşterea din domeniul ştiinţelor educaţiei; ea are, de asemenea, un rol de fundamentare normativă, evidenţiind rolul şi importanţa enunţurilor celor mai generale ale ştiinţei – axiome, legi, principii şi reguli, în întemeierea critică a cunoaşterii şi legătura acestor legităţi cu praxis-ul educaţional. De asemenea, aspecte legate de sursele cunoaşterii în educaţie, de tipurile şi modalităţile de cunoaştere specifice acestor ştiinţe, de analiza critică a conceptelor, principiilor, legităţilor educaţiei, constituie un demers epistemologic în câmpul educaţiei, care are scop de clarificare, de elucidare şi întemeiere a cunoaşterii.EPISTEMOLOGY OF EDUCATION – AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHFrom an epistemological perspective the scientific research in the area of education sciences has some specific characte­ristics we would like to emphasize in this article, in a synthetic approach. One of the purposes considered is to briefly present some of the most recurrent forms of knowledge in the field of education, namely: reflexive, material, taxonomic, experimental and statistical knowledge. We will emphasise the specificity of each approach and we will insist on the forms encountered in the education sciences unlike

  7. INSTITUIREA ŞI ACTIVITATEA COMISIEI REGIONALE DE PE LÂNGĂ ADUNAREA DEPUTAŢILOR NOBILIMII DIN BASARABIA PENTRU ÎNTOCMIREA RECENSĂMÂNTULUI FISCAL AL POPULAŢIEI DIN 1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin TOMULEŢ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available În prezentul demers ştiinţific autorul analizează, în baza izvoarelor de arhivă inedite, modalitatea de instituire şi acti-vitate a Comisiei Regionale din cadrul Adunării Deputaţilor Nobilimii din Basarabia în scopul întocmirii unui nou recensământ fiscal al populaţiei. Autorul demonstrează că ţarismul a manifestat un interes special faţă de studierea situaţiei demografice din regiune în scopul impunerii fiscale şi asigurării armatei ruse cu produse alimentare, furaje, încartiruirii ostaşilor, în condiţiile unui eventul război cu Imperiul Otoman, dar şi în scopul asigurării armatei ruse de ocupaţie din regiune. După efectuarea, în scurt timp după anexare, a recensământului populaţiei din 1817, în scopul depunerii de către populaţie a jurământului de credinţă împăratului rus şi determinării numărului de contribuabili în teritoriul nou-anexat, ţarismul avea nevoie de un nou recensământ al populaţiei care ar fi reflectat mult mai veridic numărul familiilor de con-tribuabili din Basarabia. Acest interes a fost dictat de faptul că în scurt timp după anexarea regiunii la Imperiul Rus în provincie au avut loc schimbări importante în structura socială şi demografică. În plus, despre unele categorii sociale şi fiscale privilegiate ale populaţiei, cum ar fi: boiernaşii, mazilii, ruptaşii, ruptaşii de vistieria şi ruptaşii de cămară, nu se ştia aproape nimic. În acest scop, la 21 februarie 1824 pe lângă Adunarea Deputaţilor Nobilimii din Basarabia este instituită Comisia Regională pentru întocmirea recensământului fiscal al populaţiei.ESTABLISHMENT AND ACTIVITY OF REGIONAL COMMISSION ATTACHED TO ASSEMBLY OF DEPUTIES OF NOBILITY IN BESSARABIA FOR PREPARATION OF TAX CENSUS OF POPULATION IN 1824 In the given article, based on unpublished archive sources, the author examines the establishment and activity within the Assembly of Deputies of Nobility in Bessarabia of the

  8. UTILIZAREA TEHNOLOGIILOR INFORMAŢIONALE ŞI COMUNICAŢIONALE LA ORELE DE ISTORIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia ŢURCANU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Comunicarea face referire la integrarea mijloacelor, tehnologiilor informaţionale şi comunicaţionale (TIC în cadrul procesului de formare a competenţelor specifice la istorie, ca practică de succes în activitatea mea ca profesor de istorie şi educaţie civică. Drept argument pentru această preocupare este Recomandarea Consiliului Europei cu privire la pre­darea istoriei în secolul XXI, despre creşterea accesului tinerilor la tehnologiile informaţionale şi comuni­ca­ţionale atât la şcoală, cât şi în afara orelor de curs, despre necesitatea formării unui individ competitiv în societatea informaţională. În acest scop, pentru desfăşurarea orelor de istorie, profesorul dispune de mijloace TIC, cu ajutorul cărora realizează şi valorifică o bancă informţională ce conţine resurse didactice integrate în cadrul situaţiilor didactice şi ele­mentelor de conţinut disciplinar.S-a constatat, în urma unor evaluări şi sondaje, că utilizarea materialelor multimedia la ora de istorie a dus la obţine­rea unor câştiguri educaţionale: sunt consolidate abilităţile de cercetare şi capacităţile intelectuale, sporesc cunoştinţele şi abilităţile în utilizarea tehnologiei informaţiei, creşte interesul şi angajarea elevilor în procesul educaţional.Se menţionează existenţa unor limite ale posibilităţilor de utilizare TIC ce nu pot fi depăşite decât prin menţinerea unui rol important al profesorului în achiziţia, prelucrarea şi utilizarea informaţiilor, în acţiunea de formare a deprinde­rilor şi abilităţilor practice. De aceea, interesul acordat dezvoltării competenţei tehnologice depăşeşte etapa instruirii iniţiale în profesie şi se inserează pe parcursul întregii cariere didactice, necesitând o redefinire continuă a obiectivelor formării.THE INTEGRATION OF THE INFORMATIONAL AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES DURING THE HISTORY LESSONSThe Communication that Natalia

  9. MOSCHEI TRANSFORMATE ÎN BISERICI ORTODOXE DUPĂ ANEXAREA BASARABIEI LA IMPERIUL RUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor BERCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sfârşitul secolului XVIII – începutul secolului al XIX-lea a fost marcat de o largă confruntare de forţe şi interese ale marilor puteri în sud-estul Europei. Un rol important în aceste confruntări l-au jucat Imperiul Otoman şi Imperiul Rus. Războiului ruso-turc din 1806-1812 s-a încheiat cu semnarea Păcii de la Bucureşti, în mai 1812. Ca urmare a acestui tratat, teritoriul de est al Moldovei, numit în Iaşi teritoriul „dincolo de Prut”, a fost anexat de către Imperiul ţarist. Noua administraţie a luat o serie de măsuri care au avut ca scop consolidarea administraţiei ţariste în noul teritoriu dobândit. O parte importantă din teritoriul anexat anterior a aparţinut aşa-numitului guvernământ otoman – „r0”, adică teritoriu administrat direct de către Istanbul, care a fost înfiinţată în Moldova în timpul secolului al XV-lea – începutul secolului XVIII. Printre problemele majore ce urmau a fi soluţionate de către administraţia ţaristă a fost şi problema statutului aşa-numitelor proprietăţi musulmane, care au fost înfiinţate pe teritoriul unităţilor administrative otomane de-a lungul seco-lelor. Metodele folosite au fost simple, dar foarte eficiente. Deoarece populaţia aproape în întregime musulmană a părăsit teritoriul după 1812, moscheile au fost transformate în biserici ortodoxe cu aprobarea înaltului cler şi a autorităţilor civile ţariste. Pe 21 august 1813 Decretul ţarului Alexandru I a oficializat existenţa „Arhiepiscopiei Chişinăului şi Hotinului”, care a legalizat transformarea moscheilor în biserici creştine ortodoxe, aceasta din urmă fiind una dintre principalele metode de a impune dominaţia spirituală rusă în Basarabia.MOSQUES CONVERTED TO THE ORTHODOX CHURCH; AFTER THE ANNEXATION OF BESSARABIA BY THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE Late 18th century – beginning of the 19th century was marked by a broad confrontation of forces and interests of the Great Powers in

  10. COMITETELE ŞCOLARE DIN BASARABIA INTERBELICĂ: CONTRIBUŢII LA DEZVOLTAREA ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTULUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe PALADE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available În acest studiu sunt analizate aspecte privind activitatea comitetelor şcolare înfiinţate în România din iniţiativa mini-strului Instrucţiunii C.Angelescu prin Decretul-lege din iulie 1919. Obiectivul lor principal era mobilizarea eforturilor şi mijloacelor populaţiei din mediul rural şi urban la construcţia localurilor de şcoli. Drept urmare a activităţii acestora şi a susţinerii financiare din partea statului extinderea şcolară a cunoscut proporţii sporite, numărul de şcoli primare în Basa-rabia dublându-se, de la 1383 în anul 1918 la 2628 în 1940. Pe lângă construirea şi întreţinerea şcolilor, comitetele şcolare au avut în responsabilitatea lor asigurarea şcolilor cu material didactic şi cărţi pentru instruirea elevilor, fapt confirmat de numeroase demersuri şi solicitări adresate Casei Şcoalelor în acest scop. O importanţă deosebită au avut acţiunile comitetelor şcolare conjugate cu cele ale corpului didactic pentru realizarea obligativităţii învăţământului primar şi asigurarea frecvenţei şcolare. În Basarabia, unde, drept urmare a regimului ţarist, domina analfabetismul şi ignoranţa populaţiei, acest proces a fost mai dificil decât în celelalte provincii româneşti. Comitetele şcolare aveau în competenţa lor şi aplicarea amenzilor pentru absentarea elevilor de la şcoală. Documentele analizate demonstrează că în multe cazuri acestea erau nevoite să reducă amenzile şcolare din cauza situaţiei materiale precare a populaţiei rurale, care se înregistra mai ales în anii secetoşi. Acţiunile întreprinse de comitetele şcolare au fost mai eficiente în perioada guvernărilor liberale din anii 1922-1926 şi 1934-1937, acestea fiind încurajate energic de Ministerul Instrucţiunii Publice condus de C.Angelescu. Construcţiile şcolare erau propagate prin conferinţe publice, cinematograf, decernarea cu medalii a persoanelor cu merite deosebite. În aceşti ani cu

  11. Содержание форм азота в листьях древесных растений как составляющая мониторинга состояния дендрофлоры парков г. Днепропетровск

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга ИВАНЧЕНКО

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted to evaluate the content of nitrogen forms in the leaves of woody plants in the parks located at different distances from sources of pollution in the urban area of Dnipropetrovsk. It has been found that in all except a few wood species such as Tilia plathyphyllos Scop. and Biota orientalis L. the content of total nitrogen does not differ from the control indices. In the city parks (e.g., in the park named after Yu. Gagarin and Sevastopol park, where the plants are exposed to low-risk man-induced impacts, the content of protein nitrogen in the leaves of the trees does not differ from the control indices, while this index is less in the plants in the other parks under study. Higher contents of non-protein nitrogen have been revealed in the leaves at the model sites in the parks named after L. Globa, T. G. Shevchenko, B. Khmelnitsky, M. Kalinin, and in Мolodezhny park; more over, that index varies more significantly as compared to the protein nitrogen content. It has been observed that the values of the protein to non-protein nitrogen ratio are less in the leaves of the trees in the parks than the control indices, except for the plants in the park named after Yu. Gagarin. This indicator can be used as a marker of the vigorous status of woody plants in the city parks of industrial urban areas. Реферат. Изучено содержание форм азота в листьях древесных растений парков Днепропетровска, расположенных на разном удалении от источников загрязнения. Установлено, что содержание общего азота не отличается от контрольных показателей за некоторыми исключениями у липы широколистной и биоты восточной. В городских парках, растения которые

  12. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensiy or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant covers is the main factor that controls the soil erosion (Haregeweyn, 2013). Plant cover is the main factor of soil erosion processes as the vegetation control the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012). Vegetation cover acts in a complex way in influencing on the one hand on runoff and soil loss and on the other hand on the amount and the way that rainfall reaches the soil surface. In arid and semiarid regions, where erosion is one of the main degradation processes and water is a scant resource, a minimum percentage of vegetation coverage is necessary to protect the soil from erosion, but without compromising the availability of water (Belmonte Serrato and Romero Diaz, 1998). This is mainly controlled by the vegetation distribution (Cerdà, 1997a; Cammeraat et al., 2010; Kakembo et al., 2012). Land abandonment is common in Mediterranean region under extensive land use (Cerdà, 1997b; García-Ruiz, 2010). Abandoned lands typically have a rolling landscape with steep slopes, and are dominated by herbaceous communities that grow on pasture land interspersed by shrubs. Land abandonment use to trigger an increase in soil erosion, but the vegetation recovery reduces the impact of the vegetation. The goal of this work is to assess the effects of different Mediterranean shrub species (Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Medicago strasseri, Colutea arborescens L., Retama sphaerocarpa, L., Pistacia Lentiscus L. and Quercus coccifera L.) on soil protection (runoff and soil losses) and on rainfall reaching soil surface (rainfall partitioning fluxes). To characterize the effects of shrub vegetation and to evaluate their effects on soil protection, two field experiments were carried out. The presence of shrub vegetation reduced runoff by

  13. ВЛИЯНИЕ ВОЗЗРЕНИЙ НИККОЛО МAКИАВЕЛЛИ О ПРИРОДЕ ЧЕЛОВЕКА НА ТЕОРИЮ И МЕТОДОЛОГИЮ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ЛИЧНОСТИ В ПСИХОЛОГИИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila ANŢIBOR

    2017-03-01

    natura umană au fost dezvoltate în teoria cultural-istorică a lui L.S. Vâgotsky despre dezvoltarea funcţiilor psihice superioare ale omului şi în abordarea activităţii subiectului, care justifică capacitatea lui la autodeterminare (S.L. Rubinstein, A.N. Leontiev, A.V. Brushlinskii. S-a constatat că stu­diul machiavelismului în psihologie se bazează pe noţiunea de activitate, perceput ca proces contradictoriu, şi pe ideea autonomiei relative a unităţilor activităţii – acţiuni şi operaţii (activitate obiectuală, motivaţie, scop şi condiţii (activi­tatea internă.