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Sample records for vicia faba cotyledons

  1. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... Haciseferogullari H, Gezer I, Bahtiyarca Y, Menges HO (2003). Determination of some chemical and physical properties of sakis faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major). J. Food .Eng. 60: 475-479. Hanelt P, Mettin D (1989). Biosystematics of the Genus vicia L. (Leguminosae). Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20: 199-223.

  2. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate symbiotic characteristics between the crop and the rhizobia in major faba bean producing areas in Tigray ... Nodulation status of the field crops was poor except Ofla, D/Temben and Alaje districts. Though the ..... acknowledge Solomon Hishe and Biadglegn Desmisse for GIS data processing. 6. REFERENCE.

  3. vicia faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The failure of faba bean production in some regions of Semien. Shewa necessitated a research for a ... ppm) and potassium, a high concentration of calcium and magnesium, and a lower population density of .... Magnesium sulphate, 0.5g; Sodium chloride, 0.2g; Yeast extract, 0.1g;. Mannitol, 10g; Agar, 15.

  4. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the color of nodules (pink which is effective, white which is ineffective in nitrogen fixation). The variation in nodule number and color in turn induce variation in growth and yield of the host due to variation in fixed N (Lupwayi and Mkandawire, 1996; Amijee and Giller, 1998). Faba bean in association with rhizobia can fix up to ...

  5. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buzayehu

    Characterization of root nodule bacteria is used for selecting and using them as inoculants to improve legume production. To this end, faba bean (Vicia faba L.) rhizobia were isolated from nodules collected from acidic soils of Central and Southern-Western parts of ..... of the isolates were utilized all amino acids sources.

  6. Improvement of faba bean ( Vicia faba L .) yield and quality through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of faba bean ( Vicia faba L .) yield and quality through biotechnological approach: A review. ... yield and quality. This review work examines the role of various techniques with reference to faba bean improvement. Key words: Vicia faba, faba bean, grain quality, resistance breeding, nitrogen fixation, zero tannin.

  7. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  8. Words denoting faba bean (Vicia faba in European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L took part in the 'agricultural revolution' of post-glacial Europe along with other grain legumes and cereals. In order to assess the diversity and the origin of the words denoting faba bean in the languages of Europe, a lexicological study was carried out with emphasis upon etymological dictionaries. The words in almost all modern Indo-European languages in Europe owe their origin to the Proto-Indo-European root *bhabh bhabhā, also denoting faba bean. The Proto-Altaic root *bŭkrV, denoting pea nut and cone, through the Proto-Turkic *burčak, denoting both pea and bean is responsible for the words in several modern Altaic languages of Europe while the others are borrowings from Arabic. The origin of the words in modern Caucasian languages is the Proto-Caucasian root *howł[ā], meaning both bean and lentil. The words in Uralic languages are either borrowings, mostly from Slavic, or derived from their own words denoting pea.

  9. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid

  10. Leaf traits associated with drought adaptation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaei, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The potential for use of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is increasing worldwide due to its positive environmental impact and nutritional interest, but there are many challenges for faba bean breeding and cultivation. These include its mixed breeding system, its unknown origin and wild progenitor, its large genome being the biggest diploid genome among field crops, and its relative sensitivity to biotic and abiotic stresses (e.g., drought). Little is known about the ecological adaptation of faba be...

  11. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.); conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Jordan, Megan; Hane, James; Torres, Anna M; Avila, Carmen M; Cruz-Izquierdo, Serafín; Oliver, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    ... identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba...

  12. Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Faba Bean ( Vicia faba L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some species of rhizobial bacteria nodulating faba bean are characterized by phosphate solubilization. In order to study their in vitro and symbiotic characteristics, twelve rhizobial isolates nodulating faba bean were collected from acidic soil of Wollega, Ethiopia. Solubilization index of the isolates ranges from 1.25 to 2.10.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean (Vicia faba) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Göl, Şurhan; DOĞANLAR, Sami; FRARY, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food and feed legume because of the nutritional value of its seed protein and starch content, good biomass, and high efficiency nitrogen fixation.This study analyzed the molecular genetic diversity and population structure of 101 Turkish faba bean accessions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.A total of 32 SSR markers yielded 281 loci of which 277 (98.6%) were polymorphic.Mean dissimilarity between genotypes was 0.355, a relatively high value ...

  14. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  15. Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba on several continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Álvarez-Martínez, Estela; Peix, Alvaro; Mhamdi, Ridha; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Several fast-growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia formed a cluster related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), whereas rpoB, recA and atpD gene sequences were phylogenetically distant, with sequence similarities of less than 96 %, 97 % and 94 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed a mean relatedness value of 43 % between strain FB206(T) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strains also differed from those of the closest related species of the genus Rhizobium. Therefore, based on genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. The type strain is FB206(T) ( = LMG 27434(T) = CECT 8280(T)).

  16. Molecular tools for utilization of mitochondrial diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed in silico PCR analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial (mtDNA genome sequences of faba bean (Vicia faba and two related species, Vigna angularis and Vigna radiata, currently available in GenBank, to infer whether 15 published universal primer pairs for amplification of all 14 cis-spliced introns in genes of NADH subunits (nad genes are suitable for V. faba and related species. Then, we tested via PCR reactions whether seven out of 15 primer pairs would generate PCR products suitable for further manipulation in 16 genotypes of V. faba representing all botanical varieties of this species (major, minor, equina and subsp. paucijuga of various levels of improvement (traditional and improved cultivars originating from Europe, Africa, Asia and south America. We provide new PCR primers for amplification of nad1 intron 2/3 in V. faba, and demonstrate intraspecific variability in primary nucleotide sequences at this locus. Based on outcomes of both in silico predictions and PCR amplification, we report a set of PCR primers for amplification of five introns in nad genes that are promising molecular tools for future phylogeographic and other studies in this species for which unambiguous data on wild ancestors, centre of origin and domestication are lacking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005

  17. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  18. Genetic diversity of Palestine landraces of faba bean (Vicia faba) based on RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer-Salimia, R; Shtaya, M; Awad, M; Abdallah, J; Hamdan, Y

    2013-09-03

    Until now, neither phenotypic nor molecular approaches have been used to characterize the landraces of Palestine faba beans (Vicia faba). We used PCR-based RAPD markers to determine the genetic diversity and relatedness among 26 Palestinian faba bean landraces (traditional farmers' varieties) from 8 localities in the West Bank, Palestine. In tests with 37 primers, 14 generated no polymorphic bands, 12 exhibited weak and unclear products, and 11 primers produced good amplification products with high intensity and pattern stability. Ninety-four DNA fragments (loci) were detected, with an average of 8.54 loci per primer and size ranging from 160 to 1370 bp. A minimum of 4 and a maximum of 14 DNA fragments were obtained using (OPA-05 and OPA-09) and (BC-261) primers, respectively. The maximum percentage of polymorphic markers was 71.4 (BC-298) and the minimum was 50.0 (OPA-05, -09, -16). The 11 primers exhibited relatively high collective resolving power (Rp) values of 26.316, and varied from 0.154 for the OPA-09 primer to 5.236 for the BC-261, with an overall mean of 2.392. The primers BC-261, -322, and -298 were found to be the most useful RAPD primers to assess the genetic diversity of Palestinian faba beans, as they revealed relatively high Rp rates (5.236, 3.618, and 3.150, respectively). Based on the Jaccard coefficient, the genetic distance ranged from 0.358 to 0.069, with a mean of 0.213. We conclude that the RAPD technique is useful for determining genetic diversity and for developing suitable fingerprints for faba bean landraces grown in Palestine.

  19. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ocaña

    Full Text Available Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136 subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H and susceptible genotype (Vf136, respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  20. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M.; Torres, Ana M.; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection. PMID:26267359

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  2. The digestibility in piglets of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as affected by breeding towards the absence of condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Poel, A F; Dellaert, L M; Van Norel, A; Helsper, J P

    1992-11-01

    Seed samples from two near-isogenic faba bean (Vicia faba L.) lines were examined for the levels of so-called anti-nutritional factors (ANF). From the ANF known to be present in faba beans, trypsin inhibitor activity, functional lectins, condensed tannins and pyrimidine glycosides were analysed. It was concluded that the lines differed only in the content of condensed tannins being 0.05). A multienzyme technique was used to predict the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the two lines. The IVPD of the LT line was 0.965 and about 0.05 higher than the HT line, confirming the difference in digestibility as measured in vivo. The present study shows the positive effects on digestibility of removal of condensed tannins in faba beans which was achieved by plant breeding.

  3. Role of bioinoculants in development of salt-tolerance of Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in saline conditions was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense (NFB) and Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Am) fungus Glomus clarum on the host plants (Vicia faba) in pot cultures were investigated ...

  4. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  5. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet

  6. Relationship between geographical origin, seed size and genetic diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göl, Şurhan; Doğanlar, Sami; Frary, Anne

    2017-05-11

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important legume species because of its high protein and starch content. Broad bean can be grown in different climatic conditions and is an ideal rotation crop because of the nitrogen fixing bacteria in its roots. In this work, 255 faba bean germplasm accessions were characterized using 32 SSR primers which yielded 302 polymorphic fragments. According to the results, faba bean individuals were divided into two main groups based on the neighbor-joining algorithm (r = 0.91) with some clustering based on geographical origin as well as seed size. Population structure was also determined and agreed with the dendrogram analysis in splitting the accessions into two subpopulations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed high levels of within population genetic variation. Genetic similarity and geographical proximity were related with separation of European accessions from African and Asian ones. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between landrace (38%) and cultivar (40%) diversity indicating that genetic variability has not yet been lost due to breeding. A total of 44 genetically well-characterized faba bean individuals were selected for a core collection to be further examined for yield and nutritional traits.

  7. Flowering and characteristics of useful traits of some faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz cultivars and breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Łabuda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted during the period 2008–2009, related to the growth, flowering, pod set, and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major cultivars and breeding lines. Biometric measurements, made on 20 randomly selected plants, included the following traits: plant height, number of branches per plant, number of inflorescences per plant and number of flowers per inflorescence, number of pods per plant: large pods (marketable, small pods (undeveloped, and pods with disease symptoms. Moreover, the following characters were determined: pod and seed weight per plant in faba bean plants harvested once at processing maturity of fresh green seeds, pod length, width and weight as well as single seed weight. The evaluated cultivars and breeding lines of faba bean were characterized by large variations in the most important commercial traits. The abundance and duration of flowering as well as the number and weight of pods per plant were clearly modified by weather factors during the growth of plants. The new breeding lines R-366/1 and R-384 as well as the cultivars 'Bachus' and 'Jankiel Biały' were characterized by quite stable pod and seed yield per plant. Single harvesting of faba bean pods for green seeds at green maturity stage produced positive results in the case of all cultivars and breeding lines investigated; marketable pods per plant accounted for 75–80% of the total number of pods.

  8. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

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    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  9. Synergistic interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a plant growth promoting biofertilizers for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Nafady, Nivien Allam; Khalaf, David Mamdouh; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2014-01-20

    Egyptian soils are generally characterized by slightly alkaline to alkaline pH values (7.5-8.7) which are mainly due to its dry environment. In arid and semi-arid regions, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. Alkaline soils have fertility problems due to poor physical properties which adversely affect the growth and the yield of crops. Therefore, this study was devoted to investigating the synergistic interaction of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for improving growth of faba bean grown in alkaline soil. A total of 20 rhizobial isolates and 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were isolated. The rhizobial isolates were investigated for their ability to grow under alkaline stress. Out of 20 isolates 3 isolates were selected as tolerant isolates. These 3 rhizobial isolates were identified on the bases of the sequences of the gene encoding 16S rRNA and designated as Rhizobium sp. Egypt 16 (HM622137), Rhizobium sp. Egypt 27 (HM622138) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The best alkaline tolerant was R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The effect of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 and mixture of AMF (Acaulospora laevis, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora armeniaca) both individually and in combination on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of Vicia faba under alkalinity stress were assessed. A significant increase over control in number and mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity, leghaemoglobin content of nodule, mycorrhizal colonization, dry mass of root and shoot was recorded in dual inoculated plants than plants with individual inoculation. The enhancement of nitrogen fixation of faba bean could be attributed to AMF facilitating the mobilization of certain elements such as P, Fe, K and other minerals that involve in synthesis of nitrogenase and leghaemoglobin. Thus it is

  10. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba by arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Hernández-García, A; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1988-07-01

    Arsenic-contaminated drinking water from various towns of Comarca Lagunera, Coahuila, Mexico, was tested for its ability to induce sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba. 3-h treatments were applied and the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (1982) was used. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed that the arsenic concentration in drinking water was 0.11-0.695 ppm, well over the maximum limit of 0.05 ppm (EPA, 1984). In all cases the SCE frequencies were significantly different from the controls. Some concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm) of sodium arsenate (V) and potassium arsenite (III) were also applied to Vicia faba and all produced significant SCE frequencies, except 0.2 ppm of sodium arsenate.

  11. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Zahoor A.; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed "graphene oxide") are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop—faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L-1) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 μm) and evaluates glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L-1), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L-1) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes.

  12. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  13. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m-2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m-2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m-2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m-2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m-2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m-2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. yield in different density and mixture intercropping via competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Eslami Khalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications at Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University during 2009. The first factor was two seed ratios include D1: 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (optimum seed ratio and D2: 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (high seed ratio and the second factor consisted of different planting ratio, P1: sole cropping of faba bean, P2: 50% faba bean + 50 % barley, P3: 75% faba bean + 25% barley, P4: 25% faba bean + 75% barley, P5: sole cropping of barley. Land equivalent ratio (LER indicated that intercropping of 25% faba bean + 75% barley was better than 50% faba bean + 50% barley. According to significant interaction effects of density and intercropping ratio in terms of seed yield and some competitive indices for both crop species, the highest barley and faba bean yield (3306.66 and 4884.56 kg.ha-1, respectively were observed in sole cropping with high density. In this experiment, the 75 % faba bean + 25 % mixture with high density was recorded highest intercropping yield, barley aggressivity value and 27% yield increases of barley in mix-proportion compared to sole crops. Also, the most of faba bean aggressivity value and faba bean yield increases in mix-proportion compared to sole crop were obtained when 25% faba bean + 75% barley mixture with optimum density was used. Furthermore the 75% faba bean + 25% barley treatment plus optimum seed ratio had highest system productivity index.

  15. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  16. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.); conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Jordan, Megan; Hane, James; Torres, Anna M; Avila, Carmen M; Cruz-Izquierdo, Serafín; Oliver, Richard P

    2008-08-09

    The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba), using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type) and Vf27 (paucijuga type). Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP) markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs), one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of small-scale duplication events in faba bean

  17. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.; conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila Carmen M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba, using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type and Vf27 (paucijuga type. Results Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs, one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of

  18. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  19. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  20. CAPs markers to assist selection for low vicine and convicine contents in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N; Avila, C M; Duc, G; Marget, P; Suso, M J; Moreno, M T; Torres, A M

    2006-12-01

    The antinutritional factors (ANFs) present in Vicia spp. seeds are a major constraint to the wider utilization of these crops as grain legumes. In the case of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), a breeding priority is the absence vicine and convicine (v-c); responsible for favism in humans and for the reduced animal performance or low egg production in laying hens. The discovery of a spontaneous mutant allele named vc-, which induces a 10-20 fold reduction of v-c contents, may facilitate the process. However, the high cost and difficulty of the chemical detection of v-c seriously restricts the advances in breeding-selection. To identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to this gene, we have analysed an F(2 )population derived from a cross between a line with high v-c content (Vf6) and the vc- genotype (line 1268). Quantification of v-c was done by spectrophotometry on the parents and the F(2 )population (n = 136). By using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), two RAPD markers linked in coupling and repulsion phase to the allele vc- were identified and further converted into sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs). Amplification of SCARS was more consistent, although the initial polymorphism between pools was lost. To recover the polymorphisms several approaches were explored. Restriction digestion with HhaI (for SCAR SCH01(620)) and RsaI (for SCAR SCAB12(850)) revealed clear differences between the parental lines. The simultaneous use of the two cleavage amplified polymorphism (CAP) markers will allow the correct fingerprinting of faba bean plants and can be efficiently used in breeding selection to track the introgression of the vc- allele to develop cultivars with low v-c content and improved nutritional value.

  1. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers in Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments, of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding.

  2. Structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujiao; Wu, Xuexia; Hou, Wanwei; Li, Ping; Sha, Weichao; Tian, Yingying

    2017-05-01

    The protein subunit is the most important basic unit of protein, and its study can unravel the structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean. In this study, we identified six specific protein subunits in Faba bean (cv. Qinghai 13) combining liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography-electronic spray ionization mass (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and bio-information technology. The results suggested a diversity of seed storage proteins in faba bean, and a total of 16 proteins (four GroEL molecular chaperones and 12 plant-specific proteins) were identified from 97-, 96-, 64-, 47-, 42-, and 38-kD-specific protein subunits in faba bean based on the peptide sequence. We also analyzed the composition and abundance of the amino acids, the physicochemical characteristics, secondary structure, three-dimensional structure, transmembrane domain, and possible subcellular localization of these identified proteins in faba bean seed, and finally predicted function and structure. The three-dimensional structures were generated based on homologous modeling, and the protein function was analyzed based on the annotation from the non-redundant protein database (NR database, NCBI) and function analysis of optimal modeling. The objective of this study was to identify the seed storage proteins in faba bean and confirm the structure and function of these proteins. Our results can be useful for the study of protein nutrition and achieve breeding goals for optimal protein quality in faba bean.

  3. Weed control under integrated nutrient management systems in faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I.M. El-Metwally; M.T. Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential...

  4. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  5. Effect of fulvic acids on lead-induced oxidative stress to metal sensitive Vicia faba L. plant

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad; Dumat, Camille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant capable to induce various morphological, physiological, and biochemical functions in plants. Only few publications focus on the influence of Pb speciation both on its phytoavailability and phytotoxicity. Therefore, Pb toxicity (in terms of lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide induction, and photosynthetic pigments contents) was studied in Vicia faba plants in relation with Pb uptake and speciation. V. faba seedlings we...

  6. Vicia faba Hypersensitivity and ASA Intolerance in a Farmer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Damiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food are caused, generally, by ingestion. However, they can be rarely induced by exposure to airborne food particles through the handling or the cooking. Vicia faba is a vegetable which belongs to Legumes or Fabaceae family, Fabales order. Allergic reactions after ingestion of legumes and cases of asthma after exposure to the cooking vapors have been reported in the literature. A paper assessed the volatile substances (insect repellents released by V. faba. The authors demonstrated that this plant produces several chemical substances, such as small quantities of methyl salicylate. We describe a case of occupational allergy, induced by handling during picking up of fresh broad beans, in a farmer with history of adverse reaction after eating the cooked and raw vegetable.

  7. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA/sub 3/-stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed.

  8. Influence of salicylic acid on seed germination of Vicia faba L. under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Anaya; Rachid Fghire; Said Wahbi; Kenza Loutfi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is the critical stage for species survival. Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as broad bean. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination and influence of salicylic acid on seed in order to improving salt tolerant on broad bean. Vicia faba L. is an important pulse crop in the Mediterranean region. In many cases broad bean is grown on saline soils where growth and yield are limited...

  9. Photosynthesis by Guard Cell Chloroplasts of Vicia faba L. : Effects of Factors Associated with Stomatal Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Weihua, WU; Sarah M., ASSMANN; The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University:(Current)Biology Department, Pennsylvania State University

    1993-01-01

    The properties of photosynthetic O_2 evolution by mesophyll cell chloroplasts (MCC) and guard cell chloroplasts (GCC) isolated from protoplasts of Vicia faba L. have been studied and effects on O_2 evolution of factors known to regulate stomatal movements have been compared. The O_2 evolution of GCC was CO_2-dependent. The saturating light intensity for O_2 evolution was between 150 and 200 μmol m^ s^ for MCC and was between 400 and 1,000μmol m^ s^ for GCC. Light quality (red vs. blue) had no...

  10. Faba beans (Vicia faba) in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scipioni; Maurizio Moschini; Domenico Pietro Lo Fiego; Francesco Masoero; Michele Comellini; Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked) faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Regg...

  11. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiord) as a protein source for laying hens. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Although food intake increased linearly with faba bean inclusion, reflecting a need by the hens to consume more in an attempt to obtain sufficient of some unidentified limiting nutrient, laying performance was the same on all feeds in the ...

  12. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Dehulled faba beans were evaluated as an alternative to soybeans as a protein source for laying hens using 240 ... industry that is being forced to exclude animal protein sources in animal feeds. ... Wilson &. Teague (1974) reported that this latter rate of inclusion had no effect on laying performance or food intake,.

  13. Evaluation of faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    linearly, and food intake increased linearly, with increasing faba bean content, but when the feeds were ... higher proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin) content of the hulls of these varieties compared with the ..... qualitative treatments such as sex, vaccine, strain or growth promoter and are inappropriate for response.

  14. Faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (12% soybean meal, no faba beans was compared with a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% soybean meal and 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 1, hay only in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality and the characteristics of grab faecal samples as empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was slightly lower in the “Faba” group, particularly in experiment 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dL in experiment 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dL in experiment 2, P<0.01; the plasma urea content in experiment 2 confirmed the trend observed in milk (3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/L, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  15. Survey the Effect of Oil Pollution on Morphological Characteristics in Faba Vulgaris and Vicia Ervilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lorestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution results when a change in the environment harmfully affects the quality of human life including effect on animals, microorganisms and plants. Among the broad range of organic pollutants contaminating soil-water environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great environment concern. Oil contaminated soil will affect germination, plant height, leaf area and biomass production. The aim of this research was to elucidate effects of oil pollution on morphological characteristics in Fabaceae family. For this purpose species of Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia were planted in different concentrations of oil in soil. For morphological studies, studied species were removed from polluted and non polluted soils separately and some morphological characters were studied in these species, then these characters were compared in plants, collected from polluted and non polluted soil. Finally, the level of significance of these differences was elucidated by using of SPSS. Obtained results showed that oil pollution can cause some abnormalities in structure of vegetative parts in plants grown on polluted soils. Decreasing of plant length and stem diameter and changing the leaf shape was among the most important effects of oil on morphological characteristics in Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia.

  16. [Effect of soil compaction on Vicia faba of growth in the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Zhibiao; Zhao, Hongyang; Nie, Bin

    2002-08-01

    The effect of soil compaction on the growth of Vicia faba was studied by pot experiment, field plot experiment, and farmers' field production during two consecutive years. The results showed that increasing soil bulk density at 0-7 cm depth significantly decreased the root and shoot dry weight per plant, increased plant mortality caused by Fusarium species, and decreased seed yields. Field experiments indicated that compared to the plants grown on the plots with soil bulk density of 1.55 and 1.64 g.cm-3, the root and shoot dry weight of plants grown on the plots with soil bulk density of 1.84 g.cm-3 decreased by 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively, while the plant mortality rate increased by 21.0-48.7%, and seed yields decreased by 19.8%. The trials conducted on eight farmers' land illustrated that there existed significant negative correlations between soil bulk density in Spring and root and shoot dry weight of Vicia faba seedlings, and between soil bulk density in Autumn and seed yields. The causes of high soil compaction were discussed, and suggestions for improving soil quality were presented.

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Compounds in Green and White Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-wei Luo; Wei-hua Xie; Xiao-xiao Jin; Qian (Janice) Wang; Zhen-ping Hao; Bei-bei Tao

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols and tannins have implications for health and nutrition because of their antioxidant activities. Foods with high content of phenolics, such as fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes, show decreasing incidence of several diseases upon their consumption. However, there are limited reports on ant oxidative properties of tannins present in legumes. Faba bean seed has been known for high content of condensed tannin which is attributed as one of the ant nutritional factors in this highly...

  18. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: potential involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-12-24

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0-20μM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10μM. In addition, at this concentration, DNA damage time-dependently increased until 12h. Then, a decrease in DNA damages was recorded. The significant induction of micronucleus formation also reinforced the genotoxic character of this metal. Direct interaction of lead with DNA was also evaluated with the a-cellular comet assay. The data showed that DNA breakages were not associated with a direct effect of lead on DNA. In order to investigate the relationship between lead genotoxicity and oxidative stress, V. faba were exposed to lead in the presence or absence of the antioxidant Vitamin E, or the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor dephenylene iodonium (DPI). The total inhibition of the genotoxic effects of lead (DNA breakage and micronucleus formation) by these compounds reveals the major role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the genotoxicity of lead. These results highlight, for the first time in vivo and in whole-plant roots, the relationship between ROS, DNA strand-breaks and chromosome aberrations induced by lead. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gema and Šarac: The first Serbian cultivars of spring feed faba bean (Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the trials of the Department of Variety Protection and Registration of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia were carried out on four locations, including two new Novi Sad spring feed faba bean lines, B-412 and B-413, and the control cultivar Uran. In average, the highest grain yield was in the cultivar Gema (2905 kg ha-1, although there were no significant differences between three tested cultivars. In comparison to the control, Gema and Šarac had significantly higher crude protein content in grain dry matter, with 341.4 g kg-1 and 341.1 g kg-1. .

  20. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and harvest of clean

  1. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L. accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiflemariam Y. Belachew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and

  2. Seed Filling Trend of Faba bean (Vicia faba L. as Affected by Planting Date and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahemi Karizaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of planting date and plant density on phenology, seed yield, its components, seed filling rate and grain filling period of faba bean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at Research Farm of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Gonbad University, Iran, during growing season of 2012-2013. The factors were three planting dates (4th of November, 4th of December 2013 and 3th of January 2014 and four planting densities (8, 12, 16 and 18 plant/m2. The results showed that planting dates significantly affected on phenology, yield and its components, seed filling rate and periods while the effect of plant density on seed filling period was not significant. Comparison of sigmoid equation coefficients showed that seed filling rates in three planting dates were different. The highest seed filling rate was obtained in 3th of January and the lowest at November 4, planting dates. The effect of planting date on seed filling duration was also significant, but it was not on plant density. Regression analysis showed that increasing 0.01g seed growth rate in seed unit, resulted in seed weight increase by 45.11, 32.43 and 26.66 g for November 4, December 4 and January 3 planting dates respectively. Delaying planting dates decreased seed filling period by 8.53 days and seed weight by 0.27 g. due to its effect on day length and temperature changes. Delayed planting dates were more effective on the rate and period of seed filling and phenology of faba bean. Delaying in planting date increased time to emergence, while decreased seed filling period and seed yield because of coincidence of this period with high temperatures.

  3. N-(jasmonoyl)tyrosine-derived compounds from flowers of broad beans (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramell, Robert; Schmidt, Jürgen; Herrmann, Gabriele; Schliemann, Willibald

    2005-09-01

    Two new amide-linked conjugates of jasmonic acid, N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-(S)-dopa (3) and N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-dopamine (5), were isolated in addition to the known compound N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-(S)-tyrosine (2) from the methanolic extract of flowers of broad bean (Vicia faba). Their structures were proposed on the basis of spectroscopic data (LC-MS/MS) and chromatographic properties on reversed and chiral phases and confirmed by partial syntheses. Furthermore, tyrosine conjugates of two cucurbic acid isomers (7, 8) were detected and characterized by LC-MS. Crude enzyme preparations from flowers of V. faba hydroxylated both (+/-)-2 and N-[(3R,7R/3S,7S)-(-)-jasmonoyl]tyramine [(+/-)-4] to (+/-)-3 and (+/-)-5, respectively, suggesting a possible biosynthetic relationship. In addition, a commercial tyrosinase (mushroom) and a tyrosinase-containing extract from hairy roots of red beet exhibited the same catalytic properties, but with different substrate specificities. The conjugates (+/-)-2, (+/-)-3, (+/-)-4, and (+/-)-5 exhibited in a bioassay low activity to elicit alkaloid formation in comparison to free (+/-)-jasmonic acid [(+/-)-1].

  4. The dynamics of faba bean (Vicia faba L. parasitism by Orobanche foetida

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    Zouhaier ABBES

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The dynamics of Orobanche foetida parasitizing faba bean are examined using Petri dish experiments. Rates of broomrape seed germination and seedling attachment to the host roots were quantified on three resistant genotypes (the Egyptian line Giza 429, the Spanish cultivar Baraca, and the Tunisian cultivar Najeh [XBJ90.03-16-1-1-1] and the susceptible cv. Bachaar. The percentage of O. foetida seed germination (11 to 38% was lower near the roots of resistant host plants than it was near the roots of ‘Bachaar’ (67%. O. foetida parasitism was followed using three parametric logistic functions. In this way some major parameters of the infection process were quantified: the maximal number (Nmax and the maximal rate (Rmax of broomrape attachments to the host roots, the median time required for attachment (T50, the maximal percentage of established tubercles reaching the final growth stage at 70 days after inoculation (DAI (%max, and the maximal rate of established tubercle growth (R’max. Broomrape attachment was lower and slower in resistant plants, as indicated by low Nmax and Rmax values combined with high T50 values. Furthermore the precocity of the resistant genotypes was correlated with low attachment. The parameters %max and R’max did not discriminate the susceptible cultivar Bachaar from Giza 429 or Baraca. On the other hand, the %max and the R’max were lower in the ‘Najeh’ plants. The findings indicated that both low attachment and limited growth of established tubercles contributed to resistance in the Najeh cultivar.

  5. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites on Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltete, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: as.foltete@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Masfaraud, Jean-Francois, E-mail: masfa@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: Johanne.nahmani@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Chaurand, Perrine, E-mail: chaurand@cerege.fr [Centre Europeen de Recherches et d' Enseignement des Geosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO{sub 2} core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO{sub 2} Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur. - Highlights: > TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites were artificially aged. > Vicia faba was exposed 48 h to the alteration byproducts in liquid phase. > Few endpoints were modified significantly from control. > A clogging on the roots and titanium penetration in tissues were suspected. > Eventual long-term effects of the particles may occur. - Artificially aged TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites caused few damages to Vicia faba in 48 h exposure, but particles clogged on roots and Ti entered the root tissues.

  7. Promutagen activation of triazine herbicides metribuzin and ametryn through Vicia faba metabolism inducing sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro and in V. faba root tip meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maya, Saúl; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan M; de la Cruz, Leticia Gómez

    2005-03-01

    The aim of our study was the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro and in root tip meristems of Vicia faba to evaluate the genotoxic effects of metribuzin and ametryn. Direct treatments of these herbicides on human lymphocytes in vitro applied 24 h after the beginning of culture did not induce SCE; however, they showed a cytotoxic effect in the cultures expressed as cellular death. On the contrary, when extracts of V. faba roots, treated for 4 h with metribuzin and ametryn (in vivo activation), were added to the lymphocyte cultures, SCEs were significantly induced with an asymptotic response. Negative responses appeared with the in vitro assays, in which metribuzin and ametryn were added directly to the 48 h lymphocyte cultures for 4 h. Nevertheless, in treatments in which the S10 metabolic mix was added, the SCE frequencies were significantly different to the control, although a concentration-response relationship was only observed with metribuzin. The results showed that both herbicides needed the V. faba metabolism to produce SCE in human lymphocyte cultures. Metribuzin and ametryn applied to V. faba root tip meristems for 4 h increased SCE frequency significantly, and a concentration-response relationship was observed with both herbicides.

  8. Between plant and diurnal variation in quantities and ratios of volatile compounds emitted by Vicia faba plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Ben; Gezan, Salvador; Bruce, Toby; Hardie, Jim; Pickett, John

    2010-01-01

    Ratios of volatile phytochemicals potentially offer a means for insects to recognise their host-plant species. However, for this to occur ratios of volatiles would need to be sufficiently consistent between plants and over time to constitute a host-characteristic cue. In this context we collected headspace samples from Vicia faba plants to determine how consistent ratios of key volatile phytochemicals used in host location by one of its insect pests, the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, were. These were (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, octanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (R)-linalool, methyl salicylate, decanal, undecanal, (E)-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, (S)-germacrene D, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene, which had previously been found to be electrophysiologically and behaviourally active to A. fabae. Although the quantities of volatiles produced by V. faba showed large between plant and diurnal variation, correlations between quantities of compounds indicated that the ratios of certain pairs of volatiles were very consistent. This suggests that there is a host-characteristic cue available to A. fabae in the form of ratios of volatiles. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  10. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  11. Contenidos de taninos y caracterización molecular de variedades de haba (Vicia faba L.) cultivadas por agricultores.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Aguilar, Bladimir

    2011-01-01

    En México el haba (Vicia faba L.) es importante para la alimentación de los habitantes del medio rural y urbano, contiene un alto contenido nutritivo, es un alimento balanceado, asimismo en la actualidad los productores demandan variedades con mayor calidad de semilla. El rango en cuanto al contenido de taninos en las semillas de haba cultivadas por los agricultores fue determinado, se estimaron las relaciones entre las variedades de haba mediante la utilización de marcadores moleculares tipo...

  12. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in Vicia faba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Hafke, Jens B.; Schulz, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    (EPWs), and is reversible in intact plants. The time-course of the wound response was studied in sieve elements of main veins of intact Vicia faba plants using confocal and multiphoton microscopy. Only 15-45 s after burning a leaf tip, forisomes (giant protein bodies specific for legume sieve tubes...... reversible; callose degraded over the subsequent 1-2 h. The heat induction of both modes of occlusion coincided with the passage of an EPW visualized by electrophysiology or the potential-sensitive dye RH-414. In contrast to burning, cutting of the leaf tip induced neither an EPW nor callose deposition...

  13. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings induced by thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra; Glavas, Katarina; Roje, Vibor; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a metal of great toxicological concern because it is highly toxic to all living organisms through mechanisms that are yet poorly understood. Since Tl is accumulated by important crops, the present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of Tl in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as well as the plant's antioxidative defense mechanisms usually activated by heavy metals. Thallium toxicity was related to production of reactive oxygen species in leaves and roots of broad bean seedlings following short-term (72 h) exposure to thallium (I) acetate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/L) by evaluating DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters as well as antioxidative response. The possible antagonistic effect of potassium (K) was tested by combined treatment with 5 mg/L of Tl (Tl+) and 10 mg/L of potassium (K+) acetate. Accumulation of Tl+ in roots was 50 to 250 times higher than in broad bean shoots and was accompanied by increase in dry weight and proline. Despite responsive antioxidative defense (increased activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and pyrogallol peroxidase), Tl+ caused oxidative damage to lipids and proteins as evaluated by malondialdehyde and carbonyl group levels, and induced DNA strand breaks. Combined treatment caused no oxidative alternations to lipids and proteins though it induced DNA damage. The difference in Tl-induced genotoxicity following both acellular and cellular exposure implies indirect DNA damage. Results obtained indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of Tl toxicity and that the tolerance of broad bean to Tl is achieved, at least in part, through the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  15. Phytostabilization of moderate copper contaminated soils using co-inoculation of Vicia faba with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programs. This article suggest a consortium of bacteria combining Rhizobium sp. CCNWSX0481, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas sp. 2(2010) that was examined for the ability to promote Vicia faba.L. growth when cultivated on the vineyard of soil moderately contaminated with copper. Data showed that inoculation was significant in nodulation; it increases the number and the weight of nodules of 50%. Co-inoculation was also found to positively influence growth and seed yield, through increasing fresh shoot and fresh root weights by 33 and 26%, respectively, and through rising numbers of seed per pod and pods per plant. In contrast, co-inoculation produced a significant reduction of accumulated copper in roots attending 35%, however, the treatment revealed no significant effects on the copper contents in pods and seeds. The tested inoculum could be an option to promote V. faba growth and to enhance soil fertilization in moderate copper contaminated soils. Further studies on the influence of co-inoculation practices on copper migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of this legume safety. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contaminant bioavailability in soil and phytotoxicity/genotoxicity tests in Vicia faba L.: a case study of boron contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the model plant for genotoxicity studies Vicia faba L. was used to investigate the relation between Boron (B) content and bioavailability in soil and plant genotoxic/phytotoxic response. A total of nine soil samples were investigated: two soil samples were collected from a B-polluted industrial area in Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), the other samples were obtained by spiking control soil (from a not polluted area of the basin) with seven increased doses of B, from about 20 to 100 mg B kg(-1). As expected, B availability, evaluated by chemical extraction, was higher (twofold) in spiked soils when compared with collected polluted soils with the same B total content. To analyze the phytotoxic effects of B, seed germination, root elongation, biomass production, and B accumulation in plant tissues were considered in V. faba plants grown in the various soils. Moreover, the cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of B were investigated in root meristems by mitotic index (MI) and micronuclei frequency (MCN) analysis. The results highlighted that V. faba was a B-sensitive plant and the appearance of phytotoxic effects, which altered plant growth parameters, were linearly correlated to the bioavailable B concentration in soils. Concerning the occurrence of cytotoxic/genotoxic effects induced by B, no linear correlation was observed even if MCN frequency was logarithmic correlated with the concentration of B bioavailable in soils.

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  20. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B; Osman, Gammaa A M; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A H; Diab, Eiman E; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2014-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in antinutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.

  2. Sister chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba induced by arsenic-contaminated drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Armienta, M A; Cortés-Eslava, J; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1997-11-27

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba root tips were used to examine well water containing high levels of arsenic. The increased amount of arsenic was contained in well water from different towns of Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico. Treatments of 3 h were applied followed by the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (Mutation Res. 103 (1982) 321-326). Concentrations of arsenic from 0.267 up to 1.070 mg/l were determined by colorimetry in the polluted samples used for this study. These values were above the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l in drinking water. In all cases, except one in which the As concentration was 0.021, the arsenic-contaminated water produced significant increases of SCE compared with the control (p Comarca Lagunera and the results observed in Zimapan.

  3. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B.; Osman, Gammaa A. M.; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A. H.; Diab, Eiman E.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin conte...

  5. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI, chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronucleus induction (MN. For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05 the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

  6. Immunolocalization of dually phosphorylated MAPKs in dividing root meristem cells of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Lupinus luteus and Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicki, Konrad; Żabka, Aneta; Bernasińska, Joanna; Matczak, Karolina; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-06-01

    In plants, phosphorylated MAPKs display constitutive nuclear localization; however, not all studied plant species show co-localization of activated MAPKs to mitotic microtubules. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved not only in the cellular response to biotic and abiotic stress but also in the regulation of cell cycle and plant development. The role of MAPKs in the formation of a mitotic spindle has been widely studied and the MAPK signaling pathway was found to be indispensable for the unperturbed course of cell division. Here we show cellular localization of activated MAPKs (dually phosphorylated at their TXY motifs) in both interphase and mitotic root meristem cells of Lupinus luteus, Pisum sativum, Vicia faba (Fabaceae) and Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae). Nuclear localization of activated MAPKs has been found in all species. Co-localization of these kinases to mitotic microtubules was most evident in L. esculentum, while only about 50% of mitotic cells in the root meristems of P. sativum and V. faba displayed activated MAPKs localized to microtubules during mitosis. Unexpectedly, no evident immunofluorescence signals at spindle microtubules and phragmoplast were noted in L. luteus. Considering immunocytochemical analyses and studies on the impact of FR180204 (an inhibitor of animal ERK1/2) on mitotic cells, we hypothesize that MAPKs may not play prominent role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics in all plant species.

  7. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomass growth, micronucleus induction, and antioxidant stress enzyme responses in Vicia faba exposed to cadmium in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Edson V Cordova; Valgas, Cleidson; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

    2003-03-01

    Biomass growth, micronucleus induction, and antioxidative stress enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were investigated simultaneously in the Vicia faba plant exposed to cadmium in solution. The biomass lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) value was 2,000 microM Cd2+. In the shoots, enzymic activities increased without concentration-response relationships. In the roots, after an initial increase, activities of all enzymes showed negative concentration-response relationships. A significant increase in micronucleus induction was observed at 20 microM Cd2+. Regarding sensitivity, our results showed that biomass endpoint was less sensitive than micronucleus induction, which was less sensitive than antioxidative enzyme activities. The increase of antioxidant stress enzyme activities in response to cadmium exposure may be taken as evidence for an enhanced detoxification capacity of V. faba plants toward reactive oxygen species (and derivatives) that might be generated in the stressed plants. Concomitant micronucleus induction may be also interpreted as a consequence of oxidative stress, upholding the view that cadmium-induced DNA damage is, to some extent, via generation of reactive (intermediate) oxygen species.

  9. Relations between the crude protein content and the amino acid profile of organically produced field beans (Vicia faba L.) and field peas (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Stephanie; Aulrich, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Organic Farming, grain legumes are important protein feedstuffs. There are hints indicating that the amino acid (AA) profile is affected by factors associated with varying crude protein (CP) contents of crops. The knowledge on this relationship between CP and AA profile needs to be extended to optimize feeding strategies for monogastrics as well as the selection of cultivars and varieties in fodder crop cultivation. Therefore, samples of 67 field beans (Vicia faba L.) and 86 field peas (Pi...

  10. Weed control under integrated nutrient management systems in faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Egypt Controle de plantas daninhas sob sistemas de manejo integrado em feijão de fava (Vicia faba) no Egito

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I.M. El-Metwally; M.T. Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential...

  11. Resolving browning during the establishment of explant cultures in Vicia faba L. for genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Klenotičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of in vitro regeneration systems of two explant types for low-tannine cultivars of faba bean based on culturing of shoot apices and cotyledonary nodes were provided by usage of various antioxidants - ascorbic acid, citric acid, glutathione and activated charcoal. In subsequent testing, the combined effects of antioxidants with transformation co-cultivation compounds acetosyringone and L-cysteine was studied. The application of antioxidants lead to decreased callogenesis, citric acids treatments (50 mg.l−1 dramatically decreased necrotic response of explants. However, citric acid, used together with ascorbic acid completely inhibited shoot growth in shoot apex cultures. Glutathion evoked hyperhydricity of explants. Activated charcoal induced rooting on media which are commonly used for shoot proliferation. Combination of acetosyringone with antioxidants influenced shoot proliferation, except of variant with ascorbic acid. Citric acid was the best and universal antioxidant in faba bean in vitro cultures and its use is recommended for faba bean genetic transformation experiments.

  12. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of faba beans (Vicia faDa cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLCKERS, R.C., 1991. Evaluering van gars as voedingsbron in varkdi€te in die Winterreenstreek. MSc.(Agric)-tesis. Universiteit van Stellenbosch,. Stellenbosch 7600, Suid-Afiika. ORTIZ, L.T., CENTENO, C. & TREVINO, J., 1993. Tannins in faba bean seeds: effects on the digestion of protein and antino acids in growing.

  14. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  16. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  17. The Kok effect in Vicia faba cannot be explained solely by changes in chloroplastic CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Vice, Heather; Adams, Mark A

    2017-08-31

    The Kok effect - an abrupt decline in quantum yield (QY) of net CO2 assimilation at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) - is widely used to estimate respiration in the light (R), which assumes the effect is caused by light suppression of R. A recent report suggested much of the Kok effect can be explained by declining chloroplastic CO2 concentration (cc ) at low PPFD. Several predictions arise from the hypothesis that the Kok effect is caused by declining cc , and we tested these predictions in Vicia faba. We measured CO2 exchange at low PPFD, in 2% and 21% oxygen, in developing and mature leaves, which differed greatly in R in darkness. Our results contradicted each of the predictions based on the cc effect: QY exceeded the theoretical maximum value for photosynthetic CO2 uptake; QY was larger in 21% than 2% oxygen; and the change in QY at the Kok effect breakpoint was unaffected by oxygen. Our results strongly suggest the Kok effect arises largely from a progressive decline in R with PPFD that includes both oxygen-sensitive and -insensitive components. We suggest an improved Kok method that accounts for high cc at low PPFD. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  19. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  20. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  1. NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Min; Bai, Heli; Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan

    2017-04-01

    NO and H2O2 have been implicated as important signals in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants to the environment. Previously, we have shown that SO2 exposure increased the levels of NO and H2O2 in plant cells. We hypothesize that, as signaling molecules, NO and H2O2 mediate SO2-caused toxicity. In this paper, we show that SO2 hydrates caused guard cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range of 0.25 to 6 mmol L-1, which was associated with elevation of intracellular NO, H2O2, and Ca2+ levels in Vicia faba guard cells. NO donor SNP enhanced SO2 toxicity, while NO scavenger c-PTIO and NO synthesis inhibitors L-NAME and tungstate significantly prevented SO2 toxicity. ROS scavenger ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT), Ca2+ chelating agent EGTA, and Ca2+ channel inhibitor LaCl3 also markedly blocked SO2 toxicity. In addition, both c-PTIO and AsA could completely block SO2-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level. Moreover, c-PTIO efficiently blocked SO2-induced H2O2 elevation, and AsA significantly blocked SO2-induced NO elevation. These results indicate that extra NO and H2O2 are produced and accumulated in SO2-treated guard cells, which further activate Ca2+ signaling to mediate SO2 toxicity. Our findings suggest that both NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling.

  2. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Weed control under integrated nutrient management systems in faba bean (Vicia faba production in Egypt Controle de plantas daninhas sob sistemas de manejo integrado em feijão de fava (Vicia faba no Egito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. El-Metwally

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential. The experiment included five treatments, composed of organic and mineral fertilizers, alone and mixed at different rates, along with a control and six weed control treatments, including oxadiargyl, prometryn, hand hoeing treatments alone or mixed with the herbicides, and a nonweeded treatment (control.The herbicide treatments were not superior to the two hand-hoeing treatments. Using compost favored growth and yield of faba bean more than of weeds. Adding fertilizer also improved most yield parameters. Application of compost alone or combined with 50 or 100% of the recommended NPK rate improved faba bean growth in terms of net assimilation rate, specific leaf area, and leaf weight ratio as components of relative growth rate. This improvement in growth resulted in increase of seed yield, yield components and protein of faba bean. Faba bean yield performance improved under interactive fertilizer effects and weed control treatments as growth improved, as a result of nutrient release from fertilizers and weed control.Dois experimentos em condições de campo foram conduzidos em duas épocas sucessivas - 2005/2006 e 2006/2007 - para determinar se o manejo pode melhorar a competitividade do feijão-fava contra plantas daninhas e contribuir para um maior potencial de produção. Os experimentos incluíram cinco tratamentos, compostos de: fertilizantes orgânicos e minerais, isoladamente ou em mistura em diferentes doses, além do tratamento controle, e seis tratamentos de controle de plantas daninhas, incluindo tratamentos usando oxadiargyl, prometryn, manualmente ou misturados com os herbicidas e um tratamento sem plantas daninhas (controle. Os tratamentos com os herbicidas não foram superiores aos dois tratamentos manuais (hand hoeing

  4. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  5. Thidiazuron-induced plant regeneration from protoplasts of Vicia faba cv. Mythos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Gebhardt, D; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts of 10 cultivars of V. faba were isolated from etiolated shoot-tips and tested for their regeneration capacity. After purification, protoplasts were embedded in sodium alginate and cultivated in the medium of Kao and Michayluk (1975) containing 0.5 mg·1(-1) of each 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine. Depending on cultivar, division frequencies of up to 40% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred to Gelrite-solidified media with different combinations of growth regulators. A two step protocol (auxin high/low) was tested for its ability to induce somatic embryogenesis. The formation of globular structures was observed, but no embryo formation could be achieved. In contrast, cultivation of protocalluses on medium supplemented with thidiazuron resulted in shoot development in cultivar Mythos. To generate mature plants, the shoots were grafted onto young seedlings. In order to optimize the in vitro-conditions, different concentrations of thidiazuron alone or in combination with naphthylacetic acid were tested, showing that an increase of thidiazuron and the addition of naphthylacetic acid positively affects both the viability of protocalluses and the regeneration frequency.

  6. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina

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    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  7. Economical Evaluation of Faba bean (Vicia faba and Maize (Zea mays L. Intercropping Based on Total Relative Value Index and Weeds Growth Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F  and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of

  8. Composting of rice straw with oilseed rape cake and poultry manure and its effects on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Magdi T; Horiuchi, Takatsugu; Oba, Shinya

    2004-06-01

    Composting of rice straw with poultry manure and oilseed rape cake and its effects on growth and yield of faba bean and soil properties was studied in pot experiments at Gifu University, Japan in 2001/2002. The composts reached maturity in 90 days, were rich in organic matter and mineral nutrients, had a high level of stability, and no phytotoxicity. The addition of compost (20-200 g pot(-1)) improved selected soil chemical (increased total N, total C and CEC), physical (decreased particle density) and biological (increased soil respiration rate) properties. Application of composts at a rate of 20 g pot(-1) significantly increased growth, yield, yield components and total crude protein of faba bean plants. The benefit of this compost without chemical fertilizer demonstrated the validity and possibility of sustainable agronomic performance of faba bean using locally available recycled organic materials. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ESTUDIO DE LA CALIDAD PROTEICA Y DEL CONTENIDO DE ENERGÍA METABOLIZABLE DEL HABA (VICIA FABA*

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    Ana Silvia Bermudez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determínate the faba bean CEP, the possible role of bis hemaglutinine on this valué and to know the metabolizable energy in this legume we made two experiments in the poultry section of the experimental Center of Tibaitatá. In each experiment we used 45 chickens in random distribution in groups of five. In the first experiment we used diets whose proteic source was respectively isolated soybean protein (control diet, raw faba bean, and faba bean treated with steam in an autoclave. The results obtained show a low utilization of food when the ratio was prepared with faba beans, probably due to the aminoacids imbalance, also it produced hypertrophia of the páncreas due probably to the presence of antitriptyc agents which were not destroyed by the heat treatment. The nutritional valué of the faba bean protein increase 67o with the inactivation of the favine, although it is still lower (27% compared with the control diet. In the second experiment we obtain relatively high valúes for the faba beans metabolical useful energy compared with other legume valúes like ajonjolí, which shows us that this bean is a good energy supplier.

  11. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  13. Citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de los ríos Jequetepeque y Moche mediante el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L.

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    Raúl Antonio Beltrán Orbegoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la toxicidad de las aguas de los ríos como método complementario al análisis físico, químico y biológico proporciona una información integral de la calidad del agua, por tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los niveles de citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de las cuencas alta, media y baja de los ríos Moche y Jequetepeque, usando el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L. “haba” (2n = 12. Se germinaron semillas de V. faba L.; luego las raicillas emergentes se expusieron, durante tres horas, a siete tratamientos: T1 (100 ml de agua destilada, T2 (1 ml agua de río Jequetepeque / 99 ml de agua destilada, T3 (5 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 95 ml de agua destilada, T4 (10 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 90 ml de agua destilada, T5 (1 ml agua de río Moche/ 99 ml de agua destilada, T6 (5 ml agua de río Moche/ 95 ml de agua destilada y T7 (10 ml agua de río Moche/ 90 ml de agua destilada. Los ápices de las raicillas fueron sometidos a la técnica de Tjio y Levan. El agua de la cuenca media del río Moche del T7, presenta una alta citotoxicidad (índice mitótico de 5,4 % y alteraciones de los índices de fases y un alto efecto genotóxico; las aguas del río Jequetepeque no evidencian efecto citotóxico ni genotóxico de importancia.

  14. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  15. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes—fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  16. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures.

  17. Drosophila melanogaster, Vicia faba and Arabidopsis thaliana short-term bioassays in genotoxicity evaluation of air and soil samples from sites surrounding two industrial factories in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, K; Kuglík, P; Relichová, J; Holoubek, I; Cáslavský, J; Veselská, R; Rysková, M; Benedík, J

    1997-01-01

    The Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster, the Vicia faba cytogenetic tests-Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and Micronucleus Test (MN), and the Müller test for gametic mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana were used for genotoxicity testing of environmental samples of pollutants from the surroundings of LACHEMA chemical factory (Brno, Czech Republic) and DEZA factory in Valasské Mezirící (Moravia, Czech Republic). Tested soil and air samples were taken from the near vicinity of both factories. The surroundings of both sites are heavy loaded by exhalation of chemicals from the factories. Chemical analyses of the 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) list of priority pollutants and heavy metals were performed in both soil and air samples. The Drosophila wing spot test was positive in 70.6% of the tested samples, the Vicia sister chromatid exchange test in 62.5%, and the Arabidopsis Müller test in 58.9%. The micronucleus Vicia faba test was quite insensitive in tested environmental samples. The concordance between SMART and SCE was 62.5%, between SMART and Müller test 76.5%, and between Müller test and SCE 100%. Total concordance of these three tests was 79.7%. Müller test for gametic mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana and cytogenetic SCE test in Vicia faba seem to be quite sensitive and convenient plant bioassays for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents, when compared to the SMART test in Drosophila melanogaster.

  18. Controle de plantas daninhas sob sistemas de manejo integrado em feijão de fava (Vicia faba) no Egito

    OpenAIRE

    El-Metwally, I.M.; Abdelhamid, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential. The experiment included five treatments, composed of organic and mineral fertilizers, alone and mixed at different rates, along with a control and six weed control treatments, including oxadiargyl, prometryn, hand hoeing treatments alone or mixed with the herbicides, and a nonweed...

  19. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  20. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  1. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein quality in cereals and pulses. 2. Influence of polyethyleneglycol on the nutritional availability of methionine in sorghum (Sorghum vulgar Pers.), field beans (Vicia faba L.) and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J E; Hewitt, D

    1979-09-01

    1. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG 4000) was examined for its influence on relative nutritional value (RNV) and available methionine in sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), field beans (Vicia faba L.) and barley, as measured microbiologically with Streptococcus zymogenes. The results were assessed in relation to the content of tannins in the test samples. 2. In grain of hybrid sorghum the RNV averaged 87 (range 79--92) for six low-tannin varieties and 41 (30--53) for eleven high-tannin varieties. The corresponding available methionine values averaged 17.0 (15.7--18.9) and 8.9 (6.7--11.0) g/kg protein. Addition of PEG 4000 to the test samples increased the average RNV of the high-tannin varieties from 41 to 78, and the average available methionine content from 8.9 to 16.2 g/kg protein. 3. With seed of ten coloured flowered varieties of field beans, treatment with PEG gave a small but consistent increase in the available methionine content, which resulted from the inactivation of tannins in the testa. 4. In twenty-three samples of barley grain, treatment with PEG had no effect on the values obtained for available methionine. 5. Treatment of high-tannin sorghum grain with ammonia has been reported to inactivate the tannins and increase the nutritional value for rats and chicks. This finding was confirmed. The present study showed that ammonia and PEG 4000 were equally effective in enhancing the nutritional quality as measured in the microbiological tests.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  4. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H2O2. However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H2O2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H2O2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  5. Bacterially produced Pt-GFP as ratiometric dual-excitation sensor for in planta mapping of leaf apoplastic pH in intact Avena sativa and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mühling, Karl H; Kaiser, Hartmut; Plieth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric analysis with H(+)-sensitive fluorescent sensors is a suitable approach for monitoring apoplastic pH dynamics. For the acidic range, the acidotropic dual-excitation dye Oregon Green 488 is an excellent pH sensor. Long lasting (hours) recordings of apoplastic pH in the near neutral range, however, are more problematic because suitable pH indicators that combine a good pH responsiveness at a near neutral pH with a high photostability are lacking. The fluorescent pH reporter protein from Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Pt-GFP) comprises both properties. But, as a genetically encoded indicator and expressed by the plant itself, it can be used almost exclusively in readily transformed plants. In this study we present a novel approach and use purified recombinant indicators for measuring ion concentrations in the apoplast of crop plants such as Vicia faba L. and Avena sativa L. Pt-GFP was purified using a bacterial expression system and subsequently loaded through stomata into the leaf apoplast of intact plants. Imaging verified the apoplastic localization of Pt-GFP and excluded its presence in the symplast. The pH-dependent emission signal stood out clearly from the background. PtGFP is highly photostable, allowing ratiometric measurements over hours. By using this approach, a chloride-induced alkalinizations of the apoplast was demonstrated for the first in oat. Pt-GFP appears to be an excellent sensor for the quantification of leaf apoplastic pH in the neutral range. The presented approach encourages to also use other genetically encoded biosensors for spatiotemporal mapping of apoplastic ion dynamics.

  6. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF Vicia faba AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS Mejoramiento de la tolerancia de Vicia faba a salinidad ocasionada por irrigación con agua de mar usando KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 como osmoreguladores químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMEL MOHAMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The familiar solutes, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids and soluble proteins, which play a role in osmotic adjustment were estimated to investigate the role of potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate as osmoregulators and their effects on the solutes composition. Vicia faba L. was cultivated and irrigated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 % (v:v sea water. The plants were divided to three groups. The first was irrigated with sea water only. The second was treated with 5 mM KNO3 while the third was treated with 5mM (NH42SO4. The plants were left to grow until flowering stage. The results indicated that the non treated group increased the soluble carbohydrates in the roots to avoid the influx of sodium. The treatment with KNO3 decreased the sodicity (SAR while (NH42SO4 treatment decreased the SK:Na value in the shoots at higher salinity. The availability of nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium ions enhances the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates in shoots. The plants of all groups were depended on Ca2+, as compatible solute more than Na+, and K+.Los solutos Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, carbohidratos y proteínas solubles, así como amino ácidos son importantes en ajuste osmótico y fueron estimados para determinar el papel de nitrato de potasio y sulfato de amonio como osmoreguladores y su efecto en la composición de solutos. Vicia faba L. fue cultivada e irrigada con 5, 10, 15 y 20 % (v:v de agua de mar permitiendo crecimiento hasta el estado de floración. Las plantas fueron divididas en tres grupos. El primero fue irrigado con agua de mar solamente. El segundo fue tratado con 5 mM KNO3, mientras que el tercer grupo fue expuesto a 5mM (NH42SO4. Los resultados indican que las plantas del primer grupo (no tratado incrementan carbohidratos solubles en sus raíces para evitar influjo de sodio. El tratamiento con KNO3 disminuye riqueza de sodio (SAR mientras que la exposición a (NH42SO4 diminuye la de SK

  7. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  8. Analyse de la tolérance des populations locales de fève (Vicia faba L. à la sécheresse au stade juvénile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora AQTBOUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most important abiotic stress responsible of the production instability and lower levels of yields of faba bean (Vicia faba L.. The cropping of tolerant varieties can be an opportunity to stabilize production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to study the drought tolerance in the juvenile plant stage in a collection of local Moroccan faba bean populations from the province of Taounate. A number of 60 local populations were studied under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Different morphological and physiological traits were studied before and under water stress and during the recovery phase. The difference between recovery and water stress phases estimates the capacity of local populations to recover from drought. The local populations contain a wide diversity for different studied traits. The gain in dry matter has a negative and highly significant correlation with dry matter yield under water stress (r = -0.64 **. The populations 16, 47, 1 and 9 have proven to be the most drought tolerant at juvenile stage.

  9. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  10. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  11. Management of faba bean gall in faba bean producing area of Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogale Nigir Hailemariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean new disease (faba bean gall (Olpidium viciae (Kusano is the most destructive disease of faba bean ((Vicia faba L. in Ethiopia, particularly in Amhara, Tigray and some part of Oromia region. This problem needs immediate sound management strategy to maximize faba bean productivity. A field study was carried out in Geregera and Jama during the 2013 and 2014 main crop season and Maybar watershed in 2014 to verify the fungicide to faba bean gall. The objective of this study was evaluating effective fungicides for the management of faba bean new disease. The treatments were baylaton in the form of seed dressing and foliar spray; mancozeb, redomil, chlorotalonin and cruzet in the form of foliar spray and apron star and theram used as a foliar spray and also untreated check used as a comparison. The result showed that significantly differ between treatments (p

  12. Effects of faba bean and faba bean hulls on expression of selected genes in the small intestine of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Baal, van J.; Meulen, van der J.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) study in pigs, effects were studied of intestinal perfusion of ground faba beans (Vicia faba), faba bean hulls, or saline on intestinal net fluid absorption in intestinal segments either challenged or not with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

  13. (Vicia faba) IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... iron, zinc, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C [4]. Although Ethiopia has a fairly large livestock population, availability of meat and milk for local human consumption is limited, especially in rural areas where wealth index values are in the lower quintiles, according to the most recent Demographic ...

  14. (Vicia faba) IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... in 22.5, 4.7, and 8.3% of study children, respectively. Questionnaires ..... this study, however, requires preparation of the raw ingredients. .... Survey 2009/10 Report for the National Nutrition Program of Ethiopia. Ethiopian ...

  15. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  16. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits.

  17. Pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Masoero; Carla Cerioli; Samantha Sigolo; Mauro Morlacchini; Aldo Prandini

    2011-01-01

    The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg) were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM) as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment). The RP...

  18. The use of whole faba beans in emulsion gel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an economical protein source used in food and feed worldwide. It has high protein content and well-balanced amino acid composition. Since the starch fraction of faba beans causes problems in protein gelation, it hinders the use of whole faba beans for tofu production. Due to economical, ecological and nutritional reasons, it is worthwhile to develop a new way for producing whole faba bean tofu without discarding any part of faba beans. The aim of this thesis w...

  19. Protective role of α-tocopherol on two Vicia faba cultivars against seawater-induced lipid peroxidation by enhancing capacity of anti-oxidative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa A. Orabi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of seawater stress on growth, yield, physiological and antioxidant responses of faba bean plant and whether the exogenous application with vitamin E could mitigate the adverse effect of salinity stress or not, a pot experiment was carried out during 2011/12 winter season under green house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Two faba bean cultivars (Giza 3 and Giza 843 irrigated with diluted seawater (Tap water, 3.13 or 6.25 dS m−1 and α-tocopherol (0, 50 or 100 mg L−1 were used. At 75 days after sowing, growth sample was taken for vegetative growth measurement, proline, carotenoids, antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, POX and PAL, lipid peroxidation, and inorganic ions as well as seed yield and yield attributes were determined. The results revealed that seawater triggered significant inhibitory effects on faba bean growth and yield especially for Giza 3 cultivar with obvious increments in MDA and Na+ ion contents. Foliar application with α-tocopherol at rate of 100 mg L−1 followed by 50 mg L−1 on faba bean plants exerted certain alleviative effects on these indices in particular on Giza 843. α-Tocopherol could play an important role in alleviation of injury of faba bean irrigated with diluted seawater through the enhancement of the protective parameters such as antioxidant enzymes, proline, carotenoids, and inorganic ions (K+ and Ca2+ to be effective in decreasing MDA content, lessening the harmful effect of salinity, and improving faba bean growth, seed yield and seed yield quality.

  20. Phosphorylation of H2AX histones in response to double-strand breaks and induction of premature chromatin condensation in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of Raphanus sativus, Vicia faba, and Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Maszewski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest, resulting in the formation of gamma-H2AX foci along megabase chromatin domains nearby the sites of incurred DNA damage. In an attempt to establish a relationship between species-specific nuclear architecture and H2AX phosphorylation in S/G(2) phase-arrested root meristem cells, immunocytochemical comparisons using an antibody raised against human gamma-H2AX were made among three plants differing with respect to DNA contents: Allium porrum, representing a reticulate type of DNA package, Vicia faba, having semireticulate cell nuclei, and Raphanus sativus, characterised by a chromocentric type of chromatin. Another approach was aimed at determining possible correlations between the extent of hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of H2AX histones and the quantities of root meristem cells induced by caffeine to enter aberrant mitotic division (premature chromosome condensation). It was concluded that the higher-order structure of chromatin may contribute to the accessibility of molecular factors engaged in the recognition and repair of genetic lesions. Consequently, in contrast to A. porrum and V. faba, a diffuse chromatin in chromocentric cell nuclei of R. sativus may become more vulnerable both to generate DNA double-strand breaks and to recruit molecular elements needed to arrange the cell cycle checkpoint functions, and thus, more resistant to factors which allow the cells to enter premature chromosome condensation spontaneously. On the other hand, however, caffeine-mediated overriding of the S-M checkpoint control system resulted in the typical appearance of premature chromosome condensation, irrespective of the genomic content of DNA.

  1. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  2. Progress report on enhancing faba bean germplasm for improved winter-hardiness at Pullman, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been cultivated from early Neolithic times. Numerous varieties have been selected for adaptation to a wide range of environments worldwide and for different end-uses such as dry grain, vegetable, feed, forage and green manure. The USDA faba bean germplasm collection con...

  3. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Masoero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  4. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Intercropping of Faba bean (Vicia fabae) and field pea (Pisum sativum) is an important cropping system in the. Horro highlands of Ethiopia, but seed proportions balance is important to intercrop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum seed rates on component crop yield and land equivalent ...

  5. Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram Abdel Haliem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs, pollen grains (PGs and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 106 n/cm2 and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles.

  6. Cotyledon organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, John W

    2008-01-01

    The cotyledon represents one of the bases of classification within the plant kingdom, providing the name-giving difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. It is also a fundamental organ and there have been many reports of cotyledon mutants in many species. The use of these mutants where they have arisen in Arabidopsis has allowed us to unravel some of the complexities of embryonic patterning and cotyledon development with a high degree of resolution. The cloning of genes involved in cotyledon development from other species, together with physiological work, has supported the hypothesis that there exists a small number of orthologous gene hierarchies, particularly those involving auxin. The time is therefore appropriate for a summary of the regulation of cotyledon development gleaned from cotyledon mutants and regulatory pathways in the model species Arabidopsis and what can be inferred from cotyledon mutants in other species. There is an enormous variation in cotyledon form and development throughout the plant kingdom and this review focuses on debates about the phylogenetic relationship between mono- and dicotyledony, discusses gymnosperm cotyledon development and pleiocotyly in natural populations, and explores the limits of homology between cotyledons and leaves.

  7. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A.A.; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Suda...

  8. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  9. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF Vicia fabaAGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING K2 SO4 AND (NH42SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L. was cultivated with irrigation with 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v:v sea water. The plants were divided to three groups. The first was irrigated without treatments while the second was treated with 5 mM KNO3 and the third was treated with 5mM (NH42 SO4. The plants were left to grow until flowering stage. The famous solutes Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO43-, SO42-, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids and soluble proteins were estimated to investigate the role of potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphates as osmoregulators. The results indicated that the non-treated group increased the soluble carbohydrates in the roots to avoid the influx of sodium. The treatment with KNO3 decreased the sodicity (SAR in the shoots. The availability of nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium ions enhances the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates in shoots. KNO3 treatment decreased SAR strongly while (NH42 SO4 treatment the SK:Na value in the shoots at higher salinity. The plants of all groups were depended on Ca2+ as compatible solute

  10. Association of Faba Bean Rust ( Uromyces viciae-fabae ) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stage and field management practices. The mean incidence of the disease varied from 44.6% in Bedeno to 98% in Tullo, while severity of the disease varied from 12.7% in Bedeno to 65% in Gorogutu and Kurfachale districts. Logistic regression analysis for the association of rust incidence and severity with environmental ...

  11. Faba beans in diets for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of using the new faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar Kontu as a domestic protein source for growing-finishing pigs.In Experiment 1,120 pigs were used with a body weight (BWof 25–110 kg to study the effects of replacing 0, 25, 50, 75,and 100%of rapeseed meal with faba beans in barley +rapeseed meal based diets. Restrictedly fed grower and finisher diets contained 137–317 and 114–260 g kg–1 faba beans, respectively. A barley +soya bean meal based diet was included as a control. The replacement of rapeseed meal with faba beans exerted a quadratic effect on daily weight gain and on the feed conversion ratio of pigs in the growing period and during total fattening (P

  12. Effect of condensed tannins in hulls of faba beans (Vivia faba L.) on the activities of trypsin (EC 2.4.21.4) and chymotrypsin (EC 2.4.21.1) in digesta collected from the small intestine of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Enting, H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of condensed tannins in hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on the activities of trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) in digesta obtained from the small intestine of pigs were studied. Using four castrated male pigs (mean body weight 83 kg) fitted with both a simple

  13. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to

  14. In vitro plant regeneration from Turkish Narbon Vetch ( Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an important forage species among vetches of central Europe, Mediterranean, Near East, Ethiopia, central Asia and India. The study reports in vitro micropropagation of narbon vetch using cotyledon node, shoot tip and zygotic embryo explants on MS medium containing 0.25, 0.50, ...

  15. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eLink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina.

  16. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant differences in CP degra- dability between fababean and lupin seed were observed, while. DM degradability was significantly (P •••0.05) higher for lupin seed at the low outflow rate, but significantly (P •••0.05) lower for lupin seed at the high outflow rate. Several other researchers (Cronje, 1983; Freer & Dove, ...

  17. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemiese samestelling van fababoon- en lupiensaad en stoppel is bepaal. Skape op beide stoppellande het toegeneem in liggaams- massa (P ~ 0.01) oor die eerste 35 dae van beweiding, waama skape op beide weidings se gemiddelde liggaamsmassa afgeneem het. Die gemiddelde liggaamsmassa van die hamels het ...

  18. An evaluation of fababean ( Vicia faba ) and lupin ( Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die eksperiment is uitgevoer om fababoon- en soetlupien-oesreste as somerweiding vir jong Merinohamels te vergelyk. Die droë materiaal (DM)- en ruproteïen (RP)-degradeelbaarheid sowel as die chemiese samestelling van fababoon- en lupiensaad en stoppel is bepaal. Skape op beide stoppellande het toegeneem in ...

  19. Intercropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... Details of field and soil characteristics and meteoro- logical data of experimental site are given in Tables 1 and 2. Experimental design. The treatments were compared in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Five treatments were included in the experiment as showed in Table 3.

  20. Intercropping of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and bean ( Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications. The results show that intercropping systems had a significant effect on environmental resources consumption, where intercropping systems had more light interception and water, and nutrient uptake compared to sole crops, ...

  1. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

    OpenAIRE

    Imma Turco; Tiziana Bacchetti; Cecilia Bender; Ganiyu Oboh; Benno Zimmermann; Gianna Ferretti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF) bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS) pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two...

  2. Faba bean forisomes can function in defence against generalist aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, Gregory P

    2015-06-01

    Phloem sieve elements have shut-off mechanisms that prevent loss of nutrient-rich phloem sap when the phloem is damaged. Some phloem proteins such as the proteins that form forisomes in legume sieve elements are one such mechanism and in response to damage, they instantly form occlusions that stop the flow of sap. It has long been hypothesized that one function of phloem proteins is defence against phloem sap-feeding insects such as aphids. This study provides the first experimental evidence that aphid feeding can induce phloem protein occlusion and that the aphid-induced occlusions inhibit phloem sap ingestion. The great majority of phloem penetrations in Vicia faba by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae triggered forisome occlusion and the aphids eventually withdrew their stylets without ingesting phloem sap. This contrasts starkly with a previous study on the legume-specialist aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, where penetration of faba bean sieve elements did not trigger forisome occlusion and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap. Next, forisome occlusion was demonstrated to be the cause of failed phloem ingestion attempts by M. persicae: when occlusion was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker lanthanum, M. persicae readily ingested faba bean phloem sap. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l l threed ietsw eree valuatedin a growth trial using l0 pigs( flveb oarsa ndf lve gilts)o vert heg rowthi nterval3 0-90 kg. The experimentadle signw asa 3 (diets)x 2 (sex)f 'actorialC. arcassc haracteristicwse red etermineda t thee ndo f theg rowtht rial.P igsi n the metabolisrna ndN balance trial consurned5 % less( P < 0.01)o ...

  4. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    predicted that traditional sources of protein for livestock will become increasingly scarce because of the need to feed a progressively larger human population that will compete with an expanding intensive livestock industry that is being forced to exclude animal protein sources in animal feeds. As a result, a considerable.

  5. Nutritional evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) nutrient requirements of weaner pigs. Diluting full-fat soya with ..... Of interest was whether a significant trend in performance would be evident as a result of the .... supplement for swine. Can. J. Anim.

  6. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  7. Influence of Growth Stage and Leaf Age on Expression of the Components of Partial Resistance of Faba Bean to Botrytis fabae Sard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bouhassan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In detached leaf tests on faba bean (Vicia faba L., genotypes partially resistant and susceptible to Botrytis fabae were examined. Expression of four components of partial resistance to a virulent isolate of B. fabae differed depending on the plant age and the leaf age of the genotypes. The incubation period of resistant genotypes at the podding stage was longer than that of susceptible genotypes at the same stage. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC of the lesion size increased from the seedling to the flowering stage but declined at the podding stage in all genotypes. Differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes for lesion size were significant except on old leaves from plants at the podding stage. The latent period decreased, and spore production increased with increasing growth and leaf age but there was significant interaction with the genotype. These last two components of partial resistance were more clearly expressed at all growth stages on FRY167 (highly resistant but were expressed only at the seedling and podding stages on FRY7 (resistant. The resistant line BPL710 was not significantly different from the susceptible genotypes for the latent period at any growth stage, and for spore production at the seedling and flowering stages. Leaf age affected all genotypes, but with a significant interaction between leaf age and growth stage. Components of partial resistance were more strongly expressed on young leaves from plants at the seedling or flowering stage.

  8. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity among faba bean genotypes using agro-morphological and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Megahed H; Alghamdi, Salem S; Migdadi, Hussein M; Khan, Muhammad A; El-Harty, Ehab H; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A

    2015-05-01

    Forty faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were evaluated for their agro-morphological performance and molecular diversity under Central Region of Saudi Arabia conditions during 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons. Field performance results showed that faba genotypes exhibited a significant amount of variation for their agro-morphological studied parameters. Giza40 recorded the tallest genotype (139.5 cm), highest number of seeds per plants (100.8), and the highest seed yield per plant (70.8 g). The best performing genotypes were Giza40, FLIP03-014FB, Gazira1 and Goff1. Genetic variability among genotypes was determined using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 183 amplified fragments (alleles) and 1758 polymorphic fragments (bands) in SRAP and 202 alleles and 716 bands in AFLP were obtained using six SRAP and four AFLP primer combinations respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for AFLP and SRAP markers were higher than 0.8, indicating the existence of a considerable amount of genetic diversity among faba tested genotypes. The UPGMA based clustering of faba genotypes was largely based on origin and/or genetic background. Result of cluster analysis based on SRAP showed weak and not significant correlation while, it was highly significant based on AFLP analysis with agro-morphological characters (r = 0.01, p > 0.54 and r = 0.26, p < 0.004 respectively). Combined SRAP and AFLP markers proved to be significantly useful for genetic diversity assessment at molecular level. They exhibited high discrimination power, and were able to distinguish the faba bean genotypes with high efficiency and accuracy levels.

  10. Faba bean drought responsive gene identification and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Megahed H; Khan, Altaf M; Migdadi, Hussein M; Abdelkhalek, Samah M; Alghamdi, Salem S

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2) using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH). A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448). A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in Vicia faba reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments.

  11. Faba bean drought responsive gene identification and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed H. Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2 using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH. A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448. A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in Vicia faba reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments.

  12. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-05-20

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5-6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity.

  13. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Turco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two fold higher compared to that of DWS pasta. A higher total flavonoid content, higher antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was also observed in VF pasta. The comparison of post-prandial increase of glucose after VF intake or DWS demonstrated significant differences and VF pasta exhibited a lower glycemic index value, a lower glycemic load and higher glycemic profile compared with DWS pasta. Conclusion: The results suggest that enrichment with 35% Vicia faba bean has potential health benefits and that VF flour can be used as an ingredient to prepare added-value products.

  14. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  15. Faba bean in microspore culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hautsalo, Juho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop functional method for producing doupled-haploid plants for faba bean. Microspore culture is an advanced method to produce doubled-haploids and it is based on the totipotent nature of plant cells, since even a microspore, which is an immature pollen cell with haploid genome, can develop into a plant. This plant is either haploid or doupled haploid depending on whether there has been chromosome doubling or not and because the chromosomes either do not ...

  16. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona S; Bukhari, Najat A

    2015-05-05

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant-1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant-1, area leaf-1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes "C5" and "Zafar 1" were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype "C5" and "Zafar 1" were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes "G853" and "C4" were sensitive to drought stress.

  17. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  18. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential.

  19. Characterization of a novel curled-cotyledons mutant in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    mutant, the embryo sac becomes smaller and bulbous, and ultrastructure of developing cotyledons exhibits ... has higher protein and oil content, and has altered seed ultrastructure. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the features of soybean curled-cotyledons ..... mitochondria of soybean seedling cotyledons.

  20. Cotyledon persistence and seedling growth in fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photosynthetic activity of exposed cotyledons of Telfairia occidentalis during seed germination and the growth of seedlings with removed or attached cotyledons were investigated. The experiment investigated how early cotyledon removal affects seedling growth. Seedlings from seeds germinated in light and those ...

  1. Sporoderm infrastructural and cytochemical modifications in cytoplasmic male sterile broad-bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Audran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of mature sporoderms of sterile and fertile pollen grains was performed using electron microscopic techniques. In sterile pollen grains, intine is lacking; ectexine sculpture is reduced and tectum is overlaid by membranous systems. Infratectal texture is compact and a sporopollenin granulous mass is obturing the aperture central region. Endexine reacts with proteins and acidic carbohydrates tests.

  2. ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY STRESS ON Vicia faba L. PLANTS VIA SEED PRIMING WITH MELATONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Gergis DAWOOD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La melatonina es una molécula ambientalmente amigable con una potente capacidad antioxidante y de trampa de radicales libres. Dos experimentos en materas fueron realizados en dos inviernos consecutivos (2011/2012 y 2012/2013 en instalaciones del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones, Dokki, Cairo, Egipto, para estudiar el potencial de la melatonina (100 mM and 500 mM para disminuir los efectos nocivos del agua de mar diluida a concentraciones relativamente bajas y altas (3,85 dS/m and 7,69 dS/m, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que la irrigación de plantas de haba con agua de mar diluida reduce los parámetros de crecimiento (altura de la planta, número de hojas/planta, peso fresco y seco de la planta, el contenido relativo de agua (RWC, los pigmentos fotosintéticos (clorofilas a, b y carotenoides, el ácido indo lacético, los carbohidratos totales, K+, Ca+2, al igual que las relaciones K+/Na+ y Ca2+/Na+. Esto fue acompañado por un incremento significativo en el contenido de fenoles, solutos compatibles (carbohidratos solubles totales, aminoácidos libres, prolina, Na+ y Cl- en comparación con las plantas control (plantas no tratadas. De otro lado, los tratamientos con melatonina mejoraron los parámetros de crecimiento, RWC, los pigmentos fotosintéticos, carbohidratos totales, contenido fenólico total, ácido indo acético, K+,Ca+2 al igual que las relaciones K+/Na+ y Ca+2/ Na+ , tanto en las plantas irrigadas con agua dulce de la llave como en las irrigadas con agua de mar diluida en comparación con los controles correspondientes. De otro lado, los tratamientos con melatonina redujeron los niveles de solutos compatibles, al igual que los contenidos de Na+ y Cl-, en comparación con los controles. El estrés por salinidad y/o los tratamientos con melatonina indujeron la producción de nuevas bandas de proteínas que no estuvieron presentes en las plantas control. El tratamiento de melatonina 500 mM tuvo un efecto más pronunciado que el tratamiento de 100 mM en disminuir los efectos adversos de los dos niveles de salinidad estudiados sobre el comportamiento de las plantas de haba.

  3. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M.S. Abdul Qados

    2011-01-01

    An increase was observed in the protein content in the two measurement periods due to the impact of salinity stress. A directly proportional relationship was found between protein content and the increase in salt concentrations in the first measurement period, while it was inversely proportional in the second.

  4. Acumulación de arsénico en el cultivo de habas (Vicia Faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Prieto García; Judith Callejas Hernández; Alma D. Román Gutiérrez; Judith Prieto Méndez; Alberto J. Gordillo Martínez; María A. Méndez Marzo

    2007-01-01

    La presencia de arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, en el estado de Hidalgo, México, causa que los cultivos de haba presenten concentraciones apreciables de dicho elemento. Los suelos evaluados presentaron texturas, conductividad, contenidos de N y de arsénico diferentes, pero resultados similares en pH, potencial redox, y contenido de materia orgánica. La elevada bioacumulación de arsénico en estos suelos fue directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. Las concentraciones de arséni...

  5. Asociacion Thysanoptera -Vicia faba en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamar, Maria Ines; Neder de Roman, Lilia Estela

    2012-01-01

    .... Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanopteros antofilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecologicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociacion...

  6. Acumulación de arsénico en el cultivo de habas (Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, en el estado de Hidalgo, México, causa que los cultivos de haba presenten concentraciones apreciables de dicho elemento. Los suelos evaluados presentaron texturas, conductividad, contenidos de N y de arsénico diferentes, pero resultados similares en pH, potencial redox, y contenido de materia orgánica. La elevada bioacumulación de arsénico en estos suelos fue directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. Las concentraciones de arsénico acumuladas más altas se obtuvieron en la raíz, el tallo, y las hojas, respectivamente. Concentraciones de 4 mg l-1, fueron letales para el cultivo; el fenómeno se apreció a partir de la etapa III de desarrollo, con la aparición de daños en las raíces y un fuerte efecto en la floración, que inhibió la formación de vainas.

  7. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2017-08-01

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Pbean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  8. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  9. Genetic characterization and cotyledon color in lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit Erdoğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic characterization of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. cultivars is important for lentil breeding. Therefore, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis were carried out to evaluate genetic diversity in 13 Turkish lentil cultivars. A total of eight RAPD primers were used in this study; 61 bands were produced and 55 of them were polymorphic (89.78%. The RAPD primers OPA-10, OPB-11, and OPI-13 had the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. As a result of SDS-PAGE analysis, variations in the seed protein pattern were observed among the lentil cultivars being studied. The SDS-PAGE similarity matrices indicated higher genetic similarity estimates among the lentil cultivars than RAPD. In addition, principal components analysis (PCA was performed for both SDS-PAGE and RAPD where the first three components accounted for 75.760% and 68.121% of the total variation for SDS-PAGE and RAPD analysis, respectively. It was noted that the lentil cultivars with factor loadings greater than 0.5 for each principal component (PC were also grouped together in the SDS-PAGE and RAPD dendrogram. In addition to genetic diversity, cotyledon color (an important market criterion values were measured for lightness (L*, redness (a*, and yellowness (b*. As for cotyledon color, values for brightness, redness, and yellowness varied significantly among lentil cultivars. Among the red lentil cultivars, 'Cagil' and 'Yerli Kirmizi' had the highest cotyledon L* values of 70.83 and 70.74, respectively. The results of both genetic diversity analyses and cotyledon color of lentil cultivars would help in planning future breeding programs to improve high yielding marketable lentil cultivars.

  10. Oxidation of an organosulfur xenobiotic by microsomes from soybean cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, E; Durst, F

    1986-03-28

    Methiocarb, an aromatic-alkyl sulfide insecticide was enzymatically oxidized into its sulfoxide by microsomes from soybean cotyledons. No further oxidation into sulfone was detected. Distribution of the sulfoxidase activity was studied in soybean seedlings and found maximal in cotyledons. Subcellular fractionation of cotyledons homogenates indicated that the activity was almost entirely associated with the microsomal fraction. Sulfoxidation of methiocarb did not require cofactors such as NAD(P)H. Nevertheless, the sulfoxidase did not act as a peroxidase.

  11. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzer H. Siddiqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853 under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i normal irrigation (ii mild stress (iii moderate stress, and (iv severe stress on plant height (PH plant−1, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC, proline (Pro content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl content, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and activities of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD, and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress.

  12. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress effect. One of these compounds is nicotinamide. The effect of exogenously application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 and 400 mg/l on Vicia faba L. plant against different NaCl treatments (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated at the wire house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Salinity stress reduced significantly plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot, seed yield, total carbohydrates & total crude protein of the yielded seeds compared with those of the control plants. In contrast, salinity induced marked increases in sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, proline, lipid peroxidation product (MDA and some oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Also, salinity stress increased Na+ contents with the decreases of other macro and micro elements contents (P, K+, Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ of shoots and the yielded seeds of faba bean. Foliar spraying of nicotinamide alleviated the adverse effects of salinity stress through increased plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot and seed yield as well as, sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline, compared with those of the corresponding salinity levels, while decreased lipid peroxidation product as MDA and the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of P, K+ , Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ contents in the shoots of salt stressed plants and enhanced total carbohydrate and total crude protein percentage and solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants. 

  13. Plant regeneration system from cotyledons-derived calluses cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to successfully establish plant regeneration system with cotyledons of Stylosanthes guianensis Sw. cv. 'Reyan 2' as explants. In this study, the following results were obtained; (1) the highest rates of callus induction on medium MS with 3.0 mg L-1 2, 4-D with cotyledons as explants were 74%.

  14. Regeneration of plants from Fraxinus americana hypocotyls and cotyledons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitlin J. Palla; Paula M. Pijut

    2011-01-01

    A plant regeneration protocol was developed for white ash (Fraxinus americana L.). Hypocotyls and cotyledons excised from embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS)mediumsupplementedwith 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) plus thidiazuron (TDZ), and compared for organogenic potential. Sixty-six percent of hypocotyl segments and 10.4% of cotyledon...

  15. Characterization of a novel curled-cotyledons mutant in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... some organelles degradation, and membranous multilamellar appear at different stages. Protein and amino acid contents in seeds of mutant are higher than those of the wild type, especially methionine and cysteine. These results suggest that the curled-cotyledons mutant is a novel cotyledon development mutant, which ...

  16. ( Vicia peregrina ) seed as protein source for mirror carp ( Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 80-day feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system aquarium operating at 26 ± 0.3 °C, to evaluate the nutritive value of Vicia peregrina seed as a possible protein source in the diet of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Vicia peregrina seed was included in the diets at different levels, viz. 100, 200, 300 g ...

  17. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  18. Interaction between faba bean cultivars and the Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of eight Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from root nodules of Faba bean plants which were collected from different Governorate in Egypt has been examined. After inoculation of faba bean seeds with each Rhizobium strain individually, we measured the growth promotion, nodule formation and plant ...

  19. Mutations of Arabidopsis thaliana that transform leaves into cotyledons

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Laura J.; Poethig, R. Scott

    1997-01-01

    We describe mutations of three genes in Arabidopsis thaliana—extra cotyledon1 (xtc1), extra cotyledon2 (xtc2), and altered meristem programming1 (amp1)—that transform leaves into cotyledons. In all three of these mutations, this transformation is associated with a change in the timing of events in embryogenesis. xtc1 and xtc2 delay the morphogenesis of the embryo proper at the globular-to-heart transition but permit the shoot apex to develop to an unusually advanced stage late in embryogenesi...

  20. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  1. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  2. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Milena; Gospodarek, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg-1 and 18 g kg-1). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. After six weeks from soil contamination and five weeks from sowing the seeds, observations of the effect of petroleum-derived substances on traits of three successive generations of aphids were conducted. Aphids were inoculated separately on leaves using cylindrical cages hermetically closed on both sides. Contamination of aphid occurred through its host plant. Results showed that all tested substances adversely affected A. fabae life history traits and population dynamics: extension of the prereproductive period, reduction of fecundity and life span, reduction of the population intrinsic growth rate. In broad bean, leaf, roots, and shoot growth was also impaired in most conditions, whereas nutrient and heavy metal content varied according to substances, their concentration, as well as plant part analysed. Results indicate that soil contamination with petroleum-derived substances entails far-reaching changes not only in organisms directly exposed to these pollutants (plants), but also indirectly in herbivores (aphids) and consequently provides information about potential negative effects on further links of the food chain, i.e., for predators and parasitoids.

  3. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing cotton cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xiaochun; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei; Singh, Surinder P; Liu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    As a by product of higher value cotton fibre, cotton seed has been increasingly recognised to have excellent potential as a source of additional food, feed, biofuel stock and even a renewable platform for the production of many diverse biological molecules for agriculture and industrial enterprises. The large size difference between cotyledon and embryo axis that make up a cotton seed results in the under-representation of embryo axis gene transcript levels in whole seed embryo samples. Therefore, the determination of gene transcript levels in the cotyledons and embryo axes separately should lead to a better understanding of metabolism in these two developmentally diverse tissues. A comparative study of transcriptome changes between cotton developing cotyledon and embryo axis has been carried out. 17,384 unigenes (20.74% of all the unigenes) were differentially expressed in the two adjacent embryo tissues, and among them, 7,727 unigenes (44.45%) were down-regulated and 9,657 unigenes (55.55%) were up-regulated in cotyledon. Our study has provided a comprehensive dataset that documents the dynamics of the transcriptome at the mid-maturity of cotton seed development and in discrete seed tissues, including embryo axis and cotyledon tissues. The results showed that cotton seed is subject to many transcriptome variations in these two tissue types and the differential gene expression between cotton embryo axis and cotyledon uncovered in our study should provide an important starting point for understanding how gene activity is coordinated during seed development to make a seed. Further, the identification of genes involved in rapid metabolite accumulation stage of seed development will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in these developmental processes and provide a foundation for future studies on the metabolism, embryo differentiation of cotton and other dicot oilseed crops.

  4. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing cotton cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a by product of higher value cotton fibre, cotton seed has been increasingly recognised to have excellent potential as a source of additional food, feed, biofuel stock and even a renewable platform for the production of many diverse biological molecules for agriculture and industrial enterprises. The large size difference between cotyledon and embryo axis that make up a cotton seed results in the under-representation of embryo axis gene transcript levels in whole seed embryo samples. Therefore, the determination of gene transcript levels in the cotyledons and embryo axes separately should lead to a better understanding of metabolism in these two developmentally diverse tissues. RESULTS: A comparative study of transcriptome changes between cotton developing cotyledon and embryo axis has been carried out. 17,384 unigenes (20.74% of all the unigenes were differentially expressed in the two adjacent embryo tissues, and among them, 7,727 unigenes (44.45% were down-regulated and 9,657 unigenes (55.55% were up-regulated in cotyledon. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided a comprehensive dataset that documents the dynamics of the transcriptome at the mid-maturity of cotton seed development and in discrete seed tissues, including embryo axis and cotyledon tissues. The results showed that cotton seed is subject to many transcriptome variations in these two tissue types and the differential gene expression between cotton embryo axis and cotyledon uncovered in our study should provide an important starting point for understanding how gene activity is coordinated during seed development to make a seed. Further, the identification of genes involved in rapid metabolite accumulation stage of seed development will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in these developmental processes and provide a foundation for future studies on the metabolism, embryo differentiation of cotton and other dicot oilseed crops.

  5. Implication du stress oxydatif dans la toxicité du plomb sur une plante modèle, Vicia faba

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Le plomb est un des métaux les plus utilisés par l'Homme mais c'est aussi l'un des plus toxiques. Dans les écosystèmes, la teneur en plomb d'origine anthropique n'a cessé d'augmenter depuis plusieurs siècles. Dans plusieurs régions en France, le plomb pose actuellement des problèmes importants en matière de contamination de l'environnement. Les plantes, du fait de leur immobilité, sont particulièrement exposées. De nombreuses études ont déjà évalué la toxicité de ce métal sur les végétaux, ma...

  6. Utilización de harina de haba (vicia faba l.) en la elaboración de pan

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Espinoza, Ma. Del Carmen; Vásquez Arreaga, María N.; Cornejo Zuñiga, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    En nuestro país, se han venido desarrollando investigaciones que permiten reemplazar parcialmente la harina de trigo por harinas no tradicionales, con el fin de reducir costos. En el presente trabajo se pretende conocer la influencia del uso de harinas no tradicionales (harina de haba) en la retro degradación del pan. Se comenzó con una caracterización de los aspectos físicos y químicos más importantes de la materia prima; color, olor, estado de madurez, humedad, pH, acidez y actividad de ...

  7. Preparación y determinación de propiedades funcionales de Concentrados proteicos de haba (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Modercay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con cl propósito de obtener concentrados proteicos de haba, que eventualmente puedan ser empleados en la elaboración de alimentos para consumo humano, se establecieron a nivel de laboratorio, las condiciones para la extracción de las proteínas a partir de harina de haba baja en tegumento. Los resultados muestran que se obtiene un concentrado con más de 60% de proteína bruta en base seca, al suspender la harina de haba en agua en unarclaci'on I:6apH 8 manteniendo el sistema con agitación constante durante 0.5 hora a 40 °C y posteriormente acidificando el sobrenadante con HCl IN hasta pH 5.5. El método más aconsejable para el proceso de secado, es cl de rodillos de acuerdo con las características químicas, físicas y funcionales del producto.

  8. PREPARACIÓN DE PELÍCULAS PARA ALIMENTOS A PARTIR DE CONCENTRADOS PROTEICOS DE HABA (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Rozo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se planeó con el objeto de evaluar la factibilidad de utilizar concentrados proteicos de haba en la preparación de películas para recubrir alimentos, utilizando como patrón de comparación películas preparadas con albúmina fresca de huevo.Los resultados muestran que utilizando concentrados proteicos de haba sin deshidratar, en suspensiones que contengan 5 g de proteína por 100 g de agua, y adicionando glicerol como agente plastificante,se pueden obtener películas cuyas características de permeabilidad alvapor de agua, solubilidad y contenido de agua dependen de las condiciones de secado del material.

  9. Occurrence of broad bean (Vicia faba L. diseases in Olsztyn-Elbąg and Bydgoszcz Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sadowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1981-1985, there were conducted studies of the healthiness of broad bean,'Nadwiślański' variety, cultivated in different soil and climate conditions of the two regions: i.e. Bydgoszcz - comparatively warmer and drier, and Olsztyn-Elbląg - colder and moister. It was found that the main reason for a premature broad bean leaves dry in up in the Olsztyn-Elbląg Region was caused by the fungi Cercospora and Botrytis, and in the Bydgoszcz Region - the root rot which occurs here to a greater extent. Root gangrene was greater intensity in drier and lighter soils. Rotting broad bean roots were most frequently occupied by the fungi of the Fusarium family (ca. 70%. The prevailing species were Fusarium oxysporum, next F. solani and more rarely F. culmorum and F. avenaceum. Climate conditions and soil species affected considerably the species composition of the root fungi.

  10. Produção e qualidade proteica da fava (Vicia faba), ervilha (Pisum sativum) e triticale (x Triticosecale)

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjeira, Sara Silva

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica As restrições económicas e ambientais de fertilizantes azotados minerais utilizados na produção de gramíneas conferem um papel de relevo ao cultivo de leguminosas com incorporação dos seus resíduos no solo como fonte de azoto para as culturas principais da rotação. A reduzida investigação em Portugal sobre a utilização de espécies leguminosas em condições mediterrânicas como fonte de azoto, conduziu-nos ao presente estudo realizado no campus...

  11. Regeneration of plants from Fraxinus pennsylvanica hypocotyls and cotyledons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningxia Du; Paula M. Pijut

    2008-01-01

    An adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting protocol was developed for green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) seedling explants. The best regeneration medium for freshly isolated hypocotyls and cotyledons was Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with 13.3 µM6-benzylaminopurine (BA) plus 4.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ), and 22.2 µM...

  12. Induction of callus and somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the potential for in vitro rapid regeneration of Parkia biglobosa, an endangered multipurpose woody angiosperm, cotyledon explants obtained from 7-day old aseptically germinated seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.4-1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid ...

  13. Ascorbic acid and microbiological analyses of extra - Cotyledonous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid and microbiological analyses of extra - cotyledonous deposits of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherrima) stored at various temperatures were investigated. 2,6 - Dichlorophenolindophenol (dye) solution titration method was used in ascorbic acid determination while Nutrient and Sabouraud agar were ...

  14. Surface sterilant effect on the regeneration efficiency from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface sterilant effect on the regeneration efficiency from cotyledon explants of groundnut ( Arachis hypogea L. ) varieties adapted to eastern and Southern Africa. ... chloride was less harmful than sodium hypochlorite. This study established a basis for genetic engineering activities on African groundnuts in the future.

  15. Desinfección de semilla de faba granja asturiana

    OpenAIRE

    González, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluaron diferentes tratamientos desinfectantes sobre semillas de faba granja asturiana tanto en laboratorio como en campo, con el fin de seleccionar los más eficaces. Los resultados nos llevan a proponer el tratamiento con tiram, a la dosis de 1,5 gramos de producto por kilogramo de semilla, como el antifúngico más adecuado. Different disinfection treatments were assessed on Asturian white beans (faba de la granja variety) both in the laboratory and in the field with the aim of select...

  16. Inhibition of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols breakdown delays germination of winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beside RFOs, which are commonly present in legume seeds, seeds of some species contain galactosyl pinitols (GPs. These carbohydrates, like RFOs, have been hypothesized to constitute an important energy and carbon skeletal source during germination. To test this hypothesis we have applied a specific α-galactosidase inhibitor (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, DGJ to germinating winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seeds, containing more galactosyl pinitols than RFOs. The breakdown of RFOs but not that of GPs was completely blocked in both embryonic axes and cotyledons tissues, during the first 18 h of imbibition in DGJ. The inhibitor only decreased the rate of GPs degradation. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on GPs degradation was partially alleviated by addition of sucrose or galactose to DGJ solutions. After three days of germination in water, RFOs and GPs disappeared in axial tissues of seeds imbibed in water, galactose or sucrose. Eighteen-hour imbibition of seeds in DGJ drastically reduced germination, by ca 50%, during the first three days. The inhibitory effect of DGJ decreased during the next seven days of germination. The presence of galactose or sucrose in imbibition solution initially stimulated seed germination, but later this effect was not statistically significant. Our study provides clear evidence that galactosyl pinitols play an important role in early winter vetch seeds germination. Additionally, we suggest that galactosyl pinitols can replace RFOs as reserve material necessary for early germination.

  17. In vitro plant regeneration from Turkish Narbon Vetch (Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... containing peat moss and acclimatized in the greenhouse. Acclimatization was done by covering pots with polyethylene bags to maintain initial humidity for 1 .... Vicia L. In Davis PH (Ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. 3: 274-325. Diallo MS, Ndiaye A, ...

  18. In vitro plant regeneration from Narbon Vetch ( Vicia narbonensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an agriculturally important forage plant that widely grows in an area extending from Central Europe to various parts of Asia. The study reports axillary shoot regeneration from cotyledonary node explants obtained from, in vitro raised seeds of 4 - 5 and 14 - 15 days old seedlings on MS ...

  19. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch ( Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch (Vicia sativa) and some browse and grass species from northern Ethiopia were investigated. Vetch (fresh cut) was sampled in September and vetch hay samples were taken in October both during the early dry period. Samples of the browse and grass species were ...

  20. Grain Yield and Economic Benefit of Intercropping Barley and Faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers in the highland areas of southern Ethiopia own less cultivable land. Barley and faba bean are important crops in the southern highlands of Ethiopia. However, rapid population growth in the region, which has led to scarcity of cultivable land, is threatening cultivation of these crops. Therefore, farmers often resort to ...

  1. Physiological effects of cotyledons on gibberellin-induced cucumber hypocotyl elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki, Katsumi; Noriko, KAWAMURA; Biology Department, International Christian University

    1980-01-01

    The cotyledon requirement for gibberellin-induced hypocotyl elongation of light-grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Aonaga-jibae) seedlings was studied. Gibberellin A_7 was used. At the saturation dosage, gibberellin-induced elongation was roughly proportional to the amount of the cotyledon retained. The cotyledon dependence of gibberellin-induced elongation was most marked when decotylization was done at the time of gibberellin treatment or at 24 hr after it. However, when the time of dec...

  2. Amylolytic treatment on faba bean for producing emulsions and emulsion gels

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanarayanan, Tilak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to investigate the effect of carbohydrates on solubility, emulsifying, gelling and water holding properties of proteins. Faba bean is a readily available pulse crop with high protein content similar to soy bean and there is a lot of potential for a novel, high protein fermented gel product to be made from a pulse crop like faba bean. This is mainly due to its remarkable nutritional properties, functional properties and low cost, the demand for faba bean protein...

  3. Snowy cotyledon 2: the identification of a zinc finger domain protein essential for chloroplast development in cotyledons but not in true leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Verónica; Ingenfeld, Anke; Apel, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    In cotyledons of etiolated seedlings light-dependent transformation of etioplasts to chloroplasts marks the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. Genetic factors required for this developmental step were identified by isolating mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that were impaired in chloroplast development in cotyledons but not in true leaves. Several mutants with chlorophyll-deficient cotyledons were isolated and dubbed snowy cotyledon (sco). Here we describe the identification and detailed characterization of the snowy cotyledon 2 mutant. The mutated SCO2 gene was identified using a map-based cloning strategy. SCO2 was shown to encode a novel protein which contains a single DnaJ-like zinc finger domain. The SCO2 protein fused to GFP was shown to be present in chloroplasts. Inactivation of SCO2 has almost no detectable impact on the levels of transcripts encoding plastid-specific proteins but leads to a significant reduction of plastid protein levels. Even though transcripts of SCO2 have been found ubiquitously in green tissues as well as in roots phenotypic changes due to SCO2 inactivation are confined to cotyledons. The cotyledons in embryos of sco2 are unaffected in their chloroplast biogenesis. Upon precocious germination seedlings of sco2 and wild type are indistinguishable. The SCO2 mutation affects chloroplast biogenesis only at the end of dormancy during seed germination. The transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth is dramatically impaired in sco2 when seedlings were kept in the dark for more than 5 days prior to light exposure.

  4. Developmental profiling of gene expression in soybean trifoliate leaves and cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anne V; Hudson, Karen A

    2015-07-03

    Immediately following germination, the developing soybean seedling relies on the nutrient reserves stored in the cotyledons to sustain heterotrophic growth. During the seed filling period, developing seeds rely on the transport of nutrients from the trifoliate leaves. In soybean, both cotyledons and leaves develop the capacity for photosynthesis, and subsequently senesce and abscise once their function has ended. Before this occurs, the nutrients they contain are mobilized and transported to other parts of the plant. These processes are carefully orchestrated by genetic regulation throughout the development of the leaf or cotyledon. To identify genes involved in the processes of leaf or cotyledon development and senescence in soybean, we used RNA-seq to profile multiple stages of cotyledon and leaf tissues. Differentially expressed genes between stages of leaf or cotyledon development were determined, major patterns of gene expression were defined, and shared genes were identified. Over 38,000 transcripts were expressed during the course of leaf and cotyledon development. Of those transcripts, 5,000 were expressed in a tissue specific pattern. Of the genes that were differentially expressed between both later stage tissues, 90 % had the same direction of change, suggesting that the mechanisms of senescence are conserved between tissues. Analysis of the enrichment of biological functions within genes sharing common expression profiles highlights the main processes occurring within these defined temporal windows of leaf and cotyledon development. Over 1,000 genes were identified with predicted regulatory functions that may have a role in control of leaf or cotyledon senescence. The process of leaf and cotyledon development can be divided into distinct stages characterized by the expression of specific gene sets. The importance of the WRKY, NAC, and GRAS family transcription factors as major regulators of plant senescence is confirmed for both soybean leaf and

  5. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  6. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  7. Some Anti-Nutritional and Mineral Contents of Extra-Cotyledonous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The edible extra-cotyledonous deposit of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherrima) was investigated for some minerals and antinutritional factors. Results obtained showed that while phytohaemagglutinin was absent, vanadium was very low in the extra-cotyledons of this legume. However, oxalate, trypsin inhibitor, ...

  8. Fermentation characteristics of polysaccharide fractions extracted from the cell walls of soya bean cotyledons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schols, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full-fat soya beans were separated into hulls and cotyledons. After separation the cell wall fraction was extracted from the cotyledons. These purified cell walls were sequentially extracted with 0.05 M cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine-N,N,N ,N -tetraacetate (CDTA) 0.05 M NH4 oxalate (extract 1), 0.05

  9. Systemic Collyriclum faba (Trematoda: Collyriclidae) Infection in a Wild Common Raven ( Corvus corax ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Aslı; Rogers, Krysta; Houston, Robin

    2017-01-01

    A hatch-year Common Raven ( Corvus corax ) with subcutaneous and internal pseudocysts, filled with fluid, containing a pair of adult trematodes and numerous eggs consistent with Collyriclum faba, died near a riverbank in California, US. While C. faba is incidental in many Passeriformes, this case was a fatal systemic infection.

  10. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  11. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity.

  12. Bioactive compounds in Mexican genotypes of cocoa cotyledon and husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Carolina; Viera-Alcaide, Isabel; Morales-Sillero, Ana María; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    A characterization of the phenolic profile of 25 cocoa genotypes established in a Mexican gene bank was carried out. From five different extraction methods commonly used for phenols, extraction with acidified methanol-water was chosen as the best to quantify the concentrations of theobromine and individual phenols in cocoa beans. High concentrations of individual and total phenols were found for genotypes native to Mexico (like RIM105, M031, and M033) or from Peru and Ecuador (INI10), but not the commercial mix (CAF), and were directly associated with their antioxidant activities. Despite the loss of some theobromine and phenols during fermentation, epicatechin remained in the fermented cotyledon in high concentrations. This study could help promote the commercialization of Mexican genotypes of cocoa and reports the possibility of upcycling fermented cocoa husks, which are rich in bioactive compounds and fiber, as novel functional extracts for use in food formulation or for nutraceutical purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Basic Endochitinases Are Major Proteins in Castanea sativa Cotyledons 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collada, Carmen; Casado, Rosa; Fraile, Aurora; Aragoncillo, Cipriano

    1992-01-01

    Basic endochitinases are abundant proteins in Castanea sativa Mill. cotyledons. Three basic chitinases were purified with molecular masses of 25, 26, and 32 kD (Ch1, Ch2, and Ch3) and with isoelectric points between 8 and 9.5. Antibodies raised against Ch1 cross-reacted with Ch2 and Ch3. However, Ch3 showed differences when compared with the other two enzymes, especially in its higher cysteine content. The size, amino acid composition, and N-terminal sequence of Ch1 indicate that it is a class II endochitinase and, therefore, has no cysteine-rich hevein domain. Ch1 inhibits the growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride. The biological role of these endochitinases is discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16653058

  14. Proteomic and biochemical analyses of the cotyledon and root of flooding-stressed soybean plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuko Komatsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flooding significantly reduces the growth and grain yield of soybean plants. Proteomic and biochemical techniques were used to determine whether the function of cotyledon and root is altered in soybean under flooding stress. RESULTS: Two-day-old soybean plants were flooded for 2 days, after which the proteins from root and cotyledon were extracted for proteomic analysis. In response to flooding stress, the abundance of 73 and 28 proteins was significantly altered in the root and cotyledon, respectively. The accumulation of only one protein, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70 (Glyma17g08020.1, increased in both organs following flooding. The ratio of protein abundance of HSP70 and biophoton emission in the cotyledon was higher than those detected in the root under flooding stress. Computed tomography and elemental analyses revealed that flooding stress decreases the number of calcium oxalate crystal the cotyledon, indicating calcium ion was elevated in the cotyledon under flooding stress. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that calcium might play one role through HSP70 in the cotyledon under flooding stress.

  15. Uptake and transport of nutrients and transverse cracking of bean cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol W. Duczmal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium, Potassium and Magnesium in cotyledon cell walls were negatively correlated with cultivar susceptibility to transverse cracking of cotyledons (TVC. Plant feeding with calcium only slightly changed the percentage of TVC, and Ca, K and Mg contents in the cotyledon cell walls. Susceptibility to TVC was connected with the causes inherent in the root or shoot. Some disturbances in the displacement of Ca and K through the peduncles and K through the petioles in susceptible cultivars were noticed. These cultivars also immobilized a large quantity of Mg in sterns, and in this connection they actually had less Mg in the fruit walls, seeds, stems and blades than resistant cultivars.

  16. Influence of fermented faba bean flour on the nutritional, technological and sensory quality of fortified pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo G; Verni, Michela; Koivula, Hanna; Montemurro, Marco; Seppa, Laila; Kemell, Marianna; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-02-22

    Faba bean has gained increasing attention from the food industry and the consumers mainly due to the quality of its protein fraction. Fermentation has been recently recognized as the most efficient tool for improving its nutritional and organoleptic properties. In this study, faba bean flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMAB24W was used to fortify semolina pasta. Pasta samples including different percentages of fermented faba bean flour were produced at the pilot-plant level and characterized using an integrated approach for chemical, nutritional, technological, and sensory features. At a substitution level of 30%, pasta had a more homogeneous texture and lower cooking loss compared to 50% addition. The impact of faba bean flour addition on pasta technological functionality, particularly of the protein fraction, was also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and textural profile analysis. Compared to traditional (semolina) pasta and pasta containing unfermented faba bean flour, the nutritional profile (in vitro protein digestibility and nutritional indexes - chemical score (CS), sequence of limiting essential amino acids, Essential Amino Acid Index (EAAI), Biological Value (BV), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), and Nutritional Index (NI)) and the resistant starch content of pasta containing 30% fermented faba bean flour markedly improved, while the starch hydrolysis rate decreased, without negatively affecting technological and sensory features. The use of fermentation technology appears to be a promising tool to enhance the quality of pasta and to promote the use of faba bean flour.

  17. [Effect of wheat and faba bean intercropping on root exudation of low molecular weight organic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing-Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiment of wheat and faba bean intercropping was conducted and exudates from wheat and faba bean roots were collected at different growth stages. Low molecular weight organic acids (OA) in root exudates were examined by HPLC. The results showed that wheat and faba bean intercropping significantly increased the total amounts of OA exuded by roots. At tillering (57 d), booting (120 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in wheat root exudates by 155%, 35.6% and 92.6% respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture wheat (MW). At branching (57 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in faba bean root exudates by 87.4% and 38.7%, respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture faba bean (MF). Wheat and faba bean intercropping changed the types of OA exuded by roots. At tillering stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping wheat (IW), but not in that of MW. At jointing stage (98 d), citric acid was identified in root exudates of IW, but not in that of MW, and acetic acid was vice versa. At branching stage, acetic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping faba bean (IF), but not in that of MF, and lactic acid was vice versa. At filling stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of IF, but not in that of MF. Wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the OA exudation rate of wheat. At booting stage, the exudation rates of citric and fumaric acid from IW were 179 and 184-times as that of from MW, respectively. At filling stage, the exudation rate of lactic acid from IW was 2.53-times as that from MW. In conclusion, wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the rate and total amount, and changed the types of OA exuded by roots.

  18. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  19. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDI T. ABDELHAMID

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Una posible estrategia de supervivencia para plantas que se desarrollan bajo condiciones de salinidad es emplear algunos compuestos que les permitan disminuir el estrés salino. Uno de estos compuestos es la nicotinamida (vitamina B3/ niacina. Se investigó el efecto de la aplicación exógena de nicotinamida en diferentes concentraciones (0, 200 o 400 mg l-1 sobre plantas de haba (Vicia faba L. creciendo a diferentes niveles de NaCl (0, 50 o 100 mM en los terrenos del National Research Centre, Cairo, Egipto. El estrés por salinidad reduce significativamente los contenidos de pigmentos fotosintéticos, polisacáridos, carbohidratos totales, nitrógeno total, peso de las plantas, número de hojas, pesos fresco y seco de tallos, rendimiento de semillas, y contenido de carbohidratos y proteina cruda total en semillas comparado con plantas control. En contraste, la salinidad induce incrementos marcados en sacarosa, azúcares solubles totales, aminoácidos libres totales, prolina, productos de peroxidación de lípidos como el malondialdehido (MDA y algunas enzimas oxidativas (polifenol oxidasa y peroxidasa. También, el estrés por salinidad incrementa el contenido de Na+ y genera disminución de otros macronutrientes y micronutrientes (P, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ y Cu2+ de los tallos y el rendimiento de semillas en plantas de haba. La aspersión foliar de nicotinamida disminuye los efectos adversos del estrés salino incrementando los pigmentos fotosintéticos, polisacáridos, carbohidratos totales, concentración total de nitrógeno en tallos, peso de las plantas, número de hojas, pesos frescos y secos de tallos, y rendimiento de semillas; así como los niveles de sacarosa, azúcares solubles totales, aminoácidos libres totales y prolina, comparado con aquellos correspondientes al estrés por salinidad, mientras disminuyeron los productos de peroxidación de lípidos (MDA y las enzimas oxidativas (polifenol oxidasas y peroxidasas. La

  20. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Climate Change and Phenology: Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Migration and Severity of Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B Baker

    Full Text Available Climate change can benefit individual species, but when pest species are enhanced by warmer temperatures agricultural productivity may be placed at greater risk. We analyzed the effects of temperature anomaly on arrival date and infestation severity of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, a classic new world long distance migrant, and a significant pest in several agricultural crops. We compiled E. fabae arrival dates and infestation severity data at different states in USA from existing literature reviews and agricultural extension records from 1951-2012, and examined the influence of temperature anomalies at each target state or overwintering range on the date of arrival and severity of infestation. Average E. fabae arrival date at different states reveal a clear trend along the south-north axis, with earliest arrival closest to the overwintering range. E. fabae arrival has advanced by 10 days over the last 62 years. E. fabae arrived earlier in warmer years in relation to each target state level temperature anomaly (3.0 days / °C increase in temperature anomaly. Increased temperature had a significant and positive effect on the severity of infestation, and arrival date had a marginal negative effect on severity. These relationships suggest that continued warming could advance the time of E. fabae colonization and increase their impact on affected crops.

  2. Influence of conservation tillage and zero tillage on arable weeds in organic faba bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 on a Gleyic Cambisol near Goettingen, Lower Saxony, Germany. A crop sequence of summer barley, winter cover crops (intercropped oat and sunflower and summer faba bean was examined under organic farming conditions. Emphasis was given to the studying of arable weeds in faba beans. However, enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation of summer faba beans by accumulation of soil-nitrogen by winter cover crops was a second objective in these experiments. The faba bean field plots had been cultivated with three different tillage systems: 1. zero tillage, sowing with cross-slottechnique, 2. conservation tillage (wing share cultivator, rotary harrow sowing with cross-slot-technique and 3. conventional tillage with mouldboard plough followed by rotary harrow, sowing with precision monoseeder. In plots with zero tillage preceding cover crops were left as mulch on the soil surface. Cover crops accumulated adequate nitrogen amounts and following faba beans reacted with significant increase (up to 10% in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Maximum of arable weed biomass was observed in zero tillage-plots at the end of May or early in June. The abundance of the predominant weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis increased with tillage intensity, whereas the abundance of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense increased in 2010 with decreasing tillage intensity. Average grain yield of faba beans was low with only 3.0 and 2.4 t ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  3. Infection by Rhodococcus fascians maintains cotyledons as a sink tissue for the pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Pragatheswari; Song, Jiancheng; Novak, Ondrej; Jameson, Paula E

    2017-03-01

    Pisum sativum L. (pea) seed is a source of carbohydrate and protein for the developing plant. By studying pea seeds inoculated by the cytokinin-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus fascians , we sought to determine the impact of both an epiphytic (avirulent) strain and a pathogenic strain on source-sink activity within the cotyledons during and following germination. Bacterial spread was monitored microscopically, and real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis, degradation and response regulator gene family members, along with expression of family members of SWEET , SUT , CWINV and AAP genes - gene families identified initially in pea by transcriptomic analysis. The endogenous cytokinin content was also determined. The cotyledons infected by the virulent strain remained intact and turned green, while multiple shoots were formed and root growth was reduced. The epiphytic strain had no such marked impact. Isopentenyl adenine was elevated in the cotyledons infected by the virulent strain. Strong expression of RfIPT , RfLOG and RfCKX was detected in the cotyledons infected by the virulent strain throughout the experiment, with elevated expression also observed for PsSWEET , PsSUT and PsINV gene family members. The epiphytic strain had some impact on the expression of these genes, especially at the later stages of reserve mobilization from the cotyledons. The pathogenic strain retained the cotyledons as a sink tissue for the pathogen rather than the cotyledon converting completely to a source tissue for the germinating plant. We suggest that the interaction of cytokinins, CWINVs and SWEETs may lead to the loss of apical dominance and the appearance of multiple shoots.

  4. Intracellular sucrose communicates metabolic demand to sucrose transporters in developing pea cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuchan; Chan, Katie; Wang, Trevor L; Hedley, Cliff L; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2009-01-01

    Mechanistic inter-relationships in sinks between sucrose compartmentation/metabolism and phloem unloading/translocation are poorly understood. Developing grain legume seeds provide tractable experimental systems to explore this question. Metabolic demand by cotyledons is communicated to phloem unloading and ultimately import by sucrose withdrawal from the seed apoplasmic space via a turgor-homeostat mechanism. What is unknown is how metabolic demand is communicated to cotyledon sucrose transporters responsible for withdrawing sucrose from the apoplasmic space. This question was explored here using a pea rugosus mutant (rrRbRb) compromised in starch biosynthesis compared with its wild-type counterpart (RRRbRb). Sucrose influx into cotyledons was found to account for 90% of developmental variations in their absolute growth and hence starch biosynthetic rates. Furthermore, rr and RR cotyledons shared identical response surfaces, indicating that control of transporter activity was likely to be similar for both lines. In this context, sucrose influx was correlated positively with expression of a sucrose/H(+) symporter (PsSUT1) and negatively with two sucrose facilitators (PsSUF1 and PsSUF4). Sucrose influx exhibited a negative curvilinear relationship with cotyledon concentrations of sucrose and hexoses. In contrast, the impact of intracellular sugars on transporter expression was transporter dependent, with expression of PsSUT1 inhibited, PsSUF1 unaffected, and PsSUF4 enhanced by sugars. Sugar supply to, and sugar concentrations of, RR cotyledons were manipulated using in vitro pod and cotyledon culture. Collectively the results obtained showed that intracellular sucrose was the physiologically active sugar signal that communicated metabolic demand to sucrose influx and this transport function was primarily determined by PsSUT1 regulated at the transcriptional level.

  5. Effect of soaking, germination, autoclaving and cooking on chemical and biological value of guar compared with faba bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M M

    2001-08-01

    Raw, soaked, germinated, autoclaved and cooked both of guar and faba bean were chemically and biologically evaluated. Crude protein, crude fiber and ash contents of guar and faba bean decreased as a result of all treatments with the exception of protein content in both germinated guar and faba bean. A slight decrease in lipid content was noticed during germination, while there were no changes in lipids after soaking, autoclaving and cooking. Protein content of guar was higher than of faba bean, and showed higher values for all amino acids than faba bean protein except for lysine and tryptophan. Germination caused a slight increase in total essential amino acids, while soaking caused a slight decrease in both of guar and faba bean. There was a slight decrease in the mineral contents by the heat processes with the exception of Mg and Mn for guar and Na, Mn for faba bean due to the cooking process. Germinated guar and faba bean showed noticeable decrease in Na, K, Cu, Mn and Mg and a slight increase in Fe and Zn than the raw materials. Germination was more effective in reducing phytic acid than heat treatment, and therefore it improves the nutritional quality of both guar and faba bean. Protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (DT) and biological value (BV) were estimated in all treatments under study using rat bioassay procedures. Data revealed pronounced improvements of the nutritive value as a result of all processes under study especially germination being the most effective.

  6. The control of storage xyloglucan mobilization in cotyledons of Hymenaea courbaril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Henrique Pessoa; Purgatto, Eduardo; Mercier, Helenice; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2004-05-01

    Hymenaea courbaril is a leguminous tree species from the neotropical rain forests. Its cotyledons are largely enriched with a storage cell wall polysaccharide (xyloglucan). Studies of cell wall storage polymers have been focused mostly on the mechanisms of their disassembly, whereas the control of their mobilization and the relationship between their metabolism and seedling development is not well understood. Here, we show that xyloglucan mobilization is strictly controlled by the development of first leaves of the seedling, with the start of its degradation occurring after the beginning of eophyll (first leaves) expansion. During the period of storage mobilization, an increase in the levels of xyloglucan hydrolases, starch, and free sugars were observed in the cotyledons. Xyloglucan mobilization was inhibited by shoot excision, darkness, and by treatment with the auxin-transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Analyses of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid in the cotyledons revealed that its increase in concentration is followed by the rise in xyloglucan hydrolase activities, indicating that auxin is directly related to xyloglucan mobilization. Cotyledons detached during xyloglucan mobilization and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid showed a similar mobilization rate as in attached cotyledons. This hormonal control is probably essential for the ecophysiological performance of this species in their natural environment since it is the main factor responsible for promoting synchronism between shoot growth and reserve degradation. This is likely to increase the efficiency of carbon reserves utilization by the growing seedling in the understorey light conditions of the rain forest.

  7. The Control of Storage Xyloglucan Mobilization in Cotyledons of Hymenaea courbaril1

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Henrique Pessoa; Purgatto, Eduardo; Mercier, Helenice; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Hymenaea courbaril is a leguminous tree species from the neotropical rain forests. Its cotyledons are largely enriched with a storage cell wall polysaccharide (xyloglucan). Studies of cell wall storage polymers have been focused mostly on the mechanisms of their disassembly, whereas the control of their mobilization and the relationship between their metabolism and seedling development is not well understood. Here, we show that xyloglucan mobilization is strictly controlled by the development of first leaves of the seedling, with the start of its degradation occurring after the beginning of eophyll (first leaves) expansion. During the period of storage mobilization, an increase in the levels of xyloglucan hydrolases, starch, and free sugars were observed in the cotyledons. Xyloglucan mobilization was inhibited by shoot excision, darkness, and by treatment with the auxin-transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Analyses of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid in the cotyledons revealed that its increase in concentration is followed by the rise in xyloglucan hydrolase activities, indicating that auxin is directly related to xyloglucan mobilization. Cotyledons detached during xyloglucan mobilization and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid showed a similar mobilization rate as in attached cotyledons. This hormonal control is probably essential for the ecophysiological performance of this species in their natural environment since it is the main factor responsible for promoting synchronism between shoot growth and reserve degradation. This is likely to increase the efficiency of carbon reserves utilization by the growing seedling in the understorey light conditions of the rain forest. PMID:15133152

  8. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Determinación de las mejores condiciones para la extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Y.; Pérez, G

    2010-01-01

    Para la determinación de las mejores condiciones de extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (LRH), se utilizaron iniciaimente raíces enteras y paredes celulares de raíces. De acuerdo con los resultados, se establecieron las condiciones experimentales para la preparación de paredes celulares por tres métodos. Se encontró que el Método I, en el cual se usó Sarkosyl 0.5%, KH2PO4 0.01 M pH 6.0 para la obtención de paredes celulares y luego se extrajo la lectina con buffer de citrato de sodio 0.1...

  10. Induction de la phytotoxicité du Plomb chez Vicia faba L. : rôles de l'absorption et de la spéciation

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Peu d'études concernent actuellement l'influence de la spéciation du plomb (polluant métallique toxique, persistant et très présent dans les écosystèmes) sur sa phyto-toxicité. Pourtant, l'absorption des métaux, leur translocation et les mécanismes impliqués dans leur phyto-toxicité peuvent être fortement modifiés par ce paramètre. Dans ce contexte, l'objectif de la thèse était d'étudier l'influence de la spéciation chimique du plomb (formation de divers complexes organométalliques) sur sa ph...

  11. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p beans increased (p beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry diet formulations by dose response trials with purified tannase preparations.

  12. Feeding value of field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2017-04-01

    Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets. The Control diet contained as major ingredients wheat (400 g/kg) and soybean meal (SBM) (127 g/kg and 221 g crude protein/kg and 12.83 MJ AMEn/kg. To reduce nutrient density, the Control diet also contained washed sand at 119 g/kg. Another three diets containing 300 g/kg of each of three experimental field bean cultivar samples in replacement for SBM and sand were also mixed. Each diet was fed to nine pens with two male Ross 308 broilers. Diets high in tannin had low AMEn, ECR, DMR and NR (p beans increased (p beans with different tannin contents may vary when fed to broilers. The supplementation of the enzyme mixture improved the feeding value of diets for broilers. The beneficial effect of the addition of the enzyme mixture seems to be mediated through reduced ileal digesta viscosity and improved nutrient availability.

  13. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karuppanapandian, T.; Geilfus, C.M.; Muehling, K.H.; Novák, Ondřej; Gloser, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 255, FEB (2017), s. 51-58 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : xylem sap constituents * abscisic-acid * stomatal conductance * leaf apoplast * helianthus-annuus * plant-responses * intact plants * nacl stress * drying soil * guard-cells * Drought stress * Abscisic acid * Soil drying * Xylem sap * Osmolality * Water relations * Leaf water potential Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  14. Evaluación de cinco genotipos de haba (Vicia faba L. con seis niveles de fósforo en Tecámac, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Jesús Morales Rosales

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de una investigación de campo, basada en el diseño de bloques al azar con 30 tratamientos y tres repeticiones con un arreglo factorial, se evaluó: altura a la primera vaina (APV, altura final (AF, número de tallos (NT, número de granos por vaina (NGV, número de vainas por planta (NVP, peso de 100 semillas P(100S y rendimiento de grano (REND. El análisis de varianza reveló efectos significativos e interesantes para los cinco genotipos de haba.

  15. [The feed value in growing pigs of a new cultivar of field beans (Vicia faba L.) supplemented with DL-methionine or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, H j; Burghard, G

    2002-02-01

    A basal control mixture of barley, soy bean meal and soy bean oil was replaced by 25% of the new field bean-cultivar 'Divine' and the resulting two mixtures were supplemented with minerals, trace elements, vitamins and amino acids according to the ideal protein concept. The control diet was adjusted with DL-methionine (DL-Met), the field bean mixture either with DL-Met or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalogue (DL-MHA) assuming biological equivalence on a molar basis for both supplements. The three experimental diets were fed to growing pigs (35-40 kg bwt.). Spontaneous urine samples were analysed separately for determining parameters that characterize the acid-base status of the pigs. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in nutrient digestibilities. The level of bacterially fermentable substances was increased in the diets containing field beans. The field beans contained 14 mg ME/kg DM. There were no significant (p mixtures resulted from a higher electrolyte balance of the diet.

  16. CONTENIDO Y TRASLOCACIÓN DE PLOMO EN AVENA (Avena sativa, L. Y HABA (Vicia faba, L. DE UN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gallegos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento en invernadero se estableció para determinar la concentración de plomo (Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea de haba y avena; se calculó el factor de bioconcentración y traslocación en las dos especies. Se probaron 50, 100 y 150 mg·Pb·kg-1 de suelo, incluyendo un control. Las plantas se colectaron a los 60 días después de la siembra y se midieron altura de planta (AP, volumen radical (VR y biomasa seca total (BST, además del contenido de Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea. La cuantificación de Pb se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El suelo cultivado con haba presentó un 28.48 % de PbEDTA. Las variables AP, VR y BST no fueron afectadas de manera drástica por las concentraciones de Pb probadas. Las plantas de haba y avena absorbieron un total de 55 mg·kg-1 y 45.3 mg·kg-1, respectivamente, las cuales se consideran tóxicas para plantas cultivadas. Los resultados pueden servir de base para ampliar el conocimiento del contenido de Pb absorbido y traslocado en plantas de haba y avena, ya que la capacidad de tolerar y absorber Pb es específica de la especie, inclusive de la variedad de planta.

  17. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia fabaL. var.minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, J.M.; Rose, S. P.; Mackenzie, A M; Ivanova, S.G.; Staykova, G.P.; Pirgozliev, V.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous muc...

  18. Determinación de las mejores condiciones para la extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. De navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para la determinación de las mejores condiciones de extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (LRH, se utilizaron iniciaimente raíces enteras y paredes celulares de raíces. De acuerdo con los resultados, se establecieron las condiciones experimentales para la preparación de paredes celulares por tres métodos. Se encontró que el Método I, en el cual se usó Sarkosyl 0.5%, KH2PO4 0.01 M pH 6.0 para la obtención de paredes celulares y luego se extrajo la lectina con buffer de citrato de sodio 0.1 M pH 4.2, es el más adecuado. El fraccionamiento se realizó por filtración por gel usando Sephadex G-25.

  19. The metabolism of ageing seeds: changes in the raffinose family oligosaccharides during storage of field bean (Vicia faba var. minor Harz seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zalewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of field bean cv. Nadwiślański harvested in 1980, 1986 and 1992 were studied. Results of investigations showed that the four analysed sugars (saccharine, verbascose, raffinose and stachyose made up from 60.1 mg of 1 g dry matter of seeds harvested in 1992 to 67 mg of seeds collected in 1986. After three years of storage in laboratory conditions we observed a decline of the amount of these oligosaccharides. The saccharose:raffinose family oligosaccharides ratio grows with the seed age.

  20. Response of bean (Vicia faba L. plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Fang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs and net photosynthetic rate (Pn. These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand. On the 1(st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca. From the 3(rd to 9(th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th day. From the 11(th to 21(st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st day. CONCLUSIONS: Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn reduction. The non-stomatal limitation was associated with the inhibition of PSII electron transport chain. Our data suggests that the donor side of PSII was the most sensitive to low sink demand followed by the reaction center of PSII. The acceptor side of PSII may be the least sensitive.

  1. The fungi communities of the soil environment of Triticum aestivum and its forecrops: Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba ssp. minor and Trifolium pratense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pląskowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The species spectrum and abundance of the fungi communities were affected by the soil environment developed by wheat and its forecrops, and by atmospheric conditions. The fungi of the genus Fusarium were the greatest threat to winter wheat regardless of the forecrop. The field bean was the best forecrop to the wheat whereas spring barley was the worst.

  2. Effect of different Planting Pattern of Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Bean (Vicia faba on Grain Yield, Dry Matter Production and Weed Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in University of London, Kent, UK during the year 2003. The aim of experiment was to investigate the effects of planting pattern on performance of wheat and bean intercrops. A complete randomized block design with four replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included wheat sole crop (W, Bean sole crop (B, within row intercropping (M1, row intercropping (M2 and mix cropping (M3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one wheat replaced by three bean plants. The results showed that total dry matter achieved by intercrops was significantly higher than those achieved by either wheat or bean sole crop. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops, especially bean sole crop. Crops performance in terms dry weight, height and percentage of leaf, stem pod and ear was affected by cropping systems depending on crop species, where wheat showed more changes compared to bean . Grain yield, harvest index and thousand grain weights of wheat were decreased in intercropping while bean had reduction only in grain yield.

  3. Antioxidant Capacity of Cotyledons and Germs of Soybeanb in Relation to Their Isoflavone Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Berger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the relationship between the antioxidant capacity and the isoflavone content of soybean extracts depending on both geographic origin and cultivar. Soybean samples were obtained from two soybean seed parts, germ and cotyledon, from two geographical locations (L1, L2 and two cultivars (Queen, Imari, which gave 8 different samples. HPLC determination confirmed higher isoflavone content in germs than in cotyledons, with higher contents in site L2, and in the Queen cultivar. The antioxidant capacity of soybean samples was determined with two methods, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. The results obtained with both assays showed differences in antioxidant capacity between germ and cotyledon extracts, with a higher antioxidant activity of germ extracts.

  4. Changes in some enzymes of microbodies and plastid development in excised radish cotyledons: effect of narciclasine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yurong; Guo, Jinkui; Zhang, Lixin; Wong, Yumshing

    2003-09-01

    Narciclasine (NCS), isolated from mucilage of Narcissus bulb, showed inhibitory effects on growth and plastid development of excised radish cotyledons. NCS (0.1 mumol/L) started to show inhibitory effects on isocitrate lyase and hydroxypyruvate reductase activities after 24 h incubation in light. When NCS concentration was increased to 10 mumol/L, the activities of both enzymes are completely inhibited. From ultrastructural studies, NCS markedly prevented the degradation of protein bodies and lipid bodies, as well as chloroplast formation of excised radish cotyledons. There was only little degradation of protein and lipid bodies, and almost no chloroplast formation in the excised radish cotyledon treated with 1 mumol/L NCS. Therefore, our results provide clear evidence that NCS inhibited the transition of glyoxysomes and peroxisomes, and chloroplast development.

  5. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-01-01

    ... organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12...

  6. SNOWY COTYLEDON 2 promotes chloroplast development and has a role in leaf variegation in both Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagari, Nicola; Sandoval Ibáñez, Omar Alejandro; Sandal, Niels

    2017-01-01

    to phototrophic growth. Snowy cotyledon 2 (SCO2) is a DNAJ-like protein involved in thylakoid membrane biogenesis, and it interacts with the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding protein LHCB1. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SCO2 function was described to be restricted to cotyledons, but here we show that in Lotus...

  7. Impact of spatial constraints during seed germination on the evolution of angiosperm cotyledons: a case study from tropical Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Remizowa, Margarita V; Beer, Anton S; Yadav, Shrirang R; Macfarlane, Terry D; Ramsay, Margaret M; Rudall, Paula J

    2013-05-01

    A bipolar embryo with cotyledons is a characteristic feature that appeared early in the evolution of seed plants. Cotyledon number is an important character in angiosperm classification. We explore the links between functional aspects of seed germination and the number and location of the cotyledons, using as a model the early-divergent angiosperm family Hydatellaceae, in which seedlings are superficially monocot-like. • Seedlings of two species of tropical Hydatellaceae were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. • Seedlings of Trithuria cowieana bear two free cotyledons. Each cotyledon possesses a green, filiform, vascularized blade that resembles subsequent leaves, and a basal, nonvascularized, haustorial outgrowth that remains in close contact with the endosperm. Seedlings of Trithuria konkanensis have two free cotyledonary haustoria inserted close to each other and a leaf blade probably belonging to one of the cotyledons. The cotyledonary node elongates between the haustoria and the leaf blade to form a mesocotyl. • To date, the absence or presence of a cotyledonary tube represents the only known qualitative morphological difference between the two major clades of Hydatellaceae. Cotyledons with a haustorium and leaf blade are unusual at the scale of seed plants and probably evolved due to homeosis. The mesocotyl of T. konkanensis resembles that of grasses and sedges. Seedling diversity in Hydatellaceae and other seed plants is linked with the principal physical and spatial constraint of their embryo structure, with the primary root and shoot apical meristems located at opposite poles, and haustorial cotyledon tips.

  8. The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 gene is required for boundary and shoot meristem formation in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vroemen, Casper W; Mordhorst, Andreas P; Albrecht, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    From an enhancer trap screen for genes expressed in Arabidopsis embryos, we identified a gene expressed from the octant stage onward in the boundary between the two presumptive cotyledons and in a variety of postembryonic organ and meristem boundaries. This gene, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3), enc...

  9. Effect of selected Egyptian cooking methods on faba bean nutritive value and dietary protein utilization 2: ability of faba bean products to support hemoglobin response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A; Bayomy, M F

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the dietary protein utilization and iron deficiency anemia as affected by the faba bean nutrient intake, a bioassay with rats was carried out with different experimental diets containing four faba bean products (stewed beans 'Medammis', deep fried dough 'Falafel', boiled germinated beans 'Nabet Soup' and poured paste 'Bissara') widely consumed in the Middle East. Amino acid composition of all faba bean products was determined and compared to raw beans. Severe heat-processing markedly decreased some essential amino acids, especially phenylalanine, cystine, methionine and tryptophan. Protein scores were 24.6, 19.5, 29.2, 28.2 and 35.6 for raw faba beans, 'Medammis', 'Falafel', 'Nabet Soup' and 'Bissara', respectively. 'Bissara' possessed the highest nutritional value, since it had the lowest GDR value [Grams consumed of product to cover the daily requirements for adult man in protein (63 g) and in energy (2900 kcal)] for the limiting amino acids (L A A). As indicated by P S/150 values [Satisfaction of the daily requirements of the adult man when 150 g (one can content) are consumed of product] for L A A, i.e. methionine+cystine (lowest P S/150 value), the above-mentioned faba bean products cover about 53, 77, 77 and 97% of the daily requirements of adult man in L A A, respectively. Fecal nitrogen excretion increased and true nitrogen digestibility decreased significantly (p < 0.01) with the inclusion of 'Medammis' in the diet. 'Nabet Soup' exhibited the highest true nitrogen digestibility. In contrast, the biological value of nitrogen was apparently unaffected. Highest blood hemoglobin level was found in rats fed diets containing 'Bissara', 'Falafel' and 'Nabet Soup', whereas the addition of 'Medammis' in the diet induced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in blood hemoglobin level of fed rats.

  10. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  11. Catalase degradation in sunflower cotyledons during peroxisome transition from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function. [Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eising, R.; Gerhardt, B.

    1987-06-01

    First order rate constant for the degradation (degradation constants) of catalase in the cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined by measuring the loss of catalase containing /sup 14/C-labeled heme. During greening of the cotyledons, a period when peroxisomes change from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function, the degradation of glyoxysomal catalase is significantly slower than during all other stages of cotyledon development in light or darkness. The degradation constant during the transition stage of peroxisome function amounts to 0.205 day/sup -1/ in contrast to the constants ranging from 0.304 day/sup -1/ to 0.515 day/sup -1/ during the other developmental stages. Density labeling experiments comprising labeling of catalase with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and its isopycnic centrifugation on CsCl gradients demonstrated that the determinations of the degradation constants were not substantially affected by reutilization of /sup 14/C-labeled compounds for catalase synthesis. The degradation constants for both glyoxysomal catalase and catalase synthesized during the transition of peroxisome function do not differ. This was shown by labeling the catalases with different isotopes and measuring the isotope ratio during the development of the cotyledons. The results are inconsistent with the concept that an accelerated and selective degradation of glyoxysomes underlies the change in peroxisome function. The data suggest that catalase degradation is at least partially due to an individual turnover of catalase and does not only result from a turnover of the whole peroxisomes.

  12. Endophytic bacterial and fungal communities transmitted from cotyledons and germs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yali; Kuang, Zaoyuan; Deng, Zujun; Zhang, Ren; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-01

    Seed-borne endophytes could be transmitted into sprouts. Whether this happened in peanuts and the difference between microbial taxa in peanut germs and cotyledons remain unknown. In this research, Illumina-based sequencing was employed to investigate the microbial taxa in peanut germs, cotyledons, and sprouts. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was isolated and inoculated into peanut sprouts, and then, the growth of peanut seedlings was measured. The results illustrated that diverse bacteria and fungi were detected in peanut germs, cotyledons, and sprouts. The number of bacterial OTUs declined with the germination from germs and cotyledons to sprouts. However, the number of fungal OTUs increased during the seedling procedure. Seed-borne dominant bacterial genera Halothiobacillus and Synechococcus and fungal genera Humicola, Emericella, and Penicillium were detected in sprouts. Based on the endophytic community information, the Halothiobacillus strains were isolated from sprouts. Pot experiments that illustrated the growth of peanut seedlings inoculated with the strain were promoted. These results provide new understanding into plant-microbe interactions in peanut and suggest that the selection for biocontrol agents based on mycobiome and bacteriome analysis is reliable and feasible compared with the present greenhouse selection.

  13. Organogenesis and plant formation from cotyledon and callus culture of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina H. Rogozińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotyledon explants of rape were excised from aseptically germinated seedlings and cultured during 2 weeks on M u r a s h i g e and S k o o g medium supplemented with auxins, cytokinins, auxin-cytokinin combinations and abscisic acid. Callus formation occurred on medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, naphthalene-l-acetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and on their combinations with kinetin (K or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Regeneration of roots was achieved on media with NAA, IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and on combinations of these auxins with cytokinins. The presence of 2,4-D in the medium, though it promoted compact callus growth, had an inhibitory effect on root formation. Callus derived from the cotyledons had somewhat different requirements for growth in subculture and the root formation ability diminished in the course of the culture. Lower ABA concentrations stimulated callus growth whereas higher concentrations inhibited it similary as in the case of cotyledons. Shoot buds regenerated from the cotyledons after ca. 3 weeks on media supplemented with NAA + BAP. The 9-week-old plantlets transferred to the soil developed into complete plants. The plants which underwent vernalization formed flowers and normal seeds.

  14. Sheep Placenta Cotyledons: A Noninvasive Source of Ovine Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribitsch, Iris; Chang-Rodriguez, Souyet; Egerbacher, Monika; Gabner, Simone; Gueltekin, Sinan; Huber, Johann; Schuster, Therese; Jenner, Florien

    2017-05-01

    Sheep are one of the most frequently used large animal models in stem cell research. However, minimal invasive or noninvasive sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in sheep are scarce. In the light of the principles of the 3Rs (reduce, refine, replace), it would therefore be desirable to identify a minimally invasive or noninvasive ovine MSC source. In humans, the chorionic villi of the placenta, which can be noninvasively harvested as part of the afterbirth, have been identified as a rich source of MSCs. Therefore, in the present study, ovine placenta cotyledons, which have similar function and structure to human chorionic villi, were tested for their potential use as a noninvasive source of ovine MSCs. Through mincing of the placental cotyledons, collagenase digestion, and Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, combined with plastic adherence selection, MSCs were successfully isolated. Their morphological, immunophenotypical, and cellular growth characteristics, as well as their proliferation, differentiation, and migration potential, were evaluated and compared to the currently best-researched MSC source, bone marrow-derived stem cells. Ovine cotyledons were shown to be a reliable, abundant source for the noninvasive, pain- and risk-free harvest of MSCs. The collection procedure does not interfere with partum or the initial bonding phase between ewes and lambs and is therefore exempt from ethical debate. Ovine placenta cotyledon-derived MSCs exhibit multipotential characteristics and can be cryopreserved for later use.

  15. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity.

  16. Saxifraga cotyledon en l'Aigüeta de la Vall (Sahún, Huesca)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrández Palacio, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Presentamos los datos recogidos en 2013 en la población de Saxifraga cotyledon relocalizada en el valle pirenaico de l'Aigüeta de la Ball (Ribagorza, Sahún). También se comentan algunos aspectos relativos a su conservación.

  17. The effect of phosphours and water deficit on phosphatase activity and proline accumulation in seedling cotyledons and roots of oilseed rape as compared to that of excised cotyledons and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape seedlings and excised cotyledons and roots were exposed to phosphorus and osmotic stress (-1 MPa: NaCl or PEG. The stress factors limited the growth of the seedlings and inhibited the growth of the excised roots and cotyledons. The phosphorus content in the cotyledons and roots depended on its level in the media and on the stress factors used. Phosphorus deficiency differentiated total phosphatase activity in seedling cotyledons and increased the activity in the excised cotyledons. In the excised and seedling roots, the lack of phosphorus, its deficiency and stress imposed by the addition of NaCl, caused an increase in total and specific phosphatase activity. Osmotic stress caused proline accumulation in both the seedling and excised cotyledons, but the effect of phosphorus stress was much smaller. Proline increase in seedling roots followed only after the osmotic stress caused by NaCl. The proline content in the excised roots was low. Stress factors lowered the protein content in the seedling and excised cotyledons. In both seedling and excised roots, the lowering of the protein content occurred mainly in response to osmotic stress. Kinetin modified metabolic responses in seedling cotyledons and roots. The use of in vitro culture allowed the elucidation of the tested responses. In excised cotyledons grown under stress conditions, kinetin increased the phosphorus and protein contents and lowered proline accumulation, suggesting that kinetin had the ability to overcome phosphorus and osmotic stress. The excised oilseed rape roots responded only slightly to kinetin (Drozdowska and Rogozińska 1984 and its effect was much smaller.

  18. Faba bean in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scipioni; Domenico Pietro Lo Fiego; Luisa Antonella Volpelli; Michele Comellini

    2010-01-01

    Two consecutive trials were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal (SBM) in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows. In both trials a “Control” concentrate (12% dehulled SBM) was compared to a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% dehulled SBM; 10% flaked faba beans). Forages fed to animals included hay (mixed grass and alfalfa) plus green mixed grass in trial 1, hay only in trial 2. Concentrate intake, faecal scores, milk yield and quality wer...

  19. Occurrence of phytoplasma phyllody and witches' broom disease of faba bean in Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil K; Bhatt, B P; Manibhushan

    2013-09-01

    Faba bean (Vicio faba) plants showed symptoms of shoe stringed leaves, phyllody and flower abortion in experimental field. The first symptoms consisted of phyllody mild yellowing, vein clearing and slightly inward folding of newly formed leaves in the apical region of the plant. The disease was characterized by a series of floral abnormalities including virescence, phyllody and proliferation of sprouts together with other abnormalities, such as loss of apical dominance, vivipary and enhanced vegetative growth. Ambient temperature found to be contributing positively on disease development. Under climate change condition there may be every possible chance for speedy spread of this very economic important disease to the earlier not known regions.

  20. PrPSc accumulation in fetal cotyledons of scrapie-resistant lambs is influenced by fetus location in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Janet; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Baszler, Timothy V

    2006-04-01

    Placentae from scrapie-infected ewes have been shown to accumulate PrPSc when the genotype of the fetus is of a susceptible genotype (VRQ/VRQ, ARQ/VRQ or ARQ/ARQ). Cotyledons from fetuses of genotypes ARR/ARR, ARQ/ARR and ARQ/VRR have previously been shown to be resistant to PrPSc accumulation. By using ewes from a naturally infected scrapie flock, cotyledons from fetuses of multiple births of different genotypes were examined. PrPSc was detected in fetal cotyledons of genotype ARQ/ARQ, but not in cotyledons from their dizygotic twin of genotype ARQ/ARR. This confirms earlier reports of single fetuses of these genotypes, but is the first description of such a finding in twin fetuses, one of each genotype. It is also demonstrated that cotyledons from sibling fetuses of genotypes ARQ/VRQ and ARQ/ARQ have different patterns of PrPSc accumulation depending on whether the dam is of genotype ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/VRQ. Lastly, it is shown that cotyledons from fetuses with resistant genotypes are weakly positive for PrPSc when they have shared the same pregnant uterine horn with a fetus of a susceptible genotype with cotyledons positive for the detection of PrPSc. Additionally, a PCR product for the Sry gene, a product specific to males, was found in cotyledons from female fetuses that had shared a uterine horn with a male fetus. This indicates that some sharing of fetal blood occurs between placentomes and fetuses residing in the same uterine horn, which can result in PrPSc accumulation in cotyledons with resistant genotypes.

  1. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  2. Effect of Debudding of Faba bean on the Soluble Nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogenase activity (measured as ARA) of debudded plants was ... Key words: Acetylene reduction activity, faba bean, feedbackcontrol, legume, nitrogenase activity, nitrogen ftxati on, nodules regulate .... Effect of debudding on nitrogenase activity (AR), soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen and ammonium content of nodules ...

  3. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93) was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content. PMID:26785070

  4. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  5. Exploring the Microbiota of Faba Bean: Functional Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Verni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the metabolic traits of 27 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains belonging to different species, previously isolated from faba bean. The activities assayed, related to technological and nutritional improvement of fermented faba bean, included peptidases, β-glucosidase, phytase, as well as exopolysaccharides synthesis and antimicrobial properties. In addition, the bacteria performance as starter cultures during faba bean fermentation on proteolysis, antioxidant potential, and degradation of condensed tannins were assessed. Fermentative profiling showed that only 7 out of 27 strains were able to metabolize D-raffinose, particularly Leuc. mesenteroides I01 and I57. All strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus exerted high PepN activity and exhibited β-glucosidase activity higher than the median value of 0.015 U, while phytase activity was largely distributed among the different strains. All the weissellas, and in lower amount leuconostocs, showed ability to produce EPS from sucrose. None of the strains did not survive the simulated gastrointestinal tract with the exception of P. pentosaceus I56, I76, 147, I214, having a viability of 8–9 log CFU/ml at the end of the treatment. None of the strains showed antimicrobial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus, while eight strains of P. pentosaceus exhibited a strong inhibitory activity toward Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Generally, the doughs fermented with pediococci exhibited high amount of total free amino acids, antioxidant activity, and condensed tannins degradation. These results allowed the identification of LAB biotypes as potential starter cultures for faba bean bioprocessing, aiming at the enhancement of faba bean use in novel food applications.

  6. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna M. Janas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  7. The amino acid composition of cotyledons, testa, embryo and protein fractions of bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of cotyledons, embryo and testa to the whole seed, was analyzed in the bean cultivar, Wiejska. The total nitrogen content and amino acid composition of morphological parts of the seed were determined. The average amino acid composition of globulins and albumins and the content of free amino acids in seeds of six Polish cultivars were estimated as well. It was found that the embryo contained the highest quantity of total nitrogen and the lowest of protein nitrogen. The exogenous amino acid content in the embryo was higher than in cotyledons and testa. Both albumins and globulins were shown to contain 42% exogenous amino acids. The content of methionine - the first limiting amino acid of bean proteins - did not exceed 0.30% of the total amino acid content in albumins and globulins. Free glutamic and aspartic acids made up more than 60% of the total free amino acids.

  8. Optimizing of a Horizontal Cylinder Type Cocoa Roaster for Dried Cocoa Cotyledon Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The secondary process of cocoa is one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. One the other hand, the development for secondary cocoa process requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale business. Cocoa roaster is a basic equipment to produce good and competitive secondary cocoa products for chocolate industry. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has, therefore, designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type roaster for drying cocoa cotyledon. The cylinder has 405 mm diameter, 520 mm long and is rotated by a 1 HP (0.75 kW, 220 V, single phase and 1400 rpm electric motor. Assisted with a gear reducer, the final cylinder rotation is adjusted at approximately 6 rpm. The heat for roasting process is generated from kerosene burner. At the end of roasting, the roasted beans are cooled down by ambient air inside a cooling platform by natural air flow. The raw material used in this optimizing test was dried fine cocoa cotyledon. Field tests showed that the optimum performance of the roaster was 7 kg dried fine cocoa cotyledon loaded with roasting temperature 120 oC and 25.57 kg/h optimum capacity. The organoleptic test showed that score of aromatic, flavour, acidity, bitterness, astringency and burnt were 4.8, 5.2, 5.4, 5.2, 4.8 and 0.8 with 10 scale, also 4.2 with 5 scale for likely. The roasting time was 15—25 minutes to get 2.5—3% final water content depend on roasting temperature and cocoa cotyledon loaded. Key words: cocoa, roasting, horizontal cylinder, quality.

  9. Somatic embryogenesis in immature cotyledons of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from immature cotyledon explants that were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins with 5.4 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 uM thidiazuron (TDZ) plus a 4x4 factorial combination of 0,9.8, 34.6, or 49.2 uM indole-3-butyric acid ...

  10. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (STO, mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS, removing the pericarp (RP, and cutting off 1/2 (HC and 2/3 (TC cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis seeds (CCS were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergencies were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g · ml(-1 methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns.

  11. Influence of Pericarp, Cotyledon and Inhibitory Substances on Sharp Tooth Oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu; Guangquan Liu; Qingmei Li; Yong Liu; Longyu Hou; Guolei Li

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) (STO), mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS), removing the pericarp (RP), and cutting off 1/2 (HC) and 2/3 (TC) cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis) seeds (CCS) were also investigated for CCS cultivat...

  12. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Guangquan; Li, Qingmei; Liu, Yong; Hou, Longyu; Li, Guolei

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) (STO), mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS), removing the pericarp (RP), and cutting off 1/2 (HC) and 2/3 (TC) cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis) seeds (CCS) were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergencies were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g · ml(-1) methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns.

  13. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated...

  14. Arabidopsis FH1 Formin Affects Cotyledon Pavement Cell Shape by Modulating Cytoskeleton Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, Amparo; Oulehlová, Denisa; Stillerová, Lenka; Schiebertová, Petra; Grunt, Michal; Žárský, Viktor; Cvrčková, Fatima

    2016-03-01

    Plant cell morphogenesis involves concerted rearrangements of microtubules and actin microfilaments. We previously reported that FH1, the main Arabidopsis thaliana housekeeping Class I membrane-anchored formin, contributes to actin dynamics and microtubule stability in rhizodermis cells. Here we examine the effects of mutations affecting FH1 (At3g25500) on cell morphogenesis and above-ground organ development in seedlings, as well as on cytoskeletal organization and dynamics, using a combination of confocal and variable angle epifluorescence microscopy with a pharmacological approach. Homozygous fh1 mutants exhibited cotyledon epinasty and had larger cotyledon pavement cells with more pronounced lobes than the wild type. The pavement cell shape alterations were enhanced by expression of the fluorescent microtubule marker GFP-microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4). Mutant cotyledon pavement cells exhibited reduced density and increased stability of microfilament bundles, as well as enhanced dynamics of microtubules. Analogous results were also obtained upon treatments with the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 (small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains). Pavement cell shape in wild-type (wt) and fh1 plants in some situations exhibited a differential response towards anti-cytoskeletal drugs, especially the microtubule disruptor oryzalin. Our observations indicate that FH1 participates in the control of microtubule dynamics, possibly via its effects on actin, subsequently influencing cell morphogenesis and macroscopic organ development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Combination of different methods for direct control of Vicia hirsuta in winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Lukashyk, P.; Köpke, U.

    2005-01-01

    Combinations of three different direct methods for controlling Vicia hirsuta (kainite application, flame weeding and harrowing) were investigated in field experiments. They were based on different strategies at early growth stages of V. hirsuta and standardised harrowing at late growth stages. The highest efficacy of kainite application and flame weeding was achieved at the one leaf stage of V. hirsuta. Winter wheat regeneration from damage caused by both kainite and thermal control was satis...

  16. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  17. The role of the storage carbon of cotyledons in the establishment of seedlings of Hymenaea courbaril under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Henrique P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2004-12-01

    Hymenaea courbaril (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species with wide distribution through all of the Neotropics. It has large seeds (approx. 5 g) with non-photosynthetic storage cotyledons rich (40 %) in a cell wall polysaccharide (xyloglucan) as a carbon reserve. Because it is found in the understorey of tropical forests, it has been considered as a shade-tolerant, late-secondary species. However, the physiological mechanisms involved in seedling establishment, especially regarding the interplay between storage and light intensity, are not understood. In this work, the ecophysiological role of this carbon cotyledon reserve (xyloglucan) is characterized, emphasizing its effects on seedling growth and development during the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy under different light conditions. Seedlings of H. courbaril were grown in environments with different light intensities, and with or without cotyledons detached before xyloglucan mobilization. Development, growth, photosynthesis and carbon partitioning (dry mass and [14C]sucrose) were analysed in each treatment. The detachment of cotyledons was not important for seedling survival, but resulted in a strong restriction (50 % less) of shoot growth, which was the main sink for the cotyledon carbon reserves. Carbon restriction promoted an early maturation of the photosynthetic apparatus without changes in the net CO2 fixation per unit area. The reduced surface area of the first leaves in seedlings without cotyledons was evidence of limited growth and development of seedlings in low light conditions (22 micromol m(-2) s(-1) photon flux). There is an increase in the importance of storage xyloglucan in cotyledons for H. courbaril seedling development as light intensity decreases, confirming that this polymer plays a key role in the adaptation of this species to establish successfully in the shadowed understorey of the forest.

  18. Multielemental Fingerprinting as a Tool for Authentication of Organic Wheat, Barley, Faba Bean, and Potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    between organic and conventional crops were found in the content of essential plant nutrients when statistically analyzed individually. However, chemometric analysis of multielemental fingerprints comprising up to 14 elements allowed discrimination. The discrimination power was further enhanced......The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically...... different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences...

  19. Potential candidates for biological control of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, S.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The black bean aphid is widely spread aphid species in the Palaearctic, known to attack over 1150 plant species. Because some of the host plants are of great agricultural interest, Aphis fabae represent a very important pest. We assembled all data concerning the presence of this pest and connected it in tritrophic associations. In the period of 24 years investigation on the territory of Serbia it has been recorded in 107 trophic associations. In total there are 145 findings of A. fabae parasitized by 19 taxa of Aphidiinae (Brackonidae from seven genera. The most suitable biocontrol agents for the black bean aphid are Lysiphlebus fabarum, Binodoxys angelicae, Lipolesis gracilis and the introduced species Lysiphlebus testaceipes.

  20. [Use of the HPLC method for determination of glucopiranosides during ripening of faba bean seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowicz, J; Pierzynowska-Kornik, G; Zadernowski, R

    1996-01-01

    Uridine (C9H12N2O6) was applied as an internal standard for the determination of glucopiranosides in faba bean seeds by the HPLC method. The relative UV response factors of vaccine or convicine to uridine were determined (1.12 and 0.79, respectively). The changes in the content of vaccine and convicine during ripening of faba bean seeds were followed. It was observed that with the increase in the seed dry matter content from 0.18 kg/kg to 0.78 kg/kg, the dry matter based content of vaccine decreased from 26.225 g/kg to 0.243 g/kg, and that of convicine from 9.051 g/kg to 0.094 g/kg.

  1. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne-Belinda [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 C, 15 min, 2 g l{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape straw or faba bean straw was significantly affected by pretreatment. Ethanol was produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid material after wet oxidation with yields of 66%, 70% and 52% of theoretical for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively. Methane was produced with yields of 0.36, 0.42 and 0.44 l g{sup -1} volatile solids for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively, without pretreatment of the materials. However, biogas productivity was low and it took over 50 days to reach the final yield. It could be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved. (author)

  2. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY; Zeinab M. MOBARAK; Zeinab A. SALAMA

    2010-01-01

    Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15%) were sprayed in two different treatmen...

  3. Effect of extrusion, espansion and toasting on the nutritional value of peas, faba beans and lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment was made of the effect that different treatments (toasting, expansion, extrusion have on the nutritionalvalue of protein plants (pea, faba bean, lupin. In a randomized block design, feeds were screened for enzymaticdigestibility of starch and protein, N solubility and in vitro protein degradability. Expansion and extrusion cause increasedstarch enzymatic degradability while toasting produced virtually no effects. In peas this value increased from 11.80% inmeal to 39.70% in the extruded product; 85.37% is the percentage for the expanded product, while 10.90% is the starchdigestibility value for toasted peas. In faba beans the extrusion process increased starch digestibility from 11.39% to85.05%, while in extruded lupins a complete starch hydrolysis was obtained, while in the meal the polysaccharide digestionwas 54.48%.The expansion and extrusion processes significantly decreased rumen degradability during the first 8 hours of incubation.Toasted peas had lower degradability if compared with controls but not with the other treatments. The onlypotentially alternative source to soybean is the extruded faba bean. In spite of its lower protein content, this feed ischaracterized by a considerably lower in vitro protein degradability than soybean. This implies that the digestible foodprotein content is comparable (124.90 g/kg DM to that of soybean (109.78 g/kg DM and definitely higher than thatof all other protein plants.

  4. Faba bean in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two consecutive trials were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal (SBM in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows. In both trials a “Control” concentrate (12% dehulled SBM was compared to a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% dehulled SBM; 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals included hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus green mixed grass in trial 1, hay only in trial 2. Concentrate intake, faecal scores, milk yield and quality were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was lower in the “Faba” group (“Control” vs. “Faba”: 34.6 vs. 32.9mg/dl in trial 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs. 23.4mg/dl in trial 2, P<0.01. The plasma urea was different only in trial 2 (“Control” vs. “Faba”: 3.9 vs. 3.0mmol/l, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of SBM.

  5. Effects of Intercropping (Canola-Faba Bean on Density and Diversity of Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hossain GHARINEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the biological effect and interference of crop and weed in canola-faba bean intercropping in comparison with mono culture, an experiment was conducted in randomize completely blocks design with three replication at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources, University. In this experiment treatments were different compositions of canola (Brassica napus L. var. haylo and faba bean (local cultivar. Plant densities (0, 20 and 40 plants per m2 for canola and four levels include (0, 20, 40 and 60 plants per m2 for faba bean in accordance with additive form mixed culture system respectively. Weed dry weight was affected by culture system and different levels of plant densities in mixed culture and there were significant difference 1%. Lowest weed dry weight was obtained in 20-60 and 40-60 plants m-2 canola-bean intercropping. In the intercropping parts only two species was observed while in the sole culture more than three species were exist. Results showed that with increasing in bean diversity, weed dry weight declines. According to our results, it is possible to control weed effectively by using intercropping system, but more studied is required. Diversity of weeds had been clearly affected. Results showed that only Beta and Malva species were existed in intercropping comparing to sole cultures that Brassica, Beta, Rumex and Malva were existed.

  6. Influence of Milling Process of Roasted Cocoa Beans on Size Distribution Change of Cocoa Cotyledon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension of cotyledoncocoa roasted. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested deshelling of roasted cocoa beans which will be used in this research. Before deshelling process, C grade bulk cocoa beans has been roasted up to 2.5—3% water contents. The result showed that optimal milling process by rotary cutter type milling unit has good size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension on 500 rpm rotary speed and 2.8 m/s air flow. On optimal process condition, 74.5% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm, 2.116 mm average of geometrical diameter, 0.864 mm average dimension, 3.052 fineness modulus, and 80% as crude size particel-20% as temperate size particel on uniformity index. Therefore, more than 80% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm with 700—900 rpm rotary cutter speed. Average of geometric diameter was 1.65—2.19 mm, and the dimension average was 0.69—0.89 mm. Uniformity index was crude size particle up to 80—90%, and in temperate size particle10—20%. Fineness modulus value was 2.73—3.09. Key words: cocoa, milling, size distribution, roasted beans.

  7. Morphogenetic response of cotyledon and leaf explants of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Amarillo Oro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vidigal Duarte Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures from cotyledon and leaf explants of a Spanish cultivar of melon (Amarillo Oro were tested for growth and morphogenic capacity on several culture media with different concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid in combination with 1.0 mg.L-1 BA (6-benzylaminopurine or 6.0 mg.L-1 KIN (kinetin. The best results were achieved with cotyledon explants. The leaf explants presented low bud formation capacity. Variability of organogenic response on cotyledons of different age (7, 5, 3 and 1-day-old was evaluated. The age of explant had a significant influence on bud induction. Cotyledon explants from 7-day-old seedlings showed higher organogenic index and development of shoots when cultured onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg.L-1 of IAA and 1.0 mg.L-1 of BA. The effect of cut type of cotyledonary explants on organogenic response was also investigated. Explants cut transversally showed the best results. The addition of copper sulfate in the culture medium promoted a qualitative improvement of the regenerated shoots.Explantes de cotilédones e folhas do cultivar de melão Amarillo Oro foram cultivados para avaliação do potencial morfogenético em diferentes meios de cultura com diversas concentrações de ácido indolacético (AIA, em combinação com 1,0 mg.L-1 benziladenina (BA e 6,0 mg.L-1 de cinetina (CIN. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com explantes de cotilédones, sendo que explantes de folhas mostraram uma capacidade baixa na indução de gemas. A variação na resposta organogênica em cotilédones de diferentes idades fisiológicas (1, 3, 5 e 7 dias após a germinação mostraram que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com cotilédones de sete dias cultivados no meio MS suplementado com 1,5 mg.L-1 de AIA e 1,0 mg.L-1 de BA. O efeito do tipo de corte na resposta organogênica de explantes cotiledonares foi também avaliado. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com explantes cortados transversalmente. Adi

  8. Short communication. Inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, J. B.; Gutierrez, J. C.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    A first approximation to the inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins was studied in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by evaluating the offspring of a controlled cross between two local chestnut varieties (Corriente and Pilonga) from southern Spain. The analysis was carried out in 15 polymorphic bands corresponding to the albumin fraction of the storage proteins. The relationship between bands displayed one case of allelism and four of linkage. These results should be considered as the baseline of the genetics of these proteins and suggest that they could be useful for the evaluation of the genetic variability in chestnut. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Bacterial expression of an active class Ib chitinase from Castanea sativa cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allona, I; Collada, C; Casado, R; Paz-Ares, J; Aragoncillo, C

    1996-12-01

    Ch3, an endochitinase of 32 kDa present in Castanea sativa cotyledons, showed in vitro antifungal properties when assayed against Trichoderma viride. The characterization of a cDNA clone corresponding to this protein indicated that Ch3 is a class Ib endochitinase that is synthesized as a preprotein with a signal sequence preceding the mature polypeptide. Bacterial expression of mature Ch3 fused to the leader peptide of the periplasmic protein ompT resulted in active Ch3 enzyme. A plate assay was adapted for semi-quantitative determination of chitinase activity secreted from cultured bacteria, which should facilitate the identification of mutants with altered capacity to hydrolyse chitin.

  10. Anticonvulsant activity of Cotyledon orbiculata L. (Crassulaceae) leaf extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabeoku, G J; Green, I; Kabatende, J

    2007-05-30

    The anticonvulsant activity of Cotyledon orbiculata L. (Crassulaceae) was investigated by studying the effects of both aqueous and methanol extracts of the plant species on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, bicuculline, picrotoxin and N-methyl-dl-aspartic in mice. Aqueous extract of Cotyledon orbiculata (50-400mg/kg, i.p.) and methanol extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly prolonged the onset of tonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (95mg/kg, i.p.). Methanol extract (400mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced the incidence of the seizures. One hundred to two hundred milligrams/kilogram (i.p.) of aqueous extract of Cotyledon orbiculata significantly delayed the onset of the tonic seizures induced by bicuculline (40mg/kg, i.p.), picrotoxin (12mg/kg, i.p.) and N-methyl-dl-aspartic acid (NMDLA, 400mg/kg, i.p.). Similarly, methanol extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed the onset of the tonic seizures induced by bicuculline (40mg/kg, i.p.) and picrotoxin (12mg/kg, i.p.) while 100mg/kg (i.p.) significantly delayed the onset of N-methyl-dl-aspartic acid (NMDLA, 400mg/kg, i.p.)-induced seizures. Methanol extract (200mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the incidence of the seizures induced by bicuculline (40mg/kg, i.p.). Phenobarbitone (12mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) effectively antagonized only seizures induced by PTZ (95mg/kg, i.p.), bicuculline (40mg/kg, i.p.) and picrotoxin (12mg/kg, i.p.). Phenytoin (30mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect any of the seizures to any significant extent. The data obtained suggest that both aqueous and methanol extracts of Cotyledon orbiculata have anticonvulsant property and may probably be affecting both gabaergic and glutaminergic mechanisms to exert its effect. The phytochemical analysis carried out revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, reducing sugar and triterpene steroids in the plant extract.

  11. A green-cotyledon/stay-green mutant exemplifies the ancient whole-genome duplications in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Michiharu; Yamada, Tetsuya; Masuda, Yu; Sato, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroaki; Morita, Ryouhei; Nishimura, Minoru; Kitamura, Keisuke; Kusaba, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    The recent whole-genome sequencing of soybean (Glycine max) revealed that soybean experienced whole-genome duplications 59 million and 13 million years ago, and it has an octoploid-like genome in spite of its diploid nature. We analyzed a natural green-cotyledon mutant line, Tenshin-daiseitou. The physiological analysis revealed that Tenshin-daiseitou shows a non-functional stay-green phenotype in senescent leaves, which is similar to that of the mutant of Mendel's green-cotyledon gene I, the ortholog of SGR in pea. The identification of gene mutations and genetic segregation analysis suggested that defects in GmSGR1 and GmSGR2 were responsible for the green-cotyledon/stay-green phenotype of Tenshin-daiseitou, which was confirmed by RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic soybean experiments using GmSGR genes. The characterized green-cotyledon double mutant d1d2 was found to have the same mutations, suggesting that GmSGR1 and GmSGR2 are D1 and D2. Among the examined d1d2 strains, the d1d2 strain K144a showed a lower Chl a/b ratio in mature seeds than other strains but not in senescent leaves, suggesting a seed-specific genetic factor of the Chl composition in K144a. Analysis of the soybean genome sequence revealed four genomic regions with microsynteny to the Arabidopsis SGR1 region, which included the GmSGR1 and GmSGR2 regions. The other two regions contained GmSGR3a/GmSGR3b and GmSGR4, respectively, which might be pseudogenes or genes with a function that is unrelated to Chl degradation during seed maturation and leaf senescence. These GmSGR genes were thought to be produced by the two whole-genome duplications, and they provide a good example of such whole-genome duplication events in the evolution of the soybean genome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 controls cell fate determination during post-embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkun eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1 transcription factor is a master regulator that shapes plant embryo development and post-embryonic seedling establishment. Loss-of-function of LEC1 alters the cotyledon identity, causing the formation of ectopic trichomes, which does not occur in wild-type seedlings, implying that LEC1 might regulate embryonic cell fate determination during post-embryonic development. To test this hypothesis, we compared the expression of trichome development-related genes between the wild-type and the lec1 mutant. We observed that transcripts of GL1, GL2 and GL3, genes encoding the positive regulators in trichome development, were significantly upregulated, while the TCL2, ETC1 and ETC2 genes, encoding the negative regulators in trichome development, were downregulated in the lec1 mutant. Furthermore, overexpression of LEC1 activated the expressions of TCL2, CPC and ETC1, resulting in production of cotyledonary leaves with no or fewer trichomes during vegetative development. In addition, we demonstrated that LEC1 interacts with TCL2 in yeast and in vitro. A genetic experiment showed that loss-of-function of GL2 rescued the ectopic trichome formation in the lec1 mutant. These findings strongly support that LEC1 regulates trichome development, providing direct evidence for the role of LEC1 in cell fate determination during post-embryonic development.

  13. Differential Growth in Periclinal and Anticlinal Walls during Lobe Formation in Arabidopsis Cotyledon Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, William J; Barton, Deborah A; Law, Andrew M K; Overall, Robyn L

    2015-09-01

    Lobe development in the epidermal pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons and leaves is thought to take place via tip-like growth on the concave side of lobes driven by localized concentrations of actin filaments and associated proteins, with a predicted role for cortical microtubules in establishing the direction of restricted growth at the convex side. We used homologous landmarks fixed to the outer walls of pavement cells and thin-plate spline analysis to demonstrate that lobes form by differential growth of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. Most lobes formed within the first 24 h of the cotyledons unfurling, during the period of rapid cell expansion. Cortical microtubules adjacent to the periclinal wall were persistently enriched at the convex side of lobes during development where growth was anisotropic and were less concentrated or absent at the concave side where growth was promoted. Alternating microtubule-enriched and microtubule-free zones at the periclinal wall in neighboring cells predicted sites of new lobes. There was no particular arrangement of cortical actin filaments that could predict where lobes would form. However, drug studies demonstrate that both filamentous actin and microtubules are required for lobe formation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Orychophragmus violaceus cotyledon and regeneration of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Wei, Z; Xu, Z; Liu, S; Luo, P

    1996-01-01

    Excised cotyledons of Orychophragmus violaceus were used as explants for tissue culture. They were cultured on the MS medium supplemented with BA (3 mg/L) and NAA (0.2 mg/L). When the regenerated buds were 2 cm long, they were excised and transferred onto 1/2 MS medium with IBA (0.03 mg/L), then the whole plants were regenerated. The frequency of plant regeneration was 100%. Subsequently, the genetic transformation of O. violaceus was studied. After 2-3 days of cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A208se (pTiT37, pROA93), the cotyledons were transferred onto the selection medium containing 25 mg/L Km and 250 mg/L Ap. After shoots emerged, they were excised and transferred onto the rooting medium containing 25 mg/L Km and 100 mg/L Cef. The roots were formed within 4-5 weeks. The whole plants were transplanted into pots and grew well. The frequency of plant regeneration was about 51%. The regenerated plants showed high enzymatic activities of beta-glucuronidase and neomycine phosphotransferase II. Southern blot analysis confirmed that NPTII gene had been stably integrated into the chromosomal genome of O. violaceus. The transformation frequency was 5.6%. The first transgenic plant of O. violaceus is being reported.

  16. Differential Growth in Periclinal and Anticlinal Walls during Lobe Formation in Arabidopsis Cotyledon Pavement Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Deborah A.; Law, Andrew M.K.; Overall, Robyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Lobe development in the epidermal pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons and leaves is thought to take place via tip-like growth on the concave side of lobes driven by localized concentrations of actin filaments and associated proteins, with a predicted role for cortical microtubules in establishing the direction of restricted growth at the convex side. We used homologous landmarks fixed to the outer walls of pavement cells and thin-plate spline analysis to demonstrate that lobes form by differential growth of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. Most lobes formed within the first 24 h of the cotyledons unfurling, during the period of rapid cell expansion. Cortical microtubules adjacent to the periclinal wall were persistently enriched at the convex side of lobes during development where growth was anisotropic and were less concentrated or absent at the concave side where growth was promoted. Alternating microtubule-enriched and microtubule-free zones at the periclinal wall in neighboring cells predicted sites of new lobes. There was no particular arrangement of cortical actin filaments that could predict where lobes would form. However, drug studies demonstrate that both filamentous actin and microtubules are required for lobe formation. PMID:26296967

  17. The Non-Mendelian Green Cotyledon Gene in Soybean Encodes a Small Subunit of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Sato, Yutaka; Ito, Hisashi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Watanabe, Mai; Kobayashi, Hideki; Nakano, Michiharu; Yamatani, Hiroshi; Masuda, Yu; Nagashima, Yumi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tetsuya; Kanazawa, Akira; Kitamura, Keisuke; Tabei, Yutaka; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Wataru; Tanaka, Ayumi; Kusaba, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    Chlorophyll degradation plays important roles in leaf senescence including regulation of degradation of chlorophyll-binding proteins. Although most genes encoding enzymes of the chlorophyll degradation pathway have been identified, the regulation of their activity has not been fully understood. Green cotyledon mutants in legume are stay-green mutants, in which chlorophyll degradation is impaired during leaf senescence and seed maturation. Among them, the soybean (Glycine max) green cotyledon gene cytG is unique because it is maternally inherited. To isolate cytG, we extensively sequenced the soybean chloroplast genome, and detected a 5-bp insertion causing a frame-shift in psbM, which encodes one of the small subunits of photosystem II. Mutant tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) with a disrupted psbM generated using a chloroplast transformation technique had green senescent leaves, confirming that cytG encodes PsbM. The phenotype of cytG was very similar to that of mutant of chlorophyll b reductase catalyzing the first step of chlorophyll b degradation. In fact, chlorophyll b-degrading activity in dark-grown cytG and psbM-knockout seedlings was significantly lower than that of wild-type plants. Our results suggest that PsbM is a unique protein linking photosynthesis in presenescent leaves with chlorophyll degradation during leaf senescence and seed maturation. Additionally, we discuss the origin of cytG, which may have been selected during domestication of soybean. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Characterization of leafy cotyledon1-like during embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemanno, Laurence; Devic, Martine; Niemenak, Nicolas; Sanier, Christine; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Rio, Mariannick; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Montoro, Pascal

    2008-03-01

    Theobroma cacao L., an economically important crop for developing countries, can be experimentally propagated by somatic embryogenesis. Because of their potential roles in embryogenesis, a gene candidate strategy was initiated to find gene homologues of the members of the leafy cotyledon family of transcription factors. A homologue of the leafy cotyledon1-like gene, that encodes the HAP 3 subunit of the CCAAT box-binding factor, was found in the cocoa genome (TcL1L). The translated peptide shared a high amino acid sequence identity with the homologous genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, Phaseolus coccineus and Helianthus annuus. TcL1L transcripts mainly accumulated in young and immature zygotic embryos, and, to a lesser extent, in young and immature somatic embryos. In situ hybridization specified the localization of the transcripts as being mainly in embryonic cells of young embryos, the meristematic cells of the shoot and root apex of immature embryos, and in the protoderm and epidermis of young and immature embryos, either zygotic or somatic. Non-embryogenic explants did not show TcL1L expression. Ectopic expression of the TcL1L gene could partially rescue the Arabidopsis lec1 mutant phenotype, suggesting a similarity of function in zygotic embryogenesis.

  19. Stem anatomy of annual legume intercropping components: white lupin (Lupinus albus L., narbonne (Vicia narbonensis L. and common (Vicia sativa L. vetches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Zoric

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on stem anatomy of both supporting (Lupinus albus and supported (Vicia narbonnensis and V. sativa annual forage legumes was investigated using stereological method. Intercropped plants showed minimal differences in volume densities (Vv of stem tissues and forage chemical composition compared to sole crops. The proportions of lignin and NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber positively correlated with xylem Vv. The proportions of ADF (Acid Detergent Fiber, cellulose and ash in intercropped plants were increased or decreased mostly by less than 10% compared to those in pure stands. The Anatomical Equivalent Ratio (AER defined as the ratio based on anatomical quality-determining parameters, can assist in the evaluation of the benefits of specific intercropping systems. Intercropping of the legume species studied in this work, especially L. albus with V. sativa, showed encouraging results from anatomical perspective since it would not cause a decline of forage quality.

  20. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  1. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  2. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-29

    Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP), a twin-arginine translocase (TAT) secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP) were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I) and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V) is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I) system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to the genes encoding the secretion system itself.

  3. DmeRF system is required for nickel and cobalt resistance in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Sanz, Laura; Prieto Carbajo, Rosa Isabel; Palacios Alberti, Jose Manuel; Brito Lopez, Maria Belen

    2013-01-01

    A member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family with high sequence similarity to DmeF (Divalent metal efflux) from Cupridavirus metallidurans was identified in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM1137. The R. leguminosarum dmeF mutant strain was highly sensitive to Co2+ and moderately sensitive to Ni2+, but its tolerance to other metals such as Zn2+, Cu2+ or Mn2+ was unaffected. An open reading frame located upstream of R. leguminosarum dmeF, designated dmeR, encodes a protein hom...

  4. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Martyniuk; Monika Kozieł; Anna Gałązka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv) in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv) i...

  5. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  6. Redox biology response in germinating Phaseolus vulgaris seeds exposed to copper: Evidence for differential redox buffering in seedlings and cotyledon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Karmous

    Full Text Available In agriculture, heavy metal contamination of soil interferes with processes associated with plant growth, development and productivity. Here, we describe oxidative and redox changes, and deleterious injury within cotyledons and seedlings caused by exposure of germinating (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hâtif seeds to copper (Cu. Cu induced a marked delay in seedling growth, and was associated with biochemical disturbances in terms of intracellular oxidative status, redox regulation and energy metabolism. In response to these alterations, modulation of activities of antioxidant proteins (thioredoxin and glutathione reductase, peroxiredoxin occurred, thus preventing oxidative damage. In addition, oxidative modification of proteins was detected in both cotyledons and seedlings by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. These modified proteins may play roles in redox buffering. The changes in activities of redox proteins underline their fundamental roles in controlling redox homeostasis. However, observed differential redox responses in cotyledon and seedling tissues showed a major capacity of the seedlings' redox systems to protect the reduced status of protein thiols, thus suggesting quantitatively greater antioxidant protection of proteins in seedlings compared to cotyledon. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive redox biology investigation of the effect of Cu on seed germination.

  7. Protein profile of cotyledon, tegument, and embryonic axis of mature acorns from a non-orthodox plant species: Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier-Hammami, Besma; Redondo-López, Inmaculada; Valero-Galvàn, José; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2016-02-01

    Contrary to the orthodox seeds, recalcitrant Holm oak seeds possess the enzymatic machinery to start germination during the maturation phase. The protein profile of the different parts, mature seeds, of the Holm oak, a non-orthodox plant species, has been characterized using one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Protein content and profiles of the three seed tissues (cotyledon, embryonic axis and tegument) were quite different. The embryonic axis showed 4-fold and 20-fold higher protein content than the cotyledon and the tegument, respectively. Two hundred and twenty-six variable proteins among the three seed parts were identified, being classified according to their function into eight main groups. The cotyledon presented the highest number of metabolic and storage proteins (89% of them are legumin) compared to the embryonic axis and tegument. The embryonic axis had the highest number of the species within the protein fate group. The tegument presented the largest number of the defense-/stress-related and cytoskeleton proteins. This distribution is in good agreement with the biological role of the tissues. The study of the seed tissue proteome demonstrated a compartmentalization of pathways and a division of metabolic tasks between embryonic axis, cotyledon and tegument. This compartmentalization uncovered in our study should provide a starting point for understanding, at the molecular level, the particularities of the recalcitrant seeds.

  8. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuyu; Cui, Xuefei; Su, Liang; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Gong, Qingqiu; Yang, Jianping; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2017-06-01

    A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark. We also find that JA stabilizes several COP1-targeted transcription factors in a COP1-dependent manner. RNA-seq analysis further defines a JA-light co-modulated and cop1-dependent transcriptome, which is enriched for auxin-responsive genes and genes participating in cell wall modification. JA suppresses COP1 activity through at least two distinct mechanisms: decreasing COP1 protein accumulation in the nucleus; and reducing the physical interaction between COP1 and its activator, SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 1 (SPA1). Our work reveals that JA suppresses COP1 activity to stabilize COP1 targets, thereby inhibiting hypocotyl elongation and stimulating cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis of the change of polyamine during the cold treatment in spring radish young cotyledons and hypocotyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C.; Park, J.W.; Cho, B.H. [University of Suwon, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The concentration of polyamine and the relationship between the concentration of PA and cold resistance were analysed during the cold stress in the cotyledons and hypocotyls of young spring radishes. The concentration of PUT was increased during the cold stress in the cotyledons and the concentration of PUT and SPD was changed significantly all the stress time. From the results, we suggested that PUT and SPD were synthesized against cold stress or separated from the bound PA during the cold stress. But, the concentration of SPM was not significantly changed during the cold stress. Only SPD existed in the control hypocotyls. The concentration of SPD was increased during the cold stress, but was decreased dramatically during continuously cold stress. The reactivity against stress of hypocotyls was generally more sensitive during the cold treatment than that of the cotyledons because of the lower concentration of PA in the hypocotyls. PUT and SPD were responsible for the resistance of cold stress in the cotyledons and PA did not play an important role on the resistance of cold stress in the hypocotyls. In this study we suggest that PUT and SPD were responsible for the increase of the resistance against the cold stress. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Effect of cytokinins on shoot regeneration from cotyledon and leaf segment of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, D.P.; Zhu, Z.J.; Hu, X.X.; Zheng Sijun, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cotyledon and leaf segments of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of different cytokinins [6-benzyladenine (BA), N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-n-phenylurea (CPPU), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KT) and thidiazuron (TDZ)

  11. Sulfur Assimilation in Developing Lupin Cotyledons Could Contribute Significantly to the Accumulation of Organic Sulfur Reserves in the Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabe, Linda Marie; Droux, Michel

    2001-01-01

    It is currently assumed that the assimilation of sulfur into reduced forms occurs predominantly in the leaves of plants. However, developing seeds have a strong requirement for sulfur amino acids for storage protein synthesis. We have assessed the capacity of developing seeds of narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for sulfur assimilation. Cotyledons of developing lupin seeds were able to transfer the sulfur atom from 35S-labeled sulfate into seed proteins in vitro, demonstrating the ability of the developing cotyledons to perform all the steps of sulfur reduction and sulfur amino acid biosynthesis. Oxidized sulfur constituted approximately 30% of the sulfur in mature seeds of lupins grown in the field and almost all of the sulfur detected in phloem exuded from developing pods. The activities of three enzymes of the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway were found in developing cotyledons in quantities theoretically sufficient to account for all of the sulfur amino acids that accumulate in the protein of mature lupin seeds. We conclude that sulfur assimilation by developing cotyledons is likely to be an important source of sulfur amino acids for the synthesis of storage proteins during lupin seed maturation. PMID:11351081

  12. Redox biology response in germinating Phaseolus vulgaris seeds exposed to copper: Evidence for differential redox buffering in seedlings and cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmous, Inès; Trevisan, Rafael; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Chaoui, Abdelilah; Sheehan, David

    2017-01-01

    In agriculture, heavy metal contamination of soil interferes with processes associated with plant growth, development and productivity. Here, we describe oxidative and redox changes, and deleterious injury within cotyledons and seedlings caused by exposure of germinating (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hâtif) seeds to copper (Cu). Cu induced a marked delay in seedling growth, and was associated with biochemical disturbances in terms of intracellular oxidative status, redox regulation and energy metabolism. In response to these alterations, modulation of activities of antioxidant proteins (thioredoxin and glutathione reductase, peroxiredoxin) occurred, thus preventing oxidative damage. In addition, oxidative modification of proteins was detected in both cotyledons and seedlings by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. These modified proteins may play roles in redox buffering. The changes in activities of redox proteins underline their fundamental roles in controlling redox homeostasis. However, observed differential redox responses in cotyledon and seedling tissues showed a major capacity of the seedlings' redox systems to protect the reduced status of protein thiols, thus suggesting quantitatively greater antioxidant protection of proteins in seedlings compared to cotyledon. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive redox biology investigation of the effect of Cu on seed germination.

  13. A novel beta-glucosidase in Uromyces fabae : feast or fight?

    OpenAIRE

    Haerter, Ariane C.; Voegele, Ralf T.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient nutrient mobilization is a key element for biotrophic plant parasites such as the rust fungi. In the course of a cDNA library screen for elements involved in sugar utilization in Uromyces fabae, we identified a sequence with homology to beta-glucosidases. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones of the gene, termed BGL1, were isolated and sequenced. The BGL1 gene comprises 3,372 nucleotides, including nine introns. The open reading frame encompasses 2,532 bases and codes for a polypeptid...

  14. Laboratory invesitgations of variability of Ascochyta fabae Speg. isolates obtained from horse bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Józef Filipowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty five isolates of Ascochyta fabae Speg. were investigated. They were selected from 1650 isolates of this fungus obtained from horse bean seeds in 1974-1976. All the isolates grew and sporulated on Potato Dextrose Agar, Malt Agar and Horse Bean Agar. The rate of their growth amounted to 1-4 mm per 24 hours. The variability of isolates in size of pycnidia and conidia and number of sepia was noticed. A few spores with untypical shapes were observed as well.

  15. Synthesis and Interconversion of Amino Acids in Developing Cotyledons of Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnicol, Peter K.

    1977-01-01

    Freshly isolated cotyledons from 10-day developing pea (Pisum sativum) seeds were fed radiolabeled precursors for 5 hours, and the specific radioactivity of the free and total protein amino acids was determined using a dansylation procedure. When the seven most abundant amino acids in phloem exudate of pea fruits (asparagine, serine, glutamine, homoserine, alanine, aspartate, glycine) were fed singly, their carbon was distributed widely among the aliphatic amino acids, proline and tryptophan; sporadic labeling of tyrosine and histidine also occurred. Feeding of glucose led to relatively greater labeling of aromatic amino acids including phenylalanine. The data support the involvement of known plant pathways in these interconversions. Labeling patterns were consistent with participation of the cyanoalanine pathway in the conversion of serine to homoserine, and with the synthesis of histidine from adenosine. All of the labeled amino acids were incorporated into protein. PMID:16660090

  16. Morphological aspects of starch and cell wall material mobilization in developing lupine cotyledons and the effect of kinetin on these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunat Młodzianowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cotyledons of dry lupine seeds the presence of starch was not demonstrated. Its formation during seed imbibition in darkness is accompanied by a reduction in the thickness of cell walls containing hemicelluloses. It is believed that the products of hemicellulose hydrolysis, particullarily in isolated cotyledons, arę the main source of materials for the synthesis of starch, In the process of cell wall decomposition the invaginations of plasmalemma appear to be involved. Kinetin enhance the hydrolysis of cell walls and the mobilization of starch in isolated cotyledons.

  17. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir. resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) R Díaz-Ruiz, A Torres, MV Gutierrez, D Rubiales, JI Cubero, M Kharrat, Z Satovic, B Román ...

  18. Efectos combinados del estres por salinidad y la nicotinamida sobre parametros bioquimicos y fisiologicos en plantas de haba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdelhamid, Magdi T; Sadak, Mervat Sh; Schmidhalter, Urs; Saady, Abdel-Kareem M. El

    2013-01-01

    .... One of these compounds is nicotinamide (vitamin B3/niacin). The effect of exogenous application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 or 400 mg [l.sup.-1]) on faba bean (Vicia faba L...

  19. The effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced by cold treatment in the improvement of tissue regeneration efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Skrzypek, E.; Dabrowska, G.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose that oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between generation and scavenging hydrogen peroxide contributes to tissue regeneration efficiency during somatic embryogenesis of hexaploid winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Kamila) and organogenesis of faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor

  20. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation, organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and physical properties of faba bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, E A; Elzidany, A A

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of Rhizobium inoculation, sulphur, nitrogen and chicken manure on yield, 100-seed weight, cookability, non-soakers, total defects and hydration coefficient of faba bean. The results showed that sulphur, nitrogen and chicken manure treatments significantly (p manure not only increased plant growth and yield, but also improved seed quality and nutritional value.

  1. Granular formulation of Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of faba bean and tomato Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M; Shabana, Yasser M; Serag, Mamdouh M; Hassan, Nemat M; El-Hawary, Mohamed M

    2008-12-01

    Orobanche spp. represent a serious threat to a wide range of crops. They are difficult targets for herbicides, and biological control could provide a possible solution. This work therefore aimed to formulate mycoherbicides of Fusarium with adequate shelf life and virulence against Orobanche but safe to faba bean and tomato. Only two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. (Foxy I and Foxy II) obtained from diseased Orobanche shoots were found to be pathogenic to Orobanche crenata Forsk. and Orobanche ramosa L. Conidial suspension of both isolates significantly decreased germination, attachments and tubercles of Orobanche. Microconidia and chlamydospores of both isolates were formulated as mycoherbicides encapsulated in a wheat flour-kaolin matrix (four different formulations). All formulations greatly diminished Orobanche emerged shoots, total shoot number, shoot height, attachment of emerged shoots, the germinated seeds that succeeded in emerging above the soil surface and dry weight. Meanwhile, disease incidence and disease severity of emerged shoots were enhanced. The shelf life was adequate, particularly for coarse, freshly prepared, low-temperature-stored, microconidia-rich formulations. The induced growth reduction of Orobanche-infected host plants seemed to be nullified by formulations, particularly at the highest dose. These formulations seemed to destroy Orobanche but appeared harmless to host plants. Hence, they could be efficiently used as mycoherbicides for biological control of Orobanche in faba bean and tomato.

  2. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion123

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Emily M; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect.

  3. Influence of faba bean and peas combination on per­for­man­ce parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Kratochvílová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of two varieties of peas and faba bean on performance was observed in grow experiment. Varieties of legumes were different in antinutritive factors levels. ZEKON (peas and MISTRAL (faba bean are low tannin varieties, GOTIK (peas and MERKUR (faba bean are traditional varieties with high level of antinutritive substances. Experiment was finished in 40 days of age. There were used 900 broilers allotted to 9 groups (100 animals in group. Peas and faba bean was dose to feed mixture on level adequate to 30 g of crude protein per kilogram of feed mixture, the rest of crude protein needed in feed mixture was covered by soya bean meal. The best results in final weight achieved group with GOTIK (2476.7 ± 270.8 g, the second was group ZEKON (2456.7 ± 247.2 g, than MISTRAL in combination with peas (2454.7 ± 268.5 g, MERKUR (2416.9 ± 266.1 g, ZEKON in combination with faba bean (2410,7 ± 297.8 g and MISTRAL group achieved 2405.6 ± 336.4 g of final weight. The rest of groups was belong 2400 g of body weight: control group 2370.1 ± 249.2 g, GOTIK in combination with peas 2302.9 ± 253.1 g and the worst result had group MERKUR in combination with peas (2258.8 ± 259.4 g. The differences were significant.

  4. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase gene expression in light- and dark-grown amaranth cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J O; Nikolau, B J; Carr, J P; Klessig, D F

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of expression of the genes encoding the large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) was examined in 1- through 8-day-old, dark-grown (etiolated) and light-grown amaranth cotyledons. RuBPCase specific activity in light-grown cotyledons increased during this 8-day period to a level 15-fold higher than in dark-grown cotyledons. Under both growth conditions, the accumulation of the LSU and SSU polypeptides was not coordinated. Initial detection of the SSU occurred 1 and 2 days after the appearance of the LSU in light- and dark-grown cotyledons, respectively. Furthermore, although the levels of the LSU were similar in both light- and dark-grown seedlings, the amount of the SSU followed clearly the changes in enzyme activity. Synthesis of these two polypeptides was dramatically different in etiolated versus light-grown cotyledons. In light the synthesis of both subunits was first observed on day 2 and continued throughout the growth of the cotyledons. In darkness the rate of synthesis of both subunits was much lower than in light and occurred only as a burst between days 2 and 5 after planting. However, mRNAs for both subunits were present in etiolated cotyledons at similar levels on days 4 through 7 (by Northern analysis) and were functional in vitro, despite their apparent inactivity in vivo after day 5. In addition, since both LSU and SSU mRNA levels were lower in dark- than in light-grown seedlings, our results indicate that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls modulate RuBPCase production in developing amaranth cotyledons. Images PMID:3837189

  5. Changes Germination, Growth and Anatomy Vicia ervilia in Response to Light Crude Oil Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thepetroleum concentrations are contaminant important sources in the environment. Hydrocarbon’s contaminants depend on their type and concentration can cause variable toxicity in soils, on the other hand, different kinds of plants also response concentration of contaminant differently, because of the diversity of physiological and morphological characteristics. In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil was investigated on stem length, germination and anatomical of Vicia ervilia. A factorial experiment was used with a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the germination and stem lengths decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05 with increasing concentrations of petroleum. Anatomical studies the changes of parenchyma, vascular bundles, epidermal and increase crack showed.

  6. A new family of oligosaccharides from the xyloglucan of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, M S; Crombie, H J; Mendes, C J; Reid, J S; Gidley, M J; Vieira, C C

    1997-09-05

    The xyloglucan from cotyledons of Hymenaea courbaril was hydrolysed with endo-(1,4)-beta-D-glucanase (cellulase) and analysed by TLC and HPAEC. The limit digest was different from those obtained from xyloglucans of Tamarindus indica and Copaifera langsdorffii. On treatment with nasturtium beta-galactosidase, two main oligosaccharides were detected by TLC and HPAEC. Using a process of enzymatic sequencing involving alternate treatments with a pure xyloglucan oligosaccharide-specific alpha-xylosidase, and a pure beta-glucosidase, both from nasturtium, their structures were deduced to be XXXG and a new oligosaccharide XXXXG. These structures were confirmed by 1H NMR. The relative proportions of XXXG and XXXXG indicate that approximately half of the subunits in Hymenaea xyloglucan are based on the new oligosaccharides. In the native polymer the XXXXG subunits are likely to carry galactosyl substituents in varying proportions, since cellulase hydrolysates contained many bands which were converted to XXXXG on hydrolysis with nasturtium beta-galactosidase. Although no comparative studies on the physico-chemical properties of Hymenaea courbaril xyloglucan have yet been performed, our results indicate that this polymer is less interactive with iodine when compared with T. indica and C. langsdorffii xyloglucans, suggesting that changes in conformation may occur due to the presence of XXXXG.

  7. Xyloglucan mobilisation in cotyledons of developing plantlets of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiné; Cortelazzo; Buckeridge

    2000-05-29

    Many seeds contain storage compounds that are used by the embryo/plantlet as a source of nutrients after germination. In seeds of Hymenaea courbaril, a leguminous tree, the main reserve consists of a structurally unusual xyloglucan stored in thickened walls of the cotyledon cells. The present work aimed to study H. courbaril xyloglucan metabolism during and after germination in order to compare its degrading system with the other known xyloglucan containing seeds. Polysaccharide degradation occurred after germination between 35 and 55 days after planting. The activities of alpha-xylosidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase and XET rose during the period of xyloglucan disassembling but a low level of endo-beta-glucanase activity was detected, suggesting that this XET has high affinity for the oligosaccharides. The pH optimum of beta-galactosidase was different from the alpha-xylosidase, beta-glucosidase and XET optima suggesting that the former may be important in the control of the mobilisation process. A tentative model for xyloglucan disassembling in vivo is proposed, where beta-galactosidase allows the free oligosaccharides to bypass a transglycosylation cycle and be disassembled by the other exo-enzymes. Some ecophysiological comparisons among H. courbaril and other xyloglucan storing seeds are discussed.

  8. The development and geometry of shape change in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Halsey, Leah E; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2011-02-01

    The leaf epidermis is an important architectural control element that influences the growth properties of underlying tissues and the overall form of the organ. In dicots, interdigitated pavement cells are the building blocks of the tissue, and their morphogenesis includes the assembly of specialized cell walls that surround the apical, basal, and lateral (anticlinal) cell surfaces. The microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are highly polarized along the cortex of the anticlinal wall; however, the relationships between these arrays and cell morphogenesis are unclear. We developed new quantitative tools to compare population-level growth statistics with time-lapse imaging of cotyledon pavement cells in an intact tissue. The analysis revealed alternating waves of lobe initiation and a phase of lateral isotropic expansion that persisted for days. During lateral isotropic diffuse growth, microtubule organization varied greatly between cell surfaces. Parallel microtubule bundles were distributed unevenly along the anticlinal surface, with subsets marking stable cortical domains at cell indentations and others clearly populating the cortex within convex cell protrusions. Pavement cell morphogenesis is discontinuous, and includes punctuated phases of lobe initiation and lateral isotropic expansion. In the epidermis, lateral isotropic growth is independent of pavement cell size and shape. Cortical microtubules along the upper cell surface and stable cortical patches of anticlinal microtubules may coordinate the growth behaviors of orthogonal cell walls. This work illustrates the importance of directly linking protein localization data to the growth behavior of leaf epidermal cells.

  9. LEAFY COTYLEDON1 is a key regulator of fatty acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jinye; Tan, Helin; Zheng, Qi; Fu, Fuyou; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Xiaohui; Wang, Tai; Chong, Kang; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zuo, Jianru

    2008-10-01

    In plants, fatty acids are de novo synthesized predominantly in plastids from acetyl-coenzyme A. Although fatty acid biosynthesis has been biochemically well studied, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the pathway. Here, we show that overexpression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) gene causes globally increased expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes, which are involved in key reactions of condensation, chain elongation, and desaturation of fatty acid biosynthesis. In the plastidial fatty acid synthetic pathway, over 58% of known enzyme-coding genes are up-regulated in LEC1-overexpressing transgenic plants, including those encoding three subunits of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme controlling the fatty acid biosynthesis flux. Moreover, genes involved in glycolysis and lipid accumulation are also up-regulated. Consistent with these results, levels of major fatty acid species and lipids were substantially increased in the transgenic plants. Genetic analysis indicates that the LEC1 function is partially dependent on ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3, FUSCA3, and WRINKLED1 in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, a similar phenotype was observed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing two LEC1-like genes of Brassica napus. These results suggest that LEC1 and LEC1-like genes act as key regulators to coordinate the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes, thereby representing promising targets for genetic improvement of oil production plants.

  10. Sunflower cotyledons cope with copper stress by inducing catalase subunits less sensitive to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Liliana B; Azpilicueta, Claudia E; Gallego, Susana M

    2011-07-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for living organisms, in excess, can be toxic to the cell because of its capacity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Catalase (CAT) catalyzes the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide into water and dioxygen and in plants it is located in peroxisomes and glyoxysomes. Different metals can induce changes in CAT activity, but the mechanism underlying its changes is unclear. After 4h of treatment with 5 and 10 μM CuCl(2) a decrease in the specific CAT activity was detected in sunflower cotyledons of post-germinative heterotrophic seedlings. At 8h of treatment, 5 μM Cu(2+) produced an induction of CAT activity while only a complete recovery to control values was observed for 10 μM Cu(2+) treated seedlings. These activity variations were not related to the level of CAT protein expression, but they did correlate with the oxidative state of the CAT protein. This indicates that the mechanism of CAT inactivation by Cu(2+) involves oxidation of the protein structure. The level of the mRNA of CATA3 and CATA4 increased with the presence of the metal after 4h of exposure. These CAT genes code for the synthesis of CAT subunits less sensitive to oxidation, which would prevent the copper-induced oxidative inactivation of CAT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Valproic acid transfer across human placental cotyledon during dual perfusion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semczuk-Sikora, Anna; Czuczwar, Stanislaw; Semczuk, Andrzej; Kwasniewska, Anna; Semczuk, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA ) is a well-known antiepileptic drug with a significant teratogenic effect when administered during pregnancy. To investigate the transplacental transport of VPA, we used an in vitro experiment of dual perfusion of a human placental cotyledon. Eighteen normal placentas at term were investigated; ten were treated with a therapeutic dose of VPA (initial level at maternal circulation 75 microgram/ml), while the remaining eight were supplied with toxic VPA doses (initial level at maternal circulation 225 microgram/ml). VPA concentrations in fetal compartment were lower than those in the maternal compartment at all timepoints with both doses applied. The maternal and foetal VPA concentrations were stable at 60 min and 120 min for the therapeutic dose of VPA (transfer percentages from the maternal to the fetal circulation were 22.7 +- 9.1 percent and 22.7 +- 7.1 percent, respectively). Interestingly, a significant decrease of VPA level in the maternal perfusate was observed after 120 min due to the slightly higher transfer of the drug to the foetal compartment. In conclusion, our data confirmed an easy and rapid transfer of VPA accross the placental barrier. Since the incidence of congenital malformations in infants correlates positively with VPA concentrations in maternal serum, monitoring of VPA should be mandatory due to possible harmful effects on the foetus.

  12. Arabidopsis STAY-GREEN, Mendel's Green Cotyledon Gene, Encodes Magnesium-Dechelatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Yousuke; Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2016-09-07

    Pheophytin a is an essential component of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, because the primary charge separation between chlorophyll a and pheophytin a is the first step in the conversion of light energy. In addition, conversion of chlorophyll a to pheophytin a is the first step of chlorophyll degradation. Pheophytin is synthesized by extracting magnesium (Mg) from chlorophyll; the enzyme Mg-dechelatase catalyzes this reaction. In this study, we report that Mendel's green cotyledon gene, STAY-GREEN (SGR), encodes Mg-dechelatase. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has three SGR genes, STAY-GREEN1 (SGR1), STAY-GREEN2 (SGR2), and STAY-GREEN LIKE (SGRL). Recombinant SGR1/2 extracted Mg from chlorophyll a but had very low or no activity against chlorophyllide a; in contrast, SGRL had higher dechelating activity against chlorophyllide a compared to chlorophyll a. All SGRs could not extract Mg from chlorophyll b. Enzymatic experiments using the photosystem and light-harvesting complexes showed that SGR extracts Mg not only from free chlorophyll but also from chlorophyll in the chlorophyll-protein complexes. Furthermore, most of the chlorophyll and chlorophyll-binding proteins disappeared when SGR was transiently expressed by a chemical induction system. Thus, SGR is not only involved in chlorophyll degradation but also contributes to photosystem degradation. {copyright, serif} 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  14. Host preference between symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aphis fabae, by the aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui-Xia; Meng, Ling; Mills, Nickolas J; Li, Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Few empirical studies have directly explored the association between Buchnera aphidicola (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and the life history strategies of aphid parasitoids. A series of paired-choice experiments were conducted to explore the preference of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus ambiguus Halliday (Hymenoptera: Aphididae) for symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the suitability of these hosts for parasitoid development. When given a choice between symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids of the same instar, the parasitoid significantly preferred symbiotic over aposymbiotic aphids only during the later instars (L(4) and adult). The suitability of aposymbiotic aphids for parasitoid development was equal to that of symbiotic aphids in terms of survivorship and sex ratio, but was significantly lower than that of symbiotic aphids for L(4) and adult instars in development rate and/or female adult size. When given a choice between similar-sized symbiotic L(2) and aposymbiotic L(4) aphids, the parasitoid preferred the former. No significant differences in preference or host suitability were demonstrated when the parasitoid was given a choice between different instars of aposymbiotic aphids. While parasitoid lifetime fecundity increased with aphid instar at the time of oviposition, there was no significant influence of previous development from symbiotic versus aposymbiotic aphids. These results suggest that while L. ambiguus can discriminate between symbiotic and aposymbiotic A. fabae during later instars and when the aphids are of a similar size, the primary endosymbiont is not needed for successful parasitoid development; and its absence only compromises parasitoid growth reared from later instar aposymbiotic host.

  15. Efficiency of propolis extract on faba bean plants and its role against nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noweer, E M A; Dawood, Mona G

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous substances collected by honey bees, It cannot be used as a raw material, so it must be purified by extraction with solvent. This work aimed to study the physiological influence of propolis extract as foliar application or soil drench on faba bean plants and its role against nematode infection. Propolis samples were extracted by using three different solvents (distilled water or 70% ethanol or acetone) (750 and 1000 mg/l). Qualitative tests of the propolis extracts proved that these extracts contain sterols, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Moreover, few numbers of phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, salicylic and benzoic acid) were also detected on TLC plates. All treatments of propolis extract (as foliar application or soil drench) increased total chlorophyll and carotenoid and the magnitude of increase was more pronounced by applying the higher concentration (1000 mg/l). Moreover, alll propolis extracts increased shoot height; root dry weight; number of branches and pods/plant; number of seeds/pod as well as seed index. Acetonic extract was the most effective particularly at higher concentration. Applying propolis extracts as foliar application or soil drench caused an increase in carbohydrate content of the yielded seeds accompanied by a decrease in phytic acid and vicine content. In addition, foliar application of all propolis extracts caused an increasing in protein content and phenolic compounds of the yielded seeds, whereas, soil drench with ethanolic or acetonic extract only at 1000 mg/L increased protein content. The data revealed that the propolis extract as soil drench reduced the juvenile-Meloidogyne sp.-population density per one kg soil and number of root-galls per one gm roots specially at the higher concentration (1000 mg/l). It is worthy to mention that faba bean plants treated with propolis extract either as foliar application or soil drench could overcome the inhibitory influence of nematode infection.

  16. Proteomic Investigations of Proteases Involved in Cotyledon Senescence: A Model to Explore the Genotypic Variability of Proteolysis Machinery Associated with Nitrogen Remobilization Efficiency during the Leaf Senescence of Oilseed Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Marine Poret; Balakumaran Chandrasekar; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.; Laurent Coquet; Thierry Jouenne; Jean-Christophe Avice

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape is characterized by a low nitrogen remobilization efficiency during leaf senescence, mainly due to a lack of proteolysis. Because cotyledons are subjected to senescence, it was hypothesized that contrasting protease activities between genotypes may be distinguishable early in the senescence of cotyledons. To verify this assumption, our goals were to (i) characterize protease activities in cotyledons between two genotypes with contrasting nitrogen remobilization efficiency (Ténor ...

  17. Nitric oxide induces cotyledon senescence involving co-operation of the NES1/MAD1 and EIN2-associated ORE1 signalling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Li, Manli; Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Wang, Jinzheng; Bao, Fang; Gong, Qingqiu; Xia, Jinchan; He, Yikun

    2014-07-01

    After germination, cotyledons undertake the major role in supplying nutrients to the pre-photoautorophy angiosperm seedlings until they senesce. Like other senescence processes, cotyledon senescence is a programmed degenerative process. Nitric oxide can induce premature cotyledon senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. A screen for genetic mutants identified the nes1 mutant, in which cotyledon senescence was accelerated by nitric oxide. Map-based cloning revealed that NES1 is allelic to a previously reported mitotic checkpoint family gene, MAD1. The nes1/mad1 mutants were restored to the wild type, in response to nitric oxide, by transforming them with pNES1::NES1. Ectopic expression of NES1 in the wild type delayed nitric oxide-mediated cotyledon senescence, confirming the repressive role of NES1. Moreover, two positive regulators of leaf senescence, the ethylene signalling component EIN2 and the transcription factor ORE1/AtNAC2/ANAC092, were found to function during nitric oxide-induced senescence in cotyledons. The block of ORE1 function delayed senescence and ectopic expression induced the process, revealing the positive role of ORE1. EIN2 was required to induce ORE1. Furthermore, the genetic interaction analysis between NES1 and ORE1 showed that the ore1 loss-of-function mutants were epistatic to nes1, suggesting the dominant role of ORE1 and the antagonistic role of NES1 during nitric oxide-induced cotyledon senescence in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Purification and characterization of cysteine protease from germinating cotyledons of horse gram

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    Rao Sridhar K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic enzymes play central role in the biochemical mechanism of germination and intricately involved in many aspects of plant physiology and development. To study the mechanism of protein mobilization, undertaken the task of purifying and characterizing proteases, which occur transiently in germinating seeds of horse gram. Results Cysteine protease (CPRHG was purified to homogeneity with 118 fold by four step procedure comprising Crude extract, (NH42SO4 fractionation, DEAE-Cellulose and CM-sephacel chromatography from the 2 day germinating cotyledons of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam. Verdc.. CPRHG is a monomer with molecular mass of 30 k Da, was determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The purified enzyme on IEF showed two isoforms having pI values of 5.85 and 6.1. CPRHG composed of high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by pCMB, iodoacetate and DEPC indicating cysteine and histidine residues at the active site. However, on addition of sulfhydryl reagents (cysteine, dithiothreitol, glutathione and beta-ME reverse the strong inhibition by pCMB. The enzyme is fairly stable toward pH and temperature. Immunoblot analysis shows that the enzyme synthesized as zymogen (preproenzyme with 81 kDa and processed to a 40 kDa proenzyme which was further degraded to give 30 kDa active enzyme. Conclusion It appears that the newly synthesized protease is inactive, and activation takes place during germination. CPRHG has a broad substrate specificity and stability in pH, temperature, etc. therefore, this protease may turn out to be an efficient choice for the pharmaceutical, medicinal, food, and biotechnology industry.

  19. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes

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    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C. M.; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. Methods We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Key Results Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. Conclusions The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164. PMID:21320879

  20. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C M; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P

    2011-06-01

    The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164.

  1. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis from immature cotyledons of Camellia nitidissima Chi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jinfeng; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Muhan; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Ma, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    Camellia nitidissima Chi (Theaceae) is a world-famous economic and ornamental plant with golden-yellow flowers. It has been classified as one of the rarest and most endangered plants in China. Our objective was to induce somatic embryogenesis, shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration for C. nitidissima. Three types of callus (whitish, reddish and yellowish) were induced from immature cotyledons on improved woody plant medium (WPM) with different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Among the callus, whitish callus was induced by 4.5 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and reddish and yellowish callus were induced by strongly active cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), singly or combined with weakly active auxin, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The embryogenic callus could differentiate into somatic embryos, nodular embryogenic structures (large embryo-like structures) or adventitious shoots depending on the PGR used in WPM. BAP was best for adventitious buds and zeatin was best for somatic embryogenesis while kinetin (Kt) was best for the formation of nodular embryogenic structures. The three regeneration pathways often occurred in the same embryogenic callus clumps. Most shoots (80.0%) developed roots in WPM supplemented with 24.6 μM IBA and 0.3 μM NAA while 47.5% of somatic embryos could germinate directly and develop into plantlets on induction medium supplemented with 0.9 μM BAP and 0.1 μM NAA. The nodular embryogenic structures could be sub-cultured and cyclically developed in one of two differentiation pathways: shoot organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis. Plantlets derived from shoot buds rooted and somatic embryos germinated when transplanted into soil in a greenhouse; 66.7% of plantlets from shoot culture and 78.6% of plantlets from somatic embryos survived after 8 weeks' acclimatization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Specificity and Photomorphogenic Nature of Ultraviolet-B-Induced Cotyledon Curling in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. I.; Greenberg, B. M.

    1993-06-01

    Three general classes of photomorphogenic photoreceptors have been characterized in higher plants: phytochrome, a blue light/ultraviolet (UV)-A photoreceptor(s), and a UV-B sensory system(s). Although a great deal is known about phytochrome and the blue light/UV-A photoreceptor(s), little is known about UV-B detection processes. One reason for this is the lack of readily quantifiable morphogenic responses that are specifically induced by UV-B radiation. We have discovered a response to UV-B, upward curling of Brassica napus L. cotyledons, that may be useful for probing the mechanism of UV-B photoreception. The process was initially observed when B. napus seeds were germinated under visible light plus UV-B radiation, but did not occur under visible light alone or visible light plus UV-A. When 5-d-old seedlings grown in visible light were given relatively short exposures of UV-B (100 min of 5.5 [mu]mol m-2 s-1), the curling response was also observed. Development of curling was separated from the application of this UV-B pulse by a 14-h latent period. Pulses of red light, blue light, farred light, and UV-A (100 min of 5.5 [mu]mol m-2 s-1) did not induce curling, indicating UV-B specificity Additionally, these other spectral regions did not reverse or enhance the UV-B-triggered response. The degree of curling showed a log-linear dependence on UV-B fluence (6-40 mmol m-2) and reciprocity with respect to length of exposure and fluence rate. The data indicate that curling is photomorphogenic in nature and may be triggered by a single photoreceptor species.

  3. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

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    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  4. The effects of seed size, cotyledon reserves, and herbivory on seedling survival and growth in Quercus rugosa and Q. laurina (Fagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfil, C

    1998-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment, seedling survival of two oak species (Quercus rugosa and Q. laurina) was greatly affected by the excision of cotyledons 1 mo after germination, with a greater impact on Q. laurina. The effect of seed size was also significant for both species, with a positive correlation between seed mass and survival and growth. The effect of cotyledon excision on seedling growth persisted throughout the first growing season in Q. rugosa and was not analyzed for Q. laurina due to the low number of seedlings that survived cotyledon excision. Seed size significantly affected seedling height, diameter, leaf area, and biomass at 6 mo. Seed size and cotyledon retention affected the ability of Q. rugosa to recover from herbivory, as both factors had a significant effect on relative growth rates after aerial biomass removal. The results show that seedlings originating from large seeds can better endure loss of cotyledons and aerial biomass and thus are better equipped to confront stress early in their lives.

  5. Taxonomic relationships in some Vicia species from Egypt, based on seed morphology and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.19345

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    Kadry Nabeh Abdel Khalik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The seed morphology and seed proteins of 11 Vicia taxa from Egypt were studied. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including seed shape, color, size, hilum shape and seed sculpture were described and analyzed. The secondary sculpture of the cell wall varies from papillose in nearly all Vicia species to lophate in V. hirsuta. Further, the seed proteins of studied taxa were investigated by SDS-PAGE and 39 different bands were scored. The similarity analysis based on the SDS-PAGE profile and seed morphology was found to be a useful characteristic for the discrimination of Vicia species both on the subgeneric and the sectional levels. The present study did not acknowledge V. tetrasperma and V. hirsuta as subgenus Ervum. As a result, division of Vicia into two subgenera i.e. Vicia and Cracca, is supported.

  6. Purification of a beta-galactosidase from cotyledons of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae). Enzyme properties and biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alcântara, P H N; Martim, L; Silva, C O; Dietrich, S M C; Buckeridge, M S

    2006-01-01

    Beta-galactosidases are enzymes that can be found in most living beings and in the plant kingdom its activity and genes have been detected in several tissues such as ripening fruits, developing leaves and flowers and storage tissues such as cotyledons. In plants, their activities are usually associated with the secondary metabolism or with oligosaccharide or polysaccharide degradation. Polysaccharide specific beta-galactosidases include beta-galactanases, which attack pectic polymers and beta-galactosidases that attack xyloglucans (XG). In the present work we purified an XG-specific beta-galactosidase (named hcbetagal) from cotyledons of developing seedlings of Hymenaea courbaril, a legume tree from the Neotropical region of the world. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52-62 kDa and was shown to attack specifically xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs) but not the polymer. It has a pH optimum between 3 and 4 and at this pH range the enzyme increases activity linearly up to 50 degrees C. Kinetic studies showed that hcbetagal is inhibited competitively by free galactose (K(i) = 3.7). The biochemical properties of hcbetagal as a whole suggest that it is involved in storage xyloglucan mobilisation during seedling development. Its high specificity towards XGOs, the low pH optimum and the fact that it is inhibited by its product (galactose) suggest that hcbetagal might be one of the biochemical control points in xyloglucan catabolism in vivo. A possible relationship with functional stability of the wall during cell death as cotyledons undergo senescence is discussed.

  7. The endoplasmic reticulum of mung-bean cotyledons: Quantitative morphology of cisternal and tubular ER during seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N; Chrispeels, M J

    1980-04-01

    The ultrastructure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in storage parenchyma cells in the cotyledons of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) was examined during germination and seedling growth. Two different methods were used to visualize the ER: thin (0.08 μm) sections of tissue fixed in formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde and post-fixed with osmium tetroxide, and thick (1 μm) sections of tissue fixed in buffered aldehyde and post-fixed with zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO). Changes in relative amounts of ER were quantified by morphometry (stereology).The ER occurs in two forms: a cisternal form with associated ribosomes which can be seen at all stages from imbibition to cotyledon senescence, and a tubular form which initially has associated ribosomes. Stereoscopic images of thick sections of cotyledons of 2-day-old seedlings show that the tubular ER consists of a three-dimensional array of interconnecting tubules which have numerous connections with the cisternal ER. The network of tubules and cisternae extends throughout the cytoplasm enveloping the protein bodies. Germination and seedling growth are accompanied by a reduction in the total volume occupied by the ER. This reduction is the result of a preferential loss of tubular ER and occurs largely before protein mobilization. Cisternal ER decreases during the first 48 h of imbibition and seedling growth, but storage cells subsequently show an increase in cisternal ER just prior to and during the period of protein mobilization. Cisternal ER remains conspicuous during the last phase of reserve mobilization when starch is broken down and the cells are starting autophagy.

  8. Nitrate simultaneously enhances lipid and protein accumulation in developing yellow lupin cotyledons cultured in vitro, but not under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Sławomir; Kalemba, Ewa Marzena; Pukacka, Stanisława; Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Stawiński, Stanisław; Ratajczak, Lech

    2017-09-01

    The research was conducted on yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) mature seeds, developing cotyledons, developing pods, and seedlings. The main storage compound in yellow lupin seeds is protein, whose content may reach up to 45%. Oil content in seeds of yellow lupin is about 6%. In such protein-storing seeds there is a strong negative relationship between accumulation of storage lipid and protein. An increase in protein content causes a decrease in lipid level, and vice versa. However, simultaneous increase in lipid and protein content is possible in developing lupin cotyledons (the main storage organs of lupin seeds) cultured in vitro. Such an effect was obtained by feeding the cotyledons with nitrate (35mM). The same positive relationship in storage lipid and protein accumulation was also obtained in developing lupin pods fed with nitrate (35mM), detached from the mother plant, and maintained under quasi in vitro conditions. Fertilization of lupin plants with nitrate under field conditions (40 or 80kgNha-1 applied before sowing, at the nodulation stage or at the flowering and pod formation stage) did not cause significant changes in lipid and protein contents in mature seeds. Experiments performed on lupin seedlings cultivated hydroponically showed that nitrate added to the medium was accumulated mainly in roots, and at a remarkably lower level in shoots. We hypothesize that the lack of stimulatory effect of nitrate on storage lipid and protein accumulation in seeds under field conditions is due to inefficient transport of nitrate from the root to developing pods in lupin plants. This causes that the level of nitrate inside the developing lupin seeds is not elevated under field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Wounding stimulates ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene and increases the level of jasmonic acid in Ipomoea nil cotyledons

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    Emilia Wilmowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allene oxide synthase (AOS encodes the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase pathway, which is responsible for jasmonic acid (JA formation. In this study we report the molecular cloning and characterization of InAOS from Ipomoea nil. The full-length gene is composed of 1662 bp and encodes for 519 amino acids. The predicted InAOS contains PLN02648 motif, which is evolutionarily conserved and characteristic for functional enzymatic proteins. We have shown that wounding led to a strong stimulation of the examined gene activity in cotyledons and an increase in JA level, which suggest that this compound may be a modulator of stress responses in I. nil.

  10. Metabolic responses in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa exposed to the imazamox herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garijo, A; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C; Palma, F

    2014-05-01

    Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

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    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  12. The influence of proanthocyanidin-rich bean hulls and level of dietary protein on energy metabolizability and nutrient digestibility by adult cockerels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, M A; Feuerstein, D; McNab, J M; McCorquodale, C

    1993-07-01

    Cotyledons and hulls were prepared from twelve varieties of field beans (Vicia faba L.). Adult cockerels were tube-fed either beans, cotyledons or hull diets containing high or low levels of protein. Metabolizable energy coefficients and starch digestibility coefficients were determined for beans, cotyledons and hull diets. Lipid digestibility coefficients from hull diets were also determined. When cotyledons were fed there were no significant differences in the way in which adult cockerels metabolized energy or digested starch from the proanthocyanidin-free and proanthocyanidin-rich varieties (0.780, 0.908, 0.775 and 0.918 respectively). When beans were fed, however, both energy metabolizability and starch digestibility decreased due to the presence of hulls, with proanthocyanidin-rich hulls decreasing values the most to 0.660 and 0.819 respectively, and proanthocyanidin-free hulls decreasing values to a lesser extent to 0.709 and 0.886 respectively. Diets composed of proanthocyanidin-rich hulls depressed metabolizable energy and maize starch digestibility. Their effect on maize starch digestibility, however, was considerably less than that on bean starch. Lipid digestibility was enhanced by proanthocyanidins but only when the protein content of the diet was high. There was a significant correlation (P bean starch digestibility v. proanthocyanidin content of coloured-flowered bean hulls (P < 0.001). The regression of maize starch digestibility v. hull proanthocyanidins was also significant at P < 0.005.

  13. Specific elements of the glyoxylate pathway play a significant role in the functional transition of the soybean cotyledon during seedling development

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    Vodkin Lila O

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soybean (Glycine max cotyledon is a specialized tissue whose main function is to serve as a nutrient reserve that supplies the needs of the young plant throughout seedling development. During this process the cotyledons experience a functional transition to a mainly photosynthetic tissue. To identify at the genetic level the specific active elements that participate in the natural transition of the cotyledon from storage to photosynthetic activity, we studied the transcript abundance profile at different time points using a new soybean oligonucleotide chip containing 19,200 probes (70-mer long. Results After normalization and statistical analysis we determined that 3,594 genes presented a statistically significant altered expression in relation to the imbibed seed in at least one of the time points defined for the study. Detailed analysis of this data identified individual, specific elements of the glyoxylate pathway that play a fundamental role during the functional transition of the cotyledon from nutrient storage to photosynthesis. The dynamics between glyoxysomes and peroxisomes is evident during these series of events. We also identified several other genes whose products could participate co-ordinately throughout the functional transition and the associated mechanisms of control and regulation and we described multiple unknown genetic elements that by association have the potential to make a major contribution to this biological process. Conclusion We demonstrate that the global transcript profile of the soybean cotyledon during seedling development is extremely active, highly regulated and dynamic. We defined the expression profiles of individual gene family members, enzymatic isoforms and protein subunits and classified them accordingly to their involvement in different functional activities relevant to seedling development and the cotyledonary functional transition in soybean, especially the ones associated with

  14. Nitric Oxide Synthase-Mediated Phytoalexin Accumulation in Soybean Cotyledons in Response to the Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis Elicitor1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Luzia Valentina; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Braga, Márcia Regina; Salgado, Ione

    2002-01-01

    Phytoalexin biosynthesis is part of the defense mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) plants against attack by the fungus Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis (Dpm), the causal agent of stem canker disease. The treatment of soybean cotyledons with Dpm elicitor or with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, resulted in a high accumulation of phytoalexins. This response did not occur when SNP was replaced by ferricyanide, a structural analog of SNP devoid of the NO moiety. Phytoalexin accumulation induced by the fungal elicitor, but not by SNP, was prevented when cotyledons were pretreated with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors. The Dpm elicitor also induced NOS activity in soybean tissues proximal to the site of inoculation. The induced NOS activity was Ca2+- and NADPH-dependent and was sensitive to the NOS inhibitors NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, aminoguanidine, and l-N6-(iminoethyl) lysine. NOS activity was not observed in SNP-elicited tissues. An antibody to brain NOS labeled a 166-kD protein in elicited and nonelicited cotyledons. Isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), pterocarpans (glyceollins), and flavones (apigenin and luteolin) were identified after exposure to the elicitor or SNP, although the accumulation of glyceollins and apigenin was limited in SNP-elicited compared with fungal-elicited cotyledons. NOS activity preceded the accumulation of these flavonoids in tissues treated with the Dpm elicitor. The accumulation of these metabolites was faster in SNP-elicited than in fungal-elicited cotyledons. We conclude that the response of soybean cotyledons to Dpm elicitor involves NO formation via a constitutive NOS-like enzyme that triggers the biosynthesis of antimicrobial flavonoids. PMID:12427995

  15. Combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on root growth, nutrient status and outplanting performance of Quercus variabilis container seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Shi

    Full Text Available Artificial excision of the distal part of acorns in order to promote germination is well researched in oak seedling cultivation studies. However, studies of combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on container seedlings are lacking, especially for seedling root growth and outplanting performance. This study aimed to explore the main effects of cotyledon excision on Quercus variabilis seedling emergence characteristics and demonstrated the combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on seedling quality to improve Quercus variabilis seedling outplanting performance. Four cotyledon excision treatments and two classes of nursery fertilization were implemented. Seedling emergence was noted every week after sowing. Seedling dry mass, morphology, and nutrient status were assessed at the end of the nursery season. After the first outplanting season, the aforementioned measurements along with seedling survival were determined once again. The results showed that cotyledon excision generally induced greater and more rapid seedling emergence, but did not affect shoot emergence synchronicity. The highest total emergence and emergence rate occurred with Intermediate excision (1/2 of the distal end of acorn was excised. Effects of nutrient loss due to cotyledon excision on seedling quality and outplanting performance were somewhat compensated by nursery fertilization. Nursery fertilization promoted dry mass increment (the net increment from T0 to T2 for dry mass for excised seedlings after outplanting, resulting in better performance for Slight (1/3 of the distal end of acorn was excised and Intermediate excision treatments in the field. Thus we conclude Intermediate excision combined with reasonable nursery fertilization can be recommended for production of nursery grown seedlings for afforestation.

  16. Combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on root growth, nutrient status and outplanting performance of Quercus variabilis container seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenhui; Bloomberg, Mark; Li, Guolei; Su, Shuchai; Jia, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Artificial excision of the distal part of acorns in order to promote germination is well researched in oak seedling cultivation studies. However, studies of combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on container seedlings are lacking, especially for seedling root growth and outplanting performance. This study aimed to explore the main effects of cotyledon excision on Quercus variabilis seedling emergence characteristics and demonstrated the combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on seedling quality to improve Quercus variabilis seedling outplanting performance. Four cotyledon excision treatments and two classes of nursery fertilization were implemented. Seedling emergence was noted every week after sowing. Seedling dry mass, morphology, and nutrient status were assessed at the end of the nursery season. After the first outplanting season, the aforementioned measurements along with seedling survival were determined once again. The results showed that cotyledon excision generally induced greater and more rapid seedling emergence, but did not affect shoot emergence synchronicity. The highest total emergence and emergence rate occurred with Intermediate excision (1/2 of the distal end of acorn was excised). Effects of nutrient loss due to cotyledon excision on seedling quality and outplanting performance were somewhat compensated by nursery fertilization. Nursery fertilization promoted dry mass increment (the net increment from T0 to T2 for dry mass) for excised seedlings after outplanting, resulting in better performance for Slight (1/3 of the distal end of acorn was excised) and Intermediate excision treatments in the field. Thus we conclude Intermediate excision combined with reasonable nursery fertilization can be recommended for production of nursery grown seedlings for afforestation.

  17. Exogenous Cellulase Switches Cell Interdigitation to Cell Elongation in an RIC1-dependent Manner in Arabidopsis thaliana Cotyledon Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Akita, Kae; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Miura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Pavement cells in cotyledons and true leaves exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like morphology in most dicotyledonous plants. Among the molecular mechanisms mediating cell morphogenesis, two antagonistic Rho-like GTPases regulate local cell outgrowth via cytoskeletal rearrangements. Analyses of several cell wall-related mutants suggest the importance of cell wall mechanics in the formation of interdigitated patterns. However, how these factors are integrated is unknown. In this study, we observed that the application of exogenous cellulase to hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons switched the interdigitation of pavement cells to the production of smoothly elongated cells. The cellulase-induced inhibition of cell interdigitation was not observed in a RIC1 knockout mutant. This gene encodes a Rho-like GTPase-interacting protein important for localized cell growth suppression via microtubule bundling on concave cell interfaces. Additionally, to characterize pavement cell morphologies, we developed a mathematical model that considers the balance between cell and cell wall growth, restricted global cell growth orientation, and regulation of local cell outgrowth mediated by a Rho-like GTPase-cytoskeleton system. Our computational simulations fully support our experimental observations, and suggest that interdigitated patterns form because of mechanical buckling in the absence of Rho-like GTPase-dependent regulation of local cell outgrowth. Our model clarifies the cell wall mechanics influencing pavement cell morphogenesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Halting a Wilful Degeneration into the Abyss: Rhapsodizing the Morass of Despair in Esiaba Irobi’s Inflorescence and Cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Akingbe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An examination of Nigeria’s nationhood in the themes of Inflorescence (1989 and Cotyledons (2009 reveals a dogged inscription of Esiaba Irobi’s poems within the context of Nigeria’s interweaving socio-political tragedies: the rapacious rape of her resources by the successive political class, the continuous violation of her humanistic ethos by the rampaging military institution, and the ignoble dispossession of her hopeless downtrodden masses. Irobi portrays a dialectical juxtaposition of the fragmented and haunted existentialism in Nigeria against the sanity and sanctity for human rights obtainable in the Western nations. The grounding of Nigeria’s disillusionment further underscores Nigeria’s stand on the brink of a political precipice. The paper aims to evaluate how Esiaba Irobi’s Inflorescence and Cotyledons have implicitly challenged Nigeria’s inability to live up to its expectations of fulfilling the present and future aspirations of its teeming population in the areas of  human and infrastructural developments.

  19. Glyoxysomal and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) cotyledons : I. Molecular properties of the purified isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, R A; Michaeli, S; Hock, B

    1977-01-01

    Molecular properties of the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzyme of malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37; L-malate: NAD(+) oxidoreductase) from watermelon cotyledons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) were investigated, using completely purified enzyme preparations. The apparent molecular weights of the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzymes were found to be 67,000 and 74,000 respectively. Aggregation at high enzyme concentrations was observed with the glyoxysomal but not with the mitochondrial isoenzyme. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis each isoenzyme was found to be composed of two polypeptide chains of identical size (33,500 and 37,000, respectively). The isoenzymes differed in their isoelectric points (gMDH: 8,92, mMDH: 5.39), rate of heat inactivation (gMDH: τ1/2 at 40°C=3.0 min; mMDH: stable at 40°C; τ1/2 at 60°C=4.5 min), adsorption to dextran gels at low ionic strenght, stability against alkaline conditions and their pH optima for oxaloacetate reduction (gMDH: pH 6.6, mMDH: pH 7.5). Very similar pH optima, however, were observed for L-malate oxidation (pH 9.3-9.5). The results indicate that the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial MDH of watermelon cotyledons are distinct proteins of different structural composition.

  20. Effects of gamma-irradiation on cotyledon cell separation and pectin solubilisation in hard-to-cook cowpeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jombo, Talknice Z; Minnaar, Amanda; Taylor, John Rn

    2017-08-31

    Cowpeas stored under high temperature and humidity develop the hard-to-cook defect (HTC). This defect greatly increases cooking times and energy costs. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the HTC defect development, the effects of gamma-irradiation on cotyledon cellular structure and pectin solubility in two cowpea cultivars with different susceptibility to HTC defect were investigated. Gamma-irradiation decreased cotyledon cell wall thickness, increased cell size, and intercellular spaces in both cowpea cultivars and reduced cooking time of the less HTC susceptible cultivar. However, it did not reverse the HTC defect in the susceptible cultivar. Gamma-irradiation also increased the levels of cold water- and hot water-soluble pectin. The irradiation effects were thus mainly due to hydrolysis of pectin fractions in the cell walls. However, chelator-soluble pectin (CSP) solubility was not affected. As the cell wall changes brought about by gamma-irradiation were associated with pectin solubilisation, this supports the phytate-phytase-pectin theory as a major cause of the HTC defect. However, the non-reversal of the defect in HTC susceptible cowpeas and the absence of an effect on CSP indicate that other mechanisms are involved in HTC defect development in cowpeas, possibly the formation of alkali-soluble, ester bonded pectins. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A putative amino acid transporter is specifically expressed in haustoria of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, M; Neef, U; Struck, C; Göttfert, M; Mendgen, K

    1997-05-01

    A cDNA library constructed from haustoria of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae was screened for clones that are differentially expressed in haustoria. One family of cDNAs (in planta-induced gene 2 [PIG2] was isolated and found to encode a protein with high homologies to fungal amino acid transporters. A cDNA clone containing the complete coding region of PIG2 and the corresponding genomic clone were isolated and sequenced, revealing the presence of 17 introns in the PIG2 gene. Expression of PIG2 mRNA appeared to be restricted to haustoria. With antibodies raised against synthetic peptides, the PIG2-encoded protein was found in membranes fractions of isolated haustoria but not of germinated rust spores. With immunofluorescence microscopy, the putative amino acid transporter was localized to plasma membranes of the haustorial bodies, but not detected in the haustorial neck, haustorial mother cells, or intercellular fungal hyphae growing within infected leaf tissue. These data present for the first time molecular evidence that the rust haustorium plays a special role in the uptake of nutrients from an infected host cell.

  2. Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Claudio S.L.; Rafael A. Fighera; Daniela B. Rozza; Raquel R. Rech; Simone V. Sallis; Langohr, Ingeborg M.

    2001-01-01

    Dois surtos de uma doença associada ao pastoreio de duas espécies de ervilhaca (predominantemente Vicia villosa e, em menor grau, V. sativa) foram observados em agosto-setembro de 2001, em vacas Holandesas adultas de duas propriedades rurais do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram afetadas, em uma das propriedades, quatro de 42 vacas (9,5%) e, na outra, uma de oito vacas (12,5%). Os sinais clínicos incluíam, embora não em todos os casos, febre, prurido, espessamento e enrugamento da pele com placas multi...

  3. Effect of Egyptian cooking methods of faba beans on its nutritive value, dietary protein utilization and iron deficiency anemia. 1. The role of main technological pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A

    1996-01-01

    In order to study the effects of main technological pretreatments practised for preparing Egyptian faba bean products, i.e. decortication as well as soaking and germination followed by dehulling on the nutritional value, series of experiments were carried out. Such pretreatments had a significant effect on the changes in the chemical composition of faba beans. The proportion of the removed hulls reached generally about 14%. Data revealed also pronounced improvements on the nutritive value as a result of all studied pretreatments, especially germination being the most effective. Chemical scoring of all determined essential amino acids was > 60, except methionine and cystine showed the lowest score (content.

  4. Effects of Wheat and Faba Bean Intercropping on Microorganism Involved in Nitrogen Transformation in the Rhizosphere Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Yan-fen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganism is one of the key factors that affects soil ecological activity. It is an important symbol of soil health, and the soil nitrogen cycle is closely related to the microorganisms. The relationship between nitrogen and microorganisms under the intercropping is im-portant for the farmland ecosystem. In this paper, phospholipid fatty acids(PLFA analysis was used to determine soil microbial communi-ties, e.g., biomasses of anaerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria, bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria. The abundance of nitrifying genes(AOB, AOA and three denitrifying genes (nirK, norB, nosZ were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The enzymes, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were measured using conventional methods. The results showed that along with the growth period, the TPLFAs(total phospholipid fatty acids increased and the bacterias, fungus, actinomyces and aerobic bacterias significantly(P<0.05 dif-fered between intercropping and monoculture. The greater abundance of AOB than AOA and the variation range of 105~106 were observed in all samples. The gene copies of norB and nosZ were pronounced by intercropping in the rhizosphere of faba bean at elongation and heading stages, respectively. The abundance of nirK remarkably(P<0.05differed between intercropping and monoculture. In intercropping rhizo-sphere, the contents of NO3--N were lower than monoculture, while the NH4+-N contents were converse (P<0.05. Conclusively, wheat and fa-ba bean intercropping system could change rhizosphere microenvironment, and then the microbial community structure in the soils, which would facilitate the conservation and supplying of soil nitrogen and reduce the nitrogen loss and pollution under the intercropping conditions to some extent. This might be the nitrogen nutrition mechanism for the overyielding of wheat and faba bean intercropping system.

  5. Characterization of a developmentally regulated amino acid transporter (AAT1p) of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Struck, Christine; Ernst, Michael; Hahn, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    In the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, invasion of the host plant and haustorium formation are accompanied by the activation of many genes (PIGs = in planta induced genes). In addition to the previously described AAT2 (PIG2), AAT1 (PIG27) was found to encode a protein with a high similarity to fungal amino acid permeases. AAT1 transcripts are present in germinated hyphae and throughout the mycelium later in the infection process, but occur at the highest levels in haustoria. Expression of AAT1p i...

  6. In vitro organogenesis in watermelon cotyledons Organogênese in vitro em cotilédones de melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziela Zagatto Krug

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the in vitro organogenesis of Citrullus lanatus, by the induction of adventitious buds in cotyledon segments cultured in medium supplemented with cytokinin. Explants were collected from one, three and five-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings, considering the distal and proximal cotyledon regions. The data obtained showed that in vitro organogenesis of watermelon occurred with higher efficiency, when cotyledon segments from the proximal region collected from three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in medium MS, supplemented with BAP (1 mg L-1 and coconut water (10%. The histological study showed that the organogenesis occurs directly, without callus formation, on epidermal and subepidermal layers of the explants. Adventitious shoots were characterized by the development of shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. The formation of protuberances, that do not develop into adventitious buds, was also observed.O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a organogênese in vitro de C. lanatus, pela indução de gemas adventícias, em segmentos de cotilédones, cultivados em meio de cultura suplementado com citocinina. Os explantes consistiram de segmentos das regiões distal e proximal de cotilédones, coletados de plantas germinadas in vitro com um, três e cinco dias de idade. Os dados obtidos mostram que a organogênese de melancia, in vitro, ocorre com maior eficiência em segmentos da região proximal dos cotilédones, coletados de plântulas com três dias de idade e cultivados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com a combinação BAP (1 mg L-1 e água de coco (10%. Pelo estudo histológico, verificou-se que a organogênese ocorre diretamente, sem a formação de calo, na epiderme e subepiderme do explante. As gemas adventícias foram caracterizadas pela presença de meristema apical e primórdios foliares. Observou-se, também, o desenvolvimento de protuberâncias que não se desenvolvem em gemas adventícias.

  7. Detailed analysis of seed coat and cotyledon reveals molecular understanding of the hard-to-cook defect of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianyong; Njoroge, Daniel M; Sila, Daniel N; Kinyanjui, Peter K; Christiaens, Stefanie; Bi, Jinfeng; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2016-11-01

    The hard-to-cook (HTC) defect in legumes is characterized by the inability of cotyledons to soften during the cooking process. Changes in the non-starch polysaccharides of common bean seed coat and cotyledon were studied before and after development of the HTC defect induced by storage at 35°C and 75% humidity for 8months. Distinct differences in the yields of alcohol insoluble residues, degree of methoxylation (DM), sugar composition, and molar mass distribution of non-starch polysaccharides were found between the seeds coat and cotyledons. The non-starch polysaccharide profiles, both for seed coats and cotyledons, significantly differed when comparing HTC and easy-to-cook (ETC) beans. In conclusion, differences in the structure, composition and extractability of non-starch polysaccharides between the ETC and HTC beans confirmed the significant role of pectin polysaccharides in interaction with divalent ions in the HTC development, which consequently affect their cooking behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  9. Characterization of the snowy cotyledon 1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: the impact of chloroplast elongation factor G on chloroplast development and plant vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Verónica; Ingenfeld, Anke; Apel, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    During seedling development chloroplast formation marks the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. The development and activity of chloroplasts may differ in cotyledons that initially serve as a storage organ and true leaves whose primary function is photosynthesis. A genetic screen was used for the identification of genes that affect selectively chloroplast function in cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana. Several mutants exhibiting pale cotyledons and green true leaves were isolated and dubbed snowy cotyledon (sco). One of the mutants, sco1, was characterized in more detail. The mutated gene was identified using map-based cloning. The mutant contains a point mutation in a gene encoding the chloroplast elongation factor G, leading to an amino acid exchange within the predicted 70S ribosome-binding domain. The mutation results in a delay in the onset of germination. At this early developmental stage embryos still contain undifferentiated proplastids, whose proper function seems necessary for seed germination. In light-grown sco1 seedlings the greening of cotyledons is severely impaired, whereas the following true leaves develop normally as in wild-type plants. Despite this apparent similarity of chloroplast development in true leaves of mutant and wild-type plants various aspects of mature plant development are also affected by the sco1 mutation such as the onset of flowering, the growth rate, and seed production. The onset of senescence in the mutant and the wild-type plants occurs, however, at the same time, suggesting that in the mutant this particular developmental step does not seem to suffer from reduced protein translation efficiency in chloroplasts.

  10. Effect of kinetin and chloramphenicol on chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast development in detached lupin cotyledons under low light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunat Młodzianowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll synthesis in detached lupin cotyledons under low light intensity was stimulated by kinetin at 20 mg/l and inhibited by chloramphenicol at 50 mg/1. Kinetin not only conteracted the inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol, but stimulated1 the chlorophyll syntesis to a greater level than in the control material. Kinetin accelerated the starch degradation and the development of chloroplast; its prolonged, action, however, produced some abnormalities, such as an excessive growth of plastids resulting in some cases in bursting of their envelopes, the formation and release f r om plastids of numerous membrane - bound bodies and the accumulation in released and swollen thylakoids of electron - dense substance. In the presence of chloramphenicol, some disturbances in structure of the stroma thylakoids and the appearance of vesicular structures in the stroma and the enlargement of grana and swelling of their thylakoids were observed. Kinetin prevented some of these abnormalities.

  11. potential antagonistic fungal species from ethiopia for biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Chocolate spot disease (Botrytis fabae Sard) is one of most yield limiting constraints of faba bean (Vicia faba). There is promise in using biological control agents to control chocolate spot diseases, nevertheless, this strategy has not been fully exploited. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of different ...

  12. Publications | Page 493 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 4921 - 4930 of 6364 ... Estimation genetic variation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces in Yemen : a thesis (restricted access). The study investigates genetic variations between and within Yemeni faba bean landraces, estimates correlations and coefficients for the most important traits, and characterizes phenotypic ...

  13. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plant and homopteran sugar sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, V.; Fischer, M.D.; Wäckers, F.L.; Volkl, W.

    2001-01-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba), an annual plant bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFN) at the base of the upper leaves, is regularly infested by two aphid species, Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. EFN and A. fabae are commonly attended by the ant, Lasius niger, while Ac. pisum usually remains uninfested.

  14. Potential antagonistic fungal species from Ethiopia for biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chocolate spot disease (Botrytis fabae Sard) is one of most yield limiting constraints of faba bean (Vicia faba). There is promise in using biological control agents to control chocolate spot diseas`es, nevertheless, this strategy has not been fully exploited. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of different ...

  15. East African Journal of Sciences - Vol 10, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Extracts to Suppress Growth of Botrytis fabae and Manage Chocolate Spot Severity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba) at Sinana, Bale Zone, Southeastern Ethiopia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Addisu Tegegn, Meseret ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egigu, Meseret Chimdessa. Vol 10, No 2 (2016) - Articles Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Extracts to Suppress Growth of Botrytis fabae and Manage Chocolate Spot Severity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba) at Sinana, Bale Zone, Southeastern Ethiopia Abstract. ISSN: 1992-0407. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  17. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  18. In vitro evaluation of whole faba bean and its seed coat as a potential source of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkantürk Karataş, Selen; Günay, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2017-09-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the particular nutritional benefits of whole faba bean seed (WFB) and fava bean seed coat (FBSC). Total dietary fiber contents of WFB and FBSC were 27.5% and 82.3%, respectively. FBSC were contained much higher total phenolic substances, condensed tannins, and total antioxidant activity than WFB. Bile acid (BA)-binding capacities of in vitro digested samples and nutritionally important products produced by in vitro fermentation of digestion residues were also studied. The BA-binding capacities of WFB and FBSC were 1.94 and 37.50μmol/100mg, respectively. Total BA bound by FBSC was even higher than the positive standard cholestyramine. Lignin and other constituents of the Klason residue were found to influence BA-binding properties. Moreover, the extent of the in vitro fermentation process showed that, fermentability of FBSC residue was significantly lower than that of WFB residue. Overall, faba bean, especially its seed coat, has great potential as a functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB > RSM > SFM > FB) was greatest from day 0 to day 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility, while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility. Fermentation of RSM, SFM, FB and RSM/SFM/FB without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. [Effect of the same amount of faba bean fresh straw returning with different ratios of chemi- cal fertilizer on single cropping late rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-hong; Zhang, Xian; Cao, Kai; Hua, Jin-wei

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on paddy soil derived from alluvial materials at Bihu Town, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China to explore the effects of combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer on nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiencies, and yields of single cropping late rice and to determine the optimal rate of chemical fertilizer under the condition of application of faba bean fresh straw at the rate of 15 t · hm(-2) (GM15) in 2012, April to December. The experiments consisted of 7 treatments: CK (no fertilizers) , CF (conventional chemical fertilizer rate) , and combined application of 15 t · hm(-2) of faba bean fresh straw and 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate. The results showed that the highest total uptake amounts of N, P and K by the aboveground part were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60%CF and GM15 + 80% CF, but the highest nutrient agronomy use efficiencies of N, P and K in rice grains were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60% CF and GM15 + 40% CF. The agronomy use efficiencies and physiological use efficiencies of N, P, and K were significantly correlated with rice grain yields, thus they could be used for accurate comprehensive evaluation of fertilizer efficiencies of N, P, and K. Compared with no fertilizer treatment, the treatments of 100% CF and combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer increased rice gain yields by 25.0% and 6.1%-29.2%, respectively. In the cropping system of faba bean-single cropping late rice, returning of 15 t · hm2 faba bean fresh straw to the paddy field did not result in the runt seedling of rice. From the point of improving fertilizer use efficiency and reducing environmental risk perspective, the optimum rate of chemical fertilizer was 60% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate when 15 t · h(-2) of faba bean fresh straw was applied.

  1. Hamowanie syntezy chlorofilu i RNA w izolowanych liścieniach ogórka przez N-hydroksymocznik [Inhibition of chlorophyll and RNA synthesis by N-hydroxyurea in detached cucumber cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available N-hydroxyurea (HU at the concentration of 5 x 10-4 M decreased the content of chlorophyll in detached cucumber cotyledons; at this concentration it has no inhibitory effect on growth. Benzylaminopurine, gibberelic acid and KCl partially reversed the inhibitory effect of HU on chlorophyll synthesis. HU stimulated yellowing of barley first leaf sections. The compound had little effect on leucine-14C incorporation to protein, and markedly inhibited uracil-14C incorporation in to RNA of the greening cucumber cotyledons. It is suggested that the inhibition of RNA and chlorophyll synthesis in HU-treated cucumber cotyledons follows the HU-dependent inhibition of DNA replication.

  2. Granulomatous myelitis associated with hemorrhagic syndrome due to consumption of Vicia villosa by cattle Mielite granulomatosa associada à síndrome hemorrágica devido ao consumo de Vicia villosa em um bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sonne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of spontaneous Vicia villosa poisoning affected a 6-year-old Holstein cow. Although the most striking findings included a generalized hemorrhagic condition associated with granulomatous myelitis, histological lesions typically seen with the vetch-associated systemic granulomatous syndrome were also present. Prominent gross findings were bloody nasal and oral discharges, disseminated hemorrhages, and bloody feces. Generalized hemorrhages associated with infiltration of numerous organs by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, multinucleated giants cells, and eosinophils were the main microscopic findings. Anti-CD68 immunostaining confirmed the presence of moderate histiocytic infiltrate and multinucleated giant cells in the bone marrow. These changes in the bone marrow probably caused the generalized hemorrhagic changes described here.Um bovino Holandês de seis anos naturalmente intoxicado pela Vicia villosa apresentou lesões não comumente encontradas nessa intoxicação. Embora a lesão mais evidente fosse hemorragia generalizada associada à mielite granulomatosa, as lesões granulomatosas típicas da intoxicação pela ervilhaca também estavam presentes histologicamente. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram hemorragias nasal e oral, hemorragias generalizadas e fezes com sangue. Lesões hemorrágicas generalizadas associadas com infiltrado inflamatório de linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos foram os principais achados microscópicos encontrados. O teste imuno-histoquímico anti-CD68 confirmou a presença de infiltrado moderado de macrófagos e de células gigantes multinucleadas na medula óssea. As alterações na medula óssea provavelmente constituem a causa da hemorragia generalizada descrita nesse caso.

  3. Synchrotron-based microspectroscopic study on the effects of heat treatments on cotyledon tissues in yellow-type canola (Brassica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Theodoridou, Katerina; Xin, Hangshu; Huang, Pei-Yu; Lee, Yao-Chang; Wood, Bayden R

    2013-07-31

    Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) microspectroscopy is able to reveal structural features of biomaterials within intact tissue at both cellular and molecular levels. Heat-related treatments have been used to improve nutrient availability of canola seeds and meal. However, hitherto, there has been no study on the sensitivity and response of each layer in canola seeds to heat-related treatments. It is not known which layer (epiderm/mucllage, spermoderm, endosperm, or cotyledon) is the most sensitive to heat when heat treatment is applied to the seeds. Traditional wet chemical analysis is unable to answer such questions. The objective of this study is to use synchrotron IR microspectroscopy with multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a research tool to study heat treatment effects in a fast way on the structural changes in cotyledon tissues of yellow-type canola (Brassica) seeds among raw (treatment code "A"), wet heating (autoclaving at 121 °C for 60 min, treatment code "B"), and dry heating (dry roasting at 120 °C for 60 min, treatment code "C"). The hypothesis of this study was that different heat treatments have different heat penetration abilities on cotyledon tissues in yellow-type canola seeds. The multivariate analytical tools principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchal cluster analysis (AHCA) were applied to investigate variance and groupings within the spectral data set [whole spectral range of ca. 4000-650 cm(-1), spectral range of ca. 1300-900 cm(-1) (cellulose or saccarides), spectral range of ca. 1800-1500 cm(-1) (secondary structures of protein) and spectral range of ca. 1500-1300 cm(-1) (bending motion of methylene and methyl group; this change is consistent with the change in the range of ca. 3000-2800 cm(-1))]. The results showed that there were no clear cluster and groups formed in the cotyledon tissues among the three treatments (A, B, and C). There were no clear distinguished responses of the cotyledon tissues to different

  4. Ecogeographic variability and genetic diversity associated with seed albumins, globulins and prolamins patterns in Vicia taxa from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechkri, Sakina; Medoukali, Imane; Khelifi, Douadi

    2017-12-01

    Genetic variability was studied in 78 populations of locally collected Vicia L. taxa for seed albumins, globulins and prolamins patterns by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) along with an ecogeographic characterization of sites investigated. 131, 119 and 98 bands were respectively used for albumin, globulin and prolamin cluster analysis. Dendrograms based on the Jaccard index and the UPGMA method were generated and the degree of genetic diversity between and within taxa was evaluated. Five clusters were generated from albumins, six from globulins and four from prolamins patterns. The results reflect the great diversity of storage proteins and a high correlation was obtained between the three studied fractions. Several accessions present specific bands which could be used as a discriminatory marker both on intra and interspecific levels. No clear relationships were seen between the groups according to their geographical origin. Data obtained from ecogeographic investigation can be used for future collecting missions.

  5. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  6. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  7. SNOWY COTYLEDON 2 Promotes Chloroplast Development and Has a Role in Leaf Variegation in Both Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagari, Nicola; Sandoval-Ibañez, Omar; Sandal, Niels; Su, Junyi; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel; Stougaard, Jens; Pribil, Mathias; Leister, Dario; Pulido, Pablo

    2017-05-01

    Plants contain various factors that transiently interact with subunits or intermediates of the thylakoid multiprotein complexes, promoting their stable association and integration. Hence, assembly factors are essential for chloroplast development and the transition from heterotrophic to phototrophic growth. Snowy cotyledon 2 (SCO2) is a DNAJ-like protein involved in thylakoid membrane biogenesis and interacts with the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding protein LHCB1. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SCO2 function was previously reported to be restricted to cotyledons. Here we show that disruption of SCO2 in Lotus japonicus results not only in paler cotyledons but also in variegated true leaves. Furthermore, smaller and pale-green true leaves can also be observed in A. thaliana sco2 (atsco2) mutants under short-day conditions. In both species, SCO2 is required for proper accumulation of PSII-LHCII complexes. In contrast to other variegated mutants, inhibition of chloroplastic translation strongly affects L. japonicus sco2 mutant development and fails to suppress their variegated phenotype. Moreover, inactivation of the suppressor of variegation AtClpR1 in the atsco2 background results in an additive double-mutant phenotype with variegated true leaves. Taken together, our results indicate that SCO2 plays a distinct role in PSII assembly or repair and constitutes a novel factor involved in leaf variegation. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of genome regions controlling cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance to pea weevil through QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryamanesh, N; Zeng, Y; Byrne, O; Hardie, D C; Al-Subhi, A M; Khan, T; Siddique, K H M; Yan, G

    2013-11-15

    Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum, is one of the limiting factors for field pea (Pisum sativum) cultivation in the world with pesticide application the only available method for its control. Resistance to pea weevil has been found in an accession of Pisum fulvum but transfer of this resistance to cultivated pea (P. sativum) is limited due to a lack of easy-to-use techniques for screening interspecific breeding populations. To address this problem, an interspecific population was created from a cross between cultivated field pea and P. fulvum (resistance source). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed to discover the regions associated with resistance to cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance. Three major QTLs, located on linkage groups LG2, LG4 and LG5 were found for cotyledon resistance explaining approximately 80 % of the phenotypic variation. Two major QTLs were found for pod wall/seed coat resistance on LG2 and LG5 explaining approximately 70 % of the phenotypic variation. Co-linearity of QTLs for cotyledon and pod wall/seed coat resistance suggested that the mechanism of resistance for these two traits might act through the same pathways. Only one QTL was found for pod wall resistance on LG7 explaining approximately 9 % of the phenotypic variation. This is the first report on the development of QTL markers to probe Pisum germplasm for pea weevil resistance genes. These flanking markers will be useful in accelerating the process of screening when breeding for pea weevil resistance.

  9. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... the expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...

  10. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, Tbk; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  11. Quantification of cyanamide in young seedlings of Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Takemura, Tomoko; Wasano, Naoya; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hiradate, Syuntaro

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the cyanamide content of young leaves of nine Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia using a modified analytical procedure that made it possible to measure the cyanamide content of a single leaf. Recent molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that cyanamide is present in V. benghalensis, which is placed in a monophyletic group with cyanamide-biosynthesizing plants, V. villosa and V. cracca; this suggestion was verified.

  12. Effect on Some Characteristics of M2 Generation of Three Hungarian Vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz.) The Application of Different Doses of Gamma Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    BAĞCI, Muhittin; Mutlu, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study covers M2 generation of the mutation breeding Project with practice of gamma irradiation on Hungarian vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz.). The study was counducted, with the purpose of determine and contrast control dose have effects on some properties of vegetational. In the study, M1 plant seeds of three Hungarian vetch cultivars (Tarmbeyazı-98, Anadolupembesi-2002 and Oğuz-2002) were planted. It was examined that morphological, biological and agricultural characteristics obtained M2...

  13. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINOACIDS ON PLANT YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FABA BEAN PLANTS IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. ABDELHAMID

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity decreases yield in arid and semi-arid areas. With increasing demand for irrigation water, alternative sources are being sought. Seawater salinity was previously considered unusable for irrigation. However, this water can be used successfully to grow crops under certain conditions. Amino acids is well known biostimulant which has positive effects on plant growth and yield, and significantly mitigates the injuries caused by abiotic stresses Therefore, in the present study, the effect of exogenously treatment amino acid on faba bean plant growing under sea water salt stress was investigated. Reduction of salinity damage in faba bean by using a mixture of amino acids to improve morphological and biochemical parameters, and thus raising the level of plant yield was tested. A pot experiment was conducted to alleviate the harmful effects of seawater salinity on faba bean cv. Giza 843 by foliar spraying of an amino acid mixture with different concentrations (0.0, 500, 1000 or 1500 mg L-1. Irrigation of faba bean plants with seawater levels of 3.13 and 6.25 dS m-1 led to significant reductions in plant height, number of leaves plant, fresh and dry weight of shoots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, polysaccharides, nucleic acid DNA and RNA contents of faba bean leaves. Seawater salinity induced higher contents of Na+ and Cl- and decreased contents of K+, K+:Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P3+. Irrigation of faba bean plant with different levels of seawater decreased seed yield and total dry weight per plant compared with those irrigated with tap water. Also, total carbohydrates and total protein contents in seeds were reduced by increased seawater salinity levels. Amino acid application as foliar spray significantly improved all the reduced parameters due to seawater stress. However, the highest level of amino acid of 1500 mg L-1 exerted the strongest effect in alleviating the harmful effect of seawater salinity stress. Efecto de la aplicaci

  14. Influence of benzyladenine on condensed tannin formation and callus growth in cultures from sainfoin (Onobrychis viccifolia Scop.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1988-05-01

    Cotyledons from aseptically grown seedlings of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) were used as explant material to grow callus tissue for periods of 21 and 31 days. The formation of cells containing condensed tannins was induced by adding a range of BAP concentrations to an mB5 culture medium containing 2,4-D. After 21 days the fresh weight of calli treated with BAP was much greater than the control and appeared highest at the 0.6 mg/L level. Fresh weight was reduced at high BAP levels (2 to 8 mg/L) but still remained well above the control. The formation of tannin-filled cells was genotype-specific but occurred in all treatments with BAP. After 21 days in culture, fresh weight and tannin formation increased with the BAP level at the lower BAP concentrations. After 31 days, the growth rate slowed in the control and the lower BAP concentration, but continued at a high rate in the remaining treatments; the number of tannin-filled cells appeared to decline. The results show that in sainfoin callus culture, BAP induces the formation of condensed tannin, a secondary metabolite, and concomitantly produces a high growth rate.

  15. Single microfilaments mediate the early steps of microtubule bundling during preprophase band formation in onion cotyledon epidermal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Kajimura, Naoko; Takaoka, Akio; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Staehelin, L. Andrew; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    The preprophase band (PPB) is a cytokinetic apparatus that determines the site of cell division in plants. It originates as a broad band of microtubules (MTs) in G2 and narrows to demarcate the future division site during late prophase. Studies with fluorescent probes have shown that PPBs contain F-actin during early stages of their development but become actin depleted in late prophase. Although this suggests that actins contribute to the early stages of PPB formation, how actins contribute to PPB-MT organization remains unsolved. To address this question, we used electron tomography to investigate the spatial relationship between microfilaments (MFs) and MTs at different stages of PPB assembly in onion cotyledon epidermal cells. We demonstrate that the PPB actins observed by fluorescence microscopy correspond to short, single MFs. A majority of the MFs are bound to MTs, with a subset forming MT-MF-MT bridging structures. During the later stages of PPB assembly, the MF-mediated links between MTs are displaced by MT-MT linkers as the PPB MT arrays mature into tightly packed MT bundles. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the primary function of actins during PPB formation is to mediate the initial bundling of the PPB MTs. PMID:27053663

  16. A novel proteinase, SNOWY COTYLEDON4, is required for photosynthetic acclimation to higher light intensities in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht-Borth, Verónica; Kauss, Dominika; Fan, Dayong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Collinge, Derek; Marri, Shashikanth; Liebers, Monique; Apel, Klaus; Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Chow, Wah S; Pogson, Barry J

    2013-10-01

    Excess light can have a negative impact on photosynthesis; thus, plants have evolved many different ways to adapt to different light conditions to both optimize energy use and avoid damage caused by excess light. Analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant snowy cotyledon4 (sco4) revealed a mutation in a chloroplast-targeted protein that shares limited homology with CaaX-type endopeptidases. The SCO4 protein possesses an important function in photosynthesis and development, with point mutations rendering the seedlings and adult plants susceptible to photooxidative stress. The sco4 mutation impairs the acclimation of chloroplasts and their photosystems to excess light, evidenced in a reduction in photosystem I function, decreased linear electron transfer, yet increased nonphotochemical quenching. SCO4 is localized to the chloroplasts, which suggests the existence of an unreported type of protein modification within this organelle. Phylogenetic and yeast complementation analyses of SCO4-like proteins reveal that SCO4 is a member of an unknown group of higher plant-specific proteinases quite distinct from the well-described CaaX-type endopeptidases RAS Converting Enzyme1 (RCE1) and zinc metallopeptidase STE24 and lacks canonical CaaX activity. Therefore, we hypothesize that SCO4 is a novel endopeptidase required for critical protein modifications within chloroplasts, influencing the function of proteins involved in photosynthesis required for tolerance to excess light.

  17. The Cytoskeleton and the Peroxisomal-Targeted SNOWY COTYLEDON3 Protein Are Required for Chloroplast Development in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Verónica; Šimková, Klára; Carrie, Chris; Delannoy, Etienne; Giraud, Estelle; Whelan, Jim; Small, Ian David; Apel, Klaus; Badger, Murray R.; Pogson, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    Here, we describe the snowy cotyledon3 (sco3-1) mutation, which impairs chloroplast and etioplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. SCO3 is a member of a largely uncharacterized protein family unique to the plant kingdom. The sco3-1 mutation alters chloroplast morphology and development, reduces chlorophyll accumulation, impairs thylakoid formation and photosynthesis in seedlings, and results in photoinhibition under extreme CO2 concentrations in mature leaves. There are no readily apparent changes to chloroplast biology, such as transcription or assembly that explain the disruption to chloroplast biogenesis. Indeed, SCO3 is actually targeted to another organelle, specifically to the periphery of peroxisomes. However, impaired chloroplast development cannot be attributed to perturbed peroxisomal metabolic processes involving germination, fatty acid β-oxidation or photorespiration, though there are so far undescribed changes in low and high CO2 sensitivity in seedlings and young true leaves. Many of the chloroplasts are bilobed, and some have persistent membranous extensions that encircle other cellular components. Significantly, there are changes to the cytoskeleton in sco3-1, and microtubule inhibitors have similar effects on chloroplast biogenesis as sco3-1 does. The localization of SCO3 to the periphery of the peroxisomes was shown to be dependent on a functional microtubule cytoskeleton. Therefore, the microtubule and peroxisome-associated SCO3 protein is required for chloroplast development, and sco3-1, along with microtubule inhibitors, demonstrates an unexpected role for the cytoskeleton and peroxisomes in chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:20978221

  18. A Novel Proteinase, SNOWY COTYLEDON4, Is Required for Photosynthetic Acclimation to Higher Light Intensities in Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht-Borth, Verónica; Kauss, Dominika; Fan, Dayong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Collinge, Derek; Marri, Shashikanth; Liebers, Monique; Apel, Klaus; Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Chow, Wah S.; Pogson, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Excess light can have a negative impact on photosynthesis; thus, plants have evolved many different ways to adapt to different light conditions to both optimize energy use and avoid damage caused by excess light. Analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant snowy cotyledon4 (sco4) revealed a mutation in a chloroplast-targeted protein that shares limited homology with CaaX-type endopeptidases. The SCO4 protein possesses an important function in photosynthesis and development, with point mutations rendering the seedlings and adult plants susceptible to photooxidative stress. The sco4 mutation impairs the acclimation of chloroplasts and their photosystems to excess light, evidenced in a reduction in photosystem I function, decreased linear electron transfer, yet increased nonphotochemical quenching. SCO4 is localized to the chloroplasts, which suggests the existence of an unreported type of protein modification within this organelle. Phylogenetic and yeast complementation analyses of SCO4-like proteins reveal that SCO4 is a member of an unknown group of higher plant-specific proteinases quite distinct from the well-described CaaX-type endopeptidases RAS Converting Enzyme1 (RCE1) and zinc metallopeptidase STE24 and lacks canonical CaaX activity. Therefore, we hypothesize that SCO4 is a novel endopeptidase required for critical protein modifications within chloroplasts, influencing the function of proteins involved in photosynthesis required for tolerance to excess light. PMID:23940253

  19. The cytoskeleton and the peroxisomal-targeted snowy cotyledon3 protein are required for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Verónica; Simková, Klára; Carrie, Chris; Delannoy, Etienne; Giraud, Estelle; Whelan, Jim; Small, Ian David; Apel, Klaus; Badger, Murray R; Pogson, Barry James

    2010-10-01

    Here, we describe the snowy cotyledon3 (sco3-1) mutation, which impairs chloroplast and etioplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. SCO3 is a member of a largely uncharacterized protein family unique to the plant kingdom. The sco3-1 mutation alters chloroplast morphology and development, reduces chlorophyll accumulation, impairs thylakoid formation and photosynthesis in seedlings, and results in photoinhibition under extreme CO(2) concentrations in mature leaves. There are no readily apparent changes to chloroplast biology, such as transcription or assembly that explain the disruption to chloroplast biogenesis. Indeed, SCO3 is actually targeted to another organelle, specifically to the periphery of peroxisomes. However, impaired chloroplast development cannot be attributed to perturbed peroxisomal metabolic processes involving germination, fatty acid β-oxidation or photorespiration, though there are so far undescribed changes in low and high CO(2) sensitivity in seedlings and young true leaves. Many of the chloroplasts are bilobed, and some have persistent membranous extensions that encircle other cellular components. Significantly, there are changes to the cytoskeleton in sco3-1, and microtubule inhibitors have similar effects on chloroplast biogenesis as sco3-1 does. The localization of SCO3 to the periphery of the peroxisomes was shown to be dependent on a functional microtubule cytoskeleton. Therefore, the microtubule and peroxisome-associated SCO3 protein is required for chloroplast development, and sco3-1, along with microtubule inhibitors, demonstrates an unexpected role for the cytoskeleton and peroxisomes in chloroplast biogenesis.

  20. The Role of Exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase in the Mobilization of Polysaccharides from the Cotyledon Cell Walls of Lupinus angustifolius Following Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUCKERIDGE, MARCOS S.; HUTCHEON, IAN S.; REID, J. S. GRANT

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The cotyledons of Lupinus angustifolius contain large amounts of cell wall storage polysaccharide (CWSP) composed mainly of (1→4)-β-linked d-galactose residues in the form of branches attached to a rhamnogalacturonan core molecule. An exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase with a very high specificity towards (1→4)-β-linked d-galactan has been isolated from L. angustifolius cotyledons, and shown to vary (activity and specific protein) in step with CWSP mobilization. This work aimed to confirm the hypothesis that galactan is the main polymer retrieved from the wall during mobilization at the ultrastructural level, using the purified exo-galactanase as a probe. • Methods Storage mesophyll cell walls (‘ghosts’) were isolated from the cotyledons of imbibed but ungerminated lupin seeds, and also from cotyledons of seedlings after the mobilization of the CWSP. The pure exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase was coupled to colloidal gold particles and shown to be a specific probe for (1→4)-β-d-galactan. They were used to localize galactan in ultrathin sections of L. angustifolius cotyledonary mesophyll tissue during CWSP mobilization. • Key Results On comparing the morphologies of isolated cell walls, the post-mobilization ‘ghosts’ did not have the massive wall-thickenings of pre-mobilization walls. Compositional analysis showed that the post-mobilization walls were depleted in galactose and, to a lesser extent, in arabinose. When pre-mobilization ghosts were treated with the pure exo-galactanase, they became morphologically similar to the post-mobilization ghosts. They were depleted of approximately 70% of the galactose residues that would have been mobilized in vivo, and retained all the other sugar residues originally present. Sharply defined electron-transparent wall zones or pockets are associated with CWSP mobilization, being totally free of galactan, whereas wall areas immediately adjacent to them were apparently undepleted. • Conclusions The

  1. Effects of plant based organic fertilizer (faba bean meal) compared to farmyard manure on yield and quality of potatoes and soil organic matter levels

    OpenAIRE

    Raupp, Dr Joachim; Oltmanns, Meike

    2006-01-01

    Whereas the positive effects of farmyard manure on soil biological properties have been shown in several long-term experiments, no comparable information was available for plant based organic fertilizers. Since 1996 such materials were applied with the same amount of total nitrogen as farmyard manure (100 (kg ha-1) on a poor sandy soil. In 2005 it was found that faba bean meal application caused the same potato yield, and tubers with the same phosphorus content, but lower potassium and sligh...

  2. Modification of oil and glucosinolate content in canola seeds with altered expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, research focusing on canola (Brassica napus L.) seed oil content and composition has expanded. Oil production and accumulation are influenced by genes participating in embryo and seed development. The Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a well characterized regulator of embryo development that also enhances the expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis. B. napus lines over-expressing or down-regulating BnLEC1 were successfully generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive expression of BnLEC1 in B. napus var. Polo, increased seed oil content by 7-16%, while the down-regulation of BnLEC1 in B. napus var. Topas reduced oil content by 9-12%. Experimental manipulation of BnLEC1 caused transcriptional changes in enzymes participating in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA biosynthesis, suggesting an enhanced carbon flux towards FA biosynthesis in tissues over-expressing BnLEC1. The increase in oil content induced by BnLEC1 was not accompanied by alterations in FA composition, oil nutritional value or glucosinolate (GLS) levels. Suppression of BnLEC1 reduced seed oil accumulation and elevated the level of GLS possibly through the transcriptional regulation of BnST5a (Sulphotransferase5a), the last GLS biosynthetic enzyme. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that experimental alterations of BnLEC1 expression can be used to influence oil production and quality in B. napus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of the nutritional value of air-classified protein and starch fractions of field pea and zero-tannin faba bean in grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, C K; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2010-02-01

    Most pulse (nonoilseed legume) seed flours can be fractionated rapidly and economically by air classification into protein and starch concentrates. The nutritional value of air-classified field pea and faba bean concentrates requires characterization to assess the feeding opportunity for pigs. Thus, the objectives were to characterize the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, energy, starch, CP, fat, and ash; apparent ileal digestibility of CP and starch; standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA; and the SID AA, DE, and NE content of air-classified zero-tannin faba bean and field pea protein and starch concentrates in grower pigs. Pulse protein and starch concentrates were compared with soy protein concentrate and corn starch, respectively, as corresponding standards. The corn starch diet served as an N-free diet to correct for basal endogenous AA losses. In a Youden square design, 8 ileal-cannulated barrows (24.9 +/- 2.3 kg of BW) were fed 6 diets over 7 periods at 3 times the maintenance DE requirement. Periods encompassed a 5-d diet acclimation, 3-d feces collection, and 3-d ileal digesta collection. The ATTD of GE was 2% greater (P bean than soy and was intermediate for field pea protein (95.6, 93.7, and 94.9%, respectively). The ATTD of GE was 3.6% greater (P bean starch (96.2, 95.1, and 92.3%, respectively). The DE content of faba bean was 5.0% greater (P content of faba bean and field pea was 1.7% greater (P content was 5% greater (P bean than field pea and soy protein (3.08, 2.94, and 2.92 Mcal/kg, respectively). The NE content for field pea starch was 2.0% greater (P bean starch (2.68, 2.63, and 2.61 Mcal/kg, respectively). Protein concentrates had a 14 and 11% greater (P content, respectively, than starch concentrates. The SID of Lys was 6.0% greater (P bean and field pea protein than soy protein (95.5, 92.6, and 88.7%, respectively). The SID of Lys was 6.0% greater (P bean than field pea starch. Nutrient digestibility and digestible

  4. Estimation of the effect of radionuclide contamination on Vicia sativa L. induction of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters using "Floratest" optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Yu.; Illienko, V.; Nesterova, N.; Pareniuk, O.; Shavanova, K.

    2017-12-01

    The presented research was aimed to determine the parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChH) curve induction for Vicia sativa L. that were grown on radionuclide contaminated soils by using "Floratest" fluorometer. Plants were inoculated with 5 species of bacteria that might potentially block radionuclide uptake (Agrobacterium radiobacter IMBB-7246, Azotobacter chroococcum UKMB-6082, A. chroococcum UKMB-6003, Bacillus megaterium UKMB-5724, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae) and grown in sod-podzolic, chernozem and peat-bog soils, contaminated with 137Cs (4000±340 Bq/kg). As a result of research, it was determined that the most stressful factors for vetch plants are combination of soil radionuclide and presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, as the number of inactive chlorophyll increased. In addition, the vetch plants significantly increased fixed level of fluorescence (Fst) under the influence of radioactive contamination in presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, indicating inhibition of photosynthetic reactions. Other bacteria showed radioprotective properties in almost all types of soil.

  5. Detection of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) in Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) using unique chemical fingerprint markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Premakumara, G A S; Vandenberg, Albert

    2012-12-15

    Detection of adulteration of split red lentil (Lens culinaris L.) seeds with low level addition of split common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is hampered by a lack of reliable detection methods. An analytical method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) based on two unique chemical markers found in common vetch: ß-cyanoalanine (BCA) and γ-glutamyl-ß-cyanoalanine (GCA). These two markers were present in samples of common vetch seed grown in Canada and Serbia. Authentic lentil samples grown in Canada, Australia, USA, Turkey, Syria, and Morocco had no detectable levels of these chemical markers. Commercial lentil samples for export from lentil processing plants in Saskatchewan, Canada, also had no detectable levels of GCA and BCA. The presence of vetch in intentionally adulterated lentil samples could be determined via chemical markers with a detection limit of 5% (w/w). The proposed method is a simple sample extraction and rapid HPLC analysis that could be widely used to detect intentional adulteration of lentils with common vetch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A note on the earliest distribution, cultivation and genetic changes in bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia in ancient Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L. Willd. was a part of the everyday diet of the Eurasian Neanderthal population and the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in bitter vetch and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Bitter vetch seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals, pea and lentil, bitter vetch has become definitely associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Bitter vetch entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. Recently the first success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that most of Eurasian peoples have their own words denoting bitter vetch, meaning that its cultivation preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. 173005

  7. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  8. Cd-induced oxidative stress and lignification in the roots of two Vicia sativa L. varieties with different Cd tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Haiyun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Zhenguo; Zhang, Fenqin

    2016-01-15

    We examined the effects of Cd on growth, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and lignin content in the roots of two varieties of Vicia sativa. Treatment with Cd decreased plant growth and increased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels to a greater extent in the Cd-sensitive variety ZM than in the Cd-tolerant variety L3. Most hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(•-)) were accumulated in the cell walls and extracellular spaces in response to Cd treatments. Chemical assays and experiments using inhibitors showed that larger increases in H2O2 and O2(•-) production in ZM than in L3 were probably attributed to elevated Cd-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-peroxidase (NADH-POD) activity. Cd treatment increased the accumulation of lignin and the guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activities in the apoplast more significantly in ZM root than in L3. Howerver, root laccase activity was higher in L3 than in ZM. Thus Cd toxicity induced significant lignification in the roots of V. sativa, and increases in H2O2 accumulation and apoplastic GPOD activity were likely responsible for this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Different waves of effector genes with contrasted genomic location are expressed by Leptosphaeria maculans during cotyledon and stem colonization of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Julie; Plissonneau, Clémence; Linglin, Juliette; Meyer, Michel; Labadie, Karine; Cruaud, Corinne; Fudal, Isabelle; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem canker disease, colonizes oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in two stages: a short and early colonization stage corresponding to cotyledon or leaf colonization, and a late colonization stage during which the fungus colonizes systemically and symptomlessly the plant during several months before stem canker appears. To date, the determinants of the late colonization stage are poorly understood; L. maculans may either successfully escape plant defences, leading to stem canker development, or the plant may develop an 'adult-stage' resistance reducing canker incidence. To obtain an insight into these determinants, we performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) pilot project comparing fungal gene expression in infected cotyledons and in symptomless or necrotic stems. Despite the low fraction of fungal material in infected stems, sufficient fungal transcripts were detected and a large number of fungal genes were expressed, thus validating the feasibility of the approach. Our analysis showed that all avirulence genes previously identified are under-expressed during stem colonization compared with cotyledon colonization. A validation RNA-seq experiment was then performed to investigate the expression of candidate effector genes during systemic colonization. Three hundred and seven 'late' effector candidates, under-expressed in the early colonization stage and over-expressed in the infected stems, were identified. Finally, our analysis revealed a link between the regulation of expression of effectors and their genomic location: the 'late' effector candidates, putatively involved in systemic colonization, are located in gene-rich genomic regions, whereas the 'early' effector genes, over-expressed in the early colonization stage, are located in gene-poor regions of the genome. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Transcription factors and glyoxylate cycle genes prominent in the transition of soybean cotyledons to the first functional leaves of the seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamimuzzaman, Md; Vodkin, Lila

    2014-12-01

    During early seedling growth, the cotyledons transition from a storage tissue to become effectively the first leaf-like structures of the plant. In this programmed developmental process, they likely undergo a massive change in gene expression to redirect their metabolism and physiological processes. To define the developmental shifts in gene expression and begin to understand the gene regulatory networks that set this transition in motion, we carried out high-throughput RNA sequencing of cotyledons from seven developmental stages of soybean seedlings. We identified 154 gene models with high expression exclusively in the early seedling stages. A significant number (about 25 %) of those genes with known annotations were involved in carbohydrate metabolism. A detailed examination of glyoxylate cycle genes revealed the upregulation of their expression in the early stages of development. A total of approximately 50 % of the highly expressed genes whose expression peaked in the mid-developmental stages encoded ribosomal family proteins. Our analysis also identified 219 gene models with high expression at late developmental stages. The majority of these genes are involved in photosynthesis, including photosystem I- and II-associated genes. Additionally, the advantage of RNA-Seq to detect genes expressed at low levels revealed approximately 460 transcription factors with notable expression in at least one stage of the developing soybean seedling. Relatively over-represented transcription factor genes encode AP2, zinc finger, NAC, WRKY, and MYB families. These transcription factor genes may lead to the transcriptional reprogramming during the transition of seedling cotyledons from storage tissue to metabolically active organs that serve as the first functional leaves of the plant.

  11. Cytokinin Antagonizes Abscisic Acid-Mediated Inhibition of Cotyledon Greening by Promoting the Degradation of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 Protein in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunmei; Wang, Xingchun; Feng, Jian; Hong, Sulei; Liang, Yan; Ren, Bo; Zuo, Jianru

    2014-01-01

    In higher plants, seed germination is followed by postgerminative growth. One of the key developmental events during postgerminative growth is cotyledon greening, which enables a seedling to establish photosynthetic capacity. The plant phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role by inhibiting seed germination and postgerminative growth in response to dynamically changing internal and environmental cues. It has been shown that ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, is an important factor in the regulation of the ABA-mediated inhibitory effect on seed germination and postgerminative growth. Conversely, the phytohormone cytokinin has been proposed to promote seed germination by antagonizing the ABA-mediated inhibitory effect. However, the underpinning molecular mechanism of cytokinin-repressed ABA signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that cytokinin specifically antagonizes ABA-mediated inhibition of cotyledon greening with minimal effects on seed germination in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that the cytokinin-antagonized ABA effect is dependent on a functional cytokinin signaling pathway, mainly involved in the cytokinin receptor gene CYTOKININ RESPONSE1/ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4, downstream histidine phosphotransfer protein genes AHP2, AHP3, and AHP5, and a type B response regulator gene, ARR12, which genetically acts upstream of ABI5 to regulate cotyledon greening. Cytokinin has no apparent effect on the transcription of ABI5. However, cytokinin efficiently promotes the proteasomal degradation of ABI5 in a cytokinin signaling-dependent manner. These results define a genetic pathway through which cytokinin specifically induces the degradation of ABI5 protein, thereby antagonizing ABA-mediated inhibition of postgerminative growth. PMID:24443524

  12. Intoxicación con glicósidos cardíacos en un perro debido a la ingestión de Cotyledon orbiculata

    OpenAIRE

    Planellas, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Las intoxicaciones por plantas son comunes en animales. En este articulo exponemos un caso de intoxicación en un perro debido a la ingestión de una planta cardiotóxica, Cotyledon orbiculata.. El paciente se presentó con un cuadro agudo gastrointestinal (vómitos y diarreas) y cardíaco (bradicardia severa de 20-40 ppm, con bloqueos atrioventriculares). En la historia clínica destacó la presencia de fragmentos de una planta de jardín en los vómitos del paciente. Después de seis días de hospitali...

  13. Characterization of a developmentally regulated amino acid transporter (AAT1p) of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Christine; Ernst, Michael; Hahn, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    summary In the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, invasion of the host plant and haustorium formation are accompanied by the activation of many genes (PIGs =in planta induced genes). In addition to the previously described AAT2 (PIG2), AAT1 (PIG27) was found to encode a protein with a high similarity to fungal amino acid permeases. AAT1 transcripts are present in germinated hyphae and throughout the mycelium later in the infection process, but occur at the highest levels in haustoria. Expression of AAT1p in a histidine uptake-defective yeast mutant revealed energy-dependent transport of (14)C-histidine, with a K(M) value of 25.8 microm. In addition, complementation analysis revealed AAT1-dependent transport for lysine. Using Xenopus oocytes as expression system, AAT1p-dependent symport of protons with a broad spectrum of amino acids was observed, with the highest activities obtained with histidine and lysine. These results confirm that in rust fungi, the expression of amino acid transporters is developmentally regulated and occurs preferentially in the parasitic phase of development.

  14. Lesões de pele em bovinos com doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp. Skin lesions in cattle with systemic granulomatous disease associated to pasturing vetch (Vicia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se as lesões cutâneas macroscópicas em 10 e histológicas em 8 vacas afetadas por doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.. Em todos os casos, as lesões cutâneas eram caracterizadas por múltiplas áreas coalescentes de alopecia, liquenificação e descamação. Os locais mais atingidos pela lesão de pele foram: cabeça e pescoço (10/10, tronco (4/10, períneo (3/10 e mama (2/10. Em todos os 8 casos avaliados histologicamente, as lesões se caracterizavam por dermatite perivascular superficial granulomatosa de intensidade variável. Outros achados histológicos incluíram dermatite perivascular profunda (1/8, perifoliculite (2/8, foliculite mural (3/8, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica compacta (6/8, erosões (1/8, úlceras (2/8, microabscessos de Munro (8/8, crostas serocelulares (1/8, espongiose (4/8, degeneração hidrópica (5/8, acantólise (1/8, corpúsculos de Civatte (2/8, exocitose linfoplasmocitária (6/8, edema superficial (6/8, incontinência pigmentar (2/8, basofilia (6/8 e mineralização distrófica do colágeno (2/8, tumefação do núcleo das células endoteliais (8/8 e ectasia de glândulas sudoríparas (8/8.Gross and histopathological lesions in the skin of respectively 10 and 8 cows affected with systemic granulomatous disease associated with pasturing vetch (Vicia spp. are described. In all cases, the cutaneous lesions were characterized by multiple coalescent areas of alopecia, lichenification and desquamation. More frequently affected sites were the skin covering the head and neck (10/10, trunk (4/10, escutcheon (3/10 and mammary gland (2/10. In all 8 histologically examined cases the lesions were characterized by superficial perivascular granulomatous dermatitis of varying intensity. Other histological findings included deep perivascular dermatitis (1/8, perifoliculitis (2/8, mural foliculitis (3/8, compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (6/8, erosions (1/8, ulcers (2

  15. [Effect of post-treatment with dry extract from vicia truncatula on NADPH-GSH dependent system of rat liver during chronic alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkina, E G

    2010-04-01

    Experiments on white female rats showed that chronic ethanol consumption leads to activation of the NADPH - GSH dependent system of the liver, which provides protection against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Post-treatment administration of dry extract from Vicia truncatula Fish ex Bieb. (300 mg/kg body weight) on the background of 40% ethanol increased this adaptive reaction without depletion in the system, in contrast to what was observed in rats treated with carsil. These results suggest a significant hepatoprotective effect of the dry extract during the chronic alcohol-induced injury of the liver.

  16. pH modulation differs during sunflower cotyledon colonization by the two closely related necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billon-Grand, Geneviève; Rascle, Christine; Droux, Michel; Rollins, Jeffrey A; Poussereau, Nathalie

    2012-08-01

    During pathogenesis on sunflower cotyledons, Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum show a striking resemblance in symptom development. Based on pH change profiles, the colonization process of both fungi can be divided into two stages. The first stage is associated with a pH decrease, resulting from an accumulation of citric and succinic acids. The second stage is correlated with a pH increase, resulting from an accumulation of ammonia. In this article, we also report that oxalic acid is produced at the late stage of the colonization process and that ammonia accumulation is concomitant with a decrease in free amino acids in decaying tissues. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces eight-fold more oxalic acid and two-fold less ammonia than B. cinerea. Consequently, during sunflower cotyledon colonization by B. cinerea, pH dynamics differ significantly from those of S. sclerotiorum. In vitro assays support the in planta results and show that decreases in pH are linked to glucose consumption. At different stages of the colonization process, expression profiles of genes encoding secreted proteases were investigated. This analysis highlights that the expression levels of the B. cinerea protease genes are higher than those of S. sclerotiorum. This work suggests that the overt similarities of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea symptom development have probably masked our recognition of the dynamic and potentially different metabolic pathways active during host colonization by these two necrotrophic fungi. © 2011 Bayer Crop Science. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Characterization of a cDNA Encoding Lens culinaris Glycolate Oxidase and Developmental Expression of Glycolate Oxidase mRNA in Cotyledons and Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludt, Claudia; Kindl, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    mRNA obtained from green leaves of lentil (Lens culinaris) was used to construct a cDNA library in phage λgt11. The cDNA library was screened with antibodies raised against lentil glycolate oxidase and catalase. Clone CL 1 containing the full-length sequence complementary to glycolate oxidase mRNA was characterized and sequenced. In addition, a 800-base pair catalase cDNA clone was sequenced. To prove the correlation of cDNA insert in CL 1 with glycolate oxidase, the cDNA was transcribed in vitro. The mRNA was translated in vitro yielding a 43 kilodalton protein immunoprecipitable with anti-glycolate oxidase serum. Nucleotide sequences of lentil cDNA and spinach cDNA were 86% identical. Lentil glycolate oxidase was characterized by a C-terminal sequence -P-R-A-L-P-R-L. The expression of glycolate oxidase mRNA in cotyledons, leaves and roots was compared with that of catalase. In leaves, the relative amount of glycolate oxidase mRNA increased during the first 2 days of greening, but decreased later, and was hardly detectable during senescence. In cotyledons of germinating seeds, the level of glycolate oxidase mRNA was markedly lower than the catalase mRNA. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667816

  18. Screening and Validation of Housekeeping Genes of the Root and Cotyledon of Cunninghamia lanceolata under Abiotic Stresses by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Bao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants.

  19. Verteerbaarheid en voederwaarde van eiwitrijke grondstoffen bij biologische biggen = Digestibility and nutritive value of protein-rich raw materials in organically housed piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    At the Experimental Farm Raalte, the nutrient composition, digestibiltiy and energy value of canola protein concentrate, pea protein concentrate, wheat gluten meal and vicia faba protein concentrate were investigated in organically housed piglets. The results are described in this report.

  20. A comparison of different legume seeds as protein supplement to optimise the use of low quality forages by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yánez-Ruiz, David R; Martin-Garcia, Antonio I; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    The potential of different legume seeds species, including recently new developed varieties (Vicia faba: a commercial variety and varieties Alameda, Palacio and Baraka; Lupinus angustifolius; Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum: varieties Fardon and Zegr ) as protein supplements to low quality...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uromyces viciae-fabae) with Environmental Factors and Cultural Practices in the Hararghe Highlands, Eastern Ethiopia Abstract. ISSN: 1992-0407. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  2. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambalo Dinah D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG, which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains

  3. Quorum-sensing-regulated transcriptional initiation of plasmid transfer and replication genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulla, Craig; Edwards, Anne; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Sawers, R Gary; Downie, J Allan

    2007-07-01

    Transfer of the Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae symbiosis plasmid pRL1JI is regulated by a cascade of gene induction involving three LuxR-type quorum-sensing regulators, TraR, BisR and CinR. TraR induces the plasmid transfer traI-trb operon in a population-density-dependent manner in response to N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) made by TraI. Expression of the traR gene is primarily induced by BisR in response to AHLs made by CinI, and expression of cinI is induced by CinR and repressed by BisR. Analysis of transcription initiation of cinI, traR and traI identified potential regulatory domains recognized by the CinR, BisR and TraR regulators. Deletion and mutation of the cinI promoter identified potential recognition motifs for activation by CinR and repression by BisR. Analysis of the DNA sequence upstream of traI and expression of transcriptional gene fusions revealed a predicted TraR-binding (tra-box) domain. Two transcript initiation sites were identified upstream of the plasmid replication gene repA, which is divergently transcribed from traI; one of these repA transcripts requires the quorum-sensing cascade mediated via BisR and TraR, showing that the pRL1JI plasmid replication genes are co-regulated with the plasmid transfer genes.

  4. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

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    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  5. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7-16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L(-1)) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L(-1)) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2 Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  6. The Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase from the Biotrophic Rust Fungus Uromyces fabae : molecular Characterization of the Gene (PMA1) and Functional Expression of the Enzyme in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Struck, Christine; Siebels, Claudia; Rommel, Oliver; Wernitz, Marcus; Hahn, Matthias

    1998-01-01

    To study the molecular basis of biotrophic nutrient uptake by plant parasitic rust fungi, the gene (Uf-PMA1) encoding the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from Uromyces fabae was isolated. Uf-PMA1 exists probably as a single gene. However, two nearly identical sequences were identified; the similarity apparently is due to two Uf-PMA1 alleles in the dikaryotic hyphae. Multiple Uf-PMA1 transcripts were observed during early rust development, and reduced amounts of a single Uf-PMA1 mRNA were observed i...

  7. The development rhythm of the flower-bud in some Papilionaceae species. III. Macrosporogenesis, microsporogenesis and early gametogenesis in several species of the Vicieae tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Each of the examined species of the tribe Vicieae (Vicia faba, V. sativa, V, villosa, Lathyrus silvester, L. pratensis and Pisum sativum has its peculiar characteristic development rhythm of the bud. A similarity has been demonstrated between the development rhythms of flower buds of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum. It was found that mature flowers of autogamous species had long calyces, whereas those of the allogamous species were short as compared with the petals of the corolla.

  8. Bacillus simplex—A Little Known PGPB with Anti-Fungal Activity—Alters Pea Legume Root Architecture and Nodule Morphology When Coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

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    Ann M. Hirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two strains, 30N-5 and 30VD-1, identified as Bacillus simplex and B. subtilis, were isolated from the rhizospheres of two different plants, a Podocarpus and a palm, respectively, growing in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. B. subtilis is a well-known plant-growth promoting bacterial species, but B. simplex is not. B. simplex 30N-5 was initially isolated on a nitrogen-free medium, but no evidence for nitrogen fixation was found. Nevertheless, pea plants inoculated with B. simplex showed a change in root architecture due to the emergence of more lateral roots. When Pisum sativum carrying a DR5::GUSA construct, an indicator for auxin response, was inoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or its symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, GUS expression in the roots was increased over the uninoculated controls. Moreover, when pea roots were coinoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or B. subtilis 30VD-1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, the nodules were larger, clustered, and developed more highly branched vascular bundles. Besides producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphate, the two Bacillus spp., especially strain 30VD-1, exhibited anti-fungal activity towards Fusarium. Our data show that combining nodulating, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with growth-promoting bacteria enhances plant development and strongly supports a coinoculation strategy to improve nitrogen fixation, increase biomass, and establish greater resistance to fungal disease.

  9. Analysis of rhizobial endosymbionts of Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium species used to maintain mountain firewalls in Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadas, Pablo J; Lasa, Ana V; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José David; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Forest fires lead to the annual disappearance of many natural formations that require the creation of firewall areas. They can be maintained by enriching their pastures with attractive plants for grazing livestock, mainly legumes, which have a high protein content and low dependence on N fertilizers due to their ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. In this study, the rhizobia isolated from the nodules of six legumes from the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium were analysed in a firewall zone established in Lanjarón (Granada) close to the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain). The results showed a high genetic diversity of the isolated strains that had 3, 16, 14 and 13 different types of rrs, recA, atpD and glnII genes, respectively. All strains were phylogenetically close to the species from the Rhizobium leguminosarum group, although they were not identified as any of them. The isolated strains belonged to the symbiovars viciae and trifolii but high phylogenetic diversity was found within both symbiovars, since there were 16 and 14 nodC gene types, respectively. Some of these strains clustered with strains isolated in other countries and continents, but others formed atpD, recA, glnII and nodC clusters and lineages only found to date in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  11. Mutualisme pucerons – fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d'Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur

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    Verheggen F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphid – ant mutualism: an outdoor study of the benefits for Aphis fabae. Aphid – ant relationships are common examples of mutualism. Aphids are indeed submitted to predation and therefore require protection, while ants are continuously looking for new sugar sources. The present work aimed to study the benefits that a mutualistic relationship with Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae could bring to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Homoptera, Aphididae. Several parameters were observed in the field, on broad bean plants infested with an initial amount of 100 A. fabae and in presence or not of a L. niger colony. More aphids were observed on plants being visited by ants as well as a higher proportion of winged individuals. One explanation is that fewer predators were observed on plants being visited by ants, demonstrating their protective role. However, the number of parasitized aphids was not reduced in presence of L. niger. On the other hand, fewer different aphid species were present on plants foraged by ants, what suggests that they could exert a predation on unattended aphids. Our observations do not allow to conclude on any impact of L. niger on the fitness of the aphid host plant, although fewer exuvia and honeydew spots were observed when they were present. All these results confirm that L. niger increase the fitness of A. fabae colonies mainly by decreasing the number of predators and by reducing competition from aphid species unattended by ants.

  12. Distribution and Properties of a Potassium-dependent Asparaginase Isolated from Developing Seeds of Pisum sativum and Other Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodek, Ladaslav; Lea, Peter J.; Miflin, Benjamin J.

    1980-01-01

    Asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1) was isolated from the developing seed of Pisum sativum. The enzyme is dependent upon the presence of K+ for activity, although Na+ and Rb+ may substitute to a lesser extent. Maximum activity was obtained at K+ concentrations above 20 millimolar. Potassium ions protected the enzyme against heat denaturation. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 68,300. Asparaginase activity developed initially in the testa, with maximum activity (3.6 micromoles per hour per seed) being present 13 days after flowering. Maximum activity (1.2 micromoles per hour per seed) did not develop in the cotyledon until 21 days after flowering. Glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase were also present in the testae and cotyledons but maximum activity developed later than that of asparaginase. Potassium-dependent asparaginase activity was also detected in the developing seeds of Vicia faba, Phaseolus multiflorus, Zea mays, Hordeum vulgare, and two Lupinus varieties. No stimulation of activity was detected with the enzyme isolated from Lupinus polyphyllus, which has previously been shown to contain a K+-independent enzyme. PMID:16661136

  13. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal.

  14. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabella, Vincent M; Clark, Virginia L

    2011-10-01

    Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologues, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Microvirga ossetica sp. nov., a species of rhizobia isolated from root nodules of the legume species Vicia alpestris Steven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Vera I; Kuznetsova, Irina G; Sazanova, Anna L; Belimov, Andrey A; Andronov, Evgeny E; Chirak, Elizaveta R; Osledkin, Yuri S; Onishchuk, Olga P; Kurchak, Oksana N; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Willems, Anne; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2017-01-01

    Gram-stain-negative strains V5/3MT, V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13 were isolated from root nodules of Vicia alpestris plants growing in the North Ossetia region (Caucasus). Sequencing of the partial 16S rRNA gene (rrs) and four housekeeping genes (dnaK, gyrB, recA and rpoB) showed that the isolates from V. alpestris were most closely related to the species Microvirga zambiensis (order Rhizobiales, family Methylobacteriaceae) which was described for the single isolate from root nodule of Listia angolensis growing in Zambia. Sequence similarities between the Microvirga-related isolates and M. zambiensis WSM3693T ranged from 98.5 to 98.7 % for rrs and from 79.7 to 95.8 % for housekeeping genes. Cellular fatty acids of the isolates V5/3MT, V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13 included important amounts of C18 : 1ω7c (54.0-67.2 %), C16 : 0 (6.0-7.8 %), C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (3.1-10.2 %), summed feature 2 (comprising one or more of iso-C16 : 1 I, C14 : 0 3-OH and unknown ECL 10.938, 5.8-22.5 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 02-OH, 2.9-4.0 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between the isolate V5/3MT and M. zambiensis WSM3693T revealed DNA-DNA relatedness of 35.3 %. Analysis of morphological and physiological features of the novel isolates demonstrated their unique phenotypic profile in comparison with reference strains from closely related species of the genus Microvirga. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic analysis, a novel species named Microvirga ossetica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is V5/3MT (=LMG 29787T=RCAM 02728T). Three additional strains of the species are V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13.

  16. Differentially expressed proteins and associated histological and disease progression changes in cotyledon tissue of a resistant and susceptible genotype of brassica napus infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Harsh; Li, Hua; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Barbetti, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Sclerotinia rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the most serious diseases of oilseed rape. To understand the resistance mechanisms in the Brassica napus to S. sclerotiorum, comparative disease progression, histological and proteomic studies were conducted of two B. napus genotypes (resistant cv. Charlton, susceptible cv. RQ001-02M2). At 72 and 96 h post inoculation (hpi), lesion size on cotyledons was significantly (P≤0.001) smaller in the resistant Charlton. Anatomical investigations revealed impeded fungal growth (at 24 hpi and onwards) and hyphal disintegration only on resistant Charlton. Temporal changes (12, 24, 48 and 72 hpi) in protein profile showed certain enzymes up-regulated only in resistant Charlton, such as those related to primary metabolic pathways, antioxidant defence, ethylene biosynthesis, pathogenesis related proteins, protein synthesis and protein folding, play a role in mediating defence responses against S. sclerotiorum. Similarly a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A enzyme with increased abundance in susceptible RQ001-02M2 and decreased levels in resistant Charlton has a role in increased susceptibility to this pathogen. This is the first time that the expression of these enzymes has been shown to be associated with mediating the defence response against S. sclerotinia in cotyledon tissue of a resistant cultivar of B. napus at a proteomics level. This study not only provides important new insights into the resistance mechanisms within B. napus against S. sclerotiorum, but opens the way for novel engineering of new B. napus varieties that over-express these key enzymes as a strategy to enhance resistance and better manage this devastating pathogen.

  17. Signaling through reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is differentially modulated in sunflower seedling root and cotyledon in response to various nitric oxide donors and scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Bhatla, Satish C

    2017-09-02

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA), S-nitroso-n-acetyl-D,L- penicillamine (SNAP), and 4-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,2- Oxathiazolylium-5-olate (CAY) exhibit differential NO releasing ability in aqueous solution and hemoglobin is a more efficient NO quencher than cPTIO in solution. DETA releases 16% more NO compared with SNP in solution. Various NO donors (SNP, DETA, SNAP, and CAY) also bring about a differential but concentration-dependent increase in endogenous NO in seedling cotyledons and roots. Two-day old, dark-grown seedling roots exhibit 95%, 77%, 59% and 45% increase in NO content in presence of each of 500 µM of DETA, SNAP, CAY and SNP, respectively, relative to control. NO accumulation in the tissue system as a response to NO donors is reflected in terms of corresponding peroxynitrite accumulation. Release of cyanide and free iron as byproducts of SNP dissociation in solution limits its usefulness as an NO donor. SNP leads to profuse ROS generation in sunflower seedling roots. Light is not a pre-requisite for NO generation from SNP. Present work also demonstrates the usefulness of hemoglobin over cPTIO as NO scavenger. Hemoglobin brings about increasing NO quenching with its increasing concentration from 2.5 to 10 µM. Greater sensitivity of the root system to the NO donor/scavenger treatments is evident, it being in direct contact with the molecules in the incubation/ growth medium. This differential effect does not seem to be significantly transmitted to the cotyledons (long-distance signaling).

  18. Regulations on growth and development in tomato cotyledon, flower and fruit via destruction of miR396 with short tandem target mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongyan; Wang, Jiao; Ju, Zheng; Liu, Qingqing; Li, Shan; Tian, Huiqin; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Hongliang; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2016-06-01

    Despite many studies about functions of miR396 were concentrated on cotyledon and leaf growth and development, only few researches were focused on flower and fruit, especially for fleshy fruit, for example, tomato fruit. Here, the roles of miR396 throughout the growth and development of tomato plant were explored with combining bioinformatics and transgene-mediated methods. In tomato, miR396 had two mature types (miR396a and miR396b), and miR396a expressed significantly higher than miR396b in cotyledon, flower, sepal and fruit. Generally, plant growth and development were regulated by miR396 via growth-regulating factors (GRFs). In tomato, all 13 SlGRFs were analyzed comprehensively, including phylogeny, domain and expression patterns. To investigate the roles of miR396 further, STTM396a/396a-88 was over-expressed in tomato, which induced miR396a and miR396b both dramatical down-regulation, and the target GRFs general up-regulation. As a result, the flowers, sepals and fruits all obviously became bigger. Most significantly, the sepal length of transgenic lines #3 and #4 at 39 days post-anthesis was separately increased 75% and 81%, and the fruit weight was added 45% and 39%, respectively. Overall, these results revealed novel roles of miR396 in regulating flower and fruit development, and provided a new potential way for improving tomato fruit yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 8Wambi heritability.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    as a percentage of the mean (GAM) and heritability were estimated using variance components. Phenotypic. Coefficient of Variation ... exhibited moderate GCV values. Broad and narrow sense heritability estimates for GRD disease score ..... in some faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.) grown in Northwestern Ethiopia.

  20. Santé et diversité alimentaire au Yémen | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Review report : health and dietary diversity in Yemen; traditional Yemeni rural diets and local food systems: enhancing contributions to health and environment. Studies. Estimation genetic variation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces in Yemen : a thesis. Reports. Health and dietary diversity in Yemen : traditional Yemeni ...

  1. Effect of Environment on Protein, Mineral and Fat Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important high land pulse crops of Ethiopia. It is an excellent source of protein supplement for the majority of the population, used in various popular Ethiopian dishes. It also contains fat and appreciable amount of minerals. Data on the effect of environment on the ...

  2. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 25, No 2 (1995)

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    Evaluation of faba beans (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins (Lupizus albus cv. Kiev) as protein sources for growing pigs · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T.S Brand, R.C. Olckers, J.P. van der Merwe, 31-35 ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 106 of 106 ... Vol 27, No 2 (2017), Vermicompost application as affected by Rhizobium inoculation on nodulation and yield of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.) Abstract PDF. Anteneh Argaw, Abere Mnalku. Vol 27, No 2 (2017), Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change in the central rift valley of Ethiopia: a ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunflower genotypes (Helianthus annuus L.) to different concentrations of sodium chloride, Helia,. Vol. 22 (30) ... Ion uptake, osmoregulation and plant-water relations in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) under salt stress, Die ... assimilates by wheat as affected by nitrogen source and salinity, Agronomy Journal, Vol. 85, 1044-1049.

  5. The use of reproductive vigor descriptors in studying genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collection of nine Tunisian faba bean (Vicia faba) populations belonging to three botanical classes (Var. minor, var. equina and var. major) was evaluated using twenty seven agro-morphological traits. Analysis of variance, correlation coefficients and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed based on MVSP ...

  6. Nutritional, eco-physiological and symbiotic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of root nodule bacteria is used for selecting and using them as inoculants to improve legume production. To this end, faba bean (Vicia faba L.) rhizobia were isolated from nodules collected from acidic soils of Central and Southern-Western parts of Ethiopia. A total of hundred rhizobial isolates were ...

  7. evaluation of pathogenic isolates in ethiopia for the control of ...

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    Key Words: Bacillus spp., Biocontrol, Botrytis fabae, Ethiopia. RÉSUMÉ. Le haricot faba (Vicia faba L.) est l'un des premiers domestiqués légumineuses alimentaires en Ethiopie et en est maintenant cultivé sur de grandes superficies dans de nombreux pays. La production de plant est toutefois limitée par des infections de ...

  8. Immobilization and Survival of Root Nodule Bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae / Gumiņbaktērijas Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae imobilizācija un dzīvotspēja

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    Žvagiņa Signe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae ir augsnes baktērija, kas spēj veidot gumiņus uz zirņu, pupu, lēcu un vīķu saknēm un saistīt atmosfēras slāpekli simbiozē ar augiem. Gumiņbaktērijas izmanto lauksaimniecībā kā bioloģiskus mēslošanas līdzekļus augu augšanas veicināšanai. Komerciālos gumiņbaktēriju preparātus var iegādāties sausā, šķidrā vai liofilizētā formā. Parasti izmanto sausos sagatavotos mēslošanas līdzekļus uz kūdras bāzes. Šī pētījuma mērķis bija imobilizēt R. leguminosarum un noteikt tās dzīvotspēju šķidrumā un dažādos nesējmateriālos, lai izstrādātu uzlabotus gumiņbaktēriju preparātus. Imobilizēšanai izmantoja piecus sterilizētus materiālus: kūdru, māla pulveri, divu veidu ovālus šūnainās keramikas agregātus un cilindriskas keramikas granulas, kas izgatavotas no Planču depozīta Devona perioda māla. Imobilizāciju veica 2,5 stundu laikā 20 °C temperatūrā. Vēlāk kūdru, pulveri un granulas noberza un sasmalcināja ūdenī ar sterilu piestiņu, lai atdalītu pielipušās baktērijas. Baktēriju kolonijas veidojošo vienību skaitu noteica, izsējot iegūto suspensiju atšķaidījumus Petri traukos ar agarizētu barotni. Dzīvotspēju noteica arī ar LIVE/DEAD epifluorescences metodi. Iegūtie rezultāti parādīja, ka nesējmateriāls ietekmē imobilizācijas sekmes un ka uzglabāšanas temperatūra ietekmē R. leguminosarum dzīvotspēju. Vislabākos rezultātus ieguva, uzglabājot baktērijas suspensijā vai imobilizējot uz kūdras. Rekomendējam uzglabāt R. leguminosarum produktus −18 °C vai 4 °C temperatūrā.

  9. (Vicia sativa L.) - triticale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... This study was carried to determine the best seed mixture of vetch and triticale for East Mediterranean rainfed conditions of Turkey. The experiments were conducted in two locations, Adana and Kozan, during the years of 2003 - 2005. The field trials were arranged in a randomised block design with three.

  10. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

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    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  11. Prospeção da diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em 2 espécies agrícolas (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vicia faba L.) e 2 espécies nativas (Teline maderensis Webb & Berthel e Genista tenera (Jacq. Ex Murray) Kuntze) da Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Cristina Ornelas

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Microbiologia Aplicada, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 O Filo Glomeromycota compreende um grupo de fungos que se considera no geral serem biotróficos obrigatórios e que se associam a cerca de 80% das plantas. O fungo e a planta formam uma associação simbiótica conhecida como micorriza arbuscular. Desta associação, o fungo absorve entre 5 a 20% do carbono fotossintetizado pela planta e por outro lado a planta pode beneficiar do aumento da absorção de n...

  12. Enhanced Seed Oil Production in Canola by Conditional Expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in Developing Seeds1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-01-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production. PMID:21562329

  13. Plant regeneration from pulse-treated longitudinally sliced half cotyledon node explants of Turkish ochrus chickling [Lathyrus ochrus (L. D.C.

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    Saglam S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage legume ochrus chickling [Lathyrus ochrus (L. D.C.] which is distributed in the Mediterranean region, is gaining importance in terms of economy and agriculture in Turkey. However, the full potential of the legume has yet to be realized due to the presence of neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-L-a, β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP causing lathyrism. This study aimed to develop an efficient micropropagation system using longitudinally sliced cotyledon node explants for use in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in the future. The results show that the maximum number of shoots per explant was achieved on MS medium solidified with 8 g/l isubgol gelled medium containing 0.30 mg/l BA-0.2 mg/l NAA. Well-developed shoots were rooted by pulse treatment with 50 mg/l IBA and culturing on an 8 g/l isubgol gel solidified MS medium. The results showed 60% rooting in the treated shoots. The rooted plantlets were transferred to pots containing sand and organic matter and acclimatized.

  14. Sugar Treatments Can Induce AcLEAFY COTYLEDON1 Expression and Trigger the Accumulation of Storage Products during Prothallus Development of Adiantum capillus-veneris

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    Shu-Nong Bai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A seed is an intricate structure. Of the two development processes involved in seed formation, seed maturation, or seed program includes accumulation of storage products, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and induction of dormancy. Little is known about how these processes were originated and integrated into the life cycle of seed plants. While previous investigation on seed origin was almost exclusively through fossil comparison in paleobotany, a wealth of information about the key role of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1 in seed formation of spermatophyte inspired a new approach to investigating the seed origin mystery. Here, we examined the expression pattern of AcLEC1 during the entire life cycle of Adiantum capillus-veneris, a non-seed plant, confirmed no AcLEC1 gene expression detectable in prothalli, demonstrated inductive expressed by both sucrose and glucose in prothalli. As expected, we found that sugar treatments delayed prothallus development, promoted differentiation of reproductive organs, and triggered accumulation of storage products. These findings demonstrated links between the sugar treatments and the induction of AcLEC1 expression, as well as the sugar treatments and the events such as accumulation of storage products, which is similar to those considered as seed maturation process in seed plants. These links support a modified hypothesis that inductive expression of LEC1 homologs during embryogenesis might be a key innovation for the origin of the seed program.

  15. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  16. New insights into somatic embryogenesis: leafy cotyledon1, baby boom1 and WUSCHEL-related homeobox4 are epigenetically regulated in Coffea canephora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic-Can, Geovanny I; López-Torres, Adolfo; Barredo-Pool, Felipe; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Loyola-Vargas, Víctor M; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael; De-la-Peña, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells have the capacity to generate a new plant without egg fertilization by a process known as somatic embryogenesis (SE), in which differentiated somatic cells can form somatic embryos able to generate a functional plant. Although there have been advances in understanding the genetic basis of SE, the epigenetic mechanism that regulates this process is still unknown. Here, we show that the embryogenic development of Coffea canephora proceeds through a crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modifications during the earliest embryogenic stages of SE. We found that low levels of DNA methylation, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and H3K27me3 change according to embryo development. Moreover, the expression of LEAFY cotyledon1 (LEC1) and BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) are only observed after SE induction, whereas WUSCHEL-related homeobox4 (WOX4) decreases its expression during embryo maturation. Using a pharmacological approach, it was found that 5-Azacytidine strongly inhibits the embryogenic response by decreasing both DNA methylation and gene expression of LEC1 and BBM1. Therefore, in order to know whether these genes were epigenetically regulated, we used Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. It was found that WOX4 is regulated by the repressive mark H3K9me2, while LEC1 and BBM1 are epigenetically regulated by H3K27me3. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays an important role during somatic embryogenic development, and a molecular mechanism for SE is proposed.

  17. Stay-green protein, defective in Mendel's green cotyledon mutant, acts independent and upstream of pheophorbide a oxygenase in the chlorophyll catabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Sylvain; Mani, Jan; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Type C stay-green mutants are defined as being defective in the pathway of chlorophyll breakdown, which involves pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), required for loss of green color. By analyzing senescence parameters, such as protein degradation, expression of senescence-associated genes and loss of photosynthetic capacity, we demonstrate that JI2775, the green cotyledon (i) pea line used by Gregor Mendel to establish the law of genetics, is a true type C stay-green mutant. STAY-GREEN (SGR) had earlier been shown to map to the I locus. The defect in JI2775 is due to both reduced expression of SGR and loss of SGR protein function. Regulation of PAO through SGR had been proposed. By determining PAO protein abundance and activity, we show that PAO is unaffected in JI2775. Furthermore we show that pheophorbide a accumulation in the mutant is independent of PAO. When silencing SGR expression in Arabidopsis pao1 mutant, both pheophorbide a accumulation and cell death phenotype, typical features of pao1, are lost. These results confirm that SGR function within the chlorophyll catabolic pathway is independent and upstream of PAO.

  18. Effect of thermal treatments on anti-nutritional factors and antioxidant capabilities in yellow soybeans and green-cotyledon small black soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huai-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Yu-Fei

    2014-07-01

    The effects of different thermal processes on the anti-nutritional factors (tannins, phytic acids and trypsin inhibitors) and antioxidant capacity of yellow soybeans (YS) and green-cotyledon small black soybeans (GCSBS) were investigated. The soybean samples were subjected to roasting, microwaving and boiling as the thermal treatments. Sixty-minute boiling was most effective for eliminating the tannins in both YS and GCSBS, and also resulted in the maximal reduction of phytic acids. Trypsin inhibitors were most effectively reduced (76.92-97.91%) by microwaving, and boiling was least favourable for retaining total phenolic content. The total flavonoid content was significantly (P 0.05). Microwaving increased the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) of GCSBS up to 6.07%. Our raw GCSBS possesses much better antioxidant capacity than raw YS. Microwaving resulted in a substantial reduction of the trypsin inhibitors of our soybean samples. Dry thermal treatments caused slight increase of FRAP in GCSBS. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE AVEIA PRETA (AVENA STRIGOSA SCHIEB. E ERVILHACA COMUM (VICIA SATIVA L. NA PRODUÇÃO DE FITOMASSA E NO APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPED COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. AND NAKED OAT (AVENA STRIGOSA ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e sob preparo convencional, foi avaliada a influência de proporções de sementes de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. cultivadas em consórcio, na produção de fitomassa e no aporte de nitrogênio no sistema. O experimento foi implantado em solo podzolico vermelho amarelo, de Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram casualizados em quatro blocos, constituindo-se de: 1- 100% Ervilhaca comum (E; 2- 90% E + 10% Aveia preta (A; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- pousio de inverno. A amostragem da fitomassa das coberturas verdes foi efetuada na ocasião do pleno florescimento em área de 0,8m2 por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que a aveia preta e a ervilhaca comum podem ser consorciadas, beneficiando assim, a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio.The effect of intercropping common vetch (Vicia sativa L. with naked oat (Avena strigosa Schieb. at different seed proportions was evaluated. The trial was set up on a Red Yellow Podzolic soil of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The treatments were the following: 1- 100% E (common vetch; 2- 90% E + 10% A (naked oat; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- fall tillage organized in four randomized blocks. Biomass production was evaluated at the flowering stage in an area of 0.8 m2 per plot. Data show that both species can be intercropped which is beneficial to biomass production and nitrogen accumulation.

  20. Accumulation of β-Conglycinin in Soybean Cotyledon through the Formation of Disulfide Bonds between α′- and α-Subunits1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadahama, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Kensuke; Matsusaki, Motonori; Nishizawa, Keito; Ishimoto, Masao; Arisaka, Fumio; Takagi, Kyoko; Urade, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    β-Conglycinin, one of the major soybean (Glycine max) seed storage proteins, is folded and assembled into trimers in the endoplasmic reticulum and accumulated into protein storage vacuoles. Prior experiments have used soybean β-conglycinin extracted using a reducing buffer containing a sulfhydryl reductant such as 2-mercaptoethanol, which reduces both intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the proteins. In this study, soybean proteins were extracted from the cotyledons of immature seeds or dry beans under nonreducing conditions to prevent the oxidation of thiol groups and the reduction or exchange of disulfide bonds. We found that approximately half of the α′- and α-subunits of β-conglycinin were disulfide linked, together or with P34, prior to amino-terminal propeptide processing. Sedimentation velocity experiments, size-exclusion chromatography, and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis, with blue native PAGE followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, indicated that the β-conglycinin complexes containing the disulfide-linked α′/α-subunits were complexes of more than 720 kD. The α′- and α-subunits, when disulfide linked with P34, were mostly present in approximately 480-kD complexes (hexamers) at low ionic strength. Our results suggest that disulfide bonds are formed between α′/α-subunits residing in different β-conglycinin hexamers, but the binding of P34 to α′- and α-subunits reduces the linkage between β-conglycinin hexamers. Finally, a subset of glycinin was shown to exist as noncovalently associated complexes larger than hexamers when β-conglycinin was expressed under nonreducing conditions. PMID:22218927

  1. The Effects of Cropping Regimes on Fungal and Bacterial Communities of Wheat and Faba Bean in a Greenhouse Pot Experiment Differ between Plant Species and Compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Sandra; Kaiser, Kristin; Wemheuer, Bernd; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Many bacteria and fungi in the plant rhizosphere and endosphere are beneficial to plant nutrient acquisition, health, and growth. Although playing essential roles in ecosystem functioning, our knowledge about the effects of multiple cropping regimes on the plant microbiome and their interactions is still limited. Here, we designed a pot experiment simulating different cropping regimes. For this purpose, wheat and faba bean plants were grown under controlled greenhouse conditions in monocultures and in two intercropping regimes: row and mixed intercropping. Bacterial and fungal communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils as well as in the roots and aerial plant parts were analyzed using large-scale metabarcoding. We detected differences in microbial richness and diversity between the cropping regimes. Generally, observed effects were attributed to differences between mixed and row intercropping or mixed intercropping and monoculture. Bacterial and fungal diversity were significantly higher in bulk soil samples of wheat and faba bean grown in mixed compared to row intercropping. Moreover, microbial communities varied between crop species and plant compartments resulting in different responses of these communities toward cropping regimes. Leaf endophytes were not affected by cropping regime but bacterial and fungal community structures in bulk and rhizosphere soil as well as fungal community structures in roots. We further recorded highly complex changes in microbial interactions. The number of negative inter-domain correlations between fungi and bacteria decreased in bulk and rhizosphere soil in intercropping regimes compared to monocultures due to beneficial effects. In addition, we observed plant species-dependent differences indicating that intra- and interspecific competition between plants had different effects on the plant species and thus on their associated microbial communities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating microbial communities in

  2. The Effects of Cropping Regimes on Fungal and Bacterial Communities of Wheat and Faba Bean in a Greenhouse Pot Experiment Differ between Plant Species and Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Granzow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria and fungi in the plant rhizosphere and endosphere are beneficial to plant nutrient acquisition, health, and growth. Although playing essential roles in ecosystem functioning, our knowledge about the effects of multiple cropping regimes on the plant microbiome and their interactions is still limited. Here, we designed a pot experiment simulating different cropping regimes. For this purpose, wheat and faba bean plants were grown under controlled greenhouse conditions in monocultures and in two intercropping regimes: row and mixed intercropping. Bacterial and fungal communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils as well as in the roots and aerial plant parts were analyzed using large-scale metabarcoding. We detected differences in microbial richness and diversity between the cropping regimes. Generally, observed effects were attributed to differences between mixed and row intercropping or mixed intercropping and monoculture. Bacterial and fungal diversity were significantly higher in bulk soil samples of wheat and faba bean grown in mixed compared to row intercropping. Moreover, microbial communities varied between crop species and plant compartments resulting in different responses of these communities toward cropping regimes. Leaf endophytes were not affected by cropping regime but bacterial and fungal community structures in bulk and rhizosphere soil as well as fungal community structures in roots. We further recorded highly complex changes in microbial interactions. The number of negative inter-domain correlations between fungi and bacteria decreased in bulk and rhizosphere soil in intercropping regimes compared to monocultures due to beneficial effects. In addition, we observed plant species-dependent differences indicating that intra- and interspecific competition between plants had different effects on the plant species and thus on their associated microbial communities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating

  3. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) nitrogen nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génard, Thaïs; Etienne, Philippe; Laîné, Philippe; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Diquélou, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L.) to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using the split-root (15)N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low (15)N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant (15)N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and (15)N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant(-1), respectively), which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  4. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaïs Génard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L. to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. using the split-root 15N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low 15N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant 15N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and 15N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant−1, respectively, which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  5. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

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    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  6. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica, E-mail: mruffini@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy); Giorgetti, Lucia; Geri, Chiara [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA/CNR), UOS Pisa (Italy); Cremonini, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO{sub 2} on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0 Per-Mille-Sign in the plants Zea mays L. and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO{sub 2} particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO{sub 2} concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO{sub 2}-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  7. CYP94A1, a plant cytochrome P450-catalyzing fatty acid omega-hydroxylase, is selectively induced by chemical stress in Vicia sativa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Irène; Bronner, Roberte; Wang, Yong; Compagnon, Vincent; Michler, Pierre; Schreiber, Lukas; Salaün, Jean-Pierre; Durst, Francis; Pinot, Franck

    2005-08-01

    CYP94A1 is a cytochrome P450 (P450) catalyzing fatty acid (FA) omega-hydroxylation in Vicia sativa seedlings. To study the physiological role of this FA monooxygenase, we report here on its regulation at the transcriptional level (Northern blot). Transcripts of CYP94A1, as those of two other P450-dependent FA hydroxylases (CYP94A2 and CYP94A3) from V. sativa, are barely detectable during the early development of the seedlings. CYP94A1 transcripts, in contrast to those of the two other isoforms, are rapidly (less than 20 min) and strongly (more than 100 times) enhanced after treatment by clofibrate, an hypolipidemic drug in animals and an antiauxin (p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid) in plants, by auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid), by an inactive auxin analog (2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and also by salicylic acid. All these compounds activate CYP94A1 transcription only at high concentrations (50-500 microM range). In parallel, these high levels of clofibrate and auxins modify seedling growth and development. Therefore, the expression of CYP94A1 under these conditions and the concomitant morphological and cytological modifications would suggest the implication of this P450 in a process of plant defense against chemical injury.

  8. Contributions of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cell types to leaf respiration in Vicia faba L. and their responses to growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-11-01

    In intact leaves, mitochondrial populations are highly heterogeneous among contrasting cell types; how such contrasting populations respond to sustained changes in the environment remains, however, unclear. Here, we examined respiratory rates, mitochondrial protein composition and response to growth temperature in photosynthetic (mesophyll) and non-photosynthetic (epidermal) cells from fully expanded leaves of warm-developed (WD) and cold-developed (CD) broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Rates of respiration were significantly higher in mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) than epidermal cell protoplasts (ECPs), with both protoplast types exhibiting capacity for cytochrome and alternative oxidase activity. Compared with ECPs, MCPs contained greater relative quantities of porin, suggesting higher mitochondrial surface area in mesophyll cells. Nevertheless, the relative quantities of respiratory proteins (normalized to porin) were similar in MCPs and ECPs, suggesting that ECPs have lower numbers of mitochondria yet similar protein complement to MCP mitochondria (albeit with lower abundance serine hydroxymethyltransferase). Several mitochondrial proteins (both non-photorespiratory and photorespiratory) exhibited an increased abundance in response to cold in both protoplast types. Based on estimates of individual protoplast respiration rates, combined with leaf cell abundance data, epidermal cells make a small but significant (2%) contribution to overall leaf respiration which increases twofold in the cold. Taken together, our data highlight the heterogeneous nature of mitochondrial populations in leaves, both among contrasting cell types and in how those populations respond to growth temperature. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Molecular Mapping of D1, D2 and ms5 Revealed Linkage between the Cotyledon Color Locus D2 and the Male-Sterile Locus ms5 in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ott

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In soybean, genic male sterility can be utilized as a tool to develop hybrid seed. Several male-sterile, female-fertile mutants have been identified in soybean. The male-sterile, female-fertile ms5 mutant was selected after fast neutron irradiation. Male-sterility due to ms5 was associated with the “stay-green” cotyledon color mutation. The cotyledon color trait in soybean is controlled by two loci, D1 and D2. Association between cotyledon color and male-sterility can be instrumental in early phenotypic selection of sterility for hybrid seed production. The use of such selection methods saves time, money, and space, as fewer seeds need to be planted and screened for sterility. The objectives of this study were to compare anther development between male-fertile and male-sterile plants, to investigate the possible linkages among the Ms5, D1 and D2 loci, and to determine if any of the d1 or d2 mutations can be applied in hybrid seed production. The cytological analysis during anther development displayed optically clear, disintegrating microspores and enlarged, engorged pollen in the male-sterile, female-fertile ms5ms5 plants, a common characteristic of male-sterile mutants. The D1 locus was mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG D1a and was flanked by Satt408 and BARCSOYSSR_01_1622. The ms5 and D2 loci were mapped to MLG B1 with a genetic distance ~12.8 cM between them. These results suggest that use of the d2 mutant in the selection of male-sterile line may attenuate the cost hybrid seed production in soybean.

  10. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  11. The Effects of Vasopressin and Oxytocin on the Fetoplacental Distal Stem Arteriolar Vascular Resistance of the Dual-Perfused, Single, Isolated, Human Placental Cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John W; Baysinger, Curtis L; Johnson, Raymond F; Paschall, Ray L; Shotwell, Matthew S

    2016-09-01

    Vasoactive agents administered to counter maternal hypotension at cesarean delivery may theoretically intensify the hypoxemic fetoplacental vasoconstrictor response and, hence, negatively impact transplacental oxygen delivery to the fetus. Yet, this aspect of their pharmacodynamic profiles is seldom mentioned, let alone investigated. We hypothesized that vasopressin, a potent systemic vasoconstrictor, and oxytocin, a uterotonic agent administered routinely at cesarean delivery, which, in contrast to vasopressin, possesses significant systemic vasodilator properties, would not influence distal stem villous arteriolar resistance. The dual-perfused, single, isolated cotyledon, human placental perfusion model was used to examine the resistance response of the fetoplacental circulation to oxytocin and vasopressin in placentae harvested from healthy women. Twelve of a total of 17 individual experiments were conducted successfully during which either oxytocin (n = 6) or vasopressin (n = 6) was introduced into the fetal reservoir in concentration increments of 10 M. Fetoplacental distal stem villous arteriolar perfusion pressure (FAP) was measured continuously. The fetal circuit concentration of either oxytocin or vasopressin was raised in a stepwise fashion from 10 to 10 M or 10 to 10 M, respectively. Both reservoirs were then purged of drug, after which 1-mL 1.0 mM 5-hydroxytryptamine (2.5 µM), an agent well known to manifestly increase fetoplacental distal stem villous arteriolar resistance, was introduced into the fetal circuit. A significant increase in FAP from baseline in response to exposure to 5-hydroxytryptamine confirmed that the fetoplacental vasoconstrictor response remained reactive. The primary outcome of this study was changes in FAP after incremental dosing of vasopressin and oxytocin. No changes in FAP were observed with either oxytocin or vasopressin regardless of the drug concentration tested. For each drug and concentration, a mean pressure change

  12. Labeling of Carbon Pools in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae Bacteroids following Incubation of Intact Nodules with CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, S O; Streeter, J G

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the work reported here was to ascertain that the patterns of labeling seen in isolated bacteroids also occurred in bacteroids in intact nodules and to observe early metabolic events following exposure of intact nodules to (14)CO(2). Intact nodules of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ripley) inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Progress 9) inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae isolate 128C53 were detached and immediately fed (14)CO(2) for 1 to 6 min. Bacteroids were purified from these nodules in 5 to 7 min after the feeding period. In the cytosol from both soybean and pea nodules, malate had the highest radioactivity, followed by citrate and aspartate. In peas, asparagine labeling equaled that of aspartate. In B. japonicum bacteroids, malate was the most rapidly labeled compound, and the rate of glutamate labeling was 67% of the rate of malate labeling. Aspartate and alanine were the next most rapidly labeled compounds. R. leguminosarum bacteroids had very low amounts of (14)C and, after a 1-min feeding, malate contained 90% of the radioactivity in the organic acid fraction. Only a trace of activity was found in aspartate, whereas the rate of glutamate and alanine labeling approached that of malate after 6 min of feeding. Under the conditions studied, malate was the major form of labeled carbon supplied to both types of bacteroids. These results with intact nodules confirm our earlier results with isolated bacteroids, which showed that a significant proportion of provided labeled substrate, such as malate, is diverted to glutamate. This supports the conclusion that microaerobic conditions in nodules influence carbon metabolism in bacteroids.

  13. [Dendritic arborization patterns of interneurons labeled with a lectin, Vicia villosa, in rat cerebral cortex: studies by intracellular injection of lucifer yellow using aldehyde-fixed slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, H

    1993-04-01

    In order to characterize the dendritic field of a number of interneurons in the cerebral cortex, the labeling of extracellular sugar chains which define a subset of interneurons was combined with the subsequent intracellular filling of dyes in aldehyde-fixed tissue. Neurons whose cell body had been outlined by a lectin, Vicia villosa (VVA), which recognizes terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, were intracellularly injected with a fluorescent tracer, Lucifer yellow (LY), in the rat parietal cortex under direct visualization. After immunohistochemical detection of LY, somal morphology and the dendritic fields of injected neurons were reconstructed from serial sections and characterized in each of the layers II/III, IV, V and VI. Multipolar, flask-shaped and bitufted somata were VVA-positive. Multipolar neurons with round soma and spherical dendritic field were found in layers II/III, IV and V, while those with vertically elongated dendritic fields were found in layer VI. Cell bodies were located roughly in the center of the spherical or cylindrical dendritic fields. Neurons with apparently multipolar but flask- or pear-shaped soma were found frequently in layer IV, and much less frequently in layer II/III and VI. The majority of the dendrites originated from the neck portion of flask and formed a roughly spherical dendritic field with the cell body located more or less eccentrically. Some neurons in layer IV had an oval, somewhat vertically elongated soma and displayed a typical bitufted dendritic arborization pattern with vertically elongated dendritic fields. The overall dendritic field sizes of the cells gradually increased at deeper layers of the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Phytochemical distribution in hull and cotyledon of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), and their contribution to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaqiang; Cai, Weixi; Wu, Tong; Xu, Baojun

    2016-06-15

    Total saponin content, total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, condensed tannin content in hull, cotyledon and whole grain of both adzuki bean and mung bean were determined by colorimetric methods. Vitexin and isovitexin contents in mung bean were determined by HPLC. Antioxidant effects were evaluated with DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of beans were evaluated by protease and aldose reductase inhibitory assays, respectively. The results indicated that the bean hulls were the most abundant in phytochemicals and largely contributed antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-diabetic effects of whole grains. The result showed that mung bean hull was the most abundant with vitexin at 37.43 mg/g and isovitexin at 47.18 mg/g, respectively. Most of the phytochemicals and bioactivities were most predominantly contributed by the bean hulls with exception for condensed tannin of mung bean; which was more abundant in the cotyledon than its hull. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of dietary faba bean and non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes on the growth performance and gut physiology of young turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Juskiewicz, J; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Sosnowska, E; Slominski, B A; Jankowski, J; Zdunczyk, Z

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of soya bean meal (SBM) with faba bean (FB) and a blend of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzymes on the gastrointestinal function, growth performance and welfare of young turkeys (1 to 56 days of age). An experiment with a 2×2 factorial design was performed to compare the efficacy of four diets: a SBM-based diet and a diet containing FB, with and without enzyme supplementation (C, FB, CE and FBE, respectively). In comparison with groups C, higher dry matter content and lower viscosity of the small intestinal digesta were noted in groups FB. The content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the small intestinal digesta was higher in groups FB, but SCFA concentrations in the caecal digesta were comparable in groups C and FB. In comparison with control groups, similar BW gains, higher feed conversion ratio (FCR), higher dry matter content of excreta and milder symptoms of footpad dermatitis (FPD) were noted in groups FB. Enzyme supplementation increased the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total SCFAs, but it did not increase the SCFA pool in the caecal digesta. The enzymatic preparation significantly improved FCR, reduced excreta hydration and the severity of FPD in turkeys. It can be concluded that in comparison with the SBM-based diet, the diet containing 30% of FB enables to achieve comparable BW gains accompanied by lower feed efficiency during the first 8 weeks of rearing. Non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes can be used to improve the nutritional value of diets for young turkeys, but more desirable results of enzyme supplementation were noted in the SBM-based diet than in the FB-based diet.

  16. Replacement of dietary soy- with air classified faba bean protein concentrate alters the hepatic transcriptome in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Christian; Crampton, Viv O; Bicskei, Beatrix; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic response of salmon to increasing inclusion of air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC) in feeds as a replacement for soy protein concentrate (SPC). Specifically, we tested treatments with identical contents of fishmeal (222.4gkg(-1)) and progressively higher inclusion of BPC (0gkg(-1), 111.8gkg(-1), 223.6gkg(-1), 335.4gkg(-1), 447.2gkg(-1)) substituting SPC. This study demonstrated a dose-dependent metabolic response to a plant ingredient and was the first to compare the nutrigenomic transcriptional responses after substitution of terrestrial feed ingredients such as BPC and SPC without withdrawal of marine ingredients. It was found that after eight weeks a major physiological response in liver was only evident above 335.4gkg(-1) BPC and included decreased expression of metabolic pathways, and increased expression of genes regulating transcription and translation processes and the innate immune response. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritional stress caused by BPC resembled, at least at hepatic transcriptional level, that caused by soybean meal (included as a positive control in our experimental design). The outcomes of the present study suggested that Atlantic salmon parr might efficiently utilize moderate substitution of dietary SPC with BPC, with the optimum inclusion level being around 120gkg(-1)in the type of feeds

  17. Impact of legume protein type and location on lipid oxidation in fish oil-in-water emulsions: Lentil, pea, and faba bean proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Cansu Ekin; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2017-10-01

    Emulsion-based delivery systems are being developed to incorporate ω-3 fatty acids into functional foods and beverages. There is interest in formulating these delivery systems from more sustainable and label-friendly ingredients. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the impact of plant-protein emulsifiers on the oxidative stability of 1wt% fish oil-in-water emulsions. Fish oil emulsions stabilized by three types of legume protein (lentil, pea, and faba bean) were produced using a high-pressure microfluidizer. The formation of primary (peroxides) and secondary (TBARS) lipid oxidation products was measured when the emulsions were stored at 37°C under accelerated (+100μM iron sulfate) or non-accelerated (no added iron) conditions for 21 or 33days, respectively. The particle size, charge and microstructure of the emulsions were monitored during storage using light scattering and microscopy to detect changes in physical stability. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate, a commonly used animal-based protein, were utilized as a control. The emulsions formed using whey protein had smaller initial particle sizes, better physical stability, and slightly better stability to lipid oxidation than the ones formed using plant-based proteins. The impact of protein location (adsorbed versus non-adsorbed) on the oxidative stability of the emulsions was also investigated. The presence of non-adsorbed proteins inhibited lipid oxidation, presumably by binding transition metals and reducing their ability to interact with ω-3 fatty acids in the lipid droplets. Overall, these results have important implications for fabricating emulsion-based delivery systems for bioactive lipids, e.g., they indicate that including high levels of non-adsorbed proteins could improve oxidative stability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Faba Bean: Transcriptome Analysis from Etiolated Seedling and Developing Seed Coat of Key Cultivars for Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins, Phytate, Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides, Vicine, and Convicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ray

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean ( L. has been little examined from a genetic or genomic perspective despite its status as an established food and forage crop with some key pharmaceutical factors such as vicine and convicine (VC, which provoke severe haemolysis in genetically susceptible humans. We developed next-generation sequencing libraries to maximize information to elucidate the VC pathway or relevant markers as well as other genes of interest for the species. One selected cultivar, A01155, lacks synthesis of the favism-provoking factors, VC, and is low in tannin, while two cultivars, SSNS-1 and CDC Fatima, are wild-type for these factors. Tissues (5- to 6-d-old root and etiolated shoot and developing seed coat were selected to maximize the utility and breadth of the gene expression profile. Approximately 1.2 × 10 expressed transcripts were sequenced and assembled into contigs. The synthetic pathways for phosphatidylinositol or phytate, the raffinose family oligosaccharides, and proanthocyanidin were examined and found to contain nearly a full complement of the synthetic genes for these pathways. A severe deficiency in anthocyanidin reductase expression was found in the low-tannin cultivar A01155. Approximately 5300 variants, including 234 variants specific to one of the three cultivars, were identified. Differences in expression and variants potentially related to VC synthesis were analyzed using strategies exploiting differences in expression between cultivars and tissues. These sequences should be of high utility for marker-assisted selection for the key traits vicine, convicine, and proanthocyanidin, and should contribute to the scant genetic maps available for this species.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Zou, Ming-Hong; Feng, Bi-Hong; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as MiPIN1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as MiAUX1, MiAUX2, MiAUX3 and MiAUX4). The results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs belong to plant PIN and AUXs/LAXs groups. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs was lowest at 0 days but sharply increased on and after day 4. During the root formation in the mango cotyledon segments, the MiPIN1 expression in the distal cut surface (DCS) was always higher than the expression in the proximal cut surface (PCS) whereas the expression of the MiAUXs in the PCS was usually higher than in the DCS. This expression pattern might be result in the PAT from the DCS to the PCS, which is essential for the adventitious root formation in the PCS. Our previous study indicated that a pre-treatment of embryos with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly promoted adventitious rooting in PCS whereas a pre-treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) completely inhibited this rooting. In this study, however, IBA and TIBA pre-treatments slightly changed the expression of MiPIN1. In contrast, while the MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by the IBA pre-treatment, the expression levels were down-regulated by the TIBA pre-treatment. These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Indução de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja em resposta a derivados de folhas de pitangueira Induction of phytoalexins in cotyledons of soybean in response to the derivatives of leaf surinan cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A demanda mundial por alimentos isentos de agrotóxicos tem impulsionado a pesquisa para a busca de métodos alternativos ao controle de patógenos em plantas. A ativação dos mecanismos de defesa com o uso de indutores vem demonstrando ser uma alternativa viável e promissora. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais tem demonstrado capacidade para induzir a produção de fitoalexinas, como um mecanismo de defesa em plantas tratadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial da planta Eugenia uniflora L. (pitangueira em induzir fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja (Glycine max. Os derivados de extrato alcoólico, infusão, maceração e decocção, obtidos de folhas de pitangueira, foram usados nas concentrações de 0,1; 1; 10 e 40%, além de óleo essencial. Água foi utilizada como controle e quitosana (1% como indutor de referência. Os preparados de pitangueira apresentaram capacidade de indução das fitoalexinas gliceolinas em cotilédones de soja, respondendo ao aumento das concentrações dos preparados. O óleo essencial apresentou destacável efeito na indução de fitoalexinas, sendo superior aos demais preparados. Quitosana induziu fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja e pode ser utilizado em estudos similares como um indutor de referência.The worldwide demand for food without pesticides has stimulated the research on alternative methods to control pathogens in plants. The activation of defense mechanisms by inductors seems a viable and promising alternative. The use of medicinal plants extracts has demonstrated capacity to induce the production of phytoalexins, as a mechanism of defense in treated plants. The objective of this research was to verify the potential of Eugenia uniflora L. (surinan cherry to induce phytoalexins in cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max. The derivatives alcoholic extract, infusion, maceration and decoction, obtained of surinan cherry were used in the concentrations of 0.1; 1; 10 and 40%, beyond