WorldWideScience

Sample records for vicarious audiovisual learning

  1. Vicarious audiovisual learning in perfusion education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Thomas E; Holt, David W

    2010-12-01

    Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video.These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW stand-alone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today's perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p learning module than text learners. Vicarious audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important role in how we teach perfusion in the future, as simulation technology becomes more prevalent.

  2. Computer Support for Vicarious Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthienvichienchai, Rachada; Sasse, M. Angela

    This paper investigates how computer support for vicarious learning can be implemented by taking a principled approach to selecting and combining different media to capture educational dialogues. The main goal is to create vicarious learning materials of appropriate pedagogic content and production quality, and at the same time minimize the…

  3. Still to Learn from Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    The term "vicarious learning" was introduced in the 1960s by Bandura, who demonstrated how learning can occur through observing the behaviour of others. Such social learning is effective without the need for the observer to experience feedback directly. More than twenty years later a series of studies on vicarious learning was undertaken…

  4. Vicarious learning: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Experiential learning theory stresses the primacy of personal experience and the literature suggests that direct clinical experience is required in order for learning to take place. However, raw or first hand experience may not be the only mechanisms by which students engage in experiential learning. There is a growing body of literature within higher education which suggests that students are able to use another's experience to learn: vicarious learning. This literature review aims to outline vicarious learning within a nursing context. Many of the studies regarding vicarious learning are situated within Higher Education in general, however, within the United States these relate more specifically to nursing students. The literature indicates the increasing global interest in this area. This paper reveals that whilst the literature offers a number of examples illustrating how vicarious learning takes place, opinion on the role of the lecturer is divided and requires further exploration and clarification. The implications for nurse education are discussed.

  5. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  6. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Falcone

    Full Text Available We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  7. A comparison of positive vicarious learning and verbal information for reducing vicariously learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Wasely, David; Dunne, Güler; Askew, Chris

    2017-10-19

    Research with children has demonstrated that both positive vicarious learning (modelling) and positive verbal information can reduce children's acquired fear responses for a particular stimulus. However, this fear reduction appears to be more effective when the intervention pathway matches the initial fear learning pathway. That is, positive verbal information is a more effective intervention than positive modelling when fear is originally acquired via negative verbal information. Research has yet to explore whether fear reduction pathways are also important for fears acquired via vicarious learning. To test this, an experiment compared the effectiveness of positive verbal information and positive vicarious learning interventions for reducing vicariously acquired fears in children (7-9 years). Both vicarious and informational fear reduction interventions were found to be equally effective at reducing vicariously acquired fears, suggesting that acquisition and intervention pathways do not need to match for successful fear reduction. This has significant implications for parents and those working with children because it suggests that providing children with positive information or positive vicarious learning immediately after a negative modelling event may prevent more serious fears developing.

  8. Vicarious Learning from Human Models in Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was app...

  9. Vicarious learning through capturing taskdirected discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dineen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The research programme on vicarious learning, part of which we report in this paper, has been aimed at exploring the idea that learning can be facilitated by providing learners with access to the experiences of other learners. We use Bandura's term vicarious learning to describe this (Bandura, 1986, and we believe it to be a paradigm that offers particular promise when seen as an innovative way of exploiting recent technical advances in multimedia and distance learning technologies. It offers the prospect of a real alternative to the building of intelligent tutors (which directly address the problem of allowing learners access to dialogue, but which have proved largely intractable in practice or to the direct support of live dialogues (which do not offer a solution to the problem of providing 'live' tutors - unless they are between peer learners. In the research reported here our main objectives were to develop techniques to facilitate learners' access to, especially, dialogues and discussions which have arisen when other learners were faced with similar issues or problems in understanding the material. This required us to investigate means of indexing and retrieving appropriate dialogues and build on these to create an advanced prototype system for use in educational settings.

  10. Neural signals of vicarious extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Armita; Haaker, Jan; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Social transmission of both threat and safety is ubiquitous, but little is known about the neural circuitry underlying vicarious safety learning. This is surprising given that these processes are critical to flexibly adapt to a changeable environment. To address how the expression of previously learned fears can be modified by the transmission of social information, two conditioned stimuli (CS + s) were paired with shock and the third was not. During extinction, we held constant the amount of direct, non-reinforced, exposure to the CSs (i.e. direct extinction), and critically varied whether another individual-acting as a demonstrator-experienced safety (CS + vic safety) or aversive reinforcement (CS + vic reinf). During extinction, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) responses to the CS + vic reinf increased but decreased to the CS + vic safety This pattern of vmPFC activity was reversed during a subsequent fear reinstatement test, suggesting a temporal shift in the involvement of the vmPFC. Moreover, only the CS + vic reinf association recovered. Our data suggest that vicarious extinction prevents the return of conditioned fear responses, and that this efficacy is reflected by diminished vmPFC involvement during extinction learning. The present findings may have important implications for understanding how social information influences the persistence of fear memories in individuals suffering from emotional disorders. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Vicarious reinforcement learning signals when instructing others.

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    Apps, Matthew A J; Lesage, Elise; Ramnani, Narender

    2015-02-18

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theory posits that learning is driven by discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcomes of actions (prediction errors [PEs]). In social environments, learning is often guided by similar RL mechanisms. For example, teachers monitor the actions of students and provide feedback to them. This feedback evokes PEs in students that guide their learning. We report the first study that investigates the neural mechanisms that underpin RL signals in the brain of a teacher. Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) signal PEs when learning from the outcomes of one's own actions but also signal information when outcomes are received by others. Does a teacher's ACC signal PEs when monitoring a student's learning? Using fMRI, we studied brain activity in human subjects (teachers) as they taught a confederate (student) action-outcome associations by providing positive or negative feedback. We examined activity time-locked to the students' responses, when teachers infer student predictions and know actual outcomes. We fitted a RL-based computational model to the behavior of the student to characterize their learning, and examined whether a teacher's ACC signals when a student's predictions are wrong. In line with our hypothesis, activity in the teacher's ACC covaried with the PE values in the model. Additionally, activity in the teacher's insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaried with the predicted value according to the student. Our findings highlight that the ACC signals PEs vicariously for others' erroneous predictions, when monitoring and instructing their learning. These results suggest that RL mechanisms, processed vicariously, may underpin and facilitate teaching behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Apps et al.

  12. A comparison of positive vicarious learning and verbal information for reducing vicariously learned fear

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Gemma; Wasely, David; Dunne, Guler; Askew, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research with children has demonstrated that both positive vicarious learning (modelling) and positive verbal information can reduce children’s acquired fear responses for a particular stimulus. However, this fear reduction appears to be more effective when the intervention pathway matches the initial fear learning pathway. That is, positive verbal information is a more effective intervention than positive modelling when fear is originally acquired via negative verbal information. Research ha...

  13. The vicarious learning pathway to fear 40 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Field, Andy P

    2008-10-01

    Forty years on from the initial idea that fears could be learnt vicariously through observing other people's responses to a situation or stimulus, this review looks at the evidence for this theory as an explanatory model of clinical fear. First, we review early experimental evidence that fears can be learnt vicariously before turning to the evidence from both primate and human research that clinical fears can be acquired in this way. Finally, we review recent evidence from research on non-anxious children. Throughout the review we highlight problems and areas for future research. We conclude by exploring the likely underlying mechanisms in the vicarious learning of fear and the resulting clinical implications.

  14. Comparing Learning from Productive Failure and Vicarious Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    A total of 136 eighth-grade math students from 2 Singapore schools learned from either productive failure (PF) or vicarious failure (VF). PF students "generated" solutions to a complex problem targeting the concept of variance that they had not learned yet before receiving instruction on the targeted concept. VF students…

  15. Types of vicarious learning experienced by pre-dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kate; Sturt, Jackie; Adams, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis renal replacement treatment options are in clinical equipoise, although the cost of haemodialysis to the National Health Service is £16,411/patient/year greater than peritoneal dialysis. Treatment decision-making takes place during the pre-dialysis year when estimated glomerular filtration rate drops to between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Renal disease can be familial, and the majority of patients have considerable health service experience when they approach these treatment decisions. Factors affecting patient treatment decisions are currently unknown. The objective of this article is to explore data from a wider study in specific relation to the types of vicarious learning experiences reported by pre-dialysis patients. A qualitative study utilised unstructured interviews and grounded theory analysis during the participant's pre-dialysis year. The interview cohort comprised 20 pre-dialysis participants between 24 and 80 years of age. Grounded theory design entailed thematic sampling and analysis, scrutinised by secondary coding and checked with participants. Participants were recruited from routine renal clinics at two local hospitals when their estimated glomerular filtration rate was between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Vicarious learning that contributed to treatment decision-making fell into three main categories: planned vicarious leaning, unplanned vicarious learning and historical vicarious experiences. Exploration and acknowledgement of service users' prior vicarious learning, by healthcare professionals, is important in understanding its potential influences on individuals' treatment decision-making. This will enable healthcare professionals to challenge heuristic decisions based on limited information and to encourage analytic thought processes.

  16. Types of vicarious learning experienced by pre-dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McCarthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis renal replacement treatment options are in clinical equipoise, although the cost of haemodialysis to the National Health Service is £16,411/patient/year greater than peritoneal dialysis. Treatment decision-making takes place during the pre-dialysis year when estimated glomerular filtration rate drops to between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Renal disease can be familial, and the majority of patients have considerable health service experience when they approach these treatment decisions. Factors affecting patient treatment decisions are currently unknown. The objective of this article is to explore data from a wider study in specific relation to the types of vicarious learning experiences reported by pre-dialysis patients. Methods: A qualitative study utilised unstructured interviews and grounded theory analysis during the participant’s pre-dialysis year. The interview cohort comprised 20 pre-dialysis participants between 24 and 80 years of age. Grounded theory design entailed thematic sampling and analysis, scrutinised by secondary coding and checked with participants. Participants were recruited from routine renal clinics at two local hospitals when their estimated glomerular filtration rate was between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Vicarious learning that contributed to treatment decision-making fell into three main categories: planned vicarious leaning, unplanned vicarious learning and historical vicarious experiences. Conclusion: Exploration and acknowledgement of service users’ prior vicarious learning, by healthcare professionals, is important in understanding its potential influences on individuals’ treatment decision-making. This will enable healthcare professionals to challenge heuristic decisions based on limited information and to encourage analytic thought processes.

  17. Learning to fear a second-order stimulus following vicarious learning

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, G; Field, AP; Askew, C

    2015-01-01

    Vicarious fear learning refers to the acquisition of fear via observation of the fearful responses of others. The present study aims to extend current knowledge by exploring whether second-order vicarious fear learning can be demonstrated in children. That is, whether vicariously learnt fear responses for one stimulus can be elicited in a second stimulus associated with that initial stimulus. Results demonstrated that children’s (5–11 years) fear responses for marsupials and caterpillars incr...

  18. Promoting Vicarious Learning of Physics Using Deep Questions with Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Gholson, Barry; Brittingham, Joshua K.; Williams, Joah L.; Shubeck, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored the role of vicarious "self" explanations in facilitating student learning gains during computer-presented instruction. In Exp. 1, college students with low or high knowledge on Newton's laws were tested in four conditions: (a) monologue (M), (b) questions (Q), (c) explanation (E), and (d) question + explanation (Q + E).…

  19. Vicarious learning revisited: a contemporary behavior analytic interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, C L; Chase, P N

    1997-03-01

    Beginning in the 1960s, social learning theorists argued that behavioral learning principles could not account for behavior acquired through observation. Such a viewpoint is still widely held today. This rejection of behavioral principles in explaining vicarious learning was based on three phenomena: (1) imitation that occurred without direct reinforcement of the observer's behavior; (2) imitation that occurred after a long delay following modeling; and (3) a greater probability of imitation of the model's reinforced behavior than of the model's nonreinforced or punished behavior. These observations convinced social learning theorists that cognitive variables were required to explain behavior. Such a viewpoint has progressed aggressively, as evidenced by the change in name from social learning theory to social cognitive theory, and has been accompanied by the inclusion of information-processing theory. Many criticisms of operant theory, however, have ignored the full range of behavioral concepts and principles that have been derived to account for complex behavior. This paper will discuss some problems with the social learning theory explanation of vicarious learning and provide an interpretation of vicarious learning from a contemporary behavior analytic viewpoint.

  20. Scanning and vicarious learning from adverse events in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that serious adverse clinical events occur in approximately 3%-10% of acute care hospital admissions, and one third of these adverse events result in permanent disability or death. These findings have led to calls for national medical error reporting systems and for greater organizational learning by hospitals. But do hospitals and hospital personnel pay enough attention to such risk information that they might learn from each other's failures or adverse events? This paper gives an overview of the importance of scanning and vicarious learning from adverse events. In it I propose that health care organizations' attention and information focus, organizational affinity, and absorptive capacity may each influence scanning and vicarious learning outcomes. Implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Vicarious Fear Learning Depends on Empathic Appraisals and Trait Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Andreas; McMahon, Kibby; Papenberg, Goran; Zaki, Jamil; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Empathy and vicarious learning of fear are increasingly understood as separate phenomena, but the interaction between the two remains poorly understood. We investigated how social (vicarious) fear learning is affected by empathic appraisals by asking participants to either enhance or decrease their empathic responses to another individual (the demonstrator), who received electric shocks paired with a predictive conditioned stimulus. A third group of participants received no appraisal instructions and responded naturally to the demonstrator. During a later test, participants who had enhanced their empathy evinced the strongest vicarious fear learning as measured by skin conductance responses to the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the demonstrator. Moreover, this effect was augmented in observers high in trait empathy. Our results suggest that a demonstrator's expression can serve as a "social" unconditioned stimulus (US), similar to a personally experienced US in Pavlovian fear conditioning, and that learning from a social US depends on both empathic appraisals and the observers' stable traits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Vicarious learning and the development of fears in childhood.

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    Askew, Chris; Field, Andy P

    2007-11-01

    Vicarious learning has long been assumed to be an indirect pathway to fear; however, there is only retrospective evidence that children acquire fears in this way. In two experiments, children (aged 7-9 years) were exposed to pictures of novel animals paired with pictures of either scared, happy or no facial expressions to see the impact on their fear cognitions and avoidance behavior about the animals. In Experiment 1, directly (self-report) and indirectly measured (affective priming) fear attitudes towards the animals changed congruent with the facial expressions with which these were paired. The indirectly measured fear beliefs persisted up to 3 months. Experiment 2 showed that children took significantly longer to approach a box they believed to contain an animal they had previously seen paired with scared faces. These results support theories of fear acquisition that suppose that vicarious learning affects cognitive and behavioral fear emotion, and suggest possibilities for interventions to weaken fear acquired in this way.

  3. Vicarious extinction learning during reconsolidation neutralizes fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Armita; Tjaden, Cathelijn; Kindt, Merel

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that fear memories can be updated when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Given the beneficial effects of model-based safety learning (i.e. vicarious extinction) in preventing the recovery of short-term fear memory, we examined whether consolidated long-term fear memories could be updated with safety learning accomplished through vicarious extinction learning initiated within the reconsolidation time-window. We assessed this in a final sample of 19 participants that underwent a three-day within-subject fear-conditioning design, using fear-potentiated startle as our primary index of fear learning. On day 1, two fear-relevant stimuli (reinforced CSs) were paired with shock (US) and a third stimulus served as a control (CS). On day 2, one of the two previously reinforced stimuli (the reminded CS) was presented once in order to reactivate the fear memory 10 min before vicarious extinction training was initiated for all CSs. The recovery of the fear memory was tested 24 h later. Vicarious extinction training conducted within the reconsolidation time window specifically prevented the recovery of the reactivated fear memory (p = 0.03), while leaving fear-potentiated startle responses to the non-reactivated cue intact (p = 0.62). These findings are relevant to both basic and clinical research, suggesting that a safe, non-invasive model-based exposure technique has the potential to enhance the efficiency and durability of anxiolytic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of vicarious fear learning on children's heart rate responses and attentional bias for novel animals

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, G; Field, AP; Askew, C

    2014-01-01

    Research with children has shown that vicarious learning can result in changes to 2 of Lang's (1968) 3 anxiety response systems: subjective report and behavioral avoidance. The current study extended this research by exploring the effect of vicarious learning on physiological responses (Lang's final response system) and attentional bias. The study used Askew and Field's (2007) vicarious learning procedure and demonstrated fear-related increases in children's cognitive, behavioral, and physiol...

  5. Enabling the Development of Student Teacher Professional Identity through Vicarious Learning during an Educational Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenekamp, Karen; van der Merwe, Martyn; Mehmedova, Aygul Salieva

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the views of student teachers who were provided vicarious learning opportunities during an educational excursion, and how the learning enabled them to develop their teacher professional identity. This qualitative research study, using a social-constructivist lens highlights how vicarious learning influenced student teachers'…

  6. Effect of vicarious fear learning on children's heart rate responses and attentional bias for novel animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Research with children has shown that vicarious learning can result in changes to 2 of Lang's (1968) 3 anxiety response systems: subjective report and behavioral avoidance. The current study extended this research by exploring the effect of vicarious learning on physiological responses (Lang's final response system) and attentional bias. The study used Askew and Field's (2007) vicarious learning procedure and demonstrated fear-related increases in children's cognitive, behavioral, and physiological responses. Cognitive and behavioral changes were retested 1 week and 1 month later, and remained elevated. In addition, a visual search task demonstrated that fear-related vicarious learning creates an attentional bias for novel animals, which is moderated by increases in fear beliefs during learning. The findings demonstrate that vicarious learning leads to lasting changes in all 3 of Lang's anxiety response systems and is sufficient to create attentional bias to threat in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Teaching Parents about Responsive Feeding through a Vicarious Learning Video: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Ledoux, Tracey; Robinson, Jessica; Baranowski, Tom; O'Connor, Daniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics and World Health Organization recommend responsive feeding (RF) to promote healthy eating behaviors in early childhood. This project developed and tested a vicarious learning video to teach parents RF practices. A RF vicarious learning video was developed using community-based participatory research methods.…

  8. Promoting Constructive Activities that Support Vicarious Learning during Computer-Based Instruction

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    Gholson, Barry; Craig, Scotty D.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores several ways computer-based instruction can be designed to support constructive activities and promote deep-level comprehension during vicarious learning. Vicarious learning, discussed in the first section, refers to knowledge acquisition under conditions in which the learner is not the addressee and does not physically…

  9. Effects of Competition on Students' Self-Efficacy in Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joanne C. Y.; Lam, Shui-fong

    2008-01-01

    Background: Vicarious learning is one of the fundamental sources of self-efficacy that is frequently employed in educational settings. However, little research has investigated the effects of competition on students' writing self-efficacy when they engage in vicarious learning. Aim: This study compared the effects of competitive and…

  10. Teaching parents about responsive feeding through a vicarious learning video: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Academy of Pediatrics and World Health Organization recommend responsive feeding (RF) to promote healthy eating behaviors in early childhood. This project developed and tested a vicarious learning video to teach parents RF practices. A RF vicarious learning video was developed using com...

  11. Other people as means to a safe end: vicarious extinction blocks the return of learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Armita; Selbing, Ida; Flygare, Oskar; Ohman, Arne; Olsson, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Information about what is dangerous and safe in the environment is often transferred from other individuals through social forms of learning, such as observation. Past research has focused on the observational, or vicarious, acquisition of fears, but little is known about how social information can promote safety learning. To address this issue, we studied the effects of vicarious-extinction learning on the recovery of conditioned fear. Compared with a standard extinction procedure, vicarious extinction promoted better extinction and effectively blocked the return of previously learned fear. We confirmed that these effects could not be attributed to the presence of a learning model per se but were specifically driven by the model's experience of safety. Our results confirm that vicarious and direct emotional learning share important characteristics but that social-safety information promotes superior down-regulation of learned fear. These findings have implications for emotional learning, social-affective processes, and clinical practice.

  12. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  13. Learning to fear a second-order stimulus following vicarious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Vicarious fear learning refers to the acquisition of fear via observation of the fearful responses of others. The present study aims to extend current knowledge by exploring whether second-order vicarious fear learning can be demonstrated in children. That is, whether vicariously learnt fear responses for one stimulus can be elicited in a second stimulus associated with that initial stimulus. Results demonstrated that children's (5-11 years) fear responses for marsupials and caterpillars increased when they were seen with fearful faces compared to no faces. Additionally, the results indicated a second-order effect in which fear-related learning occurred for other animals seen together with the fear-paired animal, even though the animals were never observed with fearful faces themselves. Overall, the findings indicate that for children in this age group vicariously learnt fear-related responses for one stimulus can subsequently be observed for a second stimulus without it being experienced in a fear-related vicarious learning event. These findings may help to explain why some individuals do not recall involvement of a traumatic learning episode in the development of their fear of a specific stimulus.

  14. Inhibition of vicariously learned fear in children using positive modeling and prior exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Reynolds, Gemma; Fielding-Smith, Sarah; Field, Andy P

    2016-02-01

    One of the challenges to conditioning models of fear acquisition is to explain how different individuals can experience similar learning events and only some of them subsequently develop fear. Understanding factors moderating the impact of learning events on fear acquisition is key to understanding the etiology and prevention of fear in childhood. This study investigates these moderators in the context of vicarious (observational) learning. Two experiments tested predictions that the acquisition or inhibition of fear via vicarious learning is driven by associative learning mechanisms similar to direct conditioning. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of children aged 7 to 9 years received 1 of 3 inhibitive information interventions-psychoeducation, factual information, or no information (control)-prior to taking part in a vicarious fear learning procedure. In Experiment 2, 3 groups of children aged 7 to 10 years received 1 of 3 observational learning interventions-positive modeling (immunization), observational familiarity (latent inhibition), or no prevention (control)-before vicarious fear learning. Results indicated that observationally delivered manipulations inhibited vicarious fear learning, while preventions presented via written information did not. These findings confirm that vicarious learning shares some of the characteristics of direct conditioning and can explain why not all individuals will develop fear following a vicarious learning event. They also suggest that the modality of inhibitive learning is important and should match the fear learning pathway for increased chances of inhibition. Finally, the results demonstrate that positive modeling is likely to be a particularly effective method for preventing fear-related observational learning in children. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Stimulus fear relevance and the speed, magnitude, and robustness of vicariously learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Güler; Reynolds, Gemma; Askew, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Superior learning for fear-relevant stimuli is typically indicated in the laboratory by faster acquisition of fear responses, greater learned fear, and enhanced resistance to extinction. Three experiments investigated the speed, magnitude, and robustness of UK children's (6-10 years; N = 290; 122 boys, 168 girls) vicariously learned fear responses for three types of stimuli. In two experiments, children were presented with pictures of novel animals (Australian marsupials) and flowers (fear-irrelevant stimuli) alone (control) or together with faces expressing fear or happiness. To determine learning speed the number of stimulus-face pairings seen by children was varied (1, 10, or 30 trials). Robustness of learning was examined via repeated extinction procedures over 3 weeks. A third experiment compared the magnitude and robustness of vicarious fear learning for snakes and marsupials. Significant increases in fear responses were found for snakes, marsupials and flowers. There was no indication that vicarious learning for marsupials was faster than for flowers. Moreover, vicariously learned fear was neither greater nor more robust for snakes compared to marsupials, or for marsupials compared to flowers. These findings suggest that for this age group stimulus fear relevance may have little influence on vicarious fear learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid E-Learning Tool TransLearning: Video Storytelling to Foster Vicarious Learning within Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Marjoleine G.; Kupper, Frank; Beers, Pieter J.; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning and storytelling approaches can support informal vicarious learning within geographically widely distributed multi-stakeholder collaboration networks. This case study evaluates hybrid e-learning and video-storytelling approach "TransLearning" by investigation into how its storytelling e-tool supported informal vicarious…

  17. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arielle S.; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed. PMID:26575193

  18. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arielle S; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed.

  19. The Deep-Level-Reasoning-Question Effect: The Role of Dialogue and Deep-Level-Reasoning Questions during Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Sullins, Jeremiah; Witherspoon, Amy; Gholson, Barry

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the impact of dialogue and deep-level-reasoning questions on vicarious learning in 2 studies with undergraduates. In Experiment 1, participants learned material by interacting with AutoTutor or by viewing 1 of 4 vicarious learning conditions: a noninteractive recorded version of the AutoTutor dialogues, a dialogue with a…

  20. Vicarious learning during simulations: is it more effective than hands-on training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmann, Karsten; Pilz, Florian; Siebeck, Matthias; Fischer, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Doctor-patient communication skills are often fostered by using simulations with standardised patients (SPs). The efficiency of such experiences is greater if student observers learn at least as much from the simulation as do students who actually interact with the patient. This study aimed to investigate whether the type of simulation-based learning (learning by doing versus vicarious learning) and the order in which these activities are carried out (learning by doing → vicarious learning versus vicarious learninglearning by doing) have any effect on the acquisition of knowledge on effective doctor-patient communication strategies. In addition, we wished to examine the extent to which an observation script and a feedback formulation script affect knowledge acquisition in this domain. The sample consisted of 200 undergraduate medical students (126 female, 74 male). They participated in two separate simulation sessions, each of which was 30 minutes long and was followed by a collaborative peer feedback phase. Half of the students first performed (learning by doing) and then observed (vicarious learning) the simulation, and the other half participated in the reverse order. Knowledge of doctor-patient communication was measured before, between and after the simulations. Vicarious learning led to greater knowledge of doctor-patient communication scores than learning by doing. The order in which vicarious learning was experienced had no influence. The inclusion of an observation script also enabled significantly greater learning in students to whom this script was given compared with students who were not supported in this way, but the presence of a feedback script had no effect. Students appear to learn at least as much, if not more, about doctor-patient communication by observing their peers interact with SPs as they do from interacting with SPs themselves. Instructional support for observing simulations in the form of observation scripts facilitates both

  1. Effect of Vicarious Fear Learning on Children’s Heart Rate Responses and Attentional Bias for Novel Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Research with children has shown that vicarious learning can result in changes to 2 of Lang’s (1968) 3 anxiety response systems: subjective report and behavioral avoidance. The current study extended this research by exploring the effect of vicarious learning on physiological responses (Lang’s final response system) and attentional bias. The study used Askew and Field’s (2007) vicarious learning procedure and demonstrated fear-related increases in children’s cognitive, behavioral, and physiological responses. Cognitive and behavioral changes were retested 1 week and 1 month later, and remained elevated. In addition, a visual search task demonstrated that fear-related vicarious learning creates an attentional bias for novel animals, which is moderated by increases in fear beliefs during learning. The findings demonstrate that vicarious learning leads to lasting changes in all 3 of Lang’s anxiety response systems and is sufficient to create attentional bias to threat in children. PMID:25151521

  2. Vicarious Learning and Reduction of Fear in Children via Adult and Child Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Güler; Askew, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Children can learn to fear stimuli vicariously, by observing adults' or peers' responses to them. Given that much of school-age children's time is typically spent with their peers, it is important to establish whether fear learning from peers is as effective or robust as learning from adults, and also whether peers can be successful positive models for reducing fear. During a vicarious fear learning procedure, children (6 to 10 years; N = 60) were shown images of novel animals together with images of adult or peer faces expressing fear. Later they saw their fear-paired animal again together with positive emotional adult or peer faces. Children's fear beliefs and avoidance for the animals increased following vicarious fear learning and decreased following positive vicarious counterconditioning. There was little evidence of differences in learning from adults and peers, demonstrating that for this age group peer models are effective models for both fear acquisition and reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Vicarious Learning in PBL Variants for Learning Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podges, Martin; Kommers, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Three different groups in a class of first-year tertiary engineering students had to solve a problem based on a project by applying the distinctive problem-based learning (PBL) approach. Each group's project (PBL project) was then studied by the other two groups after successful completion and demonstration. Each group then had to study the…

  4. Audiovisual Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Augie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Six articles on the use of audiovisual materials in the school library media center cover how to develop an audiovisual production center; audiovisual forms; a checklist for effective video/16mm use in the classroom; slides in learning; hazards of videotaping in the library; and putting audiovisuals on the shelf. (EJS)

  5. Differential influence of social versus isolate housing on vicarious fear learning in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory rodents can adopt the pain or fear of nearby conspecifics. This phenotype conceptually lies within the domain of empathy, a bio-psycho-social process through which individuals come to share each other's emotion. Using a model of cue-conditioned fear, we show here that the expression of vicarious fear varies with respect to whether mice are raised socially or in solitude during adolescence. The impact of the adolescent housing environment was selective: (a) vicarious fear was more influenced than directly acquired fear, (b) "long-term" (24-h postconditioning) vicarious fear memories were stronger than "short-term" (15-min postconditioning) memories in socially reared mice whereas the opposite was true for isolate mice, and (c) females were more fearful than males. Housing differences during adolescence did not alter the general mobility of mice or their vocal response to receiving the unconditioned stimulus. Previous work with this mouse model underscored a genetic influence on vicarious fear learning, and the present study complements these findings by elucidating an interaction between the adolescent social environment and vicarious experience. Collectively, these findings are relevant to developing models of empathy amenable to mechanistic exploitation in the laboratory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Vicarious learning and unlearning of fear in childhood via mother and stranger models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Güler; Askew, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Evidence shows that anxiety runs in families. One reason may be that children are particularly susceptible to learning fear from their parents. The current study compared children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals following positive or fearful modeling by mothers and strangers in vicarious learning and unlearning procedures. Children aged 6 to 10 years (N = 60) were exposed to pictures of novel animals either alone (control) or together with pictures of their mother or a stranger expressing fear or happiness. During unlearning (counterconditioning), children saw each animal again with their mother or a stranger expressing the opposite facial expression. Following vicarious learning, children's fear beliefs increased for animals seen with scared faces and this effect was the same whether fear was modeled by mothers or strangers. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences decreased following positive counterconditioning and increased following fear counterconditioning. Again, learning was the same whether the model was the child's mother or a stranger. These findings indicate that children in this age group can vicariously learn and unlearn fear-related cognitions from both strangers and mothers. This has implications for our understanding of fear acquisition and the development of early interventions to prevent and reverse childhood fears and phobias.

  7. Learning from the Pros: Influence of Web-Based Expert Commentary on Vicarious Learning about Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Matthew W.; Kent, Daniel W.; Devoto, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Web-based financial commentary, in which experts routinely express market-related thought processes, is proposed as a means for college students to learn vicariously about financial markets. Undergraduate business school students from a regional university were exposed to expert market commentary from a single financial Web site for a 6-week…

  8. Vicarious neural processing of outcomes during observational learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Monfardini

    Full Text Available Learning what behaviour is appropriate in a specific context by observing the actions of others and their outcomes is a key constituent of human cognition, because it saves time and energy and reduces exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Observational learning of associative rules relies on the ability to map the actions of others onto our own, process outcomes, and combine these sources of information. Here, we combined newly developed experimental tasks and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms that govern such observational learning. Results show that the neural systems involved in individual trial-and-error learning and in action observation and execution both participate in observational learning. In addition, we identified brain areas that specifically activate for others' incorrect outcomes during learning in the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC, the anterior insula and the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS.

  9. Vicarious neural processing of outcomes during observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Gazzola, Valeria; Boussaoud, Driss; Brovelli, Andrea; Keysers, Christian; Wicker, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Learning what behaviour is appropriate in a specific context by observing the actions of others and their outcomes is a key constituent of human cognition, because it saves time and energy and reduces exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Observational learning of associative rules relies on the ability to map the actions of others onto our own, process outcomes, and combine these sources of information. Here, we combined newly developed experimental tasks and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms that govern such observational learning. Results show that the neural systems involved in individual trial-and-error learning and in action observation and execution both participate in observational learning. In addition, we identified brain areas that specifically activate for others' incorrect outcomes during learning in the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), the anterior insula and the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS).

  10. Vicarious Neural Processing of Outcomes during Observational Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Gazzola, Valeria; Boussaoud, Driss; Brovelli, Andrea; Keysers, Christian; Wicker, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Learning what behaviour is appropriate in a specific context by observing the actions of others and their outcomes is a key constituent of human cognition, because it saves time and energy and reduces exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Observational learning of associative rules relies on

  11. Macaque monkeys can learn token values from human models through vicarious reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Sara; Cerasti, Erika; Falcone, Rossella; Cervelloni, Milena; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Ferraina, Stefano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Monkeys can learn the symbolic meaning of tokens, and exchange them to get a reward. Monkeys can also learn the symbolic value of a token by observing conspecifics but it is not clear if they can learn passively by observing other actors, e.g., humans. To answer this question, we tested two monkeys in a token exchange paradigm in three experiments. Monkeys learned token values through observation of human models exchanging them. We used, after a phase of object familiarization, different sets of tokens. One token of each set was rewarded with a bit of apple. Other tokens had zero value (neutral tokens). Each token was presented only in one set. During the observation phase, monkeys watched the human model exchange tokens and watched them consume rewards (vicarious rewards). In the test phase, the monkeys were asked to exchange one of the tokens for food reward. Sets of three tokens were used in the first experiment and sets of two tokens were used in the second and third experiments. The valuable token was presented with different probabilities in the observation phase during the first and second experiments in which the monkeys exchanged the valuable token more frequently than any of the neutral tokens. The third experiments examined the effect of unequal probabilities. Our results support the view that monkeys can learn from non-conspecific actors through vicarious reward, even a symbolic task like the token-exchange task.

  12. Vicarious Versus Traditional Learning in Biology: A Case of Sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare between learning sexually transmitted infections in Biology by observation and traditional classroom lecture method among secondary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study involved form three students from Perfect Vision and Benjamin Mkapa secondary schools. A total ...

  13. Stimulus fear-relevance and the vicarious learning pathway to childhood fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Dunne, Güler; Özdil, Zehra; Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P

    2013-10-01

    Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for stimuli they had seen with scared faces. However, in contrast to evidence with adults, learning was mostly similar for all stimulus types irrespective of fear-relevance. The results support a proposal that stimulus preparedness is bypassed when children observationally learn threat-related information from adults.

  14. Impact of Vicarious Learning Experiences and Goal Setting on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Technology Integration: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    This pilot study was designed to explore how vicarious learning experiences and goal setting influence preservice teachers' self-efficacy for integrating technology into the classroom. Twenty undergraduate students who were enrolled in an introductory educational technology course at a large midwestern university participated and were assigned…

  15. Unimodal Learning Enhances Crossmodal Learning in Robotic Audio-Visual Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Bodenhagen, Leon; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2017-01-01

    -specific neural weights. This model is instantiated as a neural circuit that continuously learns the best possible weights required for a weighted combination of noisy low-level auditory and visual spatial target direction cues. The combined sensory information is directly mapped to wheel velocities that orient...... a non-holonomic robotic agent towards a moving audio-visual target. Simulation results demonstrate that unimodal learning enhances crossmodal learning and improves both the overall accuracy and precision of multisensory orientation response....

  16. Unimodal Learning Enhances Crossmodal Learning in Robotic Audio-Visual Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Bodenhagen, Leon; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2018-01-01

    -specific neural weights. This model is instantiated as a neural circuit that continuously learns the best possible weights required for a weighted combination of noisy low-level auditory and visual spatial target direction cues. The combined sensory information is directly mapped to wheel velocities that orient...... a non-holonomic robotic agent towards a moving audio-visual target. Simulation results demonstrate that unimodal learning enhances crossmodal learning and improves both the overall accuracy and precision of multisensory orientation response....

  17. Spontaneous eye movements and trait empathy predict vicarious learning of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleberg, Johan L; Selbing, Ida; Lundqvist, Daniel; Hofvander, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Learning to predict dangerous outcomes is important to survival. In humans, this kind of learning is often transmitted through the observation of others' emotional responses. We analyzed eye movements during an observational/vicarious fear learning procedure, in which healthy participants (N=33) watched another individual ('learning model') receiving aversive treatment (shocks) paired with a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), but not a control stimulus (CS-). Participants' gaze pattern towards the model differentiated as a function of whether the CS was predictive or not of a shock to the model. Consistent with our hypothesis that the face of a conspecific in distress can act as an unconditioned stimulus (US), we found that the total fixation time at a learning model's face increased when the CS+ was shown. Furthermore, we found that the total fixation time at the CS+ during learning predicted participants' conditioned responses (CRs) at a later test in the absence of the model. We also demonstrated that trait empathy was associated with stronger CRs, and that autistic traits were positively related to autonomic reactions to watching the model receiving the aversive treatment. Our results have implications for both healthy and dysfunctional socio-emotional learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vicarious shame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welten, S.C.M.; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined an account of vicarious shame that explains how people can experience a self-conscious emotion for the behaviour of another person. Two divergent processes have been put forward to explain how another's behaviour links to the self. The group-based emotion account explains vicarious shame

  19. Dissociable brain systems mediate vicarious learning of stimulus-response and action-outcome contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeholm, Mimi; Molloy, Ciara J; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-07-18

    Two distinct strategies have been suggested to support action selection in humans and other animals on the basis of experiential learning: a goal-directed strategy that generates decisions based on the value and causal antecedents of action outcomes, and a habitual strategy that relies on the automatic elicitation of actions by environmental stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether a similar dichotomy exists for actions that are acquired vicariously, through observation of other individuals rather than through direct experience, and assessed whether these strategies are mediated by distinct brain regions. We scanned participants with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed an observational learning task designed to encourage either goal-directed encoding of the consequences of observed actions, or a mapping of observed actions to conditional discriminative cues. Activity in different parts of the action observation network discriminated between the two conditions during observational learning and correlated with the degree of insensitivity to outcome devaluation in subsequent performance. Our findings suggest that, in striking parallel to experiential learning, neural systems mediating the observational acquisition of actions may be dissociated into distinct components: a goal-directed, outcome-sensitive component and a less flexible stimulus-response component.

  20. Text-to-audiovisual speech synthesizer for children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendi, Engin; Bayrak, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    Learning disabilities affect the ability of children to learn, despite their having normal intelligence. Assistive tools can highly increase functional capabilities of children with learning disorders such as writing, reading, or listening. In this article, we describe a text-to-audiovisual synthesizer that can serve as an assistive tool for such children. The system automatically converts an input text to audiovisual speech, providing synchronization of the head, eye, and lip movements of the three-dimensional face model with appropriate facial expressions and word flow of the text. The proposed system can enhance speech perception and help children having learning deficits to improve their chances of success.

  1. Vicarious learning of children's social-anxiety-related fear beliefs and emotional Stroop bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Hagel, Anna; Morgan, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Models of social anxiety suggest that negative social experiences contribute to the development of social anxiety, and this is supported by self-report research. However, there is relatively little experimental evidence for the effects of learning experiences on social cognitions. The current study examined the effect of observing a social performance situation with a negative outcome on children's (8 to 11 years old) fear-related beliefs and cognitive processing. Two groups of children were each shown 1 of 2 animated films of a person trying to score in basketball while being observed by others; in 1 film, the outcome was negative, and in the other, it was neutral. Children's fear-related beliefs about performing in front of others were measured before and after the film and children were asked to complete an emotional Stroop task. Results showed that social fear beliefs increased for children who saw the negative social performance film. In addition, these children showed an emotional Stroop bias for social-anxiety-related words compared to children who saw the neutral film. The findings have implications for our understanding of social anxiety disorder and suggest that vicarious learning experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of social anxiety. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Effects of MK-801 on vicarious trial-and-error and reversal of olfactory discrimination learning in weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, G S; Hu, D; Amsel, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) on vicarious trial-and-error (VTE), and on simultaneous olfactory discrimination learning and its reversal, were observed in weanling rats. The term VTE was used by Tolman (The determiners of behavior at a choice point. Psychol. Rev. 1938;46:318-336), who described it as conflict-like behavior at a choice-point in simultaneous discrimination learning. It takes the form of head movements from one stimulus to the other, and has recently been proposed by Amsel (Hippocampal function in the rat: cognitive mapping or vicarious trial-and-error? Hippocampus, 1993;3:251-256) as related to hippocampal, nonspatial function during this learning. Weanling male rats received systemic MK-801 either 30 min before the onset of olfactory discrimination training and its reversal, or only before its reversal. The MK-801-treated animals needed significantly more sessions to acquire the discrimination and showed significantly fewer VTEs in the acquisition phase of learning. Impaired reversal learning was shown only when MK-801 was administered during the reversal-learning phase, itself, and not when it was administered throughout both phases.

  3. Unimodal Learning Enhances Crossmodal Learning in Robotic Audio-Visual Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Bodenhagen, Leon; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2018-01-01

    -specific neural weights. This model is instantiated as a neural circuit that continuously learns the best possible weights required for a weighted combination of noisy low-level auditory and visual spatial target direction cues. The combined sensory information is directly mapped to wheel velocities that orient...... a non-holonomic robotic agent towards a moving audio-visual target. Simulation results demonstrate that unimodal learning enhances crossmodal learning and improves both the overall accuracy and precision of multisensory orientation response....... learning-based model that continuously adapts crossmodal combinations in response to dynamic changes in noisy sensory stimuli but does not require a priori knowledge of sensory noise. The model correlates sensory cues within a single modality as well as across modalities to independently update modality...

  4. Primary School Pupils' Response to Audio-Visual Learning Process in Port-Harcourt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olube, Friday K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine primary school children's response on the use of audio-visual learning processes--a case study of Chokhmah International Academy, Port-Harcourt (owned by Salvation Ministries). It looked at the elements that enhance pupils' response to educational television programmes and their hindrances to these…

  5. Developing an Audiovisual Notebook as a Self-Learning Tool in Histology: Perceptions of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan-Antonio; Scionti, Giuseppe; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Sola, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Videos can be used as didactic tools for self-learning under several circumstances, including those cases in which students are responsible for the development of this resource as an audiovisual notebook. We compared students' and teachers' perceptions regarding the main features that an audiovisual notebook should include. Four…

  6. Vicarious trial-and-error behavior and hippocampal cytochrome oxidase activity during Y-maze discrimination learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Xu, Xiaojuan; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The present study investigated whether more vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) behavior, defined by head movement from one stimulus to another at a choice point during simultaneous discriminations, led to better visual discrimination learning in a Y-maze, and whether VTE behavior was a function of the hippocampus by measuring regional brain cytochrome oxidase (C.O.) activity, an index of neuronal metabolic activity. The results showed that the more VTEs a rat made, the better the rat learned the visual discrimination. Furthermore, both learning and VTE behavior during learning were correlated to C.O. activity in the hippocampus, suggesting that the hippocampus plays a role in VTE behavior during discrimination learning.

  7. A Guide for Audiovisual and Newer Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, William D.

    One of the principal values of audiovisual materials is that they permit the teacher to depart from verbal and printed symbolism, and at the same time to provide a wider real or vicarious experience for pupils. This booklet is designed to aid the teacher in using audiovisual material effectively. It covers visual displays, non-projected materials,…

  8. Development of vicarious trial-and-error behavior in odor discrimination learning in the rat: relation to hippocampal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Griesbach, G; Amsel, A

    1997-06-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has suggested that hippocampal electrolytic lesions result in a deficit in simultaneous, black-white discrimination learning and reduce the frequency of vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) at a choice-point. VTE is a term Tolman used to describe the rat's conflict-like behavior, moving its head from one stimulus to the other at a choice point, and has been proposed as a major nonspatial feature of hippocampal function in both visual and olfactory discrimination learning. Simultaneous odor discrimination and VTE behavior were examined at three different ages. The results were that 16-day-old pups made fewer VTEs and learned much more slowly than 30- and 60-day-olds, a finding in accord with levels of hippocampal maturity in the rat.

  9. Impact of audio-visual storytelling in simulation learning experiences of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sandra; Parker, Christina N; Fox, Amanda

    2017-09-01

    Use of high fidelity simulation has become increasingly popular in nursing education to the extent that it is now an integral component of most nursing programs. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have difficulty engaging with simulation manikins due to their unrealistic appearance. Introduction of the manikin as a 'real patient' with the use of an audio-visual narrative may engage students in the simulated learning experience and impact on their learning. A paucity of literature currently exists on the use of audio-visual narratives to enhance simulated learning experiences. This study aimed to determine if viewing an audio-visual narrative during a simulation pre-brief altered undergraduate nursing student perceptions of the learning experience. A quasi-experimental post-test design was utilised. A convenience sample of final year baccalaureate nursing students at a large metropolitan university. Participants completed a modified version of the Student Satisfaction with Simulation Experiences survey. This 12-item questionnaire contained questions relating to the ability to transfer skills learned in simulation to the real clinical world, the realism of the simulation and the overall value of the learning experience. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise demographic information. Two tailed, independent group t-tests were used to determine statistical differences within the categories. Findings indicated that students reported high levels of value, realism and transferability in relation to the viewing of an audio-visual narrative. Statistically significant results (t=2.38, psimulation to clinical practice. The subgroups of age and gender although not significant indicated some interesting results. High satisfaction with simulation was indicated by all students in relation to value and realism. There was a significant finding in relation to transferability on knowledge and this is vital to quality educational outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  10. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career "coaching" intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students' goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students' research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career development that students receive in their home training

  11. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. Objective To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. Method The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students’ goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Results Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students’ research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Implications Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career

  12. The effect of the lecture discussion teaching method with and without audio-visual augmentation on immediate and retention learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusyszyn, M A

    1990-06-01

    This study determined whether students taught using the lecture-discussion method augmented with audio-visuals would achieve a higher mean score on an immediate post-test and delayed retention test than students presented with a lecture-discussion without audio-visuals. A convenience sample of 52 students divided into two groups voluntarily participated in the quasi-experiment. Two teaching sessions averaging 90 minutes in length were taught by the researcher. Learning and retention were measured by a 10-item multiple choice test with content validity. Immediate learning was measured with a post-test administered immediately following each of the teaching sessions. Delayed learning was measured with a retention test administered 25.5 days following the teaching sessions. Group data was analysed using an independent one tailed t-test for mean scores. Students attending the lecture-discussion with audio-visual augmentation did not achieve significantly higher mean scores on the two tests than the non-augmented group (p less than or equal to 0.05). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the difference in scores between the post-test and retention test for the group without audio-visual augmentation was significant (t = 2.31; p less than 0.05). Delayed retention appears to have been influenced by the use of audio-visuals. Nurse educators need to consider ways in which the lecture-discussion may be enhanced to maximise student learning and retention.

  13. Left Prefrontal Activity Reflects the Ability of Vicarious Fear Learning: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear could be acquired indirectly via social observation. However, it remains unclear which cortical substrate activities are involved in vicarious fear transmission. The present study was to examine empathy-related processes during fear learning by-proxy and to examine the activation of prefrontal cortex by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We simultaneously measured participants’ hemodynamic responses and skin conductance responses when they were exposed to a movie. In this movie, a demonstrator (i.e., another human being was receiving a classical fear conditioning. A neutral colored square paired with shocks (CSshock and another colored square paired with no shocks (CSno-shock were randomly presented in front of the demonstrator. Results showed that increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in left prefrontal cortex was observed when participants watched a demonstrator seeing CSshock compared with that exposed to CSno-shock. In addition, enhanced skin conductance responses showing a demonstrator's aversive experience during learning object-fear association were observed. The present study suggests that left prefrontal cortex, which may reflect speculation of others’ mental state, is associated with social fear transmission.

  14. Left prefrontal activity reflects the ability of vicarious fear learning: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Huang, Yujing; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Fear could be acquired indirectly via social observation. However, it remains unclear which cortical substrate activities are involved in vicarious fear transmission. The present study was to examine empathy-related processes during fear learning by-proxy and to examine the activation of prefrontal cortex by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We simultaneously measured participants' hemodynamic responses and skin conductance responses when they were exposed to a movie. In this movie, a demonstrator (i.e., another human being) was receiving a classical fear conditioning. A neutral colored square paired with shocks (CS(shock)) and another colored square paired with no shocks (CS(no-shock)) were randomly presented in front of the demonstrator. Results showed that increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in left prefrontal cortex was observed when participants watched a demonstrator seeing CS(shock) compared with that exposed to CS(no-shock). In addition, enhanced skin conductance responses showing a demonstrator's aversive experience during learning object-fear association were observed. The present study suggests that left prefrontal cortex, which may reflect speculation of others' mental state, is associated with social fear transmission.

  15. Concern for Others Leads to Vicarious Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Andreas; Faber, Nadira S; Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian; Crockett, Molly J

    2018-03-01

    An optimistic learning bias leads people to update their beliefs in response to better-than-expected good news but neglect worse-than-expected bad news. Because evidence suggests that this bias arises from self-concern, we hypothesized that a similar bias may affect beliefs about other people's futures, to the extent that people care about others. Here, we demonstrated the phenomenon of vicarious optimism and showed that it arises from concern for others. Participants predicted the likelihood of unpleasant future events that could happen to either themselves or others. In addition to showing an optimistic learning bias for events affecting themselves, people showed vicarious optimism when learning about events affecting friends and strangers. Vicarious optimism for strangers correlated with generosity toward strangers, and experimentally increasing concern for strangers amplified vicarious optimism for them. These findings suggest that concern for others can bias beliefs about their future welfare and that optimism in learning is not restricted to oneself.

  16. Concurrent Unimodal Learning Enhances Multisensory Responses of Bi-Directional Crossmodal Learning in Robotic Audio-Visual Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Bodenhagen, Leon; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2018-01-01

    possible weights required for a weighted combination of noisy auditory and visual spatial target directional cues. The result is directly mapped to robot wheel velocities to illicit a multisensory orientation response. Trials in simulation demonstrate that concurrent unimodal learning improves both...... modalities to independently update modality-specific neural weights on a moment-by-moment basis, in response to dynamic changes in noisy sensory stimuli. The circuit is embodied as a non-holonomic robotic agent that must orient a towards a moving audio-visual target. The circuit continuously learns the best...

  17. Learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation theory with face-to-face versus audiovisual instruction for secondary school students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo Espinosa, Cristina; Nieto Caballero, Sergio; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; Castejón-Mochón, José Francisco; Segura Melgarejo, Francisca; Sánchez Martínez, Carmen María; López López, Carmen Amalia; Pardo Ríos, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    To compare secondary students' learning of basic life support (BLS) theory and the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) through face-to-face classroom instruction versus educational video instruction. A total of 2225 secondary students from 15 schools were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 instructional groups: 1) face-to-face instruction with no audiovisual support, 2) face-to-face instruction with audiovisual support, 3) audiovisual instruction without face-to-face instruction, 4) audiovisual instruction with face-to-face instruction, and 5) a control group that received no instruction. The students took a test of BLS and AED theory before instruction, immediately after instruction, and 2 months later. The median (interquartile range) scores overall were 2.33 (2.17) at baseline, 5.33 (4.66) immediately after instruction (P<.001) and 6.00 (3.33) (P<.001). All groups except the control group improved their scores. Scores immediately after instruction and 2 months later were statistically similar after all types of instruction. No significant differences between face-to-face instruction and audiovisual instruction for learning BLS and AED theory were found in secondary school students either immediately after instruction or 2 months later.

  18. Online dissection audio-visual resources for human anatomy: Undergraduate medical students' usage and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Cuellar, William A; Williams, Anne-Marie M

    2016-11-01

    In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection sessions, representing at most 58% ± 20 of assigned dissectors. Approximately 50% of students accessed all available DAVR by the end of semester, while 10% accessed none. Ninety percent of survey respondents (response rate 58%) generally agreed that DAVR improved their preparation for and learning from dissection when used. Of several learning resources, only DAVR usage had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.002) with feeling prepared for dissection. Results on cadaveric anatomy practical examination questions in year 2 (Y2) and year 3 (Y3) cohorts were 3.9% (P learning outcomes of more students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 545-554. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Sex differences in vicarious trial-and-error behavior during radial arm maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, H A; Denenberg, V H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated sex differences in VTE behavior in rats during radial arm maze learning. Females made more VTEs than males, although there were no sex differences in learning. Further, VTEs and errors were positively correlated during the latter testing sessions in females, but not in males. This sex difference may be a reflection of differences between the sexes in conflict behavior or cognitive strategy while solving the maze.

  20. Enhanced sensory re-learning after nerve repair using 3D audio-visual signals and kinaesthesia--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhammer, R; Hausner, T; Kröpfl, A; Huber, W; Hopf, R; Leixnering, M; Herz, H; Redl, H

    2007-01-01

    Sensory re-learning methods and basics on cortical reorganization after peripheral nerve lesion are well documented. The aim of enhanced sensory re-learning using 3D audio-visual signals and kinaesthetic training is the augmentation of cognitive memory (visual and acoustic sensory memory) and cognitive function for the improvement of cerebral plasticity processes and starts as soon as possible after nerve repair. Preliminary results are shown.

  1. Observing tutorial dialogues collaboratively: insights about human tutoring effectiveness from vicarious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michelene T H; Roy, Marguerite; Hausmann, Robert G M

    2008-03-01

    The goals of this study are to evaluate a relatively novel learning environment, as well as to seek greater understanding of why human tutoring is so effective. This alternative learning environment consists of pairs of students collaboratively observing a videotape of another student being tutored. Comparing this collaboratively observing environment to four other instructional methods-one-on-one human tutoring, observing tutoring individually, collaborating without observing, and studying alone-the results showed that students learned to solve physics problems just as effectively from observing tutoring collaboratively as the tutees who were being tutored individually. We explain the effectiveness of this learning environment by postulating that such a situation encourages learners to become active and constructive observers through interactions with a peer. In essence, collaboratively observing combines the benefit of tutoring with the benefit of collaborating. The learning outcomes of the tutees and the collaborative observers, along with the tutoring dialogues, were used to further evaluate three hypotheses explaining why human tutoring is an effective learning method. Detailed analyses of the protocols at several grain sizes suggest that tutoring is effective when tutees are independently or jointly constructing knowledge: with the tutor, but not when the tutor independently conveys knowledge. 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Concurrent Unimodal Learning Enhances Multisensory Responses of Bi-Directional Crossmodal Learning in Robotic Audio-Visual Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Bodenhagen, Leon; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2018-01-01

    modalities to independently update modality-specific neural weights on a moment-by-moment basis, in response to dynamic changes in noisy sensory stimuli. The circuit is embodied as a non-holonomic robotic agent that must orient a towards a moving audio-visual target. The circuit continuously learns the best...... possible weights required for a weighted combination of noisy auditory and visual spatial target directional cues. The result is directly mapped to robot wheel velocities to illicit a multisensory orientation response. Trials in simulation demonstrate that concurrent unimodal learning improves both...... learning, with neuroplasticity as its underlying mechanism. Bayesian models of crossmodal cue integration form a unified percept as a sum of stimulus cues weighted by their respective reliabilities. This approach however requires a priori knowledge of the underlying stimulus noise distributions, i...

  3. Vicarious birth experiences and childbirth fear: does it matter how young canadian women learn about birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women's confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during primary and secondary education, as an alternative to mass-mediated information about birth, can be evaluated as an approach to reduce young women's childbirth fear.

  4. Use of High-Definition Audiovisual Technology in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory: Effect on Dental Students' Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maha; Sleiman, Naama H; Thomas, Maureen; Kashani, Nahid; Ditmyer, Marcia M

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory cadaver dissection is essential for three-dimensional understanding of anatomical structures and variability, but there are many challenges to teaching gross anatomy in medical and dental schools, including a lack of available space and qualified anatomy faculty. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of high-definition audiovisual educational technology in the gross anatomy laboratory in improving dental students' learning outcomes and satisfaction. Exam scores were compared for two classes of first-year students at one U.S. dental school: 2012-13 (no audiovisual technology) and 2013-14 (audiovisual technology), and section exams were used to compare differences between semesters. Additionally, an online survey was used to assess the satisfaction of students who used the technology. All 284 first-year students in the two years (2012-13 N=144; 2013-14 N=140) participated in the exams. Of the 140 students in the 2013-14 class, 63 completed the survey (45% response rate). The results showed that those students who used the technology had higher scores on the laboratory exams than those who did not use it, and students in the winter semester scored higher (90.17±0.56) than in the fall semester (82.10±0.68). More than 87% of those surveyed strongly agreed or agreed that the audiovisual devices represented anatomical structures clearly in the gross anatomy laboratory. These students reported an improved experience in learning and understanding anatomical structures, found the laboratory to be less overwhelming, and said they were better able to follow dissection instructions and understand details of anatomical structures with the new technology. Based on these results, the study concluded that the ability to provide the students a clear view of anatomical structures and high-quality imaging had improved their learning experience.

  5. Electrocortical Dynamics in Children with a Language-Learning Impairment Before and After Audiovisual Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April A

    2016-05-01

    Detecting and discriminating subtle and rapid sound changes in the speech environment is a fundamental prerequisite of language processing, and deficits in this ability have frequently been observed in individuals with language-learning impairments (LLI). One approach to studying associations between dysfunctional auditory dynamics and LLI, is to implement a training protocol tapping into this potential while quantifying pre- and post-intervention status. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are highly sensitive to the brain correlates of these dynamic changes and are therefore ideally suited for examining hypotheses regarding dysfunctional auditory processes. In this study, ERP measurements to rapid tone sequences (standard and deviant tone pairs) along with behavioral language testing were performed in 6- to 9-year-old LLI children (n = 21) before and after audiovisual training. A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval. The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language. In terms of ERPs, we found evidence of changes in the LLI group specifically at the level of the P2 component, later than 250 ms after the onset of the second stimulus in the deviant tone pair. These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training.

  6. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  7. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  8. Aula virtual y presencial en aprendizaje de comunicación audiovisual y educación Virtual and Real Classroom in Learning Audiovisual Communication and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Santibáñez Velilla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El modelo mixto de enseñanza-aprendizaje pretende utilizar las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC para garantizar una formación más ajustada al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES. Se formularon los siguientes objetivos de investigación: Averiguar la valoración que hacen los alumnos de Magisterio del aula virtual WebCT como apoyo a la docencia presencial, y conocer las ventajas del uso de la WebCT y de las TIC por los alumnos en el estudio de caso: «Valores y contravalores transmitidos por series televisivas visionadas por niños y adolescentes». La investigación se realizó con una muestra de 205 alumnos de la Universidad de La Rioja que cursaban la asignatura de «Tecnologías aplicadas a la Educación». Para la descripción objetiva, sistemática y cuantitativa del contenido manifiesto de los documentos se ha utilizado la técnica de análisis de contenido cualitativa y cuantitativa. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que las herramientas de comunicación, contenidos y evaluación son valoradas favorablemente por los alumnos. Se llega a la conclusión de que la WebCT y las TIC constituyen un apoyo a la innovación metodológica del EEES basada en el aprendizaje centrado en el alumno. Los alumnos evidencian su competencia audiovisual en los ámbitos de análisis de valores y de expresión a través de documentos audiovisuales en formatos multimedia. Dichos alumnos aportan un nuevo sentido innovador y creativo al uso docente de series televisivas.The mixed model of Teaching-Learning intends to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs to guarantee an education more adjusted to European Space for Higher Education (ESHE. The following research objectives were formulated: 1 To find out the assessment made by teacher-training college students of the virtual classroom WebCT as an aid to face-to-face teaching. 2 To know the advantages of the use of WebCT and ICTs by students in the case study:

  9. The Impact of Audiovisual Feedback on the Learning Outcomes of a Remote and Virtual Laboratory Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, E.; Good, M.

    2009-01-01

    Remote and virtual laboratory classes are an increasingly prevalent alternative to traditional hands-on laboratory experiences. One of the key issues with these modes of access is the provision of adequate audiovisual (AV) feedback to the user, which can be a complicated and resource-intensive challenge. This paper reports on a comparison of two…

  10. Researching embodied learning by using videographic participation for data collection and audiovisual narratives for dissemination - illustrated by the encounter between two acrobats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degerbøl, Stine; Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    concerned with the senses from the field of sport sciences and from the field of visual anthropology and sensory ethnography, the article concludes that using videographic participation and creating audiovisual narratives might be a good option to capture the multisensuous dimensions of a learning situation.......The article concerns doing ethnography in education and it reflects upon using 'videographic participation' for data collection and the concept of 'audiovisual narratives' for dissemination, which is inspired by the idea of developing academic video. The article takes a narrative approach...

  11. Audiovisual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

  12. Concern for others leads to vicarious optimism

    OpenAIRE

    Kappes, A.; Faber, N. S.; Kahane, G.; Savulescu, J.; Crockett, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    An optimistic learning bias leads people to update their beliefs in response to better-than-expected good news but neglect worse-than-expected bad news. Because evidence suggests that this bias arises from self-concern, we hypothesized that a similar bias may affect beliefs about other people’s futures, to the extent that people care about others. Here, we demonstrated the phenomenon of vicarious optimism and showed that it arises from concern for others. Participants predicted the likelihood...

  13. Unveiling vicariant methodologies in vicariance biogeography : not anything goes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veller, Marco Gerardus Petrus van

    2000-01-01

    In vicariance biogeography, the present distribution of species over areas is explained with different historical processes. Vicariance is one of these processes and involves speciation by the formation of isolating barriers between areas. By assuming this process, a scenario for the history of

  14. The Role of Addressee Backchannels and Conversational Grounding in Vicarious Word Learning in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolins, Jackson; Namiranian, Neda; Akhtar, Nameera; Fox Tree, Jean E.

    2017-01-01

    Children successfully learn words through overhearing others engaged in verbal interactions. The current studies investigated the degree to which four-year-old overhearers are influenced by the response behaviors of addressees and by the interactional pattern of the speakers and addressees. It was found that while addressee responses on their own…

  15. Burnout, vicarious traumatization and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on burnout and vicarious traumatization are reviewed and summarized with a list of signs and symptoms. From the author's own observations two histories of caregivers working with torture survivors are described which exemplify the risk,implications and consequences of secondary trauma. Contributing factors in the social and political framework in which caregivers operate are analyzed and possible means of prevention suggested, particularly focussing on the conflict of roles when providing evaluations on trauma victims for health and immigration authorities. Caregivers working with victims of violence carry a high risk of suffering from burnout and vicarious traumatization unless preventive factors are considered such as: self care, solid professional training in psychotherapy, therapeutic self-awareness, regular self-examination by collegial and external supervision, limiting caseload, continuing professional education and learning about new concepts in trauma, occasional research sabbaticals, keeping a balance between empathy and a proper professional distance to clients, protecting oneself against being mislead by clients with fictitious PTSD. An institutional setting should be provided in which the roles of therapists and evaluators are separated. Important factors for burnout and vicarious traumatization are the lack of social recognition for caregivers and the financial and legal outsider status of many centers. Therefore politicians and social insurance carriers should be urged to integrate facilities for traumatized refugees into the general health care system and centers should work on more alliances with the medical mainstream and academic medicine.

  16. Tracing Trajectories of Audio-Visual Learning in the Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; Emberson, Lauren L.

    2017-01-01

    Although infants begin learning about their environment before they are born, little is known about how the infant brain changes during learning. Here, we take the initial steps in documenting how the neural responses in the brain change as infants learn to associate audio and visual stimuli. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNRIS) to…

  17. Virtual Attendance: Analysis of an Audiovisual over IP System for Distance Learning in the Spanish Open University (UNED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Vázquez-Cano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a system of virtual attendance, called “AVIP” (AudioVisual over Internet Protocol, at the Spanish Open University (UNED in Spain. UNED, the largest open university in Europe, is the pioneer in distance education in Spain. It currently has more than 300,000 students, 1,300 teachers, and 6,000 tutors all over the world, besides Spain. This university is redefining, on the lines of other universities, many of its academic processes to meet the new requirements of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA. Since its inception, more than 30 years ago, the methodology chosen by UNED has been blended learning. Today, this university combines face-to-face tutorial sessions with new methodological proposals, mediated by ICT. Through a quantitative methodology, the perception of students and tutors of the new model of virtual tutoring, called AVIP Classrooms, was analyzed. The results show that the new model greatly improves the orientation and teaching methodology of tutors. However, it requires training and new approaches to provide a more collaborative and participatory environment for students.

  18. Online incidental statistical learning of audiovisual word sequences in adults: a registered report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppuraj, Sengottuvel; Duta, Mihaela; Thompson, Paul; Bishop, Dorothy

    2018-02-01

    Statistical learning has been proposed as a key mechanism in language learning. Our main goal was to examine whether adults are capable of simultaneously extracting statistical dependencies in a task where stimuli include a range of structures amenable to statistical learning within a single paradigm. We devised an online statistical learning task using real word auditory-picture sequences that vary in two dimensions: (i) predictability and (ii) adjacency of dependent elements. This task was followed by an offline recall task to probe learning of each sequence type. We registered three hypotheses with specific predictions. First, adults would extract regular patterns from continuous stream (effect of grammaticality). Second, within grammatical conditions, they would show differential speeding up for each condition as a factor of statistical complexity of the condition and exposure. Third, our novel approach to measure online statistical learning would be reliable in showing individual differences in statistical learning ability. Further, we explored the relation between statistical learning and a measure of verbal short-term memory (STM). Forty-two participants were tested and retested after an interval of at least 3 days on our novel statistical learning task. We analysed the reaction time data using a novel regression discontinuity approach. Consistent with prediction, participants showed a grammaticality effect, agreeing with the predicted order of difficulty for learning different statistical structures. Furthermore, a learning index from the task showed acceptable test-retest reliability ( r  = 0.67). However, STM did not correlate with statistical learning. We discuss the findings noting the benefits of online measures in tracking the learning process.

  19. Historia audiovisual para una sociedad audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Montero Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the possibilities of presenting an audiovisual history in a society in which audiovisual media has progressively gained greater protagonism. We analyze specific cases of films and historical documentaries and we assess the difficulties faced by historians to understand the keys of audiovisual language and by filmmakers to understand and incorporate history into their productions. We conclude that it would not be possible to disseminate history in the western world without audiovisual resources circulated through various types of screens (cinema, television, computer, mobile phone, video games.

  20. The Picmonic® Learning System: enhancing memory retention of medical sciences, using an audiovisual mnemonic Web-based learning platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adeel Yang,1,* Hersh Goel,1,* Matthew Bryan,2 Ron Robertson,1 Jane Lim,1 Shehran Islam,1 Mark R Speicher2 1College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Medical students are required to retain vast amounts of medical knowledge on the path to becoming physicians. To address this challenge, multimedia Web-based learning resources have been developed to supplement traditional text-based materials. The Picmonic® Learning System (PLS; Picmonic, Phoenix, AZ, USA is a novel multimedia Web-based learning platform that delivers audiovisual mnemonics designed to improve memory retention of medical sciences. Methods: A single-center, randomized, subject-blinded, controlled study was conducted to compare the PLS with traditional text-based material for retention of medical science topics. Subjects were randomly assigned to use two different types of study materials covering several diseases. Subjects randomly assigned to the PLS group were given audiovisual mnemonics along with text-based materials, whereas subjects in the control group were given the same text-based materials with key terms highlighted. The primary endpoints were the differences in performance on immediate, 1 week, and 1 month delayed free-recall and paired-matching tests. The secondary endpoints were the difference in performance on a 1 week delayed multiple-choice test and self-reported satisfaction with the study materials. Differences were calculated using unpaired two-tailed t-tests. Results: PLS group subjects demonstrated improvements of 65%, 161%, and 208% compared with control group subjects on free-recall tests conducted immediately, 1 week, and 1 month after study of materials, respectively. The results of performance on paired-matching tests showed an improvement of up to 331% for PLS group subjects. PLS group

  1. Information about the model's unconditioned stimulus and response in vicarious classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygge, S

    1976-06-01

    Four groups with 16 observers each participated in a differential, vicarious conditioning experiment with skin conductance responses as the dependent variable. The information available to the observer about the model's unconditioned stimulus and response was varied in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Results clearly showed that information about the model's unconditioned stimulus (a high or low dB level) was not necessary for vicarious instigation, but that information about the unconditioned response (a high or low emotional aversiveness) was necessary. Data for conditioning of responses showed almost identical patterns to those for vicarious instigation. To explain the results, a distinction between factors necessary for the development and elicitation of vicariously instigated responses was introduced, and the effectiveness of information about the model's response on the elicitation of vicariously instigated responses was considered in terms of an expansion of Bandura's social learning theory.

  2. The Picmonic® Learning System: enhancing memory retention of medical sciences, using an audiovisual mnemonic Web-based learning platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Adeel; Goel, Hersh; Bryan, Matthew; Robertson, Ron; Lim, Jane; Islam, Shehran; Speicher, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students are required to retain vast amounts of medical knowledge on the path to becoming physicians. To address this challenge, multimedia Web-based learning resources have been developed to supplement traditional text-based materials. The Picmonic® Learning System (PLS; Picmonic, Phoenix, AZ, USA) is a novel multimedia Web-based learning platform that delivers audiovisual mnemonics designed to improve memory retention of medical sciences. Methods A single-center, randomized, subject-blinded, controlled study was conducted to compare the PLS with traditional text-based material for retention of medical science topics. Subjects were randomly assigned to use two different types of study materials covering several diseases. Subjects randomly assigned to the PLS group were given audiovisual mnemonics along with text-based materials, whereas subjects in the control group were given the same text-based materials with key terms highlighted. The primary endpoints were the differences in performance on immediate, 1 week, and 1 month delayed free-recall and paired-matching tests. The secondary endpoints were the difference in performance on a 1 week delayed multiple-choice test and self-reported satisfaction with the study materials. Differences were calculated using unpaired two-tailed t-tests. Results PLS group subjects demonstrated improvements of 65%, 161%, and 208% compared with control group subjects on free-recall tests conducted immediately, 1 week, and 1 month after study of materials, respectively. The results of performance on paired-matching tests showed an improvement of up to 331% for PLS group subjects. PLS group subjects also performed 55% greater than control group subjects on a 1 week delayed multiple choice test requiring higher-order thinking. The differences in test performance between the PLS group subjects and the control group subjects were statistically significant (P<0.001), and the PLS group subjects reported higher overall

  3. The Picmonic(®) Learning System: enhancing memory retention of medical sciences, using an audiovisual mnemonic Web-based learning platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Adeel; Goel, Hersh; Bryan, Matthew; Robertson, Ron; Lim, Jane; Islam, Shehran; Speicher, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Medical students are required to retain vast amounts of medical knowledge on the path to becoming physicians. To address this challenge, multimedia Web-based learning resources have been developed to supplement traditional text-based materials. The Picmonic(®) Learning System (PLS; Picmonic, Phoenix, AZ, USA) is a novel multimedia Web-based learning platform that delivers audiovisual mnemonics designed to improve memory retention of medical sciences. A single-center, randomized, subject-blinded, controlled study was conducted to compare the PLS with traditional text-based material for retention of medical science topics. Subjects were randomly assigned to use two different types of study materials covering several diseases. Subjects randomly assigned to the PLS group were given audiovisual mnemonics along with text-based materials, whereas subjects in the control group were given the same text-based materials with key terms highlighted. The primary endpoints were the differences in performance on immediate, 1 week, and 1 month delayed free-recall and paired-matching tests. The secondary endpoints were the difference in performance on a 1 week delayed multiple-choice test and self-reported satisfaction with the study materials. Differences were calculated using unpaired two-tailed t-tests. PLS group subjects demonstrated improvements of 65%, 161%, and 208% compared with control group subjects on free-recall tests conducted immediately, 1 week, and 1 month after study of materials, respectively. The results of performance on paired-matching tests showed an improvement of up to 331% for PLS group subjects. PLS group subjects also performed 55% greater than control group subjects on a 1 week delayed multiple choice test requiring higher-order thinking. The differences in test performance between the PLS group subjects and the control group subjects were statistically significant (P<0.001), and the PLS group subjects reported higher overall satisfaction with the

  4. Thomas Vicary, barber-surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duncan P

    2006-05-01

    An Act of Parliament in 1540 uniting the barbers and surgeons to form the Barber-Surgeons' Company represented an important foundation stone towards better surgery in England. Thomas Vicary, who played a pivotal role in promoting this union, was a leading surgeon in London in the middle of the 16th century. While Vicary made no direct contribution to surgical knowledge, he should be remembered primarily as one who contributed much towards the early organization and teaching of surgery and to the consequent benefits that flowed from this improvement.

  5. Making and Using Audiovisuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes nine articles that discuss audiovisuals in junior and senior high school libraries. Highlights include skills that various media require and foster; teaching students how to make effective audiovisuals; film production; state media contests; library orientation videos; slide-tape shows; photographic skills; and the use of audiovisuals to…

  6. Reductions in Children's Vicariously Learnt Avoidance and Heart Rate Responses Using Positive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2016-03-23

    Recent research has indicated that vicarious learning can lead to increases in children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for stimuli and that these fear responses can subsequently be reversed using positive modeling (counterconditioning). The current study investigated children's vicariously acquired avoidance behavior, physiological responses (heart rate), and attentional bias for stimuli and whether these could also be reduced via counterconditioning. Ninety-six (49 boys, 47 girls) 7- to 11-year-olds received vicarious fear learning for novel stimuli and were then randomly assigned to a counterconditioning, extinction, or control group. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences were measured pre- and post-learning, whereas avoidance behavior, heart rate, and attentional bias were all measured post-learning. Control group children showed increases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals seen in vicarious fear learning trials. In addition, significantly greater avoidance behavior, heart rate responding, and attentional bias were observed for these animals compared to a control animal. In contrast, vicariously acquired avoidance preferences of children in the counterconditioning group were significantly reduced post-positive modeling, and these children also did not show the heightened heart rate responding to fear-paired animals. Children in the extinction group demonstrated comparable responses to the control group; thus the extinction procedure showed no effect on any fear measures. The findings suggest that counterconditioning with positive modelling can be used as an effective early intervention to reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of vicarious fear learning in childhood.

  7. Audiovisual Spoken Word Training can Promote or Impede Auditory-only Perceptual Learning: Results from Prelingually Deafened Adults with Late-Acquired Cochlear Implants and Normal-Hearing Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lynne E Bernstein; Silvio P Eberhardt; Edward Thomas Auer

    2014-01-01

    Training with audiovisual (AO) speech can promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. Pre-/perilingually deafened adults rely on visual speech even when they also use a cochlear implant. This study investigated whether visual speech promotes auditory perceptual learning in these cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, 28 prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants were assigned to learn paired associations between spoke...

  8. The role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jocelyn; Hassell, Samuel; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mobbs, Dean

    2017-08-01

    With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets. Study 3 extended these findings by demonstrating that trait empathic concern-the tendency to feel concern and compassion for others-was associated with experiencing vicarious anxiety, whereas trait personal distress-the tendency to experience distress in stressful situations-was not. Study 4 manipulated state empathy to establish a causal relationship between empathy and experience of vicarious anxiety. Participants who took an empathic perspective when observing target victims, as compared to those who took an objective perspective using reappraisal-based strategies, reported experiencing greater anxiety, risk-aversion, and sleep disruption the following night. These results highlight the impact of one's social environment on experiencing anxiety, particularly for those who are highly empathic. In addition, these findings have implications for extending basic models of anxiety to incorporate interpersonal processes, understanding the role of empathy in social learning, and potential applications for therapeutic contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Cataloging audiovisual materials: a new dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotts, M A; Mueller, D

    1975-01-01

    A new more comprehensive system for cataloging audiovisual materials is described. Existing audiovisual cataloging systems contain mostly descriptive information, publishers' or producers' summaries, and order information. This paper discusses the addition of measurable learning objectives to this standard information, thereby enabling the potential user to determine what can be learned from a particular audiovisual unit. The project included media in nursing only. A committee of faculty and students from the University of Alabama in Birmingham School of Nursing reviewed the materials. The system was field-tested at nursing schools throughout Alabama; the schools offered four different types of programs. The system and its sample product, the AVLOC catalog, were also evaluated by medical librarians, media specialists, and other nursing instructors throughout the United States. PMID:50106

  11. Digital audiovisual archives

    CERN Document Server

    Stockinger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Today, huge quantities of digital audiovisual resources are already available - everywhere and at any time - through Web portals, online archives and libraries, and video blogs. One central question with respect to this huge amount of audiovisual data is how they can be used in specific (social, pedagogical, etc.) contexts and what are their potential interest for target groups (communities, professionals, students, researchers, etc.).This book examines the question of the (creative) exploitation of digital audiovisual archives from a theoretical, methodological, technical and practical

  12. Audiovisual spoken word training can promote or impede auditory-only perceptual learning: prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants versus normal hearing adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Auer, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-AO; or counter-balanced AO then AV, AO-AV, during Periods 1 then 2) training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA), testing was carried out AO. Across all training, AO PA test scores improved (7.2 percentage points) as did identification of consonants in new untrained CVCVC stimuli (3.5 percentage points). However, there was evidence that AV training impeded immediate AO perceptual learning: During Period-1, training scores across AV and AO conditions were not different, but AO test scores were dramatically lower in the AV-trained participants. During Period-2 AO training, the AV-AO participants obtained significantly higher AO test scores, demonstrating their ability to learn the auditory speech. Across both orders of training, whenever training was AV, AO test scores were significantly lower than training scores. Experiment 2 repeated the procedures with vocoded speech and 43 normal-hearing adults. Following AV training, their AO test scores were as high as or higher than following AO training. Also, their CVCVC identification scores patterned differently than those of the cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, initial consonants were most accurate, and in Experiment 2, medial consonants were most accurate. We suggest that our results are consistent with a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that, whenever possible, perceivers carry out perceptual tasks immediately based on the experience and biases they bring to the task. We

  13. Audiovisual spoken word training can promote or impede auditory-only perceptual learning: prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants versus normal hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Lynne E; Eberhardt, Silvio P; Auer, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-AO; or counter-balanced AO then AV, AO-AV, during Periods 1 then 2) training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA), testing was carried out AO. Across all training, AO PA test scores improved (7.2 percentage points) as did identification of consonants in new untrained CVCVC stimuli (3.5 percentage points). However, there was evidence that AV training impeded immediate AO perceptual learning: During Period-1, training scores across AV and AO conditions were not different, but AO test scores were dramatically lower in the AV-trained participants. During Period-2 AO training, the AV-AO participants obtained significantly higher AO test scores, demonstrating their ability to learn the auditory speech. Across both orders of training, whenever training was AV, AO test scores were significantly lower than training scores. Experiment 2 repeated the procedures with vocoded speech and 43 normal-hearing adults. Following AV training, their AO test scores were as high as or higher than following AO training. Also, their CVCVC identification scores patterned differently than those of the cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, initial consonants were most accurate, and in Experiment 2, medial consonants were most accurate. We suggest that our results are consistent with a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that, whenever possible, perceivers carry out perceptual tasks immediately based on the experience and biases they bring to the task. We

  14. Vicarious liability and criminal prosecutions for regulatory offences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2006-08-01

    The parameters of vicarious liability of corporations for the conduct of their employees, especially in the context of provisions that criminalise breaches of regulatory provisions, are complex. The decision of Bell J in ABC Developmental Learning Centres Pty Ltd v Wallace [2006] VSC 171 raises starkly the potential unfairness of an approach which converts criminal liability of corporations too readily into absolute liability, irrespective of the absence of any form of proven culpability. The author queries whether fault should not be brought back in some form to constitute a determinant of criminal liability for corporations.

  15. Exploring the Deep-Level Reasoning Questions Effect during Vicarious Learning among Eighth to Eleventh Graders in the Domains of Computer Literacy and Newtonian Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Barry; Witherspoon, Amy; Morgan, Brent; Brittingham, Joshua K.; Coles, Robert; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sullins, Jeremiah; Craig, Scotty D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper tested the deep-level reasoning questions effect in the domains of computer literacy between eighth and tenth graders and Newtonian physics for ninth and eleventh graders. This effect claims that learning is facilitated when the materials are organized around questions that invite deep-reasoning. The literature indicates that vicarious…

  16. Web-based audiovisual phonetic table program application as e-learning of pronunciation practice in undergraduate degree program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retnomurti Ayu Bandu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal-based learning such as English pronunciation practice requires the existence of an effective e-learning because if it is directly given without any learning media, inaccuracies in pronunciation, spelling, repetition will usually occur in the spoken language. Therefore, this study aims to develop e-learning to be used in the Pronunciation Practice class, Indraprasta PGRI University. This research belongs to Research and Development are: requires an analysis, develops syllabus and teaching materials, creates and develops e-learning, tries and revises the media. Consequently, there is a need to develop module in the classroom into a versatile technology web-based module in the form of Phonetic Table Program. The result is carried out in pronunciation practice classes to find more details on some parts that may still not be detected by the researchers. Thus, the use of technology has become a necessity to assist students in achieving the learning objectives. Therefore, the process of communication in learning will attract more students’ interest and provide facilities to understand the sound system of English as it is equipped with buttons to practice presented by nonnative speakers. Non-native speakers’ selection are based on the consideration that they quickly adapt helping other students who are less fluent in English.

  17. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.

  18. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion. PMID:24910621

  19. Audio-visual synchronization in reading while listening to texts: Effects on visual behavior and verbal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbier , Emilie; Bailly , Gérard; Bosse , Marie-Line

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Reading while listening to texts (RWL) is a promising way to improve the learning benefits provided by a reading experience. In an exploratory study, we investigated the effect of synchronizing the highlighting of words (visual) with their auditory (speech) counterpart during a RWL task. Forty French children from 3rd to 5th grade read short stories in their native language while hearing the story spoken by a narrator. In the non-synchronized (S-) condition the text wa...

  20. How Does Observational Learning Affect the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…

  1. Researching Embodied Learning by Using Videographic Participation for Data Collection and Audiovisual Narratives for Dissemination--Illustrated by the Encounter between Two Acrobats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerbøl, Stine; Nielsen, Charlotte Svendler

    2015-01-01

    The article concerns doing ethnography in education and it reflects upon using "videographic participation" for data collection and the concept of "audiovisual narratives" for dissemination, which is inspired by the idea of developing academic video. The article takes a narrative approach to qualitative research and presents a…

  2. A grounded theory exploration of undergraduate experiences of vicarious unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N; Nitzarim, Rachel S; Her, Pa; Dahling, Jason J

    2013-07-01

    The experiences of vicarious unemployment (VU) among 17 undergraduate student participants who had a primary caregiver who was involuntarily unemployed were explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Data from semistructured interviews with 15 women and 2 men revealed the nuanced nature of experiences with unemployment among those who experience it vicariously. Struggles related to increased family stress and experiences with stigma were common across participants. As participants reflected upon these challenges, they both lamented the costs associated with the struggles and expressed appreciation for the lessons that they have learned. They emerged from their VU experiences with increased financial and job market awareness, which informed their hope for a life that is free from the struggles endured in their families. Participants expressed confidence in their ability to cultivate financial security for their own families, stable employment, and opportunities to pursue work that will allow them to give back to others. Implications for counseling and directions for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Venezuela: Nueva Experiencia Audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB creó en 1986, la Fundación para el Desarrollo del Arte Audiovisual, ARTEVISION. Su objetivo general es la promoción y venta de servicios y productos para la televisión, radio, cine, diseño y fotografía de alta calidad artística y técnica. Todo esto sin descuidar los aspectos teóricos-académicos de estas disciplinas.

  4. A teaching bank of audiovisual materials for family practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyman, J P; Brown, T C

    1975-10-01

    Although increasing emphasis has been placed in recent years on the production and use of audiovisual materials in medical education, little work has yet been done on the identification and application of these materials in family practice teaching programs. This paper describes the content, uses, limitations, and initial experience of a Teaching Bank developed to support family practice teaching in varied settings. Video cassette and tape-slide units are most useful; audio cassettes alone are less likely to be selected. The evaluation of content, quality, and effectiveness of audiovisual media poses a particular problem. Although audiovisual materials can enhance learning based on different individual learning needs and styles, they cannot stand alone and usually must be supplemented by other teaching methods.

  5. Vicarious traumatization and coping in medical students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mateen, Cheryl S; Linker, Julie A; Damle, Neha; Hupe, Jessica; Helfer, Tamara; Jessick, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the impact of traumatic experiences on medical students during their clerkships. Medical students completed an anonymous online survey inquiring about traumatic experiences on required clerkships during their third year of medical school, including any symptoms they may have experienced as well as coping strategies they may have used. Twenty-six percent of students reported experiencing vicarious traumatization (VT) during their third year of medical school. The experience of VT in medical students is relevant to medical educators, given that the resulting symptoms may impact student performance and learning as well as ongoing well-being. Fifty percent of the students who experienced VT in this study did so on the psychiatry clerkship. It is important for psychiatrists to recognize that this is a potential risk for students in order to increase the likelihood that appropriate supports are provided.

  6. The production of audiovisual teaching tools in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolerton, Sarah K; Hugh, Thomas J; Cosman, Peter H

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual learning resources have become valuable adjuncts to formal teaching in surgical training. This report discusses the process and challenges of preparing an audiovisual teaching tool for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The relative value in surgical education and training, for both the creator and viewer are addressed. This audiovisual teaching resource was prepared as part of the Master of Surgery program at the University of Sydney, Australia. The different methods of video production used to create operative teaching tools are discussed. Collating and editing material for an audiovisual teaching resource can be a time-consuming and technically challenging process. However, quality learning resources can now be produced even with limited prior video editing experience. With minimal cost and suitable guidance to ensure clinically relevant content, most surgeons should be able to produce short, high-quality education videos of both open and minimally invasive surgery. Despite the challenges faced during production of audiovisual teaching tools, these resources are now relatively easy to produce using readily available software. These resources are particularly attractive to surgical trainees when real time operative footage is used. They serve as valuable adjuncts to formal teaching, particularly in the setting of minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. European Research in Audio-Visual Aids. Part II, Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J. A., Ed.

    Authoritative European research in audiovisual aids to learning is cataloged and summarized for the first time in this publication. The period covered is 1945 to 1963. Items are arranged by reference numbers which are based on 10 subject catagories: films, still projected media, non-projected media, museums, perception, radio, discs and tape…

  8. Use of Audiovisual Media and Equipment by Medical Educationists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently used audiovisual medium and equipment is transparency on Overhead projector (O. H. P.) while the medium and equipment that is barely used for teaching is computer graphics on multi-media projector. This study also suggests ways of improving teaching-learning processes in medical education, ...

  9. Just watching the game ain’t enough: Striatal fMRI reward responses to successes and failures in a video game during active and vicarious playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari eKätsyri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the multimodal stimulation provided by modern audiovisual video games is pleasing by itself, the rewarding nature of video game playing depends critically also on the players’ active engagement in the gameplay. The extent to which active engagement influences dopaminergic brain reward circuit responses remains unsettled. Here we show that striatal reward circuit responses elicited by successes (wins and failures (losses in a video game are stronger during active than vicarious gameplay. Eleven healthy males both played a competitive first-person tank shooter game (active playing and watched a pre-recorded gameplay video (vicarious playing while their hemodynamic brain activation was measured with 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Wins and losses were paired with symmetrical monetary rewards and punishments during active and vicarious playing so that the external reward context remained identical during both conditions. Brain activation was stronger in the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex (omPFC during winning than losing, both during active and vicarious playing conditions. In contrast, both wins and losses suppressed activations in the midbrain and striatum during active playing; however, the striatal suppression, particularly in the anterior putamen, was more pronounced during loss than win events. Sensorimotor confounds related to joystick movements did not account for the results. Self-ratings indicated losing to be more unpleasant during active than vicarious playing. Our findings demonstrate striatum to be selectively sensitive to self-acquired rewards, in contrast to frontal components of the reward circuit that process both self-acquired and passively received rewards. We propose that the striatal responses to repeated acquisition of rewards that are contingent on game related successes contribute to the motivational pull of video-game playing.

  10. Just watching the game ain't enough: striatal fMRI reward responses to successes and failures in a video game during active and vicarious playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätsyri, Jari; Hari, Riitta; Ravaja, Niklas; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Although the multimodal stimulation provided by modern audiovisual video games is pleasing by itself, the rewarding nature of video game playing depends critically also on the players' active engagement in the gameplay. The extent to which active engagement influences dopaminergic brain reward circuit responses remains unsettled. Here we show that striatal reward circuit responses elicited by successes (wins) and failures (losses) in a video game are stronger during active than vicarious gameplay. Eleven healthy males both played a competitive first-person tank shooter game (active playing) and watched a pre-recorded gameplay video (vicarious playing) while their hemodynamic brain activation was measured with 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Wins and losses were paired with symmetrical monetary rewards and punishments during active and vicarious playing so that the external reward context remained identical during both conditions. Brain activation was stronger in the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex (omPFC) during winning than losing, both during active and vicarious playing. In contrast, both wins and losses suppressed activations in the midbrain and striatum during active playing; however, the striatal suppression, particularly in the anterior putamen, was more pronounced during loss than win events. Sensorimotor confounds related to joystick movements did not account for the results. Self-ratings indicated losing to be more unpleasant during active than vicarious playing. Our findings demonstrate striatum to be selectively sensitive to self-acquired rewards, in contrast to frontal components of the reward circuit that process both self-acquired and passively received rewards. We propose that the striatal responses to repeated acquisition of rewards that are contingent on game related successes contribute to the motivational pull of video-game playing.

  11. Audiovisual Spoken Word Training can Promote or Impede Auditory-only Perceptual Learning: Results from Prelingually Deafened Adults with Late-Acquired Cochlear Implants and Normal-Hearing Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne E Bernstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Training with audiovisual (AO speech can promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. Pre-/perilingually deafened adults rely on visual speech even when they also use a cochlear implant. This study investigated whether visual speech promotes auditory perceptual learning in these cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, 28 prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants were assigned to learn paired associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonantV(=vowelCVC nonsense words and nonsense pictures (fribbles, under AV and then under auditory-only (AO (or counter-balanced AO then AV training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA, testing was carried out AO. Across AV and AO training, AO PA test scores improved as did identification of consonants in untrained CVCVC stimuli. However, whenever PA training was carried out with AV stimuli, AO test scores were steeply reduced. Experiment 2 repeated the experiment with 43 normal-hearing adults. Their AO tests scores did not drop following AV PA training and even increased relative to scores following AO training. Normal-hearing participants' consonant identification scores improved also but with a pattern that contrasted with cochlear implant users’: Normal hearing adults were most accurate for medial consonants, and in contrast cochlear implant users were most accurate for initial consonants. The results are interpreted within a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that perceptual tasks are carried out whenever possible based on immediate high-level perception without scrutiny of lower-level features. The theory implies that, based on their bias towards visual speech, cochlear implant participants learned the PAs with greater reliance on vision to the detriment of auditory perceptual learning. Normal-hearing participants' learning took advantage of the concurrence between auditory and visual

  12. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  13. Audiovisual integration of stimulus transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Mamassian, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    A change in sound intensity can facilitate luminance change detection. We found that this effect did not depend on whether sound intensity and luminance increased or decreased. In contrast, luminance identification was strongly influenced by the congruence of luminance and sound intensity change...... leaving only unsigned stimulus transients as the basis for audiovisual integration. Facilitation of luminance detection occurred even with varying audiovisual stimulus onset asynchrony and even when the sound lagged behind the luminance change by 75 ms supporting the interpretation that perceptual...... integration rather than a reduction of temporal uncertainty or effects of attention caused the effect....

  14. Flexible goal imitation: Vicarious feedback influences stimulus-response binding by observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Carina; Scherdin, Kerstin; Rothermund, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated whether vicarious feedback influences binding processes between stimuli and observed responses. Two participants worked together in a shared color categorization task, taking the roles of actor and observer in turns. During a prime trial, participants saw a word while observing the other person executing a specific response. Automatic binding of words and observed responses into stimulus-response (S-R) episodes was assessed via word repetition effects in a subsequent probe trial in which either the same (compatible) or a different (incompatible) response had to be executed by the participants in response to the same or a different word. Results showed that vicarious prime feedback (i.e., the feedback that the other participant received for her or his response in the prime) modulated S-R retrieval effects: After positive vicarious prime feedback, typical S-R retrieval effects emerged (i.e., performance benefits for stimulus repetition probes with compatible responses, but performance costs for stimulus repetition probes with incompatible responses emerged). Notably, however, S-R-retrieval effects were reversed after vicarious negative prime feedback (meaning that stimulus repetition in the probe resulted in performance costs if prime and probe responses were compatible, and in performance benefits for incompatible responses). Findings are consistent with a flexible goal imitation account, according to which imitation is based on an interpretative and therefore feedback-sensitive reconstruction of action goals from observed movements. In concert with earlier findings, this data support the conclusion that transient S-R binding and retrieval processes are involved in social learning phenomena.

  15. On the distinction of empathic and vicarious emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Frieder M.; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Westermann, Stefan; Krach, Sören

    2013-01-01

    In the introduction to the special issue “The Neural Underpinnings of Vicarious Experience” the editors state that one “may feel embarrassed when witnessing another making a social faux pas”. In our commentary we address this statement and ask whether this example introduces a vicarious or an empathic form of embarrassment. We elaborate commonalities and differences between these two forms of emotional experiences and discuss their underlying mechanisms. We suggest that both, vicarious and empathic emotions, originate from the simulation processes mirroring and mentalizing that depend on anchoring and adjustment. We claim the term “empathic emotion” to be reserved exclusively for incidents where perceivers and social targets have shared affective experience, whereas “vicarious emotion” offers a wider scope and also includes non-shared affective experiences. Both are supposed to be highly functional in social interactions. PMID:23720621

  16. Audiovisual Production: Making Your Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Augie E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This series of articles examines various aspects of audiovisual production. Topics discussed include production programs for teachers and students offered by school libraries; the use of thermal transparencies and filmstrips; animation techniques; slide shows; videotape productions; and mainstreaming special education students in media projects.…

  17. Search in audiovisual broadcast archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, B.

    2010-01-01

    Documentary makers, journalists, news editors, and other media professionals routinely require previously recorded audiovisual material for new productions. For example, a news editor might wish to reuse footage from overseas services for the evening news, or a documentary maker describing the

  18. A Basic Reference Shelf on Audio-Visual Instruction. A Series One Paper from ERIC at Stanford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Edgar; Trzebiatowski, Gregory

    Topics in this annotated bibliography on audiovisual instruction include the history of instructional technology, teacher-training, equipment operation, administration of media programs, production of instructional materials, language laboratories, instructional television, programed instruction, communication theory, learning theory, and…

  19. Vicarious Calibration of Beijing-1 Multispectral Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For on-orbit calibration of the Beijing-1 multispectral imagers (Beijing-1/MS, a field calibration campaign was performed at the Dunhuang calibration site during September and October of 2008. Based on the in situ data and images from Beijing-1 and Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, three vicarious calibration methods (i.e., reflectance-based, irradiance-based, and cross-calibration were used to calculate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiance of Beijing-1. An analysis was then performed to determine or identify systematic and accidental errors, and the overall uncertainty was assessed for each individual method. The findings show that the reflectance-based method has an uncertainty of more than 10% if the aerosol optical depth (AOD exceeds 0.2. The cross-calibration method is able to reach an error level within 7% if the images are selected carefully. The final calibration coefficients were derived from the irradiance-based data for 6 September 2008, with an uncertainty estimated to be less than 5%.

  20. Copyright for audiovisual work and analysis of websites offering audiovisual works

    OpenAIRE

    Chrastecká, Nicolle

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis deals with the matter of audiovisual piracy. It discusses the question of audiovisual piracy being caused not by the wrong interpretation of law but by the lack of competitiveness among websites with legal audiovisual content. This thesis questions the quality of legal interpretation in the matter of audiovisual piracy and focuses on its sufficiency. It analyses the responsibility of website providers, providers of the illegal content, the responsibility of illegal cont...

  1. El audiovisual en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sánchez Parga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temas trascendentes de este número son Historia del Nuevo Periodismo, Derecho Social a la información y La televisión: Teleopio del pueblo. Se agregan otros como la investigación en el trabajo popular, LA mujer rural , El audiovisual en el Ecuador y Cambios en la comunicación a raíz del NOMIC.

  2. The efficacy of an audiovisual aid in teaching the Neo-Classical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study interrogated the central theoretical statement that understanding and learning to apply the abstract concept of classical dramatic narrative structure can be addressed effectively through a useful audiovisual teaching method. The purpose of the study was to design an effective DVD teaching and learning aid, ...

  3. Functions of personal and vicarious life stories: Identity and empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Majse; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates functions of personal and vicarious life stories focusing on identity and empathy. Two-hundred-and-forty Danish high school students completed two life story questionnaires: One for their personal life story and one for a close other’s life story. In both...... questionnaires, they identified up to 10 chapters and self-rated the chapters on valence and valence of causal connections. In addition, they completed measures of identity disturbance and empathy. More positive personal life stories were related to lower identity disturbance and higher empathy. Vicarious life...... stories showed a similar pattern with respect to identity but surprisingly were unrelated to empathy. In addition, we found positive correlations between personal and vicarious life stories for number of chapters, chapter valence, and valence of causal connections. The study indicates that both personal...

  4. When Caring for Perpetrators Becomes a Sentence: Recognizing Vicarious Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Tanya; Savage, Teresa; Panosky, Denise M

    2015-10-01

    Correctional health nurses are not exempt from vicarious traumatization, but this concept has yet to be explored. Correctional health nurses practice in environments that come with significant risk for traumatic exposure from inmates and coworkers. The Professional Quality of Life Scale was used as a proxy to measure vicarious trauma. Surveys were mailed to 2,000 correctional health nurses that were on the mailing list of the National Commission on Correctional Health Care, with a total response rate of 10.1%. Respondents were asked to complete the Professional Quality of Life Scale and a short demographic survey. Findings reveal that vicarious traumatization does exist among correctional health nurses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Audiovisual signs and information science: an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalver Bethônico

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the relationship of Information Science with audiovisual signs, pointing out conceptual limitations, difficulties imposed by the verbal fundament of knowledge, the reduced use within libraries and the ways in the direction of a more consistent analysis of the audiovisual means, supported by the semiotics of Charles Peirce.

  6. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Anna; Kociński, Jędrzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Poznań. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Cinco discursos da digitalidade audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Foucault ensina que toda fala sistemática - inclusive aquela que se afirma “neutra” ou “uma desinteressada visão objetiva do que acontece” - é, na verdade, mecanismo de articulação do saber e, na seqüência, de formação de poder. O aparecimento de novas tecnologias, especialmente as digitais, no campo da produção audiovisual, provoca uma avalanche de declarações de cineastas, ensaios de acadêmicos e previsões de demiurgos da mídia.

  8. Cinco discursos da digitalidade audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Foucault ensina que toda fala sistemática - inclusive aquela que se afirma “neutra” ou “uma desinteressada visão objetiva do que acontece” - é, na verdade, mecanismo de articulação do saber e, na seqüência, de formação de poder. O aparecimento de novas tecnologias, especialmente as digitais, no campo da produção audiovisual, provoca uma avalanche de declarações de cineastas, ensaios de acadêmicos e previsões de demiurgos da mídia

  9. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  10. Sustainable models of audiovisual commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Fuster Morell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an emerging phenomenon characterized by continuous change and experimentation: the collaborative commons creation of audiovisual content online. The analysis wants to focus on models of sustainability of collaborative online creation, paying particular attention to the use of different forms of advertising. This article is an excerpt of a larger investigation, which unit of analysis are cases of Online Creation Communities that take as their central node of activity the Catalan territory. From 22 selected cases, the methodology combines quantitative analysis, through a questionnaire delivered to all cases, and qualitative analysis through face interviews conducted in 8 cases studied. The research, which conclusions we summarize in this article,in this article, leads us to conclude that the sustainability of the project depends largely on relationships of trust and interdependence between different voluntary agents, the non-monetary contributions and retributions as well as resources and infrastructure of free use. All together leads us to understand that this is and will be a very important area for the future of audiovisual content and its sustainability, which will imply changes in the policies that govern them.

  11. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio eAvenanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others’ actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people’s behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals’ ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings.

  12. Sexual Violence and Vicarious Trauma: A Case Study | Ilesanmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a case study approach, this quantitative and descriptive analysis explored the incidence and consequences of sexual violence, particularly rape, occurring among Nigerian university students' acquaintance. It discusses the concept of vicarious trauma as a form of post-traumatic stress response sometimes ...

  13. An Examination of Vicarious Reinforcement Processes in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Shapiro, Edward S.

    1984-01-01

    Explores effects on one child of observing another same-sex child receive direct reinforcement. Subjects were 216 children from different age levels (6.11, 9.1, and 11.2 years). Results were considered in terms of vicarious reinforcement and the "implicit punishment" hypothesis. (Author/CI)

  14. Expanding the mirror : vicarious activity for actions, emotions, and sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    We often empathically share the states of others. The discovery of 'mirror neurons' suggested a neural mechanism for monkeys to share the actions of others. Here we expand this view by showing that mirror neurons for actions not only exist in the premotor cortex or in monkeys and that vicarious

  15. Campaign for vicarious calibration of SumbandilaSat in Argentina

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, LM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available to estimate Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance. A vicarious calibration field campaign was executed in Argentina to support monitoring of the radiometric response of the multispectral imager aboard SumbandilaSat. Results obtained using two Radiative...

  16. Using modeling and vicarious reinforcement to produce more positive attitudes toward mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Gary I; Malouff, John M

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a video, developed for this study and using principles of cognitive learning theory, to produce positive attitudinal change toward mental health treatment. The participants were 35 men and 45 women who were randomly assigned to watch either an experimental video, which included 3 positive 1st-person accounts of psychotherapy or a control video that focused on the psychological construct of self. Pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-week follow-up levels of attitude toward mental health treatment were measured using the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Help Scale (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970). The experimental video group showed a significantly greater increase in positive attitude than did the control group. These results support the effectiveness of using the vicarious reinforcement elements of cognitive learning theory as a basis for changing attitudes toward mental health treatment.

  17. Audiovisual Styling and the Film Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to music and audiovisual meaning in film appear to be very different in nature and scope when considered from the point of view of experimental psychology or humanistic studies. Nevertheless, this article argues that experimental studies square with ideas of audiovisual perception...... and meaning in humanistic film music studies in two ways: through studies of vertical synchronous interaction and through studies of horizontal narrative effects. Also, it is argued that the combination of insights from quantitative experimental studies and qualitative audiovisual film analysis may actually...... that are more intimately linked with present concerns within humanistic film studies...

  18. Audiovisual quality assessment and prediction for videotelephony

    CERN Document Server

    Belmudez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this book focuses on modeling audiovisual quality as perceived by the users of IP-based solutions for video communication like videotelephony. It also extends the current framework for the parametric prediction of audiovisual call quality. The book addresses several aspects related to the quality perception of entire video calls, namely, the quality estimation of the single audio and video modalities in an interactive context, the audiovisual quality integration of these modalities and the temporal pooling of short sample-based quality scores to account for the perceptual quality impact of time-varying degradations.

  19. Speech cues contribute to audiovisual spatial integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Bishop

    Full Text Available Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise spatial information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration depends strongly on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist even with gross spatial disparities, suggesting that spatial alignment is not necessary for robust integration of audiovisual place-of-articulation cues. It is therefore unclear how speech-cues interact with audiovisual spatial integration mechanisms. Here, we combine two well established psychophysical phenomena, the McGurk effect and the ventriloquist's illusion, to explore this dependency. Our results demonstrate that conflicting spatial cues may not interfere with audiovisual integration of speech, but conflicting speech-cues can impede integration in space. This suggests a direct but asymmetrical influence between ventral 'what' and dorsal 'where' pathways.

  20. Short Communication: Preservation of Photographs and Audiovisual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Colonialism, and both the colonial and post colonial power and political systems are identified as the major proponents of the current collective amnesia. It is argued that the audiovisual heritage which has remained largely untapped or is ...

  1. Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

  2. Designing between Pedagogies and Cultures: Audio-Visual Chinese Language Resources for Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yifeng; Shen, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    This design-based study examines the creation and development of audio-visual Chinese language teaching and learning materials for Australian schools by incorporating users' feedback and content writers' input that emerged in the designing process. Data were collected from workshop feedback of two groups of Chinese-language teachers from primary…

  3. Vocabulary Teaching in Foreign Language via Audiovisual Method Technique of Listening and Following Writing Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    The objective is hereby study is to compare the effects of conventional and audiovisual methods on learning efficiency and success of retention with regard to vocabulary teaching in foreign language. Research sample consists of 21 undergraduate and 7 graduate students studying at Department of French Language Teaching, Kazim Karabekir Faculty of…

  4. Audiovisual segregation in cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Landry

    Full Text Available It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition, as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i noise ii reverse speech sound and iii non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users.

  5. Semantic congruency but not temporal synchrony enhances long-term memory performance for audio-visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Human long-term memory for visual objects and scenes is tremendous. Here, we test how auditory information contributes to long-term memory performance for realistic scenes. In a total of six experiments, we manipulated the presentation modality (auditory, visual, audio-visual) as well as semantic congruency and temporal synchrony between auditory and visual information of brief filmic clips. Our results show that audio-visual clips generally elicit more accurate memory performance than unimodal clips. This advantage even increases with congruent visual and auditory information. However, violations of audio-visual synchrony hardly have any influence on memory performance. Memory performance remained intact even with a sequential presentation of auditory and visual information, but finally declined when the matching tracks of one scene were presented separately with intervening tracks during learning. With respect to memory performance, our results therefore show that audio-visual integration is sensitive to semantic congruency but remarkably robust against asymmetries between different modalities.

  6. Game of Objects: vicarious causation and multi-modal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Pedinotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies philosopher Graham Harman's object-oriented theory of "vicarious causation" to an analysis of the multi-modal media phenomenon known as "Game of Thrones." Examining the manner in which George R.R. Martin's best-selling series of fantasy novels has been adapted into a board game, a video game, and a hit HBO television series, it uses the changes entailed by these processes to trace the contours of vicariously generative relations. In the course of the resulting analysis, it provides new suggestions concerning the eidetic dimensions of Harman's causal model, particularly with regard to causation in linear networks and in differing types of game systems.

  7. A promessa do audiovisual interativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Winck

    Full Text Available A cadeia produtiva do audiovisual utiliza o capital cultural, especialmente a criatividade, como sua principal fonte de recursos, inaugurando o que se vem chamando de economia criativa. Essa cadeia de valor manufatura a inventividade como matéria-prima, transformado idéias em objetos de consumo de larga escala. A indústria da televisão está inserida num conglomerado maior de indústrias, como a da moda, das artes, da música etc. Esse gigantesco parque tecnológico reúne as atividades que têm a criação como valor, sua produção em escala como meio e o incremento da propriedade intelectual como fim em si mesmo. A industrialização da criatividade, aos poucos, está alterando o corpo teórico acerca do que se pensa sobre as relações de trabalho, as ferramentas e, acima de tudo, o conceito de bens como produto da inteligência.

  8. Audiovisual Archiving in the Third World – Problems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audiovisual Archiving in the Third World – Problems and Perspectives: An Analysis of Audiovisual Archiving in the East and Southern African Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ESARBICA) Region.

  9. Types of vicarious learning experienced by pre-dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Kate; Sturt, Jackie; Adams, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis renal replacement treatment options are in clinical equipoise, although the cost of haemodialysis to the National Health Service is £16,411/patient/year greater than peritoneal dialysis. Treatment decision-making takes place during the pre-dialysis year when estimated glomerular filtration rate drops to between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Renal disease can be familial, and the majority of patients have considerable health service experience when ...

  10. Beyond Vicary's fantasies: The impact of subliminal priming and brand choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Stroebe, W.; Claus, J.

    2006-01-01

    With his claim to have increased sales of Coca Cola and popcorn in a movie theatre through subliminal messages flashed on the screen, James Vicary raised the possibility of subliminal advertising. Nobody has ever replicated Vicary's findings and his study was a hoax. This article reports two

  11. Vicarious Trauma: Predictors of Clinicians' Disrupted Cognitions about Self-Esteem and Self-Intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Ineke; VanDeusen, Karen; Cottrell, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This study examined vicarious trauma in clinicians who provide sexual abuse treatment (N = 383). A random sample of clinical members from the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers and American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children were surveyed. Vicarious trauma was measured using the Trauma Stress Institute Belief Scale…

  12. Preventing Vicarious Trauma: What Counselors Should Know when Working with Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippany, Robyn L.; Kress, Victoria E. White; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Counselors in all settings work with clients who are survivors of trauma. Vicarious trauma, or counselors developing trauma reactions secondary to exposure to clients' traumatic experiences, is not uncommon. The purpose of this article is to describe vicarious trauma and summarize the recent research literature related to this construct. The…

  13. Vicarious Posttraumatic Growth in Labor and Delivery Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Eaton, Carrie Morgan; Gable, Robert K

    To investigate vicarious posttraumatic growth in labor and delivery nurses who cared for women during traumatic births. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. The sample consisted of 467 labor and delivery nurses who completed the quantitative portion and 295 (63%) who completed the qualitative portion of this mixed-methods study via the Internet. The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses sent out e-mails to members who were labor and delivery nurses with a link to the electronic survey. Labor and delivery nurses completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and the Core Beliefs Inventory in the quantitative portion. For the qualitative portion, the nurses were asked to describe their experiences of any positive changes in their beliefs or life as a result of their care for women during traumatic births. Labor and delivery nurses who cared for women during traumatic births reported a moderate amount of vicarious posttraumatic growth as indicated by their Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scores. Appreciation of Life was the dimension of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory that reflected the highest growth, followed by Relating to Others, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change, and New Possibilities. In the qualitative findings, Relating to Others was also the dimension of posttraumatic growth most frequently described. We compared our results with those of previous studies in which researchers assessed vicarious posttraumatic growth in clinicians, and we found that labor and delivery nurses who cared for women during traumatic births experienced growth levels that were scored between the lowest and highest reported levels of therapists and social workers. Nurses need to be aware of the potential to experience this growth despite the significant stress and unpredictability of the labor and delivery environment, which could decrease burnout and improve retention rates. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health

  14. Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Shott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.; Markham, Brian L.; Radocinski, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Launched in February 2013, the Landsat-8 carries on-board the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a two-band thermal pushbroom imager, to maintain the thermal imaging capability of the Landsat program. The TIRS bands are centered at roughly 10.9 and 12 micrometers (Bands 10 and 11 respectively). They have 100 m spatial resolution and image coincidently with the Operational Land Imager (OLI), also on-board Landsat-8. The TIRS instrument has an internal calibration system consisting of a variable temperature blackbody and a special viewport with which it can see deep space; a two point calibration can be performed twice an orbit. Immediately after launch, a rigorous vicarious calibration program was started to validate the absolute calibration of the system. The two vicarious calibration teams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), both make use of buoys deployed on large water bodies as the primary monitoring technique. RIT took advantage of cross-calibration opportunity soon after launch when Landsat-8 and Landsat-7 were imaging the same targets within a few minutes of each other to perform a validation of the absolute calibration. Terra MODIS is also being used for regular monitoring of the TIRS absolute calibration. The buoy initial results showed a large error in both bands, 0.29 and 0.51 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or -2.1 K and -4.4 K at 300 K in Band 10 and 11 respectively, where TIRS data was too hot. A calibration update was recommended for both bands to correct for a bias error and was implemented on 3 February 2014 in the USGS/EROS processing system, but the residual variability is still larger than desired for both bands (0.12 and 0.2 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or 0.87 and 1.67 K at 300 K). Additional work has uncovered the source of the calibration error: out-of-field stray light. While analysis continues to characterize the stray light contribution, the vicarious calibration work proceeds. The additional data have

  15. Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Barsi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Launched in February 2013, the Landsat-8 carries on-board the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS, a two-band thermal pushbroom imager, to maintain the thermal imaging capability of the Landsat program. The TIRS bands are centered at roughly 10.9 and 12 μm (Bands 10 and 11 respectively. They have 100 m spatial resolution and image coincidently with the Operational Land Imager (OLI, also on-board Landsat-8. The TIRS instrument has an internal calibration system consisting of a variable temperature blackbody and a special viewport with which it can see deep space; a two point calibration can be performed twice an orbit. Immediately after launch, a rigorous vicarious calibration program was started to validate the absolute calibration of the system. The two vicarious calibration teams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT, both make use of buoys deployed on large water bodies as the primary monitoring technique. RIT took advantage of cross-calibration opportunity soon after launch when Landsat-8 and Landsat-7 were imaging the same targets within a few minutes of each other to perform a validation of the absolute calibration. Terra MODIS is also being used for regular monitoring of the TIRS absolute calibration. The buoy initial results showed a large error in both bands, 0.29 and 0.51 W/m2·sr·μm or −2.1 K and −4.4 K at 300 K in Band 10 and 11 respectively, where TIRS data was too hot. A calibration update was recommended for both bands to correct for a bias error and was implemented on 3 February 2014 in the USGS/EROS processing system, but the residual variability is still larger than desired for both bands (0.12 and 0.2 W/m2·sr·μm or 0.87 and 1.67 K at 300 K. Additional work has uncovered the source of the calibration error: out-of-field stray light. While analysis continues to characterize the stray light contribution, the vicarious calibration work proceeds. The additional data have not changed

  16. Vicarious substitution in the literary work of Shusaku Endō : On fools, animals, objects and doubles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenradie, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328202711

    2016-01-01

    This research systematically examines the theme of vicarious substitution in Shūsaku Endō’s literary work. It aims at enriching the traditional concepts of vicarious substitution. This study results in the following typology of vicarious substituion in Endo's literature: Christ-figures, including

  17. RECURSO AUDIOVISUAL PAA ENSEÑAR Y APRENDER EN EL AULA: ANÁLISIS Y PROPUESTA DE UN MODELO FORMATIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Marilu Mendoza Zambrano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La usabilidad de los recursos audiovisuales, gráficos y digitales, que en la actualidad se están introduciendo en el sistema educativo se despliega en varios países de la región como Chile, Colombia, México, Cuba, El Salvador, Uruguay y Venezuela. Se analiza y se justifica subtemas relacionados con la enseñanza de los medios, desde la iniciativa de España y Portugal; países que fueron convirtiéndose en protagonistas internacionales de algunos modelos educativos en el contexto universitario. Debido a la extensión y focalización en la informática y las redes de información y comunicación en la internet; el audiovisual como instrumento tecnológico va ganando espacios como un recurso dinámico e integrador; con características especiales que lo distingue del resto de los medios que conforman el ecosistema audiovisual. Como resultado de esta investigación se proponen dos líneas de aplicación: A. Propuesta del lenguaje icónico y audiovisual como objetivo de aprendizaje y/o materia curricular en los planes de estudio universitarios con talleres para el desarrollo del documento audiovisual, la fotografía digital y la producción audiovisual y B. Uso de los recursos audiovisuales como medio educativo, lo que implicaría un proceso previo de capacitación a la comunidad docente en actividades recomendadas al profesorado y alumnado respectivamente. En consecuencia, se presentan sugerencias que permiten implementar ambas líneas de acción académica.PALABRAS CLAVE: Alfabetización Mediática; Educación Audiovisual; Competencia Mediática; Educomunicación.AUDIOVISUAL RESOURCE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM: ANALYSIS AND PROPOSAL OF A TRAINING MODELABSTRACTThe usage of the graphic and digital audiovisual resources in Education that is been applied in the present, have displayed in countries such as Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Cuba, El Salvador, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The analysis and justification of the topics related to the

  18. Risk of vicarious trauma in nursing research: a focused mapping review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Jones, Christine; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    To provide a snapshot of how vicarious trauma is considered within the published nursing research literature. Vicarious trauma (secondary traumatic stress) has been the focus of attention in nursing practice for many years. The most pertinent areas to invoke vicarious trauma in research have been suggested as abuse/violence and death/dying. What is not known is how researchers account for the risks of vicarious trauma in research. Focused mapping review and synthesis. Empirical studies meeting criteria for abuse/violence or death/dying in relevant Scopus ranked top nursing journals (n = 6) January 2009 to December 2014. Relevant papers were scrutinised for the extent to which researchers discussed the risk of vicarious trauma. Aspects of the studies were mapped systematically to a pre-defined template, allowing patterns and gaps in authors' reporting to be determined. These were synthesised into a coherent profile of current reporting practices and from this, a new conceptualisation seeking to anticipate and address the risk of vicarious trauma was developed. Two thousand five hundred and three papers were published during the review period, of which 104 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were distributed evenly by method (52 qualitative; 51 quantitative; one mixed methods) and by focus (54 abuse/violence; 50 death/dying). The majority of studies (98) were carried out in adult populations. Only two papers reported on vicarious trauma. The conceptualisation of vicarious trauma takes account of both sensitivity of the substantive data collected, and closeness of those involved with the research. This might assist researchers in designing ethical and protective research and foreground the importance of managing risks of vicarious trauma. Vicarious trauma is not well considered in research into clinically important topics. Our proposed framework allows for consideration of these so that precautionary measures can be put in place to minimise harm to staff. © 2016

  19. Audiovisual laughter detection based on temporal features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, M.; Pantic, Maja; Poel, Mannes; Poel, M.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on automatic laughter detection has mainly been focused on audio-based detection. In this study we present an audiovisual approach to distinguishing laughter from speech based on temporal features and we show that the integration of audio and visual information leads to improved

  20. Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

  1. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  2. Audio/Visual Ratios in Commercial Filmstrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    Developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Video Audio Compressed (VIDAC) is a compressed time, variable rate, still picture television system. This technology made it possible for a centralized library of audiovisual materials to be transmitted over a television channel in very short periods of time. In order to establish specifications…

  3. Audio-Visual Technician | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Occasionally records on audio and/or video media, conferences, seminars, lectures and other events. Edits and duplicates audio and video tapes ... Participates in the planning and design of new or updated audio-visual systems by providing technical input on system needs. Based on current and emerging requirements as ...

  4. Measures of Audiovisual Production Activities with Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Grace

    1985-01-01

    Presents a case study of the library media program at Old High Elementary School, Bentonville, Arkansas, which uses production of audiovisual materials to build extrinsic motivation into reading programs for grades five and six and special education classes. Five measurement techniques used to evaluate the program's effectiveness are also…

  5. Catching Audiovisual Interactions With a First-Person Fisherman Video Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yile; Hickey, Timothy J; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Sekuler, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish. In three experiments, categorization was faster and more accurate when the rate at which a fish oscillated in size matched the rate at which the accompanying, task-irrelevant sound was amplitude modulated. Control conditions showed that the difference between responses to matched and mismatched audiovisual signals reflected a performance gain in the matched condition, rather than a cost from the mismatched condition. The performance advantage with matched audiovisual signals was remarkably robust over changes in task demands between experiments. Performance with matched or unmatched audiovisual signals improved over successive trials at about the same rate, emblematic of perceptual learning in which visual oscillation rate becomes more discriminable with experience. Finally, analysis at the level of individual subjects' performance pointed to differences in the rates at which subjects can extract information from audiovisual stimuli.

  6. Vicarious pain experiences while observing another in pain: an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eVandenbroucke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at developing an experimental paradigm to assess vicarious pain experiences. We further explored the putative moderating role of observer’s characteristics such as hypervigilance for pain and dispositional empathy. Methods: Two experiments are reported using a similar procedure. Undergraduate students were selected based upon whether they reported vicarious pain in daily life, and categorized into a pain responder group or a comparison group. Participants were presented a series of videos showing hands being pricked whilst receiving occasionally pricking (electrocutaneous stimuli themselves. In congruent trials, pricking and visual stimuli were applied to the same spatial location. In incongruent trials, pricking and visual stimuli were in the opposite spatial location. Participants were required to report on which location they felt a pricking sensation. Of primary interest was the effect of viewing another in pain upon vicarious pain errors, i.e., the number of trials in which an illusionary sensation was reported. Furthermore, we explored the effect of individual differences in hypervigilance to pain, dispositional empathy and the rubber hand illusion (RHI upon vicarious pain errors. Results: Results of both experiments indicated that the number of vicarious pain errors was overall low. In line with expectations, the number of vicarious pain errors was higher in the pain responder group than in the comparison group. Self-reported hypervigilance for pain lowered the probability of reporting vicarious pain errors in the pain responder group, but dispositional empathy and the RHI did not. Conclusion: Our paradigm allows measuring vicarious pain experiences in students. However, the prevalence of vicarious experiences of pain is low, and only a small percentage of participants display the phenomenon. It remains however unknown which variables affect its occurrence.

  7. Conflict between place and response navigation strategies: effects on vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brandy; Papale, Andrew; Redish, A David; Markus, Etan J

    2013-02-15

    Navigation can be accomplished through multiple decision-making strategies, using different information-processing computations. A well-studied dichotomy in these decision-making strategies compares hippocampal-dependent "place" and dorsal-lateral striatal-dependent "response" strategies. A place strategy depends on the ability to flexibly respond to environmental cues, while a response strategy depends on the ability to quickly recognize and react to situations with well-learned action-outcome relationships. When rats reach decision points, they sometimes pause and orient toward the potential routes of travel, a process termed vicarious trial and error (VTE). VTE co-occurs with neurophysiological information processing, including sweeps of representation ahead of the animal in the hippocampus and transient representations of reward in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. To examine the relationship between VTE and the place/response strategy dichotomy, we analyzed data in which rats were cued to switch between place and response strategies on a plus maze. The configuration of the maze allowed for place and response strategies to work competitively or cooperatively. Animals showed increased VTE on trials entailing competition between navigational systems, linking VTE with deliberative decision-making. Even in a well-learned task, VTE was preferentially exhibited when a spatial selection was required, further linking VTE behavior with decision-making associated with hippocampal processing.

  8. A Survey of British Research in Audio-Visual Aids, Supplement No. 2, 1974. (Including Cumulative Index 1945-1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, Susie, Comp.

    The second supplement to the new (1972) edition of the Survey of Research in Audiovisual Aids carried out in Great Britain covers the year 1974. Ten separate sections cover the areas of projected media, non-projected media, sound media, radio, moving pictures, television, teaching machines and programed learning, computer-assisted instruction,…

  9. Vicarious emotional experience and emotional expression in group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R; Beutler, L E; Daldrup, R J

    2000-01-01

    Emotional arousal is a key concept in most theories of change. To be able to understand the role of emotional expression better, two treatments, cognitive therapy (CT) and focused expressive psychotherapy (FEP; a manualized form of Gestalt therapy), with opposite process assumptions about the expression of emotions were compared. Additionally vicarious emotional experience in the sense of an underlying emotional contagion was examined. Clients suffering from major depression were rated for the expression of emotion in three randomly selected sessions of a 20-session treatment course. While the types of emotions generally experienced by CT clients and FEP clients did not differ significantly, differences in the subgroups of active and observing-group members were found. This indicated that the process assumptions made by the respective treatments were only valid for the actively participating clients and not for the observing group members. Emotional contagion as a process was not supported.

  10. Vicarious traumatization in the work with survivors of childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, D

    1995-04-01

    1. Persons working with victims of childhood trauma may experience traumatic countertransference and vicarious traumatization. After hearing a patient's trauma story, which is a necessary part of childhood trauma therapy, staff may experience post-traumatic stress disorder, imagery associated with the patient's story and the same disruptions in relationships as the patient. 2. During the first 6 months of working with survivors of childhood trauma, common behaviors of staff members were identified, including a lack of attention, poor work performance, medication errors, sick calls, treatment errors, irreverence, hypervigilance, and somatic complaints. 3. Staff working with victims of childhood trauma can obtain the necessary staff support through team support, in traumatic events, and in a leadership role.

  11. Secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma: a validational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Baird, Stephanie

    2002-10-01

    Vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue both describe effects of working with traumatized persons on therapists. Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas vs. posttraumatic symptoms and burnout, respectively. The TSI Belief Scale (TSI-BSL) measures VT; the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test (CFST) for Psychotherapists measures STS. Neither has substantial psychometric evidence yet, nor has their association been studied. Results for 99 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors show concurrent validity between TSI-BSL and CFST, moderate convergence with burnout but useful discrimination, and strong convergence with general distress, but adequate independent shared variance. Counselors with interpersonal trauma histories scored higher on CFST, but not TSI-BSL or burnout, consistent with the CFST's emphasis on trauma symptomatology.

  12. Hippocampus, delay discounting, and vicarious trial-and-error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, David; Murdoch, Lauren H; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    In decision-making, an immediate reward is usually preferred to a delayed reward, even if the latter is larger. We tested whether the hippocampus is necessary for this form of temporal discounting, and for vicarious trial-and-error at the decision point. Rats were trained on a recently developed, adjustable delay-discounting task (Papale et al. (2012) Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12:513-526), which featured a choice between a small, nearly immediate reward, and a larger, delayed reward. Rats then received either hippocampus or sham lesions. Animals with hippocampus lesions adjusted the delay for the larger reward to a level similar to that of sham-lesioned animals, suggesting a similar valuation capacity. However, the hippocampus lesion group spent significantly longer investigating the small and large rewards in the first part of the sessions, and were less sensitive to changes in the amount of reward in the large reward maze arm. Both sham- and hippocampus-lesioned rats showed a greater amount of vicarious trial-and-error on trials in which the delay was adjusted. In a nonadjusting version of the delay discounting task, animals with hippocampus lesions showed more variability in their preference for a larger reward that was delayed by 10 s compared with sham-lesioned animals. To verify the lesion behaviorally, rat were subsequently trained on a water maze task, and rats with hippocampus lesions were significantly impaired compared with sham-lesioned animals. The findings on the delay discounting tasks suggest that damage to the hippocampus may impair the detection of reward magnitude. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Automated social skills training with audiovisual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakti, Sakriani; Neubig, Graham; Negoro, Hideki; Iwasaka, Hidemi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    People with social communication difficulties tend to have superior skills using computers, and as a result computer-based social skills training systems are flourishing. Social skills training, performed by human trainers, is a well-established method to obtain appropriate skills in social interaction. Previous works have attempted to automate one or several parts of social skills training through human-computer interaction. However, while previous work on simulating social skills training considered only acoustic and linguistic features, human social skills trainers take into account visual features (e.g. facial expression, posture). In this paper, we create and evaluate a social skills training system that closes this gap by considering audiovisual features regarding ratio of smiling, yaw, and pitch. An experimental evaluation measures the difference in effectiveness of social skill training when using audio features and audiovisual features. Results showed that the visual features were effective to improve users' social skills.

  14. Audiovisual Styling and the Film Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2015-01-01

    and meaning in humanistic film music studies in two ways: through studies of vertical synchronous interaction and through studies of horizontal narrative effects. Also, it is argued that the combination of insights from quantitative experimental studies and qualitative audiovisual film analysis may actually...... be combined into a more complex understanding of how audiovisual features interact in the minds of their audiences. This is demonstrated through a review of a series of experimental studies. Yet, it is also argued that textual analysis and concepts from within film and music studies can provide insights...... and explanatory frameworks that have not yet been addressed in a sufficient manner by experimental approaches. Three such areas are identified: single film analysis, intramodal interactions, and questions of implied authorship. In these cases, concepts and analytic practices from within film and music studies can...

  15. Documental Audiovisual sobre el teatro callejero.

    OpenAIRE

    Chancusi Chiguano, Tatiana Andrea; Quinatoa Medina, Margarita Belén

    2016-01-01

    The product consists of a video documentary that last 27 minutes 32 seconds, which subject is street theater. The work of people that perform this activity in public space stands out in this audiovisual product. It is highlighting women’s role in this kind of theater. The video chronicles the experiences, reflections, and the daily comings and goings of Sonia Flores, also known in the art world as Maria Lola Vaca del Campo (Cow of the field); it also chronicles the relatio...

  16. The Spanish audiovisual sector facing digital technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoro, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The audiovisual sector is complex because it involves the activity of different industries related to content production, telecommunications, media, as well as the Internet and services of the Information Society. The emergence of new technological changes resulting from the digitization process and the convergence of information technologies and telecommunications in connection with the storage, processing and distribution of information are creating new challenges within this sector. The EU...

  17. Attributes of Quality in Audiovisual Materials for Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Emanuel; Waddell, Wendy H.

    1981-01-01

    Defines attributes of quality in content, instructional design, technical production, and packaging of audiovisual materials used in the education of health professionals. Seven references are listed. (FM)

  18. Vicariance or long-distance dispersal: historical biogeography of the pantropical subfamily Chrysophylloideae (Sapotaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartish, Igor; Antonelli, A.; Richardson, J. E.; Swenson, U.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2011), s. 177-190 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : molecular dating * Neotropics * vicariance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.544, year: 2011

  19. Hybrid e-learning tool TransLearning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Marjoleine G.; Kupper, Frank; Beers, P.J.; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning and storytelling approaches can support informal vicarious learning within geographically widely distributed multi-stakeholder collaboration networks. This case study evaluates hybrid e-learning and video-storytelling approach ‘TransLearning’ by investigation into how its storytelling

  20. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  1. Online computer-aided vicarious exposure for OCD symptoms: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Allison J; Maunder, Rosie; Scanlan, Joel D; Kirkby, Kenneth C

    2017-03-01

    Computer-aided vicarious exposure (CAVE) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an intervention in which participants learn and rehearse exposure with response prevention (ERP) by directing a character around a virtual world. This study aimed to pilot an online CAVE program for OCD in a community sample with high OCD symptomatology. Participants (n = 78) were allocated to an intervention group (three 45-min weekly CAVE sessions) or to a waitlist control group. The treatment group were asked to complete three 45-min sessions over a four week period. Those who completed at least one CAVE session showed greater improvement on measures of OCD symptomatology at one-month post-treatment (d = 0.49-0.81) compared to waitlist (d = 0.01-0.1). Older age, past treatment and higher symptom severity were associated with non-adherence. These findings should be considered preliminary due to sample size limitations and an absence of an active control group. However, the findings suggest that further development and evaluation of the program is warranted. Preliminary findings suggest that online CAVE programs have potential to bridge treatment gaps among those reluctant to attend treatment or engage with in vivo exposure exercises. These programs may also have potential applications as an adjunct to face-to-face or online cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bimodal bilingualism as multisensory training?: Evidence for improved audiovisual speech perception after sign language exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize effects of learning a sign language on the processing of a spoken language. Specifically, audiovisual phoneme comprehension was assessed before and after 13 weeks of sign language exposure. L2 ASL learners performed this task in the fMRI scanner. Results indicated that L2 American Sign Language (ASL) learners' behavioral classification of the speech sounds improved with time compared to hearing nonsigners. Results indicated increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) after sign language exposure, which suggests concomitant increased phonological processing of speech. A multiple regression analysis indicated that learner's rating on co-sign speech use and lipreading ability was correlated with SMG activation. This pattern of results indicates that the increased use of mouthing and possibly lipreading during sign language acquisition may concurrently improve audiovisual speech processing in budding hearing bimodal bilinguals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Music and Its Significance in Children Favourite Audiovisuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Amparo; Herrera, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    Audiovisual media are part of children's daily life. They build and/or replace a part of the reality that is sometimes preceded. This paper is interested in one of the elements of the audiovisual binomial, the soundtrack, in order to analyse its meaning and sense from the children's point of view. The objectives are: to determine if the…

  4. Decision-level fusion for audio-visual laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, M.; Truong, K.; Poppe, R.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is

  5. Understanding the basics of audiovisual archiving in Africa and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the developed world, the cultural value of the audiovisual media gained legitimacy and widening acceptance after World War II, and this is what Africa still requires. There are a lot of problems in Africa, and because of this, activities such as preservation of a historical record, especially in the audiovisual media are seen as ...

  6. Audio-Visual Production in Support of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Donald J.; Johnson, Lesley S.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual model for a comprehensive audiovisual production center is described. Services included in the production process are media selection, resource information on audiovisual software and hardware, training in production and operation, media evaluation and modification, and copyright assistance. A list of suggested personnel is also…

  7. Audiovisual Archive Exploitation in the Networked Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Safeguarding the massive body of audiovisual content, including rich music collections, in audiovisual archives and enabling access for various types of user groups is a prerequisite for unlocking the social-economic value of these collections. Data quantities and the need for specific content

  8. Research and Theory Related to Audiovisual Information Transmission. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robert M. W.; And Others

    Psychological and physiological concepts about information transmission are reviewed with a view toward uncovering principles useful to the design of audiovisual teaching materials. Audiovisual materials which transmit information via the visual or auditory channels are considered, including sound motion pictures, film strips, and audio…

  9. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-13

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features.

  10. Trigger videos on the Web: Impact of audiovisual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verleur, R.; Heuvelman, A.; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is

  11. Audiovisual consumption and its social logics on the web

    OpenAIRE

    Rose Marie Santini; Juan C. Calvi

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the social logics underlying audiovisualconsumption on digital networks. We retrieved some data on the Internet globaltraffic of audiovisual files since 2008 to identify formats, modes of distributionand consumption of audiovisual contents that tend to prevail on the Web. Thisresearch shows the types of social practices which are dominant among usersand its relation to what we designate as “Internet culture”.

  12. Preservation and Management of Audiovisual Archives in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the state of the audio-visual collections held by different government institutions in Botswana. The rationale of such review rests on the observation that although audiovisual materials constitute a vital information resource in such institutions, they are often not adequately managed after they are created.

  13. Dimensión audiovisual del idioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mariano Cebrián Herreros

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Las diversas formas que adquiere el idioma al formar parte del nuevo escenario audiovisual es el núcleo central de este artículo. No obstante, la visión del profesor Cebrián Herreros no se desarrolla a partir de posiciones lingüísticas sino comunicacionales. Como el autor indica, "se trata de analizar la flexibilidad del idioma para adaptarse a los requisitos impuestos y a la vez la aportación que ofrece para resaltar los procesos comunicativos".

  14. Dimensión audiovisual del idioma

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mariano Cebrián Herreros

    2000-01-01

    Las diversas formas que adquiere el idioma al formar parte del nuevo escenario audiovisual es el núcleo central de este artículo. No obstante, la visión del profesor Cebrián Herreros no se desarrolla a partir de posiciones lingüísticas sino comunicacionales. Como el autor indica, "se trata de analizar la flexibilidad del idioma para adaptarse a los requisitos impuestos y a la vez la aportación que ofrece para resaltar los procesos comunicativos".

  15. Sympathetic pain? A role of poor parasympathetic nervous system engagement in vicarious pain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarewicz, Julia; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Giummarra, Melita J

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological correlates of the subjective experience of vicarious pain; that is, a spontaneous experience of pain when seeing another in pain. Forty-nine healthy, otherwise pain-free individuals aged 18-55 years completed empathy and anxiety questionnaires and were classified into three groups: vicarious responders with high anxiety (n = 11), vicarious responders with low anxiety (n = 22), and nonresponders (n = 16). Electrophysiological recordings of heart rate variability (HRV) during paced breathing and cognitive stress (serial sevens task) were completed before participants viewed short videos of athletes in states of pain or happiness, taken from Australian League Football matches. Change in beats per minute, relative to neutral scenes, were analyzed for the first 4 s after onset of the painful or happy event. Anxious responders had lower HF-HRV than both other groups, implicating poor parasympathetic regulation specific to states of stress. Both vicarious responder groups had elevated HR at the event onset, regardless of valence. After viewing painful injuries, nonanxious vicarious responders showed sustained HR over time, anxious responders showed HR acceleration with a peak at 3 s after the injury onset, and nonresponders showed a pattern of marked HR deceleration. These findings suggest that vicarious pain in anxious responders is associated with poorly regulated sympathetic arousal via insufficient inhibitory parasympathetic activity, whereas nonanxious persons show sustained arousal. Clearly, multiple mechanisms in the central and peripheral nervous system must play a role in vicarious pain states, and the different manifestations are likely to lead to very different behavioral consequences. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Glacial-driven vicariance in the amphipod Gammarus duebeni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebes, L; Blank, M; Jürss, K; Zettler, M L; Bastrop, R

    2010-02-01

    We have examined the genetic diversity using mitochondrial COI and ND2 sequence data from 306 specimens of the amphi-Atlantic-distributed amphipod Gammarus duebeni. Marine populations from the Atlantic Ocean, the Baltic and North Sea, as well as freshwater populations from Ireland, Cornwall and Brittany were analysed. G. duebeni is a complex of five allopatric lineages. Freshwater populations result from multiple invasions of marine ancestors, represented by distinct lineages. We interpret the recent distribution of lineages as the outcome of a series of spatio-temporal vicariant events caused by Pleistocene glaciations and sea level changes. The freshwater lineages are therefore regarded as 'glacial relicts'. Furthermore, inter-specific competition with, for example, Gammarus pulex (which is absent in Ireland and western Brittany) may be another important determinant in the distribution of freshwater G. duebeni. In Ireland and Brittany, three freshwater refugia are suggested. The significantly limited gene flow detected among marine populations is more likely due to inter-specific competition than to salinity. The G. duebeni-complex represents a model system for the study of allopatric speciation accompanied by major habitat shifts. The pattern of spatio-temporal origins of the freshwater entities we describe here provides an excellent system for investigating evolutionary adaptations to the freshwater environment. Our data did not confirm the presently used subspecies classification but are only preliminary in the absence of nuclear genetic analyses. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Alterations in audiovisual simultaneity perception in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual impairment that is increasingly recognized to affect higher-level perceptual and multisensory processes. To further investigate the audiovisual (AV) perceptual impairments associated with this condition, we characterized the temporal interval in which asynchronous auditory and visual stimuli are perceived as simultaneous 50% of the time (i.e., the AV simultaneity window). Adults with unilateral amblyopia (n = 17) and visually normal controls (n = 17) judged the simultaneity of a flash and a click presented with both eyes viewing. The signal onset asynchrony (SOA) varied from 0 ms to 450 ms for auditory-lead and visual-lead conditions. A subset of participants with amblyopia (n = 6) was tested monocularly. Compared to the control group, the auditory-lead side of the AV simultaneity window was widened by 48 ms (36%; p = 0.002), whereas that of the visual-lead side was widened by 86 ms (37%; p = 0.02). The overall mean window width was 500 ms, compared to 366 ms among controls (37% wider; p = 0.002). Among participants with amblyopia, the simultaneity window parameters were unchanged by viewing condition, but subgroup analysis revealed differential effects on the parameters by amblyopia severity, etiology, and foveal suppression status. Possible mechanisms to explain these findings include visual temporal uncertainty, interocular perceptual latency asymmetry, and disruption of normal developmental tuning of sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony.

  18. Cross-Modal Matching of Audio-Visual German and French Fluent Speech in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Claudia; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Dupierrix, Eve; Pascalis, Olivier; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined when and how the ability to cross-modally match audio-visual fluent speech develops in 4.5-, 6- and 12-month-old German-learning infants. In Experiment 1, 4.5- and 6-month-old infants’ audio-visual matching ability of native (German) and non-native (French) fluent speech was assessed by presenting auditory and visual speech information sequentially, that is, in the absence of temporal synchrony cues. The results showed that 4.5-month-old infants were capable of matching native as well as non-native audio and visual speech stimuli, whereas 6-month-olds perceived the audio-visual correspondence of native language stimuli only. This suggests that intersensory matching narrows for fluent speech between 4.5 and 6 months of age. In Experiment 2, auditory and visual speech information was presented simultaneously, therefore, providing temporal synchrony cues. Here, 6-month-olds were found to match native as well as non-native speech indicating facilitation of temporal synchrony cues on the intersensory perception of non-native fluent speech. Intriguingly, despite the fact that audio and visual stimuli cohered temporally, 12-month-olds matched the non-native language only. Results were discussed with regard to multisensory perceptual narrowing during the first year of life. PMID:24586651

  19. NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide; Voss, Kenneth

    2016-09-05

    The near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithms are used in satellite ocean color data processing, with the SWIR-based algorithm particularly useful for turbid coastal and inland waters. In this study, we describe the NIR- and two SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibration approaches for satellite ocean color sensors, and compare results from these three on-orbit vicarious calibrations using satellite measurements from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP). Vicarious calibration gains for VIIRS spectral bands are derived using the in situ normalized water-leaving radiance nLw(λ) spectra from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) in waters off Hawaii. The SWIR vicarious gains are determined using VIIRS measurements from the South Pacific Gyre region, where waters are the clearest and generally stable. Specifically, vicarious gain sets for VIIRS spectral bands of 410, 443, 486, 551, and 671 nm derived from the NIR method using the NIR 745 and 862 nm bands, the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 1601 nm bands, and the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 2257 nm bands are (0.979954, 0.974892, 0.974685, 0.965832, 0.979042), (0.980344, 0.975344, 0.975357, 0.965531, 0.979518), and (0.980820, 0.975609, 0.975761, 0.965888, 0.978576), respectively. Thus, the NIR-based vicarious calibration gains are consistent with those from the two SWIR-based approaches with discrepancies mostly within ~0.05% from three data processing methods. In addition, the NIR vicarious gains (745 and 862 nm) derived from the two SWIR methods are (0.982065, 1.00001) and (0.981811, 1.00000), respectively, with the difference ~0.03% at the NIR 745 nm band. This is the fundamental basis for the NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction algorithm, which has been used to derive improved satellite ocean color products over open oceans and turbid coastal/inland waters. Therefore, a unified

  20. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H Charles; Russo, Frank A; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  1. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kathryn Abel

    Full Text Available Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  2. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  3. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m 2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  4. Reality TV and vicarious embarrassment: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian; Trautner, Peter; Weber, Bernd; Lachmann, Bernd; Buss, Pauline; Heinen, Rebekka; Reuter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Vicarious embarrassment (VE) is an emotion triggered by the observation of others' pratfalls or social norm violations. Several explanatory approaches have been suggested to explain the source of this phenomenon, including perspective taking abilities or ingroup identification. Knowledge about its biological bases, however, is scarce. To gain a better understanding, the present study investigated neural activation patterns in response to video clips from reality TV shows. Reality TV is well known for presenting social norm violations, flaws and pratfalls of its protagonists in real life situations thereby qualifying as an ecological valid trigger for VE. N = 60 healthy participants viewed stand stills from previously watched video clips taken from German reality TV-shows while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The clips were preselected for high versus low VE content in a pilot study. Besides the investigation of differences in brain activation elicited by VE versus control stand stills (blocked design contrast), we performed additional exploratory functional connectivity analyses (psychophysiological interaction; PPI) to detect VE related brain networks. Compared to the low VE condition, participants in the high VE condition showed a higher activation in the middle temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the gyrus rectus. Functional connectivity analyses confirmed increased connectivity of these regions with the anterior cingulate in the VE condition. Moreover, self-ratings of VE and brain activity were correlated positively. Reality TV formats with high VE content activate brain regions associated with Theory of Mind, but also with empathic concern and social identity. Therefore, our results support the idea that the ability to put oneself in other person's shoes is a major prerequisite for VE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. APEX Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Uncertainty Budget and Vicarious Validation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueni, A.; Woolliams, E.; Schlaepfer, D.; Wulf, H.

    2017-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al. 2015). Work on the sensor model and on propagated uncertainties from the laboratory to the in-flight case has been carried out extensively within the framework of EMRP (European Metrology Research Program) as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The uncertainty propagation has been implemented in the APEX Calibration Information System (Hueni et al. 2013) and the APEX Level 1 processor (Hueni et al. 2009), thus allowing the operational computation of uncertainties for any at-sensor radiance APEX imaging cube. This fosters a better understanding and aids evaluation of the results of vicarious validation using spectral ground control points stored in the spectral information system SPECCHIO (Hueni et al. 2016). The presented work ultimately benefits the production of traceable higher-level products and enables sensitivity analyses of models, e.g. 3D canopy simulations, parameterised by APEX radiances. Hueni, A., Biesemans, J., Meuleman, K., Dell'Endice, F., Schläpfer, D., et al (2009). "Structure, Components and Interfaces of the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) Processing and Archiving Facility." IEEE TGRS 47(1): 29-43. Hueni, A., Damm, A., Kneubuehler, M., Schläpfer, D. and Schaepman, M. (2016). "Field and Airborne Spectroscopy Cross-Validation - Some Considerations." IEEE JSTARS 10(3): 1117 - 1135. Hueni, A., Lenhard, K., Baumgartner, A. and Schaepman, M. (2013). "The APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment - Imaging Spectrometer) Calibration Information System." IEEE TGRS 51(11): 5169-5180. Schaepman, M., Jehle, M., Hueni, A., D'Odorico, P., Damm, A., et al (2015). "Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX)." Remote Sensing of Environment 158: 207-219.

  6. The sign learning theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KING OF DAWN

    In his classic work: Cognitive Map in Rats and Men (1948),Tolman talked about five groups of experiments viz: latent learning experiments, the VTE (vicarious trial and error) experiments, the searching for the stimulus experiments, the hypotheses experiments, and the spatial orientation experiments which provide empirical ...

  7. Transmitting Trauma: A systematic review of vicarious racism and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard-Garris, N J; Cale, M; Camaj, L; Hamati, M C; Dominguez, T P

    2018-02-01

    Racism is a pervasive stressor. Although most research focuses on direct targets, racism can also have unintended victims. Because children's lives are inevitably linked to the experiences of other individuals, and they are in critical phases of development, they are especially vulnerable to such stressors. Despite the growing body of literature on children's direct exposure to racism, little is known about the relationship between vicarious racism (i.e. secondhand exposure to racism) and child health. To examine the state of this literature, we performed a systematic review and screened 1371 articles drawn from 7 databases, with 30 studies meeting inclusion criteria. For these 30, we reviewed research methodology, including conceptualization and measurement of vicarious exposure, sample characteristics, significant associations with child health outcomes, and mediators and/or moderators of those associations. Most studies were published after 2011 in urban areas in the U.S., employed longitudinal designs, and focused on African American populations. Socioemotional and mental health outcomes were most commonly reported with statistically significant associations with vicarious racism. While all studies examined racism indirectly experienced by children, there was no standard definition of vicarious racism used. We organize the findings in a schematic diagram illustrating indirectly-experienced racism and child health outcomes to identify current gaps in the literature and ways in which to bridge those gaps. To further the field, vicarious racism should be uniformly defined and directly measured using psychometrically validated tools. Future studies should consider using children as the informants and follow children into early adulthood to better understand causal mechanisms. Given the recent national exposure to racially-charged events, a deeper understanding of the association between vicarious racism and child health is crucial in fueling research

  8. Common and distinct neural mechanisms associated with the conscious experience of vicarious pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice-Jackson, Thomas; Critchley, Hugo D; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

    2017-09-01

    Vicarious pain perception has been an influential paradigm for investigating the social neuroscience of empathy. This research has highlighted the importance of both shared representations (i.e., involved in both experiencing first-hand physical pain and observing pain) and mechanisms that discriminate between self and other. The majority of this research has been conducted in healthy younger adults using a group-average approach. There are, however, known inter-individual differences that can contribute to vicarious experience. One factor relates to the degree to which individuals experience reportable pain-like sensations/feelings in response to seeing others in pain. Here we conduct the first systematic investigation of the neural basis of conscious vicarious pain in a large sample of participants. Using cluster analysis, we firstly demonstrate that consciously experiencing the pain of others is surprisingly prevalent and, exists in two forms: one group experiences sensory and localised pain whilst the other group report affective and non-localised experiences. Building on this, we used electroencephalography (EEG) and structural brain imaging to examine the neural correlates of vicarious pain in the three different groups. We find that the dominant electrophysiological marker used to index vicarious pain in previous studies (mu and beta suppression) was only found to be significant in the sensory and localised pain responder group (with a sensitive null result in the 'neurotypical' group). Finally, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we identify a common differences in the two pain responder groups relative to typical adults; namely increased grey-matter in insula and somatosensory cortex and reduced grey matter in the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ). We suggest that the latter reflects a reduced ability to distinguish bodily self and other, and may be a common factor distinguishing conscious from unconscious vicarious experience. Copyright © 2017

  9. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to auditory information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration, supported

  10. Talker Variability in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition. So far, this talker-variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker’s face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target-word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker’s face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred.

  11. Testosterone and estrogen impact social evaluations and vicarious emotions: A double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Andreas; Kopsida, Eleni; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    The abilities to "read" other peoples' intentions and emotions, and to learn from their experiences, are critical to survival. Previous studies have highlighted the role of sex hormones, notably testosterone and estrogen, in these processes. Yet it is unclear how these hormones affect social cognition and emotion using acute hormonal administration. In the present double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered an acute exogenous dose of testosterone or estrogen to healthy female and male volunteers, respectively, with the aim of investigating the effects of these steroids on social-cognitive and emotional processes. Following hormonal and placebo treatment, participants made (a) facial dominance judgments, (b) mental state inferences (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and (c) learned aversive associations through watching others' emotional responses (observational fear learning [OFL]). Our results showed that testosterone administration to females enhanced ratings of facial dominance but diminished their accuracy in inferring mental states. In men, estrogen administration resulted in an increase in emotional (vicarious) reactivity when watching a distressed other during the OFL task. Taken together, these results suggest that sex hormones affect social-cognitive and emotional functions at several levels, linking our results to neuropsychiatric disorders in which these functions are impaired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Audiovisual interpretative skills: between textual culture and formalized literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Jiménez, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the process of acquiring interpretative skills to decode audiovisual texts among adolescents and youth. Based on the conception of such competence as the ability to understand the meanings connoted beneath the literal discourses of audiovisual texts, this study compared two variables: the acquisition of such skills from the personal and social experience in the consumption of audiovisual products (which is affected by age difference, and, on the second hand, the differences marked by the existence of formalized processes of media literacy. Based on focus groups of young students, the research assesses the existing academic debate about these processes of acquiring skills to interpret audiovisual materials.

  13. On-line repository of audiovisual material feminist research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a collection of audiovisual material available in the repository of the Interdisciplinary Seminar of Feminist Research Methodology SIMReF (http://www.simref.net.

  14. Behavioral Science Design for Audio-Visual Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dennis L.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the basic structure of the behavioral audio-visual production which consists of objectives analysis, approach determination, technical production, fulfillment evaluation, program refinement, implementation, and follow-up. (Author)

  15. An Instrumented Glove for Control Audiovisual Elements in Performing Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tavares

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of cutting-edge technologies such as wearable devices to control reactive audiovisual systems are rarely applied in more conventional stage performances, such as opera performances. This work reports a cross-disciplinary approach for the research and development of the WMTSensorGlove, a data-glove used in an opera performance to control audiovisual elements on stage through gestural movements. A system architecture of the interaction between the wireless wearable device and the different audiovisual systems is presented, taking advantage of the Open Sound Control (OSC protocol. The developed wearable system was used as audiovisual controller in “As sete mulheres de Jeremias Epicentro”, a portuguese opera by Quarteto Contratempus, which was premiered in September 2017.

  16. Electrophysiological assessment of audiovisual integration in speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Dau, Torsten

    findings on neural correlates of this tolerance, however, are few and limited. Here, a novel experimental MMN paradigm is used in effort to shed light on integration asynchronous audiovisual speech. Based on individual behavioral estimates of temporal windows of tolerance, we ask if the MMN signal can......Speech perception integrates signal from ear and eye. This is witnessed by a wide range of audiovisual integration effects, such as ventriloquism and the McGurk illusion. Some behavioral evidence suggest that audiovisual integration of specific aspects is special for speech perception. However, our...... knowledge of such bimodal integration would be strengthened if the phenomena could be investigated by objective, neutrally based methods. One key question of the present work is if perceptual processing of audiovisual speech can be gauged with a specific signature of neurophysiological activity...

  17. The Effects of Audio-Visual Recorded and Audio Recorded Listening Tasks on the Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners' Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drood, Pooya; Asl, Hanieh Davatgari

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which task in classrooms has developed and proceeded have receive great attention in the field of language teaching and learning in the sense that they draw attention of learners to the competing features such as accuracy, fluency, and complexity. English audiovisual and audio recorded materials have been widely used by teachers and…

  18. Audiovisual Media Career Ladder, AFSC 231X0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    X X AFMEA/MEMD X HQ USAF/ MPPT x X AFJIRL/LRT X LTTC X X EXTENSION COURSE INSTITUTE (ECI/EDV) X ARMY OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY BRANCH X CCAF/AYX X 3507/DPUI...of the job titles given by respondents which were representative of these personnel included Classified Vault, Research Editor, Work Order Controller ... control forms - research suspense files for delinquent audiovisual material loans - splice films - preview and evaluate incoming audiovisual products 9

  19. The production of medical audiovisual teaching materials--Chinese style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z C

    1994-07-01

    The production of medical audiovisual material for the advancement of medical education in China is a problem requiring an urgent solution. To achieve faster, better and more economical results, the production of audiovisual material must be undertaken with careful planning and efficient management. A systematic approach is essential to control production. The procedures described are: leadership and management; choice of subject and medium; production; distribution and evaluation.

  20. [Cultural heritage and audiovisual creation in the Arab world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, M

    1979-01-01

    Audiovisual creation is facing in Arab countries problems arising from the use of imported techniques in order to reconstitute or transform their own reality. Arab audiovisual producers see this technique as an easy and efficient way to reproduce reality or construct conventionally an artificial universe. Sometimes, audiovisuals have an absolute suggestion power; sometimes, these techniques are faced with total incredulity. From a diffusion point of view, audiovisuals in the Arab world have a very specific status. The effects of television, studied by western researchers in their cultural environment, are not reproduced in the same fashion in the Arab cultural world. In the Arab world, the word very often still competes successfully with the picture, even after the appearance and adoption of mass media. Finally, one must mention a very interesting situation resulting from a linguistic phenomenon which is specific to the Arab world: the existence of 2 communication languages, one noble but little used, the other dialectical but popular. In all Arab countries, the News, the most political program, is broadcasted in the classical language, despite the danger of meaning distortion in the least educated public. The reason is probably that the classical Arab language enjoys a sacred status. Arab audiovisuals are facing several obstacles to their total and autonomous realization. The contribution of the Arab audiovisual producers is relatively modest, compared to some other areas of cultural creation. Arab film-making is looking more and more for the cooperation of contemporary writers. Contemporary literature is a considerable source for the renewal of Arab audiovisual expression. A relationship between film and popular cultural heritage could be very usefully established in both directions. Audiovisuals should treat popular cultural manifestations as a global social fact on several significant levels.

  1. Cinema, Vídeo, Digital: a virtualidade do audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polidoro, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe-se a refletir sobre as diversas manifestações contemporâneas do audiovisual, a partir das idéias de Vilém Flusser, focando-se no cinema, no vídeo e nas tecnologias digitais. Com os conceitos de Henri Bergson, busca perceber o audiovisual como uma virtualidade e, com isso, compreender o sentido de linguagem nesses diversos suportes de som e imagem

  2. F v Minister of Safety and Security: Vicarious liability and state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitutional Court judgement in F v Minister of Safety and Security 1 is a ground-breaking judgement in two important respects: firstly, it finally does away with the fiction that an employee acts within the course and scope of her employment in the so-called deviation cases in the law of vicarious liability, and secondly it ...

  3. Coping with Vicarious Trauma in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren E.; Bernal, Darren R.; Schwartz, Billie S.; Whitt, Courtney L.; Christman, Seth T.; Donnelly, Stephanie; Wheatley, Anna; Guillaume, Casta; Nicolas, Guerda; Kish, Jonathan; Kobetz, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study documents the vicarious psychological impact of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti on Haitians living in the United States. The role of coping resources--family, religious, and community support--was explored. The results highlight the importance of family and community as coping strategies to manage such trauma.

  4. Secondary Traumatic Stress, Vicarious Trauma, and the Supervisory Working Alliance in Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sara LaRose

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT), and the supervisory working alliance (SWA) with the faculty supervisor among counselor trainees (N = 86). The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the SWA and demographic influence STS and VT. Two correlations were conducted to assess…

  5. Vicarious Racism: A Qualitative Analysis of Experiences with Secondhand Racism in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.; McGuire, Keon M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of vicarious racism in the experiences of doctoral students of color. The researchers conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 26 doctoral students who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during their doctoral studies. The analysis generated four themes that detail the…

  6. Effects of vicarious pain on self-pain perception: investigating the role of awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrighena EL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Esslin L Terrighena,1,2 Ge Lu,1 Wai Ping Yuen,1 Tatia M C Lee,1–4 Kati Keuper1,2,5 1Department of Psychology, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Laboratory of Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Hong Kong; 4Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Münster, Germany Abstract: The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in ­determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images, and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed ­significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition, vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition, vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These

  7. Lousa Digital Interativa: avaliação da interação didática e proposta de aplicação de narrativa audiovisual / Interactive White Board – IWB: assessment in interaction didactic and audiovisual narrative proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de audiovisual em sala de aula não garante uma eficácia na aprendizagem, mas para os estudantes é um elemento interessante e ainda atrativo. Este trabalho — uma aproximação de duas pesquisas: a primeira apresenta a importância da interação didática com a LDI e a segunda, uma lista de elementos de narrativa audiovisual que podem ser aplicados em sala de aula — propõe o domínio de elementos da narrativa audiovisual como uma possibilidade teórica para o professor que quer produzir um conteúdo audiovisual para aplicar em plataformas digitais, como é o caso da Lousa Digital Interativa - LDI. O texto está divido em três partes: a primeira apresenta os conceitos teóricos das duas pesquisas, a segunda discute os resultados de ambas e, por fim, a terceira parte propõe uma prática pedagógica de interação didática com elementos de narrativa audiovisual para uso em LDI. AbstractThe audiovisual use in classroom does not guarantee effectiveness in learning, but for students is an interesting element and still attractive. This work suggests that the field of audiovisual elements of the narrative is a theoretical possibility for the teacher who wants to produce an audiovisual content to apply to digital platforms, such as the Interactive Digital Whiteboard - LDI. This work is an approximation of two doctoral theses, the first that shows the importance of interaction with the didactic and the second LDI provides a list of audiovisual narrative elements that can be applied in the classroom. This work is divided into three parts, the first part presents the theoretical concepts of the two surveys, the second part discusses the results of two surveys and finally the third part, proposes a practical pedagogical didactic interaction with audiovisual narrative elements to use in LDI.

  8. Neural circuits in auditory and audiovisual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, B; Romanski, L M

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is the ability to employ recently seen or heard stimuli and apply them to changing cognitive context. Although much is known about language processing and visual working memory, the neurobiological basis of auditory working memory is less clear. Historically, part of the problem has been the difficulty in obtaining a robust animal model to study auditory short-term memory. In recent years there has been neurophysiological and lesion studies indicating a cortical network involving both temporal and frontal cortices. Studies specifically targeting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in auditory working memory have suggested that dorsal and ventral prefrontal regions perform different roles during the processing of auditory mnemonic information, with the dorsolateral PFC performing similar functions for both auditory and visual working memory. In contrast, the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), which contains cells that respond robustly to auditory stimuli and that process both face and vocal stimuli may be an essential locus for both auditory and audiovisual working memory. These findings suggest a critical role for the VLPFC in the processing, integrating, and retaining of communication information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A representação audiovisual das mulheres migradas The audiovisual representation of migrant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analiso as representações sobre as mulheres migradas nos fundos audiovisuais de algumas entidades que trabalham com gênero e imigração em Barcelona. Por haver detectado nos audiovisuais analisados uma associação recorrente das mulheres migradas à pobreza, à criminalidade, à ignorância, à maternidade obrigatória e numerosa, à prostituição etc., busquei entender como tais representações tomam forma, estudando os elementos narrativos, estilísticos, visuais e verbais através dos quais se articulam essas imagens e discursos sobre as mulheres migradas.In this paper I analyze the representations of the migrant women at the audiovisual founds in some of the organizations that work with gender and immigration in Barcelona. At the audiovisuals I have found a recurring association of the migrant women with poverty, criminality, ignorance, passivity, undocumentation, gender violence, compulsory and numerous motherhood, prostitution, etc. Thus, I tried to understand the ways in which these representations are shaped, studying the narrative, stylistic, visual and verbal elements through which these images and discourses of the migrant women are articulated.

  10. Games and (Preparation for Future) Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jessica; Black, John

    2009-01-01

    What makes games effective for learning? The authors argue that games provide vicarious experiences for players, which then amplify the effects of future, formal learning. However, not every game succeeds in doing so! Understanding why some games succeed and others fail at this task means investigating both a given game's design and the…

  11. Audio-visual integration through the parallel visual pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposvári, Péter; Csete, Gergő; Bognár, Anna; Csibri, Péter; Tóth, Eszter; Szabó, Nikoletta; Vécsei, László; Sáry, Gyula; Tamás Kincses, Zsigmond

    2015-10-22

    Audio-visual integration has been shown to be present in a wide range of different conditions, some of which are processed through the dorsal, and others through the ventral visual pathway. Whereas neuroimaging studies have revealed integration-related activity in the brain, there has been no imaging study of the possible role of segregated visual streams in audio-visual integration. We set out to determine how the different visual pathways participate in this communication. We investigated how audio-visual integration can be supported through the dorsal and ventral visual pathways during the double flash illusion. Low-contrast and chromatic isoluminant stimuli were used to drive preferably the dorsal and ventral pathways, respectively. In order to identify the anatomical substrates of the audio-visual interaction in the two conditions, the psychophysical results were correlated with the white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging.The psychophysiological data revealed a robust double flash illusion in both conditions. A correlation between the psychophysical results and local fractional anisotropy was found in the occipito-parietal white matter in the low-contrast condition, while a similar correlation was found in the infero-temporal white matter in the chromatic isoluminant condition. Our results indicate that both of the parallel visual pathways may play a role in the audio-visual interaction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Challenges and opportunities for audiovisual diversity in the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad García Leiva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2017v16n35p132 At the gates of the first quarter of the XXI century, nobody doubts the fact that the value chain of the audiovisual industry has suffered important transformations. The digital era presents opportunities for cultural enrichment as well as displays new challenges. After presenting a general portray of the audiovisual industries in the digital era, taking as a point of departure the Spanish case and paying attention to players and logics in tension, this paper will present some notes about the advantages and disadvantages that exist for the diversity of audiovisual production, distribution and consumption online. It is here sustained that the diversity of the audiovisual sector online is not guaranteed because the formula that has made some players successful and powerful is based on walled-garden models to monetize contents (which, besides, add restrictions to their reproduction and circulation by and among consumers. The final objective is to present some ideas about the elements that prevent the strengthening of the diversity of the audiovisual industry in the digital scenario. Barriers to overcome are classified as technological, financial, social, legal and political.

  13. Parametric packet-based audiovisual quality model for IPTV services

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Marie-Neige

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents a parametric packet-based audiovisual quality model for Internet Protocol TeleVision (IPTV) services. The model is composed of three quality modules for the respective audio, video and audiovisual components. The audio and video quality modules take as input a parametric description of the audiovisual processing path, and deliver an estimate of the audio and video quality. These outputs are sent to the audiovisual quality module which provides an estimate of the audiovisual quality. Estimates of perceived quality are typically used both in the network planning phase and as part of the quality monitoring. The same audio quality model is used for both these phases, while two variants of the video quality model have been developed for addressing the two application scenarios. The addressed packetization scheme is MPEG2 Transport Stream over Real-time Transport Protocol over Internet Protocol. In the case of quality monitoring, that is the case for which the network is already set-up, the aud...

  14. Media Aid Beyond the Factual: Culture, Development, and Audiovisual Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. J. Pearson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses audiovisual assistance, a form of development aid that focuses on the production and distribution of cultural and entertainment media such as fictional films and TV shows. While the first audiovisual assistance program dates back to UNESCO’s International Fund for the Promotion of Culture in the 1970s, the past two decades have seen a proliferation of audiovisual assistance that, I argue, is related to a growing concern for culture in post-2015 global development agendas. In this paper, I examine the aims and motivations behind the EU’s audiovisual assistance programs to countries in the Global South, using data from policy documents and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Program Managers and administrative staff in Brussels. These programs prioritize forms of audiovisual content that are locally specific, yet globally tradable. Furthermore, I argue that they have an ambivalent relationship with traditional notions of international development, one that conceptualizes media not only as a means to achieve economic development and human rights aims, but as a form of development itself.

  15. The Fungible Audio-Visual Mapping and its Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws a perceptual approach to audio-visual mapping. Clearly perceivable cause and effect relationships can be problematic if one desires the audience to experience the music. Indeed perception would bias those sonic qualities that fit previous concepts of causation, subordinating other sonic qualities, which may form the relations between the sounds themselves. The question is, how can an audio-visual mapping produce a sense of causation, and simultaneously confound the actual cause-effect relationships. We call this a fungible audio-visual mapping. Our aim here is to glean its constitution and aspect. We will report a study, which draws upon methods from experimental psychology to inform audio-visual instrument design and composition. The participants are shown several audio-visual mapping prototypes, after which we pose quantitative and qualitative questions regarding their sense of causation, and their sense of understanding the cause-effect relationships. The study shows that a fungible mapping requires both synchronized and seemingly non-related components – sufficient complexity to be confusing. As the specific cause-effect concepts remain inconclusive, the sense of causation embraces the whole. 

  16. Mapping audiovisual translation investigations: research approaches and the role of technology

    OpenAIRE

    Matamala, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This article maps audiovisual translation research by analysing in a contrastive way the abstracts presented at three audiovisual translation conferences ten years ago and nowadays. The comparison deals with the audiovisual transfer modes and topics under discussion, and the approach taken by the authors in their abstracts. The article then shifts the focus to the role of technology in audiovisual translation research, as it is considered an element that is impacting and will continue to impa...

  17. Documentary management of the sport audio-visual information in the generalist televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Caldera Serrano; Felipe Alonso

    2007-01-01

    The management of the sport audio-visual documentation of the Information Systems of the state, zonal and local chains is analyzed within the framework. For it it is made makes a route by the documentary chain that makes the sport audio-visual information with the purpose of being analyzing each one of the parameters, showing therefore a series of recommendations and norms for the preparation of the sport audio-visual registry. Evidently the audio-visual sport documentation difference i...

  18. Learning on the Job. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document contains two papers from a symposium on learning on the job. "Professional Crisis Workers: Impact of Repeated Exposure to Human Pain and Destructiveness" (Lynn Atkinson-Tovar) examines the following topics: (1) the secondary and vicarious traumatic stress disorder that affects many professional crisis workers who are…

  19. 36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records? 1237.10 Section 1237.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related...

  20. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practices. (b) Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or... audiovisual productions (e.g., short and long versions or foreign-language versions) are prepared, keep an... similar documentation created in the course of audiovisual production. Establish and communicate agency...

  1. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Luhong

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual features in audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR is justified by both the speech generation mechanism, which is essentially bimodal in audio and visual representation, and by the need for features that are invariant to acoustic noise perturbation. As a result, current AVSR systems demonstrate significant accuracy improvements in environments affected by acoustic noise. In this paper, we describe the use of two statistical models for audio-visual integration, the coupled HMM (CHMM and the factorial HMM (FHMM, and compare the performance of these models with the existing models used in speaker dependent audio-visual isolated word recognition. The statistical properties of both the CHMM and FHMM allow to model the state asynchrony of the audio and visual observation sequences while preserving their natural correlation over time. In our experiments, the CHMM performs best overall, outperforming all the existing models and the FHMM.

  2. Audio-visual temporal perception in children with restored hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Chilosi, Anna; Forli, Francesca; Burr, David

    2017-05-01

    It is not clear how audio-visual temporal perception develops in children with restored hearing. In this study we measured temporal discrimination thresholds with an audio-visual temporal bisection task in 9 deaf children with restored audition, and 22 typically hearing children. In typically hearing children, audition was more precise than vision, with no gain in multisensory conditions (as previously reported in Gori et al. (2012b)). However, deaf children with restored audition showed similar thresholds for audio and visual thresholds and some evidence of gain in audio-visual temporal multisensory conditions. Interestingly, we found a strong correlation between auditory weighting of multisensory signals and quality of language: patients who gave more weight to audition had better language skills. Similarly, auditory thresholds for the temporal bisection task were also a good predictor of language skills. This result supports the idea that the temporal auditory processing is associated with language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The process of developing audiovisual patient information: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Catherine; McCreaddie, May

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this project was to produce audiovisual patient information, which was user friendly and fit for purpose. The purpose of the audiovisual patient information is to inform patients about randomized controlled trials, as a supplement to their trial-specific written information sheet. Audiovisual patient information is known to be an effective way of informing patients about treatment. User involvement is also recognized as being important in the development of service provision. The aim of this paper is (i) to describe and discuss the process of developing the audiovisual patient information and (ii) to highlight the challenges and opportunities, thereby identifying implications for practice. A future study will test the effectiveness of the audiovisual patient information in the cancer clinical trial setting. An advisory group was set up to oversee the project and provide guidance in relation to information content, level and delivery. An expert panel of two patients provided additional guidance and a dedicated operational team dealt with the logistics of the project including: ethics; finance; scriptwriting; filming; editing and intellectual property rights. Challenges included the limitations of filming in a busy clinical environment, restricted technical and financial resources, ethical needs and issues around copyright. There were, however, substantial opportunities that included utilizing creative skills, meaningfully involving patients, teamworking and mutual appreciation of clinical, multidisciplinary and technical expertise. Developing audiovisual patient information is an important area for nurses to be involved with. However, this must be performed within the context of the multiprofessional team. Teamworking, including patient involvement, is crucial as a wide variety of expertise is required. Many aspects of the process are transferable and will provide information and guidance for nurses, regardless of specialty, considering developing this

  4. Boosting pitch encoding with audiovisual interactions in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Lévêque, Yohana; Hyde, Krista L; Bouchet, Patrick; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The combination of information across senses can enhance perception, as revealed for example by decreased reaction times or improved stimulus detection. Interestingly, these facilitatory effects have been shown to be maximal when responses to unisensory modalities are weak. The present study investigated whether audiovisual facilitation can be observed in congenital amusia, a music-specific disorder primarily ascribed to impairments of pitch processing. Amusic individuals and their matched controls performed two tasks. In Task 1, they were required to detect auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli as rapidly as possible. In Task 2, they were required to detect as accurately and as rapidly as possible a pitch change within an otherwise monotonic 5-tone sequence that was presented either only auditorily (A condition), or simultaneously with a temporally congruent, but otherwise uninformative visual stimulus (AV condition). Results of Task 1 showed that amusics exhibit typical auditory and visual detection, and typical audiovisual integration capacities: both amusics and controls exhibited shorter response times for audiovisual stimuli than for either auditory stimuli or visual stimuli. Results of Task 2 revealed that both groups benefited from simultaneous uninformative visual stimuli to detect pitch changes: accuracy was higher and response times shorter in the AV condition than in the A condition. The audiovisual improvements of response times were observed for different pitch interval sizes depending on the group. These results suggest that both typical listeners and amusic individuals can benefit from multisensory integration to improve their pitch processing abilities and that this benefit varies as a function of task difficulty. These findings constitute the first step towards the perspective to exploit multisensory paradigms to reduce pitch-related deficits in congenital amusia, notably by suggesting that audiovisual paradigms are effective in an appropriate

  5. Audiovisual materials: a survey of bibliographic controls in distributors' catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, P M; Brantz, M H

    1977-01-01

    The current pattern of bibliographic control in audio-visual distributors' catalogs is described. Eight bibliographic control elements are defined, and the criteria for evaluating the occurrence of these elements in sixty-four sample catalogs are specified. When the distributors are grouped according to category, such as educational or commercial, the pattern of bibliographic control has three distinct clusters of elements. When the distributors are grouped by the number of titles handled, there is no clear pattern. The implications of these patterns are discussed in terms of practical library reference services. A solution to the problem of bibliographic control of health science audiovisual materials is proposed.

  6. Evolution of audiovisual production in five Spanish Cybermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mayoral Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies and analyzes the evolution of audiovisual production of five Spanish digital newspapers: abc.es, elconfidencial.com, elmundo.es, elpais.com and lavanguardia.com. So have been studied videos published on the five cover for four weeks (fourteen days in November 2011 and another fourteen in March 2014. This diachronic perspective has revealed a remarkable contradiction in online media about audiovisual products. Even with very considerable differences between them, the five analyzed media increasingly publish videos. They do it in in the most valued areas of their homepages. However, is not perceived in them a willingness to engage firmly

  7. El archivo de RTVV: Patrimonio Audiovisual de la Humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Goyanes, Paloma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los documentos audiovisuales son importantes para el estudio de los siglos XX y XXI. Los archivos de televisión contribuyen a la formación del imaginario colectivo y forman parte del Patrimonio Audiovisual de la Humanidad. La preservación del archivo audiovisual de la RTVV es responsabilidad de los poderes públicos, según se expresa en la legislación vigente y un derecho de los ciudadanos y de los contribuyentes como herederos de este patrimonio que refleja su historia, su cultura y su lengua.

  8. Audiovisual Quality Fusion based on Relative Multimodal Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    designed auditory and visual features, the relative complexity analysis model across sensory modalities is proposed for deriving the fusion parameter. Experimental results have demonstrated that the content adaptive fusion parameter can improve the prediction accuracy of objective audiovisual quality......In multimodal presentations the perceived audiovisual quality assessment is significantly influenced by the content of both the audio and visual tracks. Based on our earlier subjective quality test for finding the optimal trade-off between audio and video quality, this paper proposes a novel method...

  9. Audiovisual integration in speech perception: a multi-stage process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Integration of speech signals from ear and eye is a well-known feature of speech perception. This is evidenced by the McGurk illusion in which visual speech alters auditory speech perception and by the advantage observed in auditory speech detection when a visual signal is present. Here we...... investigate whether the integration of auditory and visual speech observed in these two audiovisual integration effects are specific traits of speech perception. We further ask whether audiovisual integration is undertaken in a single processing stage or multiple processing stages....

  10. Vicarious resilience in counselors of child and youth victims of interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Fabiane S; Boyer, Wanda

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated how bearing witness to clients' resilience processes during treatment impacts the personal and professional lives of counselors who work with child and youth victims of interpersonal trauma. We used a qualitative instrumental multiple-case study design and thematic analysis to explore the research question. The participants indicated that they experienced an increased sense of hope and optimism, and were inspired by the strengths of their clients while working with this population. As the participants reflected on the challenges that their clients faced, the participants put their own challenges and strengths into perspective; they reported positive changes in their personal relationships. We suggest that future research might investigate the relationships we found between optimism, hope, and vicarious resilience processes, as well as the potential relationship between the counseling approach that counselors adopt and the development of vicarious resilience responses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Improving Classroom Learning by Collaboratively Observing Human Tutoring Videos while Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…

  12. INTRASPECIFIC PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF NORTH AMERICAN HIGHLAND FISHES: A TEST OF THE PLEISTOCENE VICARIANCE HYPOTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Rex Meade; Burr, Brooks M

    1997-06-01

    The highland fish fauna of eastern North America consists of Appalachian and Ozark centers of endemism separated by the intervening Glacial Till Plains. Clades within these areas are more closely related phylogenetically to each other than to clades occurring in the intervening formerly glaciated region, suggesting that the Pleistocene glaciations fragmented a widespread highland region and its associated fauna. Alternatively, it is possible that these faunal assemblages predate the glaciations or that recent dispersals may have been more important than vicariance in determining faunal compositions. We examined the relationships among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes within five clades of highland fishes, each with a distribution suggestive of a Pleistocene vicariance event. Darters of the subgenera Litocara and Odontopholis have distributions and mtDNA relationships that are consistent with the Pleistocene integration and burial of the Teays-Mahomet valley, a major drainage of the early Pleistocene. The distribution and mtDNA relationships among subspecies of Erimystax dissimilis are not consistent with Pleistocene vicariance, but relationships among Appalachian haplotypes are consistent with the late Pleistocene integration of the modern Ohio River system. Both Cottus carolinae and the Fundulus catenatus species group have representatives in the Mobile basin consistent with pre-Pleistocene divergences. Three haplotype clusters were found in C. carolinae, corresponding to the Appalachian, Ozark, and upper Kanawha River populations. However, Appalachian and Ozark F. catenatus populations are paraphyletic with respect to each other. This, coupled with a relatively low degree of sequence divergence, suggests that no long-term barriers to gene flow exist for C. carolinae and F. catenatus. These three distinct phylogeographic patterns indicate that Pleistocene vicariance is not the only explanation for the Appalachian-Ozark distribution of highland fish communities

  13. Shedding light on our audiovisual heritage: perspectives to emphasise CERN Digital Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Salvador, Mathilde Estelle

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to answer the question of how to add value to CERN’s audiovisual heritage available on CERN Document Server. In other terms, how to make more visible to the scientific community and grand public what is hidden and classified: namely CERN’s archives, and more precisely audiovisual ones because of their creative potential. Rather than focusing on its scientific and technical value, we will analyse its artistic and attractive power. In fact, we will see that all kind of archive can be intentionally or even accidentally artistic and exciting, that it is possible to change our vision of a photo, a sound or a film. This process of enhancement is a virtuous circle as it has an educational value and makes accessible scientific content that is normally out of range. However, the problem of how to magnify such archives remains. That is why we will try to learn from other digital memories in the world to see how they managed to highlight their own archives, in order to suggest new ways of enhancing au...

  14. Identifying, Preventing, and Addressing Job Burnout and Vicarious Burnout for Social Work Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Genuineness, concern for others, and empathy are characteristics used to describe the professional social worker. To this end, the social worker tirelessly works on behalf of and in collaboration with the client to move them from stagnant life situations into positive life situations. While the fundamental principles of social work are wonderful, the result for some workers is job burnout and/or vicarious trauma. The concepts of job burnout, its antecedents, and manifestations are thoroughly discussed in this article to provide a holistic overview of this phenomenon. The six antecedents: workload, control, values, fairness, reward, and community are discussed and linked to the manifestations of job burnout. When working with individuals who have been exposed to the depravity of life, the professional can take on the client's vulnerabilities, victimizations, and stress. The common term for this phenomenon is vicarious trauma. Professionals who work with trauma victims can often have issues in their personal and professional life as evidenced by reduced professional efficacy, increased emotional concerns, and physical concerns. The purpose of the author in this article is to provide an overview of job burnout, vicarious trauma, and a discussion about self-care responsibilities.

  15. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children’s Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends on their affective attitudes (individuals’ emotional feelings toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children’s affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children’s willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences.

  16. La experiencia del consejo audiovisual de Navarra en la alfabetización audiovisual a familias navarras

    OpenAIRE

    Mora-Figueroa Monfort, Borja

    2010-01-01

    El Consejo Audiovisual de Navarra (CoAN) fue erigido, a través de la Ley Foral 18/2001, de 5 de julio, como la máxima autoridad audiovisual en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra. En sus ocho años de funcionamiento, la protección del menor frente a contenidos potencialmente perjudiciales para su desarrollo físico, mental y moral se ha convertido en uno de sus ejes básicos de actuación. Por esta razón, el CoAN trabaja para que las televisiones regionales navarras cumplan la regulac...

  17. A conceptual framework for audio-visual museum media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkedahl Lysholm Nielsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    and museum studies, existing case studies, and real life observations, the suggested framework instead stress particular characteristics of contextual use of audio-visual media in history museums, such as authenticity, virtuality, interativity, social context and spatial attributes of the communication...

  18. Audio-guided audiovisual data segmentation, indexing, and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-12-01

    While current approaches for video segmentation and indexing are mostly focused on visual information, audio signals may actually play a primary role in video content parsing. In this paper, we present an approach for automatic segmentation, indexing, and retrieval of audiovisual data, based on audio content analysis. The accompanying audio signal of audiovisual data is first segmented and classified into basic types, i.e., speech, music, environmental sound, and silence. This coarse-level segmentation and indexing step is based upon morphological and statistical analysis of several short-term features of the audio signals. Then, environmental sounds are classified into finer classes, such as applause, explosions, bird sounds, etc. This fine-level classification and indexing step is based upon time- frequency analysis of audio signals and the use of the hidden Markov model as the classifier. On top of this archiving scheme, an audiovisual data retrieval system is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed approach has an accuracy rate higher than 90 percent for the coarse-level classification, and higher than 85 percent for the fine-level classification. Examples of audiovisual data segmentation and retrieval are also provided.

  19. Audio-Visual Equipment Depreciation. RDU-75-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.; Baker, Martha

    A study was conducted at Purdue University to gather operational and budgetary planning data for the Libraries and Audiovisual Center. The objectives were: (1) to complete a current inventory of equipment including year of purchase, costs, and salvage value; (2) to determine useful life data for general classes of equipment; and (3) to determine…

  20. A montagem audiovisual a partir de mapa multitemporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Souza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2013v9n1p193   Situado no âmbito da discussão sobre tecnologias contemporâneas no ensino das artes audiovisuais, este artigo trata do ensino da montagem audiovisual a partir da composição de multiplicidades temporais. Neste contexto o termo audiovisual designa o vídeo digital composto por múltiplos fluxos temporais. Essa definição se refere à aplicação do hipervídeo no estudo da montagem audiovisual, buscando estabelecer relações com as pesquisas sobre a tecnologia na arte e com o estudo das artes audiovisuais contemporâneas. Por multiplicidades temporais entendam-se os diversos fluxos temporais – tempos ucrônicos, segundo Couchot (2005 – que a imagem digital tornou possível perceber na montagem em rizoma. A partir do conceito de tempo ucrônico, este artigo busca investigar as formas temporais e as narrativas que se tornam possíveis na montagem audiovisual e seu aprendizado. Neste escopo também é apresentado o software desenvolvido para a montagem de multitemporalidades com o intuito de fornecer subsídio para o ensino da montagem nas artes audiovisuais.

  1. Exposure to audiovisual programs as sources of authentic language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accordingly, the aim of the present article was to provide empirical evidence on the effectiveness of exposure to various audiovisual programs in informal settings on the language proficiency of language learners with different levels of language proficiency. To this end, 75 language learners majoring in TESL were assigned ...

  2. Speech-specificity of two audiovisual integration effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Seeing the talker’s articulatory mouth movements can influence the auditory speech percept both in speech identification and detection tasks. Here we show that these audiovisual integration effects also occur for sine wave speech (SWS), which is an impoverished speech signal that naïve observers...

  3. Audiovisual Ethnography of Philippine Music: A Process-oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terada Yoshitaka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual documentation has been an important part of ethnomusicological endeavors, but until recently it was treated primarily as a tool of preservation and/or documentation that supplements written ethnography, albeit there a few notable exceptions. The proliferation of inexpensive video equipment has encouraged the unprecedented number of scholars and students in ethnomusicology to be involved in filmmaking, but its potential as a methodology has not been fully explored. As a small step to redefine the application of audiovisual media, Dr. Usopay Cadar, my teacher in Philippine music, and I produced two films: one on Maranao kolintang music and the other on Maranao culture in general, based on the audiovisual footage we collected in 2008. This short essay describes how the screenings of these films were organized in March 2013 for the diverse audiences in the Philippines, and what types of reactions and interactions transpired during the screenings. These screenings were organized both to obtain feedback about the content of the films from the caretakers and stakeholders of the documented tradition and to create a venue for interactions and collaborations to discuss the potential of audiovisual ethnography. Drawing from the analysis of the current project, I propose to regard film not as a fixed product but as a living and organic site that is open to commentaries and critiques, where changes can be made throughout the process. In this perspective, ‘filmmaking’ refers to the entire process of research, filming, editing and post-production activities.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Audiovisual Translation on the Improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audiovisual translation (AVT) or screen translation is a term used to refer to any language and cultural transfer aimed at translating original dialogues coming from any acoustic or visual product. Academic Literacy (AL) is viewed as the ability to cope with the reading, thinking and reasoning demands required of a student ...

  5. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We

  6. Audiovisual Market Place; A Multimedia Guide. 1976 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    The "Audiovisual Market Place" is a register of organizations, firms, and personnel in The AV industry as well as a buyers' guide for those who purchase instructional materials and those who buy services in the area of media production. Twenty-five sections are grouped under three major areas of interest: AV softward, AV hardware, and…

  7. The efficacy of personalized audiovisual patient-education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W R; Rothenberger, L A; Bunnell, S L

    1984-11-01

    Patient education is considered an important component of primary care medicine. The traditional methods of patient education have been physician-patient dialogue and printed handouts. This study compares the relative efficacy of pamphlets, one-to-one dialogue, and audiovisual presentations. The results indicate that the slide and sound presentation was most effective in conveying patient information.

  8. Audio-visual materials usage preference among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that respondents preferred radio, television, poster, advert, photographs, specimen, bulletin, magazine, cinema, videotape, chalkboard, and bulletin board as audio-visual materials for extension work. These are the materials that can easily be manipulated and utilized for extension work. Nigerian Journal of ...

  9. Electrophysiological evidence for speech-specific audiovisual integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, M.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; Vroomen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Lip-read speech is integrated with heard speech at various neural levels. Here, we investigated the extent to which lip-read induced modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 (measured with EEG) are indicative of speech-specific audiovisual integration, and we explored to what extent the ERPs were

  10. Assessment of Audiovisual Resource in two Selected Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Access and adequate utilization of information materials is the prime objective of Information Centers. The information resources stacked up without utility negates the objective to which it was meant for. In view of this therefore, the work focused on the use of audiovisual resources preserved in two Medical ...

  11. Environmental conditions and the storage of audiovisual materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses environmental factors which affect audiovisual (AV) materials in east and southern Africa. Since countries in the East and Southern Africa Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ESARBICA) are in a tropical region, AV materials are affected by high temperatures which result in ...

  12. Multistage audiovisual integration of speech: dissociating identification and detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    signal. Here we show that identification of phonetic content and detection can be dissociated as speech-specific and non-specific audiovisual integration effects. To this end, we employed synthetically modified stimuli, sine wave speech (SWS), which is an impoverished speech signal that only observers...

  13. Audiovisual Fundamentals; Basic Equipment Operation and Simple Materials Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, John R.; Mether, Calvin E.

    A guide illustrated with simple sketches explains the functions and step-by-step uses of audiovisual (AV) equipment. Principles of projection, audio, AV equipment, lettering, limited-quantity and quantity duplication, and materials preservation are outlined. Apparatus discussed include overhead, opaque, slide-filmstrip, and multiple-loading slide…

  14. Employers' Statutory Vicarious Liability in Terms of the Protection of Personal Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other

  15. Audio-Visual Speaker Diarization Based on Spatiotemporal Bayesian Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Israel D; Ba, Sileye; Li, Xiaofei; Horaud, Radu

    2018-05-01

    Speaker diarization consists of assigning speech signals to people engaged in a dialogue. An audio-visual spatiotemporal diarization model is proposed. The model is well suited for challenging scenarios that consist of several participants engaged in multi-party interaction while they move around and turn their heads towards the other participants rather than facing the cameras and the microphones. Multiple-person visual tracking is combined with multiple speech-source localization in order to tackle the speech-to-person association problem. The latter is solved within a novel audio-visual fusion method on the following grounds: binaural spectral features are first extracted from a microphone pair, then a supervised audio-visual alignment technique maps these features onto an image, and finally a semi-supervised clustering method assigns binaural spectral features to visible persons. The main advantage of this method over previous work is that it processes in a principled way speech signals uttered simultaneously by multiple persons. The diarization itself is cast into a latent-variable temporal graphical model that infers speaker identities and speech turns, based on the output of an audio-visual association process, executed at each time slice, and on the dynamics of the diarization variable itself. The proposed formulation yields an efficient exact inference procedure. A novel dataset, that contains audio-visual training data as well as a number of scenarios involving several participants engaged in formal and informal dialogue, is introduced. The proposed method is thoroughly tested and benchmarked with respect to several state-of-the art diarization algorithms.

  16. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  17. Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T; Wheat, Katherine L; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke

    2013-01-01

    Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal

  18. Sistema audiovisual para reconocimiento de comandos Audiovisual system for recognition of commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ceballos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema automático de reconocimiento audiovisual del habla enfocado en el reconocimiento de comandos. La representación del audio se realizó mediante los coeficientes cepstrales de Mel y las primeras dos derivadas temporales. Para la caracterización del vídeo se hizo seguimiento automático de características visuales de alto nivel a través de toda la secuencia. Para la inicialización automática del algoritmo se emplearon transformaciones de color y contornos activos con información de flujo del vector gradiente ("GVF snakes" sobre la región labial, mientras que para el seguimiento se usaron medidas de similitud entre vecindarios y restricciones morfológicas definidas en el estándar MPEG-4. Inicialmente, se presenta el diseño del sistema de reconocimiento automático del habla, empleando únicamente información de audio (ASR, mediante Modelos Ocultos de Markov (HMMs y un enfoque de palabra aislada; posteriormente, se muestra el diseño de los sistemas empleando únicamente características de vídeo (VSR, y empleando características de audio y vídeo combinadas (AVSR. Al final se comparan los resultados de los tres sistemas para una base de datos propia en español y francés, y se muestra la influencia del ruido acústico, mostrando que el sistema de AVSR es más robusto que ASR y VSR.We present the development of an automatic audiovisual speech recognition system focused on the recognition of commands. Signal audio representation was done using Mel cepstral coefficients and their first and second order time derivatives. In order to characterize the video signal, a set of high-level visual features was tracked throughout the sequences. Automatic initialization of the algorithm was performed using color transformations and active contour models based on Gradient Vector Flow (GVF Snakes on the lip region, whereas visual tracking used similarity measures across neighborhoods and morphological

  19. Neuromorphic Audio-Visual Sensor Fusion on a Sound-Localising Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Yue-Sek Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first robotic system featuring audio-visual sensor fusion with neuromorphic sensors. We combine a pair of silicon cochleae and a silicon retina on a robotic platform to allow the robot to learn sound localisation through self-motion and visual feedback, using an adaptive ITD-based sound localisation algorithm. After training, the robot can localise sound sources (white or pink noise in a reverberant environment with an RMS error of 4 to 5 degrees in azimuth. In the second part of the paper, we investigate the source binding problem. An experiment is conducted to test the effectiveness of matching an audio event with a corresponding visual event based on their onset time. The results show that this technique can be quite effective, despite its simplicity.

  20. Audiovisual physics reports: students' video production as a strategy for the didactic laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicius Pereira, Marcus; de Souza Barros, Susana; de Rezende Filho, Luiz Augusto C.; Fauth, Leduc Hermeto de A.

    2012-01-01

    Constant technological advancement has facilitated access to digital cameras and cell phones. Involving students in a video production project can work as a motivating aspect to make them active and reflective in their learning, intellectually engaged in a recursive process. This project was implemented in high school level physics laboratory classes resulting in 22 videos which are considered as audiovisual reports and analysed under two components: theoretical and experimental. This kind of project allows the students to spontaneously use features such as music, pictures, dramatization, animations, etc, even when the didactic laboratory may not be the place where aesthetic and cultural dimensions are generally developed. This could be due to the fact that digital media are more legitimately used as cultural tools than as teaching strategies.

  1. Lipreading and audiovisual speech recognition across the adult lifespan: Implications for audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra; Sommers, Mitchell

    2016-06-01

    In this study of visual (V-only) and audiovisual (AV) speech recognition in adults aged 22-92 years, the rate of age-related decrease in V-only performance was more than twice that in AV performance. Both auditory-only (A-only) and V-only performance were significant predictors of AV speech recognition, but age did not account for additional (unique) variance. Blurring the visual speech signal decreased speech recognition, and in AV conditions involving stimuli associated with equivalent unimodal performance for each participant, speech recognition remained constant from 22 to 92 years of age. Finally, principal components analysis revealed separate visual and auditory factors, but no evidence of an AV integration factor. Taken together, these results suggest that the benefit that comes from being able to see as well as hear a talker remains constant throughout adulthood and that changes in this AV advantage are entirely driven by age-related changes in unimodal visual and auditory speech recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Audio-visual speech experience with age influences perceived audio-visual asynchrony in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2013-10-01

    Previous research indicates that perception of audio-visual (AV) synchrony changes in adulthood. Possible explanations for these age differences include a decline in hearing acuity, a decline in cognitive processing speed, and increased experience with AV binding. The current study aims to isolate the effect of AV experience by comparing synchrony judgments from 20 young adults (20 to 30 yrs) and 20 normal-hearing middle-aged adults (50 to 60 yrs), an age range for which a decline of cognitive processing speed is expected to be minimal. When presented with AV stop consonant syllables with asynchronies ranging from 440 ms audio-lead to 440 ms visual-lead, middle-aged adults showed significantly less tolerance for audio-lead than young adults. Middle-aged adults also showed a greater shift in their point of subjective simultaneity than young adults. Natural audio-lead asynchronies are arguably more predictable than natural visual-lead asynchronies, and this predictability may render audio-lead thresholds more prone to experience-related fine-tuning.

  3. Audiovisual Rehabilitation in Hemianopia: A Model-Based Theoretical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magosso, Elisa; Cuppini, Cristiano; Bertini, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Hemianopic patients exhibit visual detection improvement in the blind field when audiovisual stimuli are given in spatiotemporally coincidence. Beyond this “online” multisensory improvement, there is evidence of long-lasting, “offline” effects induced by audiovisual training: patients show improved visual detection and orientation after they were trained to detect and saccade toward visual targets given in spatiotemporal proximity with auditory stimuli. These effects are ascribed to the Superior Colliculus (SC), which is spared in these patients and plays a pivotal role in audiovisual integration and oculomotor behavior. Recently, we developed a neural network model of audiovisual cortico-collicular loops, including interconnected areas representing the retina, striate and extrastriate visual cortices, auditory cortex, and SC. The network simulated unilateral V1 lesion with possible spared tissue and reproduced “online” effects. Here, we extend the previous network to shed light on circuits, plastic mechanisms, and synaptic reorganization that can mediate the training effects and functionally implement visual rehabilitation. The network is enriched by the oculomotor SC-brainstem route, and Hebbian mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, and is used to test different training paradigms (audiovisual/visual stimulation in eye-movements/fixed-eyes condition) on simulated patients. Results predict different training effects and associate them to synaptic changes in specific circuits. Thanks to the SC multisensory enhancement, the audiovisual training is able to effectively strengthen the retina-SC route, which in turn can foster reinforcement of the SC-brainstem route (this occurs only in eye-movements condition) and reinforcement of the SC-extrastriate route (this occurs in presence of survived V1 tissue, regardless of eye condition). The retina-SC-brainstem circuit may mediate compensatory effects: the model assumes that reinforcement of this circuit can

  4. Audiovisual Rehabilitation in Hemianopia: A Model-Based Theoretical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Magosso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemianopic patients exhibit visual detection improvement in the blind field when audiovisual stimuli are given in spatiotemporally coincidence. Beyond this “online” multisensory improvement, there is evidence of long-lasting, “offline” effects induced by audiovisual training: patients show improved visual detection and orientation after they were trained to detect and saccade toward visual targets given in spatiotemporal proximity with auditory stimuli. These effects are ascribed to the Superior Colliculus (SC, which is spared in these patients and plays a pivotal role in audiovisual integration and oculomotor behavior. Recently, we developed a neural network model of audiovisual cortico-collicular loops, including interconnected areas representing the retina, striate and extrastriate visual cortices, auditory cortex, and SC. The network simulated unilateral V1 lesion with possible spared tissue and reproduced “online” effects. Here, we extend the previous network to shed light on circuits, plastic mechanisms, and synaptic reorganization that can mediate the training effects and functionally implement visual rehabilitation. The network is enriched by the oculomotor SC-brainstem route, and Hebbian mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, and is used to test different training paradigms (audiovisual/visual stimulation in eye-movements/fixed-eyes condition on simulated patients. Results predict different training effects and associate them to synaptic changes in specific circuits. Thanks to the SC multisensory enhancement, the audiovisual training is able to effectively strengthen the retina-SC route, which in turn can foster reinforcement of the SC-brainstem route (this occurs only in eye-movements condition and reinforcement of the SC-extrastriate route (this occurs in presence of survived V1 tissue, regardless of eye condition. The retina-SC-brainstem circuit may mediate compensatory effects: the model assumes that reinforcement of this

  5. Your Most Essential Audiovisual Aid--Yourself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp-Lyons, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging that an interested and enthusiastic teacher can create excitement for students and promote learning, the author discusses how teachers can improve their appearance, and, consequently, how their students perceive them. She offers concrete suggestions on how a teacher can be both a "visual aid" and an "audio aid" in the classroom.…

  6. Paired Peer Learning through Engineering Education Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Lewis, Fay; Edmonds, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate education incorporating active learning and vicarious experience through education outreach presents a critical opportunity to influence future engineering teaching and practice capabilities. Engineering education outreach activities have been shown to have multiple benefits; increasing interest and engagement with science and…

  7. Subtitles and language learning principles, strategies and practical experiences

    CERN Document Server

    Mariotti, Cristina; Caimi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    The articles collected in this publication combine diachronic and synchronic research with the description of updated teaching experiences showing the educational role of subtitled audiovisuals in various foreign language learning settings.

  8. Global biogeography of scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae): evidence for Gondwanan vicariance and limited transoceanic dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korall, Petra; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2014-02-01

    Scaly tree ferns, Cyatheaceae, are a well-supported group of mostly tree-forming ferns found throughout the tropics, the subtropics and the south-temperate zone. Fossil evidence shows that the lineage originated in the Late Jurassic period. We reconstructed large-scale historical biogeographical patterns of Cyatheaceae and tested the hypothesis that some of the observed distribution patterns are in fact compatible, in time and space, with a vicariance scenario related to the break-up of Gondwana. Tropics, subtropics and south-temperate areas of the world. The historical biogeography of Cyatheaceae was analysed in a maximum likelihood framework using Lagrange. The 78 ingroup taxa are representative of the geographical distribution of the entire family. The phylogenies that served as a basis for the analyses were obtained by Bayesian inference analyses of mainly previously published DNA sequence data using MrBayes. Lineage divergence dates were estimated in a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework using beast. Cyatheaceae originated in the Late Jurassic in either South America or Australasia. Following a range expansion, the ancestral distribution of the marginate-scaled clade included both these areas, whereas Sphaeropteris is reconstructed as having its origin only in Australasia. Within the marginate-scaled clade, reconstructions of early divergences are hampered by the unresolved relationships among the Alsophila , Cyathea and Gymnosphaera lineages. Nevertheless, it is clear that the occurrence of the Cyathea and Sphaeropteris lineages in South America may be related to vicariance, whereas transoceanic dispersal needs to be inferred for the range shifts seen in Alsophila and Gymnosphaera . The evolutionary history of Cyatheaceae involves both Gondwanan vicariance scenarios as well as long-distance dispersal events. The number of transoceanic dispersals reconstructed for the family is rather few when compared with other fern lineages. We suggest that a causal

  9. Vicarious Radiometric Calibration of a Multispectral Camera on Board an Unmanned Aerial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Del Pozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of unmanned aerial platforms and multispectral sensors are considered low-cost tools for detailed spatial and temporal studies addressing spectral signatures, opening a broad range of applications in remote sensing. Thus, a key step in this process is knowledge of multi-spectral sensor calibration parameters in order to identify the physical variables collected by the sensor. This paper discusses the radiometric calibration process by means of a vicarious method applied to a high-spatial resolution unmanned flight using low-cost artificial and natural covers as control and check surfaces, respectively.

  10. Direct and vicarious violent victimization and juvenile delinquency: an application of general strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Cochran, John K; Mieczkowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Using a national probability sample of adolescents (12–17), this study applies general strain theory to how violent victimization, vicarious violent victimization, and dual violent victimization affect juvenile violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the mediating effect and moderating effect of depression, low social control, and delinquent peer association on the victimization–delinquency relationship is also examined. Based on SEM analyses and contingency tables, the results indicate that all three types of violent victimization have significant and positive direct effects on violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the expected mediating effects and moderating effects are also found. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  11. A influência do ambiente audiovisual na legendação de filmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Célia Ribeiro Nobre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra como a legendação é influenciada por muitos fatores presentes dentro do ambiente audiovisual devido, sobretudo, à função comunicativa audiovisual, à composição semiótica, à mecânica da legendação, e às visões e ao comportamento das pessoas envolvidas na produção audiovisual, na tradução e na distribuição, na crítica e no público.This article shows how subtitling is influenced by many factors among the audiovisual environment, due primarily to the audiovisuals communicative function and semiotic composition; the mechanics of subtitling; and the views and behavior of people involved with the audiovisuals production, translation and distribution, the critics and the public.

  12. JORNALISMO AUDIOVISUAL: DA TELA DA TV PARA OUTRAS TELAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é fruto de uma pesquisa em desenvolvimento em parceria com a TV Unesp, emissora universitária vinculada à Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita, campus de Bauru/SP e que tem por objetivo identificar os pontos convergentes e divergentes na produção de conteúdo audiovisual informativo para a TV aberta e demais plataformas digitais e móveis. O texto em questão é a conclusão da primeira etapa da pesquisa que se pautou por identificar os pressupostos básicos que deverão nortear os conteúdos que serão produzidos posteriormente e veiculados pela emissora no decorrer da pesquisa. Foram analisadas as características do jornalismo audiovisual online e o modelo de negócios da TV aberta em contraste com o modelo de negócios presente na Internet.

  13. Audiovisual translation research in Brazil and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Alvarenga

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents contributions from three translation scholars aimed at discussing the present situation of audiovisual translation research in Brazil and in Europe. The first contribution deals with issues concerning both contexts whereas the two others focus on local research issues.Este artigo apresenta contribuições de três pesquisadoras de tradução que discutem a situação atual das pesquisas sobre tradução audiovisual no Brasil e na Europa. A primeira contribuição trata de questões correlatas aos dois contextos enquanto que as duas outras enfocam questões de pesquisa de interesse local.

  14. The role of visual spatial attention in audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Tiippana, K.; Laarni, J.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory and visual information is integrated when perceiving speech, as evidenced by the McGurk effect in which viewing an incongruent talking face categorically alters auditory speech perception. Audiovisual integration in speech perception has long been considered automatic and pre......-attentive but recent reports have challenged this view. Here we study the effect of visual spatial attention on the McGurk effect. By presenting a movie of two faces symmetrically displaced to each side of a central fixation point and dubbed with a single auditory speech track, we were able to discern the influences...... from each of the faces and from the voice on the auditory speech percept. We found that directing visual spatial attention towards a face increased the influence of that face on auditory perception. However, the influence of the voice on auditory perception did not change suggesting that audiovisual...

  15. The Lambent Reactive : An Audiovisual Environment for Kinesthetic Playforms

    OpenAIRE

    Keating, Noah H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, design scenarios made possible by the use of an interactive illuminated floor as the basis of an audiovisual environment are presented. By interfacing a network of pressure sensitive, light-emitting tiles with a 7.1 channel speaker system and requisite audio software, many avenues for collaborative expression emerge, as do heretofore unexplored modes of multiplayer music and dance gaming. By giving users light and sound cues that both guide and respond to their movement, a rich...

  16. Non-standard photography methods in audiovisual journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Géla, František

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis "Non- standard photography methods in audiovisual journalism" is to present image and production methods that are used in television news and journalism - particularly those ones that defy standard methods. These methods appear, considering technological development and the endeavour of making neutral visual space of television journalism, more attractive. First chapter of the thesis presents television news, its history, characteristics, elements and typology of...

  17. Neural correlates of quality during perception of audiovisual stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach to examining perceived quality of audiovisual sequences. It uses electroencephalography to understand how exactly user quality judgments are formed within a test participant, and what might be the physiologically-based implications when being exposed to lower quality media. The book redefines experimental paradigms of using EEG in the area of quality assessment so that they better suit the requirements of standard subjective quality testings. Therefore, experimental protocols and stimuli are adjusted accordingly. .

  18. Audiovisual integration in the human perception of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Waka; Goda, Naokazu; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2014-04-17

    Interest in the perception of the material of objects has been growing. While material perception is a critical ability for animals to properly regulate behavioral interactions with surrounding objects (e.g., eating), little is known about its underlying processing. Vision and audition provide useful information for material perception; using only its visual appearance or impact sound, we can infer what an object is made from. However, what material is perceived when the visual appearance of one material is combined with the impact sound of another, and what are the rules that govern cross-modal integration of material information? We addressed these questions by asking 16 human participants to rate how likely it was that audiovisual stimuli (48 combinations of visual appearances of six materials and impact sounds of eight materials) along with visual-only stimuli and auditory-only stimuli fell into each of 13 material categories. The results indicated strong interactions between audiovisual material perceptions; for example, the appearance of glass paired with a pepper sound is perceived as transparent plastic. Rating material-category likelihoods follow a multiplicative integration rule in that the categories judged to be likely are consistent with both visual and auditory stimuli. On the other hand, rating-material properties, such as roughness and hardness, follow a weighted average rule. Despite a difference in their integration calculations, both rules can be interpreted as optimal Bayesian integration of independent audiovisual estimations for the two types of material judgment, respectively.

  19. Estrategias de comprensión audiovisual para estudiantes sinohablantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Gibert Escofet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio partimos de dos referencias básicas para la enseñanza del E/LE: el Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las lenguas (Consejo de Europa 2001 y el Plan Curricular del Instituto Cervantes (Instituto Cervantes 2006. El proyecto presentado obedece a la necesidad de subsanar los problemas de comprensión auditiva que presenta el alumnado chino. Como estos grupos-meta están poco acostumbrados a aprender con estrategias distintas a las implicadas en la memorización, partimos de la hipótesis de que el desarrollo de las estrategias de comprensión audiovisual y el trabajo cooperativo les haría, por una parte, más competentes en la comprensión auditiva y audiovisual, y, por otra, en la aceptación e interiorización de una metodología más comunicativa de aprendizaje. Así pues, el objetivo principal planteado es el desarrollar estas estrategias de comprensión audiovisual a través del trabajo cooperativo y, así, ayudar a los estudiantes a responsabilizarse de su propio aprendizaje.

  20. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Shaw

    Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  1. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kathleen; Baart, Martijn; Depowski, Nicole; Bortfeld, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces). Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English) and non-native (Spanish) language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native) auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  2. Did??ctica de la traducci??n audiovisual: ense??ar a mirar

    OpenAIRE

    Lachat Leal, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Ense??ar a traducir textos audiovisuales es ense??ar a aplicar estrategias de traducci??n para resolver problemas de traducci??n audiovisuales. Por lo que uno de los aspectos m??s importantes de la did??ctica de la traducci??n audiovisual es la identificaci??n y representaci??n de problemas de traducci??n audiovisual. Los elementos que permiten identificar un problema de traducci??n audiovisual incluyen, entre otros, elementos del lenguaje audiovisual. Hemos observado que aunque l...

  3. Asymmetries in Experiential and Vicarious Feedback: Lessons from the Hiring and Firing of Baseball Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Strang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine experiential and vicarious feedback in the hiring and firing of baseball managers. Realized outcomes play a large role in both decisions; the probability that a manager will be fired is a function of the team’s win–loss record, and a manager is quicker to be rehired if his teams had won more in the past. There are substantial asymmetries, however, in the fine structure of the two feedback functions. The rate at which managers are fired is powerfully shaped by recent outcomes, falls with success and rises with failure, and adjusts for history-based expectations. By contrast, hiring reflects a longer-term perspective that emphasizes outcomes over the manager’s career as well as the most recent campaign, rewards success but does not penalize failure, and exhibits no adjustment for historical expectations. We explain these asymmetries in terms of the disparate displays of rationality that organizations enact in response to their own outcomes versus those of others. Experiential feedback is conditioned by a logic of accountability, vicarious feedback by a logic of emulation.

  4. Vicariance and dispersal form a ring distribution in nightsnakes around the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel G; Macey, J Robert

    2009-11-01

    Plate tectonics can have profound effects on organismal distribution and is often the driving force in speciation. Through geologic processes, the Baja California Peninsula depicts two faunal patterns: one through southern vicariance with Cape separation, and the other through dispersal onto the northern peninsula, referred to as a 'dual-peninsular effect.' Here we apply a hierarchical sampling strategy that combines population-level sequence data ( approximately 800bp, nad4 region) with complete mt-genome data (aligned 15,549bp) and 5 nuclear protein encoding loci (3315bp), to test whether both patterns have occurred in one group of nightsnakes (Hypsiglena). The geologic formation of the peninsula is thought to have occurred in three stages: (1) Cape separation from mainland Mexico; (2) the northern peninsula separated, forming the northern Gulf of California; and (3) the peninsula was united through volcanic activity, while moving northward causing collision with southern California. However, the timing of events is debated. We explore phylogenetic relationships and estimate dates of divergence for nightsnakes using our hierarchical sampling strategy. Our data support both 'southern-vicariance' and 'northern-dispersal' have occurred in nightsnakes, forming a ring distribution around the Gulf of California. Two divergent forms are sympatric on the southern half of the peninsula with no indication of hybridization. Nightsnakes represent the first group to depict the 'dual-peninsular effect' with extensive overlap on the Baja California Peninsula.

  5. Signatures of vicariance, postglacial dispersal and spawning philopatry: population genetics of the walleye Sander vitreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, C A; Murphy, D J; Lohner, R N; Sepulveda-Villet, O J; Haponski, A E

    2009-08-01

    Population genetic relationships reveal the signatures of current processes such as reproductive behaviour and migration, as well as historic events including vicariance and climate change. We analyse population structure of native walleye Sander vitreus across North America, encompassing 10 nuclear DNA microsatellite loci, 26 spawning sites and 921 samples from watersheds across the Great Lakes, Lake Winnipeg, upper Mississippi River, Ohio River and Mobile Bay of the Gulf Coast. Geographical patterning is assessed using phylogenetic trees, pairwise F(ST) analogues, hierarchical partitioning, Mantel regression, Bayesian assignment and Monmonier geographical networks. Results reveal congruent divergences among population groups, corresponding to historic isolation in glacial refugia, dispersal patterns and basin divisions. Broad-scale relationships show genetic isolation with geographical distance, but reproductive groups within basins do not -- with some having pronounced differences. Greatest divergence distinguishes outlying Gulf Coastal and northwest populations, the latter tracing to dispersal from the Missourian refugium to former glacial Lake Agassiz, and basin isolation approximately 7000 ya. Genetic barriers in the Great Lakes separate groups in Lakes Superior, Huron's Georgian Bay, Erie and Ontario, reflecting contributions from Mississippian and Atlantic refugia, and changes in connectivity patterns. Walleye genetic patterns thus reflect vicariance among watersheds and glacial refugia, followed by re-colonization pathways and changing drainage connections that established modern-day northern populations, whose separations are maintained through spawning site fidelity. Conservation management practices should preserve genetic identity and unique characters among these divergent walleye populations.

  6. Dissociating Cortical Activity during Processing of Native and Non-Native Audiovisual Speech from Early to Late Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswen Fava

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Initially, infants are capable of discriminating phonetic contrasts across the world’s languages. Starting between seven and ten months of age, they gradually lose this ability through a process of perceptual narrowing. Although traditionally investigated with isolated speech sounds, such narrowing occurs in a variety of perceptual domains (e.g., faces, visual speech. Thus far, tracking the developmental trajectory of this tuning process has been focused primarily on auditory speech alone, and generally using isolated sounds. But infants learn from speech produced by people talking to them, meaning they learn from a complex audiovisual signal. Here, we use near-infrared spectroscopy to measure blood concentration changes in the bilateral temporal cortices of infants in three different age groups: 3-to-6 months, 7-to-10 months, and 11-to-14-months. Critically, all three groups of infants were tested with continuous audiovisual speech in both their native and another, unfamiliar language. We found that at each age range, infants showed different patterns of cortical activity in response to the native and non-native stimuli. Infants in the youngest group showed bilateral cortical activity that was greater overall in response to non-native relative to native speech; the oldest group showed left lateralized activity in response to native relative to non-native speech. These results highlight perceptual tuning as a dynamic process that happens across modalities and at different levels of stimulus complexity.

  7. Use of audiovisual resources in a FlexQuest strategy on Radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Gomes Catunda de Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted in a private school in Recife - PE, Brazil, with 25 students from 1st year of high school. One of the focuses was to evaluate the implementation of the strategy FlexQuest on the teaching of radioactivity. The FlexQuest incorporates, within the WebQuest, the Cognitive Flexibility Theory (TFC, which is a theory of teaching, learning and knowledge representation, aiming to propose strategies for the acquisition of advanced levels of knowledge. With a qualitative approach, there were interventions of application having, as axle, an analysis of landscape crossings that the students have accomplished during the execution of required tasks. The results revealed that this strategy involves audiovisual resources, and these make learning possible, provided that strategies are embedded in a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. In this sense, it was perceived to be effective, the introductory level/stimulator, for the understanding of the applications of radioactivity. Showing a tool based on real situations, enabling students to develop the critical eye on what it is televised, including also the study of radioactivity.

  8. Detection and Identification of Rare Audiovisual Cues

    CERN Document Server

    Anemüller, Jörn; Gool, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Machine learning builds models of the world using training data from the application domain and prior knowledge about the problem. The models are later applied to future data in order to estimate the current state of the world. An implied assumption is that the future is stochastically similar to the past. The approach fails when the system encounters situations that are not anticipated from the past experience. In contrast, successful natural organisms identify new unanticipated stimuli and situations and frequently generate appropriate responses. The observation described above lead to the initiation of the DIRAC EC project in 2006. In 2010 a workshop was held, aimed to bring together researchers and students from different disciplines in order to present and discuss new approaches for identifying and reacting to unexpected events in information-rich environments. This book includes a summary of the achievements of the DIRAC project in chapter 1, and a collection of the papers presented in this workshop in ...

  9. Preparation of SF5 Aromatics by Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Nitro(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes with Carbanions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beier, Petr; Pastýříková, Tereza; Iakobson, George

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 11 (2011), s. 4781-4786 ISSN 0022-3263 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sulfur pentafluorides * vicarious nucleophilic aromatic substitution * nitrobenzenes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.450, year: 2011

  10. A Comparison of Vicarious and Written Training Techniques Applied to Early Stimulation by Parents of Their Down Syndrome Babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of vicarious and written training techniques to teach parents an early stimulation program for infants with Downs Syndrome. Found that infants whose parents were trained through observing a clinician stimulate their child had higher average developmental quotients in gross motor and language development between 6 and 24…

  11. Vicarious Trauma: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Providing Sexual Abuse Treatment on Clinicians' Trust and Intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Karen M.; Way, Ineke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined vicarious trauma effects in male and female clinicians who treat sexual abuse survivors (n = 111) and sexual offenders (n = 272). The national survey was conducted using a random sample of clinical members of two professional organizations. Analyses tested the relationships between demographic variables, maltreatment history,…

  12. Supporting Reflective Practices in Social Change Processes with the Dynamic Learning Agenda: An Example of Learning about the Process towards Disability Inclusive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Saskia C.; de Wildt-Liesveld, Renée; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Regeer, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Change processes are increasingly seen as the solution to entrenched (social) problems. However, change is difficult to realise while dealing with multiple actors, values, and approaches. (Inter)organisational learning is seen as a way to facilitate reflective practices in social change that support emergent changes, vicarious learning, and…

  13. Children with a History of SLI Show Reduced Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined whether school-age children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI), their peers with typical development (TD), and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method: Fifteen H-SLI children, 15…

  14. Threats and opportunities for new audiovisual cultural heritage archive services: the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; Huizer, E.; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business-to-consumer market for digital audiovisual archiving services. In doing so we identify drivers, threats, and opportunities for new services based on audiovisual archives in the cultural heritage domain. By analyzing the market we provide

  15. Audiovisual Narrative Creation and Creative Retrieval: How Searching for a Story Shapes the Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Media professionals – such as news editors, image researchers, and documentary filmmakers - increasingly rely on online access to digital content within audiovisual archives to create narratives. Retrieving audiovisual sources therefore requires an in-depth knowledge of how to find sources

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for differences between fusion and combination illusions in audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baart, Martijn; Lindborg, Alma Cornelia; Andersen, Tobias S

    2017-01-01

    Incongruent audiovisual speech stimuli can lead to perceptual illusions such as fusions or combinations. Here, we investigated the underlying audiovisual integration process by measuring ERPs. We observed that visual speech-induced suppression of P2 amplitude (which is generally taken as a measur...... by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. International Co-Production of Audio-Visual Material in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greetfeld, Hans

    1979-01-01

    Describes an international advisory committee on audiovisual media, the procedure followed in the production and use of audiovisual materials and resources among member countries. Includes a list of the films that have been produced, over the years, by the committee. (GA)

  18. The Development of an Audiovisual Instrument for Recruitment in Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schufletowski, Charles Archie

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) develop an audiovisual instrument for recruitment in adult education; (2) establish guidelines for production of audiovisual media dealing with promotional programs; (3) establish a list of variables which are involved with the potential student of adult education; and (4) develop an instrument for product…

  19. Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…

  20. Beta-Band Functional Connectivity Influences Audiovisual Integration in Older Age: An EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyao Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual integration occurs frequently and has been shown to exhibit age-related differences via behavior experiments or time-frequency analyses. In the present study, we examined whether functional connectivity influences audiovisual integration during normal aging. Visual, auditory, and audiovisual stimuli were randomly presented peripherally; during this time, participants were asked to respond immediately to the target stimulus. Electroencephalography recordings captured visual, auditory, and audiovisual processing in 12 old (60–78 years and 12 young (22–28 years male adults. For non-target stimuli, we focused on alpha (8–13 Hz, beta (13–30 Hz, and gamma (30–50 Hz bands. We applied the Phase Lag Index to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. Then, the network topology parameters, which included the clustering coefficient, path length, small-worldness global efficiency, local efficiency and degree, were calculated for each condition. For the target stimulus, a race model was used to analyze the response time. Then, a Pearson correlation was used to test the relationship between each network topology parameters and response time. The results showed that old adults activated stronger connections during audiovisual processing in the beta band. The relationship between network topology parameters and the performance of audiovisual integration was detected only in old adults. Thus, we concluded that old adults who have a higher load during audiovisual integration need more cognitive resources. Furthermore, increased beta band functional connectivity influences the performance of audiovisual integration during normal aging.

  1. preservation of audio-visual records at the national archives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walter

    12 of 1992, to accommodate the current trends and international standards; develop a national policy and guidelines on audio-visual records; The study recommends for the implementation of training for AV archivists in Namibia; recruitment of staff with expertise in preserving audio-visual archives held at the National ...

  2. Beyond the usual cognitive suspects: The importance of speechreading and audiovisual temporal sensitivity in reading ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francisco, A.A.; Groen, M.A.; Jesse, A.; McQueen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether audiovisual processing accounted for variance in reading and reading-related abilities, beyond the effect of a set of measures typically associated with individual differences in both reading and audiovisual processing. Testing adults with and without a

  3. Selective Attention and Audiovisual Integration: Is Attending to Both Modalities a Prerequisite for Early Integration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Doty, Tracy J.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between multisensory integration and attention were studied using a combined audiovisual streaming design and a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. Event-related potentials (ERPs) following audiovisual objects (AV) were compared with the sum of the ERPs following auditory (A) and

  4. Primary and multisensory cortical activity is correlated with audiovisual percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Margo McKenna; Raij, Tommi; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Stufflebeam, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Visual Mislocalization of Moving Objects in an Audiovisual Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kawachi

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of an auditory tone on the localization of visual objects in the stream/bounce display (SBD. In this display, two identical visual objects move toward each other, overlap, and then return to their original positions. These objects can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other. In this study, the closest distance between object centers on opposing trajectories and tone presentation timing (none, 0 ms, ± 90 ms, and ± 390 ms relative to the instant for the closest distance were manipulated. Observers were asked to judge whether the two objects overlapped with each other and whether the objects appeared to stream through, bounce off each other, or reverse their direction of motion. A tone presented at or around the instant of the objects' closest distance biased judgments toward "non-overlapping," and observers overestimated the physical distance between objects. A similar bias toward direction change judgments (bounce and reverse, not stream judgments was also observed, which was always stronger than the non-overlapping bias. Thus, these two types of judgments were not always identical. Moreover, another experiment showed that it was unlikely that this observed mislocalization could be explained by other previously known mislocalization phenomena (i.e., representational momentum, the Fröhlich effect, and a turn-point shift. These findings indicate a new example of crossmodal mislocalization, which can be obtained without temporal offsets between audiovisual stimuli. The mislocalization effect is also specific to a more complex stimulus configuration of objects on opposing trajectories, with a tone that is presented simultaneously. The present study promotes an understanding of relatively complex audiovisual interactions beyond simple one-to-one audiovisual stimuli used in previous studies.

  6. Audiovisual English-Arabic Translation: De Beaugrande's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Eddin Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to demonstrate the significance of the seven standards of textuality with special application to audiovisual English Arabic translation.  Ample and thoroughly analysed examples have been provided to help in audiovisual English-Arabic translation decision-making. A text is meaningful if and only if it carries meaning and knowledge to its audience, and is optimally activatable, recoverable and accessible.  The same is equally applicable to audiovisual translation (AVT. The latter should also carry knowledge which can be easily accessed by the TL audience, and be processed with least energy and time, i.e. achieving the utmost level of efficiency. Communication occurs only when that text is coherent, with continuity of senses and concepts that are appropriately linked. Coherence of a text will be achieved when all aspects of cohesive devices are well accounted for pragmatically.  This combined with a good amount of psycholinguistic element will provide a text with optimal communicative value. Non-text is certainly devoid of such components and ultimately non-communicative. Communicative knowledge can be classified into three categories: determinate knowledge, typical knowledge and accidental knowledge. To create dramatic suspense and the element of surprise, the text in AV environment, as in any dialogue, often carries accidental knowledge.  This unusual knowledge aims to make AV material interesting in the eyes of its audience. That cognitive environment is enhanced by an adequate employment of material (picture and sound, and helps to recover sense in the text. Hence, the premise of this paper is the application of certain aspects of these standards to AV texts taken from various recent feature films and documentaries, in order to facilitate the translating process and produce a final appropriate product.

  7. Bayesian Calibration of Simultaneity in Audiovisual Temporal Order Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Miyazaki, Makoto; Iwano, Takayuki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    After repeated exposures to two successive audiovisual stimuli presented in one frequent order, participants eventually perceive a pair separated by some lag time in the same order as occurring simultaneously (lag adaptation). In contrast, we previously found that perceptual changes occurred in the opposite direction in response to tactile stimuli, conforming to Bayesian integration theory (Bayesian calibration). We further showed, in theory, that the effect of Bayesian calibration cannot be observed when the lag adaptation was fully operational. This led to the hypothesis that Bayesian calibration affects judgments regarding the order of audiovisual stimuli, but that this effect is concealed behind the lag adaptation mechanism. In the present study, we showed that lag adaptation is pitch-insensitive using two sounds at 1046 and 1480 Hz. This enabled us to cancel lag adaptation by associating one pitch with sound-first stimuli and the other with light-first stimuli. When we presented each type of stimulus (high- or low-tone) in a different block, the point of simultaneity shifted to “sound-first” for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to “light-first” for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. These results are consistent with lag adaptation. In contrast, when we delivered each type of stimulus in a randomized order, the point of simultaneity shifted to “light-first” for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to “sound-first” for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. The results clearly show that Bayesian calibration is pitch-specific and is at work behind pitch-insensitive lag adaptation during temporal order judgment of audiovisual stimuli. PMID:22792297

  8. On the relevance of script writing basics in audiovisual translation practice and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez-Sierra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2012v1n29p145   Audiovisual texts possess characteristics that clearly differentiate audiovisual translation from both oral and written translation, and prospective screen translators are usually taught about the issues that typically arise in audiovisual translation. This article argues for the development of an interdisciplinary approach that brings together Translation Studies and Film Studies, which would prepare future audiovisual translators to work with the nature and structure of a script in mind, in addition to the study of common and diverse translational aspects. Focusing on film, the article briefly discusses the nature and structure of scripts, and identifies key points in the development and structuring of a plot. These key points and various potential hurdles are illustrated with examples from the films Chinatown and La habitación de Fermat. The second part of this article addresses some implications for teaching audiovisual translation.

  9. Musical expertise is related to altered functional connectivity during audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kraneburg, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle Cornelia; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Pantev, Christo

    2015-10-06

    The present study investigated the cortical large-scale functional network underpinning audiovisual integration via magnetoencephalographic recordings. The reorganization of this network related to long-term musical training was investigated by comparing musicians to nonmusicians. Connectivity was calculated on the basis of the estimated mutual information of the sources' activity, and the corresponding networks were statistically compared. Nonmusicians' results indicated that the cortical network associated with audiovisual integration supports visuospatial processing and attentional shifting, whereas a sparser network, related to spatial awareness supports the identification of audiovisual incongruences. In contrast, musicians' results showed enhanced connectivity in regions related to the identification of auditory pattern violations. Hence, nonmusicians rely on the processing of visual clues for the integration of audiovisual information, whereas musicians rely mostly on the corresponding auditory information. The large-scale cortical network underpinning multisensory integration is reorganized due to expertise in a cognitive domain that largely involves audiovisual integration, indicating long-term training-related neuroplasticity.

  10. Long-term music training modulates the recalibration of audiovisual simultaneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicol, Crescent; Proulx, Michael J; Pollick, Frank E; Petrini, Karin

    2018-04-23

    To overcome differences in physical transmission time and neural processing, the brain adaptively recalibrates the point of simultaneity between auditory and visual signals by adapting to audiovisual asynchronies. Here, we examine whether the prolonged recalibration process of passively sensed visual and auditory signals is affected by naturally occurring multisensory training known to enhance audiovisual perceptual accuracy. Hence, we asked a group of drummers, of non-drummer musicians and of non-musicians to judge the audiovisual simultaneity of musical and non-musical audiovisual events, before and after adaptation with two fixed audiovisual asynchronies. We found that the recalibration for the musicians and drummers was in the opposite direction (sound leading vision) to that of non-musicians (vision leading sound), and change together with both increased music training and increased perceptual accuracy (i.e. ability to detect asynchrony). Our findings demonstrate that long-term musical training reshapes the way humans adaptively recalibrate simultaneity between auditory and visual signals.

  11. A Joint Audio-Visual Approach to Audio Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    Localization of audio sources is an important research problem, e.g., to facilitate noise reduction. In the recent years, the problem has been tackled using distributed microphone arrays (DMA). A common approach is to apply direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation on each array (denoted as nodes...... time-of-flight cameras. Moreover, we propose an optimal method for weighting such DOA and range information for audio localization. Our experiments on both synthetic and real data show that there is a clear, potential advantage of using the joint audiovisual localization framework....

  12. Sources of Confusion in Infant Audiovisual Speech Perception Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Elizabeth Shaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech is a multimodal stimulus, with information provided in both the auditory and visual modalities. The resulting audiovisual signal provides relatively stable, tightly correlated cues that support speech perception and processing in a range of contexts. Despite the clear relationship between spoken language and the moving mouth that produces it, there remains considerable disagreement over how sensitive early language learners — infants — are to whether and how sight and sound co-occur. Here we examine sources of this disagreement, with a focus on how comparisons of data obtained using different paradigms and different stimuli may serve to exacerbate misunderstanding.

  13. Panorama del derecho audiovisual francés

    OpenAIRE

    Derieux, E. (Emmanuel)

    1999-01-01

    El artículo realiza una panorámica del Derecho audiovisual francés hasta 1998. Como características básicas, se destacan su complejidad e inestabilidad, debida en gran parte a la incapacidad para asumir los rápidos cambios tecnológicos y a las continuas modificaciones que han ido introduciendo los gobiernos de distinto signo. Además, se repasan algunas de las cuestiones actuales más relevantes, desde la regulación de las estructuras empresariales hasta los programas audiovisuales y sus conten...

  14. Audiovisual processing for sports-video summarisation technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sadlier, David A.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis a novel audiovisual feature-based scheme is proposed for the automatic summarization of sports-video content The scope of operability of the scheme is designed to encompass the wide variety o f sports genres that come under the description ‘field-sports’. Given the assumption that, in terms of conveying the narrative of a field-sports-video, score-update events constitute the most significant moments, it is proposed that their detection should thus yield a favourable summarisat...

  15. Scientific audiovisual materials and linked open data: the TIB perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Arraiza, Paloma (TIB); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2016-01-01

    Libraries are starting to use Linked Open Data (LOD) to provide their data (library data) for reuse and to enrich them. However, most initiatives are only available for textual resources, whereas non-textual resources stay aside. Firstly, this paper discusses the potential of library data to be published as LOD. Secondly, it focuses on the library data related to the management of audiovis-ual scientific materials in the TIB|AV-Portal. The use LOD Standards to support multilingual func-tional...

  16. La regulación audiovisual: argumentos a favor y en contra The audio-visual regulation: the arguments for and against

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sopena Palomar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la efectividad de la regulación audiovisual y valora los diversos argumentos a favor y en contra de la existencia de consejos reguladores a nivel estatal. El debate sobre la necesidad de un organismo de este calado en España todavía persiste. La mayoría de los países comunitarios se han dotado de consejos competentes en esta materia, como es el caso del OFCOM en el Reino Unido o el CSA en Francia. En España, la regulación audiovisual se limita a organismos de alcance autonómico, como son el Consejo Audiovisual de Navarra, el de Andalucía y el Consell de l’Audiovisual de Catalunya (CAC, cuyo modelo también es abordado en este artículo. The article analyzes the effectiveness of the audio-visual regulation and assesses the different arguments for and against the existence of the broadcasting authorities at the state level. The debate of the necessity of a Spanish organism of regulation is still active. Most of the European countries have created some competent authorities, like the OFCOM in United Kingdom and the CSA in France. In Spain, the broadcasting regulation is developed by regional organisms, like the Consejo Audiovisual de Navarra, the Consejo Audiovisual de Andalucía and the Consell de l’Audiovisual de Catalunya (CAC, whose case is also studied in this article.

  17. Self-Efficacy and Vicarious Learning in Doctoral Studies at a Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga; Lum, Juliet F.; Benson, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are increasing numbers of PhD students in the distance mode, our current understanding of PhD candidature at a distance is limited and incomplete. On the one end of the spectrum are accounts of unhappy and isolated doctoral students who are separated from communities of practice. At the same time, literature offers accounts of…

  18. Religiosity, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Vicarious Learning Networks among Adolescents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Jan; Ward, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that religiosity may protect against risky alcohol and drug use behaviors among adolescents, but the social mechanics underpinning the relationship are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between religiosity, heavy drinking, and social norms among U.S. adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, using the…

  19. A Vicarious Learning Activity for University Sophomores in a Multiculturalism Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennault, Ronald E.

    2005-01-01

    How can one teach a course about multiculturalism to a broad spectrum of university sophomores in a way that is research-based, pedagogically sound, and appealing--all in ten weeks? In this article, the author states that a course he teaches, "Multiculturalism in Education," examines cultural differences as they relate to social inequalities in…

  20. Vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress or simply burnout? Effect of trauma therapy on mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilly, Grant J; Wright, Renee; Varker, Tracey

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform an assessment for secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT) and workplace burnout for Australian mental health professionals involved in clinical practice. Recruited directly by mail, randomly selected participants were invited to submit a questionnaire by post or online. Of the 480 participants contacted, 152 mental health professionals completed the questionnaire, which contained measures of STS, VT and burnout. Exposure to patients' traumatic material did not affect STS, VT or burnout, contradicting the theory of the originators of STS and VT. Rather, it was found that work-related stressors best predicted therapist distress. These findings have significant implications for the direction of research and theory development in traumatic stress studies, calling into question the existence of secondary trauma-related phenomena and enterprises aimed at treating the consultants.

  1. Isozymes in Larrea divaricata and Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae): a study of two amphitropical vicariants and autopolyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, M C; Hunziker, J H

    1997-10-01

    Electrophoretic variants for seven isozyme systems - probably encoded by 18 structural gene loci - in diploid populations of Larrea divaricata and diploid and tetraploid populations of its North American vicariant derivative L. tridentata were assayed by polyacrilamide and starch gel electrophoresis. High molecular similarity of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of L. tridentata supports the hypothesis of interracial autopolyploidy. The absence of fixed heterozygosity and additive profiles indicates a low level of divergence between the parental diploids and the tetraploids. The phenogram based on the I coefficient showed the similarities between the populations of diploid L. divaricata and also between the diploid populations of L. tridentata. Both groups of diploid populations were more distantly connected to tetraploid L. tridentata.

  2. A Tutorial Task and Tertiary Courseware Model for Collaborative Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Julian; Lowe, Helen; Neely, Steve; Gong, Xiaofeng; Eyers, David; Bacon, Jean

    2004-01-01

    RAED provides a computerised infrastructure to support the development and administration of Vicarious Learning in collaborative learning communities spread across multiple universities and workplaces. The system is based on the OASIS middleware for Role-based Access Control. This paper describes the origins of the model and the approach to…

  3. Social learning theory and the effects of living arrangement on heavy alcohol use: results from a national study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Gryczynski, Jan

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between living arrangement and heavy episodic drinking among college students in the United States. Using social learning theory as a framework, it was hypothesized that vicarious learning of peer and family alcohol-use norms would mediate the effects of living arrangement on heavy episodic drinking. Analyses were conducted using data from the 2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study, a national survey of full-time undergraduate students attending 4-year colleges or universities in the United States (N = 10,008). Logistic regression models examined the relationship between heavy episodic drinking and various measures of living arrangement and vicarious learning/social norms. Mediation of the effects of living arrangement was tested using both indirect and direct methods. Both student living arrangement and vicarious-learning/social-norm variables remained significant predictors of heavy episodic drinking in multivariate models when controlling for a variety of individual characteristics. Slight mediation of the effects of living arrangement on heavy episodic drinking by vicarious learning/social norms was confirmed for some measures. Although vicarious learning of social norms does appear to play a role in the association between living arrangement and alcohol use, other processes may underlie the relationship. These findings suggest that using theory alongside empirical evidence to inform the manipulation of living environments could present a promising policy strategy to reduce alcohol-related harm in collegiate contexts.

  4. Not My Problem: Vicarious Conflict Adaptation with Human and Virtual Co-Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. Spapé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Simon effect refers to an incompatibility between stimulus and response locations resulting in a conflict situation and, consequently, slower responses. Like other conflict effects, it is commonly reduced after repetitions, suggesting an executive control ability, which flexibly rewires cognitive processing and adapts to conflict. Interestingly, conflict is not necessarily individually defined: the Social Simon effect refers to a scenario where two people who share a task show a conflict effect where a single person does not. Recent studies showed these observations might converge into what could be called vicarious conflict adaptation, with evidence indicating that observing someone else’s conflict may subsequently reduce one’s own. While plausible, there is reason for doubt: both the social aspect of the Simon Effect, and the degree to which executive control accounts for the conflict adaptation effect, have become foci of debate in recent studies. Here, we present two experiments that were designed to test the social dimension of the effect by varying the social relationship between the actor and the co-actor. In Experiment 1, participants performed a conflict task with a virtual co-actor, while the actor-observer relationship was manipulated as a function of the similarity between response modalities. In Experiment 2, the same task was performed both with a virtual and with a human co-actor, while heart-rate measurements were taken to measure the impact of observed conflict on autonomous activity. While both experiments replicated the interpersonal conflict adaptation effects, neither showed evidence of the critical social dimension. We consider the findings as demonstrating that vicarious conflict adaptation does not rely on the social relationship between the actor and co-actor.

  5. Automatic summarization of soccer highlights using audio-visual descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raventós, A; Quijada, R; Torres, Luis; Tarrés, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Automatic summarization generation of sports video content has been object of great interest for many years. Although semantic descriptions techniques have been proposed, many of the approaches still rely on low-level video descriptors that render quite limited results due to the complexity of the problem and to the low capability of the descriptors to represent semantic content. In this paper, a new approach for automatic highlights summarization generation of soccer videos using audio-visual descriptors is presented. The approach is based on the segmentation of the video sequence into shots that will be further analyzed to determine its relevance and interest. Of special interest in the approach is the use of the audio information that provides additional robustness to the overall performance of the summarization system. For every video shot a set of low and mid level audio-visual descriptors are computed and lately adequately combined in order to obtain different relevance measures based on empirical knowledge rules. The final summary is generated by selecting those shots with highest interest according to the specifications of the user and the results of relevance measures. A variety of results are presented with real soccer video sequences that prove the validity of the approach.

  6. Depth Cues and Perceived Audiovisual Synchrony of Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos César; Mendonça, Catarina; Mouta, Sandra; Silva, Rosa; Campos, José Creissac; Santos, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to their different propagation times, visual and auditory signals from external events arrive at the human sensory receptors with a disparate delay. This delay consistently varies with distance, but, despite such variability, most events are perceived as synchronic. There is, however, contradictory data and claims regarding the existence of compensatory mechanisms for distance in simultaneity judgments. Principal Findings In this paper we have used familiar audiovisual events – a visual walker and footstep sounds – and manipulated the number of depth cues. In a simultaneity judgment task we presented a large range of stimulus onset asynchronies corresponding to distances of up to 35 meters. We found an effect of distance over the simultaneity estimates, with greater distances requiring larger stimulus onset asynchronies, and vision always leading. This effect was stronger when both visual and auditory cues were present but was interestingly not found when depth cues were impoverished. Significance These findings reveal that there should be an internal mechanism to compensate for audiovisual delays, which critically depends on the depth information available. PMID:24244617

  7. Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

  8. O potencial da imagem televisiva na sociedade da cultura audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. M. F. Sabino

    Full Text Available Resumo A cultura audiovisual vem cada vez mais ganhando espaço, e os avanços tecnológicos contribuem, vertiginosamente, para o seu desenvolvimento e sua abrangência. Assim, este estudo tem como temática a cultura audiovisual, e como objetivo de pesquisa, discutir a importância das imagens na televisão. Para tanto, selecionamos um exemplo de propaganda televisiva observada no ano de 2006, que inspirou uma reflexão crítica sobre a importância das linguagens híbridas na televisão, ilustrando a interferência dessas na produção do sentido na mensagem televisiva. Como referencial teórico e metodológico, utilizamos as concepções de imagem e linguagens híbridas de Lúcia Santaella. A partir da análise da propaganda ora proposta concluímos que sua constituição é mais icônica do que de verbal, mas que se insere numa concepção dialógica, constituindo-se, portanto, por meio de um processo criativo de produção de significados.

  9. A imagem-ritmo e o videoclipe no audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Castro Muanis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A televisão pode ser um espaço de reunião entre som e imagem em um dispositivo que possibilita a imagem-ritmo – dando continuidade à teoria da imagem de Gilles Deleuze, proposta para o cinema. Ela agregaria, simultaneamente, ca-racterísticas da imagem-movimento e da imagem-tempo, que se personificariam na construção de imagens pós-modernas, em produtos audiovisuais não necessariamente narrativos, porém populares. Filmes, videogames, videoclipes e vinhetas em que a música conduz as imagens permitiriam uma leitura mais sensorial. O audiovisual como imagem-música abre, assim, para uma nova forma de percepção além da textual tradicional, fruto da interação entre ritmo, texto e dispositivo. O tempo das imagens em movimento no audiovisual está atrelado inevitável e prioritariamente ao som. Elas agregam possibilidades não narrativas que se realizam, na maioria das vezes, sobre a lógica do ritmo musical, so-bressaindo-se como um valor fundamental, observado nos filmes Sem Destino (1969, Assassinos por Natureza (1994 e Corra Lola Corra (1998.

  10. Evidence for a Mechanism Encoding Audiovisual Spatial Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Orchard-Mills

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual spatial representations are produced by distinct processes, drawing on separate neural inputs and occurring in different regions of the brain. We tested for a bimodal spatial representation using a spatial increment discrimination task. Discrimination thresholds for synchronously presented but spatially separated audiovisual stimuli were measured for base separations ranging from 0° to 45°. In a dark anechoic chamber, the spatial interval was defined by azimuthal separation of a white-noise burst from a speaker on a movable robotic arm and a checkerboard patch 5° wide projected onto an acoustically transparent screen. When plotted as a function of base interval, spatial increment thresholds exhibited a J-shaped pattern. Thresholds initially declined, the minimum occurring at base separations approximately equal to the individual observer's detection threshold and thereafter rose log-linearly according to Weber's law. This pattern of results, known as the ‘dipper function’, would be expected if the auditory and visual signals defining the spatial interval converged onto an early sensory filter encoding audiovisual space. This mechanism could be used to encode spatial separation of auditory and visual stimuli.

  11. Intensidades y retóricas del texto audiovisual

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    Gian Maria Tore

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Las páginas que siguen se proponen desarrollar una concepción semiótica que se apoya esencialmente en las teorías de Louis Hjelmslev y de Claude Zilberberg. A través del estudio de un texto audiovisual, el íncipit del filme Pickpocket de Robert Bresson (1959, no se tratará de ilustrar la semiótica de Hjelmslev ni de Zilberberg, y menos aún de aplicarla; se trata más bien de experimentarla, puesto que dicha teoría textual no ha sido aplicada o lo ha sido escasamente, al dominio de lo audiovisual.1 Nos atendremos, por una parte, a dar cuenta, con esa teoría, del texto fílmico en cuestión; y por otra parte, a mostrar su interés y su alcance heurístico, tanto para la teoría del lenguaje como para los estudios fílmicos.

  12. Nuevos modelos de producción audiovisual

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    Lic. Raquel Miranda Cáceres

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria televisiva está comenzando a sufrir una transformación originada por dos factores: la explosión de Internet y la revolución digital. La sinergia producida por estos acontecimientos nos encamina hacia una nueva vida, una era de conjunción audiovisual entre distintos sectores, televisión y PC, de la que se beneficiará el telespectador.Estamos en los albores de un modo nuevo de comunicarnos, comprar, jugar, en un mundo donde los grandes avances tecnológicos convergerán de forma irremediable. Estamos ante un cambio de cultura audiovisual. Sin embargo, es muy complicado predecir las características que tendrá la Televisión del futuro, cuando adquiera su madurez, ya que nos encontramos en pleno proceso creativo, queda mucho por recorrer y su formación final será un planeta aún por descubrir que ahora mismo sólo podemos vislumbrar. Algunos expertos llaman a esta revolución de la imagen post televisión, otros lo llaman futuro.

  13. Compliments in Audiovisual Translation – issues in character identity

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    Isabel Fernandes Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, audiovisual translation has gained increased significance in Translation Studies as well as an interdisciplinary subject within other fields (media, cinema studies etc. Although many articles have been published on communicative aspects of translation such as politeness, only recently have scholars taken an interest in the translation of compliments. This study will focus on both these areas from a multimodal and pragmatic perspective, emphasizing the links between these fields and how this multidisciplinary approach will evidence the polysemiotic nature of the translation process. In Audiovisual Translation both text and image are at play, therefore, the translation of speech produced by the characters may either omit (because it is provided by visualgestual signs or it may emphasize information. A selection was made of the compliments present in the film What Women Want, our focus being on subtitles which did not successfully convey the compliment expressed in the source text, as well as analyze the reasons for this, namely difference in register, Culture Specific Items and repetitions. These differences lead to a different portrayal/identity/perception of the main character in the English version (original soundtrack and subtitled versions in Portuguese and Italian.

  14. A robotic approach to understanding the role and the mechanism of vicarious trial-and-error in a T-maze task.

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    Eiko Matsuda

    Full Text Available Vicarious trial-and-error (VTE is a behavior observed in rat experiments that seems to suggest self-conflict. This behavior is seen mainly when the rats are uncertain about making a decision. The presence of VTE is regarded as an indicator of a deliberative decision-making process, that is, searching, predicting, and evaluating outcomes. This process is slower than automated decision-making processes, such as reflex or habituation, but it allows for flexible and ongoing control of behavior. In this study, we propose for the first time a robotic model of VTE to see if VTE can emerge just from a body-environment interaction and to show the underlying mechanism responsible for the observation of VTE and the advantages provided by it. We tried several robots with different parameters, and we have found that they showed three different types of VTE: high numbers of VTE at the beginning of learning, decreasing numbers afterward (similar VTE pattern to experiments with rats, low during the whole learning period, and high numbers all the time. Therefore, we were able to reproduce the phenomenon of VTE in a model robot using only a simple dynamical neural network with Hebbian learning, which suggests that VTE is an emergent property of a plastic and embodied neural network. From a comparison of the three types of VTE, we demonstrated that 1 VTE is associated with chaotic activity of neurons in our model and 2 VTE-showing robots were robust to environmental perturbations. We suggest that the instability of neuronal activity found in VTE allows ongoing learning to rebuild its strategy continuously, which creates robust behavior. Based on these results, we suggest that VTE is caused by a similar mechanism in biology and leads to robust decision making in an analogous way.

  15. A robotic approach to understanding the role and the mechanism of vicarious trial-and-error in a T-maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Eiko; Hubert, Julien; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) is a behavior observed in rat experiments that seems to suggest self-conflict. This behavior is seen mainly when the rats are uncertain about making a decision. The presence of VTE is regarded as an indicator of a deliberative decision-making process, that is, searching, predicting, and evaluating outcomes. This process is slower than automated decision-making processes, such as reflex or habituation, but it allows for flexible and ongoing control of behavior. In this study, we propose for the first time a robotic model of VTE to see if VTE can emerge just from a body-environment interaction and to show the underlying mechanism responsible for the observation of VTE and the advantages provided by it. We tried several robots with different parameters, and we have found that they showed three different types of VTE: high numbers of VTE at the beginning of learning, decreasing numbers afterward (similar VTE pattern to experiments with rats), low during the whole learning period, and high numbers all the time. Therefore, we were able to reproduce the phenomenon of VTE in a model robot using only a simple dynamical neural network with Hebbian learning, which suggests that VTE is an emergent property of a plastic and embodied neural network. From a comparison of the three types of VTE, we demonstrated that 1) VTE is associated with chaotic activity of neurons in our model and 2) VTE-showing robots were robust to environmental perturbations. We suggest that the instability of neuronal activity found in VTE allows ongoing learning to rebuild its strategy continuously, which creates robust behavior. Based on these results, we suggest that VTE is caused by a similar mechanism in biology and leads to robust decision making in an analogous way.

  16. Historical vicariance and postglacial colonization effects on the evolution of genetic structure in Lophocereus, a Sonoran Desert columnar cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, John D; Hamrick, J L; Fleming, Theodore H

    2002-11-01

    Distinguishing the historical effects of gene migration and vicariance on contemporary genetic structure is problematic without testable biogeographic hypotheses based on preexisting geological and environmental evidence. The availability of such hypotheses for North America's Sonoran Desert has contributed to our understanding of the effect of historical vicariance and dispersal events on the diversification of this region's vertebrate biota but have not yet been applied to its flora. In this paper we describe a detailed allozyme analysis of the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus, Lophocereus schottii (senita). Inferred phylogroup distributions reflect two historical vicariance events: (1) a middle Pliocene northward transgression of the Sea of Cortéz that is reflected in well-supported Baja California peninsular and continental phylogroups but not in current taxonomic treatments of the species; and (2) a late Pliocene transpeninsular seaway across southern Baja that is reflected in tentative support for peninsular and southern Cape Region phylogroups corresponding to taxonomic varieties L. schottii var. schottii and L. schottii var. australis, respectively. A middle Pleistocene midpeninsular seaway hypothesized to explain congruent phylogroup distributions in several vertebrate taxa is not reflected in L. s. var. schottii, nor is the distinction of a third variety, L. s. var. tenuis, from continental populations of L. s. var. schottii. Linear regression of pairwise estimates of interpopulation differentiation (M and F(ST)/[1 - F(ST)]) on interpopulation geographic distance revealed significant evidence of isolation by distance within peninsular and continental phylogroups but not between them, consistent with historical vicariance between but not within these regions. We also found significant evidence of isolation by distance between putative L. s. var. schottii and L. s. var. australis phylogroups, suggesting

  17. Making Improvements to The Army Distributed Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    courses also included examples of eective use of animation to demonstrate processes and procedures. However, some aspects of the audiovisual features...instructional materials • Technical support • Legibility of graphics and text • AudiovisualsLearning objectives • Sequencing, pacing, and learner control...successful case such as that of IBM, might still be of limited value to the Army, given the issues involved in translating an approach from a

  18. Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration Can be Constrained by Content Cues Regardless of Spatial Overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-01-01

    It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this is necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; see Experiment 1) and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; see Experiment 2) we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair alone can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  19. Audio-visual temporal recalibration can be constrained by content cues regardless of spatial overlap

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    Warrick eRoseboom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated, and opposing, estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this was necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; Experiment 1 and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; Experiment 2 we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  20. Contributions of the interactive decoupage to reading and analyzing interactive audiovisual works in cybermedia.

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    Pere Freixa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The epigraph “interactive storytelling” is applied to a series of journalistic pieces developed as interactive audiovisual stories that are becoming increasingly prominent in cybermedia. This article suggests the definition and description of an analysis system, the “interactive decoupage”, where the parameters to observe are established when reading an interactive audiovisual application. The interactive decoupage is a formal analysis system of interactive audiovisual works which allows for a thorough observation of the aspects present in any interactive audiovisual work: structure, content, access’ interfaces and the interaction dialogues the work suggests. The different parts of the decoupage are described, as well as the phases and procedure to execute it. The tool presented is a document for the researcher that provides a detailed description of the elements used by the authors of an interactive audiovisual project to develop and produce its script. The possibility of confronting the interactive audiovisual work with its “decoupage” description provides the analyst with more insight into the creative processes of interactive audiovisual projects.

  1. Neural Dynamics of Audiovisual Speech Integration under Variable Listening Conditions: An Individual Participant Analysis

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    Nicholas eAltieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception engages both auditory and visual modalities. Limitations of traditional accuracy-only approaches in the investigation of audiovisual speech perception have motivated the use of new methodologies. In an audiovisual speech identification task, we utilized capacity (Townsend & Nozawa, 1995, a dynamic measure of efficiency, to quantify audiovisual integration. Capacity was used to compare RT distributions from audiovisual trials to RT distributions from auditory-only and visual-only trials across three listening conditions: clear auditory signal, S/N ratio of -12 dB, and S/N ratio of -18 dB. The purpose was to obtain EEG recordings in conjunction with capacity to investigate how a late ERP co-varies with integration efficiency. Results showed efficient audiovisual integration for low auditory S/N ratios, but inefficient audiovisual integration when the auditory signal was clear. The ERP analyses showed evidence for greater audiovisual amplitude in lower auditory S/N ratios (higher capacity/efficiency compared to the high S/N ratio (low capacity/inefficient integration. The data are consistent with an interactive framework of integration, where auditory recognition is influenced by speech-reading as a function of signal clarity.

  2. Temporal processing of audiovisual stimuli is enhanced in musicians: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG.

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    Yao Lu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave, while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events.

  3. La estacíon de trabajo del traductor audiovisual: Herramientas y Recursos.

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    Anna Matamala

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the relationship between audiovisual translation and new technologies, and describe the characteristics of the audiovisual translator´s workstation, especially as regards dubbing and voiceover. After presenting the tools necessary for the translator to perform his/ her task satisfactorily as well as pointing to future perspectives, we make a list of sources that can be consulted in order to solve translation problems, including those available on the Internet. Keywords: audiovisual translation, new technologies, Internet, translator´s tools.

  4. The audiovisual mounting narrative as a basis for the documentary film interactive: news studies

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    Mgs. Denis Porto Renó

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review and experiment results from pilot-doctoral research "assembly language visual narrative for the documentary film interactive," which defend the thesis that there are features interactive audio and video editing of the movie, even as causing agent of interactivity. The search for interactive audio-visual formats are present in international investigations, but sob glances technology. He believes that this paper is to propose possible formats for interactive audiovisual production film, video, television, computer and cell phone from the postmodern society. Key words: Audiovisual, language, interactivity, cinema interactive, documentary, communication.

  5. La comunicación corporativa audiovisual: propuesta metodológica de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Lorán Herrero, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación, versa en torno a dos conceptos, la Comunicación Audiovisual y La Comunicación Corporativa, disciplinas que afectan a las organizaciones y que se van articulando de tal manera que dan lugar a la Comunicación Corporativa Audiovisual, concepto que se propone en esta tesis. Se realiza una clasificación y definición de los formatos que utilizan las organizaciones para su comunicación. Se trata de poder analizar cualquier documento audiovisual corporativo para constatar si el l...

  6. The relative roles of vicariance versus elevational gradients in the genetic differentiation of the high Andean tree frog, Dendropsophus labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Amézquita, Adolfo; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2009-01-01

    There are two main competing hypotheses (vicariance and vertical ecotones) that attempt to explain the tremendous diversity of the tropical Andes. We test these hypotheses at the intraspecific level by analyzing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from 24 populations of the high Andean frog, Dendropsophus labialis (Anura: Hylidae). This species displays geographic variation in a number of phenotypic traits. Most of these traits covary with elevation, while few vary along the horizontal (latitudinal) axis. We found that, both, vicariance and elevation had important effects on the genetic differentiation in this species. We detected two highly divergent clades along the south-north axis using independent information from mitochondrial and nuclear genes, suggesting that this differentiation was the result of long-term barriers to gene flow rather than stochastic processes. We hypothesize mechanisms for D. labialis strong differentiation in light of geological and paleoenvironmental models of evolution in the northern Andean highlands.

  7. Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.

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    Jeanne A Guiraud

    Full Text Available The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16 = 17.153, p = 0.001. The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25 = 0.09, p = 0.767, in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41 = 4.466, p = 0.041. In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

  8. Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, Jeanne A; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Kushnerenko, Elena; Ribeiro, Helena; Davies, Kim; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16) = 17.153, p = 0.001). The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25) = 0.09, p = 0.767), in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41) = 4.466, p = 0.041). In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

  9. The King in the Partidas of Alfonso X: his Divine Vicariate and his characterization in terms of sacredness

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    Plácido Fernández-Viagas Escudero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper can be considered as a cultural history analysis. Its goal is to interpret the divine vicariate of the king proclaimed in the Partidas in its legal and symbolic framework, as well to study the sacred characters attributed to the king in this code. To do this, we will use contributions from sociologists and anthropologists, which shed light on an issue that divides the historiography.

  10. Noradrenergic signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala differentially regulates vicarious trial-and-error in a spatial decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kubota, Natsuko; Umeyama, Nao; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2016-01-15

    In uncertain choice situations, we deliberately search and evaluate possible options before taking an action. Once we form a preference regarding the current situation, we take an action more automatically and with less deliberation. In rats, the deliberation process can be seen in vicarious trial-and-error behavior (VTE), which is a head-orienting behavior toward options at a choice point. Recent neurophysiological findings suggest that VTE reflects the rat's thinking about future options as deliberation, expectation, and planning when rats feel conflict. VTE occurs depending on the demand: an increase occurs during initial learning, and a decrease occurs with progression in learning. However, the brain circuit underlying the regulation of VTE has not been thoroughly examined. In situations in which VTE often appears, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the amygdala (AMY) are crucial for learning and decision making. Our previous study reported that noradrenaline regulates VTE. Here, to investigate whether the mPFC and AMY are involved in regulation of VTE, we examined the effects of local injection of clonidine, an alpha2 adrenergic autoreceptor agonist, into either region in rats during VTE and choice behavior during a T-maze choice task. Injection of clonidine into either region impaired selection of the advantageous choice in the task. Furthermore, clonidine injection into the mPFC suppressed occurrence of VTE in the early phase of the task, whereas injection into the AMY inhibited the decrease in VTE in the later phase and thus maintained a high level of VTE throughout the task. These results suggest that the mPFC and AMY play a role in the increase and decrease in VTE, respectively, and that noradrenergic mechanisms mediate the dynamic regulation of VTE over experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple and efficient method to enhance audiovisual binding tendencies

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    Brian Odegaard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals vary in their tendency to bind signals from multiple senses. For the same set of sights and sounds, one individual may frequently integrate multisensory signals and experience a unified percept, whereas another individual may rarely bind them and often experience two distinct sensations. Thus, while this binding/integration tendency is specific to each individual, it is not clear how plastic this tendency is in adulthood, and how sensory experiences may cause it to change. Here, we conducted an exploratory investigation which provides evidence that (1 the brain’s tendency to bind in spatial perception is plastic, (2 that it can change following brief exposure to simple audiovisual stimuli, and (3 that exposure to temporally synchronous, spatially discrepant stimuli provides the most effective method to modify it. These results can inform current theories about how the brain updates its internal model of the surrounding sensory world, as well as future investigations seeking to increase integration tendencies.

  12. Handicrafts production: documentation and audiovisual dissemination as sociocultural appreciation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alvarenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of scientific research, technology and innovation project in the creative economy sector, conducted from January 2014 to January 2015 that aimed to document and disclose the artisans and handicraft production of Vila de Itaúnas, ES, Brasil. The process was developed from initial conversations, followed by planning and conducting participatory workshops for documentation and audiovisual dissemination around the production of handicrafts and its relation to biodiversity and local culture. The initial objective was to promote expression and diffusion spaces of knowledge among and for the local population, also reaching a regional, state and national public. Throughout the process, it was found that the participatory workshops and the collective production of a virtual site for disclosure of practices and products contributed to the development and socio-cultural recognition of artisan and craft in the region.

  13. Moedor de Pixels : interfaces, interações e audiovisual

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Jackson Marinho

    2016-01-01

    Moedor de Pixels: interfaces, interações e audiovisual é uma pesquisa teórica e prática sobre obras de arte que empregam meios audiovisuais e computacionais em contextos onde a participação e a interação do público tornam-se o centro da experiência estética. O estudo sugere que a videoarte envolve novos procedimentos na tecnologia do vídeo que deram impulso para explorações mais extensas no campo da arte mídia interativa. A pesquisa também destaca como a inclusão dos meios digitais fornece ex...

  14. The Digital Turn in the French Audiovisual Model

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    Olivier Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the digital turn in the French audiovisual model. An organizational and legal system has evolved with changing technology and economic forces over the past thirty years. The high-income television industry served as the key element during the 1980s to compensate for a shifting value economy from movie theaters to domestic screens and personal devices. However, the growing competition in the TV sector and the rise of tech companies have initiated a disruption process. A challenged French conception copyright, the weakened position of TV channels and the scaling of content market all now call into question the sustainability of the French model in a digital era.

  15. Vicarious Calibration of sUAS Microbolometer Temperature Imagery for Estimation of Radiometric Land Surface Temperature

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    Alfonso Torres-Rua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the availability of lightweight microbolometer thermal cameras compatible with small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS has allowed their use in diverse scientific and management activities that require sub-meter pixel resolution. Nevertheless, as with sensors already used in temperature remote sensing (e.g., Landsat satellites, a radiance atmospheric correction is necessary to estimate land surface temperature. This is because atmospheric conditions at any sUAS flight elevation will have an adverse impact on the image accuracy, derived calculations, and study replicability using the microbolometer technology. This study presents a vicarious calibration methodology (sUAS-specific, time-specific, flight-specific, and sensor-specific for sUAS temperature imagery traceable back to NIST-standards and current atmospheric correction methods. For this methodology, a three-year data collection campaign with a sUAS called “AggieAir”, developed at Utah State University, was performed for vineyards near Lodi, California, for flights conducted at different times (early morning, Landsat overpass, and mid-afternoon” and seasonal conditions. From the results of this study, it was found that, despite the spectral response of microbolometer cameras (7.0 to 14.0 μm, it was possible to account for the effects of atmospheric and sUAS operational conditions, regardless of time and weather, to acquire accurate surface temperature data. In addition, it was found that the main atmospheric correction parameters (transmissivity and atmospheric radiance significantly varied over the course of a day. These parameters fluctuated the most in early morning and partially stabilized in Landsat overpass and in mid-afternoon times. In terms of accuracy, estimated atmospheric correction parameters presented adequate statistics (confidence bounds under ±0.1 for transmissivity and ±1.2 W/m2/sr/um for atmospheric radiance, with a range of RMSE below 1.0 W/m2/sr

  16. The audiovisual structure of onomatopoeias: An intrusion of real-world physics in lexical creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisei, Natalia; Trípodi, Mónica; Cohen, Laurent; Sitt, Jacobo D.

    2018-01-01

    Sound-symbolic word classes are found in different cultures and languages worldwide. These words are continuously produced to code complex information about events. Here we explore the capacity of creative language to transport complex multisensory information in a controlled experiment, where our participants improvised onomatopoeias from noisy moving objects in audio, visual and audiovisual formats. We found that consonants communicate movement types (slide, hit or ring) mainly through the manner of articulation in the vocal tract. Vowels communicate shapes in visual stimuli (spiky or rounded) and sound frequencies in auditory stimuli through the configuration of the lips and tongue. A machine learning model was trained to classify movement types and used to validate generalizations of our results across formats. We implemented the classifier with a list of cross-linguistic onomatopoeias simple actions were correctly classified, while different aspects were selected to build onomatopoeias of complex actions. These results show how the different aspects of complex sensory information are coded and how they interact in the creation of novel onomatopoeias. PMID:29561853

  17. A LINGUAGEM AUDIOVISUAL COMO PRÁTICA ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Berle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio discute a relação entre o cinema e a escola para tematizar a linguagem audiovisual e suas implicações nas práticas escolares. Mesmo com o acesso a materiais e recursos audiovisuais, o cinema comparece no cotidiano escolar como apoio pedagógico diante da hierarquização e redução das linguagens à leitura e à escrita na educação das crianças. Para discutir a necessária pluralização de experiências com as linguagens, enquanto prática escolar, busca dialogar com a proposta de Jorge Larrosa, de substituir o par teoria/prática pelo par experiência/sentido para pensar a educação e com a concepção do humano como ser histórico e produtor de história em Paul Ricoeur. Nosso olhar de educadoras e pesquisadoras da infância interroga a naturalizada presença da linguagem audiovisual na educação das crianças, para destacar a desconsideração pela pluralidade de acessos midiáticos que as crianças podem interagir atualmente. Não reivindica a inclusão do cinema nos currículos, enquanto área de conhecimento a ser contemplada como “conteúdo”, mas aponta a importância do ampliar as aprendizagens, no cotidiano escolar, ao reivindicar a pluralização dos processos de aprender a complexificar repertórios linguageiros.

  18. On the Role of Crossmodal Prediction in Audiovisual Emotion Perception

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    Sarah eJessen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans rely on multiple sensory modalities to determine the emotional state of others. In fact, such multisensory perception may be one of the mechanisms explaining the ease and efficiency by which others’ emotions are recognized. But how and when exactly do the different modalities interact? One aspect in multisensory perception that has received increasing interest in recent years is the concept of crossmodal prediction. In emotion perception, as in most other settings, visual information precedes the auditory one. Thereby, leading in visual information can facilitate subsequent auditory processing. While this mechanism has often been described in audiovisual speech perception, it has not been addressed so far in audiovisual emotion perception. Based on the current state of the art in (a crossmodal prediction and (b multisensory emotion perception research, we propose that it is essential to consider the former in order to fully understand the latter. Focusing on electroencephalographic (EEG and magnetoencephalographic (MEG studies, we provide a brief overview of the current research in both fields. In discussing these findings, we suggest that emotional visual information may allow for a more reliable prediction of auditory information compared to non-emotional visual information. In support of this hypothesis, we present a re-analysis of a previous data set that shows an inverse correlation between the N1 response in the EEG and the duration of visual emotional but not non-emotional information. If the assumption that emotional content allows for more reliable predictions can be corroborated in future studies, crossmodal prediction is a crucial factor in our understanding of multisensory emotion perception.

  19. Convergent Cultures: The Disappearance of Commissioned Audiovisual Productions in The Netherlands

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    Bas Agterberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the changes in production and consumption in the audiovisual industry and the way the so-called ‘ephemeral’ commissioned productions are scarcely preserved. New technologies and the liberal economic policies and internationalisation changed the media landscape in the 1980s. Audiovisual companies created a broad range of products within the audiovisual industry. This also resulted in a democratisation of the use of media as well as new formats of programmes and distribution for commissioned productions. By looking at a specific company that recently handed over a collection to the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, challenges and issues of preserving video and digital and interactive audiovisual productions are discussed.

  20. The development of sensorimotor influences in the audiovisual speech domain: Some critical questions

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    Bahia eGuellaï

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Speech researchers have long been interested in how auditory and visual speech signals are integrated, and recent work has revived interest in the role of speech production with respect to this process. Here we discuss these issues from a developmental perspective. Because speech perception abilities typically outstrip speech production abilities in infancy and childhood, it is unclear how speech-like movements could influence audiovisual speech perception in development. While work on this question is still in its preliminary stages, there is nevertheless increasing evidence that sensorimotor processes (defined here as any motor or proprioceptive process related to orofacial movements affect developmental audiovisual speech processing. We suggest three areas on which to focus in future research: i the relation between audiovisual speech perception and sensorimotor processes at birth, ii the pathways through which sensorimotor processes interact with audiovisual speech processing in infancy, and iii developmental change in sensorimotor pathways as speech production emerges in childhood.

  1. The Use of Audio-Visual Media for the Education of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    An Indian adult educator discusses the value of "pleasure-oriented" audiovisual adult education, the use of both commercial and subsidized films, television, and radio for their educational potential. He notes several production needs and techniques. (MF)

  2. Audiovisual Webjournalism: An analysis of news on UOL News and on TV UERJ Online

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    Leila Nogueira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the development of audiovisual webjournalism on the Brazilian Internet. This paper, based on the analysis of UOL News on UOL TV – pioneer format on commercial web television - and of UERJ Online TV – first on-line university television in Brazil - investigates the changes in the gathering, production and dissemination processes of audiovisual news when it starts to be transmitted through the web. Reflections of authors such as Herreros (2003, Manovich (2001 and Gosciola (2003 are used to discuss the construction of audiovisual narrative on the web. To comprehend the current changes in today’s webjournalism, we draw on the concepts developed by Fidler (1997; Bolter and Grusin (1998; Machado (2000; Mattos (2002 and Palacios (2003. We may conclude that the organization of narrative elements in cyberspace makes for the efficiency of journalistic messages, while establishing the basis of a particular language for audiovisual news on the Internet.

  3. Strategies for media literacy: Audiovisual skills and the citizenship in Andalusia

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    Ignacio Aguaded-Gómez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Media consumption is an undeniable fact in present-day society. The hours that members of all social segments spend in front of a screen take up a large part of their leisure time worldwide. Audiovisual communication becomes especially important within the context of today’s digital society (society-network, where information and communication technologies pervade all corners of everyday life. However, people do not own enough audiovisual media skills to cope with this mass media omnipresence. Neither the education system nor civic associations, or the media themselves, have promoted audiovisual skills to make people critically competent when viewing media. This study aims to provide an updated conceptualization of the “audiovisual skill” in this digital environment and transpose it onto a specific interventional environment, seeking to detect needs and shortcomings, plan global strategies to be adopted by governments and devise training programmes for the various sectors involved.

  4. Adivinanzas audiovisuales para ejercitar el pensamiento creativo infantil Audiovisual Riddles to Stimulate Children’s Creative Thinking

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    Jorge Montalvo Castro

    2011-03-01

    acceptance among the digital natives? One way might be creating audiovisual riddles specially designed for YouTube. In this research we made five prototypes of audiovisual riddles with different creative characteristics and validated them among 8-12 years old students. The validation results helped us to identify the attitudes, reactions, interpretations and ways of thinking of children when they try to solve such riddles. We also identified the resources of language and creative formats that fit best in audio-visual riddles. The outcome of this research emphasizes the need to correctly formulate the audiovisual riddle statements and their «clues» for children; this way we assure an intellectual and emotional satisfaction when solving them. It also concludes that reading or listening to traditional riddles are cognitive and sensory experiences that are very different from interacting with the same riddle in a multimedia language. Finally, we discuss and analyze the mediating role of the teacher and the importance of collaborative learning in educational projects using digital technologies.

  5. Audio/visual analysis for high-speed TV advertisement detection from MPEG bitstream

    OpenAIRE

    Sadlier, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Advertisement breaks dunng or between television programmes are typically flagged by senes of black-and-silent video frames, which recurrendy occur in order to audio-visually separate individual advertisement spots from one another. It is the regular prevalence of these flags that enables automatic differentiauon between what is programme content and what is advertisement break. Detection of these audio-visual depressions within broadcast television content provides a basis on which advertise...

  6. Vicariance and dispersal across Baja California in disjunct marine fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Findley, Lloyd; Rocha-Olivares, Axayacatl

    2003-07-01

    Population disjunctions, as a first step toward complete allopatry, present an interesting situation to study incipient speciation. The geological formation of the Baja California Peninsula currently divides 19 species of fish into disjunct populations that are found on its Pacific Coast and in the northern part of the Gulf of California (also called the Sea of Cortez), but are absent from the Cape (Cabo San Lucas) region. We studied the genetic makeup of disjunct populations for 12 of these 19 fish species. Phylogeographic patterns for the 12 species can be separated into two major classes: a first group (eight species) showed reciprocal monophyly and high genetic divergence between disjunct populations. A second group (four species) displayed what appeared to be panmictic populations. Population structure between Pacific Coast populations, across the Punta Eugenia biogeographic boundary, was also evaluated. While dispersal potential (inferred by pelagic larval duration) was a poor predictor of population structure between Gulf of California and Pacific populations, we found that population genetic subdivision along the Pacific Coast at Punta Eugenia was always positively correlated with differentiation between Pacific and Gulf of California populations. Vicariant events, ongoing gene flow, and ecological characteristics played essential roles in shaping the population structures observed in this study.

  7. Drought responses of three closely related Caragana species: implication for their vicarious distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Na, Xiaofan; Xu, Tingting

    2016-05-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and distribution of plants in the desert region of the Inner Mongolia plateau. Caragana microphylla, C. liouana, and C. korshinskii are phylogenetically close but distribute vicariously in Mongolia plateau. To gain a better understanding of the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined the leaf gas exchange, growth, water use efficiency, biomass accumulation and allocation by subjecting their seedlings to low and high drought treatments in a glasshouse. Increasing drought stress had a significant effect on many aspects of seedling performance in all species, but the physiology and growth varied with species in response to drought. C. korshinskii exhibited lower sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and growth, lower specific leaf area, higher biomass allocation to roots, higher levels of water use efficiency to drought compared with the other two species. Only minor interspecific differences in growth performances were observed between C. liouana and C. microphylla. These results indicated that faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use of C. korshinskii should confer increased drought tolerance and facilitate its establishment in more severe drought regions relative to C. liouana and C. microphylla.

  8. Subtitled television series inside the efl classroom: long-term effects upon colloquial language learning and oral production

    OpenAIRE

    Frumuselu, Anca Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the extent to which the use of subtitled and captioned audiovisual materials enhance informal and colloquial language learning and foster oral production. An initial quasi-experimental study sought to explore whether the L1/standard subtitled or L2/captioned audiovisuals are more profitable for EFL informal and colloquial language learning and recall. 49 participants were randomly divided into two subtitle groups: English sound + Spanish subtitles and English sou...

  9. Inconspicuous portable audio/visual recording: transforming an IV pole into a mobile video capture stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettineo, Christopher M; Vozenilek, John A; Kharasch, Morris; Wang, Ernest; Aitchison, Pam; Arreguin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Although a traditional simulation laboratory may have excellent installed audio/visual capabilities, often large classes overwhelm the limited space in the laboratory. With minimal monetary investment, it is possible to create a portable audio/visual stand from an old IV pole. An IV pole was transformed into an audio/visual stand to overcome the burden of transporting individual electronic components during a patient safety research project conducted in an empty patient room with a standardized patient. The materials and methods for making the modified IV pole are outlined in this article. The limiting factor of production is access to an old IV pole; otherwise a few purchases from an electronics store complete the audio/visual IV pole. The modified IV pole is a cost-effective and portable solution to limited space or the need for audio/visual capabilities outside of a simulation laboratory. The familiarity of an IV pole in a clinical setting reduces the visual disturbance of relocated audio/visual equipment in a room previously void of such instrumentation.

  10. GÖRSEL-İŞİTSEL ÇEVİRİ / AUDIOVISUAL TRANSLATION

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    Sevtap GÜNAY KÖPRÜLÜ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual translation dating back to the silent film era is a special translation method which has been developed for the translation of the movies and programs shown on TV and cinema. Therefore, in the beginning, the term “film translation” was used for this type of translation. Due to the growing number of audiovisual texts it has attracted the interest of scientists and has been assessed under the translation studies. Also in our country the concept of film translation was used for this area, but recently, the concept of audio-visual has been used. Since it not only encompasses the films but also covers all the audio-visual communicatian tools as well, especially in scientific field. In this study, the aspects are analyzed which should be taken into consideration by the translator during the audio-visual translation process within the framework of source text, translated text, film, technical knowledge and knowledge. At the end of the study, it is shown that there are some factors, apart from linguistic and paralinguistic factors and they must be considered carefully as they can influence the quality of the translation. And it is also shown that the given factors require technical knowledge in translation. In this sense, the audio-visual translation is accessed from a different angle compared to the other researches which have been done.

  11. Developmental Trajectory of Audiovisual Speech Integration in Early Infancy. A Review of Studies Using the McGurk Paradigm

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    Tomalski Przemysław

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from their remarkable phonological skills young infants prior to their first birthday show ability to match the mouth articulation they see with the speech sounds they hear. They are able to detect the audiovisual conflict of speech and to selectively attend to articulating mouth depending on audiovisual congruency. Early audiovisual speech processing is an important aspect of language development, related not only to phonological knowledge, but also to language production during subsequent years. Th is article reviews recent experimental work delineating the complex developmental trajectory of audiovisual mismatch detection. Th e central issue is the role of age-related changes in visual scanning of audiovisual speech and the corresponding changes in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in the second half of the first year of life. Th is phenomenon is discussed in the context of recent theories of perceptual development and existing data on the neural organisation of the infant ‘social brain’.

  12. Gestión documental de la información audiovisual deportiva en las televisiones generalistas

    Documentary management of the sport audio-visual information in the generalist televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Caldera Serrano; Felipe Zapico Alonso

    2005-01-01

    Se analiza la gestión de la información audiovisual deportiva en el marco de los Sistemas de Información Documental de las cadenas estatales, zonales y locales. Para ello se realiza un realiza un recorrido por la cadena documental que realiza la información audiovisual deportiva con el fin de ir analizando cada uno de los parámetros, mostrando así una serie de recomendaciones y normativas para la confección del registro audiovisual deportivo. Evidentemente la documentación deportiva audiovisu...

  13. Desarrollo de una prueba de comprensión audiovisual

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    Casañ Núñez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una investigación doctoral que estudia el uso de preguntas de comprensión audiovisual integradas en la imagen del vídeo como subtítulos y sincronizadas con los fragmentos de vídeo relevantes. Anteriormente se han publicado un marco teórico que describe esta técnica (Casañ Núñez, 2015b y un ejemplo en una secuencia didáctica (Casañ Núñez, 2015a. El presente trabajo detalla el proceso de planificación, diseño y experimentación de una prueba de comprensión audiovisual con dos variantes que será administrada junto con otros instrumentos en estudios cuasiexperimentales con grupos de control y tratamiento. Fundamentalmente, se pretende averiguar si la subtitulación de las preguntas facilita la comprensión, si aumenta el tiempo que los estudiantes miran en dirección a la pantalla y conocer la opinión del grupo de tratamiento sobre esta técnica. En la fase de experimentación se efectuaron seis estudios. En el último estudio piloto participaron cuarenta y un estudiantes de ELE (veintidós en el grupo de control y diecinueve en el de tratamiento. Las observaciones de los informantes durante la administración de la prueba y su posterior corrección sugirieron que las indicaciones sobre la estructura del test, las presentaciones de los textos de entrada, la explicación sobre el funcionamiento de las preguntas subtituladas para el grupo experimental y la redacción de los ítems resultaron comprensibles. Los datos de las dos variantes del instrumento se sometieron a sendos análisis de facilidad, discriminación, fiabilidad y descriptivos. También se calcularon las correlaciones entre los test y dos tareas de un examen de comprensión auditiva. Los resultados mostraron que las dos versiones de la prueba estaban preparadas para ser administradas.

  14. Supervised Vicarious Calibration (SVC of Multi-Source Hyperspectral Remote-Sensing Data

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    Anna Brook

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduced in 2011, the supervised vicarious calibration (SVC approach is a promising approach to radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction of airborne hyperspectral (HRS data. This paper presents a comprehensive study by which the SVC method has been systematically examined and a complete protocol for its practical execution has been established—along with possible limitations encountered during the campaign. The technique was applied to multi-sourced HRS data in order to: (1 verify the at-sensor radiometric calibration and (2 obtain radiometric and atmospheric correction coefficients. Spanning two select study sites along the southeast coast of France, data were collected simultaneously by three airborne sensors (AisaDUAL, AHS and CASI-1500i aboard two aircrafts (CASA of National Institute for Aerospace Technology INTA ES and DORNIER 228 of NERC-ARSF Centre UK. The SVC ground calibration site was assembled along sand dunes near Montpellier and the thematic data were acquired from other areas in the south of France (Salon-de-Provence, Marseille, Avignon and Montpellier on 28 October 2010 between 12:00 and 16:00 UTC. The results of this study confirm that the SVC method enables reliable inspection and, if necessary, in-situ fine radiometric recalibration of airborne hyperspectral data. Independent of sensor or platform quality, the SVC approach allows users to improve at-sensor data to obtain more accurate physical units and subsequently improved reflectance information. Flight direction was found to be important, whereas the flight altitude posed very low impact. The numerous rules and major outcomes of this experiment enable a new standard of atmospherically corrected data based on better radiometric output. Future research should examine the potential of SVC to be applied to super-and-hyperspectral data obtained from on-orbit sensors.

  15. The endemic Patagonian vespertilionid assemblage is a depauperate ecomorphological vicariant of species-rich neotropical assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Norberto P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Vespertilionidae is the most diverse chiropteran family, and its diversity is concentrated in warm regions of the World; however, due to physiological and behavioral adaptations, these bats also dominate bat faunas in temperate regions. Here we performed a comparative study of vespertilionid assemblages from two broad regions of the New World, the cold and harsh Patagonia, versus the remaining temperate-to-subtropical, extra-Patagonian eco-regions of the South American Southern Cone. We took an ecomorphological approach and analyzed the craniodental morphological structure of these assemblages within a phylogenetic framework. We measured 17 craniodental linear variables from 447 specimens of 22 currently recognized vespertilionid species of the study regions. We performed a multivariate analysis to define the morphofunctional space, and calculated the pattern and degree of species packing for each assemblage. We assessed the importance of phylogeny and biogeography, and their impact on depauperate (Patagonian) versus rich (extra-Patagonian) vespertilionid assemblages as determinants of morphospace structuring. We implemented a sensitivity analysis associated to small samples of rare species. The morphological patterns were determined chiefly by the evolutionary history of the family. The Patagonian assemblage can be described as a structurally similar but comparatively depauperate ecomorphological version of those assemblages from neighboring extra-Patagonian eco-regions. The Patagonian assemblage seems to have formed by successively adding populations from Northern regions that eventually speciated in the region, leaving corresponding sisters (vicariants) in extra-Patagonian eco-regions that continued to be characteristically richer. Despite being structurally akin, degree of species packing in Patagonia was comparatively very low, which may reflect the effect of limited dispersal success into a harsh region for bat survival. PMID:29492009

  16. Linguagem Audiovisual no Ensino de Química

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    T. A. Almeida

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As fortes mudanças no cenário educacional relacionadas às tecnologias colocam em pauta a forma como o ensino é ministrado, ou ainda, como prender a atenção dos alunos nessa era digital. Nesse contexto as mídias audiovisuais tornaram-se uma grande contribuinte para o ensino de ciências. A ideia base do projeto foi usar da linguagem audiovisual (vídeos como metodologia alternativa no ensino e aprendizagem de Química. Para isso, com observações, criação e apresentação de um vídeo e formulação de questionários (antes e depois da exposição do vídeo, foi possível visualizar e explorar o que os alunos sabem sobre a teoria atômica e sua historicidade, além de buscar corrigir e modificar a visão que os estudantes possuem do átomo. As respostas dos questionários aplicados mostram que os estudantes possuem uma visão fragmentada dos modelos atômicos, porém, com o vídeo e as discussões foi possível sanar alguns dos erros conceituais identificados.

  17. Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

  18. Audio-Visual Integration Modifies Emotional Judgment in Music

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    Shen-Yuan Su

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The conventional view that perceived emotion in music is derived mainly from auditory signals has led to neglect of the contribution of visual image. In this study, we manipulated mode (major vs. minor and examined the influence of a video image on emotional judgment in music. Melodies in either major or minor mode were controlled for tempo and rhythm and played to the participants. We found that Taiwanese participants, like Westerners, judged major melodies as expressing positive, and minor melodies negative, emotions. The major or minor melodies were then paired with video images of the singers, which were either emotionally congruent or incongruent with their modes. Results showed that participants perceived stronger positive or negative emotions with congruent audio-visual stimuli. Compared to listening to music alone, stronger emotions were perceived when an emotionally congruent video image was added and weaker emotions were perceived when an incongruent image was added. We therefore demonstrate that mode is important to perceive the emotional valence in music and that treating musical art as a purely auditory event might lose the enhanced emotional strength perceived in music, since going to a concert may lead to stronger perceived emotion than listening to the CD at home.

  19. Audio-Visual Perception System for a Humanoid Robotic Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M.; Bandera, Juan P.; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework. PMID:24878593

  20. Aging Effect on Audiovisual Integrative Processing in Spatial Discrimination Task

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    Zhi Zou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration is an essential process that people employ daily, from conversing in social gatherings to navigating the nearby environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aging on modulating multisensory integrative processes using event-related potential (ERP, and the validity of the study was improved by including “noise” in the contrast conditions. Older and younger participants were involved in perceiving visual and/or auditory stimuli that contained spatial information. The participants responded by indicating the spatial direction (far vs. near and left vs. right conveyed in the stimuli using different wrist movements. electroencephalograms (EEGs were captured in each task trial, along with the accuracy and reaction time of the participants’ motor responses. Older participants showed a greater extent of behavioral improvements in the multisensory (as opposed to unisensory condition compared to their younger counterparts. Older participants were found to have fronto-centrally distributed super-additive P2, which was not the case for the younger participants. The P2 amplitude difference between the multisensory condition and the sum of the unisensory conditions was found to correlate significantly with performance on spatial discrimination. The results indicated that the age-related effect modulated the integrative process in the perceptual and feedback stages, particularly the evaluation of auditory stimuli. Audiovisual (AV integration may also serve a functional role during spatial-discrimination processes to compensate for the compromised attention function caused by aging.

  1. TDT y servicio público. Retos del audiovisual iberoamericano

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    Francisco Sierra Caballero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué viabilidad tienen los medios públicos en Latinoamérica? ¿La radiotelevisión pública está acometiendo con garantías de éxito los retos de la Sociedad de la Información? ¿Qué sentido tiene hoy plantear la defensa del servicio público audiovisual ante la convergencia tecnológica que lideran las industrias culturales y los operadores privados? Son las preguntas que se intentan responder a partir de un análisis de situación de los medios públicos en la región. Se establecen tres retos importantes para que la radio televisión pública pueda ser una vía plausible: políticas culturales, apertura del espacio público y la democracia nacional, y acceso de las minorías y el pluralismo cultural.

  2. Interpreters’ Experiences of Transferential Dynamics, Vicarious Traumatisation, and Their Need for Support and Supervision: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Emma Darroch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using thematic analysis, this systematic review aimed to explore sign language interpreters’ experiences of transferential dynamics and vicarious trauma. The notion of transferential dynamics, such as transference and countertransference, originate from psychodynamic therapy and refer to the mutual impact that client and therapist have on one another (Chessick, 1986. Psychodynamic models of therapy are predominantly concerned with unconscious processes and theorise that such processes have a powerful influence over an individuals’ thoughts, feelings and behaviours (Howard, 2011. In contrast to countertransference, which is a immediate response to a particular client, vicarious trauma is thought to develop as a result of continuous exposure to, and engagement across, many therapeutic interactions (Pearlman & Saakvitne, 1995a. A search of the available literature uncovered a striking lack of literature into the experiences of sign language interpreters, and in all, only two of the 11 identified empirical studies addressed sign language interpreters. The vast majority of the literature analysed reflected the experiences of spoken language interpreters. The results indicate that interpreters experience transferential dynamics as part of their work as well as suggesting the presence of vicarious trauma among interpreters. Additionally, a unique contribution to the fields of interpreting and psychology is offered, as it is consistently demonstrated that ‘service providers’ and ‘mental health workers’, which are umbrella terms for psychologists, immensely under-estimate the role of interpreters, as they fail to consider the emotional impact of their work and ignore the linguistic complexities of translation by failing to appreciate their need for information in order to ensure an effective translation.

  3. Vicarious calibration of the solar reflection channels of radiometers onboard satellites through the field campaigns with measurements of refractive index and size distribution of aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, K.

    A comparative study on vicarious calibration for the solar reflection channels of radiometers onboard satellite through the field campaigns between with and without measurements of refractive index and size distribution of aerosols is made. In particular, it is noticed that the influence due to soot from the cars exhaust has to be care about for the test sites near by a heavy trafficked roads. It is found that the 0.1% inclusion of soot induces around 10% vicarious calibration error so that it is better to measure refractive index properly at the test site. It is found that the vicarious calibration coefficients with the field campaigns at the different test site, Ivanpah (near road) and Railroad (distant from road) shows approximately 10% discrepancy. It seems that one of the possible causes for the difference is the influence due to soot from cars exhaust.

  4. Vicariously touching products through observing others' hand actions increases purchasing intention, and the effect of visual perspective in this process: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zang, Xuelian; Chen, Lihan; Assumpção, Leonardo; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    The growth of online shopping increases consumers' dependence on vicarious sensory experiences, such as observing others touching products in commercials. However, empirical evidence on whether observing others' sensory experiences increases purchasing intention is still scarce. In the present study, participants observed others interacting with products in the first- or third-person perspective in video clips, and their neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated (1) whether and how vicariously touching certain products affected purchasing intention, and the neural correlates of this process; and (2) how visual perspective interacts with vicarious tactility. Vicarious tactile experiences were manipulated by hand actions touching or not touching the products, while the visual perspective was manipulated by showing the hand actions either in first- or third-person perspective. During the fMRI scanning, participants watched the video clips and rated their purchasing intention for each product. The results showed that, observing others touching (vs. not touching) the products increased purchasing intention, with vicarious neural responses found in mirror neuron systems (MNS) and lateral occipital complex (LOC). Moreover, the stronger neural activities in MNS was associated with higher purchasing intention. The effects of visual perspectives were found in left superior parietal lobule (SPL), while the interaction of tactility and visual perspective was shown in precuneus and precuneus-LOC connectivity. The present study provides the first evidence that vicariously touching a given product increased purchasing intention and the neural activities in bilateral MNS, LOC, left SPL and precuneus are involved in this process. Hum Brain Mapp 39:332-343, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neurofunctional underpinnings of audiovisual emotion processing in teens with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Krissy A.R. Doyle-Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n=18 and typically developing controls (n=16 during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing . Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviours, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that during audiovisual emotion matching individuals with ASD may rely on a parietofrontal network to compensate for atypical brain activity elsewhere.

  6. Speech and non-speech audio-visual illusions: a developmental study.

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    Corinne Tremblay

    Full Text Available It is well known that simultaneous presentation of incongruent audio and visual stimuli can lead to illusory percepts. Recent data suggest that distinct processes underlie non-specific intersensory speech as opposed to non-speech perception. However, the development of both speech and non-speech intersensory perception across childhood and adolescence remains poorly defined. Thirty-eight observers aged 5 to 19 were tested on the McGurk effect (an audio-visual illusion involving speech, the Illusory Flash effect and the Fusion effect (two audio-visual illusions not involving speech to investigate the development of audio-visual interactions and contrast speech vs. non-speech developmental patterns. Whereas the strength of audio-visual speech illusions varied as a direct function of maturational level, performance on non-speech illusory tasks appeared to be homogeneous across all ages. These data support the existence of independent maturational processes underlying speech and non-speech audio-visual illusory effects.

  7. Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events

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    Jeroen eStekelenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands, the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have already reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when versus phonetic/semantic (which content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual part of the audiovisual stimulus. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical subadditive amplitude reductions (AV – V < A were found for the auditory N1 and P2 for spatially congruent and incongruent conditions. The new finding is that the N1 suppression was larger for spatially congruent stimuli. A very early audiovisual interaction was also found at 30-50 ms in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing.

  8. Situación actual de la traducción audiovisual en Colombia

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    Jeffersson David Orrego Carmona

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: el presente artículo tiene dos objetivos: dar a conocer el panorama general del mercado actual de la traducción audiovisual en Colombia y resaltar la importancia de desarrollar estudios en esta área. Método: la metodología empleada incluyó investigación y lectura de bibliografía relacionada con el tema, aplicación de encuestas a diferentes grupos vinculados con la traducción audiovisual y el posterior análisis. Resultados: éstos mostraron el desconocimiento general que hay sobre esta labor y las preferencias de los grupos encuestados sobre las modalidades de traducción audiovisual. Se pudo observar que hay una marcada preferencia por el subtitulaje, por razones particulares de cada grupo. Conclusiones: los traductores colombianos necesitan un entrenamiento en traducción audiovisual para satisfacer las demandas del mercado y se resalta la importancia de desarrollar estudios más profundos enfocados en el desarrollo de la traducción audiovisual en Colombia.

  9. THE AUDIO-VISUAL DISTRACTION MINIMIZES THE CHILDREN’S LEVEL OF ANXIETY DURING CIRCUMCISION

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    Farida Juanita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Circumcision is one of minor surgery that usually done for school age children. Most of the children appear to be anxious enough. Audio-visual distraction is one of the methods that researcher want to applied to decrease children’s anxiety level during circumcision. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of audio-visual distraction to decrease children’s anxiety level during circumcision. Method: Non randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used in this study. There were 21 children divided into two groups, control group (n=13 receive intervention as usual, otherwise the intervention group (n=8 receive audio-visual distraction during circumcision. By using self report (scale of anxiety and physiological measures of anxiety (pulse rate per minute, children are evaluated before and after the intervention. Result:  The result showed that audio-visual distraction is efective to decrease the anxiety level of school age children during cicumcision with significance difference on the decrease of anxiety level between control and intervention group (p=0.000 and significance difference on the pulse rate per minute between control and intervention group (p=0.006. Discussion: It can be concluded that by applying the audio-visual distraction during circumcision could be minimized the children’s anxiety. The audio visual is needed for children to manage and reduce anxiety during invasive therapy through mecanism of distraction.

  10. Do gender differences in audio-visual benefit and visual influence in audio-visual speech perception emerge with age?

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    Magnus eAlm

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender and age have been found to affect adults’ audio-visual (AV speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years and middle-aged adults (50-60 years with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females’ general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females’ speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy towards more visually dominated responses.

  11. How can audiovisual pathways enhance the temporal resolution of time-compressed speech in blind subjects?

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    Ingo eHertrich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In blind people, the visual channel cannot assist face-to-face communication via lipreading or visual prosody. Nevertheless, the visual system may enhance the evaluation of auditory information due to its cross-links to (1 the auditory system, (2 supramodal representations, and (3 frontal action-related areas. Apart from feedback or top-down support of, for example, the processing of spatial or phonological representations, experimental data have shown that the visual system can impact auditory perception at more basic computational stages such as temporal resolution. For example, blind as compared to sighted subjects are more resistant against backward masking, and this ability appears to be associated with activity in visual cortex. Regarding the comprehension of continuous speech, blind subjects can learn to use accelerated text-to-speech systems for "reading" texts at ultra-fast speaking rates (> 16 syllables/s, exceeding by far the normal range of 6 syllables/s. An fMRI study has shown that this ability, among other brain regions, significantly covaries with BOLD responses in bilateral pulvinar, right visual cortex, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, magnetoencephalographic (MEG measurements revealed a particular component in right occipital cortex phase-locked to the syllable onsets of accelerated speech. In sighted people, the "bottleneck" for understanding time-compressed speech seems related to a demand for buffering phonological material and is, presumably, linked to frontal brain structures. On the other hand, the neurophysiological correlates of functions overcoming this bottleneck, seem to depend upon early visual cortex activity. The present Hypothesis and Theory paper outlines a model that aims at binding these data together, based on early cross-modal pathways that are already known from various audiovisual experiments considering cross-modal adjustments in space, time, and object recognition.

  12. The rationale for combining an online audiovisual curriculum with simulation to better educate general surgery trainees.

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    AlJamal, Yazan N; Ali, Shahzad M; Ruparel, Raaj K; Brahmbhatt, Rushin D; Yadav, Siddhant; Farley, David R

    2014-09-01

    Surgery interns' training has historically been weighted toward patient care, operative observation, and sleeping when possible. With more protected free time and less clinical time, real educational hours for trainees in 2013 are precious. We created a 20-session (3 hours each) simulation curriculum (with pre- and post-tests) and a 24/7 online audiovisual (AV) curriculum for surgery interns. Friday morning simulation sessions emphasize operative skills and judgment. AV clips (using operating room, whiteboard, and simulation center videos) take learners through 20 different general surgery operations with follow-up quizzes. We report our early experience with this novel setup. Thirty-two surgical interns (2012-2013) attended simulation sessions on 20 separate subjects (hernia, breast, hepatobiliary, endocrine, etc). Post-test scores improved (P 4.5; Likert scale, 1-5). The AV curriculum feedback is similar (mean, >4.3) and usage is available 24/7 preparing learners for both operating room and simulation sessions. Most simulation sessions utilize low-fidelity models to keep costs <$50 per session. Scores on our semiannual Surgical Olympics (mean score of 49.6 in July vs 82.9 in January; P < .05) improved significantly, suggesting that interns are improving their surgical skills and knowledge. Residents enjoy and learn from the step-by-step, in-house, AV curriculum and both appreciate and thrive on the 'hands-on' simulation sessions mimicking operations they see in real operating rooms. The cost of these programs is not prohibitive and the programs offer simulated repetitions for duty-hour-regulated trainees. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals

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    Shahram Moradi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA users (n = 20 with elderly normal-hearing (ENH listeners (n = 20 in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.

  14. ACES Human Sexuality Training Network Handbook. A Compilation of Sexuality Course Syllabi and Audio-Visual Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Counseling and Development, Alexandria, VA.

    This handbook contains a compilation of human sexuality course syllabi and audio-visual materials. It was developed to enable sex educators to identify and contact one another, to compile Human Sexuality Course Syllabi from across the country, and to bring to attention audio-visual materials which are available for teaching Human Sexuality…

  15. Absent Audiovisual Integration Elicited by Peripheral Stimuli in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Yanna Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia, which have been shown to be a significant multisensory hub, are disordered in Parkinson’s disease (PD. This study was to investigate the audiovisual integration of peripheral stimuli in PD patients with/without sleep disturbances. Thirty-six age-matched normal controls (NC and 30 PD patients were recruited for an auditory/visual discrimination experiment. The mean response times for each participant were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and race model. The results showed that the response to all stimuli was significantly delayed for PD compared to NC (all p0.05. The current results showed that audiovisual multisensory integration for peripheral stimuli is absent in PD regardless of sleep disturbances and further suggested the abnormal audiovisual integration might be a potential early manifestation of PD.

  16. [From oral history to the research film: the audiovisual as a tool of the historian].

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    Mattos, Hebe; Abreu, Martha; Castro, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    An analytical essay of the process of image production, audiovisual archive formation, analysis of sources, and creation of the filmic narrative of the four historiographic films that form the DVD set Passados presentes (Present pasts) from the Oral History and Image Laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (Labhoi/UFF). From excerpts from the audiovisual archive of Labhoi and the films made, the article analyzes: how the problem of research (the memory of slavery, and the legacy of the slave song in the agrofluminense region) led us to the production of images in a research situation; the analytical shift in relation to the cinematographic documentary and the ethnographic film; the specificities of revisiting the audiovisual collection constituted by the formulation of new research problems.

  17. Robot Command Interface Using an Audio-Visual Speech Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Alexánder; Gómez, Juan; Prieto, Flavio; Redarce, Tanneguy

    In recent years audio-visual speech recognition has emerged as an active field of research thanks to advances in pattern recognition, signal processing and machine vision. Its ultimate goal is to allow human-computer communication using voice, taking into account the visual information contained in the audio-visual speech signal. This document presents a command's automatic recognition system using audio-visual information. The system is expected to control the laparoscopic robot da Vinci. The audio signal is treated using the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients parametrization method. Besides, features based on the points that define the mouth's outer contour according to the MPEG-4 standard are used in order to extract the visual speech information.

  18. A Similarity-Based Approach for Audiovisual Document Classification Using Temporal Relation Analysis

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    Ferrane Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a novel approach for video classification that bases on the analysis of the temporal relationships between the basic events in audiovisual documents. Starting from basic segmentation results, we define a new representation method that is called Temporal Relation Matrix (TRM. Each document is then described by a set of TRMs, the analysis of which makes events of a higher level stand out. This representation has been first designed to analyze any audiovisual document in order to find events that may well characterize its content and its structure. The aim of this work is to use this representation to compute a similarity measure between two documents. Approaches for audiovisual documents classification are presented and discussed. Experimentations are done on a set of 242 video documents and the results show the efficiency of our proposals.

  19. Audiovisual distraction reduces pain perception during shockwave lithotripsy.

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    Marsdin, Emma; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2012-05-01

    Lithotripsy is an established method to fragment kidney stones that can be performed without general anesthesia in the outpatient setting. Discomfort and/or noise, however, may deter some patients. It has been demonstrated that audiovisual distraction (AV) can reduce sedoanalgesic requirements and improve patient satisfaction in nonurologic settings, but to our knowledge, this has not been investigated with lithotripsy. This randomized controlled trial was designed to test the hypothesis that AV distraction can reduce perceived pain during lithotripsy. All patients in the study received identical analgesia before a complete session of lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter. Patients were randomized to two groups: One group (n=61) received AV distraction via a wall-mounted 32″ (82 cm) television with wireless headphones; the other group (n=57) received no AV distraction. The mean intensity of treatment was comparable in both groups. Patients used a visual analogue scale (0-10) to record independent pain and distress scores and a nonverbal pain score was documented by the radiographer during the procedure (0-4). In the group that received AV distraction, all measures of pain perception were statistically lower. The patient-reported pain score was reduced from a mean of 6.1 to 2.4 (P<0.0001), and the distress score was reduced from a mean of 4.4 to 1.0 (P=0.0001). The mean nonverbal score recorded by the radiographer was reduced from 1.5 to 0.5 (<0.0001). AV distraction significantly lowered patients' reported pain and distress scores. This correlated with the nonverbal scores reported by the radiographer. We conclude that AV distraction is a simple method of improving acceptance of lithotripsy and optimizing treatment.

  20. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes.

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    Mohammad eAdeli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g. simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e. its shape, color (or grayscale and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. 119 subjects (31 females and 88 males participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians and 36 claimed non-musicians. 31 subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre.

  1. AUDIOVISUAL RESOURCES ON THE TEACHING PROCESS IN SURGICAL TECHNIQUE.

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    Pupulim, Guilherme Luiz Lenzi; Ioris, Rafael Augusto; Gama, Ricardo Ribeiro; Ribas, Carmen Australia Paredes Marcondes; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Gama, Mirnaluci

    2015-01-01

    The development of didactic means to create opportunities to permit complete and repetitive viewing of surgical procedures is of great importance nowadays due to the increasing difficulty of doing in vivo training. Thus, audiovisual resources favor the maximization of living resources used in education, and minimize problems arising only with verbalism. To evaluate the use of digital video as a pedagogical strategy in surgical technique teaching in medical education. Cross-sectional study with 48 students of the third year of medicine, when studying in the surgical technique discipline. They were divided into two groups with 12 in pairs, both subject to the conventional method of teaching, and one of them also exposed to alternative method (video) showing the technical details. All students did phlebotomy in the experimental laboratory, with evaluation and assistance of the teacher/monitor while running. Finally, they answered a self-administered questionnaire related to teaching method when performing the operation. Most of those who did not watch the video took longer time to execute the procedure, did more questions and needed more faculty assistance. The total exposed to video followed the chronology of implementation and approved the new method; 95.83% felt able to repeat the procedure by themselves, and 62.5% of those students that only had the conventional method reported having regular capacity of technique assimilation. In both groups mentioned having regular difficulty, but those who have not seen the video had more difficulty in performing the technique. The traditional method of teaching associated with the video favored the ability to understand and transmitted safety, particularly because it is activity that requires technical skill. The technique with video visualization motivated and arouse interest, facilitated the understanding and memorization of the steps for procedure implementation, benefiting the students performance.

  2. Audiovisual deficits in older adults with hearing loss: biological evidence.

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    Musacchia, Gabriella; Arum, Laurie; Nicol, Trent; Garstecki, Dean; Kraus, Nina

    2009-10-01

    To examine the impact of hearing loss (HL) on audiovisual (AV) processing in the aging population. We hypothesized that age-related HL would have a pervasive effect on sensory processing, extending beyond the auditory domain. Specifically, we predicted that decreased auditory input to the neural system, in the form of HL over time, would have deleterious effects on multisensory mechanisms. This study compared AV processing between older adults with normal hearing (N = 12) and older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural HL (N = 12). To do this, we recorded cortical evoked potentials that were elicited by watching and listening to recordings of a speaker saying the syllable "bi." Stimuli were presented in three conditions: when hearing the syllable "bi" (auditory), when viewing a person say "bi" (visual), and when seeing and hearing the syllables simultaneously (AV). Presentation level of the auditory stimulus was set to +30 dB SL for each listener to equalize auditory input across groups. In the AV condition, the normal-hearing group showed a clear and consistent decrease in P1 and N1 latencies as well as a reduction in P1 amplitude compared with the sum of the unimodal components (auditory + visual). These integration effects were absent or less consistent in HL participants. Despite controlling for auditory sensation level, visual influence on auditory processing was significantly less pronounced in HL individuals compared with controls, indicating diminished AV integration in this population. These results demonstrate that HL has a deleterious effect on how older adults combine what they see and hear. Although auditory amplification vastly improves the communication abilities in most hearing impaired individuals, the associated atrophy of multisensory mechanisms may contribute to a patient's difficulty in everyday settings. Our findings and related studies emphasize the potential value of multimodal tasks and stimuli in the assessment and rehabilitation of

  3. Does hearing aid use affect audiovisual integration in mild hearing impairment?

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    Gieseler, Anja; Tahden, Maike A S; Thiel, Christiane M; Colonius, Hans

    2018-02-16

    There is converging evidence for altered audiovisual integration abilities in hearing-impaired individuals and those with profound hearing loss who are provided with cochlear implants, compared to normal-hearing adults. Still, little is known on the effects of hearing aid use on audiovisual integration in mild hearing loss, although this constitutes one of the most prevalent conditions in the elderly and, yet, often remains untreated in its early stages. This study investigated differences in the strength of audiovisual integration between elderly hearing aid users and those with the same degree of mild hearing loss who were not using hearing aids, the non-users, by measuring their susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion. We also explored the corresponding window of integration by varying the stimulus onset asynchronies. To examine general group differences that are not attributable to specific hearing aid settings but rather reflect overall changes associated with habitual hearing aid use, the group of hearing aid users was tested unaided while individually controlling for audibility. We found greater audiovisual integration together with a wider window of integration in hearing aid users compared to their age-matched untreated peers. Signal detection analyses indicate that a change in perceptual sensitivity as well as in bias may underlie the observed effects. Our results and comparisons with other studies in normal-hearing older adults suggest that both mild hearing impairment and hearing aid use seem to affect audiovisual integration, possibly in the sense that hearing aid use may reverse the effects of hearing loss on audiovisual integration. We suggest that these findings may be particularly important for auditory rehabilitation and call for a longitudinal study.

  4. Reproducibility and discriminability of brain patterns of semantic categories enhanced by congruent audiovisual stimuli.

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    Yuanqing Li

    Full Text Available One of the central questions in cognitive neuroscience is the precise neural representation, or brain pattern, associated with a semantic category. In this study, we explored the influence of audiovisual stimuli on the brain patterns of concepts or semantic categories through a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment. We used a pattern search method to extract brain patterns corresponding to two semantic categories: "old people" and "young people." These brain patterns were elicited by semantically congruent audiovisual, semantically incongruent audiovisual, unimodal visual, and unimodal auditory stimuli belonging to the two semantic categories. We calculated the reproducibility index, which measures the similarity of the patterns within the same category. We also decoded the semantic categories from these brain patterns. The decoding accuracy reflects the discriminability of the brain patterns between two categories. The results showed that both the reproducibility index of brain patterns and the decoding accuracy were significantly higher for semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli than for unimodal visual and unimodal auditory stimuli, while the semantically incongruent stimuli did not elicit brain patterns with significantly higher reproducibility index or decoding accuracy. Thus, the semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli enhanced the within-class reproducibility of brain patterns and the between-class discriminability of brain patterns, and facilitate neural representations of semantic categories or concepts. Furthermore, we analyzed the brain activity in superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG. The strength of the fMRI signal and the reproducibility index were enhanced by the semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli. Our results support the use of the reproducibility index as a potential tool to supplement the fMRI signal amplitude for evaluating multimodal integration.

  5. Atypical rapid audio-visual temporal recalibration in autism spectrum disorders.

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    Noel, Jean-Paul; De Niear, Matthew A; Stevenson, Ryan; Alais, David; Wallace, Mark T

    2017-01-01

    Changes in sensory and multisensory function are increasingly recognized as a common phenotypic characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Furthermore, much recent evidence suggests that sensory disturbances likely play an important role in contributing to social communication weaknesses-one of the core diagnostic features of ASD. An established sensory disturbance observed in ASD is reduced audiovisual temporal acuity. In the current study, we substantially extend these explorations of multisensory temporal function within the framework that an inability to rapidly recalibrate to changes in audiovisual temporal relations may play an important and under-recognized role in ASD. In the paradigm, we present ASD and typically developing (TD) children and adolescents with asynchronous audiovisual stimuli of varying levels of complexity and ask them to perform a simultaneity judgment (SJ). In the critical analysis, we test audiovisual temporal processing on trial t as a condition of trial t - 1. The results demonstrate that individuals with ASD fail to rapidly recalibrate to audiovisual asynchronies in an equivalent manner to their TD counterparts for simple and non-linguistic stimuli (i.e., flashes and beeps, hand-held tools), but exhibit comparable rapid recalibration for speech stimuli. These results are discussed in terms of prior work showing a speech-specific deficit in audiovisual temporal function in ASD, and in light of current theories of autism focusing on sensory noise and stability of perceptual representations. Autism Res 2017, 10: 121-129. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tones and numbers: a combined EEG-MEG study on the effects of musical expertise in magnitude comparisons of audiovisual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Pantev, Christo

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cortical responses underlying magnitude comparisons of multisensory stimuli and examined the effect that musical expertise has in this process. The comparative judgments were based on a newly learned rule binding the auditory and visual stimuli within the context of magnitude comparisons: "the higher the pitch of the tone, the larger the number presented." The cortical responses were measured by simultaneous MEG\\EEG recordings and a combined source analysis with individualized realistic head models was performed. Musical expertise effects were investigated by comparing musicians to non-musicians. Congruent audiovisual stimuli, corresponding to the newly learned rule, elicited activity in frontotemporal and occipital areas. In contrast, incongruent stimuli activated temporal and parietal regions. Musicians when compared with nonmusicians showed increased differences between congruent and incongruent stimuli in a prefrontal region, thereby indicating that music expertise may affect multisensory comparative judgments within a generalized representation of analog magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Heroes, machomen or, just men: A look at the audiovisual representation of the (new) masculinities

    OpenAIRE

    Zurian Hernández, Francisco A.

    2011-01-01

    El presente texto indaga en la evolución de la representación de los hombres en el audiovisual (cine y televisión) y cómo dicha representación ha evolucionado desde las representaciones del macho patriarcal a representaciones de nuevas masculinidades, fuera de la influencia de la ideología patriarcal, plurales, no universalistas y con nuevos modelos de hombres.Palabras clave: género, hombres, masculinidades, audiovisual, cine, televisión.AbstractThis text analyzes the representation of men in...

  8. Taller de imagen y sonido : un bonito sueño audiovisual

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, María Teresa; Rego, Ana María; Redondo, María Antonia; Cabaleiro, Olga; Quiroga, María

    1998-01-01

    Con una experiencia de más de una década y media en el uso de los medios audiovisuales y el cine en la práctica diaria con los alumnos, los profesores de este Centro gallego demuestran en este trabajo los frutos que la comunicación audiovisual puede ofrecer desde las primeras edades, cuando se planifica de forma transversal en todo el currículum. El conocimiento del medio audiovisual se fusiona de esta forma con la producción de magníficos productos audiovisuales, premiados a posteriori en ce...

  9. A economia do audiovisual no contexto contemporâneo das Cidades Criativas

    OpenAIRE

    Celso da Silva, Paulo; Cristina Carlos Silva, Míriam; Cajueiro dos Santos, Tarcyanie

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho aborda a economia do audiovisual em cidades com status de criativas. Mais do que um adjetivo, é no bojo das atividades ligadas à comunicação, o audiovisual entre elas, cultura, moda, arquitetura, artes manuais ou artesanato local, que tais cidades renovaram a forma de acumulação, reorganizando espaços públicos e privados. As cidades de  Barcelona, Berlim, New York, Milão e São Paulo, são representativas para atingir o objetivo de analisar as cidades relacionado ao desenvolviment...

  10. Audiovisual as a device of researchs at/with the everyday of the schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Silva Soares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With this text, I discus the uses of audiovisual as a device of research at/with the educational networks weaved inside/out schools. I include the modern practices on the verge of mainly audivisual cultures which call upon us to think with sound and images. I introduce experiences at public elementary schools in the city of Vitória and in the city of Rio de Janeiro and I suggest that the productions conducted there insert themselves at the threshold of audio-visualities, blurring the frontiers between different codes, genres, production-consumption, and expanding the possibilities for creating knowledge.

  11. Audiovisual as a device of researchs at/with the everyday of the schools

    OpenAIRE

    Maria da Conceição Silva Soares

    2016-01-01

    With this text, I discus the uses of audiovisual as a device of research at/with the educational networks weaved inside/out schools. I include the modern practices on the verge of mainly audivisual cultures which call upon us to think with sound and images. I introduce experiences at public elementary schools in the city of Vitória and in the city of Rio de Janeiro and I suggest that the productions conducted there insert themselves at the threshold of audio-visualities, blurring the frontier...

  12. Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T.; Wheat, Katherine L.; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke

    2013-01-01

    Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal window of integration (TWI). This suggests that temporal cues denote whether unimodal stimuli belong together, that is, whether they should be integrated. It is not known whether temporal cues also provide information about the identity of a syllable. Since spoken syllables have naturally varying AV onset asynchronies, we hypothesize that for suboptimal AV cues presented within the TWI, information about the natural AV onset differences can aid in speech identification. To test this, we presented low-intensity auditory syllables concurrently with visual speech signals, and varied the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) of the AV pair, while participants were instructed to identify the auditory syllables. We revealed that specific speech features (e.g., voicing) were identified by relying primarily on one modality (e.g., auditory). Additionally, we showed a wide window in which visual information influenced auditory perception, that seemed even wider for congruent stimulus pairs. Finally, we found a specific response pattern across the SOA range for syllables that were not reliably identified by the unimodal cues, which we explained as the result of the use of natural onset differences between AV speech signals. This indicates that temporal cues not only provide information about the temporal integration of AV stimuli, but additionally convey information about the identity of AV pairs. These results provide a detailed behavioral basis for further neuro-imaging and stimulation studies to unravel the neurofunctional mechanisms of the audio-visual-temporal interplay within speech perception. PMID:23805110

  13. Mainland China -- An Abacus and the Hoes. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies, Grade 8. [And] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy; Kiracofe, Rolland

    Developed for the Carroll County Public Schools, this Learning Activity Package (LAP) for grade 8 offers a way to provide individualized learning about China before the Communists came to power. Learning activities are based on curriculum and audiovisual materials available in the Carroll County Schools. The focus of the unit is on the life styles…

  14. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  15. Evaluating Unsupervised Thesaurus-based Labeling of Audiovisual Content in an Archive Production Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Victor; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Schuurman, Josefien

    In this paper we report on a two-stage evaluation of unsupervised labeling of audiovisual content using collateral text data sources to investigate how such an approach can provide acceptable results for given requirements with respect to archival quality, authority and service levels to external

  16. Practice-Oriented Evaluation of Unsupervised Labeling of Audiovisual Content in an Archive Production Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Victor; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Schuurman, Josefien

    In this paper we report on an evaluation of unsupervised labeling of audiovisual content using collateral text data sources to investigate how such an approach can provide acceptable results given requirements with respect to archival quality, authority and service levels to external users. We

  17. The audiovisual communication policy of the socialist Government (2004-2009: A neoliberal turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Zallo, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first legislature of Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero’s government (2004-08 generated important initiatives for some progressive changes in the public communicative system. However, all of these initiatives have been dissolving in the second legislature to give way to a non-regulated and privatizing model that is detrimental to the public service. Three phases can be distinguished, even temporarily: the first one is characterized by interesting reforms; followed by contradictory reforms and, in the second legislature, an accumulation of counter reforms, that lead the system towards a communicative system model completely different from the one devised in the first legislature. This indicates that there has been not one but two different audiovisual policies running the cyclical route of the audiovisual policy from one end to the other. The emphasis has changed from the public service to private concentration; from decentralization to centralization; from the diffusion of knowledge to the accumulation and appropriation of the cognitive capital; from the Keynesian model - combined with the Schumpeterian model and a preference for social access - to a delayed return to the neoliberal model, after having distorted the market through public decisions in the benefit of the most important audiovisual services providers. All this seems to crystallize the impressive process of concentration occurring between audiovisual services providers in two large groups that would be integrated by Mediaset and Sogecable and - in negotiations - between Antena 3 and Imagina. A combination of neo-statist restructuring of the market and neo-liberalism.

  18. Evaluating unsupervised thesaurus-based labeling of audiovisual content in an archive production environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, V.; Ordelman, Roeland J.; Schuurman, Josefien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on a two-stage evaluation of unsupervised labeling of audiovisual content using collateral text data sources to investigate how such an approach can provide acceptable results for given requirements with respect to archival quality, authority and service levels to external

  19. Hotel and Restaurant Management; A Bibliography of Books and Audio-Visual Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkames, James P.; And Others

    This bibliography represents a collection of 1,300 book volumes and audiovisual materials collected by the Luzerne County Community College Library in support of the college's Hotel and Restaurant Management curriculum. It covers such diverse topics as advertising, business practices, decoration, nutrition, hotel law, insurance landscaping, health…

  20. Eyewitnesses of History: Italian Amateur Cinema as Cultural Heritage and Source for Audiovisual and Media Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    abstractThe role of amateur cinema as archival material in Italian media productions has only recently been discovered. Italy, as opposed to other European countries, lacked a local, regional and national policy for the collection and preservation of private audiovisual documents, which led, as a

  1. Strategies for Media Literacy: Audiovisual Skills and the Citizenship in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguaded-Gomez, Ignacio; Perez-Rodriguez, M. Amor

    2012-01-01

    Media consumption is an undeniable fact in present-day society. The hours that members of all social segments spend in front of a screen take up a large part of their leisure time worldwide. Audiovisual communication becomes especially important within the context of today's digital society (society-network), where information and communication…

  2. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  3. Multimedia Content Production inside the Classroom--A Teaching Proposal for Journalism and Audiovisual Communication Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, Eva Herrero; Serrano, Nieves Limón

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to present and describe two multimedia experiences carried out during two practice groups in the Journalism and Audiovisual Communications program. Thirty students participated in Experience A during 14 teaching sessions, and the experience required each student to record a 3-minute interview of someone…

  4. Attention to affective audio-visual information: Comparison between musicians and non-musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijkamp, J.; Sadakata, M.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with more musical training repeatedly demonstrate enhanced auditory perception abilities. The current study examined how these enhanced auditory skills interact with attention to affective audio-visual stimuli. A total of 16 participants with more than 5 years of musical training

  5. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ling eLee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogues of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms. Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past three years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech.

  6. Challenges of Using Audio-Visual Aids as Warm-Up Activity in Teaching Aviation English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sule, St.; Seçer, Y. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find out the challenges encountered in the use of video as audio-visual material as a warm-up activity in aviation English course at high school level. This study is based on a qualitative study in which focus group interview is used as the data collection procedure. The participants of focus group are four instructors teaching…

  7. Preservation of Audio-Visual Records at the National Archives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the preservation strategies of audio-visual (AV) records at the National Archives of Namibia (NAN). Data for the study was collected through questionnaires, interviews, observation and a review of documentary sources. The study also found that the legal deposit for AV records has been ineffective ...

  8. 16 CFR 307.8 - Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and audio advertising. 307.8 Section 307.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.8 Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and audio... and in graphics so that it is easily legible. If the advertisement has an audio component, the warning...

  9. The effect of spatial-temporal audiovisual disparities on saccades in a complex scene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, M.M. van; Bell, A.H.; Munoz, D.P.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we quantified the effect of multisensory integration on the latency and accuracy of saccadic eye movements toward spatially aligned audiovisual (AV) stimuli within a rich AV-background (Corneil et al. in J Neurophysiol 88:438-454, 2002). In those experiments both stimulus

  10. Media literacy: no longer the shrinking violet of European audiovisual media regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGonagle, T.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    The lead article in this IRIS plus provides a critical analysis of how the European audiovisual regulatory and policy framework seeks to promote media literacy. It examines pertinent definitional issues and explores the main rationales for the promotion of media literacy as a regulatory and policy

  11. Audiovisual Translation and Assistive Technology: Towards a Universal Design Approach for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiniotaki, Emmanouela

    2016-01-01

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT) and Assistive Technology (AST) are two fields that share common grounds within accessibility-related research, yet they are rarely studied in combination. The reason most often lies in the fact that they have emerged from different disciplines, i.e. Translation Studies and Computer Science, making a possible combined…

  12. Sciences: A Select List of U.S. Government Produced Audiovisual Materials - 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    This publication is a catalog that contains the National Audiovisual Center's materials on Science. There are twelve areas in this catalog: Aerospace Technology, Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Electronics and Electricity, Energy, Environmental Studies, Geology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Oceanography, Physics, and Weather/Meteorology. Each…

  13. Effect of an audiovisual message for tetanus booster vaccination broadcast in the waiting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubelen, Caroline; Brendel, Fannette; Belche, Jean-Luc; Freyens, Anne; Vanbelle, Sophie; Giet, Didier

    2011-09-28

    General practitioners (GPs) often lack time and resources to invest in health education; audiovisual messages broadcast in the waiting room may be a useful educational tool. This work was designed to assess the effect of a message inviting patients to ask for a tetanus booster vaccination. A quasi experimental study was conducted in a Belgian medical practice consisting of 6 GPs and 4 waiting rooms (total: 20,000 contacts/year). A tetanus booster vaccination audiovisual message was continuously broadcast for 6 months in 2 randomly selected waiting rooms (intervention group--3 GPs) while the other 2 waiting rooms remained unequipped (control group--3 GPs). At the end of the 6-month period, the number of vaccine adult-doses delivered by local pharmacies in response to GPs' prescriptions was recorded. As a reference, the same data were also collected retrospectively for the general practice during the same 6-month period of the previous year. During the 6-month reference period where no audiovisual message was broadcast in the 4 waiting rooms, the number of prescriptions presented for tetanus vaccines was respectively 52 (0.44%) in the intervention group and 33 (0.38%) in the control group (p = 0.50). By contrast, during the 6-month study period, the number of prescriptions differed between the two groups (p Broadcasting an audiovisual health education message in the GPs' waiting room was associated with a significant increase in the number of adult tetanus booster vaccination prescriptions delivered by local pharmacies.

  14. Convergent Cultures: The Disappearance of Commissioned Audiovisual Productions in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    abstractThe article analyses the changes in production and consumption in the audiovisual industry and the way the so-called ‘ephemeral’ commissioned productions are scarcely preserved. New technologies and the liberal economic policies and internationalisation changed the media landscape in the

  15. Generating Language through Media: Audio-Visual Production by the ESL Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Linda New

    This paper describes some teaching techniques developed in the author's middle school and high school ESL classes. The techniques described here use audio-visual devices and student production of media as a motivational tool as well as a method of providing for spontaneous language practice and communicative competence. Some of the techniques and…

  16. Acceptance of online audio-visual cultural heritage archive services: a study of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Huizer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines the antecedents of user acceptance of an audio-visual heritage archive for a wider audience (i.e., the general public) by extending the technology acceptance model with the concepts of perceived enjoyment, nostalgia proneness and personal innovativeness. Method. A

  17. Comparing Infants' Preference for Correlated Audiovisual Speech with Signal-Level Computational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollich, George; Prince, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    How much of infant behaviour can be accounted for by signal-level analyses of stimuli? The current paper directly compares the moment-by-moment behaviour of 8-month-old infants in an audiovisual preferential looking task with that of several computational models that use the same video stimuli as presented to the infants. One type of model…

  18. Audiovisual biofeedback guided breath-hold improves lung tumor position reproducibility and volume consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lee, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be used to improve the reproducibility and consistency of breath-hold lung tumor position and volume, respectively. These results may provide a pathway to achieve more accurate lung cancer radiation treatment in addition to improving various medical imaging and treatments by using breath-hold procedures.

  19. Storage, Handling and Preservation of Audiovisual Materials. AV in Action 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anthony Hugh

    Designed to provide the librarian with suggestions and guidelines for storing and preserving audiovisual materials, this pamphlet is divided into four major chapters: (1) Normal Use Storage Conditions; (2) Natural Lifetime, Working Lifetime and Long-Term Storage; (3) Handling; and (4) Shelving of Normal Use Materials. Topics addressed include:…

  20. Policies and strategies that govern the management of audio-visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mpho ngoepe

    management law. Archival legislation “provides the legal framework under which national archives operate” (Mnjama 2005). These views are supported by ISO 15489-1:2001 which requires organizations to operate in a regulatory environment. Kofler (2004) revealed that the organisation of audio-visual archives varies from.

  1. Selective Attention to a Talker's Mouth in Infancy: Role of Audiovisual Temporal Synchrony and Linguistic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Tift, Amy H.; Minar, Nicholas J.; Lewkowicz, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that infants shift their attention from the eyes to the mouth of a talker when they enter the canonical babbling phase after 6 months of age. Here, we investigated whether this increased attentional focus on the mouth is mediated by audio-visual synchrony and linguistic experience. To do so, we tracked eye gaze in 4-,…

  2. Audio-visual synchrony and feature-selective attention co-amplify early visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-05-01

    Our brain relies on neural mechanisms of selective attention and converging sensory processing to efficiently cope with rich and unceasing multisensory inputs. One prominent assumption holds that audio-visual synchrony can act as a strong attractor for spatial attention. Here, we tested for a similar effect of audio-visual synchrony on feature-selective attention. We presented two superimposed Gabor patches that differed in colour and orientation. On each trial, participants were cued to selectively attend to one of the two patches. Over time, spatial frequencies of both patches varied sinusoidally at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz), giving rise to pulse-like percepts. A simultaneously presented pure tone carried a frequency modulation at the pulse rate of one of the two visual stimuli to introduce audio-visual synchrony. Pulsed stimulation elicited distinct time-locked oscillatory electrophysiological brain responses. These steady-state responses were quantified in the spectral domain to examine individual stimulus processing under conditions of synchronous versus asynchronous tone presentation and when respective stimuli were attended versus unattended. We found that both, attending to the colour of a stimulus and its synchrony with the tone, enhanced its processing. Moreover, both gain effects combined linearly for attended in-sync stimuli. Our results suggest that audio-visual synchrony can attract attention to specific stimulus features when stimuli overlap in space.

  3. Audio-visual Classification and Fusion of Spontaneous Affect Data in Likelihood Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Gunes, Hatice; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on audio-visual (using facial expression, shoulder and audio cues) classification of spontaneous affect, utilising generative models for classification (i) in terms of Maximum Likelihood Classification with the assumption that the generative model structure in the classifier is

  4. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  5. A Study to Formulate Quantitative Guidelines for the Audio-Visual Communications Field. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Gene; Sherman, Mendel

    Quantitative guidelines for use in determining the audiovisual (AV) needs of educational institutions were developed by the Octobe r 14-16, 1965 Seminar of the NDEA (National Defense Education Act), Faris-Sherman study. The guidelines that emerged were based in part on a review of past efforts and existing standards but primarily reflected the…

  6. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  7. KAMAN PELAYANAN MEDIA AUDIOVISUAL: STUDI KASUS DI THE BRITISH COUNCIL JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindar Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui cara penyelenggaraan pelayanan media AV, efektivitas pelayanan serta tingkat kepuasan pemustaka terhadap berbagai aspek pelayanan. Penelitian dilakukan di The British Council Jakarta dengan cara evaluasi karena dengan cara ini dapat diketahui berbagai fenomena yang terjadi. Perpustakaan British Council menyediakan tiga jenis media yaitu berupa kaset video, kaset audio, dan siaran televisi BBC. Subjek penelitian adalah pemakai jasa pelaya-nan media audiovisual yang terdaftar sebagai anggota. Subjek dikelompokkan berdasarkan kelompok usia dan kelompok tujuan pemanfaatan media AV. Data angket terkumpul sebanyak 157 responden (75,48% kemudian dianalisis secara statistik dengan uji analisis varian sate arah Kruskal-Wallis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketiga media tersebut diminati oleh banyak pemakai terutama pada kelompok usia muda. Sebagian besar pemustaka lebih menyukai jenis fiksi dibandingkan jenis nonfiksi, mereka menggunakan media audiovisual untuk mencari informasi pengetahuan. Pelayanan media audiovisual terbukti sangat efektif dilihat dari angka keterpakaian koleksi maupun tingkat kepuasan pemakain. Hasil uji hipotesis menunjukkan bahwa antarkelompok usia maupun tujuan kegunaan tidak ada perbedaan yang berarti dalam menanggapi berbagai aspek pelayanan media audiovisual. Kata Kunci: MediaAudio Visual-Layanan Perpustakaan

  8. Designing online audiovisual heritage services: an empirical study of two comparable online video services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Huizer, E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to seek input for a new online audiovisual heritage service. In doing so, we assess comparable online video services to gain insights into the motivations and perceptual innovation characteristics of the video services. The research is based on data from a Dutch survey

  9. Catalogo de peliculas educativas y otros materiales audiovisuales (Catalogue of Educational Films and other Audiovisual Materials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    This catalogue of educational films and other audiovisual materials consists predominantly of films in Spanish and English which are intended for use in elementary and secondary schools. A wide variety of topics including films for social studies, language arts, humanities, physical and natural sciences, safety and health, agriculture, physical…

  10. Copyright Question: Using Audiovisual Works in a Satellite-Delivered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jamie S.; Switzer, Ralph V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the question of copyright violation of audiovisual materials when used in a Master's of Business Administration (MBA) degree offered via satellite transmission through Colorado State University. Topics discussed include fair use; definitions of literary works, performance, and transmission; and the need to revise the 1976 Copyright Act to…

  11. Rehabilitation of balance-impaired stroke patients through audio-visual biofeedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gheorghe, Cristina; Nissen, Thomas; Juul Rosengreen Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how audio-visual biofeedback influences physical balance of seven balance-impaired stroke patients, between 33–70 years-of-age. The setup included a bespoke balance board and a music rhythm game. The procedure was designed as follows: (1) a control group who performed a balanc...

  12. preservation of audio-visual records at the national archives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walter

    Abstract. The study investigated the preservation strategies of audio-visual. (AV) records at the National Archives of Namibia (NAN). Data for the study was collected through questionnaires, interviews, observation and a review of documentary sources. The study also found that the legal deposit for AV records has been ...

  13. A linguagem audiovisual da lousa digital interativa no contexto educacional/Audiovisual language of the digital interactive whiteboard in the educational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Helena Ruiz Nakashima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo serão apresentadas informações sobre a lousa digital como um instrumento que proporciona a inserção da linguagem audiovisual no contexto escolar. Para o funcionamento da lousa digital interativa é necessário que esteja conectada a um computador e este a um projetor multimídia, sendo que, através da tecnologia Digital Vision Touch (DViT, a superfície desse quadro torna-se sensível ao toque. Dessa forma, utilizando-se o dedo, professores e alunos executarão funções que aumentam a interatividade com as atividades propostas na lousa. Serão apresentadas duas possibilidades de atividades pedagógicas, destacando as áreas do conhecimento de Ciências e Língua Portuguesa, que poderão ser aplicadas na educação infantil, com alunos de cinco a seis anos. Essa tecnologia reflete a evolução de um tipo de linguagem que não é mais baseada somente na oralidade e na escrita, mas também é audiovisual e dinâmica, pois permite que o sujeito além de receptor, seja produtor de informações. Portanto, a escola deve aproveitar esses recursos tecnológicos que facilitam o trabalho com a linguagem audiovisual em sala de aula, permitindo a elaboração de aulas mais significativas e inovadoras.In this paper we present some information about the digital interactive whiteboard and its use as a tool to introduce the audiovisual language in the educational environment. The digital interactive whiteboard is connected to both a computer and a multimedia projector and it uses the Digital Vision Touch (DViT, which means that the screen is touch-sensitive. By touching with their fingers, both teachers and pupils have access to functionalities that increase the interactivity with the activities worked during the class. We present two pedagogical activities to be used in Science and Portuguese classes, for five- and six-years old pupils. This new technology is the result of the evolution of a new type of communication, which is not grounded

  14. Adverse psychosocial consequences: Compassion fatigue, burnout and vicarious traumatization: Are nurses who provide palliative and hematological cancer care vulnerable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Sabo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The work environment significantly affects the physical, psychological, emotional and/or spiritual wellbeing of individuals is unquestionable. Adverse effects have been noted among healthcare professionals working with clients experiencing pain and suffering often associated with cancer, palliative or end-of-life care; however, little is known about how or in which manner the nurse-patient-family relationship may affect the psychosocial health and wellbeing of nurses working in these areas. Three concepts have been highlighted as most frequently associated with the adverse consequences of caring work: these are compassion fatigue (secondary traumatic stress, burnout and vicarious traumatization. The following discussion investigates these concepts and their implications on palliative and hematological cancer nursing practice.

  15. Investigating the Use of Vicarious and Mastery Experiences in Influencing Early Childhood Education Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an Early Childhood Education science methods course that focused exclusively on providing various mastery (i.e., enactive, cognitive content, and cognitive pedagogical) and vicarious experiences (i.e., cognitive self-modeling, symbolic modeling, and simulated modeling) in increasing preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. Forty-four preservice elementary teachers participated in the study. Analysis of the quantitative (STEBI-b) and qualitative (informal surveys) data revealed that personal science teaching efficacy and science teaching outcome expectancy beliefs increased significantly over the semester. Enactive mastery, cognitive pedagogical mastery, symbolic modeling, and cognitive self-modeling were the major sources of self-efficacy. This list was followed by cognitive content mastery and simulated modeling. This study has implications for science teacher educators.

  16. The relations between violence exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, secondary traumatization, vicarious post traumatic growth and illness attribution among psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gad; Shalev, Tal Ben-Itzchak

    2015-06-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), secondary traumatization (ST) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VG) among Israeli psychiatric nurses (PN) who were compared to community nurses (CN). Furthermore, we examined the contribution of PN perceptions of the etiology of their patients' mental illness to their PTSD, ST and VG. Results show that PN reported higher levels of both PTSD and ST symptoms, but lower levels of VG, as compare to CN. While ST symptoms were positively related to VG among CN, PTSD and ST symptoms were negatively associated among PN. Finally, exposure to patients' violence, PTSD or ST symptoms, and illness attribution dimensions of 'powerful others', predicted nurses' VG. PN are an at-risk population for work-related stress residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of audio-visual information on the intelligibility of alaryngeal speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, Paul M; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Twenty-three naïve listeners were randomly presented 176 phonemically balanced sentences produced by three alaryngeal (tracheoesophageal, esophageal, electrolaryngeal) and one typical, laryngeal speaker in both audio-only and audio-visual modes of presentation. Overall, results showed a small (3%) but statistically significant higher speech intelligibility score for audio-visual stimuli compared to audio-only stimuli as well as a significant interaction effect between mode of speech and mode of presentation. Within mode of speech, electrolaryngeal speech was the only mode that benefited significantly from the inclusion of visual information (10% increase). Overall intelligibility showed similar patterns both within audio-only and audio-visual modes of presentation: typical laryngeal and tracheoesophageal speech modes were significantly more intelligible than both esophageal and electrolaryngeal. Results suggest that listeners may benefit more from visual information from speakers with poor baseline speech intelligibility. Results also show similar intelligibility between typical, laryngeal and tracheoesophageal modes of speech. Results should be interpreted with caution, however, as only one speaker from each mode of speech was included. Further research is required to determine the nature of the increase. Readers will (1) increase their understanding of the potential impact of visual information in the perception of alaryngeal speech; (2) identify potential factors that may augment or hinder speech perception; and (3) discuss how individual modes of alaryngeal speech may be affected by audio-visual information.

  18. Audio-visual speech intelligibility benefits with bilateral cochlear implants when talker location varies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoesel, Richard J M

    2015-04-01

    One of the key benefits of using cochlear implants (CIs) in both ears rather than just one is improved localization. It is likely that in complex listening scenes, improved localization allows bilateral CI users to orient toward talkers to improve signal-to-noise ratios and gain access to visual cues, but to date, that conjecture has not been tested. To obtain an objective measure of that benefit, seven bilateral CI users were assessed for both auditory-only and audio-visual speech intelligibility in noise using a novel dynamic spatial audio-visual test paradigm. For each trial conducted in spatially distributed noise, first, an auditory-only cueing phrase that was spoken by one of four talkers was selected and presented from one of four locations. Shortly afterward, a target sentence was presented that was either audio-visual or, in another test configuration, audio-only and was spoken by the same talker and from the same location as the cueing phrase. During the target presentation, visual distractors were added at other spatial locations. Results showed that in terms of speech reception thresholds (SRTs), the average improvement for bilateral listening over the better performing ear alone was 9 dB for the audio-visual mode, and 3 dB for audition-alone. Comparison of bilateral performance for audio-visual and audition-alone showed that inclusion of visual cues led to an average SRT improvement of 5 dB. For unilateral device use, no such benefit arose, presumably due to the greatly reduced ability to localize the target talker to acquire visual information. The bilateral CI speech intelligibility advantage over the better ear in the present study is much larger than that previously reported for static talker locations and indicates greater everyday speech benefits and improved cost-benefit than estimated to date.

  19. Inactivation of Primate Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Auditory and Audiovisual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Hwang, Jaewon; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2015-07-01

    The prefrontal cortex is associated with cognitive functions that include planning, reasoning, decision-making, working memory, and communication. Neurophysiology and neuropsychology studies have established that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is essential in spatial working memory while the ventral frontal lobe processes language and communication signals. Single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates has shown that ventral prefrontal (VLPFC) neurons integrate face and vocal information and are active during audiovisual working memory. However, whether VLPFC is essential in remembering face and voice information is unknown. We therefore trained nonhuman primates in an audiovisual working memory paradigm using naturalistic face-vocalization movies as memoranda. We inactivated VLPFC, with reversible cortical cooling, and examined performance when faces, vocalizations or both faces and vocalization had to be remembered. We found that VLPFC inactivation impaired subjects' performance in audiovisual and auditory-alone versions of the task. In contrast, VLPFC inactivation did not disrupt visual working memory. Our studies demonstrate the importance of VLPFC in auditory and audiovisual working memory for social stimuli but suggest a different role for VLPFC in unimodal visual processing. The ventral frontal lobe, or inferior frontal gyrus, plays an important role in audiovisual communication in the human brain. Studies with nonhuman primates have found that neurons within ventral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) encode both faces and vocalizations and that VLPFC is active when animals need to remember these social stimuli. In the present study, we temporarily inactivated VLPFC by cooling the cortex while nonhuman primates performed a working memory task. This impaired the ability of subjects to remember a face and vocalization pair or just the vocalization alone. Our work highlights the importance of the primate VLPFC in the processing of faces and vocalizations in a manner that

  20. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.