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Sample records for vicia villosa roth

  1. The Effects of Biological Fertilizers, Chemical Fertilizers and Manure Application on Some Qualitative Characteristics of Vicia villosa Roth Forage under Greenhouse Condition

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    R Kamaei

    2017-03-01

    % probability level. Results and Discussion The results showed that in vitro DM digestibility was significantly (P P > 0.5 effect on in vitro organic matter digestibility. The highest and the lowest in vitro OM digestibility values were observed in the Rhizobium + mycorrhiza (77.86% and control (66.48%, respectively. Similarly, the results of previous studies indicated that forage quality significantly improved by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi fertilizer in comparison with control. There was a significant difference between experimental treatments for percentage of crude protein. All fertilizer treatments increased CP content of forages as compared to that control. The effect of M, M + V and M+NPK treatments on CP was similar and the highest CP was associated to M + These effects of fertilizer treatments may be related to increasing the nitrogen fixation and absorption capacity of plant. Although a negative correlation has been reported between CP and fiber content of forages, the results of our study showed a low non-significant impact of fertilizer treatments on fiber content of forage expressed as NDA and ADF. Moreover, the percentage of Ash for all fertilizer treatments was similar to control, except for Rhizobium + mycorrhiza treatment that showed a higher significant Ash content than control. In this experiment, a significant effect of fertilizer treatments was also observed for dry matter yield of forage. In comparison with control, the combination of mycorrhizal and Rhizobium increased forage dry matter yield by 37.89%. These results are in agreement with. Conclusions The use of biological and organic fertilizers improves availability of nutrients for plant without negative impact on soil and environment. In the present study, we showed an increase in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Vicia villosa Roth forage by bio-fertilizers application under greenhouse condition. However, a combination of mycorrhiza and Rhizobium had the highest positive impact

  2. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

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    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  3. Biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols in developing and maturing seeds of winter vetch (Vicia vlllosa Roth.

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    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the accumulation of two types of α-D-galactosides: raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols were compared with changes in the activities of galactosyltransferases during winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seed development and maturation. Occurrence of galactinol and raffinose in young seeds and changes in activities of galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase during seed development indicated that formation of raffinose oligosaccharides (RFOs preceded synthesis of galactopinitols. Although transfer of galactose residues into raffinose oligosaccharides increased as seeds were maturing, at late stages of seed maturation the accumulation of galactopinitols was preferred to that of RFOs. In the present study, activities of enzymes transferring galactose moieties from galactinol to D-pinitol forming galactopinitol A, and further transfer of galactose moieties from galactinol to mono- and di-galactopinitol A were detected throughout seed development and maturation. This is a new observation, indicating biological potential of winter vetch seeds to synthesize mono-, di- and tri-galactosides of D-pinitol in a pathway similar to RFOs. The pattern of changes in activities of stachyose synthase and enzymes synthesizing galactopinitols (named galactopinitol A synthase and ciceritol synthase suggests that formation of stachyose, mono- and di-galactopinitol A (ciceritol is catalyzed by one enzyme. High correlation between activities of verbascose synthase and enzyme catalyzing synthesis of tri-galactopinitol A from galactinol and ciceritol (named tri-galactopinitol A synthase also suggests that biosynthesis of both types of tri-galactosides was catalyzed by one enzyme, but distinct from stachyose synthase. Changes in concentrations of galactosyl acceptors (sucrose and D-pinitol can be a factor which regulates splitting of galactose moieties between both types of galactosides in winter vetch seeds.

  4. The Effect Different Fertilizers, on Germination, Yield, of Vicia vilosa Roth

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    R Kamaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the interaction of germination, yield of Vicia vilosa Roth to use of biological fertilizer, chemical, and manure, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014 growing season. The experimental treatments was included three kinds of bio fertilizers and their integration with each other and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as following : 1- mycorhhizaarbuscular species Glomus mosseae+vermicompost2- mycorhhiza+Nitrocsin (included bacteries Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhizaarbuscular (Glomus moseae 6-control. The results showed that, although the treatments has not significant effects on height of stem , it has significant effects on characteristics of root length colonization percent, number the root node, Root dry weight, soggy yield, yield dry and protein Percent. The results showed that the highest percent of root length colonization(76 percent, number the root node (20, Root dry weight (.94 g, soggy yield (1894.5 g m-2, yield dry (473.63 g m-2 and protein Percent (27.33 percent was gained in integrated mycorhhiza and nitrocsine treatment. On the basis of results, the integration of mycrhhoriza and biological rhizobium is suggested as the best fertilizer treatment for Vicia vilosa Roth.

  5. Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-06-01

    We have studied on allelopathy of plants and developed methods to identify the effective substances in root exudates, leaf leacheate, and volatile chemicals emitted from plants. We found traditional cover plants that show allelopathic activity are useful for weed control. It could eliminate the use of synthetic chemicals for this purpose. Allelopathy is a natural power of plants to protect themselves by producing natural organic chemicals. Some endemic plants in Asia, already known by farmers in the region, as either cover crops used in intercropping, hedgerow, or agroforestry, were found to possess strong allelopathic abilities. Our group identified several allelochemicals from these plants. These allelopathic cover crops, mostly leguminous plants, provide protein rich food, and grow easily without artificial fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. In this regards, these allelopathic cover crops could save food shortage in rural area, and are useful for environmental conservation. Screenings of allelopathic plants by specific bioassays and field tests have been conducted. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) are two promising species for the practical application of allelopathy. An amino acid, L-DOPA, unusual in plants, plays an important role as allelochemical in Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Hairy vetch is the most promising cover plant for the weed control in orchard, vegetable and rice production and even for landscape amendment in abandoned field in Japan. We have isolated "cyanamide", a well known nitrogen fertilizer, from Hairy vetch. This is the first finding of naturally produced cyanamide in the world.

  6. Detección del antígeno Tn en tumores epiteliales con la lectina de Vicia villosa isolectina B4.

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    Catalina Limpias

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Los epítopes T, Tn y sTn, se expresan en un alto porcentaje de tumores epiteliales y pueden detectarse con anticuerpos monoclonales y lectinas. Objetivo. Evaluar diferencias de expresión del antígeno Tn en cortes histológicos de epitelios no neoplásicos y tumores epiteliales mediante isolectina B4 de Vicia villosa. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron semicuantitativamente localización, intensidad y porcentaje de expresión del antígeno en carcinomas in-situ e infiltrantes y epitelios no neoplásicos de cérvix, seno y urotelio, mediante isolectina B4. Resultados La expresión de Tn en cérvix predominó en membrana de células no neoplásicas y citoplasma de células tumorales; su intensidad fue mayor en carcinomas in-situ e infiltrantes comparado con epitelio no neoplásico aunque en este el porcentaje de expresión fue mayor. En seno, la expresión de Tn fue predominantemente citoplasmática con intensidad similar, el porcentaje de expresión fué mayor en carcinomas ductales in-situ e infiltrantes. En urotelio no neoplásico y tumoral la expresión de Tn predominó en citoplasma; la intensidad y el porcentaje de expresión fueron mayores en neoplasias no invasivas de bajo y alto grado, mientras que en urotelio no neoplásico fue baja y no hubo tendencia definida en tumores infiltrantes. Conclusiones. La detección del antígeno Tn mediante la lectina VVB4 mostró una mayor extensión de marcación en carcinomas ductales de seno en relación con el epitelio no neoplásico, pero no mostró una tendencia definida entre el tejido normal, ni diferentes etapas del desarrollo de los tumores de cérvix y urotelio. Estos hallazgos pueden atribuirse a la heterogeneidad de los procesos carcinogénicos o a que la especificidad de la lectina VVB4 no está restringida a este antígeno.

  7. Indicators of winter vetch (Vicia spp seed vigor

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    Vujaković Milka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Common vetch (Vicia sativa L, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, and Pannonian vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz are the most often grown varieties in the production area of Serbia. The most important problem in the production of vetch seed is lodging. Yield and seed quality in lodged crops can be significantly reduced. Therefore, it is very important to accurately estimate the quality, and viability of produced seed. Common vetch, hairy vetch and Pannonian vetch were submitted to vigor testing using standard laboratory test, cold test, Hiltner test, and three variants of accelerated aging tests (39°C,72 h; 39°C, 96 h; 45°C, 48 h. When the standard laboratory test was applied, the common vetch achieved the highest seed germination value of 90%, while decreased rate of seed germination was due to unfavorable conditions applied in vigor tests. Above ground seedling growth parameters were the lowest when Hiltner test was applied. Length and mass of the root system were the lowest when accelerated aging test was applied. Hairy vetch obtained the lowest values for all tested parameters when Hiltner test was applied. Application of different variants of accelerated aging tests indicated that tested parameters were not dependent on the applied temperature, while reduction in legumes vigor was under the influence of temperature duration.

  8. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  9. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  10. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buzayehu

    from acidic soils of Central and Southern-Western parts of Ethiopia. A total of hundred rhizobial .... plant Vicia faba) followed by the different serial numbers representing each ..... related their adaptation at their soil of isolation sites. Symbiotic ...

  11. ALFRED ROTH: THE NEW SCHOOL

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    Amadeo Ramos-Carranza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Alfred Roth escribió en el año 1950 la primera edición del libro The New School. Las ediciones posteriores confirman que se trata de una de las obras literarias imprescindible para entender el debate entre arquitectura escolar y educación en aquellas décadas. Alfred Roth analiza la relación entre arquitectura y pedagogía y la importancia que tiene el medio físico en la educación y formación del niño. Los valores humanísticos y sociales se relacionan con un entorno verdadero, correcto y perfectamente realizado; la arquitectura es parte de ese entorno. Las escuelas expresan y compendian todas las posibles relaciones que pueden registrarse en una sociedad: desde el vecindario hasta el hogar. Para ello Alfred Roth realiza un pormenorizado estudio de todos los factores que deben conllevar a ello.

  12. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, R.; James, B.

    1998-01-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be p...

  13. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, R; James, B

    1998-10-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be provided, along with the work-up of the differential diagnosis.

  14. Le Corbusier, Alfred Roth y el color

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    Angelica Fernández-Morales

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between Le Corbusier and Alfred Roth, a member of the Paris office between 1927 and 1928. It also deals with the influence that this period had with reference to an important factor in Roth’s professional development, as in Le Corbusier’s later works: the use of colour in his architecture. This article takes the position that Roth, given his close friendship with Mondrian, was an important figure in turning Le Corbusier’s work towards greater use of primary colours and aesthetic neoplasticism.

  15. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

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    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  16. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

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    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  17. Cover crop and nitrogen fertilization influence soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop and N fertilization may maintain soil C and N levels under sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) biomass harvested for bioenergy production. The effect of cover crops (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth], rye [Secaele cereale L.], hairy vetch/rye mixture, and the control [no cover crop...

  18. Benefits of Vetch and Rye Cover Crops to Sweet Corn under No-Tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Avila, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Alves, B.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Leguminous cover crops (CCs) may reduce N fertilizer requirements by fixing N biologically and storing leftover N-fertilizer applied in the previous year. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of CCs [rye (Secale cereal L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)] on plant N

  19. [Retinitis septica Roth--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, T; Spirková, J; Vican, J

    2011-10-01

    We report of a case of retinitis septica in a 37-years old man one month after his tooth's extraction. Because of decreased right eye's central vision and a presence of typical retinal Roth's spots we called internists for a possibility of bacterial endocarditis. Cardiologic examination confirmed this disease together with aortal valve's defect. The course of hearth's disease was weary heavy, with attack of septic fever and cardial decompensation. After acute stage control, defocusation and antibiotic therapy, he underwent a surgical intervention with exchange of aortal valve.

  20. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  1. What is Cynodon radiatus Roth ex R. & S. (Poaceae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowack, R.

    1992-01-01

    Roemer and Schultes (1817) described Cynodon radiatus, basing themselves on a manuscript by A.W. Roth, copying Roth's brief diagnosis and comment. It was compared to Cynodon dactylon, differing by its larger habit, the number and direction of the spikes, and the glabrous blades and sheaths. This was

  2. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  3. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of roth spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Jerome; Mrejen, Sarah; Freund, K Bailey

    2013-01-01

    To describe the retinal findings of subacute bacterial endocarditis, their evolution after treatment, and analysis with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retrospective chart review. A 21-year-old man presented with the sudden onset of a central scotoma in his left eye because of a sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage overlying the left fovea. When examined 2 weeks later, Roth spots were noted in his right eye. The patient was immediately referred to his internist and diagnosed with subacute bacterial endocarditis with cultures positive for Streptococcus viridans. He subsequently underwent aortic valve replacement surgery after 4 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy. When examined 4 weeks after valve replacement surgery, there was regression of the Roth spots. The present case demonstrates the importance of a funduscopic examination in the early diagnosis and management of subacute bacterial endocarditis. The analysis of Roth spots with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography suggested that they were septic emboli.

  4. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ceglowska, Karolina; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Kiszka, Agnieszka; Koss, Michael J.; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR) was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS). Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed el...

  5. Subjectivity and Cultural Adjustment in Mathematics Education: A Response to Wolff-Michael Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this volume, Wolff-Michael Roth provides a critical but partial reading of Tony Brown's book "Mathematics Education and Subjectivity". The reading contrasts Brown's approach with Roth's own conception of subjectivity as derived from the work of Vygotsky, in which Roth aims to "reunite" psychology and sociology. Brown's book, however, focuses on…

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of the Sargassum thunbergii extract (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze (STE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. Methods: STE antioxidative activity was evaluated with an Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometer, which ...

  7. Rothe's method for parabolic equations on non-cylindrical domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dasht, J.; Engström, J.; Kufner, Alois; Persson, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2006), s. 59-80 ISSN 0973-2306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : parabolic equations * non-cylindrical domains * Rothe's method * time-discretization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Chromosome breakage in Vicia faba by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetner, R H

    1958-02-15

    Meristem cells of Vicia faba roots were exposed to an atmosphere of ozone and the fraction of cells showing chromosome aberrations were recorded. Chromosome aberrations were observed on a dose-response basis after exposing the seeds to 0.4 wt. percent ozone for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results of ozone, x-rays, and ozone and x-ray treatments are presented. A small number of root tips from each group was treated with colchicine and an analysis made of metaphase aberrations. These observations confirmed that the aberrations were all of the chromosome-type.

  9. Chromosomal DNA replication of Vicia faba cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1976-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA replication of higher plant cells has been investigated by DNA fiber autoradiography. The nuclear DNA fibers of Vicia root meristematic cells are organized into many tandem arrays of replication units or replicons which exist as clusters with respect to replication. DNA is replicated bidirectionally from the initiation points at the average rate of 0.15 μm/min at 20 0 C, and the average interinitiation interval is about 16 μm. The manner of chromosomal DNA replication in this higher plant is similar to that found in other eukaryotic cells at a subchromosomal level. (auth.)

  10. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénia Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil (EO of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae, isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5% and methyleugenol (35.9%, were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast–mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL and their major compounds in Candida albicans. Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  11. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the ma...

  12. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a ... feed forage seeds or reproduction organs selectively and changes the ... The mean daily air temperature ...

  13. Immobilization of Lead Migrating from Contaminated Soil in Rhizosphere Soil of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) Using Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiko; Risky, Elsya; Sato, Takeshi

    2017-10-23

    This study conducted plant growth tests using a rhizobox system to quantitatively determine the distance of immobilization lead migrating from contaminated soil into uncontaminated rhizosphere soil, and to assess the lead phases accumulated in rhizosphere soil by sequential extraction. Without the hydroxyapatite, exchangeable lead fractions increased as the rhizosphere soil got closer to the contaminated soil. Exchangeable lead fractions were higher even in the rhizosphere soil that shares a boundary with the root surface than in the soil before being planted. Thus, plant growth of hairy vetch was lower in the soil without the hydroxyapatite than in the soil with the hydroxyapatite. The presence of hydroxyapatite may immobilize the majority of lead migrating from contaminated soil into the rhizosphere soil within 1 mm from the contaminated soil. The dominant lead fraction in the rhizosphere soil with the hydroxyapatite was residual. Thus, plant growth was not suppressed and the lead concentration of the plant shoot remained at the background level. These results indicate that the presence of hydroxyapatite in the rhizosphere soil at 5% wt may immobilize most of the lead migrating into the rhizosphere soil within 1 mm from the contaminated soil, resulting in the prevention of lead migration toward the root surface.

  14. The Weeds Response to the Winter Vetch (Vicia villosa and Chicklingpea (Lathyrus sativus Cover Crops under Different Tillage Methods in Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using cover crops in conservation tillage systems offers many advantages, one of which is weed control through physical and chemical interferences. Most of the benefits of cover crops are well known. They prevent form wind and water erosions, conserve soil moisture by reducing evaporation and increasing infiltration, increase the content of organic matter, increase fertility by recycling nutrients, add nitrogen if they are legumes, and improve soil structure. Proper cover crops can also suppress weed growth by allelopathic activities and light interference. They impact on environmental quality through the protection of surface water and groundwater, as well as eliminating the need for using preemergence herbicides. Either increase or decreases have been reported for crop yields when the crop residues remain on soil surface. No-till system has been reported to increase the presence of certain difficult to control weeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage systems and cover crops on weed control and corn yield. Materials and Methods: Experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Bu-Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Tillage with moldboard, tillage with chisel (minimum tillage, and no tillage were considered as main plots and two cover crops, winter vetch and chicklingpea, chemical weed control and weed-infest treatment (control were considered as sub-plots. Cover crops were cultivated in late March 2011. In early June 2011, cover crops were harvested and were spread over the soil surface. The Plot size was 22.50 m-2. Five rows were in each plot with 75 cm intervals among rows and 18 cm among seedlings. 2 square were picked in the three central rows of each plot in order to determine the yield and yield components. From each plot three quadrants (1×1 mrandomly were picked and weeds and cover crops was separated. All samples were dried at 72 ° C for 48 hours and then were weighed. Data were analyzed using SAS software. Wherever the F test showed significant effect for a source of variance, the differences among treatments were compared by LSD test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that the effects of tillage systems and weed control methods were significant on all traits, except number of seed per ear. Also, the interaction effect of them had significant effect on number of grain row/ear and grain yield. The highest grain yield (1271 g m-2 was observed at combined treatment of winter vetch cover crop and moldboard tillage. This treatment had no significant difference with combined treatments of cover crops and tillage with chisel. In comparison with winter vetch cover crop and conventional tillage treatment, the lowest grain yield by 45% reduction was recorded at weed infested and no tillage treatment. Also, the effects of tillage systems and weed control methods and their interaction were significant on weed density and biomass. Maximum weed density and biomass (60 plant m-2 and 335 g m-2 were belonged to weed-infested treatment under no tillage system. The lowest values for weed density and biomass with reduction of 62 and 53%, respectively, were observed at combined treatment of chicklingpea cover crop and minimum tillage. Chicklingpea and winter vetch cover crops due to rapid establishment and growth capacity are more suitable for weed control. Cover crops can affect weed establishment through effects on the radiation and chemical environment of weed and inhibit weed emergence by physically impeding the progress of seedlings from accessing light as well as by releasing phytotoxins that inhibit seedling growth. Minimum tillage is often cause changes in of weed flora and their population, and this is one of the methods for integrated weed management. In general, using winter vetch and chicklingpea as a cover crop and tillage with chisel suppressed about 50-60% weeds and increase corn yield which is effective step towards achieving sustainable agriculture.

  15. A phenylpropanoid, a slovenolide, two sulphur-containing germacranes and Ca+2-ATPase inhibitors from Thapsia villosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubal, Juan J; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Guerra, Francisco M

    2010-01-01

    A phenylpropanoid 1, a slovenolide 2, and two germacranes bearing a methylthiopropenoate moiety, 3 and 4, along with twenty known metabolites have been isolated from the roots of THAPSIA VILLOSA var. VILLOSA L. The structures of two known phenylpropanoids 5 and 6 have been corrected. Compounds 7 ...

  16. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglowska, Karolina; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Kiszka, Agnieszka; Koss, Michael J; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR) was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS). Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed elevated D-dimer concentration, increased total number of neutrophils, high C-reactive protein concentration, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Procalcitonin concentration, platelet count, and body temperature were within normal ranges. A blood culture was ordered and yielded Streptococcus mitis and intravenous antibiotics were started immediately. The patient started complaining of chest and left calf pain. The systemic examination revealed infective endocarditis accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve and paravalvular abscess formation. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with mechanical aortic valve implantation. After recovery, the patient's visual acuities improved fully. Control ophthalmic examination, including SD-OCT, showed no abnormalities.

  17. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Ceglowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA (LogMAR was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS. Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed elevated D-dimer concentration, increased total number of neutrophils, high C-reactive protein concentration, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Procalcitonin concentration, platelet count, and body temperature were within normal ranges. A blood culture was ordered and yielded Streptococcus mitis and intravenous antibiotics were started immediately. The patient started complaining of chest and left calf pain. The systemic examination revealed infective endocarditis accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve and paravalvular abscess formation. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with mechanical aortic valve implantation. After recovery, the patient’s visual acuities improved fully. Control ophthalmic examination, including SD-OCT, showed no abnormalities.

  18. Rebuilding of Rothe's nozzle measurements with OpenFOAM software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlemark, Erik; Nedea, Silvia; Markelov, Gennady

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the dsmcFoam solver is tested and validated for the the three main solver functionalities of 1) free-stream boundary conditions, 2) kinetic intermolecular collision including internal degrees of freedom and 3) gas/surface interactions. The free-stream utility was improved such that a spatially uniform field of particles gets inserted now yielding reliable results for the cells located close to these patches. Implementation of the collision models were validated for two test cases (monatomic gas mixtures and diatomic gas) by observing the equilibration of both the kinetic and internal energies. It was found that the present code had good agreement to the independent codes of HAWK and SMILE as well as to results by G. Bird. The validation of the present codes treatment for the gas/surface interactions was evaluated using the benchmark case of Rothe's nozzle measurements. Results show that the present version of dsmcFoam obtained good agreements for this case compared to the measurements of Rothe for density and temperature. It was also found that the Navier-Stokes solver of OpenFOAM produced reasonable results, even though the local Knudsen number of the flow exceeds the range of applicability for this method, Kn=0.1.

  19. The Adoption of American Educational Theory in West Germany after 1945--Heinrich Roth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dietrich

    1997-01-01

    Presents a biographical profile of Heinrich Roth, a psychologist and educator who had served in the Wehrmacht's political warfare division. Roth later experienced a spiritual and professional rebirth becoming completely immersed in U.S. educational theory. He devoted the rest of his life to developing a democratically-oriented theory of learning…

  20. 77 FR 26417 - Roth Feature to the Thrift Savings Plan and Miscellaneous Uniformed Services Account Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Business Jobs Act of 2010 was not effective until September 27, 2010, well after the TSP began its work to... Roth balance elects to use 100% of a withdrawal to purchase life annuities and both the traditional... requiring distributions to be made pro rata from participants' Roth and traditional balances is...

  1. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  2. Economia de pólen favorecida pela heteranteria em Desmocelis villosa (Melastomataceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Queroanne Isabel Xavier; Araújo,Francielle Paulina de

    2016-01-01

    Resumo A heteranteria sempre despertou interesse quanto à sua funcionalidade. As flores de Desmocelis villosa (Melastomataceae), possuem estames dimorfos, sendo um grupo composto por cinco anteras amarelas e o outro por cinco anteras de cor púrpura. O presente estudo avaliou se a heteranteria promove divisão de trabalho nessa espécie. Foi realizado um experimento com remoção de anteras de cada tipo para se comparar a taxa de visitação por abelhas. Ao vibrar o conjunto de estames, as abelhas c...

  3. Number of queens in founding associations of the ponerine ant Pachycondyla villosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Kellner, K.; Delabie, J. H. C.

    2005-01-01

    In the ant Pachycondyla villosa, new colonies are usually started cooperatively by two or more young queens who establish a dominance order with a division of labour. Co-founding can lead to primary polygyny, where queens stay together after workers have emerged. Here we show that two queens...... these were attacked and sometimes killed in queen associations. The removal of dominant alpha queens from three-queen associations resulted in beta queens obtaining the dominant role and sometimes the destruction of the existing eggs. It appears that two queens suffice for a successful association...

  4. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. L. Barros

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois surtos de uma doença associada ao pastoreio de duas espécies de ervilhaca (predominantemente Vicia villosa e, em menor grau, V. sativa foram observados em agosto-setembro de 2001, em vacas Holandesas adultas de duas propriedades rurais do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram afetadas, em uma das propriedades, quatro de 42 vacas (9,5% e, na outra, uma de oito vacas (12,5%. Os sinais clínicos incluíam, embora não em todos os casos, febre, prurido, espessamento e enrugamento da pele com placas multifocais de alopecia, conjuntivite, corrimento nasal seroso, perda de peso, acentuada queda na produção de leite e diarréia. O curso clínico foi de aproximadamente duas semanas. Todas as vacas afetadas clinicamente morreram, uma foi sacrificada; três foram necropsiadas. Em cada um desses animais havia um padrão de lesões sistêmicas que consistiam de nódulos multifocais ou coalescentes, macios ou moderadamente firmes e branco-acinzentados, que infiltravam vários órgãos, mas eram particularmente proeminentes no miocárdio, nos linfonodos, no baço, na glândula adrenal e no córtex renal. Essas lesões resultavam em aumento de volume e alteração na arquitetura do órgão invadido. Microscopicamente, as lesões consis-tiam de extensa infiltração celular composta de proporções variáveis de macrófagos epitelióides, linfócitos, plasmócitos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos. Os números de eosinófilos eram geralmente altos. Essa infiltração granulomatosa causava degeneração e perda de células parenquimatosas no órgão afetado. A intensidade das lesões variou entre as três vacas e entre os vários órgãos de cada animal. Essa é a primeira documentação no Brasil de doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca.Two outbreaks of a disease associated with grazing vetch species (predominantly Vicia villosa and to a lesser extent V. sativa were observed during August-September 2001, in

  5. Joseph Roth, tradutor do Império perdido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis S. Krausz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute um folhetim jornalístico do escritor austríaco Joseph Roth que trata de uma miniatura do Templo de Salomão, encontrada por ele num café da Hirtenstrasse berlinense, no coração do que foi, na década de 1920, o bairro habitado pelos judeus do Leste da Europa na capital alemã. A nostalgia, sob cujo signo foi criada tal miniatura, torna-se uma metáfora da nostalgia pelo império Austro-Húngaro, chave para a compreensão da obra romanesca deste escritor. Ao mesmo tempo, esta nostalgia rothiana é contextualizada no âmbito das crenças místicas e messiânicas do judaísmo tradicional.

  6. Volatiles of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljković, Sanja Ćavar; Šolić, Marija Edita; Maksimović, Milka

    2015-01-01

    Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don is a flowering plant of the family Asteraceae. It is rich in oil that is used for different medicinal purposes and in fragrance industry. Volatile profile of four populations of H. italicum, collected from natural habitat in Dalmatia (Croatia), was analysed by capillary GC-MS. Sample from BraČ Island had α-trans-bergamotene (10.2%) and β-acoradiene (10.1%) as the majors, whereas sample collected on Biokovo Mt. was rich in neryl acetate (8.1%). β-Acoradiene was also the main constituent of sample collected near Tijarica, whereas rosifoliol (8.5%) was the most abundant constituent in sample collected near Makarska. Presented results show the influence of environmental conditions on chemical differentiation of the volatiles of H. italicum from Croatia.

  7. A disulphide isomerase gene (PDI-V) from Haynaldia villosa contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Muhammad; Li, Yingbo; Arshad, Muhammad; Jiangyue, Cheng; Jia, Zhao; Wang, Zongkuan; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Yu, Feifei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we report the contribution of a PDI-like gene from wheat wild relative Haynaldia villosa in combating powdery mildew. PDI-V protein contains two conserved thioredoxin (TRX) active domains (a and a') and an inactive domain (b). PDI-V interacted with E3 ligase CMPG1-V protein, which is a positive regulator of powdery mildew response. PDI-V was mono-ubiquitinated by CMPG1-V without degradation being detected. PDI-V was located on H. villosa chromosome 5V and encoded for a protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Bgt infection in leaves of H. villosa induced PDI-V expression. Virus induced gene silencing of PDIs in a T. durum-H. villosa amphiploid compromised the resistance. Single cell transient over-expression of PDI-V or a truncated version containing the active TXR domain a decreased the haustorial index in moderately susceptible wheat cultivar Yangmai 158. Stable transgenic lines over-expressing PDI-V in Yangmai 158 displayed improved powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. By contrast over-expression of point-mutated PDI-V(C57A) did not increase the level of resistance in Yangmai 158. The above results indicate a pivotal role of PDI-V in powdery mildew resistance and showed that conserved TRX domain a is critical for its function.

  8. Re-engineering of the Pm21 transfer from Haynaldia villosa to bread wheat by induced homoeologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, the cause of powdery mildew, can generate serious grain yield losses in wheat. To expand the range of resistance genes freely available to wheat breeders, a Haynaldia villosa derived resistance gene Pm21 was transferred to chromosome 6AS of wheat by homoeologous rec...

  9. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondo, Ramadhani S O; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Kidukuli, Abdul W; Innocent, Ester M; Mihale, Matobola J; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J

    2011-04-23

    The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers (Leguminosae) are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100 μg/mL). These results support the use of C. mucronata in

  10. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  11. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  12. In vitro plant regeneration from Narbon Vetch (Vicia narbonensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... regeneration from cotyledonary node explants obtained from, in vitro raised seeds of 4 - 5 and 14 - 15 days old .... shoots in Vicia faba using different concentrations of. BAP-TDZ. ... feed legume crop for dry areas in west Asia.

  13. Three new species of Batrachospermum Roth (Batrachospermaceae, Rhodophyta) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shulian; Shi, Zhixin

    2005-06-01

    Three new species of Batrachospermum Roth (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) from China are described in this paper. B. yunnanense sp. nov. has long-cylindrical trichogynes with long stalks and is diagnostic of section Virescentia. Within this section, B. yunnanense is similar to B. helminthosum Bory emend. Sheath et al., but it is dioecious and has curved carpogonial branches, while the latter is monoecious and has straight carpogonial branches. It is also similar to B. transtaganum Reis, but it differs from the latter in long carpogonia, big carposporophytes and carposporangia. It is considered that B. nothocladoideum sp. nov. is assigned to section Contorta, subsection Kushiroense, because its carpogonial branches are twisted and gonimoblast filaments are loosely agglomerated. This new species similar to B. iriomotense Kumano, but with short fascicles, long-ovoid or subpyriform cells, numerous terminal hairs, long-ellipsoid trichogynes, big carposporophytes and small carposporangia. The plant is quite tough and cartilaginous and similar to Nothocladus in gross morphology, but its carposporophytes are compact instead of diffuse. This shows that it may be a transitional species between section Contorta and genus Nothocladus. So, B. transitorium sp. nov. should belong to section Contorta, subsection Kushiroense, because of its curved or twisted carpogonial branches and loosely agglomerated gonimoblast filaments, with globose or subglobose cells in fascicles similar to B. spermatiophorum Vis et Sheath, but no colourless spermatiophores. In terms of small and numerous carposporophytes, B. transitorium sp. nov. is similar to some species of section Batrachospermum. However, their other features are unique, indicating its transitional nature between section Contorta and Batrachospermum.

  14. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  15. Molecular cloning and restriction analysis of EcoRI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakura, Kimitaka; Tanifuji, Shigeyuki.

    1983-01-01

    EcoRI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA were cloned in plasmid pBR325. Southern blot hybridization of BamHI-digests of these cloned plasmids and Vicia genomic DNA led to the determination of relative positions of BamHI sites in the rDNA and the physical map that had been tentatively made is corrected. (author)

  16. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) Root Extract is an extract of the rhizomes of the wild yam, D. villosa. A manufacturing process was described in which cut up and ground rhizomes are combined with an eluant (e.g., oleyl alcohol), the plant material precipitated with addition of a miscible solvent, washed, and redissolved in the original eluant. The extract contains glycoside and steroidal saponins (Food and Drug Administration (in a body and hand preparation), industry reported uses in body and hand creams, lotions, powders, and sprays at a concentration of 0.00001% (equivalent to 0.000002% plant solids), and in moisturizing creams, lotions, powders, and sprays at concentrations up to 15% (equivalent to 0.5% plant solids). Preparations fromD. villosaare used in herbal medicine for treatment of a variety of ailments and by the pharmaceutical industry in the preparation of steroids. Using Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) Root Extract prepared via a specified process, it is possible to produce a stable extract with a narrow range of diosgenin content. The extract produced using this methodology was tested in acute and short-term toxicity tests, dermal irritation tests, a sensitization test, an ocular irritation test, a rat uterotropic assay, and genotoxicity tests. An acute oral toxicity test produced hypoactivity, piloerection, and dyspnea and a death in 1 of 10 rats at 2 g/kg using the specified extract, but no toxicity in rats given 0.5 g/kg. A dermal toxicity test using the specified extract demonstrated no acute toxicity in rats. Both a 7-day local tolerance test and a 28-day dermal toxicity test in rats produced no significant adverse effects at the maximum tested concentration of 10%. A single application of undiluted extract to the intact and abraded skin of rabbits produced sufficient irritation for the test material to be rated"irritant,"but a 10% dilution was not irritating. Undiluted extract was only mildly irritating to the conjuctiva of the rabbit eye

  17. Philip Roth's The human stain and the destruction of the American dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Vrčko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dissects the notion of the American Dream in Philip Roth's The Human Stain. It looks at how individual tenets of the Dream are carved into the protagonist Coleman Silk, a black man who goes through life pretending to be white. The analysis shows how these same principles are questioned through various incidents in Silk's life and ultimately by his violent death. The result of Roth's scrutinizing is that, as all the underminings come together, the whole concept of the American Dream is symbolically crushed.

  18. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1637-000] Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  19. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1673-000] Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  20. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity.

  1. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  2. Wolff-Michael Roth's passibility: at the limits of the constructivist metaphor: a book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.

  3. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for...

  4. Celebrating science education from people for people: A tribute to Wolff-Michael Roth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van M.W.; Lee, Y.-J.; Ardenghi, D.M.; Emad, G.-R.; Hsu, P.-L.; Jayme, B.; Kim, M.; Maheux, J.F.; Pozzer-Ardenghi, L.

    2011-01-01

    I (Giuliano) remember being in a room full of scientists and educators who were collaborating together in a million-dollar interdisciplinary project. Michael—as he repeatedly told us to call him (Roth et al. 2007)—had invited a few of his graduate students to attend the meeting because we were

  5. 77 FR 6504 - Roth Feature to the Thrift Savings Plan and Miscellaneous Uniformed Services Account Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... are, by definition, tax-deferred contributions unless they are Roth contributions. See 26 CFR 1.402(g... traditional IRA, a check indicating that the contribution is a direct rollover, or a tax notice from the plan... the contribution is a direct rollover, or a tax notice from the plan to the participant indicating...

  6. Antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities of lupeol, a triterpene compound isolated from Sterculia villosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Antu; Jawed, Junaid Jibran; Das, Manash C; Sandhu, Padmani; De, Utpal C; Dinda, Biswanath; Akhter, Yusuf; Bhattacharjee, Surajit

    2017-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most severe forms of leishmaniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Nowadays there is a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products to treat parasitic diseases. Sterculia villosa is an ethnomedicinally important plant. A triterpenoid was isolated from this plant and was screened for its antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical colour test and spectroscopic data confirmed that the isolated pure compound was lupeol. Lupeol exhibited significant antileishmanial activity, with IC 50 values of 65 ± 0.41 µg/mL and 15 ± 0.45 µg/mL against promastigote and amastigote forms, respectively. Lupeol caused maximum cytoplasmic membrane damage of L. donovani promastigote at its IC 50 dose. It is well known that during infection the Leishmania parasite exerts its pathogenicity in the host by suppressing nitric oxide (NO) production and inhibiting pro-inflammatory responses. It was observed that lupeol induces NO generation in L. donovani-infected macrophages, followed by upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and downregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Lupeol was also found to reduce the hepatic and splenic parasite burden through upregulation of the pro-inflammatory response in L. donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Strong binding affinity of lupeol was observed for four major potential drug targets, namely pteridine reductase 1, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, lipophosphoglycan biosynthetic protein and glycoprotein 63 of L. donovani, which also supported its antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities. Therefore, the present study highlights the antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities of lupeol in an in vitro and in vivo model of VL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thúlio. A. Arruda

    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.

  8. Higher seed size and germination rate may favour autotetraploids of Vicia cracca L. (Fabaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-73 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Vicia * autotetraploid * seed size * germination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  9. Characterization of steroidal saponins from Dioscorea villosa and D Cayennensis using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroidal saponins were reported to be the major physiologically active constituents in yams. The structural characteristics of steroidal saponins in methanolic extracts from dried rhizomes of two Dioscorea species (D. villosa L. and D. cayenensis Lam.) and dietary supplements have analyzed using U...

  10. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  11. Roth spots seen on ophthalmoscopy: diseases with which they may be associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, P M; Larrison, W I

    1995-05-01

    Roth spots seen on fundoscopic examination (white-centered hemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli in patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE). Many physicians have considered them pathognomonic for this entity. More recent evidence suggests, however, that they are nonspecific and may be found in other disease states. A review of the pathogenesis of these white-centered hemorrhages will be provided, along with some diseases other than SBE in which they may occur.

  12. Biosynthesis of digalactosyl diglyceride in Vicia faba leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J P; Khan, M; Leung, S

    1975-01-01

    Developing and mature leaf tissue from Vicia faba plants were pulse-fed 14-CO2. The lipids were extracted at intervals after exposure to light, and the galactolipids monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG) were separated. After methylation and methanolysis, gas-liquid chromatography was used to separate the two galactose units of DGDG and the galactose of MGDG. The specific activities of the galactoses and the changes over the time period of the experiment were determined. The results support the view that DGDG is formed by galactosylation of MGDG. This does not take place by a rapid two-enzyme system reaction but more slowly in two phases: galactosylation of a pool of newly formed MGDG and a more random galactosylation of MGDG. There is no evidence of a high turnover of galactose in these lipids.

  13. Cytogenetical Effect of Creatine Monohydrate in Vicia faba Root Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.A.M.; El-zahrani, N.H.; El-shamrani, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study has been conducted to evaluate the creatine effect on the cellular behavior at mitosis of Vicia faba using four concentrations (1.50, 2, 2.50 and 3 g/ 100 ml) with three exposure times (6, 12, 24 hour). Marked reduction of mitotic index was recorded at all creatine treatments and this trait was affected by creatine concentration and exposure time. Unbalanced mitotic stages percentages were observed after all treatments whereas, prophase % was decreased in all treatments but the opposite was true for metaphase %. While, (ana-telo) phases % were either increased or decreased after creatine treatments. Alteration of DNA or RNA contents, were obtained at different treatments. On the other hand, abnormalities were shown at all treatments with an increase percentage by increasing creatine concentration and exposure time. The most common of these abnormalities were: stickiness, disturbed and C metaphase. In addition, laggards, multipolor, and bridges were observed in some treatments but with low percentage

  14. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  15. Preparations based on minerals extracts of Calicotome villosa roots and bovine butyrate matter: Evaluation in vitro of their antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhouchi, B; Aouadi, S; Abdi, A

    2017-06-01

    The use of preparations based on minerals extracts of Calicotome villosa and butter is born from the misuse of drugs without specific microbiological analyzes. Seventeen different preparations were performed. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined on five bacteria and two fungi strains respectively. C. villosa ashes are obtained by incineration of roots plant at 498°C for 4hours. They are analyzed to determine the shape of the particles and the mineral constituents by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques respectively. The effectiveness of preparations or tablets is measured in solid medium. It allows to measure the diameter of the inhibition zone for the antibacterial activity as well as the diameter of mycelia growth and the critical values (MIC, MFC, IC 50 and IC 90 ) for the antifungal activity. Finally, the results are compared to the activity of a commercial positive control aiming to give value of the observed activity. SEM observations reveal the presence of nanoparticles agglomerated with size of about 50nm. The EDX analyzes indicate the presence of Fe, Na, Al, Mg, Si, K, Ca, O 2 and C. Among all the results, the preparation (B s +A) or (B sd +A) can completely inhibit the growth of two fungal pathogens. The activity of the preparation is faced with the activity of the synthetic fungicide nystatin. The efficacy of the preparation (B s +A) or (B sd +A) is higher than that of nystatin against Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The preparation could serve as natural antifungal for the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaat, S. A.; van Brussel, A. A.; Tak, T.; Lugtenberg, B. J.; KIJNE, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids.

  17. Evaluation of approaches focused on modelling of organic carbon stocks using the RothC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koco, Štefan; Skalský, Rastislav; Makovníková, Jarmila; Tarasovičová, Zuzana; Barančíková, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    The aim of current efforts in the European area is the protection of soil organic matter, which is included in all relevant documents related to the protection of soil. The use of modelling of organic carbon stocks for anticipated climate change, respectively for land management can significantly help in short and long-term forecasting of the state of soil organic matter. RothC model can be applied in the time period of several years to centuries and has been tested in long-term experiments within a large range of soil types and climatic conditions in Europe. For the initialization of the RothC model, knowledge about the carbon pool sizes is essential. Pool size characterization can be obtained from equilibrium model runs, but this approach is time consuming and tedious, especially for larger scale simulations. Due to this complexity we search for new possibilities how to simplify and accelerate this process. The paper presents a comparison of two approaches for SOC stocks modelling in the same area. The modelling has been carried out on the basis of unique input of land use, management and soil data for each simulation unit separately. We modeled 1617 simulation units of 1x1 km grid on the territory of agroclimatic region Žitný ostrov in the southwest of Slovakia. The first approach represents the creation of groups of simulation units based on the evaluation of results for simulation unit with similar input values. The groups were created after the testing and validation of modelling results for individual simulation units with results of modelling the average values of inputs for the whole group. Tests of equilibrium model for interval in the range 5 t.ha-1 from initial SOC stock showed minimal differences in results comparing with result for average value of whole interval. Management inputs data from plant residues and farmyard manure for modelling of carbon turnover were also the same for more simulation units. Combining these groups (intervals of initial

  18. Modification of the RothC model to simulate soil C mineralization of exogenous organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Claudio; Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sinicco, Tania; Fornasier, Flavio; Galvez, Antonia; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Angel

    2017-07-01

    The development of soil organic C (SOC) models capable of producing accurate predictions for the long-term decomposition of exogenous organic matter (EOM) in soils is important for the effective management of organic amendments. However, reliable C modeling in amended soils requires specific optimization of current C models to take into account the high variability in EOM origin and properties. The aim of this work was to improve the prediction of C mineralization rates in amended soils by modifying the RothC model to encompass a better description of EOM quality. The standard RothC model, involving C input to the soil only as decomposable (DPM) or resistant (RPM) organic material, was modified by introducing additional pools of decomposable (DEOM), resistant (REOM) and humified (HEOM) EOM. The partitioning factors and decomposition rates of the additional EOM pools were estimated by model fitting to the respiratory curves of amended soils. For this task, 30 EOMs from 8 contrasting groups (compost, anaerobic digestates, sewage sludge, agro-industrial waste, crop residues, bioenergy by-products, animal residues and meat and bone meals) were added to 10 soils and incubated under different conditions. The modified RothC model was fitted to C mineralization curves in amended soils with great accuracy (mean correlation coefficient 0.995). In contrast to the standard model, the EOM-optimized RothC was able to better accommodate the large variability in EOM source and composition, as indicated by the decrease in the root mean square error of the simulations for different EOMs (from 29.9 to 3.7 % and 20.0 to 2.5 % for soils amended with bioethanol residue and household waste compost, respectively). The average decomposition rates for DEOM and REOM pools were 89 and 0.4 yr-1, higher than the standard model coefficients for DPM (10 yr-1) and RPM (0.3 yr-1). The results indicate that the explicit treatment of EOM heterogeneity enhances the model ability to describe amendment

  19. A VIEW OF WORLD OF PERFECTNESS THROUGH “DIVERGENT” BY VERONICA ROTH

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sriastuti

    2017-01-01

    Today world divides people based on certain criteria that one will easily say to the other, ―I have sympathy on what happened to you, but I couldn‘t do anything since you are not part of my community‖ or ―I own better qualities than you that I have rights to have power over you‖. ‗I-you-they‘ has been used to address and categorize them under certain conditions. Veronica Roth in her novel ―Divergent‖ tried to tell us that we actually had privileges to pull ourselves out from uncomfortable con...

  20. Chemical Composition and Possible in Vitro Phytotoxic Activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth Don ssp. italicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected.

  1. Development of intron targeting (IT) markers specific for chromosome arm 4VS of Haynaldia villosa by chromosome sorting and next-generation sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, H.; Dai, K.; Xiao, J.; Yuan, C.; Zhao, R. L.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Wu, Y.; Cao, A.; Chen, P.; Zhang, S.; Wang, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, FEB 15 (2017), č. článku 167. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : triticum-aestivum l. * conferring resistance * wild relatives * mosaic-virus * plug markers * bread wheat * genome * gene * rye * improvement * Triticum aestivum * Haynaldia villosa * Molecular marker * Intron polymorphism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  2. E3 ubiquitin ligase gene CMPG1-V from Haynaldia villosa L. contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Li, Yingbo; Fei, Fei; Wang, Zongkuan; Wang, Wei; Cao, Aizhong; Liu, Yuan; Han, Shuang; Xing, Liping; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Tang, Sanyuan; Huang, Xiahe; Shen, Qianhua; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2015-10-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating wheat fungal diseases. A diploid wheat relative, Haynaldia villosa L., is highly resistant to powdery mildew, and its genetic resource of resistances, such as the Pm21 locus, is now widely used in wheat breeding. Here we report the cloning of a resistance gene from H. villosa, designated CMPG1-V, that encodes a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Expression of the CMPG1-V gene was induced in the leaf and stem of H. villosa upon inoculation with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) fungus, and the presence of Pm21 is essential for its rapid induction of expression. CMPG1-V has conserved key residues for E3 ligase, and possesses E3 ligase activity in vitro and in vivo. CMPG1-V is localized in the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and partially in trans-Golgi network/early endosome vesicles. Transgenic wheat over-expressing CMPG1-V showed improved broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance at seedling and adult stages, associated with an increase in expression of salicylic acid-responsive genes, H2 O2 accumulation, and cell-wall protein cross-linking at the Bgt infection sites, and the expression of CMPG1-V in H. villosa was increased when treated with salicylic acid, abscisic acid and H2 O2 . These results indicate the involvement of E3 ligase in defense responses to Bgt fungus in wheat, particularly in broad-spectrum disease resistance, and suggest association of reactive oxidative species and the phytohormone pathway with CMPG1-V-mediated powdery mildew resistance. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Characterization of Steroidal Saponins from Dioscorea villosa and D. cayenensis Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J.; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2017-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important edible tuber plant used for medicinal purposes to promote health and longevity in Chinese tradition. Steroidal saponins were reported to be the major physiologically active constituents in yams. In this current work, the structural characteristics of steroidal saponins in methanolic extracts from dried rhizomes of two Dioscorea species (D. villosa L. and D. cayenensis Lam.) and dietary supplements have been identified and analyzed using UHPLC/QTOF-MS in both negative and positive ion modes. The fragmentation patterns of reference standards were determined and the steroidal saponins in the extracts were identified or tentatively characterized from their retention times and mass spectra. The fragments produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) revealed the characteristic cleavage of glycosidic bonds, and the fragmentation pattern provided structural information about the sugars. Twenty-one saponins, including four tentatively identified compounds, were detected in the crude extracts of two Dioscorea species. These saponins can be used to distinguish D. villosa from D. cayenensis. For example, asperin and gracillin are found only in D. cayenensis, and dioscoreavilloside A and B and parvifloside are only found in D. villosa. This can be used to determine the presence or absence of D. villosa in commercial products, which may help determine the spiking of plant material, and/or prevent the use of potentially mislabeled or misidentified “Dioscorea” material. The analytical method also provided an alternative, fast method for quality control of Dioscorea species in dietary supplements. Principal component analysis showed that Dioscorea species and commercial products were easily distinguished. From this a partial least squares model was constructed to determine what species are in different products. PMID:24510365

  4. Sequencing flow-sorted short arm of Haynaldia villosa chromosome 4V provides insights into its molecular structure and virtual gene order

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xiao, J.; Dai, K.; Fu, S.; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Wan, W.; Sun, H.; Zhao, J.; Yu, C.; Wu, Y.; Abrouk, Michael; Wang, H.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Wang, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 791. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chromosome arm 4VS * Flow sorting * Genome zipper * Haynaldia villosa * Scaffold Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  5. Establishment of the regeneration system for Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Shimaa; Shabban, Omer A; El-Shihy, Osama; Lightfoot, David A; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2009-01-01

    A reliable regeneration system for faba bean has been difficult to establish and therefore, the genetic improvement of Vicia faba L. was delayed. The paper describes a method of somatic embryo induction in callus of V. faba. Two Egyptian faba bean cultivars 'Giza 2' and '24 Hyto' were used. Callus was induced from epicotyls and shoot tips cultured on MS or Gamborg medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.025% (w/v) for each of ascorbic and citric acid, 0.8% agar and different concentrations of 10 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l of each NAA and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (M1) and 1 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA (M2) . The media with BAP, NAA and 2,4-D were optimal for embryogenic callus induction. Somatic embryos developed after transfer of the callus to 1/2 B5 medium with no plant growth regulators. There were various stages of somatic embryo development present including globular, heart-shaped, torpedo, and cotyledonary stages. Embryos developed into plantlets and plants were regenerated. RAPD analyses were performed to investigate the genetic stability of the regenerated plants obtained from different treatments and different explants. The cultivar Giza 2 exhibited more genetic stability than cultivar 24 Hyto. In conclusion, a regeneration system was established suitable for both gene transformation and the isolation of somaclonal mutants. The regeneration system will be used in order to improve the nutritional value of faba bean.

  6. Radiographic comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Malki, Ghadah A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of root resorption after orthodontic treatment between the bidimensional and the Roth straight-wire techniques. Another objective was to compare the amount of root resorption in the whole sample studied and record the prevalence of root resorption. The sample consisted of 40 patients (age ranged between 11 and 18 years) with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions, treated nonextraction. Twenty patients were treated with bidimensional technique and 20 with a 0.018-inch Roth straight-wire technique. Root lengths of the maxillary incisors were measured on pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. The results demonstrated that the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups showed significant root resorption after treatment, 1.11 (0.17) and 0.86 (0.05), respectively, P root shortening between the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups, there was no significant difference between the mean change from pre- to post-treatment between bidimensional group (mean = 1.00 ± 1.34) and Roth straight-wire group (mean = 0.88 ± 0.86), P = 0.63. Considering the whole sample, there was no root resoprtion in 32.5% of the analysed teeth. There was only mild resorption in 56.2%, moderate in 8.8% and severe in only 2.5% of the teeth. Treatment with the bidimensional technique did not produce an increase in the amount of root resorption. The prevalence and amount of root resorption was similar between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

  7. Resistance to rusts (uromyces pisi and u. viciae-fabae) in pea

    OpenAIRE

    Barilli, Eleonora; Sillero, Josefina C.; Prats, Elena; Rubiales, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Pea is the second most important food legume crop in the world. Rust is a pea disease widely distributed, particularly in regions with warm, humid weather. Pea rust can be incited by Uromyces viciae-fabae and by U. pisi. U. viciae-fabae prevails in tropical and subtropical regions such as India and China, while U. pisi prevails in temperate regions. Chemical control of rust is possible, but the use of host plant resistance is the most desired means of rust control. In this paper we revise and...

  8. Ulrike Rothe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    guistical attitudes as exemplified by traditions of linguistic politics, research results on language ... user surveys, and from the front matter of the dictionaries); (c) linguistic theo- ries and ... may also have an influence on the methods used in dictionaries. Chapter 2 ..... An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography. Volume 1.

  9. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid

  10. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  11. Cytogenetic analysis of the effect of chronic irradiation on natural Vicia Cracca L. populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', L.M.; Popova, O.N.; AN SSSR, Syktyvkar

    1989-01-01

    The study of microsporogenesis in Vicia cracca L. from chronically irradiated natural populations has demonstrated an increased number of wholly or partially sterile buds and reduced and damaged anthers. Both the number and the spectrum of chromosome and cell pathology increasing radiation dose, the exposed plants exhibiting meiosis disturbances that are not found in the controls

  12. Visualization of Nodulation Gene Activity on the Early Stages of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Symbiosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chovanec, Pavel; Novák, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2005), s. 323-331 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/03/0192 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nodulation * rhizobium leguminosarum * vicia tetrasperma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  13. Role of bioinoculants in development of salt-tolerance of Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in saline conditions was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense (NFB) and Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Am) fungus Glomus clarum on the host plants (Vicia faba) in pot cultures were investigated ...

  14. Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco : surveying, identification, and ecological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the

  15. Ceiling erosion in caves: early studies and Zdeněk Roth as author of the concept

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 139-144 ISSN 0583-6050 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ceiling channel * paragenesis * antigravitative erosion * definition * Zdeněk Roth * Domica Cave * Slovak Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2015

  16. Health Care Fraud: Characteristics, Sanctions, and Prevention. Briefing Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Financial Management Div.

    At the request of Senator William Roth, Jr., the General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed Medicare and Medicaid fraud investigations that agency inspectors general referred to the Department of Justice for prosecution to identify characteristics of alleged fraud against the government and to determine actions taken against those caught defrauding…

  17. The influence of log soaking temperature on surface quality and integrity performance of birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Toni Antikainen; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Wood material surface properties play an important role in adhesive bond formation and performance. In the present study, a test method was developed to evaluate the integrity of the wood surface, and the results were used to understand bond performance. Materials used were rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneers, produced from logs soaked at 20 or 70 °C prior...

  18. Agronomic performances of three vetch species growing under different drought levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sywar Haffani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current challenge of agriculture is to get the best yields while overcoming frequent water deficit conditions. The objective of this study was to compare performances of three vetch species (Vicia narbonensis L., V. sativa L., and V. villosa Roth subjected to water stress. Plants were sown in pots under rainout shelter and submitted to four water regimes: control (100% field capacity [FC], 80%, 60%, and 40% FC through 3 yr experiment. Results showed that V. narbonensis had the smallest declines in all the studied variables in response to water restriction but the highest water use efficiency (WUE and stress tolerance index (STI in both control and water-treated plants. This indicates the greater tolerance of this species to water constraint and its better water use. Vicia villosa was characterized by drastic declines in leaf area and DM yield (75% and 64%, respectively. It had also the smallest WUE and STI suggesting its low adaptation to water stress. Vicia sativa showed severe reductions in seed yield and yield components; accordingly, it was the most sensitive species in terms of seed yield. The three species implied avoidance strategies to cope with water stress. The different levels of drought tolerance explain the species ecological distribution in Tunisia.

  19. When Harry met Zuckerman: self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomás Creus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation.

  20. New find of the rare and endangered species Bangia atropurpurea (Roth C. Agardh (Rhodophyta in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about distribution of Bangia atropurpurea (Roth C. Agardh indicate that this species was found on relatively small number of localities in freshwaters in Europe and world. In Red List of Algae, in some countries, this species is defined as a extinct (Ex (Poland or as endangered (En (Slovakia. In this study, morphological and ecological characteristics of rare and endangered species B. atropurpurea that was found on three localities in Serbia: in Trgoviški Timok River (East Serbia, Gvozdačka Reka River (West Serbia and Raška River (South-western Serbia. The Raška River is new find of the species B. atropurpurea.

  1. Fantasmes et fantômes dans Sabbath’s Theater, de Philip Roth (1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine CHOUARD

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available “We are dealing here with death, fuck the flowers!” (120 S’il fallait, dans la littérature américaine, mettre un nom en face du mot fantasme, ce serait celui de Philip Roth, dont l’œuvre se place sous le signe d’une formidable libido. Suivraient ensuite sans doute ceux de Nabokov, Miller, Bukowski, ou Updike qui ont tour à tour fait leur miel des fantasmes les plus divers. Regroupés autour de cette thématique, ces écrivains portent la fiction américaine à un taux de testostérone pour le moin...

  2. Assessment of clinical outcomes of Roth and MBT bracket prescription using the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is always a need to assess whether small changes in bracket prescription can lead to visually detectable differences in tooth positions. However, with little clinical evidence to show advantages of any of the popularly used bracket systems, orthodontists are forced to make clinical decisions with little scientific guidance. Aim: To compare the orthodontic cases finished with Roth and MBT prescription using American Board of Orthodontics-Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS. Settings and Design: Department of Orthodontics, Post-graduate dental college, retrospective cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Forty patients selected were divided into two groups of 20 patients each finished with straight wire appliance using Roth and MBT prescription, respectively. The examiner ability was assessed and calibrated by one of the ABO certified clinician to grade cases using the OGS. Statistical Analysis: Unpaired student t-test was used and P < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results and Conclusions: MBT bracket group had a lower score of 2.60 points in buccolingual inclination and lower score of 1.10 points in occlusal contact category that was statistically significant when compared with Roth group. The difference in total ABO-OGS score was 2.65 points showing that the outcome for the MBT prescription was better than that of the Roth prescription, which is statistically significant, but with little or no clinical significance. It can be concluded that use of either one of the Roth and MBT bracket prescriptions have no impact to the overall clinical outcome and quality of treatment entirely depends on clinician judgment and experience.

  3. Eigil Rothe, an early twentieth century wall paintings conservator in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Brajer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eigil Rothe (active 1897-1929 is a central figure in the development of wall paintings conservation and restoration in Denmark, marking a clear departure from the practices of artist-restorers influenced by historicism. His ideas about retouching and impregnation were propelled by his sense of aesthetics, which rejected nineteenth century interpretations, and called for a respect for the passage of time. His experiments with surface treatments demonstrate unprecedented thoughts about the necessity of future treatments. His work was driven by an aspiration for the truth, as seen by his diligent photographs, such as his noteworthy documentation of the stage prior to aesthetic treatment.Eigil Rothe (actif 1897-1929 est une figure centrale dans le développement de la conservation de peintures murales et la restauration au Danemark, marquant clairement le début de pratiques nouvelles pour les restaurateurs-artiste qu’influencent l’historicisme. Ses idées relatives à la retouche et à l'imprégnation ont été soutenues par son sens esthétique, qui rejette les interprétations du dix-neuvième siècle et insiste sur le respect des marques du temps. Ses expériences relatives aux traitements de surface démontrent une conscience originale et sans précédent quant à la nécessité de traitements futurs. Son travail a toujours été motivé par une passion pour la vérité, comme le démontrent ses remarquables photographies et la documentation remarquable de l’état avant traitement.

  4. Overexpression of ERF1-V from Haynaldia villosa Can Enhance the Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew and Increase the Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The APETALA 2/Ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family is widely involved in the biotic and abiotic stress regulation. Haynaldia villosa (VV, 2n = 14, a wild species of wheat, is a potential gene pool for wheat improvement. H. villosa confers high resistance to several wheat diseases and high tolerance to some abiotic stress. In this study, ERF1-V, an ethylene-responsive element-binding factor gene of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family from wild H. villosa, was cloned and characterized. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that ERF1-V is a deduced B2 type ERF gene. ERF1-V was first identified as a Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt up-regulated gene, and later found to be induced by drought, salt and cold stresses. In responses to hormones, ERF1-V was up-regulated by ethylene and abscisic acid, but down-regulated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Over expression of ERF1-V in wheat could improve resistance to powdery mildew, salt and drought stress. Chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity were significantly differences between the recipient Yangmai158 and the transgenic plants following salt treatment. Furthermore, the expression levels of some stress responsive genes were differences after drought or salt treatments. Although ERF1-V was activated by the constitutive promoter, the agronomic traits, including flowering time, plant height, effective tiller number, spikelet number per spike and grain size, did not changed significantly. ERF1-V is a valuable gene for wheat improvement by genetic engineering.

  5. Evaluation of cytotoxic effects and acute and chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of the seeds of Calycotome villosa (Poiret) Link (subsp. intermedia) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoussi, Badiaa; Cherkaoui Tangi, Khadija; Morel, Nicole; Haddad, Mohamed; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of the seeds of Calycotome villosa (Poiret) Link (subsp. intermedia) by determining its cytotoxicity and potential toxicity after acute and sub-chronic administration in rodents. Cytotoxic activity was tested in cancer and non-cancer cell lines HeLa, Mel-5, HL-60 and 3T3. Acute toxicity tests were carried out in mice by a single oral administration of Calycotome seed-extract (0 - 12 g/kg) as well as intraperitoneal doses of 0 - 5 g/kg. Sub-chronic studies were conducted in Wistar rats by administration of oral daily doses for up to 90 days. Changes in body and vital organ weights, mortality, haematology, clinical biochemistry and histologic morphology were evaluated. The lyophilized aqueous extract of C. villosa exhibited a low cytotoxicity in all cell lines tested with an IC 50 > 100 µg/ml. In the acute study in mice, intra-peritoneal administration caused dose-dependent adverse effects and mortality with an LD 50 of 4.06 ± 0.01 g/kg. In the chronic tests, neither mortality nor visible signs of lethality was seen in rats. Even AST and ALT were not affected while a significant decrease in serum glucose levels, at 300 and 600 mg/kg was detected. Histopathological examination of the kidney and liver did not show any alteration or inflammation at the end of treatment. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of C. villosa seed appeared to be non-toxic and did not produce mortality or clinically significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters in rats.

  6. Acute effects of road salts and associated cyanide compounds on the early life stages of the unionid mussel Villosa iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Young, George B; Jones, Jess W; Hua, Dan; Lingenfelser, Susan F

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of cyanide to the early life stages of freshwater mussels (order Unionida) has remained unexplored. Cyanide is known to be acutely toxic to other aquatic organisms. Cyanide-containing compounds, such as sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide, are commonly added to road deicing salts as anticaking agents. The purpose of the present study was to assess the acute toxicity of three cyanide compounds (sodium cyanide, sodium ferrocyanide, and ferric ferrocyanide), two road salts containing cyanide anticaking agents (Morton and Cargill brands), a brine deicing solution (Liquidow brand), and a reference salt (sodium chloride) on glochidia (larvae) and juveniles of the freshwater mussel Villosa iris. Sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide were not acutely toxic to glochidia and juvenile mussels at concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) for these two chemicals ranged from 10 to >1,000 mg/L. Sodium cyanide was acutely toxic to juvenile mussels, with a 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.10 mg/L, although glochidia tolerated concentrations up to 10 mg/L. The EC50s for sodium chloride, Liquidow brine, Morton road salt, and Cargill road salt were not significantly different for tests within the same life stage and test duration (range, 1.66-4.92 g/L). These results indicate that cyanide-containing anticaking agents do not exacerbate the toxicity of road salts, but that the use of road salts and brine solutions for deicing or dust control on roads may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. O crepúsculo da ética imperial habsburga em Bruno Schulz e Joseph Roth The twilight of the Habsburg imperial ethics in Bruno Schulz and Joseph Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis S. Krausz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os escritores Bruno Schulz e Joseph Roth entraram para a história da literatura, respectivamente, como representantes da literatura polonesa e austríaca, como se pertencessem a mundos diversos. Entretanto ambos compartilharam de uma memória comum, que era a vida nas províncias orientais do Império Austro-Húngaro, nas cidades de Drohobycz e Brody, hoje pertencentes à Ucrânia. As obras de ficção de Schulz e de Roth fazem referência ao universo austro-húngaro e habsburgo, um reino milenar que via a si mesmo não simplesmente como uma realidade política, mas como um império que tinha como missão trazer a seus súditos uma forma de vida considerada superior do ponto de vista espiritual, ético e moral. A idéia do Sacro Império Romano Germânico, que se considerava portador de uma mensagem humana, subsistiu, até o século 20, no longo reinado do Kaiser Francisco José e neste sentido a 1ª Guerra Mundial significa não simplesmente o desmembramento político do Império Austro-Húngaro em seus diferentes componentes, mas também a falência de uma idéia de Estado que transcendia à esfera do meramente político para tornar-se um lar espiritual e cultural para seus súditos. O mundo que sobreveio à 1ª Guerra Mundial é marcado pelas tendências fáustico-titânicas de um individualismo materialista, que devota todas suas energias à produção e à acumulação de capital, e é sobre este novo mundo que Schulz e Roth olham em suas obras, sempre do ponto de vista de um universo anterior, marcado pela nostalgia de um exílio irreversível. Palavras-chave: Nostalgia. Exílio. Império Habsburgo. Joseph Roth. Bruno Schulz. Bruno Schulz and Joseph Roth figure in the history of literature as Representatives of Polish and Austrian literature, respectively, as if they were part of different worlds. However, both share a common memory: the life in the eastern provinces of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, in the cities of Drohobycz

  8. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H.

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as 1 H and 13 C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA 3 -stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed. (author)

  9. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA/sub 3/-stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed.

  10. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Correia Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais com potencial terapêutico tem motivado a realização de estudos através de ensaios experimentais que visam fornecer informações úteis e de extrema importância. Assim o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies de Coleus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco, cepas bacterianas padronizadas Gram negativas Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e ATCC 35218, cepas Gram positivas Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e S. aureus ATCC 27853, assim como fungos padrões de Cryptococcus neoformans (pertencentes à coleção de microrganismos do CESMAC. Como controle positivo foi usado o imipenem e fluconazol e como controle negativo um disco com etanol absoluto. A determinação do potencial antioxidante foi realizada utilizando os métodos DPPH, FTC e determinação de compostos fenólicos. Os extratos etanólicos de C. amboinicus e M. x villosa apresentaram excelentes resultados tanto relacionado à atividade antimicrobiana quanto à antioxidante. Nossos resultados mostram a potencialidade das plantas analisadas na prevenção e no combate de doenças.

  11. Control Of Rust Disease In Irradiated Vicia Faba By Using Safe Alternative Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; Helal, I.M.; Mohamed, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of Vicia faba with Uromyces viciae-fabae causes significant decrease in growth and total nitrogen content and increase in the phenolic compounds. The study was carried out to investigate the effects of chemicals used as drench application in soil (e.g. saccharin), biotic agents (e.g. Bacillus subtilis) and artificial essential oils (e.g. rosemary) in irradiated (0, 5, 10, 15 Gy) broad bean Vicia faba on the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Bacillus subtilis was inoculated to beans at the third leaf then saccharin (5 mM/l) was used as drench application in the soil and the essential oil was used for foliar application at concentrations 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm. All treatments gave positive results to control the disease but differ in the mechanism of action. The control of the disease with saccharin application may be due to the formation of antimicrobial components (wyrone acid) by plant tissues and increase with increasing the concentration of saccharin. In case of using the essential oil, the affect on the microbe was directly observed within 28 h because the oil affect the permeability of cell membrane of the pathogen but in case of Bacillus, it acts as biological control agent induced resistance of plant by affecting the activity of antioxidant enzymes; peroxidase and chitinase. Saccharin and spore suspension induce systemic protection to rust infection after 72 and 96 hours. The disease index and the phenolic compounds were determined because they play important role in the systemic protection of rust disease 96 h after application. The results showed that the phytoalexin wyerone acid was formed in case of biotic agent (Bacillus subtilis) and the chemical (saccharin) but did not form in case of essential oil (rosemary)

  12. Raw and heat-treated culban ( Vicia peregrina ) seed as protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicia peregrina seed was included in the diets at different levels, viz. 100, 200, 300 g heat-treated and 100, 200, 300 g raw seed in experimental diets designated A1, B1, C1, A2, B2 and C2, respectively. Growth parameters of the fish fed these diets were compared to fish receiving a fish meal and soyabean meal based ...

  13. Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ( Lupizus albus cv. Kiev) as protein sources for ... P igsi n the metabolisrna ndN balance trial consurned5 % less( P < 0.01)o 1'thel upind ietc omparedto the fabab eand iet (l 370 vs. | 440 gld).N o significandt ift'erenceisn the digestiblee nergy( DE) contenta nd ...

  14. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  15. RothC simulation of carbon accumulation in soil after repeated application of widely different organic amendments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Dragon, Sophine

    2012-01-01

    obtained data on changes in soil C stocks after repeated applications of EOM from four long-term experiments (LTEs): Askov K2 (Denmark, 31 yrs), Qualiagro (France, 11 yrs), SERAIL (France, 14 yrs) and Ultuna (Sweden, 52 yrs). The adjustment of the partition coefficients of total organic C in EOM (EOM-TOC......) into the labile, resistant and humified entry pools of RothC (fDPM, fRPM, fHUM, respectively) provided a successful fit to the accumulation of EOM-derived C in the LTE soils. Equations estimating the EOM partition coefficients in the RothC model were based on an indicator (IROC) of the EOM-TOC potentially...... retained in soil. IROC was derived from the C found in the soluble, lignin + cutin-like and cellulose-like Van Soest fractions and the proportion of EOM-TOC mineralized during 3 days of incubation. Using the EOM partition coefficients derived from these laboratory analyses resulted in RothC simulations...

  16. Possibilities of assessing trace metal pollution using Betula pendula Roth. leaf and bark - experience in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both seasonal and spatial variations in trace metal uptake, as well as concentration of photosynthetic pigments in Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. trees in five urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities were studied. The characteristics of soil were assessed in terms of texture, pH and trace element content. Concentrations of boron, strontium and zinc in both leaves and bark showed an increasing temporal trend, however, copper showed an opposite seasonal trend. A higher accumulation of trace elements was noticed in leaves compared to bark. The obtained results for photosynthetic pigments showed low sensitivity of birch to B, Cu, Sr and Zn contamination, indicating that birch tolerates pollution and climate stress by increasing the amount of pigments. Analysis of the effects on soil chemistry of trace element accumulation in plant tissues proved that soil chemistry poorly explains the variability of elements in bark (27.6 % compared to leaves (82.99 %. Discriminant analysis showed that Belgrade and Smederevo are clearly separated from the other three sites. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  17. Spatial variation of vessel grouping in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Vessel grouping in angiosperms may improve hydraulic integration and increase the spread of cavitations through redundancy pathways. Although disputed, it is increasingly attracting research interest as a potentially significant hydraulic trait. However, the variation of vessel grouping in a tree is poorly understood. I measured the number of solitary and grouped vessels in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth. from the pith to the bark along the water flow path. The vessel grouping parameters included the mean number of vessels per vessel group (VG), percentage of solitary vessels (SVP), percentage of radial multiple vessels (MVP), and percentage of cluster vessels (CVP). The effects of cambial age (CA) and flow path-length (PL) on the vessel grouping were analyzed using a linear mixed model.VG and CVP increased nonlinearly, SVP decreased nonlinearly with PL. In trunks and branches, VG and CVP decreased nonlinearly, and SVP increased nonlinearly with CA. In roots, the parameters had no change with CA. MVP was almost constant with PL or CA. The results suggest that vessel grouping has a nonrandom variation pattern, which is affected deeply by cambial age and water flow path.

  18. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaat, S A; Van Brussel, A A; Tak, T; Lugtenberg, B J; Kijne, J W

    1989-02-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids. When very low inoculum concentrations (0.5-5 bacteria·ml(-1)) were used, V. sativa plants did not develop the Tsr phenotype and became nodulated earlier than plants with Tsr roots. Furthermore, the nodules of these plants were located on the primary root in contrast to nodules on Tsr roots, which were all located at sites of lateral-root emergence. The average numbers of nodules per plant were not significantly different for these two types of nodulation. Root-growth inhibition and Hai, but not Had, could be mimicked by ethephon, and inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). Addition of AVG to co-cultures of Vicia sativa and the standard inoculum concentration of 5·10(5) bacteria·ml(-1) suppressed the development of the Tsr phenotype and restored nodulation to the pattern that was observed with very low concentrations of bacteria (0.5-5 bacteria·ml(-1)). The delay in nodulation on Tsr roots appeared to be caused by the fact that nodule meristems did not develop on the primary root, but only on the emerging laterals. The relationship between Tsr, Hai, Had, and nodulation is discussed.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. A sustained increase of agricultural production becomes a great possibility for international community. In this process a green manure crops application for example crotalaria get a new chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil conservation. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of RISSAC-HAS) in partly of experiment series (3 years) at Hungary in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macro and micronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O were given hectare. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. In vegetation grown period were measured green and dry matter yield. The soil and plant samples were analysed for the macro and microelements contents. The main results achieved in 1998 are summarized as follows: 1. The green matter yield at before flowering reached 63.8 t ha-1 in case of Crotalaria juncea L. 2. Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between 9.6 and 17.0 t ha-1, depending on the crotalaria species. 3. The average of element concentration (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH) before flowering reached to 3.2 % N, 2.3 % Ca, 1.3 % K, 0.39 % Mg, 0.22 % P and 0.24 % S. The content of Al and Fe total 14 - 25, while that of Sr, Mn, Na, B and Ba 2 - 6 ppm in dry matter. The Zn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Se, Ni, As, Pb, Cd and Co concentration did not reach here the value of 1 ppm. 4. The average of biological activated element uptake (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  1. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, A.L.; Royo-Esnal, A.; Torra, J.; Recasens, J.

    2015-07-01

    Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs) and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3) of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec.) for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively) but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2). This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage. (Author)

  2. Supercritical Extraction of Scopoletin from Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić, Stela; Rajić, Marina; Bilić, Blanka; Molnar, Maja

    2016-09-01

    The increasing popularity of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don) and its products, particularly in the cosmetic industry, is evident nowadays. This plant is a source of coumarins, especially scopoletin, which are highly soluble in supercritical CO2 . The objective of this study was to perform the supercritical CO2 extraction process of Helichrysum italicum flowers at different values of pressure and temperature and to optimise the extraction process using response surface methodology in terms of obtaining the highest extraction yield and yield of extracted scopoletin. Extraction was performed in a supercritical extraction system under different extraction conditions of pressure and temperature determined by central composite rotatable design. The mass of flowers in the extractor of 40 g, extraction time of 90 min and CO2 mass flow rate of 1.94 kg/h were kept constant during experiments. Antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay method. Scopoletin concentration was determined by HPLC. Changes in extraction conditions affect the extracting results remarkably. The greatest extraction yield (6.31%) and the highest yield of scopoletin (1.933 mg/100 g) were obtained under extraction conditions of 20 MPa and 40°C. Extracts have also proven to possess antioxidant activity (44.0-58.1% DPPH scavenging activity) influenced by both temperature and pressure applied within the investigated parameters. The extraction conditions, especially pressure, exhibited significant influence on the extraction yield as well as the yield of extracted scopoletin and antioxidant activity of extracts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kökten, Kağan; Koçak, Alpaslan; Bağci, Eyüp; Akçura, Mevlüt; Çelik, Sait

    2010-01-01

    The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae) were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stear...

  4. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  5. Effects of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) extract consumption on leukocytes increase in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro Terrazos, Jony; Moisés Saldaña, Ítalo

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the article published by Amaro, which shows that there is an increase of leukocytes to manage beets in albino mice of the species Mus musculus Balb / c (1) strain. We want to share the results of a study that bean (Vicia faba L.), a plant that has the role in the diet of rural and urban dwellers for its contribution in proteins characteristic of all legume was used, and for their contribution carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. The importance of this kind is increasing ...

  6. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: Potential involvement of oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0–20 µM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10 µM. In addition, at th...

  7. When Harry met Zuckerman: self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen When Harry met Zuckerman:self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomás Creus

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation. The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation.

  8. fungal disease resistance in vicia faba in relation to water stress and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Induced systemic resistance (Isr), as a recent strategy, achieving biological control of plant disease through initiation to form natural antibiotic compounds, phytoalexin, that considered to be involved in the defense mechanism of plant to potential pathogen. Also, phytoalexin formed by leguminosae in response to infection play an extremely role in disease resistance. Indeed, wyerone acid (C 14 H 12 O 4 ) has been clearfield as a phytoalexin formed by Vicia faba in response to infection stress. Therefore, the present study was outlined to clearify the feasibility to biocontrol of checolate spot disease caused by Botrytis fabae in faba bean, Vicia faba, plants under field condition. Pre. Sowing seed irradiated with low gamma ray were planted in: 1- Three pot experiments (salinity-Ni-Si) in complete randomized block design in three replicates. 2- Two field experiments in loam soil irrigated with river nile water (inducers-Isr)) in splite-plot design in three replicates. 3- Two field experiments in sandy soil irrigated with two saline water from 2 shallow-wells (inducers-Isr) in split-split plot design in three replicates

  9. Survey the Effect of Oil Pollution on Morphological Characteristics in Faba Vulgaris and Vicia Ervilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lorestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution results when a change in the environment harmfully affects the quality of human life including effect on animals, microorganisms and plants. Among the broad range of organic pollutants contaminating soil-water environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great environment concern. Oil contaminated soil will affect germination, plant height, leaf area and biomass production. The aim of this research was to elucidate effects of oil pollution on morphological characteristics in Fabaceae family. For this purpose species of Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia were planted in different concentrations of oil in soil. For morphological studies, studied species were removed from polluted and non polluted soils separately and some morphological characters were studied in these species, then these characters were compared in plants, collected from polluted and non polluted soil. Finally, the level of significance of these differences was elucidated by using of SPSS. Obtained results showed that oil pollution can cause some abnormalities in structure of vegetative parts in plants grown on polluted soils. Decreasing of plant length and stem diameter and changing the leaf shape was among the most important effects of oil on morphological characteristics in Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia.

  10. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 129-133, 2004.

  11. Stropná erózia v jaskyniach: počiatky skúmania a Zdeněk Roth ako autor konceptu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Bosák, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2013), s. 84-86 ISSN 1335-213X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ceiling channel * paragenesis * antigravitative erosion * definition * Zdeněk Roth * Domica Cave * Slovak Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Influence of environmental factors on composition of volatile constituents and biological activity of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, R; Statti, G A; Conforti, F; Bianchi, A; Agrimonti, C; Sacchetti, G; Muzzoli, M; Ballero, M; Menichini, F; Poli, F

    2005-06-01

    The biovariability of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don grown wild in Calabria and Sardinia (Italy) was reported. This species has been characterized through the detection, isolation and quantitative evaluation of chemical markers (alpha-terpinolene, trans-cariophyllene and neryl acetate) by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic H. italicum extracts using DPPH and beta-carotene bleaching test showed that the Calabrian samples were more active than those from Sardinia. The antibacterial activity of all extracts evidenced the best performance on the Gram positive bacteria particularly on Micrococcus luteus. Moreover, antifungal activity of all extracts was also tested evidencing important results particularly on the phytopathogene fungus Pythium ultimum. In general, as regards the antifungal activity, the extracts from Sardinia were more active than those from Calabria. The phytochemical analysis and the biological activity data suggested a possible use of these plant matrices in alimentary, cosmetic and pharmaceutical fields.

  13. Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on stomatal movements in Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majernik, O; Mansfield, T A

    1971-01-01

    Leaves of broad bean Vicia faba L. exposed to controlled levels of SO/sub 2/ pollution in the range 0.25 to 9.0 ppm had much wider stomatal openings than control plants. The stimulation of opening relative to the controls was proportional to SO/sub 2/ concentration over the range 0.25 to 1.0 ppm. The ability of the stomata to close at night was not appreciably affected. The possible implications of this unnatural reaction of the stomata are discussed. Abnormal opening could lead to the plant's losing its usual control over transpiration, with resulting water stress. The main disadvantage, however, is that SO/sub 2/ will gain easier access to the interior of the leaf.

  14. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  15. L’orobe (Vicia ervilia L. Willd.) au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    El Fatehi, Salama; Ater, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Dans cette contribution nous allons présenter certains aspects de l’histoire de la nomenclature et des usages de la culture de l’orobe (Vicia ervilia L. Willd.). Bien que cette culture soit actuellement considérée comme mineure et utilisée uniquement dans l’alimentation animale, cela n’a pas été toujours le cas. A certaines époques la culture de l’orobe était plus importante et occupait une place importante parmi les légumineuses cultivées. Même si elle était peu appréciée, elle était utilisé...

  16. Non-random intrachromosomal distribution of radiation-induced chromatid aberrations in Vicia faba. [Aberration clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, I; Rieger, R [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Gatersleben. Zentralinst. fuer Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung

    1976-04-01

    A reconstructed karyotype of Vicia faba, with all chromosomes individually distinguishable, was treated with X-rays, fast neutrons, (/sup 3/H) uridine (/sup 3/HU). The distribution within metaphase chromosomes of induced chromatid aberrations was non-random for all agents used. Aberration clustering, in part agent specific, occurred in chromosome segments containing heterochromatin as defined by the presence of G bands. The pattern of aberration clustering found after treatment with /sup 3/HU did not allow the recognition of chromosome regions active in transcription during treatment. Furthermore, it was impossible to obtain unambiguous indications of the presence of AT- and GC-base clusters from the patterns of /sup 3/HT- and /sup 3/HC-induced chromatid aberrations, respectively. Possible reasons underlying these observations are discussed.

  17. Changes Germination, Growth and Anatomy Vicia ervilia in Response to Light Crude Oil Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thepetroleum concentrations are contaminant important sources in the environment. Hydrocarbon’s contaminants depend on their type and concentration can cause variable toxicity in soils, on the other hand, different kinds of plants also response concentration of contaminant differently, because of the diversity of physiological and morphological characteristics. In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil was investigated on stem length, germination and anatomical of Vicia ervilia. A factorial experiment was used with a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the germination and stem lengths decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05 with increasing concentrations of petroleum. Anatomical studies the changes of parenchyma, vascular bundles, epidermal and increase crack showed.

  18. Inactivation of Spoilage Yeasts by Mentha spicata L. and M. × villosa Huds. Essential Oils in Cashew, Guava, Mango, and Pineapple Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika T. da Cruz Almeida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the essential oil from Mentha spicata L. (MSEO and M. × villosa Huds. (MVEO to inactivate Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sabouraud dextrose broth and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during 72 h of refrigerated storage. The effects of the incorporation of an anti-yeast effective dose of MSEO on some physicochemical and sensory characteristics of juices were evaluated. The incorporation of 3.75 μL/mL MSEO or 15 μL/mL MVEO caused a ≥5-log reductions in counts of C. albicans, P. anomala, and S. cerevisiae in Sabouraud dextrose broth. In cashew and guava juices, 1.875 μL/mL MSEO or 15 μL/mL MVEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of P. anomala and S. cerevisiae. In pineapple juice, 3.75 μL/mL MSEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of P. anomala and S. cerevisiae; 15 μL/mL MVEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of S. cerevisiae in mango juice. The incorporation of 1.875 μL/mL MSEO did not affect the physicochemical parameters of juices and did not induce negative impacts to cause their possible sensory rejection. These results show the potential of MSEO and MVEO, primarily MSEO, to comprise strategies to control spoilage yeasts in fruit juices.

  19. LecRK-V, an L-type lectin receptor kinase in Haynaldia villosa, plays positive role in resistance to wheat powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongkuan; Cheng, Jiangyue; Fan, Anqi; Zhao, Jia; Yu, Zhongyu; Li, Yingbo; Zhang, Heng; Xiao, Jin; Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Wang, Xiue

    2018-01-01

    Plant sense potential microbial pathogen using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Lectin receptor-like kinase genes (LecRKs) are involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. In the present study, an L-type lectin receptor kinase gene LecRK-V was cloned from Haynaldia villosa, a diploid wheat relative which is highly resistant to powdery mildew. The expression of LecRK-V was rapidly up-regulated by Bgt inoculation and chitin treatment. Its transcript level was higher in the leaves than in roots, culms, spikes and callus. Single-cell transient overexpression of LecRK-V led to decreased haustorium index in wheat variety Yangmai158, which is powdery mildew susceptible. Stable transformation LecRK-V into Yangmai158 significantly enhanced the powdery mildew resistance at both seedling and adult stages. At seedling stage, the transgenic line was highly resistance to 18 of the tested 23 Bgt isolates, hypersensitive responses (HR) were observed for 22 Bgt isolates, and more ROS at the Bgt infection sites was accumulated. These indicated that LecRK-V confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew, and ROS and SA pathways contribute to the enhanced powdery mildew resistance in wheat. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture, a viable alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, V.; Perea, F.; Saavedra, M.; Fuentes, C.; Alcántara, C.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of vegetable protein for animal feed and the need to diversify the crop rotation in rainfed Mediterranean climates has led to study the viability as new forage crop of the Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture. Therefore, a 3-year field trial was conducted at two different and representative locations of the area to evaluate the capacity of both species to form a balanced mixture and to define its potential for high yield and forage quality. Different seeding ratios (65:35, 50:50 and 35:65) were compared with their pure stands and the standard mixture Avena sativa-Vicia sativa (65:35). Forage mixtures establishment and growth varied according to the environmental conditions with a negative influence of a dry year 1 for legumes (<300 mm) and a wet year 2 for oats (>630 mm). However, competition ratio indicated that there were not significant differences between mixed treatments, displaying intermediate ground coverage values, dry matter yield and crude protein regarding pure stands. Higher dry matter yield than control mixture in addition to similar crude protein, acid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre and digestible dry matter values, were produced at 35:65 in dry years and 65:35 and 50:50 in rainy years with loamy and clay soils, respectively. The appropriate development of both species in the mixture at different soil and rainfall conditions, as well as a good yield often higher than control mixture and a great forage quality, confirm to the narbon bean-black oat mixture as a viable and profitable crop alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions.

  1. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbadj, Ablaa; Makoudi, Bouchra; Mouradi, Mohammed; Frendo, Pierre; Ghoulam, Cherki

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD), Luz d’Otonio (LO) and Reina Mora (RM) to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity). A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase) are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes. PMID:29281721

  2. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ablaa Kabbadj

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD, Luz d'Otonio (LO and Reina Mora (RM to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity. A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes.

  3. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies. PMID:28135314

  4. Vicia faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-mail: wedkasim@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT ... uniformity of size and shape, washed in distilled water and sown in pots containing acid- washed ... sections of stems, roots, leaf petioles and leaflet blades of 25-day-old plants were cut above the.

  5. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resource of natural germplasm to screen for desired characteristics present in ... The effect of indigenous rhizobia on nodulation and growth of faba bean ... nodule fresh weights, nodule color, shoots height and leaf colors (yellow, green) were.

  6. An analysis of the energetic reward offered by field bean (Vicia faba) flowers: nectar, pollen and operative force

    OpenAIRE

    Bailes, Emily; Pattrick, Jonathan; Glover, Beverley Jane

    2018-01-01

    Global consumption of crops with a yield that is dependent on animal pollinators is growing, with greater areas planted each year. However, the floral traits that influence pollinator visitation are not usually the focus of breeding programmes and therefore it is likely that yield improvements may be made by optimizing floral traits to enhance pollinator visitation rates. We investigated the variation present in the floral reward of the bee pollinated crop Vicia faba (field bean). We examined...

  7. Potential role of NADPH-oxidase in early steps of lead-induced oxidative burst in Vicia faba roots

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Perchet, Geoffrey; Silvestre, Jérôme; Cecchi, Marie; Guiresse, Agnès Maritchù; Pinelli, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative burst induced by lead in Vicia faba excised roots was investigated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Results showed that lead triggered a rapid and dose-dependent increase in chemiluminescence production. In this study, specific inhibitors of putative reactive oxygen species (ROS) sources were used to determine the mechanism of lead-induced ROS generation. This generation was sensitive to dephenylene iodonium (DPI), quinacrine and imidazole, some inhibitors of ...

  8. Assessment of the genotoxicity of Cu and Zn in raw and anaerobically digested slurry with the Vicia faba micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Marcato, Claire-Emmanuelle; Pinelli, Eric; Pourrut, Bertrand; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Agnès Maritchù

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of Cu and Zn was assessed by use of the micronucleus (MN) test on Vicia faba roots. Plants were exposed to various leachates of rawand anaerobically digested pig slurry, with maximum total concentrations of 200MCu and 600MZn. The results indicated stabilisation of the organic matter during anaerobic digestion of the slurry and bioconversion of some phytotoxic organic compounds (e.g. phenols or p-cresol), but did not showa relationship between Cu and Zn concentrations and MN fr...

  9. Effects of below-ground insects, mycorrhizal fungi and soil fertility on the establishment of Vicia in grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganade, G; Brown, V K

    1997-02-01

     The effects of, and interactions between, insect root feeders, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil fertility on the establishment, growth and reproduction of Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta (Fabaceae) were investigated in an early-successional grassland community. Seeds of both species were sown into plots where soil insecticide (Dursban 5G), soil fungicide (Rovral) and soil fertiliser (NPK) were applied in a factorial randomised block design. Fertiliser addition reduced growth, longevity and reproduction of both Vicia species, due to the commonly recorded increase in the competitive advantage of the non-nitrogen-fixing species when nitrogen is added to the plant community. However, in plots where fertiliser was not applied, a reduction in root feeders and mycorrhizal infection led to an increase in seedling establishment and fruit production of V. sativa, and to an increase in flower production for both Vicia species. The interaction between all three soil treatments explained much of the variation in growth and longevity of V. sativa. Plants grew larger and survived longer in plots where natural levels of mycorrhizal infection and root feeders were low compared with plots where all the treatments were applied. This suggests that, although soil nutrient availability was a strong determinant of the performance of these two leguminous species, at natural levels of soil fertility biotic factors acting in the soil, such as mycorrhizal fungi and soil-dwelling insects, were important in shaping the competitive interactions between the two Vicia species and the plant community. Our results indicate that non-additive interactions between ecological factors in the soil environment may strongly affect plant performance.

  10. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M; Keep, Nicholas H; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-04-22

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket.

  11. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  12. Molecular characterisation of the broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew conferred by the Stpk-V gene from the wild species Haynaldia villosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, C; Cui, C; Wang, X; Zhou, C; Hu, P; Li, M; Li, R; Xiao, J; Wang, X; Chen, P; Xing, L; Cao, A

    2017-11-01

    A key member of the Pm21 resistance gene locus, Stpk-V, derived from Haynaldia villosa, was shown to confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. The present study was planned to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V. Transcriptome analysis was performed in Stpk-V transgenic plants and recipient Yangmai158 upon Bgt infection, and detailed histochemical observations were conducted. Chromosome location of Stpk-V orthologous genes in Triticeae species was conducted for evolutionary study and over-expression of Stpk-V both in barley and Arabidopsis was performed for functional study. The transcriptome results indicate, at the early infection stage, the ROS pathway, JA pathway and some PR proteins associated with the SA pathway were activated in both the resistant Stpk-V transgenic plants and susceptible Yangmai158. However, at the later infection stage, the genes up-regulated at the early stage were continuously held only in the transgenic plants, and a large number of new genes were also activated in the transgenic plants but not in Yangmai158. Results indicate that sustained activation of the early response genes combined with later-activated genes mediated by Stpk-V is critical for resistance in Stpk-V transgenic plants. Stpk-V orthologous genes in the representative grass species are all located on homologous group six chromosomes, indicating that Stpk-V is an ancient gene in the grasses. Over-expression of Stpk-V enhanced host resistance to powdery mildew in barley but not in Arabidopsis. Our results enable a better understanding of the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V, and establish a solid foundation for its use in cereal breeding as a gene resource. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. The Hv-SGT1 gene from Haynaldia villosa contributes to resistances towards both biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xing

    Full Text Available The SGT1 protein is essential for R protein-mediated and PAMPs-triggered resistance in many plant species. Here we reported the isolation and characterization of the Hv-SGT1 gene from Haynaldiavillosa (2n = 14, VV. Analysis of the subcellular location of Hv-SGT1 by transient expression of a fusion to GFP indicated its presence in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Levels of Hv-SGT1 transcripts were increased by inoculation with either the biotrophic pathogen Blumeriagraminis DC. f. Sp. tritici (Bgt or the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Fusariumgraminearum (Fg. Levels of Hv-SGT1 showed substantial increase following treatment with H2O2 and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, only slightly induced following exposure to ethephon or abscisic acid, but not changed following exposure to salicylic acid. The demonstration that silencing of Hv-SGT1 substantially reduced resistance to Bgt indicated that Hv-SGT1 was an essential component of disease resistance in H. villosa. The over-expression of Hv-SGT1 in Yangmai 158 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew, and this correlated with increased levels of whole-cell reactive oxygen intermediates at the sites of penetration by the pathogens. Compared with wild-type plants, the expression levels of genes related to the H2O2 and JA signaling pathways were lower in the Hv-SGT1 silenced plants and higher in the Hv-SGT1 over-expressing plants. Therefore, the involvement of Hv-SGT1 in H2O2 production correlates with the hypersensitive response and jasmonic acid signaling. Our novel demonstration that wheat with over-expressed Hv-SGT1 showed enhanced resistance to both powdery mildew and FHB suggests that it could served as a transgenic genetic resource in wheat breeding for multiple disease resistance.

  14. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the presence of cassava flour, soaking improved average daily gain. Diets supplemented with water soaked Acacia leaves probably also need an energy supplement and cassava flour is one of the feed ingredients that is satisfactory. (author)

  15. How the west was won: Charles Muskavitch, James Roth, and the arrival of ‘scientific’ art conservation in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Adam Hindin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the careers of the first two art conservators in North America active outside the north-eastern United States: Charles Muskavitch (1904–2001 and James Roth (1910–1990. Both men trained at the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University during the 1930s as part of the initial cohort of modern, ‘scientific’ conservators, and remained professionally active into the 1970s. Muskavitch worked initially in Dallas, Texas, and then, from 1939 onward, in Sacramento, California; Roth spent his entire career in Kansas City, Missouri. It is argued that despite their pioneering contributions, they became peripheral to dominant narratives of conservation history because their modest social backgrounds and geographic distance from major institutions led them to be excluded from the powerful networks that developed among their Ivy League-educated contemporaries in the northeast, which continue to shape U.S. conservation up to the present.

  16. Apropiación y alienación: consideraciones hermenéutico-existenciales a propósito de la Pastoral americana de Philip Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Darío Vélez López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una formulación básica de algunos elementos relevantes de la hermenéutica fenomenológica de Heidegger, el presente artículo propone una lectura de la obra del escritor norteamericano Philip Roth titulada Pastoral americana, que lo hizo acreedor al premio Pulitzer en 1989. El propósito cen- tral de esa lectura consiste en mostrar de qué manera fenómenos existenciales elementales como estar-lejos (Wegsein, estar-despierto (Wachsein, estar-ahí (Dasein permiten una articulación propia del sentido de la obra de Roth en la que ésta manifiesta su particular compromiso existencial.

  17. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos de Melissa officinalis L. e Mentha x villosa L. na germinação e vigor de sementes de Plantago major L. Allelopathic effect of extracts of Melissa officinallis L. and Mentha x villosa L. on seed germination and vigor of Plantago major L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.G. Bonfim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de hortelã e melissa na germinação e vigor de sementes de tanchagem. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no mês de abril de 2011. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100 % do extrato aquoso de hortelã e melissa e quatro repetições. Os extratos foram preparados utilizando a parte aérea das plantas, na proporção de 100g de planta para 1 L de água destilada. Foram utilizadas 50 sementes de tanchagem em cada caixa gerbox, previamente umedecido com os extratos aquosos (correspondentes aos tratamentos, estas foram levadas para germinar em câmara de germinação, em temperatura de 20°C, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz e 8 horas escuro, por 14 dias. Durante esse tempo foram feitas às contagens diárias das sementes germinadas para calcular o índice de velocidade de germinação e ao final dos 14 dias foi calculada a porcentagem de germinação. Sementes de tanchagem não submetidas aos extratos aquosos de melissa e hortelã apresentaram-se mais vigorosas quando comparado com as concentrações, evidenciando o potencial alelopático de melissa e hortelã sobre a sua qualidade fisiológica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Melissa officinallis and Mentha x villosa for the germination and vigor of Plantago major seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Science Department, Federal University of Viçosa, in April 2011. The design was a completely randomized design with five treatments (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the aqueous extract of Mentha x villosa and Melissa Officinallis and four replications. The extracts were prepared utulizando the shoots of plants at the rate of 100g of plant to 1 L of distilled water. We used 50 Plantago major seeds in each box incubator and these were subsequently placed in a

  18. van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-12-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.

  19. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila González Molina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis: multiestratos (MUL, callejones (CALL y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG. Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema TMC. Las tasas de cambio de COS estimadas con el RothC, en ambas profundidades de suelo, estuvieron en 0,5-1,2, 0,4-0,8, 0,3-0,5 y 0,04-0,1 Mg ha-1 de C por año en los sistemas HIG, MUL, CALL y TMC, respectivamente, y fueron consistentes con las reportadas en la literatura. El desempeño del RothC tuvo 89% de eficiencia (EF, con R²=0,9, lo que muestra que este modelo puede usarse con información temporal del COS escasa, información de la historia de uso de suelo y mediciones de la entrada de residuos vegetales aéreos y subterráneos en el suelo.

  20. Biochemical characterization of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum (Asteraceae) from Montenegro: phytochemical screening, chemotaxonomy, and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladar, Nebojša V; Anačkov, Goran T; Rat, Milica M; Srđenović, Branislava U; Grujić, Nevena N; Šefer, Emilia I; Božin, Biljana N

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and EtOH extract of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum, Asteraceae) collected in Montenegro were evaluated. The essential oil was characterized by GC/MS analysis, and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the EtOH extract was determined using the FolinCiocalteu reagent. The free-radical-scavenging capacity (RSC) of both the essential oil and the EtOH extract was assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical ((.) OH) generation by the EtOH extract of immortelle was evaluated for the first time here. Neryl acetate (28.2%) and γ-curcumene (18.8%) were the main compounds in the essential oil, followed by neryl propionate (9.1%) and ar-curcumene (8.3%). The chemical composition of the oils of the examined and additional 16 selected Helichrysum italicum taxa described in literature were compared using principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The results of the statistical analyses implied the occurrence of at least four different main and three subchemotypes of essential oils. Considering the antioxidant properties, the EtOH extract of immortelle exhibited similar potential as propyl gallate and quercetin, while the essential oil exhibited relatively weak DPPH(.) -scavenging capacity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. Primary experiment aimed at selecting the suitable dose to mutation induction in vicia faba major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulsi, Imad; Mir Ali, Nizar

    1992-08-01

    Seeds of a local faba been variety (Mahali) (Vicia faba major) were irradiated with (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 Gy) of gamma rays and sown under greenhouse and field conditions in Deir Al-Hajar Research Station near Damascus. Four replicates were used in a randomized complete block design. Germination percentage, seedling height, and daily growth rate, were estimated one month and two months after planting for the greenhouse and field treatments respectively. The results showed a stimulation effect in the 5 Gy dose, whereas, the higher doses showed a gradual decrease in seedling height. Doses up to 20 Gy had a similar germination percentage to that of the control (about 75%) whereas, the germination percentage decreased sharply at the higher doses (3% and 0.2% for the 100 Gy under greenhouse and the field respectively). The doses between 20 and 40 Gy were considered optimal for mutation from the plant breeder point of view where the lethality was moderate and an acceptable rate of mutation was shown. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  2. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  3. Influence of copper on morphologic properties of roots of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1973-01-01

    Relatively few papers deal with anatomic-morphological changes taking place due to deficiency or toxical influence of copper. There are few papers relating to the influence of higher copper concentrations on morphological properties. Comparative studies investigating copper toxicity have not been worked out in detail. Experiments determining toxicity have been carried out on different substrates. This substrate is very important since there is the question of the bond of copper with various substances, which are found in substrate and which reduce, to a certain extent, the toxicity of copper. Maximum toxicity can be found out in aqueous and sand cultures. High toxicity of copper ions depends, to a large extent, on the stability of its complex compounds, which results in the stability of copper to separate other metals from different compounds. In this way copper inactivates enzymes and various biologically active substances. The problem of toxicity has been widely studied. The author considers the concentration of 0.5 mg Cu/l is a limit of copper toxicity with oat, whereas the concentration of 0.25 mg is toxical for the sprouts of citruses. It is obvious that the limit of toxicity cannot be exactly determined since there are several factors involved (sort of plant, use of cultivation method etc.) This paper was aimed at finding out the influence of higher copper concentrations on morphological changes of roots, stem and leaves of bean Vicia faba.

  4. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  5. Detection of genotoxic effects of drinking water disinfection by-products using Vicia faba bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Tan, Li; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Ting; Han, Xue; Liu, Na; Lu, Wen-Qing; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based bioassays have gained wide use among the toxicological and/or ecotoxicological assessment procedures because of their simplicity, sensitivity, low cost, and reliability. The present study describes the use of Vicia faba (V. faba) micronucleus (MN) test and V. faba comet assay in the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in chlorine-disinfected drinking water. Five haloacetic acids and three halogenated acetonitriles were chosen as representatives of DBPs in this study because they are of potentially great public health risk. Results of the MN test indicated that monochloroacetic acid (MCA), monobromoacetic acid (MBA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) caused a statistically significant increase in MN frequency in V. faba root tip cells. However, no genotoxic response was observed for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN). Results of the comet assay showed that all tested DBPs induced a statistically significant increase in genomic DNA damage to V. faba root tip cells. On considering the capacity to detect genomic damage of a different nature, we suggest that a combination of V. faba MN test and V. faba comet assay is a useful tool for the detection of genotoxic effects of DBPs. It is worthy of assessing the feasibility of using V. faba comet assay combined with V. faba MN test to screen for the genotoxic activity of chlorinated drinking water in future work.

  6. Physiological aspects of fungi isolated from root nodules of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, S A; Abd-Alla, M H

    2000-03-01

    The present study was made to isolate and assess some physiological characteristics of root nodule-colonizing fungi. During this study, 17 fungal species were isolated from root nodule samples taken from faba bean plants (Vicia faba L.) collected from different sites at Assiut area (Egypt). The growth of faba bean plants in pots was significantly promoted by soil inoculation with most fungi. Growth was checked in pots with inocula of Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium moniliforme, F: oxysporium, F solani, Macrophominia phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani which were added separately. All growth-promoting fungi were capable of producing cellulase, pectin lyase, polygalacturonase, protease, urease, amidase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and arylsulfatase in growth medium supplemented with the corresponding substrates. Four fungal species, Aspergillus awamori, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma koningii showed the highest rates of enzyme formation. The effect of the addition of six trace elements to the growth media at 30 micromol/ml on enzyme production revealed some dependency on species, enzyme and metal ion. Cd2+, Hg2+ and Zn2+ generally inhibited enzyme activity. Cu(1+), Fe3+ and Al3+ showed a stimulatory effect. Fungicides (afugan and tilt) and herbicides (brominal and fusilade) at 50 ppm generally promoted enzyme activity, but insecticides (kelthane and fenvalerate) caused some inhibition to enzyme activities. Salinization of the growth media with NaCl strongly inhibited the enzymatic activity of all fungi at concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5%.

  7. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  8. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  9. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit.

  10. Strategies of copper tolerance in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latef, A.A.H.; Alhmad, M.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dry mass and some physiological parameters were investigated in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO/sub 4/ (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg/sup -1/) for 15 days. Low Cu concentration did not affect dry mass of root and shoot. However, the negative effect of copper on dry mass was noticed in root than shoot especially at the higher concentrations of copper due to the accumulation of Cu was higher in root than that in shoot. Cu induced changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, Zn, K and Ca. Exposure to Cu induced the accumulation of organic solutes (soluble sugar, soluble protein and total free amino acids) in root than shoot. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was correlated with the concentration of Cu in broad bean tissues. Copper stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and this stimulation was more obvious in shoot than root. (author)

  11. Effects of Cultivar and Maternal Environment on Seed Quality in Vicia sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Chen, Lijun; Wu, Yanpei; Zhang, Rui; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Hu, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    Production of high quality seeds is of fundamental importance for successful crop production. However, knowledge of the effects of increased temperature resulting from global warming on seed quality of alpine species is limited. We investigated the effect of maternal environment on seed quality of three cultivars of the leguminous forage species Vicia sativa, giving particular attention to temperature. Plants of each cultivar were grown at 1700 and 3000 m a.s.l., and mass, germination, electrical conductivity (EC) of leakage and longevity were determined for mature seeds. Seeds of all three cultivars produced at the low elevation had a significantly lower mass and longevity but higher EC of leachate than those produced at the high elevation, suggesting that increased temperatures decreased seed quality. However, seed viability did not differ between elevations. The effects of maternal environment on seed germination strongly depended on cultivar and germination temperature. At 10 and 15°C, seeds of “Lanjian 3” produced at high elevation germinated to higher percentages and rates than those produced at low elevation, but the opposite trend was observed at 20°C. However, for seeds of “Lanjian 1” and “Lanjian 2,” no significant effect of elevation was observed in germination percentage. Our results indicate that the best environment for the production of high quality seeds (e.g., high seed mass, low EC, high seed longevity) of V. sativa is one in which temperatures are relatively low during seed development. PMID:28861096

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  13. Guard cell zeaxanthin tracks photosynthetically active radiation and stomatal apertures in Vicia faba leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Zeiger, E.

    1995-01-01

    Zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations in guard cells from sonicated abaxial epidermal peels of Vicia faba were measured from dawn to dusk, and compared with concentrations in mesophyll tissue of the same leaves. Measured changes in guard cell zeaxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations indicate that guard cells operate the xanthophyll cycle throughout the day. Mesophyll tissue had no detectable zeaxanthin at dawn, whereas guard cells had 30–50 mmol mol −1 chlorophyll a+b. On a chlorophyll basis, maximal zeaxanthin levels were 3–4 fold higher in guard cells than in mesophyll cells. Zeaxanthin concentrations tracked levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in both mesophyll and guard cells. In the mesophyll, most of the zeaxanthin changes occurred in mid-morning and mid-afternoon. In guard cells, zeaxanthin concentrations changed nearly linearly with PAR in the early morning and late afternoon, and closely tracked PAR levels throughout the day. Guard cell zeaxanthin concentrations were also closely correlated with stomatal apertures. The close relationship between zeaxanthin concentrations and PAR levels in guard cells indicates that zeaxanthin is well suited to function as a molecular photosensor in stomatal movements. (author)

  14. Salinity-induced modulation of plant growth and photosynthetic parameters in faba bean (vicia faba) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.; Embiale, A.; Husen, A.; Eref, I.E.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The present study assesses salt-tolerant cultivars of Vicia faba L.on the basis of their growth, biomass and foliar characteristics. Four levels of salt stress (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) were applied to three selected cultivars, viz. Degaga, Dosha and Hachalu. Results revealed significant differences among the cultivars, salt-stress treatments, and their interaction, indicating the cultivars' variability and differential response to salt stress. Salinity stress adversely affected plant growth, plant water status and biomass production. Salt treatments decreased the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, but cultivar Dosha, which was ahead of others in height, leaf number, relative water content, total biomass and leaf-dry-mass ratio, was least affected. Functional leaf characters, such as photochemical efficiency of PSII (maximum quantum yield = Fv/Fm), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (E) were also reduced under salt-stress, and againDosha cultivar did better than others except in gs. The relatively less decline in growth, water status, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and functional leaf characters of Dosha exhibits a reasonable tolerance ability of this cultivar, while the other two varieties viz., Degaga and Hachalu proved to be sensitive to salt stress. (author)

  15. The Effects of Mineral Nitrogen on the Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen by Vicia Faba L; Vliyanie mineral'nogo azota na fiksatsiyu atmosfernogo azota u Vicia Faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouhova, G.; Apltauer, J. [Central' nyj Issledovatel' Skij Institut Rastenievodstva, Praga, CHSSR (Czech Republic)

    1968-07-01

    From 1964 to 1966 a systematic research vas carried out at the Central Research Institute for Plant Production in Prague - Ruzyne, aimed at examining the effect of gradually increased levels of nitrogen and various forms of nitrogen in nitrogen fertilizers on the yield, nitrogen content and the nodulation of the roots of horse bean (Vicia faba LQ. By means of {sup 15}N, the proportion of the total nitrogen content of the plant derived from the fertilizer as well as the total utilization of the nitrogen fertilizer by the plant were determined. The experiments were carried out in a series of greenhouse pot tests using a brown soil type, with ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate as the nitrogen sources. Gradually-increased-levels of nitrogen in ammonium sulphate (0, 5.2, 26.2, 52.5 and 105.0 mgN/kg of soil) applied to the horse bean did not exert any substantial effect on the yield of fresh aerial parts of the horse bean, when harvested at the flowering period. The nitrogen content of tissues of the fertilized plants differed from the control plants (without nitrogen addition) only at the highest nitrogen level (2.7% compared to 3.4% N). The proportion of nitrogen absorbed from the nitrogen fertilizer by whole plant, increased almost as a linear function of nitrogen supplied. Thus the whole plant consumed 51 to 57% of the nitrogen from the first two fertilizer levels, and 64 to 69% from the last two levels of fertilizer, the 52.5-mg and 105-mg levels. In comparing nitrogen supplied as potassium nitrate with nitrogen in ammonium sulphate, at a level of 26.2 mg N/kg of soil, no difference of yield and of percentage nitrogen content in the aerial part of horse bean was found between the plants grown with the nitrogen fertilizers and control plants. The isotopical analysis of nitrogen showed that in the aerial part of horse bean plant the percentage proportion of nitrogen deriving from the fertilizer was higher when potassium nitrate was used (10.8%), than in case of

  16. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    dry biomass yield. By experimental results can be summarised that we was able to increase with a great rate Crotalaria juncea L. total green biomass yield and total air dry biomass yield by N and Desferal treatments. As well as so we can show and offer different nutrition systems -with input of low, mean, high level- to different sustainable farming managements next future. Acknowledgements This research was supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest Hungary, National Vegetable Crops Research Centre, Brazília-DF Brazíl and University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore India References Arnalds, O. and Archer, S. 1999. Case studies of Rangeland desertification. Rala report 200. Agricultural Research Institute. Reykjavik Kiyoko, H. 1996. Study of the utilization of sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea, in different sowing dates, 1995 and 1996, Okinawa-II, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. CETABOL. Santa Cruz. Bolivia Márton, L. 1997. Soil conservation research in a long term field experiment. Work paper. UAD. Karcag Márton, L. 1999. Diseases information of an alternative -Crotalaria juncea L.- crop. Plant Protection. 35:529-531. Márton, L. 2001. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 43:1-8. Shenker, M., Hadar, Y. and Chen, Y. 1996. Stability Constants of the Fungal Siderophore Rhizoferrin with Various Microelements and Calcium. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:1140-1144.

  17. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: winabudi@yahoo.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-08-19

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the

  18. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC Simulation of soil organic carbon changes in crop systems with castor bean using the RothC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila González Molina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis: multiestratos (MUL, callejones (CALL y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG. Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema TMC. Las tasas de cambio de COS estimadas con el RothC, en ambas profundidades de suelo, estuvieron en 0,5-1,2, 0,4-0,8, 0,3-0,5 y 0,04-0,1 Mg ha-1 de C por año en los sistemas HIG, MUL, CALL y TMC, respectivamente, y fueron consistentes con las reportadas en la literatura. El desempeño del RothC tuvo 89% de eficiencia (EF, con R²=0,9, lo que muestra que este modelo puede usarse con información temporal del COS escasa, información de la historia de uso de suelo y mediciones de la entrada de residuos vegetales aéreos y subterráneos en el suelo.The objective of this work was to simulate, by the RothC model, the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC caused by changes of land use - from the traditional maize-squash (TMC association to systems with castor bean (Ricinus communis: multilayer (MUL, alleys (CALL and monoculture (HIG. SOC simulations were performed for 0-20 and 0-40 cm soil depths, for the period 1980-2040, considering the TMC system as the base line. SOC change rates estimated with RothC, for both soil depths, were 0.5-1.2, 0.4-0.8, 0.3-0.5 and 0.04-0.1 Mg ha-1 C per year in the HIG, MUL, CALL and TMC systems, respectively, and were consistent with those reported in the literature. RothC perfomance had 89% efficiency (EF and R² = 0.9, which shows that this model can be used with scarce SOC temporal information, information on the history of land use, and with input measurements of aerial and underground plant residues in the soil.

  19. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  20. Role of O2 in the Growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 on Glucose and Succinate

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Rachel M.; Ramachandran, Vinoy K.; Geddes, Barney A.; Perry, Benjamin J.; Yost, Chris K.; Poole, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Insertion sequencing (INSeq) analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv3841) grown on glucose or succinate at both 21% and 1% O2 was used to understand how O2 concentration alters metabolism. Two transcriptional regulators were required for growth on glucose (pRL120207 [eryD] and RL0547 [phoB]), five were required on succinate (pRL100388, RL1641, RL1642, RL3427, and RL4524 [ecfL]), and three were required on 1% O2 (pRL110072, RL0545 [phoU], and RL4042). A novel toxin-antitoxin s...

  1. Induction of fungal disease resistance in Vicia faba by dual inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, G H

    1998-01-01

    Infection of Vicia faba with Bothytis fabae causes significant decreases in growth vigour, total nitrogen content, number of nodules and nutrient accumulation. Na-uptake and phenolics concentration increased compared to that of noninfected plants. In contrast, dual inoculation of Rhizobium and VA mycorrhizae increased all above parameters suggesting a distinct improvement of the plants. The results also revealed that an inverse correlation may exist between phenolic, calcium, magnesium and zinc concentrations in mycorrhizal plant tissues grown in presence of rhizobial bacteria and the disease severity. From these findings we conclude a possible role of both VA mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial bacteria in the decrease of susceptibility of plants.

  2. In situ hybridization of iodinated 5S and 18/25S RNA to Vicia faba metaphase chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, I.; Baeumlein, H.; Wobus, U.

    1978-01-01

    In vitro labelled 125 I ribosomal RNA fractions (18/25S and 5S) were in situ hybridized to metaphase chromosomes of a reconstructed karyotype of Vicia faba (characterized by two translocations and one pericentric inversion, each being present homozygously). The sites of 18S and 25S RNA were found to be confined to the nucleolus organizing secondary constriction. Two loci of 5S RNA were recognized on the satellite of nucleolus bearing chromosome. Possible correlations between the location of ribosomal genes, heterochromatic G-bands and clusters of mutagen induced chromatid aberrations are discussed. (author)

  3. Effects of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide on net photosynthesis and dark respiration of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, V J; Unsworth, M H

    1979-01-01

    Rates of net photosynthesis, P/sub N/, and dark respiration of Vicia faba plants were measured in the laboratory in clean air and in air containing up to 175 parts 10/sup -9/ (500 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/. At all SO/sub 2/ concentrations exceeding 35 parts 10/sup -9/, P/sub N/ was inhibited compared with clean air. At light saturation, the magnitude of inhibition depended on SO/sub 2/ concentration but at low irradiances the inhibition was independent of concentration. Dark respiration rates increased substantially, independent of concentration. When exposures continued for up to 3 days, P/sub N/ returned to clean air values about 1 h after fumigation ceased: dark respiration recovered after one photoperiod. There were no visible injuries. Reviewing possible mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of P/sub N/, it is suggested that SO/sub 2/ competes with CO/sub 2/ for binding sites in RuBP carboxylase. Analysis of resistance analogues demonstrates that SO/sub 2/ altered both stomatal and internal (residual) resistances. A model of crop photosynthesis shows the implications of the observed responses for the growth of field crops in which plants are assumed to respond like laboratory plants. Photosynthesis of the crop would be less sensitive than that of individual plants to SO/sub 2/ concentration. Daily dry matter accumulation of hypothetical polluted crops would be substantially less than clean air values but would vary relatively little with SO/sub 2/ concentration. It is concluded that physiological bases exist to account for observed reductions in growth of plants at very low SO/sub 2/ concentrations, and that thresholds for plant responses to SO/sub 2/ require reassessment. 30 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  4. Vigencia del método de Roth para la determinación de fuerzas de cortocircuito en devanados de transformadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Aponte Mayor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: Debido a la dificultad para realizar la prueba de aptitud al cortocircuito en transformadores de gran potencia, la norma IEC 60076-5 2006 de la Comisión Electrotécnica Internacional acepta como método alternativo la estimación de las fuerzas y esfuerzos a través de cálculo y consideraciones de diseño. Método: En este artículo se presenta la implementación del método analítico de Roth para el cálculo de las fuerzas axiales y radiales de cortocircuito en un transformador trifásico con núcleo tipo columnas de 630kVA. Resultados: Las fuerzas máximas obtenidas con el método de Roth son comparables con las calculadas a través de métodos modernos para el diseño de transformadores como el método de elementos finitos, las diferencias entre los cálculos fueron mínimas a excepción de la fuerza axial máxima del devanado de baja tensión. Conclusiones: Aunque el método de Roth es una herramienta tradicional para solución de problemas de electromagnetismo, este es adecuado para hacer una estimación rápida y sencilla de parámetros magnéticos y fuerzas de cortocircuito en transformadores.

  5. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  6. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  7. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet

  8. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  9. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M.; Sillero, Josefina C.

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  10. Characterization resistance mechanisms in faba bean (Vicia faba against broomrape species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rubiales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegytiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further

  11. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M; Sillero, Josefina C

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean ( Vicia faba ) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata , although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca , and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida . Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa , neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri , or P. aegyptiaca . Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca , suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited

  12. Drivers of soil organic matter vulnerability to climate change, Part II: RothC modelling of carbon dynamics including radiocarbon data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Abiven, Samuel; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Reisser, Moritz; Walthert, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Stephan; Niklaus, Pascal A.

    2016-04-01

    It is still largely unknown what drives the vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to climate change, i.e. the likelihood of a soil to loose its SOC along with the change in environmental conditions. Our objective is to assess the SOC vulnerability of Swiss forest soils and identify its potential drivers: climate (temperature, soil moisture), soil (clay content, pH) and landscape (slope, aspect) properties. Fifty-four sites were selected for balanced spatial and driver magnitudes distribution. We measured the SOC characteristics (content and radiocarbon) and studied the C decomposition by laboratory soil incubations (details in Part I, abstract by B. González Domínguez). In order to assess the current SOC pool distribution and its radiocarbon signatures, we extended the Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) model with radiocarbon (14C) isotope modelling (RothCiso). The RothC model distinguishes four active SOC pools, decomposable and resistant plant material, microbial biomass and humified organic matter, and an inert SOC pool (Jenkinson 1990). The active pools are decomposed and mineralized to CO2 by first order kinetics. The RothCiso assigns all pools a 14C signature, based on the atmospheric 14C concentrations of the past century (plant C inputs) and their turnover. Currently we constrain the model with 14C signatures measured on the 54 fresh and their corresponding archived bulk soil samples, taken 12-24 years before. We were able to reproduce the measured radiocarbon concentrations of the SOC with the RothCiso and first results indicate, that the assumption of an inert SOC pool, that is radiocarbon dead, is not appropriate. In a second step we will compare the SOC mean residence time assessed by the two methodological approaches - incubation (C efflux based) and modelling (C stock based) - and relate it to the environmental drivers mentioned above. With the combination of the two methodological approaches and 14C analysis we hope to gain more insights into

  13. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  14. Inducing somatic meiosis-like reduction at high frequency by caffeine in root-tip cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Zhang, L; Zhou, Y; Geng, Y; Chen, Z

    2000-07-20

    Germinated seeds of Vicia faba were treated in caffeine solutions of different concentration for different durations to establish the inducing system of somatic meiosis-like reduction. The highest frequency of somatic meiosis-like reduction could reach up to 54.0% by treating the root tips in 70 mmol/l caffeine solution for 2 h and restoring for 24 h. Two types of somatic meiosis-like reduction were observed. One was reductional grouping, in which the chromosomes in a cell usually separated into two groups, and the role of spindle fibers did not show. The other type was somatic meiosis, which was analogous to meiosis presenting in gametogenesis, and chromosome pairing and chiasmata were visualized.

  15. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees.

  16. Vicia cytogenetic tests for environmental mutagens. A report of the US Environmental Protection Agency gene-tox program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T H

    1982-01-01

    Vicia root-tip mitotic and pollen mother-cell meiotic tests are two major kinds of cytogenetic tests for environmental mutagens. According to the present review, 81 of 85 earlier studies used mitotic tests to determine the frequencies of chromosome or chromatid aberrations and/or sister-chromatid exchange from root-tip meristematic cells; only 4 used meiotic tests to determine the frequencies of chromosome aberration from pollen mother cells. Treatment of root-tip meristem can be done by allowing the newly germinated roots to absorb the chemical mutagens from a water solution. Pollen mother cells can be treated by spraying the solution or pipetting the liquid over the flower buds. After an appropriate recovery time, the samples are fixed and stained, and the slides are prepared for metaphase or anaphase figures for scoring aberration frequencies. Slides for meiotic tests are prepared for metaphase I and/or Anaphase I stages for scoring chromosome aberration frequencies. Results of both cytogenetic tests should be expressed in terms of number of breaks per cell or per 100 cells. Test results of 76 chemicals from 32 classes in this review indicate that the Vicia root-tip mitotic test is reliable, efficient, and relatively inexpensive. These results also reveal that antibiotics are most frequently studied, followed by alkyl sulfones, pyrimidine, and purine derivatives. Of all the agents studied through root-tip mitotic tests, about 90% gave positive responses; antibiotics (phyleomycin and bleomycin) had very high mutagenicity (less than 1 ppM gave positive response).

  17. Effect of exogenous abscisic acid on accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the abscisic acid (ABA in biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols (Gal-C in tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds was investigated. The ABA was applied through incubation of seed at various stage of its development. The level of RFOs and Gal-C was determined in seed maturing on plant and in seed maturing in vitro. In early stages of V. hirsuta seed development, the ABA activated the biosynthesis of galactinol, although the level of arisen galactinol quickly declined. In the later stages of V. hirsuta seed development ABA had stimulatory effect of RFOs and Gal-C biosynthesis. Influence of ABA on biosynthesis of a-galactosides in Vicia hirsuta seed seems to be dependent on abscisic acid concentration. Low concentration of ABA had stimulatory effect on a-galactosides biosynthesis, but high concentration of ABA inhibited the process.

  18. Phytochemical study of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don: Spectroscopic elucidation of unusual amino-phlorogucinols and antimicrobial assessment of secondary metabolites from medium-polar extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; Buommino, Elisabetta; Caputo, Pina; Scognamiglio, Monica; Chambery, Angela; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Three unusual amino-phloroglucinols, named helichrytalicines A-C, along with seventeen known compounds including acetophenones, tremetrone derivatives, low-molecular weight phenols, flavonol glucosides, have been isolated from the medium-polar extract of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, a medicinal plant typical of the Mediterranean vegetation. The structures of the compounds have been elucidated based on extensive 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses, including COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, CIGAR-HMBC, H2BC and HSQC-TOCSY, along with Q-TOF HRMS 2 analysis. Stereostructure of the new compounds has been elucidated by Mosher's method and NOESY experiment. Antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus epidermidis of selected compounds have been evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling radionuclide Cs and C dynamics in an artificial forest ecosystem in Japan -FoRothCs ver1.0-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya eNishina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the environmental fate of Cs radionuclides in forest ecosystems is important for the effective management and assessment of radioactively contaminated forest areas. A large proportion of the radioactively contaminated areas in Japan consist of forest ecosystems, and most of these areas are artificial forests that are used for timber production (e.g., Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica and red pine (Pinus densiflora. Determining the long-term redistribution of 137Cs in forest ecosystems is important for estimating human doses and understanding the ecological impacts and challenges associated with managing contaminated forests. To facilitate the management and 137Cs decontamination of these forests, we developed a new open-source 137Cs cycling model, ForRothCs, that considers C cycling within forests, as well as biomass production and soil decomposition processes. For the 137Cs inventory, this model estimates the dynamics (Bq m−2 and activity (Bq kg−2 of 137Cs on a decadal time scale, primarily in the leaves, branches, stems, litter layer, and the soil. This model is based on the biomass production and the dynamics of the C cycle models. We tested the model by considering a simple scenario of forest management, i.e., thinning and harvesting, for the first five years following a fallout event. The results showed that these activities have a limited impact on the 137Cs inventory due to the rapid migration of 137Cs from vegetation to soil. Our projections also showed the examined forest management practices resulted in reduced litterfall, which in turn reduced C input to the forest floor and increased the concentration of 137Cs in the litterfall and soil organic layer. Although further validation of the ForRothCs model is required using field observation data, the model can be used to evaluate long-term 137Cs dynamics associated with commonly used forest and decontamination management scenarios.

  20. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  1. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137 Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137 Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137 Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137 Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137 Cs pollution

  2. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  3. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  4. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  5. Estimation of the effect of radionuclide contamination on Vicia sativa L. induction of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters using "Floratest" optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Yu.; Illienko, V.; Nesterova, N.; Pareniuk, O.; Shavanova, K.

    2017-12-01

    The presented research was aimed to determine the parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChH) curve induction for Vicia sativa L. that were grown on radionuclide contaminated soils by using "Floratest" fluorometer. Plants were inoculated with 5 species of bacteria that might potentially block radionuclide uptake (Agrobacterium radiobacter IMBB-7246, Azotobacter chroococcum UKMB-6082, A. chroococcum UKMB-6003, Bacillus megaterium UKMB-5724, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae) and grown in sod-podzolic, chernozem and peat-bog soils, contaminated with 137Cs (4000±340 Bq/kg). As a result of research, it was determined that the most stressful factors for vetch plants are combination of soil radionuclide and presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, as the number of inactive chlorophyll increased. In addition, the vetch plants significantly increased fixed level of fluorescence (Fst) under the influence of radioactive contamination in presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, indicating inhibition of photosynthetic reactions. Other bacteria showed radioprotective properties in almost all types of soil.

  6. The Kok effect in Vicia faba cannot be explained solely by changes in chloroplastic CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Vice, Heather; Adams, Mark A

    2017-12-01

    The Kok effect - an abrupt decline in quantum yield (QY) of net CO 2 assimilation at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) - is widely used to estimate respiration in the light (R), which assumes the effect is caused by light suppression of R. A recent report suggested much of the Kok effect can be explained by declining chloroplastic CO 2 concentration (c c ) at low PPFD. Several predictions arise from the hypothesis that the Kok effect is caused by declining c c , and we tested these predictions in Vicia faba. We measured CO 2 exchange at low PPFD, in 2% and 21% oxygen, in developing and mature leaves, which differed greatly in R in darkness. Our results contradicted each of the predictions based on the c c effect: QY exceeded the theoretical maximum value for photosynthetic CO 2 uptake; QY was larger in 21% than 2% oxygen; and the change in QY at the Kok effect breakpoint was unaffected by oxygen. Our results strongly suggest the Kok effect arises largely from a progressive decline in R with PPFD that includes both oxygen-sensitive and -insensitive components. We suggest an improved Kok method that accounts for high c c at low PPFD. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

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    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  8. Profiling of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of European varieties and cultivars of Vicia faba L. pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Inês M; Maia, Margarida R G; Malushi, Nertila; Oliveira, Hugo M; Papa, Lumturi; Rodrigues, José A; Fonseca, António J M; Cabrita, Ana R J

    2018-08-01

    Vicia faba L. pods are a by-product generated from the industrial processing of beans for human and animal consumption. As phenolic compounds may play important roles in health, the present work envisaged the phenolic characterization of seven European varieties and cultivars of V. faba (major and minor) pods and the assessment of their antioxidant activity. The V. faba methanolic extracts were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS for identification of polyphenolic compounds. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were evaluated by colorimetric methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH scavenging capacity assay, and FRAP assay). Main compounds identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were derivatives of caffeic acid, coumaric acid and kaempferol. The broad bean Jögeva variety presented the highest content of free and esterified phenolics (26.3 and 26.7 mg 100 g -1 dry weight, respectively), followed by the horse bean varieties Bauska and Lielplatones. These results were corroborated by the analysis of total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging capacity and FRAP. This study confirmed the rich phenolic content of V. faba pods suggesting to be an interesting novel source for animal nutrition, promoting product quality and consumers' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An analysis of the energetic reward offered by field bean (Vicia faba) flowers: Nectar, pollen, and operative force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Emily J; Pattrick, Jonathan G; Glover, Beverley J

    2018-03-01

    Global consumption of crops with a yield that is dependent on animal pollinators is growing, with greater areas planted each year. However, the floral traits that influence pollinator visitation are not usually the focus of breeding programmes, and therefore, it is likely that yield improvements may be made by optimizing floral traits to enhance pollinator visitation rates. We investigated the variation present in the floral reward of the bee-pollinated crop Vicia faba (field bean). We examined the genetic potential for breeding flowers with a greater reward into current commercial varieties and used bee behavioral experiments to gain insight into the optimal nectar concentration to maximize bee preference. There was a large range of variation in the amount of pollen and nectar reward of flowers in the genotypes investigated. Bee behavioral experiments using nectar sugar concentrations found in V. faba lines suggest that Bombus terrestris prefers 55% w/w sugar solution over 40% w/w, but has no preference between 55% w/w and 68% w/w sugar solution. We provide a first indication of the force required to open V. faba flowers. Our results provide a valuable starting point toward breeding for varieties with optimized floral reward. Field studies are now needed to verify whether the genetic potential for breeding more rewarding flowers can translate into higher yield and yield stability.

  10. Modulation of adverse impact of chilling in Vicia faba L. by methyl jasmonate involves changes in antioxidant metabolism and metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Rashed, S.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted experiments to assess the effect of chilling (10 degree C) stress on growth, nitrogen and antioxidant components of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and the role of methyl jasmonate (MJ 25 meu M) in growth regulation and amelioration of chilling stress. Chilling temperature significantly reduced growth and pigment synthesis which was however significantly improved by application of MJ. Nodule growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogen content were negatively affected by chilling and MJ application caused significant improvement in these attributes. Application of MJ significantly enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes resulting in reduced oxidative damage. Chilling stressed plants exhibited higher lipid peroxidation and production of hydrogen peroxide. Ascorbic acid and phenol contents were observed to increase by 8.4% and 7.9% due to MJ providing strength to plants against chilling stress. In addition application of MJ was observed to maintain optimal levels of abscissic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) resulting in coordinated regulation of defence mechanisms against chilling stress. (author)

  11. De novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L. for transfer cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruba Shankari eArun Chinnappa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba (L. is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC development. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC development. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb, however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form TCs, generated 69.5M reads, of which 65.8M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach within CLC Genomics Workbench v6.1 generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  12. Validation of QTLs for Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) across environments and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ruiz, Ramón; Torres, A M; Satovic, Z; Gutierrez, M V; Cubero, J I; Román, Belén

    2010-03-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a major root-parasite of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), that seriously limits crop cultivation in the whole Mediterranean area. This parasitic weed is difficult to control, difficult to evaluate and the resistance identified so far is of polygenic nature. This study was conducted to identify genetic regions associated with broomrape resistance in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to validate their previous location in the original F(2) population derived from the cross between lines Vf6 and Vf136. A progeny consisting of 165 F(6) RILs was evaluated in three environments across two locations in 2003 and 2004. Two hundred seventy seven molecular markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups (9 of them assigned to specific chromosomes) that covered 2,856.7 cM of the V. faba genome. The composite interval mapping on the F(6) map detected more quantitative trait loci (QTL) than in the F(2) analysis. In this sense, four QTLs controlling O. crenata resistance (Oc2-Oc5) were identified in the RI segregant population in three different environments. Only Oc1, previously reported in the F(2) population, was not significant in the advanced lines. Oc2 and Oc3 were found to be associated with O. crenata resistance in at least two of the three environments, while the remaining two, Oc4 and Oc5, were only detected in Córdoba-04 and Mengíbar-04 and seemed to be environment dependent.

  13. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  14. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

    1986-01-01

    After pulse labeling of a source leaf with 14 CO 2 , stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of 14 C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of 14 C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of [ 14 C]sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced [ 14 C]sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved

  16. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-12-17

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg(-1), the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity.

  18. Chemical constituents of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don essential oil and their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzid Djihane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%. The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13.61%, α-Curcumene (11.41%, Geranyl acetate (10.05%, Limonene (6.07%, Nerol (5.04%, Neryl acetate (4.91% and α-Pinene (3.78%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed by using the disk diffusion method on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Enterococcus cereus ATCC 2035, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763 and fungi, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Ascochyta rabiei. H. italicum inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms except three bacteria, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumonia ATCC 4352 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313. The most sensitive bacterium was E. cereus ATCC 2035 with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.79 μg ml−1. A minimum fungistatic and fungicide concentration of 6.325 μg ml−1 and 12.65 μg ml−1 respectively was obtained with C. albicans ATCC 10231 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763. However the four fungi were more resistant with fungistatic minimum concentration ranging from 6.325 μg ml−1 to 50.6 μg ml−1 and a fungicide minimum

  19. Chemical constituents of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don essential oil and their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djihane, Bouzid; Wafa, Nouioua; Elkhamssa, Soltani; Pedro, De Haro Juan; Maria, Angeles Esteban; Mohamed Mihoub, Zerroug

    2017-07-01

    The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w) and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%). The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13.61%), α-Curcumene (11.41%), Geranyl acetate (10.05%), Limonene (6.07%), Nerol (5.04%), Neryl acetate (4.91%) and α-Pinene (3.78%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed by using the disk diffusion method on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Enterococcus cereus ATCC 2035, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763 and fungi, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum , Aspergillus niger , Alternaria alternata , Ascochyta rabiei . H. italicum inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms except three bacteria, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumonia ATCC 4352 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313. The most sensitive bacterium was E. cereus ATCC 2035 with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.79 μg ml -1 . A minimum fungistatic and fungicide concentration of 6.325 μg ml -1 and 12.65 μg ml -1 respectively was obtained with C. albicans ATCC 10231 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763. However the four fungi were more resistant with fungistatic minimum concentration ranging from 6.325 μg ml -1 to 50.6 μg ml -1 and a fungicide minimum concentration of 50

  20. Contribution to the analysis of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don. Determination of ester bonded acids and phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastelić, Josip; Politeo, Olivera; Jerković, Igor

    2008-04-07

    The essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don (everlasting or Immortelle essential oil) was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GCMS. Forty four compounds were identified. The main components were alpha-pinene(12.8%), 2-methyl-cyclohexyl pentanoate (11.1 %), neryl acetate (10.4%), 1,7-di-epi-alpha-cedrene (6.8%) and other compounds. The oil was fractionated and ester-containing fraction was hydrolysed with KOH/H(2)SO(4). The liberated volatiles were analysed by GC and GC-MS: three phenols and twenty seven volatile carboxylic acids were identified[70% low fatty acids (C(2)-C(5)), 15% C(10)-C(12) acids and 15% other acids]. The main acids were acetic acid (24.3%) propanoic acid (17.2%), 2-methylpropanoic acid (11.4%),dodecanoic acid (8.7%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (8.3%), (Z)-2-methylbutenoic acid(5.1%) and decanoic acid (4.6%). With respect to the identified bonded carboxylic acids,the minimal number of esters in the oil was twenty seven, but their overall quantity was probably larger due to different possible combinations of alcohols with acids to form esters. On the other hand, only six main esters were identified in the oil before fractionation and hydrolysis.

  1. Contribution to the Analysis of the Essential Oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don. – Determination of Ester Bonded Acids and Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerković

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don (everlasting orImmortelle essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GCMS.Forty four compounds were identified. The main components were α-pinene(12.8%, 2-methyl-cyclohexyl pentanoate (11.1 %, neryl acetate (10.4%, 1,7-di-epi-α-cedrene (6.8% and other compounds. The oil was fractionated and ester-containingfraction was hydrolysed with KOH/H2SO4. The liberated volatiles were analysed by GCand GC-MS: three phenols and twenty seven volatile carboxylic acids were identified[70% low fatty acids (C2-C5, 15% C10-C12 acids and 15% other acids]. The main acidswere acetic acid (24.3% propanoic acid (17.2%, 2-methylpropanoic acid (11.4%,dodecanoic acid (8.7%, 2-methylbutanoic acid (8.3%, (Z-2-methylbutenoic acid(5.1% and decanoic acid (4.6%. With respect to the identified bonded carboxylic acids,the minimal number of esters in the oil was twenty seven, but their overall quantity wasprobably larger due to different possible combinations of alcohols with acids to formesters. On the other hand, only six main esters were identified in the oil beforefractionation and hydrolysis.

  2. Alleviation of adverse impact of salinity on faba bean (vicia faba l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungialleviation of adverse impact of salinity on faba bean (vicia faba l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.; Didamony, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) in presence and absence of AMF on growth, physio-biochemical and enzymatic activity in faba bean (Vicia faba). Different concentrations of NaCl showed reduction in growth and yield parameters, which indicates the deleterious effects of salinity on the plant. The total spore count and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is also decreasing at higher concentrations of NaCl. Application of AMF mitigates the effect of NaCl stress and improved the growth and yield in the present study. NaCl also decreased the nodulation as well as nodule activity and pigments content, however the supplementation of by AMF to plants treated with sodium chloride showed enhancement in nodule activity and pigment content. Polyamines (Putresciene, Spermidine, Spermine), acid and alkaline phosphates increased with increasing concentration of sodium chloride and application of by AMF showed further increase in the above phytoconstituents, proving the protective role of these phytoconstituents against salt stress. Salinity stress is responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species, which lead to the membrane damage through lipid peroxidation in the present study. Maximum lipid peroxidation was observed at higher concentration of sodium chloride and AMF treatment minimized the effect of salinity on lipid peroxidation. To combat with the reactive oxygen species, plants upregulate the enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. As the concentration of sodium chloride increases the enzyme activity also increases and further increase was observed with supplementation of AMF to salt treated plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi also restores the potassium and calcium contents and maintain their ratio that was hampered with increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the present study. In conclusion, application of AMF

  3. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and...

  4. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  5. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambalo Dinah D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG, which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains

  6. NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Min; Bai, Heli; Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan

    2017-04-01

    NO and H 2 O 2 have been implicated as important signals in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants to the environment. Previously, we have shown that SO 2 exposure increased the levels of NO and H 2 O 2 in plant cells. We hypothesize that, as signaling molecules, NO and H 2 O 2 mediate SO 2 -caused toxicity. In this paper, we show that SO 2 hydrates caused guard cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range of 0.25 to 6 mmol L -1 , which was associated with elevation of intracellular NO, H 2 O 2 , and Ca 2+ levels in Vicia faba guard cells. NO donor SNP enhanced SO 2 toxicity, while NO scavenger c-PTIO and NO synthesis inhibitors L-NAME and tungstate significantly prevented SO 2 toxicity. ROS scavenger ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT), Ca 2+ chelating agent EGTA, and Ca 2+ channel inhibitor LaCl 3 also markedly blocked SO 2 toxicity. In addition, both c-PTIO and AsA could completely block SO 2 -induced elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ level. Moreover, c-PTIO efficiently blocked SO 2 -induced H 2 O 2 elevation, and AsA significantly blocked SO 2 -induced NO elevation. These results indicate that extra NO and H 2 O 2 are produced and accumulated in SO 2 -treated guard cells, which further activate Ca 2+ signaling to mediate SO 2 toxicity. Our findings suggest that both NO and H 2 O 2 contribute to SO 2 toxicity via Ca 2+ signaling.

  7. Agro-physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' genotypes to water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid, G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Drought is one of the major abiotic factors affecting growth and productivity of plants by imposing certain morphological, physiological and biochemical changes at different growth stages. Objectives. The objective of this work is to study key morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' to soil water deficit stress and to assess the contribution of genetic factors in improving faba bean tolerance to water deficit. Method. Plants of 11 faba bean cultivars were grown in the greenhouse and subjected to three levels of water deficit (90, 50 and 30% of field capacity [FC] in a simple randomized design for 20 days. Water deficit effects on plant growth, relative water content (RWC, gas exchange, chlorophyll a (Chla and chlorophyll b (Chlb content, osmoprotectant accumulations (such as proline and soluble sugars, antioxidant enzyme activities and grain yield were determined. Results. Soil water deficit stress reduced growth and affected physiological parameters, especially antioxidant enzyme activities. Water deficit also increased proline, soluble sugars and protein contents. The studied cultivars significantly differed in their responses to water deficit stress. Photosynthetic parameters were less affected in the 'Hara' cultivar. Furthermore, this cultivar produced the highest value of grain yield at 30% FC, and showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, GPX and APX, osmoprotectant accumulations, Chlb and RWC. The 'Hara' cultivar was found to be more tolerant to water deficit stress than the other cultivars. Conclusions. Our methodology can be used for assessing the response of faba bean genetic resources to soil water deficit. The identified tolerant cultivar can be utilized as a source for water stress tolerance in faba bean breeding programs aimed at improving drought tolerance.

  8. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Zahoor A.; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed “graphene oxide”) are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop—faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L −1 ) of graphene oxide (0.5–5 μm) and evaluates glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L −1 ), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L −1 ) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and glutathione

  9. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  10. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Naser A. [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal); Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K. [University of Aveiro, Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation (TEMA) and Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal); Shah, Zahoor A. [University of Toledo, Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal, E-mail: ahmadr@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed 'graphene oxide') are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L{sup -1}) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 {mu}m) and evaluates glutathione ({gamma}-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L{sup -1}), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L{sup -1}) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and

  11. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  12. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... the expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...... prefixation zone II, whereas in pea ENOD12 is only expressed in the distal part of this zone. VsENOD40 is expressed in the uninfected cells of interzone II-III, while in pea ENOD40 is expressed in both the uninfected and infected cells of this zone. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Sep...

  13. Effect of replacing a soy diet with Vicia faba and Pisum sativum on performance, meat and fat traits of Cinta Senese pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sirtori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing genetically modified organism-free legumes as a replacement of soybean on the basis of performance, carcass composition and quality of local pig meat (Cinta Senese. Twenty-four Cinta Senese barrows were divided into 3 dietary groups and were each fed with a diet containing different protein sources: soybean meal (SOY, Vicia faba (FABA and Pisum sativum (PEA (8 pigs for each group. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contained approximately 14.5% crude protein and 14.8 MJ/kg of digestible energy (on dry matter. Each group was reared outdoors in a paddock of 3500 m2. In vivo performances were not different among groups. At slaughter, differences in subcutaneous fat thickness appeared only in the outer layer, at the last thoracic vertebra level, which was lowest in the PEA group. No differences were found in the sample joint composition. With regard to the chemico-physical traits of meat and fat, the FABA group had the highest values of redness in lean and backfat, while the PEA group showed higher moisture and lower fat content in meat compared to the SOY group. Differences in the fatty acid profile of backfat were found only for the C16:1 percentage that was higher in FABA than SOY pigs. In conclusion, Vicia faba and Pisum sativum could be a good alternative to soybean in the growing-fattening of Cinta Senese pigs.

  14. Analysis of rhizobial endosymbionts of Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium species used to maintain mountain firewalls in Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadas, Pablo J; Lasa, Ana V; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José David; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Forest fires lead to the annual disappearance of many natural formations that require the creation of firewall areas. They can be maintained by enriching their pastures with attractive plants for grazing livestock, mainly legumes, which have a high protein content and low dependence on N fertilizers due to their ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. In this study, the rhizobia isolated from the nodules of six legumes from the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium were analysed in a firewall zone established in Lanjarón (Granada) close to the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain). The results showed a high genetic diversity of the isolated strains that had 3, 16, 14 and 13 different types of rrs, recA, atpD and glnII genes, respectively. All strains were phylogenetically close to the species from the Rhizobium leguminosarum group, although they were not identified as any of them. The isolated strains belonged to the symbiovars viciae and trifolii but high phylogenetic diversity was found within both symbiovars, since there were 16 and 14 nodC gene types, respectively. Some of these strains clustered with strains isolated in other countries and continents, but others formed atpD, recA, glnII and nodC clusters and lineages only found to date in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs. Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 scavenger, catalase (CAT, significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI, and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  16. A novel natural source Vicia faba L. membranes as colourant: development and optimisation of the extraction process using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatay, Feriel; Baaka, Noureddine; Shahid, Adeel; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2018-02-02

    In this research paper, an eco-friendly extraction process of dyes from Vicia faba L. membranes was developed. In this regard, the influence of independent process factors like the weight of material, the extraction time, the temperature and the sodium hydroxide concentration on the natural dye extraction from Vicia faba membranes was investigated. The optimisation of the extraction conditions and the effect evaluation of the different operating parameters were carried out using a Box-Behnken design under response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 66 °C, 90 min, 5 g and 0.1628 mol·L -1 for extraction temperature, time, mass of the material and sodium hydroxide concentration, respectively. The efficiency of this extraction process under these optimum conditions was evaluated by measuring the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoid content and the relative colour yield (K/S). In these operating conditions, good fastness ratios were observed for the dyed fabrics.

  17. Effects of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) with a low or high content of condensed tannins on the apparent ileal and fecal digestibility of nutrients and the excretion of endogenous protein in ileal digesta and feces of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, J.; Berg, J.W.O. van den

    1995-01-01

    In three experiments (Exp. 1, 2, and 3) with young pigs (BW 10 to 26 kg), the effects of dietary inclusion of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) (200 g/kg) with a low (< .1% catechin equivalents; LT) or high tannin content (3.3% catechin equivalents; HT) on the apparent ileal (Exp. 1 and 2) and

  18. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  19. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  20. Mapping of the spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in root tissues of Vicia faba by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcarová, L; Novotný, K; Kummerová, M; Dubová, J; Gloser, V; Kaiser, J

    2017-10-01

    The manuscript presents a procedure for optimal sample preparation and the mapping of the spatial distribution of metal ions and nanoparticles in plant roots using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a double-pulse configuration (DP LIBS) in orthogonal reheating mode. Two Nd:YAG lasers were used; the first one was an ablation laser (UP-266 MACRO, New Wave, USA) with a wavelength of 266nm, and the second one (Brilliant, Quantel, France), with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, was used to reheat the microplasma. Seedlings of Vicia faba were cultivated for 7 days in CuSO 4 or AgNO 3 solutions with a concentration of 10µmoll -1 or in a solution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a concentration of 10µmoll -1 of total Ag, and in distilled water as a control. The total contents of the examined metals in the roots after sample mineralization as well as changes in the concentrations of the metals in the cultivation solutions were monitored by ICP-OES. Root samples embedded in the TissueTek medium and cut into 40µm thick cross sections using the Cryo-Cut Microtome proved to be best suited for an accurate LIBS analysis with a 50µm spatial resolution. 2D raster maps of elemental distribution were created for the emission lines of Cu(I) at 324.754nm and Ag(I) at 328.068nm. The limits of detection of DP LIBS for the root cross sections were estimated to be 4pg for Cu, 18pg for Ag, and 3pg for AgNPs. The results of Ag spatial distribution mapping indicated that unlike Ag + ions, AgNPs do not penetrate into the inner tissues of Vicia faba roots but stay in their outermost layers. The content of Ag in roots cultivated in the AgNP solution was one order of magnitude lower compared to roots cultivated in the metal ion solutions. The significantly smaller concentration of Ag in root tissues cultivated in the AgNP solution also supports the conclusion that the absorption and uptake of AgNPs by roots of Vicia faba is very slow. LIBS mapping of root sections

  1. Green manuring effect of pure and mixed barley - hairy vetch winter cover crops on maize and processing tomato N nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela

    2012-01-01

    this can influence the N uptake and N status of different subsequent summer cash crops. In this study the N effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing proportion was tested on maize (Zea Mays L.) and processing......Adopting mixtures between legumes and non legumes can be an efficient tool to merge the advantages of the single species in the fall-sown cover crop practice. Nevertheless there is a lack of information on how the species proportion may affect N accumulation and C/N of the cover crops and how...... of the relationship between cover crop C/N and Neff was confirmed, so mixtures can be used to adjust the extent and timing of mineralisation of the incorporated biomass to the subsequent cash crop requirements. Prediction of the cash crops N status on the cover crop C/N appears to be a useful approach, but, it may...

  2. Timing incorporation of different green manure crops to minimize the risk of nitrogen leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KÄNKÄNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven field trials at four research sites were carried out to study the effect of incorporation time of different plant materials on soil mineral N content during two successive seasons. Annual hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, red clover (Trifolium pratense L., westerwold ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. var. westerwoldicum and straw residues of N-fertilized spring barley (Hordeum vulgare were incorporated into the soil by ploughing in early September, late October and the following May, and by reduced tillage in May. Delaying incorporation of the green manure crop in autumn lessened the risk of N leaching. The higher the crop N and soil NO3-N content, the greater the risk of leaching. Incorporation in the following spring, which lessened the risk of N leaching as compared with early autumn ploughing, often had an adverse effect on the growth of the succeeding crop. After spring barley, the NO3-N content of the soil tended to be high, but the timing of incorporation did not have a marked effect on soil N. With exceptionally high soil mineral N content, N leaching was best inhibited by growing westerwold ryegrass in the first experimental year. ;

  3. Characterization of anti-P monoclonal antibodies directed against the ribosomal protein-RNA complex antigen and produced using Murphy Roths large autoimmune-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Onozuka, M; Hagiya, A; Hoshino, S; Narita, I; Uchiumi, T

    2015-02-01

    Autoantibodies, including anti-ribosomal P proteins (anti-P), are thought to be produced by an antigen-driven immune response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted the ribosomal antigenic complex in vitro using human P0, phosphorylated P1 and P2 and a 28S rRNA fragment covering the P0 binding site, and immunized Murphy Roths large (MRL)/lrp lupus mice with this complex without any added adjuvant to generate anti-P antibodies. Using hybridoma technology, we subsequently obtained 34 clones, each producing an anti-P monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognized the conserved C-terminal tail sequence common to all three P proteins. We also obtained two P0-specific monoclonal antibodies, but no antibody specific to P1, P2 or rRNA fragment. Two types of mAbs were found among these anti-P antibodies: one type (e.g. 9D5) reacted more strongly with the phosphorylated P1 and P2 than that with their non-phosphorylated forms, whereas the other type (e.g. 4H11) reacted equally with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of P1/P2. Both 9D5 and 4H11 inhibited the ribosome/eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2)-coupled guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase activity. However, preincubation with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to all three P proteins, but not the peptide that lacked the last three C-terminal amino acids, mostly prevented the mAb-induced inhibition of GTPase activity. Thus, at least two types of anti-P were produced preferentially following the immunization of MRL mice with the reconstituted antigenic complex. Presence of multiple copies of the C-termini, particularly that of the last three C-terminal amino acid residues, in the antigenic complex appears to contribute to the immunogenic stimulus. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  4. Characterization of anti-P monoclonal antibodies directed against the ribosomal protein–RNA complex antigen and produced using Murphy Roths large autoimmune-prone mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Onozuka, M; Hagiya, A; Hoshino, S; Narita, I; Uchiumi, T

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies, including anti-ribosomal P proteins (anti-P), are thought to be produced by an antigen-driven immune response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted the ribosomal antigenic complex in vitro using human P0, phosphorylated P1 and P2 and a 28S rRNA fragment covering the P0 binding site, and immunized Murphy Roths large (MRL)/lrp lupus mice with this complex without any added adjuvant to generate anti-P antibodies. Using hybridoma technology, we subsequently obtained 34 clones, each producing an anti-P monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognized the conserved C-terminal tail sequence common to all three P proteins. We also obtained two P0-specific monoclonal antibodies, but no antibody specific to P1, P2 or rRNA fragment. Two types of mAbs were found among these anti-P antibodies: one type (e.g. 9D5) reacted more strongly with the phosphorylated P1 and P2 than that with their non-phosphorylated forms, whereas the other type (e.g. 4H11) reacted equally with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of P1/P2. Both 9D5 and 4H11 inhibited the ribosome/eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2)-coupled guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase activity. However, preincubation with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to all three P proteins, but not the peptide that lacked the last three C-terminal amino acids, mostly prevented the mAb-induced inhibition of GTPase activity. Thus, at least two types of anti-P were produced preferentially following the immunization of MRL mice with the reconstituted antigenic complex. Presence of multiple copies of the C-termini, particularly that of the last three C-terminal amino acid residues, in the antigenic complex appears to contribute to the immunogenic stimulus. PMID:25255895

  5. Clastogenic adaption of Vicia faba root tip meristem cells after consecutive treatments with S-phase dependent and S-phase independent agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindorff, K.; Schubert, I.; Rieger, R.; Michaelis, A.

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment of Vicia faba root tip meristems with low doses of S-phase independent clastogens, such as X-rays or bleomycin, prior to a high (challenge) dose of S-phase dependent clastogens, such as alkylating agents (TEM, Trenimon) or the pyridazine derivative MH, led to decreased challenge treatment-induced aberration frequencies, i.e., clastogenic adaptation. Using the inverse treatment sequence bleomycin and MH proved to be able to substitute for each other in provoking clastogenic (cross) adaptation while bleomycin and alkylating agents were unable to do so. The data support the assumption of inducible cellular functions that become triggered by low clastogen doses and additionally describe some particular properties of bleomycin when used for conditioning. Bleomycin proved to be capable to exert protection independent of the agent used for challenge treatment. (author)

  6. Investigations on the influence of radiation with variable linear energy transfer (LET) on the DNA-content and DNA-repair-mechanisms in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckl, P.

    1981-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate, whether there are any radiation-induced changes in DNA-content and if these changes can be repaired. Seeds of Vicia faba L. were grown in glass culture vessels. After 10 to 20 days the seedings were irradiated using a 1 C1 60 Co gammasource (90mrad/h and 33 rad/h) and a 5 mCi 252 Cf neutronsource (90 mrad/h). Both, neutron and gamma irradiation cause a reduction in nuclear DNA-content even after low doses (1 to 10 rad). The extent of depression is only depending on linear energy transfer. Parallel to the induced minimum in DNA-content, but shifted to higher doses, also the mitotic activity reaches a minimum. Whereas neutron irradiation results in a total stop after doses of 8 rad, gamma-irradiation only induces a depression of 80 %. Whith higher doses the mitotic activity increases again. The neutron-induced changes in DNA-content seem to be restored within 90 minutes after irradiation. No continuous increase could be found after low gamma-doses. Gamma-irradiation with higher dose rates ( 60 Co, 33 rad/h) causes a general decrease over the dose-range studied (100 to 1600 rad). Following doses of 100 rad the mitotic activity increases significantly. With higher doses the decrease is exponential. A dose-dependent mitotic delay could also be observed. As described by many authors, unscheduled DNA-synthesis (UDS) could not be detected in nuclei of Vicia faba. This indicates that an other system, perhaps acting in situ - at the damaged place - is responsible for the repair of radiation-induced thymine-damages. (Author)

  7. (Vicia sativa L.) - triticale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... This study was carried to determine the best seed mixture of vetch and triticale for East Mediterranean .... Averaged dry matter yield in the second year was signifi- ... ever, dry matter yields of all mixtures with the exceptions ...

  8. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... crossing, when they visit other plants flowers (Nadal et al,. 2003). ... programs, (2) offer evidence of the evolutionary forces shaping the genotypic diversities, ... classification of these populations, both UPGMA and. Principal ...

  9. Book review essay of : Monika Krause . The Good Project. Humanitarian Relief NGOs and the Fragmentation of Reason; Silke Roth . The Paradoxes of Aid Work: Passionate Professionals; Rene Fox . Doctors Without Borders: Humanitarian Quests, Impossible Dreams of Medecins Sans Frontières.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyse, Liesbet

    In this book review essay three books on humanitarian aid are discussed: Monika Krause. 2014. The Good Project. Humanitarian Relief NGOs and the Fragmentation of Reason (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) Silke Roth. 2015. The Paradoxes of Aid Work: Passionate Professionals (Abingdon: Routledge)

  10. INFLUÊNCIA DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE AVEIA PRETA (AVENA STRIGOSA SCHIEB. E ERVILHACA COMUM (VICIA SATIVA L. NA PRODUÇÃO DE FITOMASSA E NO APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPED COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. AND NAKED OAT (AVENA STRIGOSA ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e sob preparo convencional, foi avaliada a influência de proporções de sementes de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. cultivadas em consórcio, na produção de fitomassa e no aporte de nitrogênio no sistema. O experimento foi implantado em solo podzolico vermelho amarelo, de Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram casualizados em quatro blocos, constituindo-se de: 1- 100% Ervilhaca comum (E; 2- 90% E + 10% Aveia preta (A; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- pousio de inverno. A amostragem da fitomassa das coberturas verdes foi efetuada na ocasião do pleno florescimento em área de 0,8m2 por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que a aveia preta e a ervilhaca comum podem ser consorciadas, beneficiando assim, a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio.The effect of intercropping common vetch (Vicia sativa L. with naked oat (Avena strigosa Schieb. at different seed proportions was evaluated. The trial was set up on a Red Yellow Podzolic soil of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The treatments were the following: 1- 100% E (common vetch; 2- 90% E + 10% A (naked oat; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- fall tillage organized in four randomized blocks. Biomass production was evaluated at the flowering stage in an area of 0.8 m2 per plot. Data show that both species can be intercropped which is beneficial to biomass production and nitrogen accumulation.

  11. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (pMeat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (pmeat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  12. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High CO/sub 2/ partial pressure effects on dark and light CO/sub 2/ fixation and metabolism in Vicia faba leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudret, A.; Ferron, F.; Laffray, D.

    1985-01-01

    Stomatal opening on Vicia faba can be induced by high CO/sub 2/ partial pressures (10.2%) in dark as well as in light. Stomatal aperture was measured in both cases with a hydrogen porometer. The distribution of /sup 14/C among early products of photosynthesis was studied. Comparisons are made with carboxylations occurring when stomata were open in the dark with CO/sub 2/-free air and in light with 0.034% CO/sub 2/. Results showed that in high CO/sub 2/ partial pressure in light, less radioactivity was incorporated in Calvin cycle intermediates and more in sucrose. ..beta.. carboxylations and photorespiration seemed to be inhibited. In the dark in both CO/sub 2/ conditions, /sup 14/C incorporation was found in malate and aspartate but also in serine and glycerate in high CO/sub 2/ conditions. In light these changes in metabolic pathways may be related with the deleterious effects recorded on leaves after long-term expositions to high partial pressure of CO/sub 2/.

  14. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica, E-mail: mruffini@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy); Giorgetti, Lucia; Geri, Chiara [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA/CNR), UOS Pisa (Italy); Cremonini, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO{sub 2} on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0 Per-Mille-Sign in the plants Zea mays L. and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO{sub 2} particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO{sub 2} concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO{sub 2}-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  15. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  16. Linkage Map of a Gene Controlling Zero Tannins (zt-1 in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. with SSR and ISSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwei Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L., a partially allogamous species, is rich in protein. Condensed tannins limit the use of faba beans as food and feed. Two recessive genes, zt-1 and zt-2, control the zero tannin content in faba bean and promote a white flower phenotype. To determine the inheritance and develop a linkage map for the zt-1 gene in the faba bean germplasm M3290, F2 and F3 progenies were derived from the purple flower and high tannin content genotypes Qinghai12 and zt-1 line M3290, respectively. Genetic analysis verified a single recessive gene for zero tannin content and flower colour. In total, 596 SSR markers and 100 ISSR markers were used to test the polymorphisms between the parents and bulks for the contrasting flower colour via Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA. Subsequently, six SSR markers and seven ISSR markers were used to genotype the entire 413 F2 population. Linkage analysis showed that the zt-1 gene was closely linked to the SSR markers SSR84 and M78, with genetic distances of 2.9 and 5.8 cM, respectively. The two flanked SSR markers were used to test 34 faba bean genotypes with different flower colours. The closely linked SSR marker SSR84 predicted the zt-1 genotypes with absolute accuracy. The results from the marker-assisted selection (MAS from this study could provide a solid foundation for further faba bean breeding programmes.

  17. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  18. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengrun; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun; Tian, Yuan; Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs-COOH disturb mineral elements and cause oxidative damages in the leaves. • Cd and Pb combination result in reduction of mineral elements and enrichment of Na, involving in toxicity mechanisms. • MWCNTs-COOH facilitate Cd and Pb uptake, and aggravate biochemical and subcellular damages. - Abstract: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb + Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb + Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb + Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals

  19. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  20. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  1. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect in field of the native strain COL6 of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae on common bean cv. Percal in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Iván Granda-Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation with selected Rhizobium strains of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contributes to the agricultural yield of this legume, improves soil fertility and reduces the use of nitrogen fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems. The research aimed to determine the effect in field of the native strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae COL6 on growth, N fixation and agricultural yield in common bean cv. Percal. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation, yield components and agricultural yield in common bean. In addition, soil analyzes were performed before and after experimentation. Prior to planting an inoculant was formulated with the strain COL6. The seeds of cv. Percal were mixed in 250 g inoculant per 10 kg of seed and it was sown manually in the soil. The results of growth, N fixation (total N % and agricultural yield demonstrated the positive effect of inoculation with the bacterial inoculant comparable with chemical fertilizers. The increase in agricultural yield with bacterial inoculant application and chemical fertilization with respect to control was 62 and 64 %, respectively. The results of the soil analysis were variable with respect to the initial physical-chemical characteristics. The promising results of bacterial inoculant use and the effective stimulation in common bean, open the doors for its potential use in Ecuadorian soils and with that the desired potential yield can be reached.

  3. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 micrometers. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism

  4. Chemical control of wild sorghum (sorghum arundinaceum Del. Stapf. in faba bean (vicia faba L.) in the Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedry, K. A. M.; Elamin, A. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Merowe Research Station farm, in the Northern State, Sudan, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the damage inflicted by a wild sorghum species (Sorghum arundinaceum (Del.) Stapf. ) on the yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and to evaluate the efficacy of the post-emergence herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (Topik) on wild sorghum and its effect on faba bean yield. The wild sorghum reduced faba bean crop stand and straw and seed yields by 53% - 76%, 76% - 79% and 88% - 91%, respectively, compared with the hand-weeded control. Faba bean was tolerant to the herbicide. The herbicide, at all rates, effected complete (100%) and persistent control of the wild sorghum and resulted in faba bean seed yield comparable to the hand-weeded control. The lowest dose (0.075 kg a.i/ha) of the herbicide used was equal to 75% of the dose recommended for the control of wild sorghum in wheat. It is concluded that clodinafop-propargyl at 0.075 kg a.e/ha could be used in controlling wild sorghum in faba bean. At this rate, the marginal rate of return was about 35 which indicating that every monetary unit (SDG 1) invested in the mentioned treatment would be returned back, plus additional amount of 35 SDG.(Author)

  5. Evaluation Of Yield And Chemical Properties Of Some Faba Bean (Vicia FABA L.) Mutants Induced By GAMMA Radiation And Ethyl Methane Sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Attia, Z.M.; Shawki, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effect of physical and chemical mutagens on the yield and chemical properties as well as amino acids composition of defatted faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds meal as a control (Giza 2) compared with mutants produced by gamma radiation and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Also, the functional properties of these samples were determined. The results indicated high differences between mutation for seed yield and its components than the untreated samples. In addition, radiation mutation of faba bean seeds showed slight increase in protein content as the main constituent of faba bean seeds as well as total oil percentages in some mutant of these seeds in return of decreasing in total carbohydrate. Furthermore, radiation mutation had detectable effects on the total amino acids contents of faba bean seeds meal which had a higher percentages on essential amino acids (EAA) and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and mutant 3 was the highest values of EAA and NEAA as compared to the control. On the other hand, radiation mutation improved the protein functional properties of some mutant of faba bean meal flour than the other mutant samples as compared to local commercial variety

  6. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations.

  7. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 Adapts to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with "Auxin-Like" Morphological Changes, Cell Envelope Remodeling and Upregulation of Central Metabolic Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya V Bhat

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to characterize the effects of environmental stressors at the molecular level on model organisms with the ever increasing number and variety of anthropogenic chemical pollutants. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, as one of the most widely applied pesticides in the world, is one such example. This herbicide is known to have non-targeted undesirable effects on humans, animals and soil microbes, but specific molecular targets at sublethal levels are unknown. In this study, we have used Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv as a nitrogen fixing, beneficial model soil organism to characterize the effects of 2,4-D. Using metabolomics and advanced microscopy we determined specific target pathways in the Rlv metabolic network and consequent changes to its phenotype, surface ultrastructure, and physical properties during sublethal 2,4-D exposure. Auxin and 2,4-D, its structural analogue, showed common morphological changes in vitro which were similar to bacteroids isolated from plant nodules, implying that these changes are related to bacteroid differentiation required for nitrogen fixation. Rlv showed remarkable adaptation capabilities in response to the herbicide, with changes to integral pathways of cellular metabolism and the potential to assimilate 2,4-D with consequent changes to its physical and structural properties. This study identifies biomarkers of 2,4-D in Rlv and offers valuable insights into the mode-of-action of 2,4-D in soil bacteria.

  8. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

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    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  9. Indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels in G1 and G2 cells of the carbohydrate-starved root meristems in Vicia faba var. minor

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    Justyna Polit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the 34kDa kinase (p34 encoded by the cdc2 gene is a key regulator of both the onset of DNA synthesis (G1 to S phase transition and the onset of mitosis (G1 to M phase transition. Using mouse anti-human PSTAIRE and FITClabelled goat antibodies, indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels was performed in meristematic cells from the control (intact and excised, carbohydrate-starved main roots of Vicia faba var. minor. No evident differences in the intensity of fluorescence was found either between the G1 and G2 cells or between the control cells and the cells arrested at both Principal Control Points by carbohydrate starvation. It seems thus, that the cell cycle block induced in meristematic cells of V. faba var. minor is not correlated with the absolute level of the key cell cycle enzyme responsible for phosphory-lution of cellular proteins, but primarily with the altered activity of p34cdc2.

  10. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L..

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    Chunjie Li

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L./faba bean (Vicia faba L. intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  11. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  12. Fate of nuclear material during subsequent steps of the kinetin-induced PCD in apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Soboska, Kamila

    2018-07-01

    In animals during apoptosis, the best examined type of programmed cell death (PCD), three main phases are distinguished: (i) specification (signaling), (ii) killing and (iii) execution one. It has bean postulated that plant PCD also involves three subsequent phases: (i) transmission of death signals to cells (signaling), (ii) initiation of killing processes and (iii) destruction of cells. One of the most important hallmarks of animal and plant PCD are those regarding nucleus, not thoroughly studied in plants so far. To study kinetin-induced PCD (Kin-PCD) in the context of nuclear material faith, 2-cm apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots were used. Applied assays involving spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and white light microscopy allowed to examine metabolic and cytomorphologic hallmarks such as changes in DNA content, ssDNA formation and activity of acidic and basic nucleases (DNases and RNases) as well as malformations and fragmentation of nucleoli and nuclei. The obtained results concerning the PCD hallmarks and influence of ZnSO 4 on Kin-PCD allowed us to confirmed presence of specification/signaling, killing and execution/degradation phases of the process and broaden the knowledge about processes affecting nuclei during PCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

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    Dorota Rybaczek

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD was a secondary result of caffeine (CF induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU [double-stranded breaks (DSBs mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs. The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i extensive vacuolization; (ii abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv protoplast shrinkage (v fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  14. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  15. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF VICIA FABA AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING KNO3 AND (NH4)2SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS.

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED KAMEL

    2012-01-01

    Los solutos Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO43-, SO42-, carbohidratos y proteínas solubles, así como amino ácidos son importantes en ajuste osmótico y fueron estimados para determinar el papel de nitrato de potasio y sulfato de amonio como osmoreguladores y su efecto en la composición de solutos. Vicia faba L. fue cultivada e irrigada con 5, 10, 15 y 20 % (v:v) de agua de mar permitiendo crecimiento hasta el estado de floración. Las plantas fueron divididas en tres grupos. El primero fue irrigado...

  16. Citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de los ríos Jequetepeque y Moche mediante el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Antonio Beltrán Orbegoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la toxicidad de las aguas de los ríos como método complementario al análisis físico, químico y biológico proporciona una información integral de la calidad del agua, por tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los niveles de citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de las cuencas alta, media y baja de los ríos Moche y Jequetepeque, usando el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L. “haba” (2n = 12. Se germinaron semillas de V. faba L.; luego las raicillas emergentes se expusieron, durante tres horas, a siete tratamientos: T1 (100 ml de agua destilada, T2 (1 ml agua de río Jequetepeque / 99 ml de agua destilada, T3 (5 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 95 ml de agua destilada, T4 (10 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 90 ml de agua destilada, T5 (1 ml agua de río Moche/ 99 ml de agua destilada, T6 (5 ml agua de río Moche/ 95 ml de agua destilada y T7 (10 ml agua de río Moche/ 90 ml de agua destilada. Los ápices de las raicillas fueron sometidos a la técnica de Tjio y Levan. El agua de la cuenca media del río Moche del T7, presenta una alta citotoxicidad (índice mitótico de 5,4 % y alteraciones de los índices de fases y un alto efecto genotóxico; las aguas del río Jequetepeque no evidencian efecto citotóxico ni genotóxico de importancia.

  17. Bacterially produced Pt-GFP as ratiometric dual-excitation sensor for in planta mapping of leaf apoplastic pH in intact Avena sativa and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mühling, Karl H; Kaiser, Hartmut; Plieth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric analysis with H(+)-sensitive fluorescent sensors is a suitable approach for monitoring apoplastic pH dynamics. For the acidic range, the acidotropic dual-excitation dye Oregon Green 488 is an excellent pH sensor. Long lasting (hours) recordings of apoplastic pH in the near neutral range, however, are more problematic because suitable pH indicators that combine a good pH responsiveness at a near neutral pH with a high photostability are lacking. The fluorescent pH reporter protein from Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Pt-GFP) comprises both properties. But, as a genetically encoded indicator and expressed by the plant itself, it can be used almost exclusively in readily transformed plants. In this study we present a novel approach and use purified recombinant indicators for measuring ion concentrations in the apoplast of crop plants such as Vicia faba L. and Avena sativa L. Pt-GFP was purified using a bacterial expression system and subsequently loaded through stomata into the leaf apoplast of intact plants. Imaging verified the apoplastic localization of Pt-GFP and excluded its presence in the symplast. The pH-dependent emission signal stood out clearly from the background. PtGFP is highly photostable, allowing ratiometric measurements over hours. By using this approach, a chloride-induced alkalinizations of the apoplast was demonstrated for the first in oat. Pt-GFP appears to be an excellent sensor for the quantification of leaf apoplastic pH in the neutral range. The presented approach encourages to also use other genetically encoded biosensors for spatiotemporal mapping of apoplastic ion dynamics.

  18. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean ( Vicia faba ) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug ( Nezara viridula ) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis ( A ) and stomatal conductance ( g s ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H 2 O 2 . However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H 2 O 2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H 2 O 2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  19. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Majstrenko, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Brown, J.E., E-mail: Justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Belykh, E. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and {sup 226}Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles = 5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  20. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  2. Toxicological effects, mechanisms, and implied toxicity thresholds in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings grown in copper-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Huang, Zhicheng; Wang, Chengrun; Zhong, Li; Tian, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Gaojian; Shi, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Copper (Cu) contamination has become a global concern because of industrial, agricultural, and other anthropogenic activities. In the present experiments, the toxicological effects, mechanisms, and potential toxicity thresholds were investigated in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings that were cultivated in Cu-amended soils (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 20 days, based on an analysis of the soil physicochemical properties, native Cu, available Cu, and root-enriched Cu contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) isozymes and activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), changed like biphasic dose-response curves, cooperating to control the redox homeostasis. The APX and POD enzymes exhibited enhanced activities and became H2O2 scavengers primarily when the catalase (CAT) activities tended to decrease. Endoprotease (EP) isozymes and activities might be enhanced to degrade carbonylated proteins and alleviate metabolic disturbance in the roots. Additionally, HSP70 may not be suitable as a biomarker for relatively higher soil Cu concentrations and relatively longer exposure times for the roots. As a result, the isozymes and activities of SOD, CAT, and EP, as well as GSH, can be adopted as the most sensitive biomarkers. The toxicity threshold is estimated as 0.76-1.21 mg kg(-1) of available Cu in the soils or 25.04-36.65 μg Cu g(-1) dry weights (DW) in the roots.

  3. Variaciones en el pH de la rizosfera y en el porcentaje de materia seca de Vicia sativa al aplicar dos fuentes fosfatadas de baja solubilidad en un andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar F. Juan Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el estudio se utilizaron seis tratamientos: el testigo (T0, sin fuentes fosfatadas (T1 y con adiciones de 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfós (T4 y T5. Los cambios generados por la raíz se evaluaron utilizando la solución nutritiva de Marschner Römheld y Ossenberg-Neuhaus, acondicionada con agar. El porcentaje de materia seca parcial de Vicia sativa se incrementó significativamente al aplicar 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfos (T5 y T6 en la localidad de Genoy. El pH de la solución agarizada sufrió disminuciones significativas a través del tiempo especialmente en los tratamientos T3 y T2.

    Palabras claves: pH rizosférico, Vicia sativa, Papilionoidea, fuentes fosfatadas, solubilidad

  4. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  5. Long-term no-tillage application increases soil organic carbon, nitrous oxide emissions and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yields under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Benítez, Emilio; Amato, Gaetano; Badalucco, Luigi; Giambalvo, Dario; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Ruisi, Paolo

    2018-05-20

    The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N 2 O and NH 3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23%. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH 3 emissions. Total N 2 O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N 2 O-N ha -1 , respectively; P emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96% higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154% and 84% higher in NT than that in CT). The total N 2 O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N 2 O emissions compared to CT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  7. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafke, Jens B; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H(+)-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: K m1 1.2-1.8 mM, K m2 6.6-9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, K m values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher K m values (EH: K m1 10 mM, K m2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) K m values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of K m values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose

  8. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  9. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  10. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system

  11. THE EFFECT OF WINTER CATCH CROPS ON WEED INFESTATION IN SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE WEED CONTROL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in east-central Poland (52°06’ N, 22°55’ E over 2008–2011 to study the effect of winter catch crops on the weed infestation, number, and fresh matter of weeds in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata. The following winter catch crops were grown: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth., white clover (Trifolium repens L., winter rye (Secale cereale L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. and winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. typica Posp.. The catch crops were sown in early September and incorporated in early May. The effect of the catch crops was compared to the effect of FYM (30 t·ha-1 and control without organic manuring (NOM. Three methods of weed control were used: HW – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – the herbicide Guardian Complete Mix 664 SE, immediately after sowing of corn seeds, Z+T – a mixture of the herbicides Zeagran 340 SE and Titus 25 WG applied at the 3–4-leaf stage of sweet corn growth. Rye and turnip rape catch crops had least weeds in their fresh matter. Sweet corn following winter catch crops was less infested by weeds than corn following farmyard manure and non-manured corn. Least weeds and their lowest weight were found after SC, BRT and VV. LM and BRT reduced weed species numbers compared with FYM and NOM. The greatest weed species diversity, determined at the corn flowering stage, was determined after SC and FYM. The number and weight of weeds were significantly lower when chemically controlled compared with hand weeding. The best results were observed after a post-emergent application of the mixture Z+T. The weed species diversity on Z+T-treated plots was clearly lower compared with GCM and HW.

  12. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio rye, 97 kg ha(-1) for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1) for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  13. Cover Crop Species and Management Influence Predatory Arthropods and Predation in an Organically Managed, Reduced-Tillage Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ariel N; Mullen, Christina A; Barbercheck, Mary E

    2018-04-05

    Agricultural practices affect arthropod communities and, therefore, have the potential to influence the activities of arthropods. We evaluated the effect of cover crop species and termination timing on the activity of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in transition to organic production in Pennsylvania, United States. We compared two cover crop treatments: 1) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) planted together with triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) after wheat harvest, and 2) cereal rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus) planted after corn harvest. We terminated the cover crops in the spring with a roller-crimper on three dates (early, middle, and late) based on cover crop phenology and standard practices for cash crop planting in our area. We characterized the ground-dwelling arthropod community using pitfall traps and assessed relative predation using sentinel assays with live greater waxworm larvae (Galleria mellonella Fabricius). The activity density of predatory arthropods was significantly higher in the hairy vetch and triticale treatments than in cereal rye treatments. Hairy vetch and triticale favored the predator groups Araneae, Opiliones, Staphylinidae, and Carabidae. Specific taxa were associated with cover crop condition (e.g., live or dead) and termination dates. Certain variables were positively or negatively associated with the relative predation on sentinel prey, depending on cover crop treatment and stage, including the presence of predatory arthropods and various habitat measurements. Our results suggest that management of a cover crop by roller-crimper at specific times in the growing season affects predator activity density and community composition. Terminating cover crops with a roller-crimper can conserve generalist predators.

  14. Determination of Relative Biological Efficacy (RBE) and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) for the entire negative and positive pion beam profile using Vicia faba roots and Drosophila embryos as biological model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.; Bianchi, M.; Keusch, F.; Mindek, G.; Sullivan, A.H.

    As an introduction to preclinical studies, pilot studies of pion beams are planned with relatively simple biological model systems that can be quickly evaluated and that yield indicative data for further action. Inhibition of growth was studied in Vicia faba roots, a biological system excellently suited for RBE and OER studies. For comparison there are already results from a low-intensity pion irradiation. A second system used Drosophila embryos 1 and 4 hours old, which are especially well suited for LET studies. The unambiguous criterion will be failure to slip out of the oolemma. The smallness of the objects (their beam sensitivity) will make it possible to determine empirically the peak region and to determine Gain factors; furthermore, the known dependency of RBE on the development stage promises highly informative results

  15. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  16. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  17. A dose rate causes no fluctuating asymmetry indexes changes in silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparova, Elena; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Morozova, Valeriia; Kashparov, Valery

    2018-06-04

    The assessment of the fluctuating asymmetry based on measurement of the parameters of left and right parts of silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and relative sizes of pairs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) was carried out. Twelve samples of both birch leaves and pairs of needles were collected from 10 trees at 5 sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and also at one control site located outside the ChEZ. Values of gamma dose rate in the air varied between the sites from 0.1 to 40 μGy h -1 . Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the birch leaves varied over the range of 0.9÷2460 kBq kg -1 and 0.1÷339 kBq·kg -1 (DW), respectively. In addition to the above, in the Scots pine needles, these ranges were 0.7 ÷1970 kBq kg -1 f for 90 Sr and 0.1÷78 kBq kg -1 (DW) for 137 Cs. From the values of the radionuclides activity concentrations in the plants, the internal dose rate is estimated to be in the range of 0.1 ÷ 274 μGy h -1 . The main sources of the internal dose rate were radiation of 90 Sr and 90 Y. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch leaves and Scots pine needles varied over the range of 0.048 ± 0.007 ÷ 0.060 ± 0.009 and 0.014 ± 0.002 ÷ 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively, and did not statistically differ for all experimental sites. The indices also did not depend on the external or internal dose rate of ionizing radiation for plants. The above findings seem to be consistent with other research effort in terms of understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long-term effects of large scale nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vana praavusk Roth 225 / Milvi Hirvlaane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hirvlaane, Milvi, 1936-

    2008-01-01

    Baltisaksa päritolu eesti vaimulikust, koolitegelasest ja luuletajast Johann Philipp von Rothist, tema osast Eesti kultuuriloos, võru keele arendamises, talurahvaseaduse ettevalmistamises ja paljus muus

  19. Analyse de la tolérance des populations locales de fève (Vicia faba L. à la sécheresse au stade juvénile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora AQTBOUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most important abiotic stress responsible of the production instability and lower levels of yields of faba bean (Vicia faba L.. The cropping of tolerant varieties can be an opportunity to stabilize production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to study the drought tolerance in the juvenile plant stage in a collection of local Moroccan faba bean populations from the province of Taounate. A number of 60 local populations were studied under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Different morphological and physiological traits were studied before and under water stress and during the recovery phase. The difference between recovery and water stress phases estimates the capacity of local populations to recover from drought. The local populations contain a wide diversity for different studied traits. The gain in dry matter has a negative and highly significant correlation with dry matter yield under water stress (r = -0.64 **. The populations 16, 47, 1 and 9 have proven to be the most drought tolerant at juvenile stage.

  20. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops.

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUEIRA, M. A.; TELLES, T. S.; FAGOTTI, D. dos S. L.; BRITO, O. R.; PRETE, C. E. C.; GUIMARÃES, M. de F.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and fodder radish (Raphanus sat...

  1. Short-rotation cultivation of fast-growing willows and plantations of Betula pendula, Roth on Hirvineva, a mire formerly used for peat production, in Liminka, Finland. Nopeakasvuisten pajujen (Salix spp. ) lyhytkiertoviljelystae ja rauduskoivun (Betula pendula) viljelystae turvetuotannosta poistuneella suolla, limingan Hirvinevalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumme, I.; Kiukaanniemi, E.

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerned with afforestation experiments using fast-growing willows (Salix spp.) and silver birch (Betula pendula, Roth) conducted by the Northern Finland Research Institute of the University of Oulu at the site of a mire formerly used for peat production, Hirvineva in the commune of Liminka (62 deg C 45{sup '} N, 23 deg C 30{sup '} E). Experiments were carried out at the early stages of willow cultivation into the use of chemical fertilizers and peat ash, the liming requirement of the soil and the effects of tilling of the soil on growth. Since 1985 efforts have been concentrated on developing new willow clones. Research was also begun into the mycorhiza which develop when willows are cultivated on peat soils. The experiments with Betula pendula were devoted to examining the effects of plantation density and fertilization with peat ash on four-year old saplings.

  2. Typification of Zaluzianskya villosa F. W. Schmidt (Scrophulariaceae-Manuleae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2009), s. 588-590 ISSN 0254-6299 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : F. W. Schmidt * herbarium PRC * nomenclature Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.080, year: 2009

  3. Exogenously applied D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol modifies the accumulation of α-D-galactosides in developing tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effect of exogenous cyclitols on the accumulation of their galactosides and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, as well as on some enzymes important for their biosynthesis in seeds of tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray. Immature seeds during 6-day incubation with D-chiro-inositol (naturally does not appear in seeds of tiny vetch were accumulated cyclitol and its galactosides (fagopyritols: B1 and B2. Short 4-hour incubation with D-chiro-inositol, and subsequent slow desiccation process caused accumulation of free cyclitol only, without biosynthesis of its galactosides. Feeding D-chiro-inositol to pods of tiny vetch induced accumulation of high levels of its galactosides (fagopyritol B1, B2 and B3 in maturing seeds. Similarly, feeding D-pinitol increased accumulation of its mono-, di- and tri-galactosides: GPA, GPB, DGPA and TGPA in tiny vetch seed. Accumulation of both cyclitols and their galactosides drastically reduced accumulation of verbascose. Inhibition of RFOs biosynthesis by elevated levels of free cyclitols suggests some competition between formation of both types of galactosides and similarity of both biosynthetic routes in tiny vetch seeds. Galactinol synthase (GolS from tiny vetch seeds demonstrated ability to utilize D-chiro-inositol as galactosyl acceptor, instead of myo-inositol. Presence of both cyclitols, as substrates for GolS, caused synthesis of their galactosides: fagopyritol B1 and galactinol. However, formation of galactinol was more efficient than fagopyritol B1. D-chiro-Inositol and D-pinitol at concentrations several-fold higher than myo-inositol had inhibitory effect on GolS. Thus, we suggest that a level of free cyclitols can have an influence on the rate of galactinol biosynthesis and further accumulation of RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds.

  4. Gifts reserved for age: a Lacanian study of comedy in Philip Roth’s Exit Ghost = Dons reservados para a idade madura: um estudo lacaniano sobre a comédia em O fantasma sai de cena (2007, de Philip Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Milton Mellard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical problem surrounding Philip Roth’s recent Exit Ghost (2007, the ninth and projected by the author as the final Zuckerman novel, is how it can function as comedy when one major character is dying of brain cancer and its protagonist is seventy-one years old, beginning to receive an elderly male’s gifts reserved for age –prostate cancer, prostate surgery, impotence, and incontinence – and, despite all, falls in love with a thirty-year-old married woman. A sequel to The Ghost Writer (1979, the first Zuckerman novel, whose character relations it repeats, Exit Ghost has comparatively less humor than its predecessor but there is humor enough. Moreover, and more important, it fits the genre of comedy because of the functions it gives to the classically traditional motifs of the phallus, castration, age versus youth, Eros and Thanatos, and the like. It is from a Lacanian critical perspective that it can be shown how the novel moves toward comedy’s conventional happy ending because of the duality of meanings attached to the matter of castration, the way in which Roth/Zuckerman displaces the object of desire from the young woman and finds it – enjoyment, jouissance – in the very process of writing itself.O grande problema para a crítica de O fantasma sai de cena, até agora o penúltimo romance de Philip Roth, concebido como o último envolvendo Nathan Zuckerman, é classificá-lo como comédia, e um de seus mais importantes personagens está morrendo de câncer no cérebro e o protagonista tem 71 anos e já está recebendo os dons reservados para a idade madura masculina, ou seja, câncer de próstata, cirurgia prostática, impotência, incontinência urinária e, apesar de tudo, apaixona-se por uma mulher casada, de 30 anos. Sendo uma continuação da série iniciada por The Ghost Writer (1979, o primeiro romance em que aparece o personagem Zuckerman, cujas relações com os demaispersonagens se repetem, O fantasma sai de cena

  5. Effect of 15n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Acosta, Jose Alan de; Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Silva, Leandro Souza da; Silveira Nicoloso, Rodrigo da

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of 15 N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha -1 N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha -1 of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch 15 N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha -1 , without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha -1 , confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  6. Effect of {sup 15}n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Acosta, Jose Alan de [Drakkar Solos, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Silva, Leandro Souza da, E-mail: tamado@smail.ufsm.b, E-mail: leandro@smail.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Soil Dept.; Neergaard, Andreas de; Vinther, Mads, E-mail: adn@life.ku.d [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Silveira Nicoloso, Rodrigo da, E-mail: rodrigo.nicoloso@cnpsa.embrapa.b [Embrapa Swine and Poultry, Concordia, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of {sup 15}N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha{sup -1} N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha{sup -1} of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch {sup 15}N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha{sup -1}, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha{sup -1}, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  7. Effect of different cover crops on C and N cycling in sorghum NT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, Ileana; Quiroga, Alberto; Noellemeyer, Elke

    2016-08-15

    In many no-till (NT) systems, residue input is low and fallow periods excessive, for which reasons soil degradation occurs. Cover crops could improve organic matter, biological activity, and soil structure. In order to study changes in soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass a field experiment (2010-2012) was set up with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.) monoculture and with cover crops. Treatments were control (NT with bare fallow), rye (Secale cereale L.) (R), rye with nitrogen fertilization (R+N), vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) (V), and rye-vetch mixture (VR) cover crops. A completely randomized block design with 4 replicates was used. Soil was sampled once a year at 0.06 and 0.12m depth for total C, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and-nitrogen (MBN) determinations. Shoot and root biomass of sorghum and cover crops, litter biomass, and their respective carbon and nitrogen contents were determined. Soil temperatures at 0.06 and 0.12m depth, volumetric water contents and nitrate concentrations were determined at sowing, and harvest of each crop, and during sorghum's vegetative phase. NT led to a small increase in MBC and MBN, despite low litter and root biomass residue. Cover crops increased litter, root biomass, total C, MBC, and MBN. Relationships between MBC, MBN, and root-C and -N adjusted to logistic models (R(2)=0.61 and 0.43 for C and N respectively). Litter cover improved soil moisture to 45-50% water filled pore space and soil temperatures not exceeding 25°C during the warmest month. Microbial biomass stabilized at 20.1gCm(-2) and 1.9gNm(-2) in the upper 0.06m. Soil litter disappearance was a good indicator of mineral N availability. These findings support the view that cover crops, specifically legumes in NT systems can increase soil ecosystem services related to water and carbon storage, habitat for biodiversity, and nutrient availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon supply and storage in tilled and nontilled soils as influenced by cover crops and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M; Singh, Bharat P; Whitehead, Wayne F; Wang, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration in tilled and nontilled areas can be influenced by crop management practices due to differences in plant C inputs and their rate of mineralization. We examined the influence of four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)], biculture of legume and nonlegume (vetch and rye), and no cover crops (or winter weeds)} and three nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (0, 60 to 65, and 120 to 130 kg N ha(-1)) on C inputs from cover crops, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)], and soil organic carbon (SOC) at the 0- to 120-cm depth in tilled and nontilled areas. A field experiment was conducted on Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paleudults) from 1999 to 2002 in central Georgia. Total C inputs to the soil from cover crops, cotton, and sorghum from 2000 to 2002 ranged from 6.8 to 22.8 Mg ha(-1). The SOC at 0 to 10 cm fluctuated with C input from October 1999 to November 2002 and was greater from cover crops than from weeds in no-tilled plots. In contrast, SOC values at 10 to 30 cm in no-tilled and at 0 to 60 cm in chisel-tilled plots were greater for biculture than for weeds. As a result, C at 0 to 30 cm was sequestered at rates of 267, 33, -133, and -967 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for biculture, rye, vetch, and weeds, respectively, in the no-tilled plot. In strip-tilled and chisel-tilled plots, SOC at 0 to 30 cm decreased at rates of 233 to 1233 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1). The SOC at 0 to 30 cm increased more in cover crops with 120 to 130 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) than in weeds with 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), regardless of tillage. In the subtropical humid region of the southeastern United States, cover crops and N fertilization can increase the amount of C input and storage in tilled and nontilled soils, and hairy vetch and rye biculture was more effective in sequestering C than monocultures or no cover crop.

  9. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lawson

    Full Text Available Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L. and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight, two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3(--N (0 to 30 cm depth averaged 62 kg ha(-1 for rye, 97 kg ha(-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination compared with the monocultures (29%. Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  10. Aporte de fitomassa pelas sucessões de culturas e sua influência em atributos físicos do solo no sistema plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Augusto da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradação física dos solos, como a compactação, reduz a movimentação de água e o crescimento de raízes. A estrutura do solo é considerada como uma de suas mais importantes propriedades do ponto de vista agrícola, pois a ela estão relacionadas outras propriedades fundamentais nas relações solo-planta. Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de culturas de cobertura nos atributos físicos do solo realizou-se este trabalho em um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, textura muito argilosa, nas safras de 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, na Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, em uma área há oito anos sob plantio direto. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completamente casualizados com três repetições. Foram avaliadas as culturas girassol (Helianthus annuus L., crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L., ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa Roth, consórcio de crotalária e aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e consórcio de aveia preta, ervilhaca peluda e nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg, sucedendo a soja e como antecessoras do milho. As culturas de girassol, crotalária e o consórcio aveia preta mais crotalária proporcionaram maiores teores de carbono orgânico total; os valores de macroporosidade e porosidade total aumentaram na camada superficial enquanto os valores de densidade do solo e de microporosidade foram menores nessa camada. Os agregados foram mais estáveis na camada 0 - 5 cm. Os sistemas de culturas estudados foram eficientes na produção de palha, capazes preservar os atributos físicos do solo. Os consórcios entre aveia preta+ervilhaca peluda+nabo forrageiro e, da aveia preta+crotalária possibilitam maior cobertura e permanência da palha sobre o solo.

  11. Caractérisation phéno-morphologique de quelques lignées de fève (Vicia faba L. sélectionnées et adaptées aux conditions de culture dans les régions arides en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouthaina Al Mohandes Dridi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to produce a pheno-morphological characterization of 13 faba bean lines selected by the Institute of Arid Regions from 42 local populations. The pheno-morphological variability of these lineages was observed and followed from planting through to seed maturity by biometric measurements and by qualitative evaluations on different plant parts. Morphological characteristics were described by using the UPOV (2000 descriptor. The analysis of results made it possible to distinguish between 2 groups based on precocity and hundred-seed weight. The first group was represented by line 8 which differs from others by the fact that it was the earliest and had the highest one hundred-seed weight. The second group was divided into 3 subgroups that differed in terms of plant vigour and productivity. The first subgroup was characterized by a lower number of flowers per raceme, a hundred-seed weight average ranging from 162.96 g to 165.24 g and a highest number of seeds per pod. This first subgroup contained the lines 5, 10, 11, 12 and 13. The second subgroup included lines 6, 7 and 9 which were the most homogenous on 50 % owering date, plant height and length of lea et. The latter subgroup included the lines 1, 2, 3 and 4, characterized by a highest number of pods per plant, number of stems per plant, and number of flowers per raceme. These lines should be preserved and valued for the varietal improvement programs of Vicia faba. Successive selection should be practiced until a more productive synthetic variety is obtained that is better adapted to the dry conditions of South Tunisia. Key words: Phenology, agromorphology, characterization, Vicia faba

  12. SUPPLEMENTARY VALUE OF VETCH (VICIA DASYCARPA) HAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal

    on feed intake and digestibility as well as milk production and composition in lactating F1 crossbred. (Boran x Friesian) cows fed .... the start of the experiment. The calves were separated from their dams five days after parturition. Experimental feeds. Vetch was harvested at 50% flowering, field cured, baled and stored in a ...

  13. A RUMINATE EMBRYO IN BLEPHARIS REPENS (VAHL. ROTH. (ACANTHACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. LABHANE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphology of embryo is very significant considering the fact that the embryo represents the important step in the determination of the viability of the seed. Ruminate endosperm has been reported in about 58 families of angiosperms. The rumination caused by the activity of the seed coat or by the endosperm itself is quite recurrent in angiosperm. Ruminate endosperm due to seed coat is reported from the family Acanthaceae in Andrographis paniculata. The rumination of endosperm is also considered as phylogenetically important. Rumination of endosperm is very common, however very little is known about rumination in embryo. The present papers reports the de novo development of ruminate embryo in Blepharis repens. The development of ruminate embryo is seen as an adaptation to ensure proper aeration and optimum germination for survival of the species.

  14. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, S.; Huang, B.; Bembenek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation sin...

  15. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  16. 164 antitrypanosomal activity of senna villosa in infected balb/c mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Matilde Jimenez-Coelloa, Eugenia Guzman-Marina, SaludPerez-Gutierrez b, .... and administered orally (adjusted to 50 µL per animal) every 24 hours during 15 ..... Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública [on line], 22 (abril-junio) ...

  17. Effects of flavonoids extracted from the whole plant of Patrinia Villosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p < 0.01), while IL-10 level significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the serum of chronic pelvic inflammatory rats and LPS-stimulated macrophages. In addition, a similar trend was observed in the mRNA levels of LPS-stimulated macrophages ...

  18. Photosynthesis and growth response of Calamagrostis arundinacea and C. villosa to enhanced UV-B radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Otmar; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr; Marek, Michal V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2006), s. 215-220 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 627.001 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-000125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biomass * field experiment * stomatal conductance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2006

  19. Effects of flavonoids extracted from the whole plant of Patrinia Villosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juss (PTJ) in a rat model of chronic pelvic inflammation. Methods: An ... is the infection of pathogenic microorganisms in .... and 1 × 108 cfu/mL pathogenic E. coli). .... K1. 32.533. 30.067. 30.467. 33.433. K2. 39.500. 36.167. 36.133. 33.767. K3.

  20. Асимметрия формы и полярная сократимость клеток палисадной паренхимы листа Vicia faba L

    OpenAIRE

    Фомин, Лев

    2011-01-01

    Измерение клеток мезофилла листа (Vicia faba L.) в тургорном и бестургорном состоянии показало, что клетки асимметричны и имеют две части, различных в диаметре. Часть клетки с большим диаметром обладает большим объёмом и сократимостью оболочки.

  1. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was

  2. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, M.F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed

  3. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Wilson, Michael H; Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-04-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50-5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. An evaluation of fababean ( Vicia faba ) and lupin ( Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to compare fababean with lupin crop residues for summer grazing by young Merino wethers. The crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) degradability as well as chemical composition of fababean and lupin seed and stalks were also determined. Sheep which utilized both crop residues ...

  5. Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Faba Bean ( Vicia faba L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i3.2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  6. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sheep which utilized both crop residues gained in live mass ... live masses than sheep which grazed lupin crop residues at the fourth week .... model of 0rskov & McDonald (1979): p .... Production Laboratory are thanked for chemical analyses.

  7. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  8. Interaction of a novel Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr) glycoprotein with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Wu, J H; Shen, F

    1994-01-14

    A naturally occurring Tn glycoprotein (Native ASG-Tn) with GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr as the only carbohydrate side chains, has been prepared from armadillo submandibular glands. In a quantitative precipitin assay, this glycoprotein completely precipitated Maclura pomifera (MPA), Vicia villosa B4 (VVL-B4) and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, AIL). It also reacted well with Helix pomatia (HPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) and precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added, but poorly with Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), ricin, peanut (Arachis hypogaea, PNA), Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA). This finding suggests that this novel Tn-glycoprotein may serve as a useful reagent for differentiating Tn and T specific monoclonal antibodies and lectins.

  9. Study of Allelopathic Interaction of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Some Weed Species Using Equal - Compartment – Agar Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Labbafi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods for weed management one of them is putting allelopathic and cover crop in weed management programs. In order to study the effect of sowing time (delayed sowing, synchronic sowing and wheat cultivars (Shiraz, Roshan, Tabasi, Niknejad on allelopathic interaction of wheat and weed species (Secale cereale L., Avena ludoviciana L.: monocotyledon, Convolvulus arvensis L. and Vicia villosa L.: dicotyledon, an experiment was conducted with factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design and 4 replications. According to the results, the inhibitory effect of wheat on monocot weeds (oat and rye was more than in synchronic sowing and the inhibitory effect of wheat on dicot weeds (bindweed and vetch was more than in delayed sowing. Effect of wheat cultivars on rye and oat (except hypocotyls length was inhibitory and that of vetch was stimulatory. Hypocotyls length showed the most sensitivity to released allelochemicals from wheat cultivars, because root has the most contact with allelochemicals in the soil.

  10. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  11. Leaching of nutrients from Calamagrostis villosa stands on different deforested sites in the Moravian-Silesian Beskyd Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr; Jandák, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, - (2006), s. 75-80. ISBN 80-7157-966-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/97/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : grass growth * lysimetric water * nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  12. Splinter haemorrhages, Osler's nodes, Janeway lesions and Roth spots: the peripheral stigmata of endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Karishma; Buckley, Jim; de Wolff, Jacob

    2013-09-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious endo-vascular infection, potentially affecting not only native heart valves, but also intra-vascularly implanted foreign materials such as valvular prostheses and pacemaker electrodes (Westphal et al, 2009).

  13. 75 FR 11922 - Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,054C] Apria Healthcare..., 2009, applicable to workers of Apria Healthcare, including on-site leased workers from Corestaff... subject firm. The workers are engaged in activities related to the information technology and patient...

  14. Development of non-lodging mutants through gamma irradiation in little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmalakumari, A.; Muthiah, A.R.; Senthil, N.; Souframanien, J.

    2009-01-01

    The little millet is widely cultivated as a millet crop across India, China, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Western Burma. Being the first crop to be harvested in the season, it produces the much needed food grain among the tribals and is the staple food for millions in many parts of the world. It is resilient and can adjust to diverse growing environments differing in soil, rainfall and weather. The grain is a good source of nutrients. Variability in a population decides the scope for selection particularly when it is controlled more by genetic factors rather than by environment. The grain yield of millet and macromutants for high productive tillering, ear head length, compactness, bold grain and non lodging of little millet can be improved through gamma rays. The experimental materials consisted of M6 mutants of CO 3 and CO (samai) 4 varieties irradiated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 Gray of gamma rays from 60 Co, source at BARC, Mumbai and conducted at Millet Breeding Station, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India. From M6 generation finally six best non- lodging mutants were selected and subjected to multilocation trials for studying their stability. (author)

  15. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... company (that is, the actual premiums paid for such contract). (ii) Use of reserves where no comparable... date of the conversion, plus the proportionate part of the gross premium last paid before the date of... includible in gross income as a distribution according to the rules of section 408(d)(1) and (2) for the...

  16. Elevated CO2 concentration affects vertical distribution of photosynthetic activity in Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 67-74 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : chlorophyll * CO2 assimilation * elevated CO2 * concentration * transpiration * vertical gradient * water-use efficiency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0067/

  17. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  18. A new acetophenone derivative from flowers of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Pagano, Ester; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Masullo, Milena; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    A new acetophenone derivative named gnaphaliol 9-O-propanoate (1) was isolated from the chloroform fraction of EtOH extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers along with the five known acetophenones 12-acetoxytremetone (2), 13-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)toxol (3), [2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (4), 1-[2-[1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethenyl]-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (5) and gnaphaliol (6). The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D- ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D-NMR (DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY and ROESY) experiments as well as ESIMS analysis. The isolated compounds were investigated for their cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Biological assays on human colonic epithelial cells showed that compound 2 possessed antioxidant effects reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Goldie Roth unchained: risk and its management in Lian Tanner’s Museum of Thieves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood, Danielle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In her children’s action adventure novel Museum of Thieves, Lian Tanner overtly critiques adult risk-aversion and the over-protection of children. The protagonist is Goldie, an unruly child who escapes the oppressive regime of the City of Jewel where children up to the age of 12 are chained, for their own safety, to adult companions. Goldie escapes Jewel’s power structures and enters a mysterious museum housing the city’s unwanted wildness and danger. In its opening chapter Museum of Thieves establishes a subversive schema that problematises concepts of safety and order and glorifies chaos and risk, but this paper argues that as the novel progresses the author finds the schema increasingly difficult to control. It is tempting to read the museum as a “time out” zone such as CS Lewis’s Narnia, L Frank Baum’s Oz, and Maurice Sendak’s “place where the wild things are”: a space in which child characters can gain self-knowledge and skills before returning to an adult-dominated order. However, because of the degree to which Jewel and its structures are pathologised, Tanner finds she cannot bring Goldie back from “time out”. But rather than being a transgressive text, Museum of Thieves ends in a much less subversive place than it sets out to reach; the museum is revealed as a tightly controlled space and Goldie is well-protected, both within the diegesis by the museum’s special features, and beyond the diegesis by the author and the author’s cognisance of contemporary publishing industry expectations about the depiction of risk in children’s fiction.

  20. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms.

  1. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  2. Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla en el Pleistoceno tardío de Calama, norte de Chile Late Pleistocene Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla from Calama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA TERESA ALBERDI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen restos del género Hippidion procedentes de la zona del desierto de Atacama (Calama, Segunda Región de Chile. El conjunto analizado corresponde a un esqueleto bastante completo proveniente del yacimiento Betecsa 1, así como escasas unidades del yacimiento Kamac Mayu. En ambos sitios se identifica H. saldiasi. A partir de dos dataciones radiométricas por AMS del ejemplar estudiado, los restos se sitúan estratigráficamente en el Pleistoceno Superior (21.070 ± 100 AP y 21.380 ± 100 14C AP. Se infieren datos ambientales y de dieta a partir de análisis de isótopos estables en los restos de Hippidion saldiasi del sitio Betecsa 1 cuyo valor de δ13C en hueso fue de -15,45 y el valor en esmalte de dientes fue de -16,68, sugiriendo una alimentación con pastos C3. El cráneo recuperado es el primero conocido de esta especieThis paper describes the Hippidion bones recovered from the Atacama Desert (Calama, Second Region of Chile. The analyzed assemblage corresponds to a nearly complete skeleton from Betecsa 1 site and more poorly preserved remains from Kamac Mayu site. In both H. saldiasi is identified. Two 14C radiometric determinations indicate late Pleistocene age for these remains (21,070 ± 100 BP and 21,380 ± 100 BP. Environmental and diet inferences from stable isotope analysis are also presented. The δ13C value from Betecsa 1 horses (-15.45 from bone sample and -16.68 from enamel sample suggest a dietary adaptation exclusively C3 feeders. This is the first skull and associated skeleton recovered of this species

  3. Differential binding properties of Gal/GalNAc specific lectins available for characterization of glycoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Song, S C; Sugii, S; Herp, A

    1997-01-01

    Differentiating the binding properties of applied lectins should facilitate the selection of lectins for characterization of glycoreceptors on the cell surface. Based on the binding specificities studied by inhibition assays of lectin-glycan interactions, over twenty Gal and/or GalNAc specific lectins have been divided into eight groups according to their specificity for structural units (lectin determinants), which are the disaccharide as all or part of the determinants and of GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the peptide chain. A scheme of codes for lectin determinants is illustrated as follows: (1) F (GalNAc alpha 1-->3GalNAc), Forssman specific disaccharide--Dolichos biflorus (DBL), Helix pomatia (HPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (2) A (GalNAc alpha 1-->3 Gal), blood group A specific disaccharide--Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides (CFT), Soy bean (SBL), Vicia villosa-A4 (VVL-A4), and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (3) Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the protein core)--Vicia villosa B4 (VVL-B4), Salvia sclarea (SSL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL) and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, AIL). (4) T (Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc), the mucin type sugar sequences on the human erythrocyte membrane(T alpha), T antigen or the disaccharides at the terminal nonreducing end of gangliosides (T beta)--Peanut (PNA), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Sophora japonica (SJL), Artocarpus lakoocha (Artocarpin) lectins and Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA).(5) I and II (Gal beta 1-->3(4)GlcNAc)--the disaccharide residue at the nonreducing end of the carbohydrate chains derived from either N- or O-glycosidic linkage--Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), Datura stramonium (TAL, Thorn apple), Erythrina cristagalli (ECL, Coral tree), and Geodia cydonium (GCL). (6) B (Gal alpha 1-->3Gal), human blood group B specific disaccharide--Griffonia(Banderiaea) simplicifolia B4 (GSI-B4). (7) E (Gal alpha 1-->4Gal), receptors for pathogenic E

  4. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cerro Bombero: registro de Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Equidae, Perissodactyla en el Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new record of Hippidion saldiasi with new radiocarbon data referred to early Holocene (8,850 ± 80 year C-14 B.P of Patagonia is reported. Both its peculiar geographic location in a scarcely prospected zone and its radiocarbon age, provide new elements to discuss the previous hypotheses about the extinction of the horses and its relations with the human beings that inhabited the different environments of South America.Presentamos un nuevo registro de Hippidion saldiasi con datación radiocarbónica directa correspondiente al Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (8.850 ± 80 años C-14 AP. Su particular ubicación temporal y geográfica en una zona poco estudiada hasta ahora y su registro reciente, aportan nuevos elementos para discutir las hipótesis previas sobre la extinción de los caballos y su relación con los grupos humanos que colonizaron los diferentes ambientes de América del Sur.

  6. At the Reception Desk of the Public Information Office, left to right, Chantal Berthet, Coca Roth and Regine Chareyron.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    In keeping with Article II of the Convention, which stipulates that "the results of its (...) work shall be published or otherwise made available," CERN was already organising visits for the general public in the late 1950s, with members of the personnel doubling up as voluntary tour guides. By 1959, the Laboratory was opening its doors to almost 2 500 visitors a year. Ten years down the line, that number had risen to 12 700.

  7. Materializing Multiculturalism: Deconstruction and Cumulation in Teaching Language, Culture, and (Non) Identity Reflections on Roth and Kellogg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Katherine Richardson

    2009-01-01

    As a multicultural teacher educator, the author spends a lot of time talking about cultural and linguistic "difference." Doing this work in Iowa means that many of the students she talks with come from communities that, they say, have not prepared them to have this conversation. "Everyone was just like me," they claim.…

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of Bangiadulcis atropurpurea (A. Roth W.A. Nelson and Bangia fuscopurpurea (Dillwyn Lyngbye (Bangiales, Rhodophyta in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Jui-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of the freshwater red algae, Bangiadulcis atropurpurea, collected from the mountain waterfalls and its close species, Bangia fuscopurpurea, collected from coasts, were phylogenetically analyzed. The sequences of the rbcL gene and RuBisCO spacer region of the freshwater Bangiadulcis atropurpurea species were identical or similar to those of B. atropurpurea from Japan, North America and Europe. This result indicated that the freshwater Bangiadulcis species from Taiwan shared a common ancestor with the three above-mentioned populations and formed a distinct clade from the marine Bangia species in the phylogenetic trees. It is suggested that all the previous records on marine Bangia species should be revised and the name B. fuscopurpurea be used for the marine species in Taiwan. In this study, the freshwater alga B. atropurpurea presents a new record in the algal flora of Taiwan. This finding is important for the protection of the biodiversity of red algal flora, and provides useful information on the ecological conservation of the species in Taiwan.

  9. Simulating SOC changes in 11 land use change chronosequences from the Brazilian Amazon with RothC and Century models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerri, C.E.P.; Easter, M.; Paustian, K.; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, M.; Falloon, P.; Powlson, D.S.; Batjes, N.H.; Milne, E.; Cerri, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and global carbon (C) cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of

  10. Antifungal activity of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don (Asteraceae essential oil against fungi isolated from cultural heritage objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the use of essential oils as alternative methods to control micromycetes from cultural heritage objects. We investigated the chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum. The main components of the oil were γ-curcumene (22.45%, α-pinene (15.91 % and neryl acetate (7.85 %. H. italicum essential oil showed moderate antifungal activity against fungi isolated from cultural heritage objects. The most susceptible fungi to oil treatment were Epicoccum nigrum and Penicillium sp., while the most resistant was Trichoderma viride. The H. italicum essential oil showed demelanizing activity against Aspergillus niger. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  11. Essential-oil composition of Helichrysum italicum (ROTH) G.DON ssp. italicum from Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Michele; Ambryszewska, Katarzyna E; Melai, Bernardo; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Parri, Federico; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The composition of 21 essential-oil samples isolated from Helichrysum italicum collected in seven locations of Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy), characterized by different soil types, during three different periods (January, May, and October 2010) was determined by GC-FID and GC/EI-MS analyses. In total, 115 components were identified, representing 96.8-99.8% of the oil composition. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (38.6-62.7%), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons accounted for 2.3-41.9 and 5.1-20.1% of the identified constituents, respectively. The main oxygenated derivatives were nerol (2.8-12.8%) and its ester derivative neryl acetate (5.6-45.9%). To compare the chemical variability of the species within Elba Island and between the island and other localities within the Mediterranean area, studied previously, multivariate statistical analysis was performed. The results obtained showed a difference in the composition of the essential oils of H. italicum from Elba Island, mainly due to the environment where the plant grows, and, in particular, to the soil type. These hypotheses were further confirmed by the comparison of these oils with essential oils obtained from H. italicum collected on other islands of the Tuscan archipelago. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Intestinal antispasmodic effects of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum and chemical identification of the active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Borrelli, Francesca; Izzo, Angelo A

    2013-12-12

    In the Mediterranean Area, the flowers of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum are a traditional remedy for the treatment of intestinal complaints and are used as herbal tea for curing digestive, stomachic and intestinal diseases. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of this plant, the effect of an ethanolic extract of Helichrysum italicum was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Then, through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures, active component(s) were identified. Contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with acetylcholine and barium chloride; motility in vivo was evaluated by measuring upper gastrointestinal transit, both in control mice and in mice with experimental intestinal inflammation induced by croton oil. Chromatographic separation techniques such as HPLC and silica gel columns have yielded the active principles of Helichrysum italicum. We found that the ethanolic extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers elicited antispasmodic actions in the isolated mouse ileum and inhibited transit preferentially in the inflamed gut. A bioassay guided fractionation of the extract yielded the known compounds 12-acetoxytremetone (1) and 2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (2). Present study supported the traditional use of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers for intestinal complaints and through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures from the crude extract we showed that 12-acetoxytremetone (1) and 2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (2) acted in a synergistic way to produce an intestinal antispasmodic effect. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Radiation processing on sensory and chemical characteristics of broad beans (Giza,2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Niely, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Broad bean is the important leguminous protein consumed in egypt as a source of protein diet. The most popular way of preparing beans is the stewd form (Fool Medames). However, great losses due to insect infestation occur during storage. To combat these losses radiation processing has been used as an effective alternative of chemical fumigants to combat insect pets. The beans were irradiated at 25.5, 10 and kgy. The effects of treatments were investigated on sensory and chemical characteristics and on the solubility of broad beans protein, the amino acids content and on the nutritive value of bean protein from the view of its amino acids profile. The results of study indicate that the sensory evaluation of sewed irradiated 2.5 and 5 kGy samples revealed no significantdiffference in hardness, gumminess and acceptability. moreover, no significant changes in adhesivess, between samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 KGy, irradiation up to 20 KGy was found to improve the hardness of stewed broad bean which would improve the quality of broad of bean

  14. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  15. Nutritional and Biochemical Studies on Irradiated Broad Beans (Giza-2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M. D.; Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Niely, H.F.G.; Seda, H. A.; Ibrahim, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Broad bean is an important source of dietary protein in Egypt. High losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. Radiation processing is an excellent alternative method which could be used to combat these losses. The beans were irradiated at doses of 2.5,5, 10 and 20 kGy. The effects of treatments were investigated on trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutination activity, in vitro protein digestibility, in vivo protein efficiency ratio (PER) and short-term rats feeding. A dose of 20 kGy significantly caused a great reduction in trypsin inhibitor (by 67.12%) and hemagglutination activity (by 87.5%) in broad bean, whereas its in vitro protein digestibility increased from 67.15 to 80, 68% and PER also increased from 1.01 to 1.22. The results of short term of rat feeding experiments indicated that the growth of young rats given raw or irradiated beans at 2.5 and 5 kGy was much lower than that of rats given diet based upon casein or irradiated beans up to 20 kGy. Feeding raw and processed beans at 2.5 and 5 kGy, caused a significant increase in the relative weight of pancreas while feeding irradiated beans at 10 and 20 kGy normalized the relative pancreas weight. No changes have been observed in relative weight for stomach, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lungs in rats fed casein diet as compared with those fed raw and irradiated beans up to 20 kGy for 8 weeks

  16. Divergent adaptations in different parts of introduced range in tetraploid Vicia cracca

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líblová, Z.; Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    Roč. 234, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 245-255 ISSN 0367-2530 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : common garden experiments * autoploid * cytotype * biological invasions * evolutionary plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2016

  17. Acumulación de arsénico en el cultivo de habas (Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, en el estado de Hidalgo, México, causa que los cultivos de haba presenten concentraciones apreciables de dicho elemento. Los suelos evaluados presentaron texturas, conductividad, contenidos de N y de arsénico diferentes, pero resultados similares en pH, potencial redox, y contenido de materia orgánica. La elevada bioacumulación de arsénico en estos suelos fue directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. Las concentraciones de arsénico acumuladas más altas se obtuvieron en la raíz, el tallo, y las hojas, respectivamente. Concentraciones de 4 mg l-1, fueron letales para el cultivo; el fenómeno se apreció a partir de la etapa III de desarrollo, con la aparición de daños en las raíces y un fuerte efecto en la floración, que inhibió la formación de vainas.

  18. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in em>Vicia faba em>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Hafke, Jens B.; Schulz, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    According to an established concept, injury of the phloem triggers local sieve plate occlusion including callose-mediated constriction and, possibly, protein plugging of the sieve pores. Sieve plate occlusion can also be achieved by distant stimuli, depends on the passage of electropotential waves...

  19. Synthetic polyploids in Vicia cracca: methodology, effects on plant performance and aneuploidy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, Z.; Paštová, Ladislava; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 7 (2017), s. 827-839 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chromosome number * colchicine * neopolyploid Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2016

  20. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    food intake increased linearly with faba bean inclusion, reflecting a need by the hens ... Hens consumed the same amount of each basal feed when given a choice ... reduced transport cost could make this an attractive alternative to soybeans.

  1. Chimerism in M1 plants of Vicia faba, Capsicum annuum and Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, T.; Brunner, H.; Daskalov, S.; Nakai, H.

    1983-01-01

    One important task of our group at IAEA is to develop procedures aiming to improve sampling of M 2 seeds to facilitate the recovery of a maximum number of induced mutations in crop plants. Results from studies on three species are reported in this paper. Seeds have been mutagen treated and the chimeric M 1 plants were progeny tested in M 2 . The position of the M 2 seeds on the M 1 plants has been recorded

  2. Inheritance and performance of the stiff-strawed mutant in Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauen, M.; Sass, O.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The tall and leafy types are considered to produce more vegetative mass than is necessary for high grain yield. A mutant with stunted growth, smaller leaves with dark green colour, and a stiff stem showing excellent lodging resistance, found special interest among breeders. This stiff-stem growth-type was selected as a spontaneous mutation in a breeding population. A stiff-stem line was crossed with the varieties 'Alfred' and 'Minica'. The stiff-stem recombinants showed a 20% shorter plant height, excellent lodging resistance, higher harvest index and a promise of 30% yield increase. The monogenic inheritance of the mutant trait is an advantage for further breeding work. We propose the symbol st for the new allele. (author)

  3. Resolving browning during the establishment of explant cultures in Vicia faba L. for genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Klenotičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of in vitro regeneration systems of two explant types for low-tannine cultivars of faba bean based on culturing of shoot apices and cotyledonary nodes were provided by usage of various antioxidants - ascorbic acid, citric acid, glutathione and activated charcoal. In subsequent testing, the combined effects of antioxidants with transformation co-cultivation compounds acetosyringone and L-cysteine was studied. The application of antioxidants lead to decreased callogenesis, citric acids treatments (50 mg.l−1 dramatically decreased necrotic response of explants. However, citric acid, used together with ascorbic acid completely inhibited shoot growth in shoot apex cultures. Glutathion evoked hyperhydricity of explants. Activated charcoal induced rooting on media which are commonly used for shoot proliferation. Combination of acetosyringone with antioxidants influenced shoot proliferation, except of variant with ascorbic acid. Citric acid was the best and universal antioxidant in faba bean in vitro cultures and its use is recommended for faba bean genetic transformation experiments.

  4. ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for laying hens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dehulled faba beans were evaluated as an alternative to soybeans as a protein source for laying hens using 240 individually caged birds, 50 weeks of age. Two basal feeds were formulated to the same nutrient specifications but with one containing no faba beans and the other containing 200 g dehulled faba bean meal/kg.

  5. THE VARIATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS CONTENT AFTER SIMAZIN TREATMENT ON VICIA SATIVA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeta Grama-Tiganasu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Simazin has in certain conditions stimulatory effects on nucleic acids biosynthese. The biosyntese and mitotic division stimulation sugest the possibility to use simazin like growing and germination stimulator.

  6. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m -2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m -2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m -2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m -2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The dynamics of faba bean (Vicia faba L. parasitism by Orobanche foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier ABBES

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The dynamics of Orobanche foetida parasitizing faba bean are examined using Petri dish experiments. Rates of broomrape seed germination and seedling attachment to the host roots were quantified on three resistant genotypes (the Egyptian line Giza 429, the Spanish cultivar Baraca, and the Tunisian cultivar Najeh [XBJ90.03-16-1-1-1] and the susceptible cv. Bachaar. The percentage of O. foetida seed germination (11 to 38% was lower near the roots of resistant host plants than it was near the roots of ‘Bachaar’ (67%. O. foetida parasitism was followed using three parametric logistic functions. In this way some major parameters of the infection process were quantified: the maximal number (Nmax and the maximal rate (Rmax of broomrape attachments to the host roots, the median time required for attachment (T50, the maximal percentage of established tubercles reaching the final growth stage at 70 days after inoculation (DAI (%max, and the maximal rate of established tubercle growth (R’max. Broomrape attachment was lower and slower in resistant plants, as indicated by low Nmax and Rmax values combined with high T50 values. Furthermore the precocity of the resistant genotypes was correlated with low attachment. The parameters %max and R’max did not discriminate the susceptible cultivar Bachaar from Giza 429 or Baraca. On the other hand, the %max and the R’max were lower in the ‘Najeh’ plants. The findings indicated that both low attachment and limited growth of established tubercles contributed to resistance in the Najeh cultivar.

  8. Mucilage production during the incompatible interaction between Orobanche crenata and Vicia sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Lozano, M Dolores; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, M Carmen; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Orobanche spp. (broomrapes) are holoparasites lacking in chlorophyll and totally dependent on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to legumes cultivation and breeding for resistance remains as one of the best available methods of control. However, little is known about the basis of host resistance to broomrapes. It is a multicomponent event, and resistance based on hampering development and necrosis of broomrape tubercles has been reported. In the present work, the formation of mucilage and occlusion of host xylem vessels associated with the death of O. crenata tubercles were studied histologically. Samples of necrotic O. crenata tubercles established on resistant and susceptible vetch genotypes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. The sections were observed at the light microscopy level, either under bright field, epi-fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. A higher proportion of necrotic tubercles was found on the resistant genotype and this was associated with a higher percentage of occluded vessels. Mucilage is composed mainly by carbohydrates (non-esterified pectins) and the presence of polyphenols was also detected. The mucilage and other substances composed by parasite secretions and host-degraded products was found to block host vessels and obstruct the parasite supply channel, being a quantitative defensive response against O. crenata in vetch, and probably also in other legumes and plants. The presence of foreign substances (i.e. parasite secretions) and host-degraded products (i.e. carbohydrates from cell walls) inside host vessels seems to activate this response and leads to xylem occlusion and further death of established Orobanche tubercles.

  9. Nutritional evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Where a choice was offered between feeds containing soya and faba bean the ... An important question is whether the responses in food intake, growth or feed ..... that the slightly astringent taste of condensed tannins increases palatability and.

  10. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m 3 during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  11. Some Morphological Characters and Yield of Common Field Bean (Vicia faba.L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Golchin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evalauate the influences of irrigation time with wastewater of Iran mayhes factory (producing leaven on some morphological characters and yield of faba bean, a factorial experiment carried out on the base of randomized complete block design (CRBD in Iran Mayehs factory farm in spring2012. Experimental factors consisted of irrigation times at 3 levels I1 = one irrigation with determined amount of wastewater, I2 = two irrigations with determined amount of wastewater, I3 = irrigation during the growth period of plants with determined amount of wastewater and wastewater concentration at 6 levels (P0 = irrigation with normal water (control, P15=15% wastewaters + normal water, P30= 30% wastewaters + normal, P45= 45% wastewaters + normal water, P60= 60% wastewaters + normal water, P100= all wastewater with three replications. Results showed that the effect irrigation numbers on traits such as plant height, number of pods per plant and seed yield was significant. Results also revealed that the effect of weastwater concentration on1000seed weight was significant. The interaction of number of irrigations by weastwater concentrations on stem dry weight was also signification. Evaluation of different treatments showed that 45 percent concentration of wastewater was increased traits under study. It seems, that controlled irrigation of bean with wastewater of factory (producing yeast can be effective in improving its yield in the region.

  12. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ocaña

    Full Text Available Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136 subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H and susceptible genotype (Vf136, respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  13. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamene Temesgen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen faba bean genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments in Ethiopia during the main cropping season for three years (2009–2011. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the yield stability of the genotypes and the relative importance of different stability parameters for improving selection in faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using 17 different stability parameters. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed that the main effects of both genotypes and environments, and the interaction effect, were highly significant (P ≤ 0.001 and (P ≤ 0.01, respectively. The environment main effect accounted for 89.27% of the total yield variation, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 2.12% and 3.31%, respectively. Genotypic superiority index (Pi and FT3 were found to be very informative for selecting both high-yielding and stable faba bean genotypes. Twelve of the 17 stability parameters, including CVi, RS, α, λ, S2di, bi, Si(2, Wi, σi2, EV, P59, and ASV, were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. They should accordingly be used as complementary criteria to select genotypes with high yield and stability. Although none of the varieties showed consistently superior performance across all environments, the genotype EK 01024-1-2 ranked in the top third of the test entries in 61.5% of the test environments and was identified as the most stable genotype, with type I stability. EK 01024-1-2 also showed a 17.0% seed size advantage over the standard varieties and was released as a new variety in 2013 for wide production and named “Gora”. Different stability parameters explained genotypic performance differently, irrespective of yield performance. It was accordingly concluded that assessment of G × E interaction and yield stability should not be based on a single or a few stability parameters but rather on a combination of stability parameters.

  14. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L. accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiflemariam Y. Belachew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and harvest of clean roots for evaluation of their growth.

  15. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M.S. Abdul Qados

    2011-01-01

    An increase was observed in the protein content in the two measurement periods due to the impact of salinity stress. A directly proportional relationship was found between protein content and the increase in salt concentrations in the first measurement period, while it was inversely proportional in the second.

  16. High quality residues from cover crops favor changes in microbial community and enhance C and N sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Frasier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a change in management on the soil microbial community and C sequestration. We conducted a 3-year field study in La Pampa (Argentina with rotation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor in zero tillage alternating with rye (Secale cereale and vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa. Soil was sampled once a year at two depths. Soil organic matter fractions, dissolved organic matter, microbial biomass (MBC and community composition (DNA extraction, qPCR, and phospholipid FAME profiles were determined. Litter, aerial- and root biomass were collected and all material was analyzed for C and N. Results showed a rapid response of microbial biomass to a bacterial dominance independent of residue quality. Vetch had the highest diversity index, while the fertilized treatment had the lowest one. Vetch–sorghum rotation with high N mineralization rates and diverse microbial community sequestered more C and N in stable soil organic matter fractions than no-till sorghum alone or with rye, which had lower N turnover rates. These results reaffirm the importance of enhanced soil biodiversity for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and services. The supply of high amounts of N-rich residues as provided by grass–legume cover crops could fulfill this objective.

  17. Peripheral blood T cell activation after radioiodine treatment for graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Weiping; Weetman, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis produces a rise in thyroid autoantibodies in the first three months after treatment, but little is known of its effects on T cells. We have therefore followed the changes in T cells subsets in sequential samples from 23 patients with Graves' disease treated with radioiodine, using dual-colour flow cytometry. In the first month after treatment there was a significant rise in activated T cells, identified by the markers HLA-DR (Ia) and CDW 26/Ta 1 (P<0.025 in both case). CD45RO-positive T cells, which are the prime population containing memory cells, also increased (P<0.025), but there was no change in CD45R-positive, resting cells or in the CD4/CD8 (helper to cytotoxic/suppressor) ratio. Vicia villosa-binding T cells, containing the contra-suppressor population, showed a more variable response, but the trend was to an overall increase from pre-treatment values (P<0.025). The change did not appear to be related to antithyroid drugs treatment, since they were seen irrespective of whether patients convinced such therapy. These results suggest that T cell activation and enhanced contra-suppressor activity may in part be responsible for the rise in autoantibodies after radioiodine therapy

  18. Improvement of Forage Quantity and Quality in Corn-Legumes Intercropping with Nitroxin Biofertilizer Application in Double Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Javanmard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Forage quantity and quality in simultaneous cropping of maize with vetch (Vicia villosa, grass pea (Lathyrus sativus, sainfoin (Onobrychis vicifolia, berseem clover (Trifolium alexanderinum L., studied by experiment as randomized complete block design (RCBD with 14 treatments and three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh during 2015. The treatments were monocultures of maize (SC 704, Vetch, Grass pea, Sainfoin, Berseem clover and intercropping maize with each legume in inoculated and non-inoculated with nitroxin biofertilizer. The results showed that the highest and lowest forage yield were obtained in maize (inoculation+ vetch intercropping and sainfoin monoculture, respectively. Also, the highest (277.5 g.kgDM-1 and the lowest (60.60 g.kgDM-1 crude protein were achieved in vetch and maize monoculture (without inoculation, respectively. In addition to, the highest acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF values were obtained in monoculture of maize (no -inoculation. The lowest ADF and NDF values were obtained in vetch monoculture and intercropping of maize (inoculation + vetch. The highest values of DMI, DDM, RFV, NEL and TDN was observed in vetch monocultures. Also, between intercropping patterns, the highest values of these indices were obtained in intercropping of maize (inoculation + vetch. Generally, the results of this study exhibited that the effects of vetch on the quality and quantity of forages was higher than other legumes in intercropping patterns.

  19. Glycoconjugates distribution during developing mouse spinal cord motor organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojoudi, Elham; Ebrahimi, Vahid; Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the distribution and changes of glycoconjugates particularly their terminal sugars by using lectin histochemistry during mouse spinal cord development. Formalin-fixed sections of mouse embryo (10-16 fetal days) were processed for lectin histochemical method. In this study, two groups of horseradish peroxidase-labeled specific lectins were used: N-acetylgalactosamine, including Dolichos biflorus, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), Vicia villosa, Glycine max as well as focuse-binding lectins, including tetragonolobus, Ulex europaeus, and Orange peel fungus (OFA). All sections were counterstained with alcian blue (pH 2.5). Our results showed that only WFA and OFA reacted strongly with the floor plate cells from early to late embryonic period of developing spinal cord. The strongest reactions were related to the 14, 15, and 16 days of tissue sections incubated with OFA and WFA lectins. The present study demonstrated that cellular and molecular differentiation of the spinal cord organizers is a wholly regulated process, and α-L-fucose, α-D-GalNAc, and α/β-D-GalNAc terminal sugars play a significant role during the prenatal spinal cord development.

  20. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various 125 I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments

  1. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

  2. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    Full Text Available We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus; sunflower (Heliantus annuus intercropped with Urochloa ruziziensis; corn (Zea mays intercropped with Urochloa; and corn; fodder radish; or wheat (Triticum aestivum as sole crops. The subplots were the years: 2008 and 2009. Determinations consisted of total organic C, labile and resistant C, total N, microbial biomass C and N, the C/N ratio of soil organic matter, and the microbial quotient (qMic, besides microbiological and biochemical attributes, assessed only in 2009. The attributes significantly changed with the winter crops, especially the multicropping of cover crops and fodder radish, as well as effect of years. Despite stimulating the microbiological/biochemical activity, fodder radish cropping decreased the soil C in the second year, likewise the wheat cropping. The multicropping of cover crops in winter is an option for management in the establishment of no-till system, which contributes to increase the concentrations of C and stimulate the soil microbiological/biochemical activity.

  3. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  4. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions in cover crop-based corn production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian Wesley

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas; the majority of N2O emissions are the result of agricultural management, particularly the application of N fertilizers to soils. The relationship of N2O emissions to varying sources of N (manures, mineral fertilizers, and cover crops) has not been well-evaluated. Here we discussed a novel methodology for estimating precipitation-induced pulses of N2O using flux measurements; results indicated that short-term intensive time-series sampling methods can adequately describe the magnitude of these pulses. We also evaluated the annual N2O emissions from corn-cover crop (Zea mays; cereal rye [Secale cereale], hairy vetch [Vicia villosa ], or biculture) production systems when fertilized with multiple rates of subsurface banded poultry litter, as compared with tillage incorporation or mineral fertilizer. N2O emissions increased exponentially with total N rate; tillage decreased emissions following cover crops with legume components, while the effect of mineral fertilizer was mixed across cover crops.

  6. Peripheral blood T cell activation after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Teng; Stark, R.; Borysiewicz, L.K.; Weetman, A.P. (Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge Clinical School, Level 5, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)); Munro, A.J. (Department of Clinical Oncology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); McHardy Young, S. (Department of Medicine, Central Middlesex Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis produces a rise in thyroid autoantibodies in the first three months after treatment, but little is known of its effects on T cells. We have therefore followed the changes in T cell subsets in sequential samples from 23 patients with Graves' disease treated with radioiodine, using dualcolour flow cytometry. In the first month after treatment there was a significant rise in activated T cells, identified by the markers HLA-DR(la) and CDw26/Tal (p<0.025 in both cases). CD45RO-positive T cells, which are the primed population containing memory cells, also increased (p<0.025), but there was no change in CD45R-positive, resting T cells or in the CD4 to CD8 (helper to cytotoxic/suppressor) ratio. Vicia villosa-binding T cells, containing the contrasuppressor population, showed a more variable response, but the trend was to an overall increase from pre-treatment values (p<0.025). The changes did not appear to be related to antithyroid drug treatment, since they were seen irrespective of whether patients continued such therapy. These results suggest that T cell activation and enhanced contrasuppressor activity may in part be responsible for the rise in autoantibodies after radioiodine. The T cell changes could also contribute to the worsening of ophthalmopathy seen in some radioiodine-treated patients. (author).

  7. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  8. Determination of Mineral Contents of Some Legume and Cereal Forages Grown as Naturally in Pastures of Erzurum Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra GÜRSOY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the mineral substances such as macro and micro minerals of legume and cereal forages grown as naturally in the pastures of Erzurum province. In present study, clover, (Medicago sativa, mountain hispanic sainfoin (Hedysarum elegans, bird vetch (Vicia cracca, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, mountain vetch (Vicia alpestris, mountain clover (Trifolium montanum, caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum, the three-headed clover (Trifolium trichocephalum, tawny grass crown (Coronilla varia, the crown of the eastern horn of grass (Coronilla orientatis and yellow flowers gazelle (Lotus corniculatus from legume forages; cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, red fescue (Festuca rubra, sheep ball (Festuca ovina, tawny bromine (Bromus variegatus, blue split (Agropyron intermedium, kelp tail grass (Phleum pratense, meadow bluegrass (Poa pratensis from cereal forages were investigated. The obtained data were subjected to an analysis of variance by using SPSS 12.0 package program. Significant differences between means were tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Macro minerals such as Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg and Sulfur (S assigned for legume forages changed between 2.39- 3.30%, 1.16-1.28%, 0.70-2.69%, 0.56-1.61%, 0.11-0.51% and 0.16-0.27%, respectively. The amounts of micro mineral like Iron (Fe, Virgin (Cu, Zinc (Zn, Manganese (Mn and Boron (B of legume forages were determined to be 105.9-893.7 ppm, 2.22-12.36 ppm, 14.11-195 ppm, 18.18-66.58 ppm and 5.91-40.39 ppm, respectively. Instances of macro minerals of cereal forages were found for N 1.76-of 2.19%, P 1.10-1.19%, K 1.99-3.25%, Ca 0.09-1.15%, Mg 0.07-0.26% and S 0.22-0.36% in present study. Micro minerals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B determined for cereal forages changed between 74.90-630.6 ppm, 4-9.84 ppm, 31.49-335.6 ppm, 24.63-94.51 ppm and 0.35-26.64 ppm, respectively. In conclusion

  9. N2-fixation in fababean (vicia faba l.) grown in saline and non saline conditions using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Kurdali, F.

    2002-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing fababean and barley under saline conditions, in terms of, dry matter yield, total nitrogen and, percentages and amount of N derived from soil, fertilizer and atmosphere using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three saline treatments were performed: First, plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss), Second, Plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss); and Third, Plants grown in non saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Sn). Furthermore, a control treatment was performed by using non-saline soil and non-saline water (Wn Sn). The different salinity treatments reduced plant growth and the reduction was more pronounced in fababean than in barley. However, under conditions of either saline soil-soft irrigation water or non saline soil-salty irrigation water, the relative growth reduction did not exceed 50% of the control; whereas, a significant negative effect was obtained when plants were grown under completely saline conditions of both soil and irrigation water. Percentage of N 2 -fixed (% Ndfa) was not negatively affected by saline conditions. However, our results clearly demonstrated that the effect of salinity in fababean was more evident on plant growth than on N 2 -fixing activity. Further studies are needed to obtain more salt tolerant faba bean genotypes in terms of growth and yield. This could be simultaneously improve yield and N 2 -fixation under sever saline conditions. (author)

  10. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  11. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  12. Effect of Processing on the In Vitro and In Vivo Protein Quality of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Nosworthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein quality of different bean types after undergoing the preparatory methods of baking, cooking and extrusion was assayed. Protein quality was assessed using a rodent bioassay to evaluate growth and protein digestibility while amino acid composition was determined via HPLC. In vivo protein digestibility was compared to an in vitro assessment method. The average protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS for processed beans was higher than the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS (61% vs. 45%. Extrusion/cooking of Phaseolus varieties resulted in higher PDCAAS (66% on average and DIAAS values (61% on average than baked (52% and 48% while baked faba beans had higher PDCAAS (66% and DIAAS (61% values. A significant correlation was found between PDCAAS and in vitro PDCAAS (R2 = 0.7497. This demonstrates which bean processing method will generate the optimal protein quality, which has benefits for both industrial production and individual domestic preparation.

  13. Preparación y determinación de propiedades funcionales de Concentrados proteicos de haba (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Modercay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con cl propósito de obtener concentrados proteicos de haba, que eventualmente puedan ser empleados en la elaboración de alimentos para consumo humano, se establecieron a nivel de laboratorio, las condiciones para la extracción de las proteínas a partir de harina de haba baja en tegumento. Los resultados muestran que se obtiene un concentrado con más de 60% de proteína bruta en base seca, al suspender la harina de haba en agua en unarclaci'on I:6apH 8 manteniendo el sistema con agitación constante durante 0.5 hora a 40 °C y posteriormente acidificando el sobrenadante con HCl IN hasta pH 5.5. El método más aconsejable para el proceso de secado, es cl de rodillos de acuerdo con las características químicas, físicas y funcionales del producto.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides from broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaddou, H.; Mhaisen, M.T.; Al-Adamy, L.Z.; Naji, E.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of gamma-irradiation (2.5 to 10 KGy) on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides of broad bean were investigated. The method used for the cooked flavour analysis involved low temperature distillation. Gas-chromatography was used to separate the flavour extracts into their various constituents. The major volatile free fatty acids isolated are C16, C18, C18:1, and C20. Identification of the major peaks from the non-acid fraction were carried out. Identified peaks were hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Most of the compounds found to increase with increase in radiation dose. On the other hand, sensory evaluation tests indicated no changes in broad bean flavour quality after irradiation. Sugars were also analysed by gas chromatographic method after TMS-ether derivatization. Fructose, α and β-glucose, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose were the major sugars present. The gas-forming oligosaccharides were found to decrease with increase in dose applied. On the other hand, other sugars found to increase with increase in radiation dose. (author)

  15. Genotoxic effect of Peganum harmala extracts on the growth of Vicia faba L. and DNA using nuclear microsatellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekki, L.; Mansour, H.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of genotoxins-induced DNA damage and mutations at molecular level is important in ecogenotoxicology. Treatment with Peganum harmala crude extract can result in cytotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Mutagenesis is indicative of genetic instability and can be assayed using microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The application of SSR marker analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE) apparatus showed differences in SSR profiles within the extract as well as between the two extracts. All the 12 SSR primer pairs used produced amplification products which showed 100% polymorphism. The total number of scoreable loci obtained with the 12 used primers were 112 alleles. Of the 112 alleles detected 12 alleles (10.7 %) were considered as zero alleles. Three alleles produced by various primers were detected at locus VfG 2 2 to 15 at locus VfG 6 93 and VfG 8 73, with an average of 9.3 bands/SSR. The discrimination power of each SSR locus was estimated by the PIC, which ranged from 0.47 for locus VfG 2 2 to 0.88 for locus VfG 6 93 with a mean of 0.70. About 83.3% of the 18 alleles observed in untreated samples using the 12 primers disappeared from almost all the treatments with water and ethanol extracts. Statistical analysis of morphometric traits showed significant differences between the two extracts in all studied traits except the percentage of germination and root dry weight which were non significant. However, on the other hand significant differences were observed between treatments and the control for all the traits studied. (author)

  16. Measuring and modeling three-dimensional water uptake of a growing faba bean (Vicia faba) within a soil column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Katrin; Koebernick, Nicolai; Kerkhofs, Elien; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu; Vetterlein, Doris; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    A faba bean was grown in a column filled with a sandy soil, which was initially close to saturation and then subjected to a single drying cycle of 30 days. The column was divided in four hydraulically separated compartments using horizontal paraffin layers. Paraffin is impermeable to water but penetrable by roots. Thus by growing deeper, the roots can reach compartments that still contain water. The root architecture was measured every second day by X-ray CT. Transpiration rate, soil matric potential in four different depths, and leaf area were measured continously during the experiment. To investigate the influence of the partitioning of available soil water in the soil column on water uptake, we used R-SWMS, a fully coupled root and soil water model [1]. We compared a scenario with and without the split layers and investigated the influence on root xylem pressure. The detailed three-dimensional root architecture was obtained by reconstructing binarized root images manually with a virtual reality system, located at the Juelich Supercomputing Centre [2]. To verify the properties of the root system, we compared total root lengths, root length density distributions and root surface with estimations derived from Minkowski functionals [3]. In a next step, knowing the change of root architecture in time, we could allocate an age to each root segment and use this information to define age dependent root hydraulic properties that are required to simulate water uptake for the growing root system. The scenario with the split layers showed locally much lower pressures than the scenario without splits. Redistribution of water within the unrestricted soil column led to a more uniform distribution of water uptake and lowers the water stress in the plant. However, comparison of simulated and measured pressure heads with tensiometers suggested that the paraffin layers were not perfectly hydraulically isolating the different soil layers. We could show compensation efficiency of water uptake by the roots in the lower and wetter compartments. By comparing transpiration rates of experiments with and without additional paraffin layers, we were able to quantify restrictions of plant growth to available soil water. [1] Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken (2008), Use of a Three-Dimensional Detailed Modeling Approach for Predicting Root Water Uptake, Vadose Zone Journal, 7(3), 1079-1079. [2] Stingaciu, L., H. Schulz, A. Pohlmeier, S. Behnke, H. Zilken, M. Javaux, H. Vereecken (2013), In Situ Root System Architecture Extraction from Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Water Uptake Modeling, Vadose Zone Journal, 12(1). [3] Koebernick, N., U. Weller, K. Huber, S. Schlüter, H.-J. Vogel, R. Jahn; H. Vereecken, D. Vetterlein, In situ visualisation and quantification of root-system architecture and growth with X-ray CT, Manuscript submitted for publication.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Babiker, Elfadil E.; Hassan, Amro B.; Osman, Gammaa A.M.; Mohammed, Nagat; Diab, Eiman E.; Rushdi, Mohamed A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P≤0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P≤0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the invitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in anti-nutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.(author)

  18. Factors influencing distribution and local coexistence of diploids and tetraploids of Vicia cracca: inferences from a common garden experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 4 (2017), s. 677-687 ISSN 0918-9440 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : drought stress * seed production * vegetative growth Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.899, year: 2016

  19. Study of some resistance mechanisms to Orobanche spp. infestation in faba bean (Vicia faba L. breeding lines in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Trabelsi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of seven faba bean breeding lines toward Orobanche foetida and Orobanche crenata infestation was examined under field, pots, and in vitro conditions and compared to reference cultivars. The breeding lines presented resistance reaction to Orobanche spp. in different experiment conditions. In infested field by O. foetida, the grain yield reduction ranged from 55.7 to 83% for the breeding lines compared to 97% for the susceptible cultivar Badï. Lines L6 and L7 were the less affected by Orobanche parasitism considering severity, number of emerged Orobanche, and yield. In pots, the number of attachments varied from .6 to 3.4 and from 1.4 to 6.4 for the breeding lines against 10.4 and 12.3 for Badï inoculated, respectively, by O. foetida and O. crenata. In Petri dish experiment, Orobanche germination reached the highest rates; 69.9 and 59.7%, respectively, with O. crenata and O. foetida for Badï. For the breeding lines, it ranged from 6.3 to 44.9% for O. crenata and from 4.8 to 40.8% for O. foetida. Moreover, all breeding lines showed low tubercles number and delay in Orobanche attachments as compared to Badï. All breeding lines, except L5, maintained an acceptable level of resistance to Orobanche species manifested by a reduced Orobanche germination rate, low Orobanche number and dry weight, delay of attachments, and higher grain production compared to Badï. L5 seems to be less resistant even it behaves better than Badï in different culture conditions. The studied breeding lines could be recommended as resistance sources or candidates for varieties registrations.

  20. Effekte temporärer Direktsaat von Ackerbohnen (Vicia faba sp.) auf die Segetalflora im Ökologischen Landbau

    OpenAIRE

    Massucati, Luiz; Geib, Ben; Köpke, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Firm soil mulch husbandry, especially direct seeding, may provide an opportunity for Organic Agriculture to increase soil fertility by efficient erosion control and save labour and energy. In this context, occasional direct seeding (oDS) of faba bean into a straw mulch of residues from precrop oats should be scrutinized. A one-factorial field trial with four replicates was carried out 2010 at the organic research farm Wiesengut of the University of Bonn in Hennef/Sieg. Direct seeding was perf...

  1. Fungitoxicity of vicine isolated from .I.Vicia faba./I. L. to selected genera of fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Váňová, M.; Laudová, Věra

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 54, Suppl. 7 (1999), s. 62 ISSN 0006-3088. [International Symposium Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology /3./. 04.09.1999-10.09.1999, Stará Lesná] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  2. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  3. Incorporación de Vicia sativa L. y fertilización fosfatada en un pastizal del nordeste argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, M.; Hack, C.M.; Castelán, M.E.; Golluscio, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    En el nordeste argentino, los pastizales megatérmicos constituyen un importante recurso forrajero para la ganadería. Sus principales limitantes son el déficit forrajero invernal y la baja calidad nutritiva. En amplias regiones se agrega, además, el bajo contenido de P en el suelo y, consecuentemente, en el forraje. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar el potencial de la incorporación de una leguminosa y la fertilización fosfatada para aumentar la biomasa de leguminosas y el contenido ...

  4. Influence of low Gamma Irradiation Doses And Weed Control On Faba Bean (VICIA FABA L.) Yield Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, I.A.A; Abd El Hameed, I.M

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out in an administration field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons (2007⁄08-2008⁄09). The study aimed to investigate the effect of four gamma irradiation doses (un irradiated seeds as a control, 10,20 and 30 Gy)and five treatments of weed management practices 1- Un weeded (control), 2- Two hand hoeings at 21 and 42 days after sowing, 3- prometryn, commercially known as Gizagared,, sprayed at pre-emergence with rate of 1 Kg⁄300 liters⁄fad. 4-Bentazon 48⁒, commercially known as Basagran 48⁒ ,sprayed at pre-emergence with the rate of 500 Cm 3 ⁄200 ;liters water⁄fad. Sprayed at pre-emergence. 5-48⁒ sprayed at pre-emergence with the rate of 500 cm 3 ⁄200 liters water⁄fad. On yield and yield attributes of faba bean. Results indicate that :1- Gamma irradiation with the lowest dose of 10 Gy, gave high values for plant height (112.54 cm) and number of pods⁄plant (12.22), while the highest gamma irradiation dose of 30 Gy, resulted in high values for number of seeds⁄pod (4.52), number of seeds⁄plant (52.3) , seed weight (g)⁄plant, 100- seeds weight (79.79 g), seed yield (11.39 ardab⁄fad) and straw yield (ton⁄fad). The lowest values for each of the aforementioned traits were obtained in non irradiated treatment in the combined analysis 2- Weed control by hand hoeing twice (after 21 and 24 DAS) gave the highest values for each of the aforementioned traits, followed by spraying both herbicides., prometryn + bentazon 48⁒ followed by sole herbicide Bentazon 48⁒ and sole prometryn, while unweeded treatment gave the lowest values for the respective order, in the combined analysis.

  5. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Repair of X-ray induced DNA damage measured by the comet assay in roots of Vicia faba

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koppen, G.; Angelis, Karel

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (1998), s. 281-285 ISSN 0893-6692 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5038505; GA ČR GA521/96/0396; GA ČR GA204/97/0154; GA ČR GA203/98/0682; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Grant - others:FWO(BE) AGR/PR(97)FS/A Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.259, year: 1998

  7. Genetic variation for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman SHARIFI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  An investigation was carried out to select the most successful faba bean genotype(s and to estimate the heritability for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the traits. For 100-seed weight, two north's of Iran landraces (G1 and G2 and two improved breeding cultivars containing France (G4 and Barrakat (G10 possessed the heaviest seed weight, 161.33, 139, 119.67 and 166 g, respectively. G1 and G10 presented the highest values for dry seed weight (473.98 and 495.44 g m-2, respectively. G1 and G10 showed significantly higher magnitude values of the other traits. Broad sense heritability (h2 estimates were generally high to moderate for all of the studied traits. The highest estimates of broad sense heritability was inscribed as 98 % for pod length, dry seed length and dry seed width and 0.95 for hundred seed weight. The estimated broad-sense heritability was 0.80 for dry seed yield per m2. These results suggested that the environmental factors had a small effect on the inheritance of traits with high heritability. High estimates of heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving of these traits. High heritability indicate an additive gene action for the traits, and hence, possible trait improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the traits containing day to harvesting, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of stems per plant play major role in seed yield determination of faba bean. Attention should be paid to these characters for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. 

  8. Joseph Roth in den Niederlanden und Flandern: Vermittlung, Vernetzung und Orchestierung eines vielseitigen Autors im niederländischsprachigen Kontext 1924-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snick, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the contemporary mediators and networks that played an important role in the canonization of Joseph Roth’s (original and translated) work in Flanders and the Netherlands. These mediators and networks made a substantial contributionto Roth’s intellectual and literary

  9. Joseph Roth in den Niederlanden und Flandern: Vermittlung, Vernetzung und Orchestierung eines vielseitigen Autors im niederländischsprachigen Kontext 1924-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Snick, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the contemporary mediators and networks that played an important role in the canonization of Joseph Roth’s (original and translated) work in Flanders and the Netherlands. These mediators and networks made a substantial contributionto Roth’s intellectual and literary life (and were the key to his ‘survival’) in the period of his exile in these countries. The theoretical framework employed in this study is based on Von Dorleijn and van Rees’s views on the literary...

  10. Phytochemical and in vitro screening of some Ficus and Morus spp. for hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities and in vivo assessment of Ficus mysorensis (Roth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Mahmoud, Ahlam H; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves and fruit juice of certain Ficus and Morus spp. have been studied. In an in vitro study, the ethanol and hexane extracts of the investigated plants were evaluated against hyperlipidaemia by estimating the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biothenysis; β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reduction of DPPH(-) free radical. Extra phytochemical screening of Ficus extracts was undertaken, which recorded potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. The more pronounced extract, Ficus mysorensis (hexane extract), was evaluated in vivo by estimation of the lipid profile and certain antioxidant parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. The hexane fraction was chromatographed and six isolated compounds were identified. Furthermore, its saponifiable fraction was identified by a MS/MS technique. In conclusion, F. mysorensis recorded hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects. Detailed studies of the isolated compounds must be undertaken for an evaluation against hypercholesterolemia and free radical elevation.

  11. Welfare: Issues to Consider in Assessing Proposals for Reform. Briefing Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., United States Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report provides an overview of research findings on major Federal welfare system design issues. The report is based on: a review of 100 major welfare studies completed since 1975; interviews with Federal, State, and local welfare officials; the results of the General Accounting Office's (GAO) welfare work; and an analysis of the Census…

  12. Fast and reliable detection of toxic Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. in Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. herbal products using DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singtonat, Sahachat; Osathanunkul, Maslin

    2015-05-30

    Nowadays, medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs. Many medicinal plant products have now been commercialized throughout various markets. These products are commonly sold in processed or modified forms such as powders, dried material and capsules, making it almost impossible to accurately identify the constituent species. The herbal plant known as 'Rang Chuet' in Thai has been widely used as remedies for various ailments. However, two medicinal plants species, Thunbergia laurifolia and Crotalaria spectabilis share this name. Duo to the similarity in nomenclature, the commercial products labeled as 'Rang Chuet' could be any of them. Recently, the evidence of hepatotoxic effects linked to use of C. spectabilis were reported and is now seriously concern. There is a need to find an approach that could help with species identification of these herbal products to ensure the safety and efficacy of the herbal drug. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate T. laurifolia species. Four DNA barcodes including matK, rbcL, rpoC and trnL were selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Commercial products labeled as 'Rang Chuet' were purchased from Thai markets and authentication by HRM analyses. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed primers showed that the two 'Rang Chuet' species could easily be distinguished from each other. The melting profiles of the all four region amplicons of each species are clearly separated in all three replicates. The method was then applied to authenticate products in powdered form. HRM curves of all ten test samples indicated that three of the tested products did not only contain the T. laurifolia species. The herbal drugs derived from different plants must be distinguished from each other even they share the same vernacular name. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  13. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  14. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L. Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56% of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69% by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P<0.01. The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain.

  15. Partitioning the relative contributions of inorganic plant composition and soil characteristics to the quality of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum (Roth) G. Don fil. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Ange; Santoni, François; Paolini, Julien; Bernardini, Antoine-François; Mouillot, David; Costa, Jean

    2009-07-01

    Composition of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum essential oil showed chemical variability according to vegetation cycle, environment, and geographic origins. In the present work, 48 individuals of this plant at different development stages and the corresponding root soils were sampled: i) 28 volatile components were identified and measured in essential oil by using GC and GC/MS; ii) ten elements from plants and soils have been estimated using colorimetry in continuous flux, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, or emission spectrometry (FAAS/FAES); iii) texture and acidity (real and potential) of soil samples were also reported. Relationships between the essential-oil composition, the inorganic plant composition, and the soil characteristics (inorganic composition, texture, and acidity) have been established using multivariate analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and partial Redundancy Analysis (RDA). This study demonstrates a high level of intraspecific differences in oil composition due to environmental factors and, more particularly, soil characteristics.

  16. An evaluation of a new approach to the regeneration of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, and the molecular characterization of the variation among sets of differently derived regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrini, Rosaria; Alba, Vittorio; Ruta, Claudia; Morone-Fortunato, Irene; Blanco, Antonio; Montemurro, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    A protocol for the induction of regeneration from leaves of Helichrysum italicum was established. Calli were found to form on the basal medium only when it was supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), with a percentage ranking of at least 80%. The hormone-free medium showed the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (62%) even though no callus formed. AFLP markers were employed to verify tissue culture-induced variation in the regenerated plantlets obtained by direct shoot regeneration or the indirect shoot regeneration process (callus formation). Seven out of the eleven AFLP primer pairs yielded polymorphic patterns. The average number of fragments per primer pair was 64.1. Singletons were represented by 12 (2.7%) fragments. Student's T-test was performed both on the average number of shared fragments and on the nucleotide diversity, and no significant statistical difference was observed between the two regeneration treatments.

  17. Effect of log soaking and the temperature of peeling on the properties of rotary-cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer bonded with phenol-formaldehyde adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Akio Yamamoto; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes; Jaan Kers

    2016-01-01

    Heating logs prior to peeling positively affects the surface properties of veneer as well as the wood-adhesive bond strength. However, the mechanism behind this increase in strength is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to separate the influence of soaking temperature and peeling temperature on the physical surface properties and bonding quality....

  18. Green manures and levels of nitrogen topdressing in wheat crop under no-tillageAdubos verdes e doses de nitrogênio em cobertura na cultura do trigo sob plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio da Silva Nunes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manure is still a not widely used practice in wheat crop, although economic benefits and conservation of natural resources can be observed due to the adoption of this practice. This study was carried out at the Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, associated with levels of mineral nitrogen topdressing in the agronomic performace of wheat crop under no-tillage. The treatments were constituted by green manures, fallow as a treatment-control and six doses of mineral nitrogen topdressing: zero, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1. Urea was used as nitrogen source. Evaluations of dry mass of cover crops, nitrogen contents in green manures shoot and in wheat leaves, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, one thousand-grains weight, hectolitric weight and yield were made. It was concluded that the use of green manures before wheat seeding promotes significant increases in crop yield, mainly when planted over to sunn hemp. The wheat yield response to mineral nitrogen application varied according to the preceding crop.A adubação verde ainda é uma prática pouco utilizada na cultura do trigo, embora proporcione benefícios do ponto de vista econômico e da preservação dos recursos naturais. Este estudo foi realizado em Dourados-MS, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do cultivo de crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa como adubos verdes, associados a doses de nitrogênio mineral em cobertura, no desempenho agronômico do trigo em sistema plantio direto. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos adubos verdes, um tratamento-testemunha em pousio e seis doses de nitrogênio mineral em adubação de cobertura do trigo: zero, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 kg ha-1, utilizando-se a ureia como fonte de nitrogênio. Foram realizadas avaliações de massa seca das coberturas vegetais, teores de nitrog

  19. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os possíveis efeitos da restrição de luminosidade, obtida com distintas densidades de árvores de Pinnus taeda, sobre a produção e qualidade de: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Comum, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L. cv. Fapa 2, azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Comum, trigo (Triticum aestivum L. duplo propósito cv. BRS Tarumã e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa L.. Avaliaram-se três níveis de luminosidade: a sol aberto (sem presença de árvores de Pinnus taeda, 30% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento entre árvores de 15 × 3 m, com 222 árvores/ha e 60% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento de 9 × 3 m, com 370 árvores/ha. Foram realizadas avaliações da produção de forragem, da composição química e dos componentes estruturais das plantas, do potencial hídrico das plantas, da umidade do solo, das variáveis microclimáticas e da produção de acículas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos completos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. O azevém foi a espécie mais produtiva em todos os níveis de luminosidade, embora a ervilhaca tenha apresentado a menor redução de produção quando sombreada. Houve maior potencial hídrico nas plantas e maior umidade no solo nos ambientes sombreados, mesmo assim, a produção de forragem reduziu significativamente no sombreamento mais intenso (81%. A composição química e os componentes estruturais de todas as forrageiras estudadas também são afetados pelo aumento da restrição luminosa.Possible effects of brightness restriction, obtained by different Pinnus taeda tree densities, on the production and quality of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common, white oat (Avena sativa L. cv. FAPA 2, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Common, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. dual purpose BRS Tarumã were studied. It was evaluated three brightness levels: 1 - full sunlight with

  20. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rebecca E.; Jacobsen, Krista L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.

    2018-01-01

    Agroecosystem nitrogen (N) loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1) an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), or a mix of the two (bi-culture); (2) an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach); and (3) a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N). In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat) and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat). Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit) and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea) and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N) in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems. PMID:29403512

  1. In-site interaction evaluation of Tn density by inhibition/competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, Ana [Radiopharmacy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay)], E-mail: anamar@cin.edu.uy; Medeiros, Andrea [Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay); Berois, Nora [Laboratory of Glycobiology and Tumor Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Montevideo (Uruguay); Balter, Henia S. [Radiopharmacy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay); Pauwels, Ernest K. [University Medical Center Leiden, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Osinaga, Eduardo [Laboratory of Glycobiology and Tumor Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Montevideo (Uruguay); Department of Immunobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-05-15

    The tumor-associated structure N-acetyl-galactosamine-O-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen), which is overexpressed in various tumor cell types, notably of the breast, ovary and colon, is an interesting determinant that is useful for cancer diagnosis and follow-up. The aim of this research was to study different assay strategies in order to determine the most sensitive system for further application in epitope characterization and binding assessment. The tetrameric isolectin obtained from Vicia villosa seeds (VVLB{sub 4}) shows high affinity for the tumor-associated structure. A monoclonal antibody against VVLB{sub 4}, MabVV{sub 34}, was generated, and the interaction between MabVV{sub 34} and VVLB{sub 4} was studied by means of binding and inhibition assays. Several synthetic peptides (10 amino acid sequences) designed from the amino acid sequence of VVLB{sub 4} and obtained from trypsin digestion were tested to determine which amino acids were involved in the interaction between MabVV{sub 34} and VVLB{sub 4}. The further unraveling of this epitope was investigated by inhibition using designed synthetic peptides as well as mixtures mimicking variable density effect. Under the experimental circumstances, MabVV{sub 34} was able to inhibit the binding of VVLB{sub 4} to Tn. Two of the four peptide sequences assayed showed better inhibition properties. Finally, mixtures containing these selected sequences allowed the evaluation of binding and inhibition as a function of Tn density. We conclude that the present study facilitates the further development of a specific Tn marker and may contribute to the development of Tn-like radiolabelled peptides or Tn-specific radiolabelled fragments providing a highly selective tool for cancer diagnosis and treatment. This strategy may contribute to characterize the new generation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy based on biomolecules like antibodies, fragments or peptides, whose application is directly guided by their specific

  2. Adubos verdes e adubação mineral nitrogenada em cobertura na cultura do trigo em plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio da Silva Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito do cultivo de adubos verdes, associados a doses de nitrogênio (N em adubação de cobertura, no desempenho agronômico da cultura do trigo em sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi realizado em Dourados (MS, Brasil, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema de parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelos adubos verdes: ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, mucuna anã (Mucuna deeringiana, lablabe (Dolichus lablab e um tratamento- testemunha, em pousio. Nas subparcelas foram testadas quatro doses de N em cobertura: 0 (zero, 45, 90 e 135 kg ha-1, utilizando a uréia como fonte de N. Foram realizadas avaliações de massa seca das coberturas vegetais, teores de N nos tecidos da parte área dos adubos verdes e nas folhas de trigo, altura de plantas, número de perfilhos produtivos por planta, tamanho da espiga, número de grãos por espiga, massa de mil grãos, peso hectolitro e produtividade. Concluiu-se que maiores produtividades na cultura do trigo são obtidas quando é cultivado após crotalária e ervilhaca peluda e que a resposta do trigo à aplicação de N mineral em adubação de cobertura varia em função da cultura antecessora.

  3. Overexpression of Galnt3 in chondrocytes resulted in dwarfism due to the increase of mucin-type O-glycans and reduction of glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Carolina Andrea; Kawane, Tetsuya; Moriishi, Takeshi; Purushothaman, Anurag; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Komori, Hisato; Mori, Masako; Qin, Xin; Hashimoto, Ayako; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Yamana, Kei; Takada, Kenji; Komori, Toshihisa

    2014-09-19

    Galnt3, UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3, transfers N-acetyl-D-galactosamine to serine and threonine residues, initiating mucin type O-glycosylation of proteins. We searched the target genes of Runx2, which is an essential transcription factor for chondrocyte maturation, in chondrocytes and found that Galnt3 expression was up-regulated by Runx2 and severely reduced in Runx2(-/-) cartilaginous skeletons. To investigate the function of Galnt3 in chondrocytes, we generated Galnt3(-/-) mice and chondrocyte-specific Galnt3 transgenic mice under the control of the Col2a1 promoter-enhancer. Galnt3(-/-) mice showed a delay in endochondral ossification and shortened limbs at embryonic day 16.5, suggesting that Galnt3 is involved in chondrocyte maturation. Galnt3 transgenic mice presented dwarfism, the chondrocyte maturation was retarded, the cell cycle in chondrocytes was accelerated, premature chondrocyte apoptosis occurred, and the growth plates were disorganized. The binding of Vicia villosa agglutinin, which recognizes the Tn antigen (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr), was drastically increased in chondrocytes, and aggrecan (Acan) was highly enriched with Tn antigen. However, safranin O staining, which recognizes glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and Acan were severely reduced. Chondroitin sulfate was reduced in amount, but the elongation of chondroitin sulfate chains had not been severely disturbed in the isolated GAGs. These findings indicate that overexpression of Galnt3 in chondrocytes caused dwarfism due to the increase of mucin-type O-glycans and the reduction of GAGs, probably through competition with xylosyltransferases, which initiate GAG chains by attaching O-linked xylose to serine residues, suggesting a negative effect of Galnt family proteins on Acan deposition in addition to the positive effect of Galnt3 on chondrocyte maturation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Fraction A of armadillo submandibular glycoprotein and its desialylated product as sialyl-Tn and Tn receptors for lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Shen, F; Herp, A; Song, S C; Wu, J H

    1995-02-27

    Fraction A of the armadillo submandibular glycoprotein (ASG-A) is one of the simplest glycoproteins among mammalian salivary mucins. The carbohydrate side chains of this mucous glycoprotein have one-third of the NeuAc alpha 2-->6GalNAc (sialyl-Tn) sequence and two thirds of Tn (GalNAc alpha-->Ser/Thr) residues. Those of the desialylated product (ASG-Tn) are almost exclusively unsubstituted GalNAc residues (Tn determinant). When the binding properties of these glycoproteins were tested by a precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins, it was found that ASG-Tn reacted strongly with all of the Tn-active lectins and completely precipitated Vicia villosa (VVL both B4 and mixture of A and B), Maclura pomifera (MPA), and Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin) lectins. However, it precipitated poorly or negligibly with Ricinus communis (RCA1); Dolichos biflorus (DBA); Viscum album, ML-I; Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA). The reactivity of ASG-A (sialyl-Tn) was as active as that of ASG-Tn with MPA and less or slightly less active than that of ASG-Tn with VVL-A+B, VVL-B4, HPA, WFA, and jacalin, as one-third of its Tn was sialylated. These findings indicate that ASG-A and its desialylated product (ASG-Tn) are highly useful reagents for the differentiation of Tn, T (Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc), A (GalNAc alpha 1-->3Gal) or Gal specific lectins and monoclonal antibodies against such epitopes.

  5. Interaction of hamster submaxillary sialyl-Tn and Tn glycoproteins with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Shen, F; Herp, A; Wu, J H

    1994-04-01

    Hamster submaxillary glycoprotein (HSM), one of the simplest glycoproteins among mammalian salivary mucins, is composed of approximately equivalent amounts of protein, hexosamine and sialic acid. The Thr and Ser residues in the protein core account for more than half of all of the amino acid residues, while Lys, Glu, Pro and Ala are the major components of the remaining portion of amino acids. The carbohydrate side chains of this mucous glycoprotein have mainly the NeuAc-GalNAc-(sialyl-Tn) sequence (HSM), and those of the desialylated product (HSM-Tn) are almost exclusively unsubstituted GalNAc residues (Tn determinants). The binding properties of sialyl-Tn (HSM) and asialo-HSM (HSM-Tn) glycoproteins were tested by precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins. The HSM-Tn completely precipitated Vicia villosa (VVL both B4 and mixture of A and B), Maclura pomifera (MPL), and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin) lectins; less than 2 micrograms of HSM-Tn were required for precipitating 50% of 5.0-6.3 micrograms lectin nitrogen added. HSM-Tn also reacted well with Helix pomatia lectin (HPL), Wistaria floribunda lectin (WFL) and Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and precipitated in each case over 81% of the lectin nitrogen added. The reactivity of HSM-Tn with other lectins (Ricinus communis, RCA1; Dolichol biflorus, DBL; Viscum album, ML-I; Arachis hypogaea, PNA, and Triticum vulgaris, WGA) was weak or negligible. The activity of sialyl-Tn (HSM) was more restricted; HSM reacted well with Jacalin, moderately with MPL and VVL-B4, but was inactive or only weakly with the other lectins used. These findings indicate that HSM and its desialylated product (HSM-Tn) are highly useful reagents for the differentiation of Tn and T/Gal specific lectins and for anti-T, Tn and Af monoclonal antibodies.

  6. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Shelton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroecosystem nitrogen (N loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1 an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, or a mix of the two (bi-culture; (2 an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach; and (3 a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N. In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat. Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems.

  7. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  8. Multivariate analysis and visualization of soil quality data for no-till systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, M B; Miguez, F E; Bollero, G A

    2008-01-01

    To evidence the multidimensionality of the soil quality concept, we propose the use of data visualization as a tool for exploratory data analyses, model building, and diagnostics. Our objective was to establish the best edaphic indicators for assessing soil quality in four no-till systems with regard to functioning as a medium for crop production and nutrient cycling across two Illinois locations. The compared situations were no-till corn-soybean rotations including either winter fallowing (C/S) or cover crops of rye (Secale cereale; C-R/S-R), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa; C-R/S-V), or their mixture (C-R/S-VR). The dataset included the variables bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), water aggregate stability (WAS), soil reaction (pH), and the contents of soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), soil nitrates (NO(3)-N), and available phosphorus (P). Interactive data visualization along with canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) allowed us to show that WAS, BD, and the contents of P, TN, and SOM have the greatest potential as soil quality indicators in no-till systems in Illinois. It was more difficult to discriminate among WCC rotations than to separate these from C/S, considerably inflating the error rate associated with CDA. We predict that observations of no-till C/S will be classified correctly 51% of the time, while observations of no-till WCC rotations will be classified correctly 74% of the time. High error rates in CDA underscore the complexity of no-till systems and the need in this area for more long-term studies with larger datasets to increase accuracy to acceptable levels.

  9. Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  11. Cover Crops for Managing Stream Water Quantity and Improving Stream Water Quality of Non-Tile Drained Paired Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbir Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Midwestern United States, cover crops are being promoted as a best management practice for managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural fields through surface and subsurface water movement. To date, the water quality benefits of cover crops have been inferred primarily from plot scale studies. This project is one of the first to analyze the impacts of cover crops on stream water quality at the watershed scale. The objective of this research was to evaluate nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loss in stream water from a no-till corn-soybean rotation planted with winter cover crops cereal rye (Secale cereale and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa in non-tile drained paired watersheds in Illinois, USA. The paired watersheds are under mixed land use (agriculture, forest, and pasture. The control watershed had 27 ha of row-crop agriculture, and the treatment watershed had 42 ha of row crop agriculture with cover crop treatment (CC-treatment. During a 4-year calibration period, 42 storm events were collected and Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs for each storm event were calculated for total suspended solids (TSS, nitrate-N (NO3-N, ammonia-N (NH4-N, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP, and total discharge. Predictive regression equations developed from the calibration period were used for calculating TSS, NO3-N, NH4-N, and DRP losses of surface runoff for the CC-treatment watershed. The treatment period consisted of total 18 storm events, seven of which were collected during the cereal rye, eight in the hairy vetch cover crop season and three during cash crop season. Cover crops reduced TSS and discharge by 33% and 34%, respectively in the CC-treatment watershed during the treatment period. However, surprisingly, EMCs for NO3-N, NH4-N, and DRP did not decrease. Stream discharge from the paired-watersheds will continue to be monitored to determine if the current water quality results hold or new patterns emerge.

  12. 111-118 Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meseret

    of Botrytis fabae and to manage chocolate spot of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), ... Keywords: Disease incidence/severity, In vitro, In vivo, Plant extract, Schinus molle, Shallo, Vicia faba. 1. ..... extract deters feeding and oviposition of Plutella.

  13. Effect of pre-sowing treatment of seeds by laser light on development and yielding of faba bean (Vicia faba minor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlesny, J.

    1998-01-01

    The study was conducted at Experimental Station Pulawy - Kepa during 1995-97. The first row factor were three faba bean varieties, and the second one - doses of laser irradiation: without irradiation, three fold, five fold. It was found that irradiation of faba bean seeds by helneon laser light significantly increased the seeds yield and some elements of its structure, especially number of pods per plant. Three fold irradiation was more effective than five fold

  14. Influence of copper on the Golgi apparatus of the meristematic cells of the horse-bean - Vicia faba c. v. Povazsky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1974-01-01

    The influence of copper on the Golgi apparatus of beans was investigated. At 1 mg/l copper was toxic within 24 hours. After application of 1 mg/l Cu, a striking increase in the number of split vesicles was noted together with a significant decrease in the number of cisterns. The endoplasmic reticulum is often fragmented after application of Cu, showing separation of membrane.

  15. Studies on the dependence of fructification on the formation and translocation of assimilates in the broad bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freye, E.; Schilling, G.

    1983-01-01

    Studies on the net CO 2 assimilation of growing pods in situ and the translocation of assimilates (application of 14 CO 2 ) from individual leaves have revealed that after flowering most of the assimilates (more than 70 %) are utilized by the fruits. Amputation of some pods resulted in a better supply of other organs of this kind, but not in an increased accumulation of 14 C in vegetative parts. The net CO 2 assimilation rate of the donor leaves was not influenced. Obviously, the sink capacity of the fruit was not fully used at normal supply with assimilates. As exposure of whole plants to CO 2 -enriched air (0.13 % by volume) strongly inhibited the early fall of pods, a lack of assimilates seems to be the main cause of weak fruit setting and thus low seed yield. The great yield variations of broad bean are likely to be attributed to the great dependence of its net assimilation rate on environment. (author)

  16. Investigating the Effect of Cultivate Lines Direction, Bio-Fertilizer Nitroxin and Superabsorbent Materials on Yield and Yield Components of Broad Leaf Vetch (Vicia narbonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Latifinia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The excessive use of fertilizers has caused severe damages to the bio-cycle in the fields and has destroyed the sustainable agricultural machinery. These destructive effects have led to the recommended use of bio-fertilizers. Biodiversity is one of the key sources of supplying nutrients in sustainable agriculture. The use of biological fertilizers in a sustainable agricultural system leads to sustained yield in plant production. Biological fertilizer of nitroxin has increased biological yield and grain yield in fodder corn. Water shortage as a limiting factor has limited vegetation growth and development in these areas. Considering that Iran is a dry country, the use of super adsorbent is one of the ways to reduce water consumption. Investigators in the study of superabsorbent showed that superabsorbent had a significant and positive effect on the yield of forage plants. Crop directions can affect the amount of the product by increasing the leaf area and absorbing light. Proper orientation of crop lines increases the photosynthetic efficiency and increases the yield and yield components of the plant. Research has shown that yields are much higher in plants planted on the north-south lines compared with plants planted on east-west lines. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effect of nitroxin and superabsorbent fertilizer on yield and yield components of broad leaf vetch in a research field of agricultural faculty, Lorestan University, as a split plot factorial based on a complete block design randomization was performed in three replicates. In this research, for main lines, the main factors were considered in the North-South and East-West directions in the main plots. Sub-factors In this experiment, nitroxin biosynthesis and superabsorbent materials were applied at two levels of consumption and non-consumption in sub plots. Nitroxin fertilizer was used as a seed lot at a rate of 1 liter per hectare and the stockosorb polymer was 100 kg/ha at planting time under cultivating lines under the seed at a distance of 2 cm. In this experiment, the pesticide leaf was grown with 97% volatility and 1000-weight weight of 109.56 grams with plant density of 200 plants per square meter. The raw data obtained from the measurement of each of the traits tested after the normal distribution was analyzed using MSTAT-C software. Comparisons of the meanings were compared using Duncan's multiple range tests at probability levels (1 and 5%. Results and Discussion The results showed that using nitroxin fertilizer on stem diameter, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1000 seed weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index had significant effect. Probably the secretion of plant growth hormones due to the presence of stabilizing bacteria in nitroxin and the gradual release of substances has been shown to stimulate growth and increase yield. Studies have shown that the use of nitroxin biological fertilizer has increased biological yield and seed yield in rapeseed plants due to the availability of food in the critical stages of plant growth. Therefore, increasing the amount of nutrients available to the plant, especially nitrogen, stimulates plant growth and increases dramatically and increases yield. Also, plant height, stem diameter, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index increased in superabsorbent application than control. Super absorbent polymer has reduced the negative effects of drought stress and increased yield. Under stress conditions, the plant faces a severe decrease in cellular inflammation, cell growth and division, which leads to a decrease in vegetative growth while the use of superabsorbent prevents stress and increases vegetative growth. The results of reaserch on corn showed that the use of superabsorbent increased plant yield, which was consistent with the results of this study (Yousefifard et al., 2011. North-South cultivation direction had a positive effect on many traits. Performance in different directions of planting is affected by the efficiency of light consumption and photosynthesis activity. The results of this study indicate that the plants cultivated on the north-south lines have been more favorable in terms of plant height. Research showed that the yield of barley, corn, wheat and pearl millet in different directions was different, and cultivated plants in the north-south direction had a higher yield. Differences in plant height in different planting orientations can result from better water productivity or more sunlight. Conclusions The results show that the North-South crop line has better results than the East-West lines. The remarkable point in this study was that the combined application of superabsorbent and bio-fertilizer nitroxin in all treatments affected all studied traits and significantly increased their amounts. The use of nitroxin and superabsorbent fertilizers for plants planted on the northern-southern rows increases the yield and yield components of the pesticide plant.

  17. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  18. Localizatlon of expansin-like protein in apoplast of pea (Pisum sativum L. root nodules during interaction with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Sujkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During nodule development on pea roots, apoplast undergoes changes in activity of plant cell wall proteins such as expansins (EXPs. Because the accumulation of EXP protein has been correlated with the growth of various plant organs, we investigated using Western Blot and immunolocalization studies with antibody against PsEXP1, whether this protein was accumulated in the expanding cells of nodule. Immunoblot results indicated the presence of a 30-kDa band specific for pea root nodules. The EXP proteins content rose during growth of pea root nodules. Expansin(s protein was localized in nodule apoplast as well as in the infection thread walls. The enhanced amount of expansin-like proteins in meristematic part of nodule, root and shoot was shown. The localization of this protein in the meristematic cell walls can be related to the loosening of plant cell wall before cell enlargement. Both, plant cell enlargement and infection thread growth require activity of expansin(s. Possible involvement of EXPs in the process of pea root nodule development is also discussed.

  19. CONTENIDO Y TRASLOCACIÓN DE PLOMO EN AVENA (Avena sativa, L. Y HABA (Vicia faba, L. DE UN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gallegos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento en invernadero se estableció para determinar la concentración de plomo (Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea de haba y avena; se calculó el factor de bioconcentración y traslocación en las dos especies. Se probaron 50, 100 y 150 mg·Pb·kg-1 de suelo, incluyendo un control. Las plantas se colectaron a los 60 días después de la siembra y se midieron altura de planta (AP, volumen radical (VR y biomasa seca total (BST, además del contenido de Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea. La cuantificación de Pb se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El suelo cultivado con haba presentó un 28.48 % de PbEDTA. Las variables AP, VR y BST no fueron afectadas de manera drástica por las concentraciones de Pb probadas. Las plantas de haba y avena absorbieron un total de 55 mg·kg-1 y 45.3 mg·kg-1, respectivamente, las cuales se consideran tóxicas para plantas cultivadas. Los resultados pueden servir de base para ampliar el conocimiento del contenido de Pb absorbido y traslocado en plantas de haba y avena, ya que la capacidad de tolerar y absorber Pb es específica de la especie, inclusive de la variedad de planta.

  20. Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram Abdel Haliem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs, pollen grains (PGs and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 106 n/cm2 and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles.

  1. The fungi communities of the soil environment of Triticum aestivum and its forecrops: Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba ssp. minor and Trifolium pratense

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Pląskowska

    2014-01-01

    The species spectrum and abundance of the fungi communities were affected by the soil environment developed by wheat and its forecrops, and by atmospheric conditions. The fungi of the genus Fusarium were the greatest threat to winter wheat regardless of the forecrop. The field bean was the best forecrop to the wheat whereas spring barley was the worst.

  2. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karuppanapandian, T.; Geilfus, C.M.; Muehling, K.H.; Novák, Ondřej; Gloser, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 255, FEB (2017), s. 51-58 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : xylem sap constituents * abscisic-acid * stomatal conductance * leaf apoplast * helianthus-annuus * plant-responses * intact plants * nacl stress * drying soil * guard-cells * Drought stress * Abscisic acid * Soil drying * Xylem sap * Osmolality * Water relations * Leaf water potential Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  3. VARIABILITY OF LENGTH OF STEM OF DETERMINATE AND INDETERMINATE CULTIVARS OF COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. SSP. SATIVA AND ITS IMPACT ON SELECTED CROPPING FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga ANDRZEJEWSKA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001 and 2002, the study was conducted in six experiments in order to examine the conditioning of the length of stem variability and its impact on cropping features of determinate and indeterminate cultivars of common vetch. Rainfall in June and July as well as during the whole growing season was positively correlated with length of stem, but negatively correlated with seed yield, to a larger extent in the group of indeterminate cultivars than in the determinate one. Duration of blooming stage, length of stem, and seed yield showed the largest variability in both groups. Increase in length of stem of plants of indeterminate cultivars led to the delay in maturation, to less even maturation, and to the decrease in the thousand seed weight and seed yield. Increase in length of stem of plants of determinate cultivars delayed reaching the phase of technical maturation and decreased evenness of plant maturation. Determinate growth of common vetch did not lead to the reduction of lodging.

  4. Economical Evaluation of Faba bean (Vicia faba and Maize (Zea mays L. Intercropping Based on Total Relative Value Index and Weeds Growth Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F  and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of this experiment indicated that additive intercropping of faba bean (especially with a high planting density as a companion crop with maize may, potentially, lead to sufficient weed suppression concomitant to an acceptable level of grain yield.

  5. Investigating the Effect of Cultivate Lines Direction, Bio-Fertilizer Nitroxin and Superabsorbent Materials on Yield and Yield Components of Broad Leaf Vetch (Vicia narbonensis)

    OpenAIRE

    E Latifinia; N Akbari; F Nazarian Firozabadi; S Heidari

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The excessive use of fertilizers has caused severe damages to the bio-cycle in the fields and has destroyed the sustainable agricultural machinery. These destructive effects have led to the recommended use of bio-fertilizers. Biodiversity is one of the key sources of supplying nutrients in sustainable agriculture. The use of biological fertilizers in a sustainable agricultural system leads to sustained yield in plant production. Biological fertilizer of nitroxin has increased ...

  6. Mutation of a Broadly Conserved Operon (RL3499-RL3502) from Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae Causes Defects in Cell Morphology and Envelope Integrity▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M.; Magnus, Samantha A.; Tambalo, Dinah D.; Koval, Susan F.; Yost, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial cell envelope is of critical importance to the function and survival of the cell; it acts as a barrier against harmful toxins while allowing the flow of nutrients into the cell. It also serves as a point of physical contact between a bacterial cell and its host. Hence, the cell envelope of Rhizobium leguminosarum is critical to cell survival under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. Transposon mutagenesis of R. leguminosarum strain 3841 followed by a screen to isolate mutants with defective cell envelopes led to the identification of a novel conserved operon (RL3499-RL3502) consisting of a putative moxR-like AAA+ ATPase, a hypothetical protein with a domain of unknown function (designated domain of unknown function 58), and two hypothetical transmembrane proteins. Mutation of genes within this operon resulted in increased sensitivity to membrane-disruptive agents such as detergents, hydrophobic antibiotics, and alkaline pH. On minimal media, the mutants retain their rod shape but are roughly 3 times larger than the wild type. On media containing glycine or peptides such as yeast extract, the mutants form large, distorted spheres and are incapable of sustained growth under these culture conditions. Expression of the operon is maximal during the stationary phase of growth and is reduced in a chvG mutant, indicating a role for this sensor kinase in regulation of the operon. Our findings provide the first functional insight into these genes of unknown function, suggesting a possible role in cell envelope development in Rhizobium leguminosarum. Given the broad conservation of these genes among the Alphaproteobacteria, the results of this study may also provide insight into the physiological role of these genes in other Alphaproteobacteria, including the animal pathogen Brucella. PMID:21357485

  7. Determinación de las mejores condiciones para la extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. De navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para la determinación de las mejores condiciones de extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (LRH, se utilizaron iniciaimente raíces enteras y paredes celulares de raíces. De acuerdo con los resultados, se establecieron las condiciones experimentales para la preparación de paredes celulares por tres métodos. Se encontró que el Método I, en el cual se usó Sarkosyl 0.5%, KH2PO4 0.01 M pH 6.0 para la obtención de paredes celulares y luego se extrajo la lectina con buffer de citrato de sodio 0.1 M pH 4.2, es el más adecuado. El fraccionamiento se realizó por filtración por gel usando Sephadex G-25.

  8. Chemical composition and some anti-nutrient content of raw and processed bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for use as feeding stuff in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J; Samei, A; Rahmani, H

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine chemical composition of raw and treated bitter vetch seed for use in poultry diets. Processing methods were: soaked in water for 12 h, then autoclaved and dried (SA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange of water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSC); coarsely ground, soaked in solution of 1% acetic acid for 24 h at 60 degrees C and dried (GAA). Raw bitter vetch seed was contained 94.52, 26.56, 0.4, 58.86, 3.38, 5.32, 12.28 and 14.20 percent DM, CP, EE, NFE, Ash, CF, ADF and NDF, respectively. Its GE, AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn values were 18.10, 13.15, 14.38, 14.10 and 14.69 MJ/kg, respectively. Results indicated that bitter vetch is a good source of Fe (340 ppm) and Cu (46.7 ppm). It s amino acid profile was suitable and methionine was the first limiting amino acid when compared with broiler and layer chicks requirements. Its canavanine and tannin content were 0.78 and 6.7 mg/kgDM, respectively. Processing methods improved CP and in some cases AMEn. All processing methods especially GSC resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in canavanine and tannin.

  9. Effects of phytase, cellulase, and dehulling treatments on iron and zinc in vitro solubility in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) Flour and Legume Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-Wei; Xie, Wei-Hua; Cui, Qun-Xiang

    2010-02-24

    Simulations of gastrointestinal digestion were used to try to identify the nature of the complexes between antinutritional factors and iron and zinc in faba bean and legume fractions. In digestible residue of raw faba bean flour, simultaneous action of cellulase and phytases made it possible to release about 28% units more iron than that released with the treatment without enzymes. About 49.8% of iron in raw faba bean flour was solubilized after in vitro digestion and simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase. In the hull fraction, the action of phytases and the simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase allowed about 7 and 35% units of additional zinc to be solubilized, respectively. Single enzymatic degradation of phytates from dehulled faba bean allowed solubilization from 65 to 93% of zinc, depending upon the treatment. In dehulled faba bean, iron was chelated by phytates and by fibers, whereas zinc was almost exclusively chelated by phytates. In the hull of faba bean, a high proportion of iron was chelated by iron-tannins, while the rest of iron as well as the majority of zinc were chelated in complexes between phytates and fibers.

  10. Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

  11. Hollow fibre liquid phase micro-extraction by facilitated anionic exchange for the determination of flavonoids in faba beans (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaieb, Nadia; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Luis González, Johannes; Mars, Messaoud; Valiente, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. They are commonly extracted from plant materials with ethanol, methanol, water, their combination or even with acidified extracting solutions. The disadvantages of these methods are the use of high quantity of organic solvent, the possible loss of analytes in the different steps and the laborious process of the techniques. In addition, the complexity of the phenolic mixtures present in plant materials requires a preliminary clean-up and fractionation of the crude extracts. To develop a hollow fibre liquid phase micro-extraction (HF-LPME) method for a one step clean-up and pre-concentration of flavonoids. Two flavonoids (catechin and rutin) has been extracted by HF-LPME and analysed by HPLC. The related driving force for the liquid membrane has been studied by means of facilitated and non-facilitated transport. Different ionic and non-ionic water insoluble compounds [trioctylamine (TOA), tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and methyltrioctylammonium chloride (aliquat 336)] were used as carriers. The liquid membrane was constituted by a solution of n-decanol in the presence or absence of carriers. Maximum enrichment factors were obtained with n-decanol/aliquat 336 (20%) as organic liquid membrane, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.1 M) as donor solution, sodium chloride (NaCl) (2 M) as acceptor solution and 3 h as extraction time. Under these conditions, good results for validation parameters were obtained [for linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and repeatability]. The developed method is simple, effective and has been successfully applied to determine catechin and rutin in ethanolic extracts of faba beans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Genotypic variability in faba bean (vicia faba L.) for seed yield and protein content under drought stress during vegetative and Reproductive Stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmula, A. A.; Gasim, S. M.; Link, W.; Mohamed, A. A.; Khalifa, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Faba bean (viciafaba L.) is subjected to drought stress during different growth stages. In this study, variability in seed yield and protein content was investigated when drought occurred during the vegetative and reproductive stages. Twenty two genotypes of faba bean were field evaluated under three levels of drought stress at two locations in the Sudan. The three levels of drought were normal watering (non-stress), drought during the vegetative stage and drought during the reproductive stage. Data were collected on yield and vegetative traits and protein content. The results showed that yield, as well as other traits, were reduced by drought. The genotypes exhibited significant differences for 100 seed weight, plant height and protein content. The interaction between the genotypes and drought was significant for yield/plant. Some genotypes were more sensitive when drought occurred during the vegetative stage, some when drought occurred during the vegetative stage, and others were more stable under the three levels of drought. yield/plant showed significant covariance with pods/plant and plant height. The association between different characters varied according to trait and the time of drought incidence. The correlation of yield/plant with protein content was negative under all drought levels, and the average correlation coefficient was 0.32. It could be concluded that the specific adaptation and the wide adaptation have great implication for improving faba bean under drought. To select for high seed yield under drought, secondary characters, such as pods/plant and plant height could be of great importance. Drought could reduce protein content and affect its association with yield/plant.(Author)

  13. Response of bean (Vicia faba L.) plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo-Fang; Duan, Wei; Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII) function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand). On the 1(st) day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca). From the 3(rd) to 9(th) day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th) day. From the 11(th) to 21(st) day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st) day. Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn reduction. The non-stomatal limitation was associated with the inhibition of PSII electron transport chain. Our data suggests that the donor side of PSII was the most sensitive to low sink demand followed by the reaction center of PSII. The acceptor side of PSII may be the least sensitive.

  14. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  15. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of significant 1% and 5%. Results and discussion There was significant difference between minimum and maximum dry weight of weeds, the results showed that barley have important role in weed control wild safflower. Therefore, weed control efficiency in 15 plant in m2 was higher than two 10 and 20 plant in m2. The lowest WCE (161.27% was found at 15-35-65 treatment, but, the highest WCE (51.99 was obtained from 15-65-35 (Wild safflower-common vetch-barley treatment. Computes showed that WCE, in 15 plants of wild safflower/m2, was more than 10 and 20 p/m2. The reduction in weed population and biomass in intercropping systems with barley may be attributed to shading effect and competition stress created by the canopy. Thus, result showed that reduction rate of common vetch in intercropping, with bearing compatibility power to weeds reduced LER. CR for common vetch intercropping component in comparison with barley in total treatments was>1. The highest CR, for vetch obtained from treatment 45-55-control (2.64 and for barley from seed ratio 65-35-control (1.83. Conclusion The results in this study showed various seed rate had noticeable effect on forage yield, LER and weed control. In this experiment changing seed rate in two tested plants (barly- commen vetch changed the number and weed species, as a result noticeable changing was created in their competitive power. Result showed that seed rate (35% barley-65% common vetch was better than other treatment, not only in use efficiency of environment, but also it had more dry forage yield. Also, former seed rate had effective role in decreasing the weed biomass. This important result was related to reduced light penetrate at the bottom of cover crop and probably lack of competition in access to environmental resources was also affected. So using this seed density for mentioned area is recommended for reducing weed competition and improving the quality and quantity of dry forage. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the teachers of College of Agriculture of Lorestan University, for their critical review of the manuscript.

  16. Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor in the absence of moisture stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1998-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the semi-arid region in north of Jordan, to study the effect of seeding dates (14 January, 28 January and 12 February, seeding rates (50, 75 and 100 plants per metre, phosphorus levels (0, 17.5, 35.0 and 52.5 kg P per ha and two methods of P placement (banding and broadcast. Seeding rate, seeding date, and rate of phosphorus had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and the yield determinates. Method of phosphorus application had only a significant effect on seed yield and seed weight per plant. In general high yields were obtained by early seeding (14 January, high seeding rate (100-plant per square metre, and P application (52.5 kg P per ha drilled with the seed after cultivation (banded.

  17. Researches on Determination Yield and Yield Components of Some Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L. Genotypes in Ecological Conditions of Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyithan SEYDOŞOĞLU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine yield and yield components of some common vetch genotypes in order to examine some of the traits, during 2011-2013 seasons in GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center was carried out on the experimental field. In the study, a total of 20 different genotypes were used common vetch, field trials randomized block design with 3 replications was established. In the study, herbage yield, hay yield and seed yield in addition to days to %50 flowering duration, plant height, main stem length, main stem number, pod number per plant, grain number per pod as affecting yield some properties were also investigated. In both years of the study, days to %50 flowering duration and grain number per pod characteristics examined, except among genotypes for all other parameters are determined significant differences in statistical terms. According to the average of two years result; days to %50 flowering duration, plant height, main stem length, main stem number, pod number per plant, grain number per pod, herbage yield, hay yield, seed yield, 1000 seed weight were changed between 157.8-174.0 days, 33.9-62.6 cm, 52.0-83.3 cm, 1.6-2.6 number, 13.5-21.2 number, 4.7-5.6 number, 1522.0-3232.3 kg da-1, 308.0-919.5 kg da-1, 92.2-293.7 kg da-1, 46.5-84.5 g, respectively. According to these results, under the climate and soil conditions of Diyarbakır; for the grass production common vetch genotypes "D-135" was suggested and for the seed production common vetch genotypes "IFVS-715" and "GAP-59998" were suggested.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective potentials of the aerial parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Toxicity of S. villosa extract was evaluated in rats. ... Conclusion: The results suggest that S. villosa possesses anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities ..... membrane integrity of hepatocytes of the CCl4- ... stabilization of endoplasmic reticulum that is ..... Erythrocytes Subjected to Oxidative Stress Phytother.

  19. Four new species of Pteromalus Swederus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) and redescriptions of three other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A key to the European species of the Pteromalus altus group is presented. The relationship between this group and species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) is confirmed. One new species: P. villosae, associated with Euphorbia villosa Waldst. & Kit.is presented. Two new species of the albipennis

  20. First record of Paralemanea torulosa (Roth Sheath & A.R. Sherwood and new findings of Lemanea fluviatilis (Linnaeus C. Ag. and Hildenbrandia rivularis (Liebmann J. Agardh (Rhodophyta in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Ana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first record of the freshwater red alga Paralemanea torulosa and new findings of the species Lemanea fluviatilis and Hildenbrandia rivularis in Serbia. The existence of all three species was recorded in the upper reaches of clean fast-flowing rivers and brooks belonging to the basin of the Danube River. Lemanea fluviatilis was found in the Dojkinačka River in Eastern Serbia, while Paralemanea torulosa was recorded in the Drina River and Hildenbrandia rivularis in the Cvetića Brook and Bioštanska Banja Brook in Western Serbia. These reports are important for conservation of the biodiversity of Serbia, since it is well known that freshwater red algae are endangered and rare species (taxa in many countries. In Serbia they are under strict protection of the law.

  1. Novas espécies de Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Membracidae New species of Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Creão-Duarte

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novas espécies de Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 são descritas e ilustradas: S. compactum Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., S. costaricense Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., S. notabile Souza & Rothéa sp. nov. e S. rubricatum Souza & Rothéa sp. nov. As duas primeiras são da Costa Rica e as outras do Brasil, Mato Grosso.Four new species of Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 are described and illustrated: S. compactum Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., S. costaricense Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., S. notabile Souza & Rothéa sp. nov., and S. rubricatum Souza & Rothéa sp. nov. The first two species are from Costa Rica, and two others from Brazil, Mato Grosso.

  2. Community Profiling of Fusarium in Combination with Other Plant-Associated Fungi in Different Crop Species Using SMRT Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Walder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight, caused by fungi from the genus Fusarium, is one of the most harmful cereal diseases, resulting not only in severe yield losses but also in mycotoxin contaminated and health-threatening grains. Fusarium head blight is caused by a diverse set of species that have different host ranges, mycotoxin profiles and responses to agricultural practices. Thus, understanding the composition of Fusarium communities in the field is crucial for estimating their impact and also for the development of effective control measures. Up to now, most molecular tools that monitor Fusarium communities on plants are limited to certain species and do not distinguish other plant associated fungi. To close these gaps, we developed a sequencing-based community profiling methodology for crop-associated fungi with a focus on the genus Fusarium. By analyzing a 1600 bp long amplicon spanning the highly variable segments ITS and D1–D3 of the ribosomal operon by PacBio SMRT sequencing, we were able to robustly quantify Fusarium down to species level through clustering against reference sequences. The newly developed methodology was successfully validated in mock communities and provided similar results as the culture-based assessment of Fusarium communities by seed health tests in grain samples from different crop species. Finally, we exemplified the newly developed methodology in a field experiment with a wheat-maize crop sequence under different cover crop and tillage regimes. We analyzed wheat straw residues, cover crop shoots and maize grains and we could reveal that the cover crop hairy vetch (Vicia villosa acts as a potent alternative host for Fusarium (OTU F.ave/tri showing an eightfold higher relative abundance compared with other cover crop treatments. Moreover, as the newly developed methodology also allows to trace other crop-associated fungi, we found that vetch and green fallow hosted further fungal plant pathogens including Zymoseptoria tritici

  3. A sheep hydatid cyst glycoprotein as receptors for three toxic lectins, as well as Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis agglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Song, S C; Wu, J H; Pfüller, U; Chow, L P; Lin, J Y

    1995-01-18

    The binding properties of a glycoprotein with blood group P1 specificity isolated from sheep hydatid cyst fluid with Gal and GalNAc specific lectins was investigated by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. The glycoprotein completely precipitated Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I). Only 1.0 microgram of P1 glycoprotein was required to precipitate 50% of 5.1 micrograms ML-I nitrogen. It also reacted well with abrin-a and ricin, precipitating over 73% of the lectin nitrogen added, but poorly or weakly with Dolichos biflorus (DBL), Vicia villosa (VVL, a mixture of A4, A2B2 and B4), VVL-B4, Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Bauchinia purpurea alba (BPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. When an inhibition assay in the range of 5.1 micrograms N to 5.9 micrograms N of lectins (ML-I, abrin-a; ricin, RCA1, and APA, and 10 micrograms P1 active glycoprotein interaction was performed; from 76 to 100% of the precipitations were inhibited by 0.44 and 0.52 mumol of Gal alpha 1-->4Gal and Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc, respectively, but not or insignificantly with 1.72 mumol of GlcNAc. The Gal alpha 1-->4Gal disaccharide found in this P1 active glycoprotein is a frequently occurring sequence of many glycosphingolipids located at the surface of mammalian cell membranes, especially human erythrocytes and intestinal cells for ligand binding and microbial toxin attachment. The present finding suggests that the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc sequence in this P1 active glycoprotein is one of the best glycoprotein receptors for three toxic lectins (ricin, abrin-a, and ML-I) as well as for APA, and RCA1, and the result of inhibition assay implies that these lectins are recognizing part or all of the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc sequence in the P1 active glycoprotein.

  4. Chemical characteristics and global density of an eutroferric red latosol cultivated with cover crops in Toledo District, Parana StateCaracterísticas químicas e densidade global de um latossolo vermelho eutróferrico cultivado com plantas de cobertura em Toledo-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Vendrúscolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of agricultural frontier through deforestation, adoption of mechanization and intensive use of inappropriate management practices, has promoted changes in the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, resulting in degradation processes, thus reducing productivity. Based on this, the objective the work was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and the global density of an Eutroferric Red Latosol of the experimental area of the Parana Catholic University, Toledo Campus. The experimental design used was casualized blocks with four replicates, in which the treatments were: millet, hairy vetch and control (spontaneous vegetation. The evaluations were: dry mass production, with the highest amount for millet (7.07 Mg ha¹, global soil density in which the lowest value was under control and the highest in hairy vetch; density of weeds population in which the control treatment had the highest value on; soil chemical characteristics, in which both hairy vetch and millet presented higher results compared to the control, being different in some nutrients, such as phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.A expansão da fronteira agrícola através de desmatamentos, adoção de mecanização intensiva e uso de práticas de manejo inadequadas, tem promovido alterações nas propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, resultando em processos de degradação, reduzindo desta maneira a produtividade. Com base no exposto, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar características químicas e densidade global de um Latossolo Vermelho Eutróferrico, da área experimental da Fazenda da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Campus Toledo, sob tratamentos do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum e da ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa como plantas de cobertura. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em que os tratamentos foram: milheto, ervilhaca peluda e testemunha (vegetação espontânea. As avalia

  5. Lectin binding profiles of SSEA-4 enriched, pluripotent human embryonic stem cell surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Alison; Mitalipova, Maisam; Lyons, Ian; Jones, Karen; Shin, Soojung; Pierce, Michael; Stice, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Background Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to form every cell type in the body. These cells must be appropriately characterized prior to differentiation studies or when defining characteristics of the pluripotent state. Some developmentally regulated cell surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies in a variety of species and stem cell types have proven to be side chains of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. Therefore, to examine hESC surfaces for other potential pluripotent markers, we used a panel of 14 lectins, which were chosen based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), to determine binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. Results Enriching cells for SSEA-4 expression increased the percentage of SSEA-4 positive cells to 98–99%. Using enriched high SSEA-4-expressing hESCs, we then analyzed the binding percentages of selected lectins and found a large variation in binding percentages ranging from 4% to 99% binding. Lycopersicon (tomato)esculetum lectin (TL), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), and Concanavalin A (Con A) bound to SSEA-4 positive regions of hESCs and with similar binding percentages as SSEA-4. In contrast, we found Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL) did not bind to hESCs while Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythro-agglutinin (PHA-E), and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) bound partially to hESCs. These binding percentages correlated well with immunocytochemistry results. Conclusion Our results provide information about types of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages found on pluripotent hESC surfaces. We propose that TL, RCA and Con A may be used as markers that are associated with the pluripotent

  6. Lectin binding profiles of SSEA-4 enriched, pluripotent human embryonic stem cell surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Soojung

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to form every cell type in the body. These cells must be appropriately characterized prior to differentiation studies or when defining characteristics of the pluripotent state. Some developmentally regulated cell surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies in a variety of species and stem cell types have proven to be side chains of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. Therefore, to examine hESC surfaces for other potential pluripotent markers, we used a panel of 14 lectins, which were chosen based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4, to determine binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. Results Enriching cells for SSEA-4 expression increased the percentage of SSEA-4 positive cells to 98–99%. Using enriched high SSEA-4-expressing hESCs, we then analyzed the binding percentages of selected lectins and found a large variation in binding percentages ranging from 4% to 99% binding. Lycopersicon (tomatoesculetum lectin (TL, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, and Concanavalin A (Con A bound to SSEA-4 positive regions of hESCs and with similar binding percentages as SSEA-4. In contrast, we found Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL did not bind to hESCs while Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, Phaseolus vulgaris erythro-agglutinin (PHA-E, and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA bound partially to hESCs. These binding percentages correlated well with immunocytochemistry results. Conclusion Our results provide information about types of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages found on pluripotent hESC surfaces. We propose that TL, RCA and Con A may be used as markers that are associated with the

  7. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  8. Biomass decomposition and nutrient release from black oat and hairy vetch residues deposited in a vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant quantity of nutrients in vineyards may return to the soil each year through decomposition of residues from cover plants. This study aimed to evaluate biomass decomposition and nutrient release from residues of black oats and hairy vetch deposited in the vines rows, with and without plastic shelter, and in the between-row areas throughout the vegetative and productive cycle of the plants. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, from October 2008 to February 2009. Black oat (Avena strigosa and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa residues were collected, subjected to chemical (C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and biochemical (cellulose - Cel, hemicellulose - Hem, and lignin - Lig content analyses, and placed in litter bags, which were deposited in vines rows without plastic shelter (VPRWS, in vines rows with plastic shelter (VPRS, and in the between-row areas (BR. We collected the residues at 0, 33, 58, 76, and 110 days after deposition of the litter bags, prepared the material, and subjected it to analysis of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg content. The VPRS contained the largest quantities and percentages of dry matter and residual nutrients (except for Ca in black oat residues from October to February, which coincides with the period from flowering up to grape harvest. This practice led to greater protection of the soil surface, avoiding surface runoff of the solution derived from between the rows, but it retarded nutrient cycling. The rate of biomass decomposition and nutrient release from hairy vetch residues from October to February was not affected by the position of deposition of the residues in the vineyard, which may especially be attributed to the lower values of the C/N and Lig/N ratios. Regardless of the type of residue, black oat or hairy vetch, the greatest decomposition and nutrient release mainly occurred up to 33 days after deposition of the residues on the soil surface, which coincided with the

  9. Plecospondylic spinal column in the eel Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1956-01-01

    Several cases of deformities in the spinal column were described in fishes, viz. lordosis in the bitterling Rhodeus amarus) by ROTH (1922), in the minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) by ROTH (1922), in the pike (Esox lucius) by ROTH (1922) and PLEHN (1924); kyphosis in the toothcarps (Cyprinodontidae) by

  10. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  11. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  12. Obtención de carbón activado a partir de la cubierta seminal de leguminosa haba (Vicia-Faba) y su uso en el proceso de recuperación de oro desde soluciones cianuradas

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Zea, Norberto Sixto

    2008-01-01

    La minería aurífera en el Perú, carece de tecnologías adecuadas para recuperar oro eficientemente, teniéndose pérdidas significativas en los relaves como oro sedimentado o submicroscópico. Los procesos en nuevos proyectos de recuperación de oro, desarrollan la aplicación de la tecnología del carbón activado que adsorbe oro de soluciones lixiviadas en cianuro que permite trabajar minerales de baja ley consiguiendo ventajas en costos de operación y mejor productividad. El carbón activado para r...

  13. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L., annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L. yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha-1, referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N0, N2, and N3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standard of 10 mg N l�1 even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest. In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake correlated well with average NO3

  14. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  15. Effect of winter cover crops on soil nitrogen availability, corn yield, and nitrate leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S; Huang, B; Bembenek, R

    2001-10-25

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha(-1), referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively) applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N 0, N 2, and N 3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard of 10 mg N l(-1) even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest). In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake) correlated well with average NO3-N during

  16. Salt and N leaching and soil accumulation due to cover cropping practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, J. L.; Quemada, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrate leaching beyond the root zone can increase water contamination hazards and decrease crop available N. Cover crops used in spite of fallow are an alternative to reduce nitrate contamination in the vadose zone, because reducing drainage and soil mineral N accumulation. Cover crops can improve important characteristics in irrigated land as water retention capacity or soil aggregate stability. However, increasing evapotranspiration and consequent drainage below the root system reduction, could lead to soil salt accumulation. Salinity affects more than 80 million ha of arable land in many areas of the world, and one of the principal causes for yield reduction and even land degradation in the Mediterranean region. Few studies dealt with both problems at the same time. Therefore, it is necessary a long-term evaluation of the potential effect on soil salinity and nitrate leaching, in order to ensure that potential disadvantages that could originate from soil salt accumulation are compensated with all advantages of cover cropping. A study of the soil salinity and nitrate leaching was conducted during 4 years in a semiarid irrigated agricultural area of Central Spain. Three treatments were studied during the intercropping period of maize (Zea mays L.): barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and fallow. Cover crops were killed in March allowing seeding of maize of the entire trial in April, and all treatments were irrigated and fertilised following the same procedure. Before sowing, and after harvesting maize and cover crops, soil salt and nitrate accumulation was determined along the soil profile. Soil analysis was conducted at six depths every 0.20 m in each plot in samples from four 0 to 1.2-m depth holes dug. The electrical conductivity of the saturated paste extract and soil mineral nitrogen was measured in each soil sample. A numerical model based on the Richards water balance equation was applied in order to calculate drainage at 1.2 m depth

  17. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  18. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut.

  19. The occurrence of Colpomenia peregrina (Sauv.) Hamel in the Mediterranean (Phaeophyta, Scytosiphonales)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackler, H.

    1967-01-01

    Until the beginning of this century Colpomenia sinuosa (Mert.) Roth was the only species of the genus known in European waters; it was first found by Mertens in 1806 off Cadiz. Mertens made drawings of it and sent them with his specimens to Roth who described it as Ulva sinuosa and published the

  20. 75 FR 57013 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Taloga Wind, LLC, Stephentown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EG10-40-000, EG10-41-000, et al.] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Taloga Wind, LLC, Stephentown...-000 Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC EG10-49-000 Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC EG10...

  1. 75 FR 57269 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status September 13, 2010. Taloga Wind, LLC Docket Nos. EG10-40-000... Alta Wind V, LLC EG10-47-000 Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC...... EG10-49-000 Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC EG10-50-000 Take notice that during the month of August 2010, the status of the...

  2. Too Many References, Just Cut a Few and It Will Be Perfect: APA vs. Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusov, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the author's rebuttal is to provide a sociocultural critique of Wolff-Michael Roth and Michael Cole's arguments and of the current "Mind, Culture, and Activity" ("MCA") policy regarding referencing. In sum, Roth and Cole write that some unnamed "MCA" authors (and some scholars in general) abuse the reference practice by…

  3. Determination of fatty acids and volatile compounds in fruits of rosehip(Rosa L.) species by HS-SPME/GC-MS and Im-SPME/GC-MS techniques

    OpenAIRE

    MURATHAN, ZEHRA TUĞBA; ZARIFIKHOSROSHAHI, MOZGAN; KAFKAS, NESİBE EBRU

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare fatty acid and volatile compound compositions of four rosehip species, namely Rosa pimpinellifolia, R. Villosa, R. Canina, and R. Dumalis, by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and headspace and immersion solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS and Im-SPME/GC-MS) techniques. The total lipid contents in fruits of the rosehip species varied from 5.83% (R. Villosa) to 7.84% (R. Dumalis). A total of...

  4. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir. resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) R Díaz-Ruiz, A Torres, MV Gutierrez, D Rubiales, JI Cubero, M Kharrat, Z Satovic, B Román ...

  5. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 7 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biology. ... Induced by Copper and Cadmium Stress in Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, ...

  6. East African Journal of Sciences - Vol 9, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of Arabica coffee quality attributes with selected soil chemical properties ... change resilient cultural practices on productivity of faba bean (Vicia faba l.) ... for enhanced livelihood and food security in Dilla District, Southern Ethiopia ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 801 - 850 of 2157 ... South African Journal of Animal Science. ... and growth in Bonsmara bulls and evaluation of alternative measures of feed efficiency, Abstract PDF ... Vol 41, No 2 (2011), Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv.

  8. Sucrose effect on broomrape (Orobanche crenata) development on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Key words: Sucrose, Orobanche crenata, Vicia narbonensis and broomrape control. INTRODUCTION ... and forage legume used for livestock feed in the .... the yield of faba bean significantly (Kukula and Masri, 1984). More-.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND CROSS-SPECIES AMPLIFICATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    In this study, publicly available grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) EST sequences were used to develop 21 ... which are important food legumes, with whom it could share genes ... (Pisum saivum), faba bean (Vicia faba), chickpea. (Cicer arietinum) ...

  10. The effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced by cold treatment in the improvement of tissue regeneration efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Skrzypek, E.; Dabrowska, G.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose that oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between generation and scavenging hydrogen peroxide contributes to tissue regeneration efficiency during somatic embryogenesis of hexaploid winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Kamila) and organogenesis of faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor

  11. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 1, No 1 (1993)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicine and Convicine: the Favic and Egg Weight Depressing Factors in Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) - A Review · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Olaboro, 55-57 ...

  12. A comparison of different legume seeds as protein supplement to optimise the use of low quality forages by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yánez-Ruiz, David R; Martin-Garcia, Antonio I; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    The potential of different legume seeds species, including recently new developed varieties (Vicia faba: a commercial variety and varieties Alameda, Palacio and Baraka; Lupinus angustifolius; Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum: varieties Fardon and Zegr ) as protein supplements to low quality...

  13. Symbiotic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... root nodule bacteria known as Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. ... nodules, as before by streaking on Yeast-extract mannitol agar medium ... Colony morphology was characterized on YEMA according to. (Ahmed et al.

  14. Does the transgenic Cry1Ac toxin adversely affect the population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10.01%), and Lagria villosa (5.28%). Species composition was similar for the two cultivars. The highest number of species visited the flowers of the cultivars between 8:00 and 11:00 am, while the lowest intensity of visitation occurred between 12:00 ...

  15. A generic record for Faika (Monimiaceae) in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takeuchi, W.N.; Renner, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Faika Philipson (Monimiaceae) consists of the single species F. villosa (Kaneh. & Hatus.) Philipson, previously known only from Irian Jaya between the Vogelkop Peninsula and the Cyclops Mts (Philipson, 1986). A recent identification by Renner (of Takeuchi 10349 from the April River; A,

  16. Effects of light and presence of fish on lure display and larval release behaviours in two species of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2000-01-01

    We investigated how two sympatric species of freshwater mussels transmit their parasitic larvae to fish hosts. We found that Villosa nebulosa and V. vibex both display large mantle lures to attract potential host fish, but V. nebulosa displayed only at night and V....

  17. Long-term memory of individual identity in ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine; Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    of familiar or unfamiliar queens over time. We show that unrelated founding queens of P. villosa and Pachycondyla inversa store information on the individual identity of other queens and can retrieve it from memory after 24h of separation. Thus, we have documented for the first time that long-term memory...

  18. Genetic regulation of glucoraphanin accumulation in Beneforté broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Saha, Shikha; Huseby, Stine; Kopriva, Stanislav; Walley, Peter G; Barker, Guy C; Moore, Jonathan; Mero, Gene; van den Bosch, Frans; Constant, Howard; Kelly, Leo; Schepers, Hans; Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mithen, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    · Diets rich in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) have been associated with maintenance of cardiovascular health and reduction in risk of cancer. These health benefits have been attributed to glucoraphanin that specifically accumulates in broccoli. The development of broccoli with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin may deliver greater health benefits. · Three high-glucoraphanin F1 broccoli hybrids were developed in independent programmes through genome introgression from the wild species Brassica villosa. Glucoraphanin and other metabolites were quantified in experimental field trials. Global SNP analyses quantified the differential extent of B. villosa introgression · The high-glucoraphanin broccoli hybrids contained 2.5-3 times the glucoraphanin content of standard hybrids due to enhanced sulphate assimilation and modifications in sulphur partitioning between sulphur-containing metabolites. All of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids possessed an introgressed B. villosa segment which contained a B. villosa Myb28 allele. Myb28 expression was increased in all of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids. Two high-glucoraphanin hybrids have been commercialised as Beneforté broccoli. · The study illustrates the translation of research on glucosinolate genetics from Arabidopsis to broccoli, the use of wild Brassica species to develop cultivars with potential consumer benefits, and the development of cultivars with contrasting concentrations of glucoraphanin for use in blinded human intervention studies. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Genetic regulation of glucoraphanin accumulation in Beneforté® broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Saha, Shikha; Huseby, Stine; Kopriva, Stanislav; Walley, Peter G; Barker, Guy C; Moore, Jonathan; Mero, Gene; den Bosch, Frans; Constant, Howard; Kelly, Leo; Schepers, Hans; Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mithen, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Diets rich in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) have been associated with maintenance of cardiovascular health and reduction in risk of cancer. These health benefits have been attributed to glucoraphanin that specifically accumulates in broccoli. The development of broccoli with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin may deliver greater health benefits. Three high-glucoraphanin F1 broccoli hybrids were developed in independent programmes through genome introgression from the wild species Brassica villosa. Glucoraphanin and other metabolites were quantified in experimental field trials. Global SNP analyses quantified the differential extent of B. villosa introgression The high-glucoraphanin broccoli hybrids contained 2.5–3 times the glucoraphanin content of standard hybrids due to enhanced sulphate assimilation and modifications in sulphur partitioning between sulphur-containing metabolites. All of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids possessed an introgressed B. villosa segment which contained a B. villosa Myb28 allele. Myb28 expression was increased in all of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids. Two high-glucoraphanin hybrids have been commercialised as Beneforté® broccoli. The study illustrates the translation of research on glucosinolate genetics from Arabidopsis to broccoli, the use of wild Brassica species to develop cultivars with potential consumer benefits, and the development of cultivars with contrasting concentrations of glucoraphanin for use in blinded human intervention studies. PMID:23560984

  20. Carbon contributions from roots in cotton based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    Most research on the decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Australian cotton farming systems has focussed on the inputs from above-ground crop residues, with contribution from roots being less studied. This paper aims to outline the contribution of cotton roots and roots of other crops to soil carbon stocks in furrow-irrigated Vertisols in several cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-based rotations. Data was collected from cotton-based rotation systems: cotton monoculture, cotton-vetch (Vicia benghalensis) Roth.), cotton-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton-wheat-vetch, cotton-corn, corn-corn, cotton-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and from BollgardTM II (Bt) and non-Bt cotton. Land management systems were permanent beds, with or without standing stubble, and conventional tillage. Root growth in the surface 0.10 m was measured with the core-break method, and that in the 0.10 to 1.0 m depth with a minirhizotron and I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to derive root C added to soil through intra-seasonal root death (Clost), C in roots remaining at the end of season (Croot), and total root C added to soil (Ctotal = Croot + Clost). Ctotal in non-Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.9 t C/ha/year) was higher than in Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.6 t C/ha/year). Overall, Ctotal from cotton roots ranges between 0.5 to 5 t C/ha/year, with Clost contributing 25-70%. Ctotal was greater with vetch than with wheat and was in the order of vetch in cotton-wheat-vetch (5.1 t C/ha/year) > vetch in cotton-vetch (1.9 t C/ha/year) > wheat in cotton-wheat (1.6 t C/ha/year) = wheat in cotton-wheat-vetch (1.7 t C/ha/year). Intra-seasonal root mortality accounted for 12% of total root carbon in vetch and 36% in wheat. Average corn Ctotal with monoculture was 9.3 t/ha and with cotton-corn 5.0 t/ha. Ctotal averaged between both treatments was, thus, of the order of 7.7 t C/ha/year and average Clost 0.04 t/ha/yr. Sorghum roots contributed less carbon with conventional tillage (8.2 t