Sample records for vibrational wave numbers

  1. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S


    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  2. A first course in vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Samiullah, Mohammad


    This book builds on introductory physics and emphasizes understanding of vibratory motion and waves based on first principles. The book is divided into three parts. Part I contains a preliminary chapter that serves as a review of relevant ideas of mechanics and complex numbers. Part II is devoted to a detailed discussion of vibrations of mechanical systems. This part covers a simple harmonic oscillator, coupled oscillators, normal coordinates, beaded string, continuous string, standing waves, and Fourier series. Part II ends with a presentation of stationary solutions of driven finite systems. Part III is concerned with waves. Here, the emphasis is on the discussion of common aspects of all types of waves. The applications to sound, electromagnetic, and matter waves are illustrated. The book also includes examples from water waves and electromagnetic waves on a transmission line. The emphasis of the book is to bring out the similarities among various types of waves. The book includes treatment of reflection a...

  3. Introduction to vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, H John


    Based on the successful multi-edition book "The Physics ofVibrations and Waves" by John Pain, the authors carry overthe simplicity and logic of the approach taken in the originalfirst edition with its focus on the patterns underlying andconnecting so many aspects of physical behavior, whilst bringingthe subject up-to-date so it is relevant to teaching in the21st century.The transmission of energy by wave propagation is a key conceptthat has applications in almost every branch of physics withtransmitting mediums essentially acting as a continuum of coupledoscillators. The characterization of t

  4. Vibrational dephasing in matter-wave interferometers (United States)

    Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Röpke, R.; Chang, W. T.; Hwang, I. S.; Günther, A.; Stibor, A.


    Matter-wave interferometry is a highly sensitive tool to measure small perturbations in a quantum system. This property allows the creation of precision sensors for dephasing mechanisms such as mechanical vibrations. They are a challenge for phase measurements under perturbing conditions that cannot be perfectly decoupled from the interferometer, e.g. for mobile interferometric devices or vibrations with a broad frequency range. Here, we demonstrate a method based on second-order correlation theory in combination with Fourier analysis, to use an electron interferometer as a sensor that precisely characterizes the mechanical vibration spectrum of the interferometer. Using the high spatial and temporal single-particle resolution of a delay line detector, the data allows to reveal the original contrast and spatial periodicity of the interference pattern from ‘washed-out’ matter-wave interferograms that have been vibrationally disturbed in the frequency region between 100 and 1000 Hz. Other than with electromagnetic dephasing, due to excitations of higher harmonics and additional frequencies induced from the environment, the parts in the setup oscillate with frequencies that can be different to the applied ones. The developed numerical search algorithm is capable to determine those unknown oscillations and corresponding amplitudes. The technique can identify vibrational dephasing and decrease damping and shielding requirements in electron, ion, neutron, atom and molecule interferometers that generate a spatial fringe pattern on the detector plane.

  5. Development of S-wave portable vibrator; S ha potable vibrator shingen no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaida, Y.; Matsubara, Y. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nijhof, V.; Brouwer, J.


    An S-wave portable vibrator to serve as a seismic source has been developed for the purpose of applying the shallow-layer reflection method to the study of the soil ground. The author, et al., who previously developed a P-wave portable vibrator has now developed an S-wave version, considering the advantage of the S-wave over the P-wave in that, for example, the S-wave velocity may be directly compared with the N-value representing ground strength and that the S-wave travels more slowly than the P-wave through sticky soil promising a higher-resolution exploration. The experimentally constructed S-wave vibrator consists of a conventional P-wave vibrator and an L-type wooden base plate combined therewith. Serving as the monitor for vibration is a conventional accelerometer without any modification. The applicability test was carried out at a location where a plank hammering test was once conducted for reflection aided exploration, and the result was compared with that of the plank hammering test. As the result, it was found that after some preliminary treatment the results of the two tests were roughly the same but that both reflected waves were a little sharper in the S-wave vibrator test than in the plank hammering test. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Parametric analysis of change in wave number of surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the dependence of the change wave number of materials soil constants, ie the frequency of the waves. The starting point in this analysis cosists of wave equation and dynamic stiffness matrix of soil.

  7. Multistable chain for ocean wave vibration energy harvesting (United States)

    Harne, R. L.; Schoemaker, M. E.; Wang, K. W.


    The heaving of ocean waves is a largely untapped, renewable kinetic energy resource. Conversion of this energy into electrical power could integrate with solar technologies to provide for round-the-clock, portable, and mobile energy supplies usable in a wide variety of marine environments. However, the direct drive conversion methodology of gridintegrated wave energy converters does not efficiently scale down to smaller, portable architectures. This research develops an alternative power conversion approach to harness the extraordinarily large heaving displacements and long oscillation periods as an excitation source for an extendible vibration energy harvesting chain. Building upon related research findings and engineering insights, the proposed system joins together a series of dynamic cells through bistable interfaces. Individual impulse events are generated as the inertial mass of each cell is pulled across a region of negative stiffness to induce local snap through dynamics; the oscillating magnetic inertial mass then generates current in a coil which is connected to energy harvesting circuitry. It is shown that linking the cells into a chain transmits impulses through the system leading to cascades of vibration and enhancement of electrical energy conversion from each impulse event. This paper describes the development of the multistable chain and ways in which realistic design challenges were addressed. Numerical modeling and corresponding experiments demonstrate the response of the chain due to slow and large amplitude input motion. Lastly, experimental studies give evidence that energy conversion efficiency of the chain for wave energy conversion is much higher than using an equal number of cells without connections.

  8. Effect of horizontal wave barriers on ground vibration propagation. (United States)

    Grau, L; Laulagnet, B


    The aim of this article is to introduce a method to mitigate ground surface vibration through a flexural plate coupled to the ground and acting as a horizontal wave barrier. Using the thin plate hypothesis, two flexural plates are coupled to the ground, the first plate being the excited plate and the second plate the horizontal wave barrier. For instance, the first plate may represent a slab track and be excited by the tramway wheels. A solution to the problem can be found using a spatial two-dimensional Fourier transform of the elastodynamics equation for the ground and a modal decomposition for the flexural plate vibration. The authors show that vibration is substantially mitigated by the horizontal wave barrier and depends on its thickness and width. When the top surface wavelength becomes smaller than twice the plate width, the horizontal wave barrier acts as a wave barrier in the frequency range of interest, i.e., from 20 Hz.

  9. Free vibrations of a plate with varying number of supports (United States)

    Drake, J.; Kang, C. K.; Dowell, E. H.


    This experimental investigation tested the accuracy of an analysis which predicts the natural frequencies of vibration of a plate constrained by an arbitrary number of point supports along the edges, and also determined the number of such supports which approximates an infinite number.

  10. Analysis on Non-Resonance Standing Waves and Vibration Tracks of Strings (United States)

    Fang, Tian-Shen


    This paper presents an experimental technique to observe the vibration tracks of string standing waves. From the vibration tracks, we can analyse the vibration directions of harmonic waves. For the harmonic wave vibrations of strings, when the driving frequency f[subscript s] = Nf[subscript n] (N = 1, 2, 3, 4,...), both resonance and non-resonance…

  11. Harmonic vibrations and waves in a cylindrical helically anisotropic shell (United States)

    Panfilov, I. A.; Ustinov, Yu. A.


    A Kirchhoff-Love type applied theory is used to study the specific characteristics of harmonic waves and vibrations of a helically anisotropic shell. Special attention is paid to axisymmetric and bending vibrations. In both cases, the dispersion equations are constructed and a qualitative and numerical analysis of their roots and the corresponding elementary solutions is performed. It is shown that the skew anisotropy in the axisymmetric case generates a relation between the longitudinal and torsional vibrations which is mathematically described by the amplitude coefficients of homogeneous waves. In the case of a shell with rigidly fixed end surfaces, the dependence of the first two natural frequencies on the shell length and the helical line slope α, i.e., the geometric parameter of helical anisotropy, is studied. A boundary value problem in which longitudinal vibrations are generated on one of the end surfaces and the other end is free of forces and moments is considered to analyze the degree of transformation of longitudinal vibrations into longitudinally torsional vibrations. In the case of bending vibrations, two problems for a half-infinite shell are studied as well. In the first problem, the waves are excited kinematically by generating harmonic vibrations of the shell end surface in the plane of the axial cross-section, and it is shown that the axis generally moves in some closed trajectories far from the end surface. In the second problem, the reflection of a homogeneous wave incident on the shell end is examined. It is shown that the "boundary resonance" phenomenon can arise in some cases.

  12. Local vibrations and lift performance of low Reynolds number airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TariqAmin Khan


    Full Text Available The 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved based on the finite volume method and dynamic mesh technique is used to carry out partial fluid structure interaction. The local flexible structure (hereinafter termed as flexible structure vibrates in a single mode located on the upper surface of the airfoil. The Influence of vibration frequency and amplitude are examined and the corresponding fluid flow characteristics are investigated which add complexity to the inherent problem in unsteady flow. The study is conducted for flow over NACA0012 airfoil at 600≤Re≤3000 at a low angle of attack. Vibration of flexible structure induces a secondary vortex which modifies the pressure distribution and lift performance of the airfoil. At some moderate vibration amplitude, frequency synchronization or lock-in phenomenon occurs when the vibration frequency is close to the characteristic frequency of rigid airfoil. Evolution and shedding of vortices corresponding to the deformation of flexible structure depends on the Reynolds number. In the case of Re≤1000, the deformation of flexible structure is considered in-phase with the vortex shedding i.e., increasing maximum lift is linked with the positive deformation of flexible structure. At Re=1500 a phase shift of about 1/π exists while they are out-of-phase at Re>1500. Moreover, the oscillation amplitude of lift coefficient increases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re≤1500 while it decreases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re>1500. As a result of frequency lock-in, the average lift coefficient is increased with increasing vibration amplitude for all investigated Reynolds numbers (Re. The maximum increase in the average lift coefficient is 19.72% within the range of investigated parameters.

  13. The influence of vibrational state-resolved transport coefficients on the wave propagation in diatomic gases (United States)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Kunova, Olga V.; Kustova, Elena V.; Oblapenko, George P.


    A detailed kinetic-theory model for the vibrationally state-resolved transport coefficients is developed taking into account the dependence of the collision cross section on the size of vibrationally excited molecule. Algorithms for the calculation of shear and bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion and diffusion coefficients for vibrational states are proposed. The transport coefficients are evaluated for single-component diatomic gases N2, O2, NO, H2, Cl2 in the wide range of temperature, and the effects of molecular diameters and the number of accounted states are discussed. The developed model is applied to study wave propagation in diatomic gases. For the case of initial Boltzmann distribution, the influence of vibrational excitation on the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient is found to be weak. We expect more significant effect in the case of initial thermal non-equilibrium, for instance in gases with optically pumped selected vibrational states.

  14. A coin vibrational motor swimming at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Quillen, Alice C; Kelley, Douglas H; Friedmann, Tamar; Oakes, Patrick W


    Low-cost coin vibrational motors, used in haptic feedback, exhibit rotational internal motion inside a rigid case. Because the motor case motion exhibits rotational symmetry, when placed into a fluid such as glycerin, the motor does not swim even though its vibrations induce steady streaming in the fluid. However, a piece of rubber foam stuck to the curved case and giving the motor neutral buoyancy also breaks the rotational symmetry allowing it to swim. We measured a 1 cm diameter coin vibrational motor swimming in glycerin at a speed of a body length in 3 seconds or at 3 mm/s. The swim speed puts the vibrational motor in a low Reynolds number regime similar to bacterial motility, but because of the vibration it is not analogous to biological organisms. Rather the swimming vibrational motor may inspire small inexpensive robotic swimmers that are robust as they contain no external moving parts. A time dependent Stokes equation planar sheet model suggests that the swim speed depends on a steady streaming veloc...

  15. Topology optimization of vibration and wave propagation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    The method of topology optimization is a versatile method to determine optimal material layouts in mechanical structures. The method relies on, in principle, unlimited design freedom that can be used to design materials, structures and devices with significantly improved performance and sometimes...... novel functionality. This paper addresses basic issues in simulation and topology design of vibration and wave propagation problems. Steady-state and transient wave propagation problems are addressed and application examples for both cases are presented....

  16. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.


    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  17. Time-series analysis of vibrational nuclear wave packet dynamics (United States)

    Thumm, Uwe; Niederhausen, Thomas; Feuerstein, Bernold


    We discuss the extent to which measured time-dependent fragment kinetic energy release (KER) spectra and calculated nuclear probability densities can reveal 1) the transition frequencies between stationary vibrational states, 2) the nodal structure of stationary vibrational states, 3) the ground-state adiabatic electronic potential curve of the molecular ion, and 4) the progression of decoherence induced by random interactions with the environment. We illustrate our discussion with numerical simulations for the time-dependent nuclear motion of vibrational wave packets in the D2^+ molecular ion caused by the ionization of its neutral D2 parent molecule with an intense pump laser pulse. Based on a harmonic time-series analysis, we suggest a general scheme for the full reconstruction, up to an overall phase factor, of the initial wave packets based on measured KER spectra, cf., Phys. Rev. A 77, 063401 (2008).

  18. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.


    A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...

  19. Modeling of wave propagation in drill strings using vibration transfer matrix methods. (United States)

    Han, Je-Heon; Kim, Yong-Joe; Karkoub, Mansour


    In order to understand critical vibration of a drill bit such as stick-slip and bit-bounce and their wave propagation characteristics through a drill string system, it is critical to model the torsional, longitudinal, and flexural waves generated by the drill bit vibration. Here, a modeling method based on a vibration transfer matrix between two sets of structural wave variables at the ends of a constant cross-sectional, hollow, circular pipe is proposed. For a drill string system with multiple pipe sections, the total vibration transfer matrix is calculated by multiplying all individual matrices, each is obtained for an individual pipe section. Since drill string systems are typically extremely long, conventional numerical analysis methods such as a finite element method (FEM) require a large number of meshes, which makes it computationally inefficient to analyze these drill string systems numerically. The proposed "analytical" vibration transfer matrix method requires significantly low computational resources. For the validation of the proposed method, experimental and numerical data are obtained from laboratory experiments and FEM analyses conducted by using a commercial FEM package, ANSYS. It is shown that the modeling results obtained by using the proposed method are well matched with the experimental and numerical results.

  20. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 9 (United States)


    Institute EDITOR: TECHNICAL EDITOR: RESEARCH EDITOR: COPY EDITOR: PRODUCTION: BOARD OF EDITORS R.L. Bort J.D.C. Crisp D.J. Johns B.N...integral formulation, steady cellular elements (tetrahedron and cube), state (earth dams and foundations), and free vibrations (shear walls). The reviewer...Excitation ............ 61 Harbors and Dams ................ 45 Shock Excitation ................ 64 Power Plants .................... 46 Vibration

  1. The general time fractional wave equation for a vibrating string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandev, Trifce [Radiation Safety Directorate, Blv. Partizanski odredi 143, PO Box 22, 1020 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Tomovski, Zivorad, E-mail:, E-mail: [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of Mathematics, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)


    The solution of a general time fractional wave equation for a vibrating string is obtained in terms of the Mittag-Leffler-type functions and complete set of eigenfunctions of the Sturm-Liouville problem. The time fractional derivative used is taken in the Caputo sense, and the method of separation of variables and the Laplace transform method are used to solve the equation. Some results for special cases of the initial and boundary conditions are obtained and it is shown that the corresponding solutions of the integer order equations are special cases of those of time fractional equations. The proposed general equation may be used for modeling different processes in complex or viscoelastic media, disordered materials, etc.

  2. Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams (United States)

    Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.


    Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.

  3. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 10 (United States)


    rolls. Contact: Dr. Ronald L. Eshleman, The Vibration Institute, 101 West 55th St., Suite 206, Clarendon Hills, IL 60514 - (312) 654-2254...5NH (0703)559122, Ext. 2310. Contact: Dr. Ronald L. Eshleman, Vibration In- stitute, 101 W. 55th St., Suite 206, Clarendon Hills, IL 60514-(312...theory. 81-2172 Dynamic Analyses of Elasto-Plastic Piping Systems Undergoing Large Defomutions J. Heifetz , M. Benjamin, and L. Listvinsky EBASCO

  4. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 4 (United States)


    turbogenerator rotors, bow behavior, squeeze - film dampers for turbomachinery, advanced concepts in troubleshooting and instrumentation, and case...stiff- ness is substantially constant in this range. Oil- film stiffness at the bearings was found to have a minor effect on vibration transmission...cylinder petrol engine oil- film thicknesses and forces were measured at the main bearings [74]. The vibrations of the bearing panels and the crankshaft

  5. Supplementary Information Table: S1 Calculated vibrational wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    514. 511 w. 519 vvw. 6a ring o.p bend. 508. 496 s. 500 vvw. 16 b ring o.p bend. 390. 387 vvw. 16a ring o.p bend. 334. 328 vvw. 9b C-H i.p bend. 274. 267 vvw. Hydrogen bonded vibrations. 184. 171 vs. Hydrogen bonded vibrations. 112. 120 vvs. Hydrogen bonded vibrations. 64. 57 sh. Hydrogen bonded vibrations.

  6. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 10 (United States)


    plained. 86-1865 Random Vibration of Rotating Machine« under Earthquake Excitations B, Samali, K.B. Kim, J.N. Yang George Washington Univ...AD-A164 207/3/GAR KEY WORDS: Soils, Constitutive equations Topics in these appendices to An-A164 206 include: stress analysis; Cayley -Hamilton

  7. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 6 (United States)


    sensitivi- theory. The 1984 text, "Random Vibration in -." ". ties and optimization (2 days), cyclic symmetry Perspective," by Tustin and Mercado , will...Penton Plaza , 222 Palasades Creek Drive 1111 Chester Ave. Richardson, TX 75080 Cleveland, OH 44114 * 86

  8. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 2 (United States)


    Film Models for U*e in Uncentralized Squeeze - Film Damper Bearing Analysis S.S. Kossa and Ft. A. Cookson Cranfield... dampers , Squeeze - film bearings . Rotors, Vibration control Considerable interest is currently being shown in the develop- ment of computational...described. Sessions will be devoted to flexible rotor balancing including turbogenerator rotors, bow behavior, squeeze - film dampers for

  9. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 8 (United States)


    addressed [21]. Existing active vibration con- described [11]. Stoppel [12] has critically trollers have been evaluated [22]; suggestions analyzed calculated...London (Sept 1985). 12. Stoppel , J., "Structural Dynamic Aspects of Rotor Antiresonant Isolation," AHS/USARO Intl. 22. Davis, M.W., "Development and

  10. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 5 (United States)


    Exposure to Vibrating Tools M. Bovenzi La Medicina del Lavoro, 2i, pp 313-321 (1984) 4 figs, 4 tables, 14 refs (in Italian) KEY WORDS: Human... Interna - tional Computers in Engin ’ting Conference and Exhibit], Chicago, IL (212-, 05-7057) 20-24 International Computeta in Engineering Conference

  11. Stress wave propagation analysis on vortex-induced vibration of marine risers (United States)

    Li, Hua-jun; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fu-shun; Hu, Sau-Lon James


    To analyze the stress wave propagation associated with the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a marine riser, this paper employed a multi-signal complex exponential method. This method is an extension of the classical Prony's method which decomposes a complicated signal into a number of complex exponential components. Because the proposed method processes multiple signals simultaneously, it can estimate the "global" dominating frequencies (poles) shared by those signals. The complex amplitude (residues) corresponding to the estimated frequencies for those signals is also obtained in the process. As the signals were collected at different locations along the axial direction of a marine riser, the phenomena of the stress wave propagation could be analyzed through the obtained residues of those signals. The Norwegian Deepwater Program (NDP) high mode test data were utilized in the numerical studies, including data sets in both the in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF) directions. It was found that the most dominant component in the IL direction has its stress wave propagation along the riser being dominated by a standing wave, while that in the CF direction dominated by a traveling wave.

  12. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14, Number 10 (United States)


    Polyurethane Foams ," J. Cell. Plast., 14 (2) (Mar-Apr 1978). 17. Aubrey, D.W. and Sherriff, M., " Viscoelasticity of Rubber-Resin Mixtures," J. Poly...elastomers subjected to static deformations was investigated [15]. Dynamic stiffness and damping data were given for Polyurethane foams used for sound...19. Wong, D.T.H. and Williams, H.L., "Vibration Damping Properties of Polyurethanes ; Dynamic Properties of the Viscoelastic Layers," lnt|. Symp

  13. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17. Number 7 (United States)


    proposing decreases in view of overall fiscal constraints. We need to recognize corporate social responsibility, public-private partnerships, cor- move...WORDS: Violins, Modal analysis Centro de Estudios c Investigaciones Tec- nicas de Guipu’coa, Barrio Ibaeta SIN, The vibrational behavior of a violin is...Germany Rept. No. ISSN -208-5638, 35 pp (1984) Ing. Arch., 11 (5), pp 388-399 (1984) 8 N84-29555 figs, 8 refs (In Getman) - -KEY WORDS: System

  14. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 18, Number 3 (United States)


    optimal design of passive suspensions, based tendon control system and an active mass upon statistical analysis of vehicle vibrations and damper system...Space Trusses - . J.A. Teixeira de Freitas, J.P.B. Moitinho de ,-. Almeida, F.B.E. Virtuoso .-. . Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal 86...34 Manual on, Aernelasticity," Part U, Aero- dynamic Aspects, Advisory Unfortunately, such information is Group Aeronaut. Res. Dev. often unreliable

  15. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 3. (United States)


    Michigan Blvd., Michigan City, Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi, IN 46360, National Conf. on Power Transmission, Belgium, In: Von Karman...Tirnoshenko Arcs with Variable CrossSection T. Irie, G. Yamada, and I. Takahashi 80-546 Dept. of Mech. Engrg., Hokkaido Univ., North-13, The Effect of...157452, KU-FRL-417-10, This paper studies in-plane vibrations of Timoshenko arcs 134 pp (July 1979) with variable cross-section by the transfer matrix

  16. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 17, Number 10 (United States)


    integration schemes for COSMIC/NASTRAN, MSC/NAS- TRAN, EASE2, STARDYNE, ANSYS, ABAQUS , ADINA, and MARC. is finite elements in biomechanics. re- *.1 view of 36...Shock Excitation ............. 62 Roads and Tracks ............ 42 Vibration Excitation ......... 63 - VEHICLE SYSTEMS ................ 42 MECHANICAL...tangular structural slab -joints for the diffuse Ground-Shock Applications incidence of sound. Some parts of the L. Whitman structure-borne sound energy are

  17. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 2, (United States)


    Dynamiques ds a un Balourd aux Attaches Dun Moteur Monte en Pode) B. Schneider Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation, Saint- 80-302 Cloud, France, In...see No. 328) 80-398 Energy-State Formulation of Lumped Volume Dy- 80-396 nanic Equations with Application to a Simplified Free Piston Stirling may be accomplished either by frequency filtering or by piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and pro- digital vibration filtering

  18. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 10, (United States)


    bearings [243]. A pressurized gas damping, and the vibrations of damped structures. squeeze film has also been used as a journal damper ...2251 Key Words: Bearings , Gas bearings , Journal bearings , Whirl- Torsional Oscillations of the Rotor Disc for Horizon- ing, Squeeze - film dampers tal... Squeeze Film Highly Damped Structures," Shock Vib. Dig., Journal Damper ," Rep. No. NASA-CR-155533 9 (7), pp 3-11 (July 1977). (Dec 1977). 235. Rusnak,

  19. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 7 (United States)


    Effects - Simulation Versus Excitation of Instability Waves q.-- Analytical Methods Results W. -,echer. J. Bajkowski , W. Sze pliska-Stupnicka Institut...Fleischer, H.................... 1454 * Bajkowski , J................... 1467 Fok, Ka-Lun...................... 1389 *Banerjee, P.K................... 1385

  20. Topological material layout in plates for vibration suppression and wave propagation control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Laksafoss, B.; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    plate theory coupled with analytical sensitivity analysis using the adjoint method and an iterative design update procedure based on a mathematical programming tool. We demonstrate the capability of the method by designing bi-material plates that, when subjected to harmonic excitation, either......We propose a topological material layout method to design elastic plates with optimized properties for vibration suppression and guided transport of vibration energy. The gradient-based optimization algorithm is based on a finite element model of the plate vibrations obtained using the Mindlin...... effectively suppress the overall vibration level or alternatively transport energy in predefined paths in the plates, including the realization of a ring wave device....

  1. Rabi-vibronic resonance with large number of vibrational quanta


    Glenn, R.; Raikh, M. E.


    We study theoretically the Rabi oscillations of a resonantly driven two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator (vibrational mode) with frequency, \\omega_0. We show that for weak coupling, \\omega_p \\ll \\omega_0, where \\omega_p is the polaronic shift, Rabi oscillations are strongly modified in the vicinity of the Rabi-vibronic resonance \\Omega_R = \\omega_0, where \\Omega_R is the Rabi frequency. The width of the resonance is (\\Omega_R-\\omega_0) \\sim \\omega_p^{2/3} \\omega_0^{1/3} ...

  2. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 3 (United States)


    81461 Vibration Kttviiunrornl of dir Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booaler Motor Durini Stalk TeaU U.U. Mason ar.d M.A. Bearing Thiokol CorpTWasaich...JJ CJ), pu ^J/741 (O. i UJBU) 4 tiys. 2 lablos, ti rot » 81^85 Tbr Kffrcl uf («ruovinK and Burr Skapr un Ihr Stability u( Journal...reviewed. 59 SEALS Kay Woiili ilaalt (ilufifMr«), ()*n|>mu ■MKII, Holotl tm» China alviiiamt) 81-603 TMUMC of TuriHilrnl Std» für KoluirfyManic

  3. Population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide by cylindrical fast ionization wave

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry


    The population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) by a cylindrical fast ionization wave is analyzed using a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The model takes into account the inelastic electron-neutral collisions as well as the super-elastic collisions between electrons and excited species. We observe an efficient population of only the first two levels of the symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes of CO2 by means of a fast ionization wave. The excitation of other higher vibrational modes by the fast ionization wave is inefficient. Additionally, we observe a strong influence of the secondary electron emission on the population of vibrational states of CO2. This effect is associated with the kinetics of high energy electrons generated in the cathode sheath.

  4. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17. Number 3 (United States)


    Wave Spectra C. Guedes Soares Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade 8-304 Tecnica de Lisboa, Portugal Influence of Payload n the Dynamic Ocean Engrg... PNL -5125-VOL-l-2, 44 pp (June -MONITORING 1984) NUREG/CR-3825-V1-V2 KEY WORDS: Monitoring techniques, Nu- clear power plants, Acoustic emission

  5. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 12, Number 9, (United States)


    the provisions. These methods include decision logic tables for examining Sismic Waves individual provisions, information networks for representing the development of limited slip reinforced concrete structures. bolted joints and the Investigation of the sismic response 46 of buildings using...the rated speed. The resultant radiated noise was largely attenuated by employing simple shielding arranged to form a tunnel around the engine and

  6. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 10 (United States)


    tendency to increase. The SMDE spectrum guarantees that the simply supported beam model provides a APLICATIONS OF SRS IN DESIGN conservative design for...literature used as a data base rials response - for example, modeling of impact and as an attempt to systematize the information phenomena , wave...May 1973). CH-5. Khetan, Raghunath, P. and Chang, David, C., " Surface Damage of Sheet Molding Com- B-3. Premont, E.J. and Stubenhauch, K.R., "Im

  7. Lifetimes and wave functions of ozone metastable vibrational states near the dissociation limit in full symmetry approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lapierre, David; Kochanov, Roman; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Tyuterev, Vladimir


    Energies and lifetimes (widths) of vibrational states above the lowest dissociation limit of $^{16}$O$_3$ were determined using a previously-developed efficient approach, which combines hyperspherical coordinates and a complex absorbing potential. The calculations are based on a recently-computed potential energy surface of ozone determined with a spectroscopic accuracy [J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 139}, 134307 (2013)]. The effect of permutational symmetry on rovibrational dynamics and the density of resonance states in O$_3$ is discussed in detail. Correspondence between quantum numbers appropriate for short- and long-range parts of wave functions of the rovibrational continuum is established. It is shown, by symmetry arguments, that the allowed purely vibrational ($J=0$) levels of $^{16}$O$_3$ and $^{18}$O$_3$, both made of bosons with zero nuclear spin, cannot dissociate on the ground state potential energy surface. Energies and wave functions of bound states of the ozone isotopologue $^{16}$O$_3$ with rotational ...

  8. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 6, (United States)


    I 20 .. I%25 1.4~ iu±.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHARI 1 AIIONAL BURtAU Ua SIANDARDS I63 4 i’U 00 SVIC NOTES The weight saving advantages of...Reaponse of a Simple Pile Structure to Hernandez-Cano Wave Loading Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM , DES, Facultad de N. Haritos and L K Stevens Ingenieria... UNAM , Mexico, DF., Mexico, Theory of 41 Machines and Mechanisms, Proc. of 5th World Con- The feedbowl is a device widely used by industry for feeding

  9. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 5 (United States)


    in Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals," 15 :21 . -N Physical Acoustics Vol Xl, pp 245-288, Aca- 60. Carlson, D.E., "Linear Thermoelasticity ," En- demic... Thermoelasticity ," Bull. Acad. Pol- onaise Sci., Ser. Sci. Techn., 26 (2), pp 143- 52. Lothe, J. and Barnett, D.M., "On the Existence 150 (1978). of Surface Wave...plication. The system is unique in that it uses two refrigerant fluids and in that it consists of two rotating elements: a high- 83-947 speed

  10. The relationship study between texture vibrating plate dynamic wettability and elastic wave scattering (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Li, Bin; Zhou, Chuanping; Xiao, Jing; Ni, Jing


    An experimental investigation of wetting behavior of liquid droplet on texture vibrating substrate and the theoretical calculations of elastic wave scattering with two holes which based on the elastodynamics, employing complex functions are investigated to study the relationship between texture vibrating plate dynamic wettability and elastic wave scattering. Experimental results show the dynamic behavior of droplet was unstable. In 0 to π/2 cycle, droplet appeared the waveform with front steep and rear gentle along the flow direction. In π/2 to π cycle, droplet appeared slightly periodic oscillation and accompanied by a certain ripple. Based on the dynamic wetting phenomenon in a single cycle, the influence of elastic wave scattering on wetting property are analyzed. Analysis has shown that the stress concentration is caused by complex elastic wave scattering. The more concentrated the stress, the more concentrated the elastic wave energy. Compared with the single hole, the variations of dynamic stress concentration factors for two holes are complex due to the influence of interaction between two holes. Droplet emerge movement is response to the local vibration. The vibration spread in elastic plate at a time of strain, this elastic force cause droplet displacement and vibration, and accompanied with energy transfer.

  11. Resonance Vibrations of the Ross Ice Shelf and Observations of Persistent Atmospheric Waves (United States)

    Zabotin, N. A.; Godin, O. A.


    Recently reported lidar observations at McMurdo have revealed a persistent wave activity in the Antarctic middle and upper atmosphere that has no counterpart in observations at mid- and low-latitude locations [Chen et al., JGR Space Physics, 2016]. The unusual wave activity suggests a geographically specific source of atmospheric waves with periods of 3-10 hours. Here, we investigate theoretically the hypothesis that the unusual atmospheric wave activity in Antarctica is generated by the fundamental and low-order modes of vibrations of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS). Simple models are developed to describe basic physical properties of resonant vibrations of large ice shelves and their coupling to the atmosphere. Dispersion relation of the long surface waves, which propagate in the floating ice sheet and are responsible for its low-order resonances, is found to be similar to the dispersion relation of infragravity waves in the ice-free ocean. The phase speed of the surface waves and the resonant frequencies determine the periods and wave vector of atmospheric waves that are generated by the RIS resonant oscillations. The altitude-dependent vertical wavelengths and the periods of the acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere are shown to be sensitive to the physical parameters of the RIS, which can be difficult to measure by other means. Predicted properties of the atmospheric waves prove to be in a remarkable agreement with the key features of the observed persistent wave activity.

  12. Optimal number of waves for ribbon fin propulsion (United States)

    Bale, Rahul; Bhalla, Amneet P. S.; Maciver, Malcolm A.; Patankar, Neelesh A.


    Many species of fish, such as rajiform, diodontiform, amiiform, gymnotiform and balistiformswimmers, use a ribbon fin as their primary mode of propulsion. It has been observed that each fish species, depending on its size, uses a specific number of waves on its ribbon fin. For example, the black ghost knifefish (10 ×1cm fin) typically uses 2-2.5 waves while a giant oarfish (3 ×0.1m fin) uses 6-8 waves. In this work we investigate whether this leads to optimal axial thrust. The axial thrust generated depends on the efficiency with which fin waves transport the fluid backward. We find that there are two competing mechanisms. On the one hand, an increase in wavelength (at fixed amplitude and frequency of the wave), and therefore the wave velocity, leads to an increased ability to transport the fluid backward. This leads to more thrust. On the other hand, longer wavelength leads to shallower waves. This reduces the efficacy to transport the fluid backward and reduces the thrust. The optimal wavelength, and therefore the optimal number of waves, is a result of a balance between the two competing mechanisms. We do our analysis in terms of specific wavelength, which is the wavelength non-dimensionalized by the wave amplitude. We find that the value of the specific wavelength at which the axial thrust is maximized is universal for ribbon fins and it is in agreement with biological data.

  13. Vibrational behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes based on cylindrical shell model using wave propagation approach (United States)

    Hussain, Muzamal; Naeem, M. Nawaz; Shahzad, Aamir; He, Maogang


    The vibration analysis, based on the Donnell thin shell theory, of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been investigated. The wave propagation approach in standard eigenvalue form has been employed in order to derive the characteristic frequency equation describing the natural frequencies of vibration in SWCNTs. The complex exponential functions, with the axial modal numbers that depend on the boundary conditions stated at edges of a carbon nanotube, have been used to compute the axial modal dependence. In our new investigations, the vibration frequency spectra are obtained and calculated for various physical parameters like length-to-diameter ratios for armchair and zigzag SWCNTs for different modes and in-plane rigidity and mass density per unit lateral area for armchair and zigzag SWCNTs on the vibration frequencies. The computer software MATLAB is used in order to compute these frequencies of the SWCNTs. The results obtained from wave propagation method are found to be in satisfactory agreement with that obtained through the previously known numerical molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 14, Number 4 (United States)


    to static and/or to fatigue loads. Computer and Monte Carlo simulation techniques for synthe- sizing the stress and strength distributions and the...and co-author’s name, work address and phone number, home address and phone number, brief biography , paper title and paper summary must be sent to...Dynamic Internal friction relates inversely to dynamic modulus in the studied materials. The experimental arrangement consisted of a Marx three-compo

  15. Resonance vibrations of the Ross Ice Shelf cause persistent atmospheric waves (United States)

    Godin, Oleg; Zabotin, Nikolay


    Recently reported lidar observations have revealed a persistent wave activity in the Antarctic middle and upper atmosphere that has no counterpart in observations at mid- and low-latitude locations [Chen et al., 2016]. The unusual wave activity suggests a geographically specific source of atmospheric waves with periods of 3-10 hours. Here, we investigate theoretically the hypothesis that the unusual atmospheric wave activity in Antarctica is generated by the fundamental and low-order modes of vibrations of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS). Simple models are developed to describe basic physical properties of resonant vibrations of large ice shelves and their coupling to the atmosphere. Dispersion relation of the long surface waves, which propagate in the floating ice sheet and are responsible for its low-order resonances, is found to be similar to the dispersion relation of infragravity waves in the ice-free ocean. The phase speed of the surface waves and the resonant frequencies determine the periods and wave vectors of atmospheric waves that are generated by the RIS resonant oscillations. The altitude-dependent vertical wavelengths and the periods of the acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere are shown to be sensitive to the physical parameters of the RIS, which can be difficult to measure by other means. Predicted properties of the atmospheric waves prove to be in a remarkable agreement with the key features of the observed persistent wave activity], including frequency band, vertical wavelength range, and weak variation of the vertical wavelength with the height. The present work is a motivation for in-depth studies of coupling between vibrations of ice shelves and waves in the upper and middle atmosphere at high latitudes.

  16. Ipsi- and contralateral H-reflexes and V-waves after unilateral chronic Achilles tendon vibration. (United States)

    Lapole, Thomas; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal


    Chronic Achilles tendon vibration has previously shown its effectiveness in improving plantar flexor's strength and activation capacities. The present study investigated the related neural mechanisms by analyzing H-reflexes and V-waves of the soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemii (GM gastrocnemius medialis; GL gastrocnemius lateralis) muscles under maximal isometric plantar flexion. Moreover, recordings were conducted bilaterally to address potential crossed effects. 11 subjects were engaged in this study. Maximal voluntary contraction and superimposed H-reflexes and V-waves were quantified in both legs at baseline (PRE) and 2 weeks later to verify repeatability of data (CON). Then, subjects were retested after 14 days of daily unilateral Achilles tendon vibration (VIB; 1 h per day; frequency: 50 Hz). No changes were reported between PRE and CON data. In the VIB condition, there was an increase in MVC for both the vibrated (+9.1 %; p = 0.016) and non-vibrated (+10.2 %; p = 0.009) legs. The H-reflex increased by a mean 25 % in the vibrated SOL (p cross-education phenomenon with differences in neural adaptations between the vibrated leg and non-vibrated leg.

  17. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14, Number 9 (United States)


    Words: Beerings, Journal bearings, Sommerfeld number This peper describes an empirical procedure for predicting the performance of journal bearings...Acoustic Modes in Partially Choked Converging Ducts A.H. Nayfeh, J.J. Kelly, and L.T. Watson Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacks

  18. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 9 (United States)


    Thermal Stresses with Applica- solids. tions to Airplanes, Missiles, Turbines and Nuclear Reactors , McGraw-Hill, New York (1957). It appears that the...nodal patterns as the clamped circular inside edge and a free outer one number of sides increases from 3 to 8, and extrap - consisting of three arcs...power plants, Foundations, Seismic Seismic response, Nuclear reactors design, Seismic response, Translational response, Rotational response A

  19. Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers (United States)

    Franzin, E.; Cardoso, V.; Pani, P.; Raposo, G.


    The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects.

  20. Time-series analysis of vibrational nuclear wave-packet dynamics in D2+ (United States)

    Thumm, Uwe; Niederhausen, Thomas; Feuerstein, Bernold


    We discuss the extent to which measured time-dependent fragment kinetic energy release (KER) spectra and calculated nuclear probability densities can reveal (1) the transition frequencies between stationary vibrational states, (2) the nodal structure of stationary vibrational states, (3) the ground-state adiabatic electronic potential curve of the molecular ion, and (4) the progression of decoherence induced by random interactions with the environment. We illustrate our discussion with numerical simulations for the time-dependent nuclear motion of vibrational wave packets in the D2+ molecular ion caused by the ionization of its neutral D2 parent molecule with an intense pump laser pulse. Based on a harmonic time-series analysis, we suggest a general scheme for the full reconstruction, up to an overall phase factor, of the initial wave packets based on measured KER spectra. We apply this scheme in a numerical simulation for vibrational wave packets in D2+ molecular ions and show how this reconstruction allows the clear distinction between commonly assumed stationary vibrational state distributions of the molecular ion following the ionization of D2 .

  1. Mitigation of Traffic-Induced Ground Vibration by Inclined Wave Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Augustesen, Anders Hust


    Double sheet pile walls can be used as wave barriers in order to mitigate ground vibrations from railways. The present analysis concerns the efficiency of such barriers, especially with regard to the influence of the barrier inclination and the backfill between the walls. Thus, the screening...

  2. Human responses to wave slamming vibration on a polar supply and research vessel. (United States)

    Omer, H; Bekker, A


    A polar supply and research vessel is pre-disposed to wave slamming which has caused complaints among crew and researchers regarding interference with sleep, equipment use and research activities. The present work undertook to survey passenger claims of sleep interference, disturbed motor tasks and equipment damage as a result of wave slamming during normal operations of this vessel. The hypothesis was investigated that whole-body vibration metrics from ISO 2631-1 are potentially suitable for the prediction of human slamming complaints. Full-scale acceleration measurements were performed and wave slamming events were subsequently identified from the human weighted acceleration time histories. A daily diary survey was also conducted to gather the human response. The vibration caused by wave slamming was found to be strongly correlated with sleep disturbances and activity interference. Sleep and equipment use were found to be the most affected parameters by slamming. Daily vibration dose values were determined by accumulating the vibration as a result of slamming over 24 h periods. This metric accounted for increased magnitudes and frequency of slamming incidents and proved to be the best metric to represent human responses to slamming vibration. The greatest percentage of activities affected by slamming related to sleep regardless of daily cumulative VDV magnitude. More than 50% of the recorded responses related to sleep when the daily cumulative VDV ranged between 8.0 m/s1.75-10.0 m/s1.75. The peak vertical vibration levels recorded on the vessel reach magnitudes which are associated with sleep disturbance in environments where acoustic noise is present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of dynamic properties of soft ground using an S-wave vibrator and seismic cones. Part 2. Vs change during the vibration; S ha vibrator oyobi seismic cone wo mochiita gen`ichi jiban no doteki bussei hyoka. 2. Kashinchu no Vs no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)


    With an objective to measure a behavior of the surface ground during a strong earthquake directly on the actual ground and make evaluation thereon, a proposal was made on an original location measuring and analyzing method using an S-wave vibrator and seismic cones. This system consists of an S-wave vibrator and a static cone penetrating machine, and different types of measuring cones. A large number of measuring cones are inserted initially in the object bed of the ground, and variation in the vibration generated by the vibrator is measured. This method can derive decrease in rigidity rate of the actual ground according to dynamic strain levels, or in other words, the dynamic nonlinearity. The strain levels can be controlled with a range from 10 {sup -5} to 10 {sup -3} by varying the distance from the S-wave vibrator. Furthermore, the decrease in the rigidity rate can be derived by measuring variations in the S-wave velocity by using the plank hammering method during the vibration. Field measurement is as easy as it can be completed in about half a day including preparatory works, and the data analysis is also simple. The method is superior in mobility and workability. 9 figs.

  4. Running interfacial waves in a two-layer fluid system subject to longitudinal vibrations. (United States)

    Goldobin, D S; Pimenova, A V; Kovalevskaya, K V; Lyubimov, D V; Lyubimova, T P


    We study the waves at the interface between two thin horizontal layers of immiscible fluids subject to high-frequency horizontal vibrations. Previously, the variational principle for energy functional, which can be adopted for treatment of quasistationary states of free interface in fluid dynamical systems subject to vibrations, revealed the existence of standing periodic waves and solitons in this system. However, this approach does not provide regular means for dealing with evolutionary problems: neither stability problems nor ones associated with propagating waves. In this work, we rigorously derive the evolution equations for long waves in the system, which turn out to be identical to the plus (or good) Boussinesq equation. With these equations one can find all the time-independent-profile solitary waves (standing solitons are a specific case of these propagating waves), which exist below the linear instability threshold; the standing and slow solitons are always unstable while fast solitons are stable. Depending on initial perturbations, unstable solitons either grow in an explosive manner, which means layer rupture in a finite time, or falls apart into stable solitons. The results are derived within the long-wave approximation as the linear stability analysis for the flat-interface state [D.V. Lyubimov and A.A. Cherepanov, Fluid Dynamics 21, 849 (1986)] reveals the instabilities of thin layers to be long wavelength.

  5. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcoba, Diego R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis, E-mail: [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Massaccesi, Gustavo E. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Ciclo Básico Común, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oña, Ofelia B. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CCT La Plata, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, CC 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  6. Nonlinear Scattering of Acoustic Waves by Vibrating Obstacles. (United States)


    completely neglected, the waveform becomes a triangular wave at a propagation distance equal to the discontinuity distance (see the discussion of this...the farfield (nearfield) is defined to be distances greater (lesser) than the distance to the last maximum in the on-axis diffraction pattern. This last...frequently referred to as the region in which Fraunhofer (Fresnel) diffractlion effects occur. 106 2. Electrical filtering problems due to experimental

  7. Acoustic Pressure Waves in Vibrating 3-D Laminated Beam-Plate Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osheku


    Full Text Available The effect of structural vibration on the propagation of acoustic pressure waves through a cantilevered 3-D laminated beam-plate enclosure is investigated analytically. For this problem, a set of well-posed partial differential equations governing the vibroacoustic wave interaction phenomenon are formulated and matched for the various vibrating boundary surfaces. By employing integral transforms, a closed form analytical expression is computed suitable for vibroacoustic modeling, design analysis, and general aerospace defensive applications. The closed-form expression takes the form of a kernel of polynomials for acoustic pressure waves showing the influence of linear interface pressure variation across the axes of vibrating boundary surfaces. Simulated results demonstrate how the mode shapes and the associated natural frequencies can be easily computed. It is shown in this paper that acoustic pressure waves propagation are dynamically stable through laminated enclosures with progressive decrement in interfacial pressure distribution under the influence of high excitation frequencies irrespective of whether the induced flow is subsonic, sonic , supersonic, or hypersonic. Hence, in practice, dynamic stability of hypersonic aircrafts or jet airplanes can be further enhanced by replacing their noise transmission systems with laminated enclosures.

  8. Polyad quantum numbers and multiple resonances in anharmonic vibrational studies of polyatomic molecules (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V.; Stepanov, Nikolay F.


    In the theory of anharmonic vibrations of a polyatomic molecule, mixing the zero-order vibrational states due to cubic, quartic and higher-order terms in the potential energy expansion leads to the appearance of more-or-less isolated blocks of states (also called polyads), connected through multiple resonances. Such polyads of states can be characterized by a common secondary integer quantum number. This polyad quantum number is defined as a linear combination of the zero-order vibrational quantum numbers, attributed to normal modes, multiplied by non-negative integer polyad coefficients, which are subject to definition for any particular molecule. According to Kellman's method [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6630 (1990)], the corresponding formalism can be conveniently described using vector algebra. In the present work, a systematic consideration of polyad quantum numbers is given in the framework of the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory (CVPT) and its numerical-analytic operator implementation for reducing the Hamiltonian to the quasi-diagonal form, earlier developed by the authors. It is shown that CVPT provides a convenient method for the systematic identification of essential resonances and the definition of a polyad quantum number. The method presented is generally suitable for molecules of significant size and complexity, as illustrated by several examples of molecules up to six atoms. The polyad quantum number technique is very useful for assembling comprehensive basis sets for the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian after removal of all non-resonance terms by CVPT. In addition, the classification of anharmonic energy levels according to their polyad quantum numbers provides an additional means for the interpretation of observed vibrational spectra.

  9. The effect of surface wave propagation on neural responses to vibration in primate glabrous skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise R Manfredi

    Full Text Available Because tactile perception relies on the response of large populations of receptors distributed across the skin, we seek to characterize how a mechanical deformation of the skin at one location affects the skin at another. To this end, we introduce a novel non-contact method to characterize the surface waves produced in the skin under a variety of stimulation conditions. Specifically, we deliver vibrations to the fingertip using a vibratory actuator and measure, using a laser Doppler vibrometer, the surface waves at different distances from the locus of stimulation. First, we show that a vibration applied to the fingertip travels at least the length of the finger and that the rate at which it decays is dependent on stimulus frequency. Furthermore, the resonant frequency of the skin matches the frequency at which a subpopulation of afferents, namely Pacinian afferents, is most sensitive. We show that this skin resonance can lead to a two-fold increase in the strength of the response of a simulated afferent population. Second, the rate at which vibrations propagate across the skin is dependent on the stimulus frequency and plateaus at 7 m/s. The resulting delay in neural activation across locations does not substantially blur the temporal patterning in simulated populations of afferents for frequencies less than 200 Hz, which has important implications about how vibratory frequency is encoded in the responses of somatosensory neurons. Third, we show that, despite the dependence of decay rate and propagation speed on frequency, the waveform of a complex vibration is well preserved as it travels across the skin. Our results suggest, then, that the propagation of surface waves promotes the encoding of spectrally complex vibrations as the entire neural population is exposed to essentially the same stimulus. We also discuss the implications of our results for biomechanical models of the skin.

  10. Monitoring Gold Nanoparticle Growth in Situ via the Acoustic Vibrations Probed by Four-Wave Mixing. (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Xiang, Dao; Gordon, Reuven


    We monitor in situ gold nanoparticle growth in aqueous solution by probing the acoustic vibrations with four-wave mixing. We observe two acoustic vibrational modes of gold nanoparticles from the nonlinear optical response: an extensional mode with longitudinal expansion and transverse contraction and a breathing mode with radial expansion and contraction. The mode frequencies, which show an inverse dependence on the nanoparticle diameter, allow one to monitor the nanoparticle size and size distribution during synthesis. The information about the nanoparticle size and size distribution calculated on the basis of the mode frequencies agrees well with the results obtained from the electron microscopy analysis, validating the four-wave mixing technique as an accurate and effective tool for in situ monitoring of colloidal growth.

  11. Vibration and pressure wave therapy for calf strains: a proposed treatment. (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; St Louis, Marie; Fournier, Magali


    Calf (lower leg) strains have a variety of treatment regimens with variable outcomes and return to activity (RTA) time frames. These injuries involve disruption of portions or the entire gastrocnemius-soleus myo-tendinous complex. Conservative treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE). Immediately following calf injury, patients can utilize cryotherapy, massage, passive range of motion, and progressive exercise. In general, Grade I through Grade III calf strains can take up to 6 weeks before the athlete can return to training. It can also involve the loss of more than 50% of muscle integrity. Recently, vibration therapy and radial pressure waves have been utilized to treat muscular strains and other myo-tendinous injuries that involve trigger points. Studies have suggested vibration therapy with rehabilitation can increase muscle strength and flexibility in patients. Segmental vibration therapy (SVT) is treatment to a more focal area. Vibration therapy (VT) is applied directly to the area of injury. VT is a mechanical stimulus that is thought to stimulate the sensory receptors, as well as decrease inflammatory cells and receptors. Therefore, VT could be a valuable tool in treating athlete effectively and decreasing their recovery time. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader baseline knowledge of VT and propose a treatment protocol for calf strains using this technology along with radial pressure waves.

  12. Formation of aerial standing wave field using ultrasonic sources consisting of multiple stripe-mode transverse vibrating plates (United States)

    Naito, Koki; Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru


    Intense aerial acoustic waves can be produced by an ultrasonic source consisting of a transverse vibrating plate and an external jutting driving point. Previously, we studied the dimensional parameters of vibrating plates to produce stripe-mode patterns and thereby determine the plate dimensions that generate high-quality patterns. In this research, we use four transverse vibrating plates as ultrasonic sources to produce intense standing wave fields in air. As a result, an aerial standing wave field was formed in the field surrounded by four vibrating plates. Furthermore, for a total input power of 30 W for the two ultrasonic sources, a very strong (sound pressure level, 167 dB) wave field is obtained.

  13. Combined vibration and guided wave-based approach for composite panels health assessment (United States)

    Radzienski, Maciej; Cao, Maosen; Wei, Xu; Kudela, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw


    Various non-destructive testing (NDT) methods have been developed to extract information about state of a structure. Two of them: vibration-based and guided wave-based techniques are one of the most commonly used and well developed. Both approaches can be implemented using Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer measurements and excitation by means of piezoelectric transducer. In this paper authors present a combined approached for NDT using successive and simultaneous measurement of both mode shapes and guided waves. Vibration-based damage detection is focused on detection of mode shape singularity, created by material discontinuity. This method utilizes wavelet transform and Teager energy operator for damage indication. Guided wave-based damage detection uses propagating elastic wave energy variation on the specimen surface as well as any changes in wave propagation pattern due to its interaction with material discontinuity as a tool for structural health assessment. Combining this two different techniques can give higher accuracy in defect detection. At the same time any additional specimen preparation are necessary, any set-up changes are required and the all the data can be registered in the same amount of time (simultaneous excitation). To confirm proposed technique a honeycomb core sandwich aluminum plate with debonding is tested. A results obtained with both techniques and combined approach are presented.

  14. Improving thermal ablation delineation with electrode vibration elastography using a bidirectional wave propagation assumption. (United States)

    DeWall, Ryan J; Varghese, Tomy


    Thermal ablation procedures are commonly used to treat hepatic cancers and accurate ablation representation on shear wave velocity images is crucial to ensure complete treatment of the malignant target. Electrode vibration elastography is a shear wave imaging technique recently developed to monitor thermal ablation extent during treatment procedures. Previous work has shown good lateral boundary delineation of ablated volumes, but axial delineation was more ambiguous, which may have resulted from the assumption of lateral shear wave propagation. In this work, we assume both lateral and axial wave propagation and compare wave velocity images to those assuming only lateral shear wave propagation in finite element simulations, tissue-mimicking phantoms, and bovine liver tissue. Our results show that assuming bidirectional wave propagation minimizes artifacts above and below ablated volumes, yielding a more accurate representation of the ablated region on shear wave velocity images. Area overestimation was reduced from 13.4% to 3.6% in a stiff-inclusion tissue-mimicking phantom and from 9.1% to 0.8% in a radio-frequency ablation in bovine liver tissue. More accurate ablation representation during ablation procedures increases the likelihood of complete treatment of the malignant target, decreasing tumor recurrence. © 2012 IEEE

  15. Effect of Temperature and Vibration on Electrical Connectors with Different Number of Contact Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W. L.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the results from three related analysis performed by adopting the failure models, which provided an explanation of performance influencing factors caused by different number of contact cores, for the purpose of measuring the temperature change and deformation value, which were the factors causing contact failure. The failures were localized in contact parts of the connectors. Performed investigations included thermal analysis, modal analysis, harmonic response analysis and contact failure analysis. From the results of these simulations, related temperature and vibration analysis nephograms were got respectively. And the correctness of results of thermal analysis was verified by Fourier law. The research results of this paper provide a reference for thermal analysis and vibration analysis of electrical connectors, which is important for ensuring the reliability and safety of electrical connectors.

  16. Piezoelectric parametric effects on wave vibration and contact mechanics of traveling wave ultrasonic motor. (United States)

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Wang, Shiyu; Xiu, Jie


    Elastic wave quality determines the operating performance of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUM). The time-variant circumferential force from the shrink of piezoelectric ceramic is one of the factors that distort the elastic wave. The distorted waveshape deviates from the ideal standard sinusoidal fashion and affects the contact mechanics and driving performance. An analytical dynamic model of ring ultrasonic motor is developed. Based on this model, the piezoelectric parametric effects on the wave distortion and contact mechanics are examined. Multi-scale method is employed to obtain unstable regions and distorted wave response. The unstable region is verified by Floquét theory. Since the waveshape affects the contact mechanism, a contact model involving the distorted waveshape and normal stiffness of the contact layer is established. The contact model is solved by numerical calculation. The results verify that the deformation of the contact layer deviates from sinusoidal waveshape and the pressure distribution is changed, which influences the output characteristics directly. The surface speed within the contact region is averaged such that the rotor speed decreases for lower torque and increases for larger torque. The effects from different parametric strengths, excitation frequencies and pre-pressures on pressure distribution and torque-speed relation are compared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermittency and emergence of coherent structures in wave turbulence of a vibrating plate. (United States)

    Mordant, Nicolas; Miquel, Benjamin


    We report numerical investigations of wave turbulence in a vibrating plate. The possibility to implement advanced measurement techniques and long-time numerical simulations makes this system extremely valuable for wave turbulence studies. The purely 2D character of dynamics of the elastic plate makes it much simpler to handle compared to much more complex 3D physical systems that are typical of geo- and astrophysical issues (ocean surface or internal waves, magnetized plasmas or strongly rotating and/or stratified flows). When the forcing is small the observed wave turbulence is consistent with the predictions of the weak turbulent theory. Here we focus on the case of stronger forcing for which coherent structures can be observed. These structures look similar to the folds and D-cones that are commonly observed for strongly deformed static thin elastic sheets (crumpled paper) except that they evolve dynamically in our forced system. We describe their evolution and show that their emergence is associated with statistical intermittency (lack of self similarity) of strongly nonlinear wave turbulence. This behavior is reminiscent of intermittency in Navier-Stokes turbulence. Experimental data show hints of the weak to strong turbulence transition. However, due to technical limitations and dissipation, the strong nonlinear regime remains out of reach of experiments and therefore has been explored numerically.

  18. Forced vibration and wave propagation in mono-coupled periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens


    This paper describes the wave propagation and vibration characteristics of mono-coupled structures which are of spatially periodic nature. The receptance approach to periodic structure theory is applied to study undamped periodic systems with composite structural elements; particular emphasis...... is laid on investigating resonant periodic point loading and its pronounced effect on the propagation of longitudinal waves. General mono-coupled periodic systems are first assumed to be infinite in extent; thereafter reflections caused by arbitrary end terminations of finite structures are considered...... and a general `closed form' solution is found for the forced harmonic response at element junctions. This `junction-receptance' is used to determine-discrete junction mode shapes of a finite system. Finally, the forced response of a finite structure with an internal obstruction is derived as a natural extension...

  19. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK Representation in Vibration and Wave Teaching for Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih


    Full Text Available Learning materials of vibrations and waves in physics involve abstract mathematical knowledge, not easy to be understood, and frequently generate misconceptions. However, the subject is fundamental prerequisite for mastering more complicated physical concepts. On the other hand, teachers´ materials comprehension itself can affect the way teachers teaching and giving learning experience to the students. Here, we use descriptive research to figure out teacher´s pedagogical content knowledge (PCK representation during teaching and learning process of vibrations and waves for junior high school grade VIII. Four professional junior high school teachers were chosen as sample. The PCK representation was focused on the content representation (CoRe which represents teachers´ materials comprehension and their special aspects. Data collections have been done by means documentation study, ongoing classroom activities observation and interviews with the teachers as well as the students. Outcome of this research are: 1 Basic ideas/concepts expected by teachers for students to learn are not yet covering the basic concept needed to understand the concept itself, 2 Teachers are not yet mastering the teaching materials comprehensively, 3 Classroom activities/learning experiences and the method given to the students are not varied.

  20. Observation of two coupled Faraday waves in a vertically vibrating Hele-Shaw cell with one of them oscillating horizontally

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaochen; Liao, Shijun


    A system of two-dimensional, two coupled Faraday interfacial waves is experimentally observed at the two interfaces of the three layers of fluids (air, pure ethanol and silicon oil) in a sealed Hele-Shaw cell with periodic vertical vibration. The upper and lower Faraday waves coexist: the upper vibrates vertically, but the crests of the lower one oscillate horizontally with unchanged wave height and a frequency equal to the half of the forcing one of the vertically vibrating basin, while the troughs of the lower one always stay in the same place (relative to the basin). Besides, they are strongly coupled: the wave height of the lower Faraday wave is either a linear function (in the case of a fixed forcing frequency) or a parabolic function (in the case of a fixed acceleration amplitude) of that of the upper, with the same wave length. In addition, the upper Faraday wave temporarily loses its smoothness at around $t=T/4$ and $t=3T/4$, where $T$ denotes the wave period, and thus has fundamental difference from ...

  1. Study on vibration characteristics and fault diagnosis method of oil-immersed flat wave reactor in Arctic area converter station (United States)

    Lai, Wenqing; Wang, Yuandong; Li, Wenpeng; Sun, Guang; Qu, Guomin; Cui, Shigang; Li, Mengke; Wang, Yongqiang


    Based on long term vibration monitoring of the No.2 oil-immersed fat wave reactor in the ±500kV converter station in East Mongolia, the vibration signals in normal state and in core loose fault state were saved. Through the time-frequency analysis of the signals, the vibration characteristics of the core loose fault were obtained, and a fault diagnosis method based on the dual tree complex wavelet (DT-CWT) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed. The vibration signals were analyzed by DT-CWT, and the energy entropy of the vibration signals were taken as the feature vector; the support vector machine was used to train and test the feature vector, and the accurate identification of the core loose fault of the flat wave reactor was realized. Through the identification of many groups of normal and core loose fault state vibration signals, the diagnostic accuracy of the result reached 97.36%. The effectiveness and accuracy of the method in the fault diagnosis of the flat wave reactor core is verified.

  2. Numerical Modelling of Building Vibrations due to Railway Traffic: Analysis of the Mitigation Capacity of a Wave Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Ribes-Llario


    Full Text Available Transmission of train-induced vibrations to buildings located in the vicinity of the track is one of the main negative externalities of railway transport, since both human comfort and the adequate functioning of sensitive equipment may be compromised. In this paper, a 3D FEM model is presented and validated with data from a real track stretch near Barcelona, Spain. Furthermore, a case study is analyzed as an application of the model, in order to evaluate the propagation and transmission of vibrations induced by the passage of a suburban train to a nearby 3-storey building. As a main outcome, vertical vibrations in the foundation slab are found to be maximum in the corners, while horizontal vibrations keep constant along the edges. The propagation within the building structure is also studied, concluding that vibrations invariably increase in their propagation upwards the building. Moreover, the mitigation capacity of a wave barrier acting as a source isolation is assessed by comparing vibration levels registered in several points of the building structure with and without the barrier. In this regard, the wave barrier is found to effectively reduce vibration in both the soil and the structure.

  3. Shear-driven dynamo waves at high magnetic Reynolds number. (United States)

    Tobias, S M; Cattaneo, F


    Astrophysical magnetic fields often display remarkable organization, despite being generated by dynamo action driven by turbulent flows at high conductivity. An example is the eleven-year solar cycle, which shows spatial coherence over the entire solar surface. The difficulty in understanding the emergence of this large-scale organization is that whereas at low conductivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm) dynamo fields are well organized, at high Rm their structure is dominated by rapidly varying small-scale fluctuations. This arises because the smallest scales have the highest rate of strain, and can amplify magnetic field most efficiently. Therefore most of the effort to find flows whose large-scale dynamo properties persist at high Rm has been frustrated. Here we report high-resolution simulations of a dynamo that can generate organized fields at high Rm; indeed, the generation mechanism, which involves the interaction between helical flows and shear, only becomes effective at large Rm. The shear does not enhance generation at large scales, as is commonly thought; instead it reduces generation at small scales. The solution consists of propagating dynamo waves, whose existence was postulated more than 60 years ago and which have since been used to model the solar cycle.

  4. The effects of vibration loading on adipose stem cell number, viability and differentiation towards bone-forming cells. (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Laura; Halonen, Heidi; Hyttinen, Jari; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Sievänen, Harri; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Mannerström, Bettina; Sándor, George K B; Suuronen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi


    Mechanical stimulation is an essential factor affecting the metabolism of bone cells and their precursors. We hypothesized that vibration loading would stimulate differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) towards bone-forming cells and simultaneously inhibit differentiation towards fat tissue. We developed a vibration-loading device that produces 3g peak acceleration at frequencies of 50 and 100 Hz to cells cultured on well plates. hASCs were cultured using either basal medium (BM), osteogenic medium (OM) or adipogenic medium (AM), and subjected to vibration loading for 3 h d(-1) for 1, 7 and 14 day. Osteogenesis, i.e. differentiation of hASCs towards bone-forming cells, was analysed using markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen production and mineralization. Both 50 and 100 Hz vibration frequencies induced significantly increased ALP activity and collagen production of hASCs compared with the static control at 14 day in OM. A similar trend was detected for mineralization, but the increase was not statistically significant. Furthermore, vibration loading inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hASCs. Vibration did not affect cell number or viability. These findings suggest that osteogenic culture conditions amplify the stimulatory effect of vibration loading on differentiation of hASCs towards bone-forming cells.

  5. N Vibrational Temperatures and OH Number Density Measurements in a NS Pulse Discharge Hydrogen-Air Plasmas (United States)

    Hung, Yichen; Winters, Caroline; Jans, Elijah R.; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.


    This work presents time-resolved measurements of nitrogen vibrational temperature, translational-rotational temperature, and absolute OH number density in lean hydrogen-air mixtures excited in a diffuse filament nanosecond pulse discharge, at a pressure of 100 Torr and high specific energy loading. The main objective of these measurements is to study a possible effect of nitrogen vibrational excitation on low-temperature kinetics of HO2 and OH radicals. N2 vibrational temperature and gas temperature in the discharge and the afterglow are measured by ns broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Scattering (CARS). Hydroxyl radical number density is measured by Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) calibrated by Rayleigh scattering. The results show that the discharge generates strong vibrational nonequilibrium in air and H2-air mixtures for delay times after the discharge pulse of up to 1 ms, with peak vibrational temperature of Tv ≈ 2000 K at T ≈ 500 K. Nitrogen vibrational temperature peaks ≈ 200 μs after the discharge pulse, before decreasing due to vibrational-translational relaxation by O atoms (on the time scale of a few hundred μs) and diffusion (on ms time scale). OH number density increases gradually after the discharge pulse, peaking at t 100-300 μs and decaying on a longer time scale, until t 1 ms. Both OH rise time and decay time decrease as H2 fraction in the mixture is increased from 1% to 5%. OH number density in a 1% H2-air mixture peaks at approximately the same time as vibrational temperature in air, suggesting that OH kinetics may be affected by N2 vibrational excitation. However, preliminary kinetic modeling calculations demonstrate that OH number density overshoot is controlled by known reactions of H and O radicals generated in the plasma, rather than by dissociation by HO2 radical in collisions with vibrationally excited N2 molecules, as has been suggested earlier. Additional measurements at higher specific energy loadings and kinetic modeling

  6. Vortex-induced vibrations of three staggered circular cylinders at low Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Behara, Suresh; Ravikanth, B.; Chandra, Venu


    Vortex-induced vibrations of three staggered circular cylinders are investigated via two-dimensional finite element computations. All the cylinders are of equal diameter (D) and are mounted on elastic supports in both streamwise (x -) and transverse (y -) directions. The two downstream cylinders are placed symmetrically on either side of the upstream body at a streamwise gap of 5D, with the vertical distance between them being 3D. Flow simulations are carried out for Reynolds numbers (Re) in the range of Re = 60-160. Reduced mass (m*) of 10 is considered and the damping is set to zero value. The present investigations show that the upstream cylinder exhibits initial and lower synchronization response modes like an isolated cylinder does at low Re. Whereas for both the downstream cylinders, the upper lock-in branch also appears. The initial and the upper modes are characterized by periodic oscillations, while the lower lock-in branch is associated with nonperiodic vibrations. The 2S mode of vortex shedding is observed in the near wake of all the cylinders for all Re, except for the upper branch corresponding to the downstream bodies. In the upper branch, both the downstream cylinders shed the primary vortices of the P+S mode. For the upstream cylinder, the phase between lift and the transverse displacement exhibits a 18 0° jump at certain Re in the lower branch. On the other hand, the downstream bodies undergo transverse oscillations in phase with lift in all lock-in modes, while the phase jumps by 18 0° as the oscillation response reaches the desynchronization regime.

  7. Shear-horizontal vibration modes of an oblate elliptical cylinder and energy trapping in contoured acoustic wave resonators. (United States)

    He, Huijing; Yang, Jiashi; Kosinski, John A


    We study shear-horizontal free vibrations of an elastic cylinder with an oblate elliptical cross section and a traction-free surface. Exact vibration modes and frequencies are obtained. The results show the existence of thickness-shear and thickness-twist modes. The energy-trapping behavior of these modes is examined. Trapped modes are found wherein the vibration energy is largely confined to the central portion of the cross section and little vibration energy is found at the edges. It is also shown that face-shear modes are not allowed in such a cylinder. The results are useful for the understanding of the energy trapping phenomenon in contoured acoustic wave resonators.

  8. Detection of the Vibration Signal from Human Vocal Folds Using a 94-GHz Millimeter-Wave Radar (United States)

    Chen, Fuming; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Jianqi


    The detection of the vibration signal from human vocal folds provides essential information for studying human phonation and diagnosing voice disorders. Doppler radar technology has enabled the noncontact measurement of the human-vocal-fold vibration. However, existing systems must be placed in close proximity to the human throat and detailed information may be lost because of the low operating frequency. In this paper, a long-distance detection method, involving the use of a 94-GHz millimeter-wave radar sensor, is proposed for detecting the vibration signals from human vocal folds. An algorithm that combines empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the auto-correlation function (ACF) method is proposed for detecting the signal. First, the EMD method is employed to suppress the noise of the radar-detected signal. Further, the ratio of the energy and entropy is used to detect voice activity in the radar-detected signal, following which, a short-time ACF is employed to extract the vibration signal of the human vocal folds from the processed signal. For validating the method and assessing the performance of the radar system, a vibration measurement sensor and microphone system are additionally employed for comparison. The experimental results obtained from the spectrograms, the vibration frequency of the vocal folds, and coherence analysis demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect the vibration of human vocal folds from a long detection distance. PMID:28282892

  9. Detection of the Vibration Signal from Human Vocal Folds Using a 94-GHz Millimeter-Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuming Chen


    Full Text Available The detection of the vibration signal from human vocal folds provides essential information for studying human phonation and diagnosing voice disorders. Doppler radar technology has enabled the noncontact measurement of the human-vocal-fold vibration. However, existing systems must be placed in close proximity to the human throat and detailed information may be lost because of the low operating frequency. In this paper, a long-distance detection method, involving the use of a 94-GHz millimeter-wave radar sensor, is proposed for detecting the vibration signals from human vocal folds. An algorithm that combines empirical mode decomposition (EMD and the auto-correlation function (ACF method is proposed for detecting the signal. First, the EMD method is employed to suppress the noise of the radar-detected signal. Further, the ratio of the energy and entropy is used to detect voice activity in the radar-detected signal, following which, a short-time ACF is employed to extract the vibration signal of the human vocal folds from the processed signal. For validating the method and assessing the performance of the radar system, a vibration measurement sensor and microphone system are additionally employed for comparison. The experimental results obtained from the spectrograms, the vibration frequency of the vocal folds, and coherence analysis demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect the vibration of human vocal folds from a long detection distance.

  10. Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests of a Marine Growth Wrapped Cylinder at Subcritical Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian V. J.


    Full Text Available Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV may cause great damage to deep water risers. Estimation of accurate hydrodynamic coefficients and response amplitudes for fouled tubular cylinders subjected to VIVs is a complex task. This paper presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation on in-line and cross-flow forces acting on cylinders wrapped with marine growth, subjected to current at Subcritical Reynolds Number. The drag and lift force coefficients have been determined through the use of the Fast Fourier Analysis methods. The different tests were conducted in the offshore engineering laboratory at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP, Malaysia. In this study, a cylinder with outer diameter Do = 27 mm, fixed at top as cantilever beam was used. The in-line and cross-flow forces were measured using VIV Force Totaller (VIVFT. VIVFT is a two degree of freedom (2DOF forces sensor developed by UTP to measure the VIV forces. The tests were conducted for current velocity varied between 0.118 to 0.59 m/s. The test results suggest that the cylinder wrapped with marine growth has shown an overall increase in drag and inertia coefficients as well as on response amplitudes.

  11. Dispersive nature of high mach number collisionless plasma shocks: Poynting flux of oblique whistler waves. (United States)

    Sundkvist, David; Krasnoselskikh, V; Bale, S D; Schwartz, S J; Soucek, J; Mozer, F


    Whistler wave trains are observed in the foot region of high Mach number quasiperpendicular shocks. The waves are oblique with respect to the ambient magnetic field as well as the shock normal. The Poynting flux of the waves is directed upstream in the shock normal frame starting from the ramp of the shock. This suggests that the waves are an integral part of the shock structure with the dispersive shock as the source of the waves. These observations lead to the conclusion that the shock ramp structure of supercritical high Mach number shocks is formed as a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity.

  12. Wave packet studies of the vibrational predissociation of three and four-atom van der Waals complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, S.K.


    Vibrational predissociation of XI{sub 2} and X{sub 2}I{sub 2} van der Waals complexes, with X = He and Ne, is studied with wave packets. Three-dimensional calculations are carried out on the three-atom systems. Suitable X{center_dot}{center_dot}I potential interactions are determined, and product distributions are predicted. Reduced dimension models of X{sub 2}I{sub 2}(v{prime}) {yields} 2X + I{sub 2}(v < v{prime}) are investigated. Comparison is made with available experimental results. Mechanistic issues, including the role of intramolecular vibrational relaxation resonances, are addressed.

  13. Shock Tube Simulation of Low Mach Number Blast Waves (United States)

    Morgan, R. G.; Gildfind, D. E.

    The underground mining environment has always been high risk due to the presence of solid and gaseous flammables, and the potential for the creation of detonablemixtures. Following explosions in confined spaces, shock waves are generated and may propagate through the tunnel system, causing injuries and possibly initiating further combusting or detonating events. The ability to generate the conditions which exist post shock is a useful experimental tool for the study of such processes, and for the evaluation of techniques to control and limit propagation.

  14. Free Vibration Characteristics of Cylindrical Shells Using a Wave Propagation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghoshal


    Full Text Available In the present paper, concept of a periodic structure is used to study the characteristics of the natural frequencies of a complete unstiffened cylindrical shell. A segment of the shell between two consecutive nodal points is chosen to be a periodic structural element. The present effort is to modify Mead and Bardell's approach to study the free vibration characteristics of unstiffened cylindrical shell. The Love-Timoshenko formulation for the strain energy is used in conjunction with Hamilton's principle to compute the natural propagation constants for two shell geometries and different circumferential nodal patterns employing Floquet's principle. The natural frequencies were obtained using Sengupta's method and were compared with those obtained from classical Arnold-Warburton's method. The results from the wave propagation method were found to compare identically with the classical methods, since both the methods lead to the exact solution of the same problem. Thus consideration of the shell segment between two consecutive nodal points as a periodic structure is validated. The variations of the phase constants at the lower bounding frequency for the first propagation band for different nodal patterns have been computed. The method is highly computationally efficient.

  15. Active tuning of vibration and wave propagation in elastic beams with periodically placed piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs (United States)

    Li, Fengming; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Liu, Chunchuan


    A novel strategy is proposed to actively tune the vibration and wave propagation properties in elastic beams. By periodically placing the piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs along the beam axis, an active periodic beam structure which exhibits special vibration and wave propagation properties such as the frequency pass-bands and stop-bands (or band-gaps) is developed. Hamilton's principle is applied to establish the equations of motion of the sub-beam elements i.e. the unit-cells, bonded by the piezoelectric patches. A negative proportional feedback control strategy is employed to design the controllers which can provide a positive active stiffness to the beam for a positive feedback control gain, which can increase the stability of the structural system. By means of the added positive active stiffness, the periodicity or the band-gap property of the beam with periodically placed piezoelectric patches can be actively tuned. From the investigation, it is shown that better band-gap characteristics can be achieved by using the negative proportional feedback control. The band-gaps can be obviously broadened by properly increasing the control gain, and they can also be greatly enlarged by appropriately designing the structural sizes of the controllers. The control voltages applied on the piezoelectric actuators are in reasonable and controllable ranges, especially, they are very low in the band-gaps. Thus, the vibration and wave propagation behaviors of the elastic beam can be actively controlled by the periodically placed piezoelectric patches.

  16. Coupled dynamics of vortex-induced vibration and stationary wall at low Reynolds number (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Jaiman, Rajeev K.; Khoo, Boo Cheong


    The flow past an elastically mounted circular cylinder placed in proximity to a plane wall is numerically studied in both two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D). This paper aims to explain the mechanism of the cylinder bottom shear layer roll-up suppression in the context of laminar vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a cylinder placed in the vicinity of a plane stationary wall. In 2D simulations, VIV of a near-wall cylinder with structure-to-displaced fluid mass ratios of m* = 2 and 10 is investigated at the Reynolds number of Re = 100 at a representative gap ratio of e/D = 0.90, where e denotes the gap distance between the cylinder surface and the plane wall. First, the cylinder is placed at five different upstream distances, LU, to study the effects of the normalized wall boundary layer thickness, δ /D , on the hydrodynamic quantities involved in the VIV of a near-wall cylinder. It is found that the lock-in range shifts towards the direction of the higher reduced velocity Ur as δ /D increases and that the lock-in range widens as m* reduces. Second, via visualization of the vortex shedding patterns, four different modes are classified and the regime maps are provided for both m* = 2 and 10. Third, the proper orthogonal decomposition analysis is employed to assess the cylinder bottom shear layer roll-up suppression mechanism. For 3D simulations at Re = 200, the circular cylinder of a mass ratio of m* = 10 with a spanwise length of 4D is placed at a gap ratio of e/D = 0.90 and an upstream distance of LU = 10D. The 3D vortex patterns are investigated to re-affirm the vortex shedding suppression mechanism. The pressure distributions around the cylinder are identified within one oscillation cycle of VIV. The pressure and the shear stress distributions on the bottom wall are examined to demonstrate the effects of near-wall VIV on the force distributions along the plane wall. It is found that both the suction pressure and the shear stress right below the cylinder

  17. Wave-Related Reynolds Number Parameterizations of CO2 and DMS Transfer Velocities (United States)

    Brumer, Sophia E.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Blomquist, Byron W.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Cifuentes-Lorenzen, Alejandro; Edson, James B.; Brooks, Ian M.; Huebert, Barry J.


    Predicting future climate hinges on our understanding of and ability to quantify air-sea gas transfer. The latter relies on parameterizations of the gas transfer velocity k, which represents physical mass transfer mechanisms and is usually parameterized as a nonlinear function of wind forcing. In an attempt to reduce uncertainties in k, this study explores empirical parameterizations that incorporate both wind speed and sea state dependence via wave-wind and breaking Reynolds numbers, RH and RB. Analysis of concurrent eddy covariance gas transfer and measured wavefield statistics supplemented by wave model hindcasts shows for the first time that wave-related Reynolds numbers collapse four open ocean data sets that have a wind speed dependence of CO2 transfer velocity ranging from lower than quadratic to cubic. Wave-related Reynolds number and wind speed show comparable performance for parametrizing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) which, because of its higher solubility, is less affected by bubble-mediated exchange associated with wave breaking.

  18. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith


    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  19. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 4, Number 6, June 1972. (United States)


    incorporate all relevant attention is g i v e n to the transfer of thermal parameters in a unified prediction scheme which energy between constituents within...grating can be suitably adjusted to 11i U REAL TIME VIBRATION TESTS yield an optimum relation between line frequen- Ponzi , U.; Ferroni, R.; and Morelli, G...approximated by the implicit Houbolt back- OF REVOLUTION ward difference scheme with a constant time Khar’kova, N.V. interval. At every load step or time

  20. Turbulence Models: Data from Other Experiments: Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence...

  1. Vibration control in forge hammers. [by shock wave damping in foundation platform (United States)

    Moise, F.; Lazarescu, C.


    Special measures are discussed for calculating, designing and executing a forge hammer foundation, so that the vibrations that occur during its working will not be transmitted to neighboring machinery, workrooms and offices. These vibrations are harmful to the workers near the forge hammer.

  2. Millimeter-wave and Submillimeter-wave Spectra of Aminoacetonitrile in the Three Lowest Vibrational Excited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposti, Claudio Degli; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kobayashi, Kaori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujita, Chiho; Ozeki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, 274-8510 (Japan)


    It is important to study possible precursors of amino acids such as glycine to enable future searches in interstellar space. Aminoacetonitrile (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CN) is one of the most feasible molecules for this purpose. This molecule was already detected toward Sgr B2(N). Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states, and transitions within these states may be found in space. In this study, the pure-rotational transitions in the three lowest vibrational states in the 80–450 GHz range have been assigned and analyzed. It was found to be very important to include Coriolis coupling between the two lowest vibrational fundamentals, while the third one was unperturbed. The partition function was evaluated considering these new results.

  3. Potential to kinetic energy conversion in wave number domain for the Southern Hemisphere (United States)

    Huang, H.-J.; Vincent, D. G.


    Preliminary results of a wave number study conducted for the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) using FGGE data for the period January 10-27, 1979 are reported. In particular, three variables (geomagnetic height, z, vertical p-velocity, omega, and temperature, T) and one energy conversion quantity, omega-alpha (where alpha is the specific volume), are shown. It is demonstrated that wave number 4 plays an important role in the conversion from available potential energy to kinetic energy in the Southern Hemisphere tropics, particularly in the vicinity of the SPCZ. It is therefore suggested that the development and movement of wave number 4 waves be carefully monitored in making forecasts for the South Pacific region.

  4. Layer-number dependent high-frequency vibration modes in few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides induced by interlayer couplings (United States)

    Tan, Qing-Hai; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Jun; Tan, Ping-Heng


    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their many novel properties. The atoms within each layer in two-dimensional TMDs are joined together by covalent bonds, while van der Waals interactions combine the layers together. This makes its lattice dynamics layer-number dependent. The evolutions of ultralow frequency ( 50 cm-1) vibration modes in few-layer TMDs and demonstrate how the interlayer coupling leads to the splitting of high-frequency vibration modes, known as Davydov splitting. Such Davydov splitting can be well described by a van der Waals model, which directly links the splitting with the interlayer coupling. Our review expands the understanding on the effect of interlayer coupling on the high-frequency vibration modes in TMDs and other two-dimensional materials. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2016YFA0301200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11225421, 11474277, 11434010, 61474067, 11604326, 11574305 and 51527901), and the National Young 1000 Talent Plan of China.

  5. Wave Characteristics of Falling Film on Inclination Plate at Moderate Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Lu


    Full Text Available Falling water film on an inclined plane is studied by shadowgraphy. The ranges of inclination angle and the film Reynolds number are, respectively, up to 21° and 60. Water is used as working fluid. The scenario of wave regime evolution is identified as three distinctive regimes, namely, initial quiescent smooth film flow, two-dimensional regular solitary wave pattern riding on film flow, and three-dimensional irregular wave pattern. Three characteristic parameters of two-dimensional solitary wave pattern, namely, inception length, primary pulse spacing, and propagation velocity, are examined, which are significant in engineering applications for estimation of heat and mass transfer on film flow. The present experimental data are well in agreement with the Koizumi correlations, the deviation from which is limited to 20% and 15%, respectively, for primary pulse spacing and propagation velocity. Through the scrutiny of the present experimental observation, it is concluded that wave evolution on film flow at the moderate Reynolds number is controlled by gravity and drag and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that occurred on the steep front of primary pulse triggers the disintegration of continuous two-dimensional regular solitary wave pattern into three-dimensional irregular wave pattern.

  6. Reduction of torsional vibrations of hybrid drives when using a low number of cylinders; Drehschwingungsberuhigung von Hybridantrieben mit niedrigen Zylinderzahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberg, Guenter [IVD Prof. Hohenberg GmbH, Graz (Austria); Beidl, Christian [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). VKM; Hoefler, Dieter [tectos gmbh, Graz (Austria)


    Plug-in hybrid drives will be, in the foreseeable future, the dominant variant for the electrification of vehicles, with the trend clearly pointing to combustion engines with a low number of cylinders and low engine operating speeds. However, the considerable torsional vibration and its impact on the drive train as well as the engine mount pose a problem. The conventional mechanical solutions with dual mass flywheels and pendulum support etc. have clearly reached their limit when it comes to improving the noise vibration harshness (NVH) behavior. Operating the drive engine with low speed values which are relevant for the fuel consumption is therefore only possible to a limited extent. This paper introduces a technique as a solution to the problem, where the excitation frequency can be doubled with the existing E-motor by generating additional torque pulses. This will achieve the excitation of the drive train and the engine mount as would be the case with a combustion engine with twice the number of cylinders. This technique, referred to as directE strategy, is particularly interesting for 2 und 3-cylinder engines. By combining the individual components into a highly integrated directE hybrid module a simple combination of existing combustion engines and gearboxes can be implemented. This paper describes the technique in more detail, which is followed by a discussion of its advantages, disadvantages and the first practical results. (orig.)

  7. Bond-selective photoacoustic imaging by converting molecular vibration into acoustic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hui


    Full Text Available The quantized vibration of chemical bonds provides a way of detecting specific molecules in a complex tissue environment. Unlike pure optical methods, for which imaging depth is limited to a few hundred micrometers by significant optical scattering, photoacoustic detection of vibrational absorption breaks through the optical diffusion limit by taking advantage of diffused photons and weak acoustic scattering. Key features of this method include both high scalability of imaging depth from a few millimeters to a few centimeters and chemical bond selectivity as a novel contrast mechanism for photoacoustic imaging. Its biomedical applications spans detection of white matter loss and regeneration, assessment of breast tumor margins, and diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This review provides an overview of the recent advances made in vibration-based photoacoustic imaging and various biomedical applications enabled by this new technology.

  8. Precession of elastic waves in vibrating isotropic spheres and transversely isotropic cylinders subjected to inertial rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, S


    Full Text Available and calculation of the corresponding proportionality factors. In the present paper radial and torsional vibrational modes are considered on the basis of an exact solution of 3-D equations of motion of an isotropic body in spherical coordinates. The solutions...

  9. Model for modulated and chaotic waves in zero-Prandtl-number ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    convective flow at the onset is quasiperiodic is not studied before. We present here the study of the role of external modulation on the quasiperiodic waves in the model of zero-Prandtl-number convection with rotation. We consider the effect of modulation of two parameters separately: first, the time-periodic rotation about a.

  10. Determination of increased mean drag coefficients for a cylinder vibrating at low values of Keulegan-Carpenter number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Riveros


    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for the development of a reliable technology for wind turbines in deepwaters.Therefore, offshore wind turbine technology is receiving great amount of attention by the research community. Nevertheless, the dynamic response prediction of the support system for offshore wind turbines is still challenging due to the nonlinear and self-regulated nature of the Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV process. In this paper, the numerical implementation of a computational fluid dynamics-based approach for determination of increased mean drag coefficient is presented. The numerical study is conducted at low values of Keulegan-Carpenter number in order to predict the increment of drag force due to cross-flow motion. The simulation results are then compared with previously developed empirical formulations. Good agreement is observed in these comparisons.

  11. Atomization off thin water films generated by high-frequency substrate wave vibrations (United States)

    Collins, David J.; Manor, Ofer; Winkler, Andreas; Schmidt, Hagen; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.


    Generating aerosol droplets via the atomization of thin aqueous films with high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) offers several advantages over existing nebulization methods, particularly for pulmonary drug delivery, offering droplet sizes in the 1-5-μm range ideal for effective pulmonary therapy. Nevertheless, the physics underlying SAW atomization is not well understood, especially in the context of thin liquid film formation and spreading and how this affects the aerosol production. Here, we demonstrate that the film geometry, governed primarily by the applied power and frequency of the SAW, indeed plays a crucial role in the atomization process and, in particular, the size of the atomized droplets. In contrast to the continuous spreading of low surface energy liquids atop similar platforms, high surface energy liquids such as water, in the present case, are found to undergo transient spreading due to the SAW to form a quasisteady film whose height is determined by self-selection of the energy minimum state associated with the acoustic resonance in the film and whose length arises from a competition between acoustic streaming and capillary effects. This is elucidated from a fundamental model for the thin film spreading behavior under SAW excitation, from which we show good agreement between the experimentally measured and theoretically predicted droplet dimension, both of which consistently indicate a linear relationship between the droplet diameter and the mechanical power coupled into the liquid by the SAW (the latter captured by an acoustic Weber number to the two thirds power, and the reciprocal of the SAW frequency).

  12. Combined whole-body vibration training and l-citrulline supplementation improves pressure wave reflection in obese postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Wong, Alexei; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kinsey, Amber W; Spicer, Maria T; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Figueroa, Arturo


    Postmenopausal women have increased wave reflection (augmentation pressure (AP) and index (AIx)) and reduced muscle function that predispose them to cardiac diseases and disability. Our aim was to examine the combined and independent effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and l-citrulline supplementation on aortic hemodynamics and plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 3 groups: l-citrulline, WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo for 8 weeks. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, AP, AIx, AIx adjusted to 75 beats/min (AIx@75), and NOx were measured before and after 8 weeks. All groups similarly decreased (P obese postmenopausal women.

  13. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom, Part II: Teaching Vibrations and Waves, Electricity and Magnetism, and Optics with Antiques (United States)

    Jewett, John W., Jr.


    This is the second in a series of two articles on using antique devices to teach introductory physics. As mentioned in the first article, students can more clearly see the physics required for the operation of antique devices than for modern-day technological devices. This article further discusses antiques used to teach vibrations and waves,…

  14. Frozen-wave instability in near-critical hydrogen subjected to horizontal vibration under various gravity fields. (United States)

    Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Amiroudine, S; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D


    The frozen-wave instability which appears at a liquid-vapor interface when a harmonic vibration is applied in a direction tangential to it has been less studied until now. The present paper reports experiments on hydrogen (H2) in order to study this instability when the temperature is varied near its critical point for various gravity levels. Close to the critical point, a liquid-vapor density difference and surface tension can be continuously varied with temperature in a scaled, universal way. The effect of gravity on the height of the frozen waves at the interface is studied by performing the experiments in a magnetic facility where effective gravity that results from the coupling of the Earth's gravity and magnetic forces can be varied. The stability diagram of the instability is obtained. The experiments show a good agreement with an inviscid model [Fluid Dyn. 21 849 (1987)], irrespective of the gravity level. It is observed in the experiments that the height of the frozen waves varies weakly with temperature and increases with a decrease in the gravity level, according to a power law with an exponent of 0.7. It is concluded that the wave height becomes of the order of the cell size as the gravity level is asymptotically decreased to zero. The interface pattern thus appears as a bandlike pattern of alternate liquid and vapor phases, a puzzling phenomenon that was observed with CO2 and H2 near their critical point in weightlessness [Acta Astron. 61 1002 (2007); Europhys. Lett. 86 16003 (2009)].

  15. Higher P-Wave Dispersion in Migraine Patients with Higher Number of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koçer


    Full Text Available Objective and Aim. An imbalance of the sympathetic system may explain many of the clinical manifestations of the migraine. We aimed to evaluate P-waves as a reveal of sympathetic system function in migraine patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. Thirty-five episodic type of migraine patients (complained of migraine during 5 years or more, BMI < 30 kg/m2 and 30 controls were included in our study. We measured P-wave durations (minimum, maximum, and dispersion from 12-lead ECG recording during pain-free periods. ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then used for magnification of x400 by Adobe Photoshop software. Results. P-wave durations were found to be similar between migraine patients and controls. Although P WD (P-wave dispersion was similar, the mean value was higher in migraine subjects. P WD was positively correlated with P max (P<0.01. Attacks number per month and male gender were the factors related to the P WD (P<0.01. Conclusions. Many previous studies suggested that increased sympathetic activity may cause an increase in P WD. We found that P WD of migraine patients was higher than controls, and P WD was related to attacks number per month and male gender. Further studies are needed to explain the chronic effects of migraine.

  16. Arch-Shaped triboelectric nanogenerator as a facile device for water-wave vibrational energy (United States)

    Ko, Young Joon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Jung, Jong Hoon


    We report an arch-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (A-TENG) as for a simple and effective water-wave energy harvesting device. The A-TENG consists of arch-shaped polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer film and flat Al metal electrode. Especially, the arch-shape of PET provides an inherent restoring force after the contact with Al; which significantly reduces the weight and volume of the TENG. For a mild mechanical impact of water waves with an amplitude of 5 cm and frequency of 1 Hz, the single A-TENG unit generates an open-circuit voltage of 8 V and closedcircuit current of 200 nA. In addition, two A-TENG units connected in parallel generate almost double the voltage and current. These results imply that the scaled-up A-TENG units could be used at water-breakers in coastal areas for effective harvesting of ocean wave mechanical energy.

  17. Modeling waves forced by a drop bouncing on a vibrating bath (United States)

    Turton, Sam; Rosales, Ruben; Bush, John


    We study the wavefield generated by a droplet bouncing on a bath of silicon oil undergoing vertical oscillations. Such droplets may bounce indefinitely below the Faraday threshold, and in certain parameter regimes destabilize into a walking state in which they are propelled by their own wavefield. While previous theoretical models have rationalize the behavior of single droplets, difficulties have arisen in rationalizing the behavior of multi-droplet systems. We here present a refined wave model that allows us to do so. In particular, we give a detailed account of the spatio-temporal decay of the waves, in addition to the couping between the wave amplitude and modulations in the droplet's vertical dynamics. Our analytic model is compared with the results of direct numerical simulations and experiments. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF.

  18. Wave-number-frequency spectrum for turbulence from a random sweeping hypothesis with mean flow. (United States)

    Wilczek, M; Narita, Y


    We derive the energy spectrum in wave-number-frequency space for turbulent flows based on Kraichnan's idealized random sweeping hypothesis with additional mean flow, which yields the instantaneous energy spectrum multiplied by a Gaussian frequency distribution. The model spectrum has two adjustable parameters, the mean flow velocity and the sweeping velocity, and has the property that the power-law index of the wave-number spectrum translates to the frequency spectrum, invariant for arbitrary choices of the mean velocity and sweeping velocity. The model spectrum incorporates both Taylor's frozen-in flow approximation and the random sweeping approximation in a natural way and can be used to distinguish between these two effects when applied to real time-resolved multipoint turbulence data. Evaluated in real space, its properties with respect to space-time velocity correlations are discussed, and a comparison to the recently introduced elliptic model is drawn.

  19. Experimental study of the vortex-induced vibration of drilling risers under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the different Reynolds numbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Liangjie

    Full Text Available A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.

  20. Multimode Vibrational Wave Packet Dynamics of Strong-Field-Ionized Methyl Iodide Probed by Femtosecond XUV Absorption Spectroscopy (United States)

    Loh, Zhi-Heng; Wei, Zhengrong; Li, Jialin


    Studies of vibrational wave packets (VWPs) created on the neutral electronic ground-state by intense laser fields have identified R -selective depletion (RSD) as the dominant mechanism for their generation. Another mechanism that is proposed to give rise to VWPs, bond softening (BS), remains hitherto unobserved. Here, we employ femtosecond XUV absorption spectroscopy to investigate the VWP dynamics of CH3 I induced by intense laser fields. Analysis of the first-moment time traces computed about the neutral depletion region reveals both the fundamental and the hot bands of the C-I stretch mode. The initial oscillation phases of these vibrations distinguishes the contributions of RSD and BS to the generation of the VWP in the neutral species. The relative oscillation amplitudes that are associated with the two phases suggest that the C-I VWP is generated predominantly by BS. In the case of the CH3 I+ X 2E3 / 2 ion state, VWP motion along the C-I stretch mode is dominant over the CH3 umbrella mode. Moreover, the amplitudes of the VWPs are only 1 pm (C-I distance) and 1° (H-C-I bond angle). The ability to resolve such VWP dynamics points to the exquisite sensitivity of femtosecond XUV absorption spectroscopy to structural changes. This work is supported by a NTU start-up Grant, the A*Star SERC PSF (122-PSF-0011), the Ministry of Education AcRF (MOE2014-T2-2-052), and the award of a Nanyang Assistant Professorship to Z.-H.L.

  1. Modelling low Reynolds number vortex-induced vibration problems with a fixed mesh fluid-solid interaction formulation (United States)

    González Cornejo, Felipe A.; Cruchaga, Marcela A.; Celentano, Diego J.


    The present work reports a fluid-rigid solid interaction formulation described within the framework of a fixed-mesh technique. The numerical analysis is focussed on the study of a vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number. The proposed numerical scheme encompasses the fluid dynamics computation in an Eulerian domain where the body is embedded using a collection of markers to describe its shape, and the rigid solid's motion is obtained with the well-known Newton's law. The body's velocity is imposed on the fluid domain through a penalty technique on the embedded fluid-solid interface. The fluid tractions acting on the solid are computed from the fluid dynamic solution of the flow around the body. The resulting forces are considered to solve the solid motion. The numerical code is validated by contrasting the obtained results with those reported in the literature using different approaches for simulating the flow past a fixed circular cylinder as a benchmark problem. Moreover, a mesh convergence analysis is also done providing a satisfactory response. In particular, a VIV problem is analyzed, emphasizing the description of the synchronization phenomenon.

  2. CFD Study of Liquid Sodium inside a Wavy Tube for Laminar Convectors: Effect of Reynolds Number, Wave Pitch, and Wave Amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Murtuza Mehdi


    Full Text Available Metallic tubes have been widely used as primary heat transfer elements in laminar convectors for domestic and aerospace heating purpose. This paper uses CFD tool to investigate the heat output and pressure drop of liquid sodium flowing inside a circular tube having a wavy profile throughout its length. The wavy tube can be utilized in laminar liquid metal convectors as basic heat transfer element. The effect of Reynolds number (500≤Re≤2000 wave pitch (25 mm≤λ≤100 mm and wave amplitude (2 mm≤a≤6 mm on the heat output and pressure drop has been numerically studied. Based on the CFD results important controlling parameters have been identified and it is concluded that the heat output from the wavy tube is affected by the wave pitch and the wave amplitude while the pressure drop is mostly affected by the Reynolds number and wave amplitude.

  3. Vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder in cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers; Chorinkai Reynolds su ryoiki ni okeru enchu no uzu reiki shindo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)

  4. Free and Forced Vibrations of an Axially-Loaded Timoshenko Multi-Span Beam Carrying a Number of Various Concentrated Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yesilce


    Full Text Available In the existing reports regarding free and forced vibrations of the beams, most of them studied a uniform beam carrying various concentrated elements using Bernoulli-Euler Beam Theory (BET but without axial force. The purpose of this paper is to utilize the numerical assembly technique to determine the exact frequency-response amplitudes of the axially-loaded Timoshenko multi-span beam carrying a number of various concentrated elements (including point masses, rotary inertias, linear springs and rotational springs and subjected to a harmonic concentrated force and the exact natural frequencies and mode shapes of the beam for the free vibration analysis. The model allows analyzing the influence of the shear and axial force and harmonic concentrated force effects and intermediate concentrated elements on the dynamic behavior of the beams by using Timoshenko Beam Theory (TBT. At first, the coefficient matrices for the intermediate concentrated elements, an intermediate pinned support, applied harmonic force, left-end support and right-end support of Timoshenko beam are derived. After the derivation of the coefficient matrices, the numerical assembly technique is used to establish the overall coefficient matrix for the whole vibrating system. Finally, solving the equations associated with the last overall coefficient matrix one determines the exact dynamic response amplitudes of the forced vibrating system corresponding to each specified exciting frequency of the harmonic force. Equating the determinant of the overall coefficient matrix to zero one determines the natural frequencies of the free vibrating system (the case of zero harmonic force and substituting the corresponding values of integration constants into the related eigenfunctions one determines the associated mode shapes. The calculated vibration amplitudes of the forced vibrating systems and the natural frequencies of the free vibrating systems are given in tables for different values of

  5. Wideband characterization of the complex wave number and characteristic impedance of sound absorbers. (United States)

    Salissou, Yacoubou; Panneton, Raymond


    Several methods for measuring the complex wave number and the characteristic impedance of sound absorbers have been proposed in the literature. These methods can be classified into single frequency and wideband methods. In this paper, the main existing methods are revisited and discussed. An alternative method which is not well known or discussed in the literature while exhibiting great potential is also discussed. This method is essentially an improvement of the wideband method described by Iwase et al., rewritten so that the setup is more ISO 10534-2 standard-compliant. Glass wool, melamine foam and acoustical/thermal insulator wool are used to compare the main existing wideband non-iterative methods with this alternative method. It is found that, in the middle and high frequency ranges the alternative method yields results that are comparable in accuracy to the classical two-cavity method and the four-microphone transfer-matrix method. However, in the low frequency range, the alternative method appears to be more accurate than the other methods, especially when measuring the complex wave number.

  6. Modification of AMD wave functions and application to the breaking of the N=20 magic number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics


    By using the deformed Gaussian instead of the spherical one, we have modified the AMD (Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamics) wave functions. The calculation results with this modified AMD shows the drastic improvement of the deformation properties of Mg isotopes. This improvement means that this new version of AMD can treat the deformation of mean field properly than before and the deformation of mean field is important in Mg isotopes. With this new version of AMD, we have also calculated 32Mg in which the breaking of magic number N=20 is experimentally known. In this nucleus, {beta}-energy surface is also drastically changed by the modification AMD wave function. Our results show that this nucleus is indeed deformed and neutron's 2p2h state is dominant in its ground state. This ground state reproduces the experimental data and shows the breaking of the magic number N=20 clearly. Additionally, near the ground state, there is also very interesting state which has neutron's 4p4h structure and shows parity violating density distribution and cluster-like nature. (author)

  7. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping


    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  8. Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-Uand the alpha-U charge density wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, W.A.; Booth, C.H.


    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure a-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}{prime}-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}{prime}-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  9. Nonlinear excitation of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability for all wave numbers (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Betti, R.; Gopalaswamy, V.; Yan, R.; Aluie, H.


    Small-scale perturbations in the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability (ARTI) are often neglected because they are linearly stable when their wavelength is shorter than a linear cutoff. Using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations, it is shown that linearly stable modes of any wavelength can be destabilized. This instability regime requires finite amplitude initial perturbations and linearly stable ARTI modes to be more easily destabilized in 3D than in 2D. It is shown that for conditions found in laser fusion targets, short wavelength ARTI modes are more efficient at driving mixing of ablated material throughout the target since the nonlinear bubble density increases with the wave number and small-scale bubbles carry a larger mass flux of mixed material.

  10. Vibrational Spectrum of an Excited State and Huang-Rhys Factors by Coherent Wave Packets in Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Lee, Gyeongjin; Kim, Junwoo; Kim, So Young; Kim, Dong Eon; Joo, Taiha


    Coherent nuclear wave packet motions in an electronic excited state of a molecule are measured directly by time-resolved spontaneous fluorescence spectroscopy with an unprecedented time resolution by using two-photon absorption excitation and fluorescence upconversion by noncollinear sum frequency generation. With an estimated time resolution of approximately 25 fs, wave packet motions of vibrational modes up to 1600 cm(-1) are recorded for coumarin 153 in ethanol. Two-color transient absorption at 13 fs time resolution are measured to confirm the result. Vibrational displacements between the ground and excited states and Huang-Rhys factors (HRFs) are calculated by quantum mechanical methods and are compared with the experimental results. HRFs calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT reproduce the experiment adequately. This fluorescence-based method provides a unique and direct way to obtain the vibrational spectrum of a molecule in an electronic excited state and the HRFs, as well as the dynamics of excited states, and it might provide information on the structure of an excited state through the HRFs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Analysis of the safety profile of treatment with a large number of shock waves per session in extracorporeal lithotripsy. (United States)

    Budía Alba, A; López Acón, J D; Polo-Rodrigo, A; Bahílo-Mateu, P; Trassierra-Villa, M; Boronat-Tormo, F


    To assess the safety of increasing the number of waves per session in the treatment of urolithiasis using extracorporeal lithotripsy. Prospective, comparative, nonrandomized parallel study of patients with renoureteral lithiasis and an indication for extracorporeal lithotripsy who were consecutively enrolled between 2009 and 2010. We compared group I (160 patients) treated on schedule with a standard number of waves/session (mean 2858,3±302,8) using a Dornier lithotripter U/15/50 against group II (172 patients) treated with an expanded number of waves/session (mean, 6728,9±889,6) using a Siemens Modularis lithotripter. The study variables were age, sex, location, stone size, number of waves/session and total number of waves to resolution, stone-free rate (SFR) and rate of complications (Clavien-Dindo classification). Student's t-test and the chi-squared test were employed for the statistical analysis. The total rate of complications was 11.9% and 10.46% for groups I and II, respectively (P=.39). All complications were minor (Clavien-Dindo grade I). The most common complications were colic pain and hematuria in groups I and II, respectively, with a similar treatment intolerance rate (P>.05). The total number of waves necessary was lower in group II than in group I (P=.001), with SFRs of 96.5% and 71.5%, respectively (P=.001). Treatment with an expanded number of waves per session in extracorporeal lithotripsy does not increase the rate of complications or their severity. However, it could increase the overall effectiveness of the treatment. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonlinear Excitation of the Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability for All Wave Numbers (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Betti, R.; Gopalaswamy, V.; Aluie, H.; Yan, R.


    Small-scale modes of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability (ARTI) are often neglected because they are linearly stable when their wavelength is shorter than a linear cutoff. Using 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations, it is shown that linearly stable modes of any wavelength can be destabilized. This instability regime requires finite amplitude initial perturbations. Compared to 2-D, linearly stable ARTI modes are more easily destabilized in 3-D and the penetrating bubbles have a higher density because of enhanced vorticity. It is shown that for conditions found in laser fusion targets, short-wavelength ARTI modes are more efficient at driving mixing of ablated material throughout the target since the nonlinear bubble density increases with the wave number and small-scale bubbles carry a larger mass flux of mixed material. This work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Nos. DE-FG02-04ER54789, DE-SC0014318, the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award No. DE-NA0001944, the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion of Spain (Grant No. ENE2011-28489), and the NANL LDRD program through Project Number 20150568ER.

  13. Extraordinary Features of the Planetary Wave Propagation During the Boreal Winter 2013/2014 and the Zonal Wave Number Two Predominance (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Hirooka, T.


    Observational features of the winter 2013/2014 are investigated using of the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis data. This winter can be characterized by the continuous predominance of planetary waves of zonal wave number two (WN2) that did not cause major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. It is found that the vertical component of the Eliassen-Palm flux of WN2 for the winter 2013/2014 is almost equal to the highest value of the winter 2008/2009. The longitudinal distribution of vertical components of Plumb wave activity flux for this winter shows marked downward propagation around 100°W and upward propagation around 60°E, both of which are the strongest of their type among the 56 winters since 1958/1959. The convergence of wave packets propagating from around 60°E contributes to the development and continuance of the quasi-barotropic Aleutian High, which is associated with the extension of negative extended refractive index (Ks) region. The extension of negative Ks region is related to the convergence or reflection of the wave packets emanating from tropospheric blocking highs developing in the North Pacific Ocean; the development and continuance of the quasi-barotropic Aleutian High is considered to be one of plausible reasons for the lack of major SSWs in the winter 2013/2014. In addition to these results, we revealed the significant contribution of smaller scale waves (with a zonal wave number of three or more) to the structure of localized wave packet propagation in the stratosphere.

  14. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the B 3− u (0

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... microwave, was recorded on BOMEM DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer at an apodized resolution of 0.035 cm-1. Vibrational constants were improved by putting the wave number of band origins in Deslandre table. The vibrational analysis was supported by determining the Franck–Condon factor and -centroid values.

  15. Low-to-high confinement transition mediated by turbulence radial wave number spectral shift in a fusion plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Wang, H. Q.


    A new model for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement transition has been developed based on a new paradigm for turbulence suppression by velocity shear [G. M. Staebler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 055003 (2013)]. The model indicates that the L-H transition can be mediated by a shift in the radial wave...... number spectrum of turbulence, as evidenced here, for the first time, by the direct observation of a turbulence radial wave number spectral shift and turbulence structure tilting prior to the L-H transition at tokamak edge by direct probing. This new mechanism does not require a pretransition overshoot...

  16. Calculating the number of shock waves, expulsion time, and optimum stone parameters based on noncontrast computerized tomography characteristics. (United States)

    Foda, Khaled; Abdeldaeim, Hussein; Youssif, Mohamed; Assem, Akram


    To define the parameters that accompanied a successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), namely the number of shock waves (SWs), expulsion time (ET), mean stone density (MSD), and the skin-to-stone distance (SSD). A total of 368 patients diagnosed with renal calculi using noncontrast computerized tomography had their MSD, diameter, and SSD recorded. All patients were treated using a Siemens lithotripter. ESWL success meant a stone-free status or presence of residual fragments 934 HUs and SSD >99 mm. The required number of SWs and the expected ET can be anticipated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus


    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  18. Quantum-Phase Resolved Mapping of Ground-State Vibrational D2 Wave Packets via Selective Depletion in Intense Laser Pulses (United States)

    Ergler, Th.; Feuerstein, B.; Rudenko, A.; Zrost, K.; Schröter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.


    Applying 7 fs pump-probe pulses (780nm, 4×1014W/cm2) we observe electronic ground-state vibrational wave packets in neutral D2 with a period of T=11.101(70)fs by following the internuclear separation (R-)dependent ionization with a sensitivity of Δ⟨R⟩≤0.02Å. The absolute phase of the wave packet’s motion provides evidence for R-dependent depletion of the ground state by nonlinear ionization, to be the dominant preparation mechanism. A phase shift of about π found between pure ionization (D2+) and dissociation (D++D) channels opens a pathway of quantum control.

  19. Nuclear velocity perturbation theory for vibrational circular dichroism: An approach based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Arne; Sebastiani, Daniel; Gross, E K U; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe


    The nuclear velocity perturbation current-density theory (NVPT) for vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) is derived from the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function. This new formalism offers an exact starting point to include correction terms to the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) form of the molecular wave function, similarly to the complete-adiabatic approximation. The corrections depend on a small parameter that, in a classical treatment of the nuclei, is identified as the nuclear velocity. Apart from proposing a rigorous basis for the NVPT, we show that the rotational strength, related to the intensity of the VCD signal, contain a new contribution beyond-BO that can be evaluated with the NVPT and that only arises when the exact factorization approach is employed. Numerical results are presented for chiral and non-chiral systems to test the validity of the approach.

  20. Microscopic calculation of the restoring force for scissor isovector vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R.; Bochnacki, Z.; Faessler, A.


    The restoring force for scissor isovector vibrations is calculated microscopically with the wave functions of an axially symmetric Woods-Saxon potential from a density-dependent symmetry energy. The experimental energies of the low-lying magnetic dipole states in rare-earth nuclei are well reproduced. It is found that only outer particles, which contribute to the nuclear moment of inertia, take part in this collective vibration. They are about half of the total number of nucleons.

  1. In-situ testing of the liquefaction potential of soft ground using an s-wave vibrator and seismic cones. Part 1. System, concept and preliminary test result; S ha vibrator oyobi seismic cone wo mochiita gen`ichi jiban ekijoka potential no hyoka. 1. System kosei oyobi genchi yosatsu keisoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)


    For the purpose of evaluating liquefaction in situ, it was proposed that an S-wave vibrator designed to serve as a source in a reflection exploration method be utilized as a strong vibration generating source, and measurement was conducted in this connection. Equipment used in this test included an S-wave vibrator, static cone penetration machine, and various measuring cones. A multiplicity of measuring cones had been inserted beforehand into the target layers and comparison layers, and changes upon vibrator activation were measured. On a dry bed of the Tonegawa river, a 40m{sup 2} field was set up, and 41 cone penetration tests were conducted, with the cones positioned zigzag at 5m intervals. In this way, the ground structure was disclosed from the surface to the 10m-deep level. For the measurement, 3-component cones and seismic cones were placed at prescribed depths, and fluctuations and waveforms presented by pore water pressure at each level were determined with the vibration source changing its place. It was found that the changes in the pore water pressure exposed to vibration assume characteristic patterns corresponding to the conditions of vibration application. 5 figs., 1 tab.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Konev


    Full Text Available Numerical method for calculation of forward and backward waves of intense few-cycle laser pulses propagating in an optical waveguide with dispersion and cubic nonlinearity of electronic and electronic-vibration nature is described. Simulations made with the implemented algorithm show that accounting for Raman nonlinearity does not lead to qualitative changes in behavior of the backward wave. Speaking about quantitative changes, the increase of efficiency of energy transfer from the forward wave to the backward wave is observed. Presented method can be also used to simulate interaction of counterpropagating pulses.

  3. Modified Finite Difference Schemes on Uniform Grids for Simulations of the Helmholtz Equation at Any Wave Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Abdul Wajid


    Full Text Available We construct modified forward, backward, and central finite difference schemes, specifically for the Helmholtz equation, by using the Bloch wave property. All of these modified finite difference approximations provide exact solutions at the nodes of the uniform grid for the second derivative present in the Helmholtz equation and the first derivative in the radiation boundary conditions for wave propagation. The most important feature of the modified schemes is that they work for large as well as low wave numbers, without the common requirement of a very fine mesh size. The superiority of the modified finite difference schemes is illustrated with the help of numerical examples by making a comparison with standard finite difference schemes.

  4. Tensor-decomposed vibrational coupled-cluster theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels Kristian; Godtliebsen, Ian Heide; Christiansen, Ove

    Vibrational coupled-cluster (VCC) theory is a highly accurate method for obtaining vibrational spectra and properties of small to medium-sized molecules. Calculating the vibrational energy and wave function requires the solution of a set of non-linear equations. We have implemented an array...... of any VCC calculation is the calculation of the error vector from a set of trial amplitudes. For high-order VCC methods this shows steep polynomial scaling w.r.t. the size of the moleule and the number of one-mode basis functions. Both the computational cost and the memory requirements of the VCC solver...

  5. A review on energy harvesting approaches for renewable energies from ambient vibrations and acoustic waves using piezoelectricity (United States)

    Ahmed, Riaz; Mir, Fariha; Banerjee, Sourav


    The principal objective of this article is to categorically review and compare the state of the art vibration based energy harvesting approaches. To evaluate the contemporary methodologies with respect to their physics, average power output and operational frequencies, systematically divided and easy readable tables are presented followed by the description of the energy harvesting methods. Energy harvesting is the process of obtaining electrical energy from the surrounding vibratory mechanical systems through an energy conversion method using smart structures, like, piezoelectric, electrostatic materials. Recent advancements in low power electronic gadgets, micro electro mechanical systems, and wireless sensors have significantly increased local power demand. In order to circumvent the energy demand; to allow limitless power supply, and to avoid chemical waste from conventional batteries, low power local energy harvesters are proposed for harvesting energy from different ambient energy sources. Piezoelectric materials have received tremendous interest in energy harvesting technology due to its unique ability to capitalize the ambient vibrations to generate electric potential. Their crystalline configuration allows the material to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical potential, and vice versa. This article discusses the various approaches in vibration based energy scavenging where piezoelectric materials are employed as the energy conversion medium.

  6. Induced Current Measurement of Rod Vibrations (United States)

    Sawicki, Charles A.


    The longitudinal normal modes of vibration of rods are similar to the modes seen in pipes open at both ends. A maximum of particle displacement exists at both ends and an integral number (n) of half wavelengths fit into the rod length. The frequencies fn of the normal modes is given by Eq. (1), where L is the rod length and V is the wave velocity: fn = nV/2L. Many methods have been used to measure the velocity of these waves. The Kundt's tube method commonly used in student labs will not be discussed here. A simpler related method has been described by Nicklin.2 Kluk3 measured velocities in a wide range of materials using a frequency counter and microphone to study sounds produced by impacts. Several earlier methods4,5 used phonograph cartridges complete with needles to detect vibrations in excited rods. A recent interesting experiment6 used wave-induced changes in magnetization produced in an iron rod by striking one end. The travel time, measured as the impulsive wave reflects back and forth, gave the wave velocity for the iron rod. In the method described here, a small magnet is attached to the rod with epoxy, and vibrations are detected using the current induced in a few loops of wire. The experiment is simple and yields very accurate velocity values.

  7. A Comparative Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effects of Brain Wave Vibration Training, Iyengar Yoga, and Mindfulness on Mood, Well-Being, and Salivary Cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bowden


    Full Text Available This randomised trial compared the effects of Brain Wave Vibration (BWV training, which involves rhythmic yoga-like meditative exercises, with Iyengar yoga and Mindfulness. Iyengar provided a contrast for the physical components and mindfulness for the “mental” components of BWV. 35 healthy adults completed 10 75-minute classes of BWV, Iyengar, or Mindfulness over five weeks. Participants were assessed at pre- and postintervention for mood, sleep, mindfulness, absorption, health, memory, and salivary cortisol. Better overall mood and vitality followed both BWV and Iyengar training, while the BWV group alone had improved depression and sleep latency. Mindfulness produced a comparatively greater increase in absorption. All interventions improved stress and mindfulness, while no changes occurred in health, memory, or salivary cortisol. In conclusion, increased well-being followed training in all three practices, increased absorption was specific to Mindfulness, while BWV was unique in its benefits to depression and sleep latency, warranting further research.

  8. From the CERN web: gravitational waves, magic numbers, innovation and more

    CERN Document Server


    This section highlights articles, blog posts and press releases published in the CERN web environment over the past weeks. This way, you won’t miss a thing...     Simulation of two massive black holes merging, based on data collected from the LIGO collaboration on 14 September 2015. (Image: LIGO Collaboration © 2016 SXS) The hills are alive, with the sound of gravitational waves 12 February – ATLAS Collaboration It’s 16:00 CET at CERN and I’m sitting in the CERN Main Auditorium. The room is buzzing with excitement, not unlike the day in 2012 when the Higgs discovery was announced in this very room. But today the announcement is not from CERN, but the LIGO experiment which is spread across two continents. Many expect the announcement to be about a discovery of gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein in 1916, but which have remained elusive until today… Continue to read…   The laser launch st...

  9. Determination of Fluid Density and Viscosity by Analyzing Flexural Wave Propagations on the Vibrating Micro-Cantilever. (United States)

    Kim, Deokman; Hong, Seongkyeol; Jang, Jaesung; Park, Junhong


    The determination of fluid density and viscosity using most cantilever-based sensors is based on changes in resonant frequency and peak width. Here, we present a wave propagation analysis using piezoelectrically excited micro-cantilevers under distributed fluid loading. The standing wave shapes of microscale-thickness cantilevers partially immersed in liquids (water, 25% glycerol, and acetone), and nanoscale-thickness microfabricated cantilevers fully immersed in gases (air at three different pressures, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) were investigated to identify the effects of fluid-structure interactions to thus determine the fluid properties. This measurement method was validated by comparing with the known fluid properties, which agreed well with the measurements. The relative differences for the liquids were less than 4.8% for the densities and 3.1% for the viscosities, and those for the gases were less than 6.7% for the densities and 7.3% for the viscosities, showing better agreements in liquids than in gases.

  10. Model for modulated and chaotic waves in zero-Prandtl-number ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of time-periodic forcing in a few-mode model for zero-Prandtl-number convection with rigid body rotation is investigated. The time-periodic modulation of the rotation rate about the vertical axis and gravity modulation are considered separately. In the presence of periodic variation of the rotation rate, the model ...

  11. An investigation of the open-loop amplification of Reynolds number dependent processes by wave distortion (United States)

    Purdy, K. R.; Ventrice, M. B.; Fang, J.


    Analytical and experimental studies were initiated to determine if the response of a constant temperature hot wire anemometer to acoustic oscillations could serve as an analog to the response of the drop vaporization burning rate process to acoustic oscillations, and, perhaps, also as an analog to any Reynolds number dependent process. The motivation behind this study was a recent analytical study which showed that distorted acoustic oscillations could amplify the open-loop response of vaporization limited combustion. This type of amplification may be the cause of unstable combustion in liquid propellant rocket engines. The analytical results obtained for the constant temperature anemometer are similar in nature to those previously obtained for vaporization limited combustion and indicate that the response is dependent on the amount and type of distortion as well as other factors, such as sound pressure level, Mach number and hot wire temperature. Preliminary results indicate qualitative agreement between theory and experiment.

  12. Analyzing the nonlinear vibrational wave differential equation for the simplified model of Tower Cranes by Algebraic Method (United States)

    Akbari, M. R.; Ganji, D. D.; Ahmadi, A. R.; Kachapi, Sayyid H. Hashemi


    In the current paper, a simplified model of Tower Cranes has been presented in order to investigate and analyze the nonlinear differential equation governing on the presented system in three different cases by Algebraic Method (AGM). Comparisons have been made between AGM and Numerical Solution, and these results have been indicated that this approach is very efficient and easy so it can be applied for other nonlinear equations. It is citable that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving differential equations and also the answer of various sets of complicated differential equations can be achieved in this manner which in the other methods, so far, they have not had acceptable solutions. The simplification of the solution procedure in Algebraic Method and its application for solving a wide variety of differential equations not only in Vibrations but also in different fields of study such as fluid mechanics, chemical engineering, etc. make AGM be a powerful and useful role model for researchers in order to solve complicated nonlinear differential equations.

  13. Molecular vibrations the theory of infrared and Raman vibrational spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E Bright; Cross, Paul C


    Pedagogical classic and essential reference focuses on mathematics of detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules, advancing from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving secular determinant.

  14. Shear-wave velocity profile and seismic input derived from ambient vibration array measurements: the case study of downtown L'Aquila (United States)

    Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Cara, Fabrizio; Milana, Giuliano; Tallini, Marco


    Downtown L'Aquila suffered severe damage (VIII-IX EMS98 intensity) during the 2009 April 6 Mw 6.3 earthquake. The city is settled on a top flat hill, with a shear-wave velocity profile characterized by a reversal of velocity at a depth of the order of 50-100 m, corresponding to the contact between calcareous breccia and lacustrine deposits. In the southern sector of downtown, a thin unit of superficial red soils causes a further shallow impedance contrast that may have influenced the damage distribution during the 2009 earthquake. In this paper, the main features of ambient seismic vibrations have been studied in the entire city centre by using array measurements. We deployed six 2-D arrays of seismic stations and 1-D array of vertical geophones. The 2-D arrays recorded ambient noise, whereas the 1-D array recorded signals produced by active sources. Surface-wave dispersion curves have been measured by array methods and have been inverted through a neighbourhood algorithm, jointly with the H/V ambient noise spectral ratios related to Rayleigh waves ellipticity. We obtained shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles representative of the southern and northern sectors of downtown L'Aquila. The theoretical 1-D transfer functions for the estimated Vs profiles have been compared to the available empirical transfer functions computed from aftershock data analysis, revealing a general good agreement. Then, the Vs profiles have been used as input for a deconvolution analysis aimed at deriving the ground motion at bedrock level. The deconvolution has been performed by means of EERA and STRATA codes, two tools commonly employed in the geotechnical engineering community to perform equivalent-linear site response studies. The waveform at the bedrock level has been obtained deconvolving the 2009 main shock recorded at a strong motion station installed in downtown. Finally, this deconvolved waveform has been used as seismic input for evaluating synthetic time-histories in a strong

  15. Numerical investigation of the vortex-induced vibration of an elastically mounted circular cylinder at high Reynolds number (Re = 104 and low mass ratio using the RANS code.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Bahadur Khan

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates the vortex-induced vibration (VIV of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with computational fluid dynamic (CFD tools. CFD analysis is performed for a fixed-cylinder case with Reynolds number (Re = 104 and for a cylinder that is free to oscillate in the transverse direction and possesses a low mass-damping ratio and Re = 104. Previously, similar studies have been performed with 3-dimensional and comparatively expensive turbulent models. In the current study, the capability and accuracy of the RANS model are validated, and the results of this model are compared with those of detached eddy simulation, direct numerical simulation, and large eddy simulation models. All three response branches and the maximum amplitude are well captured. The 2-dimensional case with the RANS shear-stress transport k-w model, which involves minimal computational cost, is reliable and appropriate for analyzing the characteristics of VIV.

  16. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers. (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe


    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  17. Determination of Fluid Density and Viscosity by Analyzing Flexural Wave Propagations on the Vibrating Micro-Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokman Kim


    Full Text Available The determination of fluid density and viscosity using most cantilever-based sensors is based on changes in resonant frequency and peak width. Here, we present a wave propagation analysis using piezoelectrically excited micro-cantilevers under distributed fluid loading. The standing wave shapes of microscale-thickness cantilevers partially immersed in liquids (water, 25% glycerol, and acetone, and nanoscale-thickness microfabricated cantilevers fully immersed in gases (air at three different pressures, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen were investigated to identify the effects of fluid-structure interactions to thus determine the fluid properties. This measurement method was validated by comparing with the known fluid properties, which agreed well with the measurements. The relative differences for the liquids were less than 4.8% for the densities and 3.1% for the viscosities, and those for the gases were less than 6.7% for the densities and 7.3% for the viscosities, showing better agreements in liquids than in gases.

  18. A study on the reduction of nitric oxide molecule (NO) to nitroxyl anion (NO{sup -}) by vibrational energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seon Woog [Silla Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    It is shown that one-electron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitroxyl anion (NO{sup -}) can be accelerated by vibrational energy. Potential energy surfaces of NO and NO{sup -} reveal that the vertical transition between them has favorable energetics for vibrationally excited molecule. Also, Franck-Condon factors between NO and NO{sup -} vibrational wave functions are calculated. It shows that the number of open channels increases with increased vibrational energy. These results mean that we can control the rate of reduction of NO to NO{sup -} by radiating an appropriate light.

  19. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)


    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  20. Generating spectra from ground-state wave functions: unraveling anharmonic effects in the OH- x H2O vibrational predissociation spectrum. (United States)

    McCoy, Anne B; Diken, Eric G; Johnson, Mark A


    An approach is described for calculating anharmonic spectra for polyatomic molecules using only the ground-state probability amplitude. The underlying theory is based on properties of harmonic oscillator wave functions and is tested for Morse oscillators with a range of anharmonicities. More extensive tests are performed with H(3)O(2)(-), using the potential and dipole surfaces of Bowman and co-workers [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 5042]. The resulting energies are compared to earlier studies that employed the same potential surface, and the agreement is shown to be very good. The vibrational spectra are calculated for both H(3)O(2)(-) and D(3)O(2)(-). In the case of H(3)O(2)(-), comparisons are made with a previously reported experimental spectrum below 2000 cm(-1). We also report the spectrum of H(3)O(2)(-) from 2400-4500 cm(-1), which extends 500 cm(-1) above the region reported earlier, revealing several new bands. As the only fundamentals in this spectral region involve the OH stretches, the spectrum is surprisingly rich. On the basis of comparisons of the experimental and calculated spectra, assignments are proposed for several of the features in this spectral region.

  1. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  2. The impact of wave number selection and spin up time when using spectral nudging for dynamical downscaling applications (United States)

    Gómez, Breogán; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo


    Nudging techniques are commonly used to constrain the evolution of numerical models to a reference dataset that is typically of a lower resolution. The nudged model retains some of the features of the reference field while incorporating its own dynamics to the solution. These characteristics have made nudging very popular in dynamic downscaling applications that cover from shot range, single case studies, to multi-decadal regional climate simulations. Recently, a variation of this approach called Spectral Nudging, has gained popularity for its ability to maintain the higher temporal and spatial variability of the model results, while forcing the large scales in the solution with a coarser resolution field. In this work, we focus on a not much explored aspect of this technique: the impact of selecting different cut-off wave numbers and spin-up times. We perform four-day long simulations with the WRF model, daily for three different one-month periods that include a free run and several Spectral Nudging experiments with cut-off wave numbers ranging from the smallest to the largest possible (full Grid Nudging). Results show that Spectral Nudging is very effective at imposing the selected scales onto the solution, while allowing the limited area model to incorporate finer scale features. The model error diminishes rapidly as the nudging expands over broader parts of the spectrum, but this decreasing trend ceases sharply at cut-off wave numbers equivalent to a length scale of about 1000 km, and the error magnitude changes minimally thereafter. This scale corresponds to the Rossby Radius of deformation, separating synoptic from convective scales in the flow. When nudging above this value is applied, a shifting of the synoptic patterns can occur in the solution, yielding large model errors. However, when selecting smaller scales, the fine scale contribution of the model is damped, thus making 1000 km the appropriate scale threshold to nudge in order to balance both effects

  3. Soap film vibration: origin of the dissipation. (United States)

    Acharige, Sébastien Kosgodagan; Elias, Florence; Derec, Caroline


    We investigate the complex dispersion relationship of a transverse antisymmetric wave on a horizontal soap film. Experimentally, the complex wave number k at a fixed forcing frequency is determined by measuring the vibrating amplitude of the soap film: the wavelength (linked to the real part of k) is determined by the spatial variation of the amplitude; the decay length (linked to the imaginary part of k) is determined by analyzing the resonance curves of the vibrating wave as a function of frequency. Theoretically, we compute the complex dispersion relationship taking into account the physical properties of the bulk liquid and gas phase, and of the gas-liquid interfaces. The comparison between the computation (developed to the leading order under our experimental conditions) and the experimental results confirms that the phase velocity is fixed by the interplay between surface tension, and liquid and air inertia, as reported in previous studies. Moreover, we show that the attenuation of the transverse antisymmetric wave originates from the viscous dissipation in the gas phase surrounding the liquid film. This result is an important step in understanding the propagation of an acoustic wave in liquid foam, using a bottom-up approach.

  4. Configuration mixing of mean-field wave functions projected on angular momentum and particle number: Application to sup 2 sup 4 Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Valor, A; Bonche, P


    We present in this paper the general framework of a method which permits to restore the rotational and particle number symmetries of wave functions obtained in Skyrme HF + BCS calculations. This restoration is nothing but a projection of mean-field intrinsic wave functions onto good particle number and good angular momentum. The method allows us also to mix projected wave functions. Such a configuration mixing is discussed for sets of HF + BCS intrinsic states generated in constrained calculations with suitable collective variables. This procedure gives collective states which are eigenstates of the particle number and the angular momentum operators and between which transition probabilities are calculated. An application to sup 2 sup 4 Mg is presented, with mean-field wave functions generated by axial quadrupole constraints. Theoretical spectra and transition probabilities are compared to the experiment.

  5. Non-probabilistic solution of uncertain vibration equation of large membranes using Adomian decomposition method. (United States)

    Tapaswini, Smita; Chakraverty, S


    This paper proposes a new technique based on double parametric form of fuzzy numbers to handle the uncertain vibration equation for very large membrane for different particular cases. Uncertainties present in the initial condition and the wave velocity of free vibration are modelled through Gaussian convex normalised fuzzy set. Using the single parametric form of fuzzy number, the original fuzzy vibration equation is converted first to an interval fuzzy vibration equation. Next this equation is transformed to crisp form by applying double parametric form of fuzzy numbers. Finally the same governing equation is solved by Adomian decomposition method (ADM) symbolically to obtain the uncertain bounds. The present methods are very simple and effective. Obtained results are depicted in terms of plots to show the efficiency and powerfulness of the present analysis. Results obtained by the methods with new techniques are compared with existing results in special cases.

  6. Study of the vibrational characteristics of the homonuclear diatomic nuclear schrödinger equation with a numerov method using a number of empirical potential functions (United States)

    Heidari, Alireza; Anwar Bég, O.; Ghorbani, Mohammadali


    Many empirical potential energy functions have been modeled to represent the potential energy function of a diatomic molecule along whole range of internuclear distance coordinate, whereby one can determine certain molecular constants. Here we employ various potential functions such as Morse, Rydberg, Varshni(II), Varshni(III), Varshni(VI), Pöschl-Teller, Hulburt-Hirschfelder, Lippincott, Frost-Musulin, Linnet, and Rosen-Morse, and the Numerov method to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation for F2, as an example of a homonuclear diatomic molecule. Herewith, the vibrational and vibration-rotation energy levels are obtained and excellent accuracy is achieved. The potential of employing the Numerov method in engineering physics computations is emphasized.

  7. Space-time-wave number-frequency Z(x, t, k, f) analysis of SAW generation on fluid filled cylindrical shells. (United States)

    Martinez, Loïc; Morvan, Bruno; Izbicki, Jean Louis


    A new 4D space-time-wave number-frequency representation Z(x,t,k,f) is introduced. The Z(x,t,k,f) representation is used for processing 2D space-time signal collection issued from wave propagation along a 1D medium. This representation is an extension along the time dimension of the space-wave number-frequency representation. The Z(x,t,k,f) representation is obtained by short time-space 2D Fourier transforming the space-time collection. The Z(x,t,k,f) representation allows the characterization transient aspects of wave generation and propagation in both space and time dimensions. The Z(x,t,k,f) representation is used to experimentally investigate Lamb wave generation and propagation around a cylindrical shell (relative thickness is equal to 0.03) surrounded by water and excited by a pulse (0.1 micros duration with 1-5 MHz transducers). Three kinds of fluids have been used inside the shell: air, water, propanol. In all the cases, the Z(x,t,k,f) analysis clearly identify the reflected field on the insonified side of the shell and it allows the measurement of the local reflection coefficients R(x,t,k,f). The generation and the propagation of Lamb waves are also quantified. For the liquid filled shells, the multiple internal reflections are revealed by Z(x,t,k,f) analysis: the local transmission coefficients T(x,t,k,f) are also measured. When local matching conditions allows Lamb wave generation, the multiple regeneration of Lamb wave is observed. Based on these results, a link is establish toward the theoretical results obtained by steady state approach and Sommerfeld-Watson transform.

  8. Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates (United States)


    VIBRATIONAL SENSING IN MARINE INVERTEBRATES Peter A. Jumars School of Oceanography University of Washington Box 357940 Seattle, WA 98195-7940 (206...DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  9. Improved Predictions for Geotechnical Vibrations


    Macijauskas, Darius


    In urban areas where the infrastructure is dense and construction of new structures is near existing and sensitive buildings, frequently vibrations, caused by human activities, occur. Generated waves in the soil may adversely affect surrounding buildings. These vibrations have to be predicted a priori by using currently available knowledge of the soil dynamics. Current research, conducted by Deltares research institute, showed that the reliability of methods for prediction of m...

  10. Chirped-pulse Fourier transform millimeter-wave spectroscopy of ten vibrationally excited states of i-propyl cyanide: exploring the far-infrared region. (United States)

    Arenas, Benjamin E; Gruet, Sébastien; Steber, Amanda L; Giuliano, Barbara M; Schnell, Melanie


    We report here further spectroscopic investigation of the astrochemically relevant molecule i-propyl cyanide. We observed and analysed the rotational spectra of the ground state of the molecule and ten vibrationally excited states with energies between 180-500 cm(-1). For this, we used a segmented W-band spectrometer (75-110 GHz) and performed the experiments under room temperature conditions. This approach thus provides access to high-resolution, pure rotational data of vibrational modes that occur in the far-infrared fingerprint region, and that can be difficult to access with other techniques. The obtained, extensive data set will support further astronomical searches and identifications, such as in warmer regions of the interstellar space where contributions from vibrationally excited states become increasingly relevant.

  11. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita


    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  12. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Investigation at Mach Numbers of 0.20 to 3.50 of a Blended Diamond Wing and Body Combination of Sonic Design but with Low Wave-Drag Increase with Increasing Mach Number (United States)

    Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.; Hatfield, Elaine W.


    A diamond wing and body combination was designed to have an area distribution which would result in near optimum zero-lift wave-drag coefficients at a Mach number of 1.00, and decreasing wave-drag coefficient with increasing Mach number up to near sonic leading-edge conditions for the wing. The airfoil section were computed by varying their shape along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The exposed wing section had an average maximum thickness of about 3 percent of the local chords, and the maximum thickness of the center-line chord was 5.49 percent. The wing had an aspect ratio of 2 and a leading-edge sweep of 45 deg. Test data were obtained throughout the Mach number range from 0.20 to 3.50 at Reynolds numbers based on the mean aerodynamic chord of roughly 6,000,000 to 9,000,000. The zero-lift wave-drag coefficients of the diamond model satisfied the design objectives and were equal to the low values for the Mach number 1.00 equivalent body up to the limit of the transonic tests. From the peak drag coefficient near M = 1.00 there was a gradual decrease in wave-drag coefficient up to M = 1.20. Above sonic leading-edge conditions of the wing there was a rise in the wave-drag coefficient which was attributed in part to the body contouring as well as to the wing geometry. The diamond model had good lift characteristics, in spite of the prediction from low-aspect-ratio theory that the rear half of the diamond wing would carry little lift. The experimental lift-curve slope obtained at supersonic speeds were equal to or greater than the values predicted by linear theory. Similarly the other basic aerodynamic parameters, aerodynamic center position, and maximum lift-drag ratios were satisfactorily predicted at supersonic speeds.

  14. Torsional vibrations of infinite composite poroelastic cylinders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. A study of torsional vibrations of an infinite composite poroelastic circular solid cylinder made of two different materials is made. The frequency equation of such torsional vibrations is obtained following analytical model based on Biot's theory of wave propagation in liquid saturated porous media. Each dilatation of ...

  15. Streaming Induced by Ultrasonic Vibration in a Water Vessel (United States)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Murakami, Koichi; Sasaki, Yuuichi


    The flow pattern induced by ultrasonic vibration in a water vessel is investigated experimentally using several liquids. In tap water, vortex streaming of cavitation bubbles around the pressure node of a standing wave occurred because of the large number of cavitation bubbles generated by the ultrasonic vibration. Acoustic streaming of the Rayleigh type caused by cavitation bubble streaming is also induced in tap water. In a glycerin aqueous solution of 30%, Eckart streaming, which flowed upward from the vibrator, occurred due to the dissipation of ultrasonic energy caused by viscosity. On the other hand, in degassed water, streaming is hardly generated at all since a uniform and stable standing wave is formed in the water vessel. The velocity of the acoustic streaming generated in the water vessel by 27.8 kHz vibration is 1 to 6 mm/s. The cavitation bubble streaming in tap water is completely independent of normal Rayleigh or Eckart streaming. This bubble streaming is considerably faster than previous streaming.

  16. A night with good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia


    Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva

  17. Vibrational Diver (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef


    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  18. Aerial Ultrasonic Source Using Stripe-Mode Transverse Vibrating Plate with Jutting Driving Point (United States)

    Miura, Hikaru; Ishikawa, Hitoshi


    Ultrasonic sources using a stripe-mode rectangular transverse vibrating plate have been used as acoustic sources emitting intense acoustic waves in air. Because these sources are based on the resonance of transverse vibration, their electric-acoustic conversion rate is as high as 90%, which is a merit. In this study, a vibrating plate with a unique shape was developed to enhance the effectiveness of acoustic sources. It is called a stripe-mode transverse vibrating plate with a jutting driving point. The advantage of this plate shape is that the acoustic source does not interfere with the emission of acoustic waves since the driving point is outside the plate, and there is no need to distinguish between the front and back sides of the vibrating plate. The conditions effective for driving the stripe-mode transverse vibrating plate were clarified. That is, the length of the side parallel to the node lines of the plate is an odd number times the length between the nodes in the stripe mode, and the length of the side perpendicular is at least 6 times but not a multiple of 3 greater than or equal to 15 times, subtracted by 0.5 times, the length between the nodes. Moreover, the length between the driving point and the edge of the plate is a positive integer with a noninteger value of 0.9.

  19. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C


    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  20. Stimulated angiogenesis for fracture healing augmented by low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration in a rat model-evaluation of pulsed-wave doppler, 3-D power Doppler ultrasonography and micro-CT microangiography. (United States)

    Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Sun, Ming-Hui; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Leung, Andraay Hon-Chi; Qin, Ling; Wei, Fang-Yuan; Leung, Kwok-Sui


    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) treatment on angiogenesis and blood flow for enhancement of fracture healing. Nine-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (Sham) rats received closed fractures creation at the femora and were randomized into LMHFV treatment (Sham-V, OVX-V) or control (Sham-C, OVX-C) groups. Pulsed-wave Doppler indicated an increase in blood flow velocity of the femoral artery at weeks 2 (OVX pair: p = 0.030) and 4 (OVX pair: p = 0.012; Sham pair: p = 0.020) post-treatment. Significantly enhanced vascular volume (VV) at the fracture site in the vibration groups was demonstrated by 3-D high-frequency power Doppler at week 2 (Sham pair: p = 0.021) and micro-computed tomography (microCT) microangiography at weeks 2 (OVX pair: p = 0.009) and 4 (OVX pair: p = 0.034), which echoed the osteogenesis findings by radiographic and microCT analysis. VV in the OVX groups was inferior to the Sham groups. However, OVX-V showed higher percentages of angiogenic enhancement than Sham-V. Despite impaired neo-angiogenesis in osteoporotic fractures, LMHFV could increase blood flow and angiogenesis in both normal and osteoporotic fractures, thus enhancing fracture healing. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ground wave emergency network environmental assessment for northwestern Colorado relay node site number RN 8C924CO (United States)


    The Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN) is a radio communication system designed to relay emergency messages between strategic military areas in the continental United States. The system is immune to the effects of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) energy surges caused by nuclear bursts in the ionosphere that would disrupt conventional communications equipment such as telephones and shortwave radios. A failure of such equipment would prevent timely communications among top military and civilian leaders and strategic Air Force locations and prevent U.S. assessment and retaliation during an attack. GWEN is an essential part of a defense modernization program to upgrade and improve our nation's communications system, thereby strengthening deterrence. The GWEN system consists of a network of relay nodes, receive-only stations, and input/output stations. Each relay node, such as the one proposed in southern Nevada consists of a guyed radio tower facility similar to those used by commercial AM broadcast transmitters.

  2. Automatic Identification of the Repolarization Endpoint by Computing the Dominant T-wave on a Reduced Number of Leads. (United States)

    Giuliani, C; Agostinelli, A; Di Nardo, F; Fioretti, S; Burattini, L


    Electrocardiographic (ECG) T-wave endpoint (Tend) identification suffers lack of reliability due to the presence of noise and variability among leads. Tend identification can be improved by using global repolarization waveforms obtained by combining several leads. The dominant T-wave (DTW) is a global repolarization waveform that proved to improve Tend identification when computed using the 15 (I to III, aVr, aVl, aVf, V1 to V6, X, Y, Z) leads usually available in clinics, of which only 8 (I, II, V1 to V6) are independent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the 8 independent leads are sufficient to obtain a DTW which allows a reliable Tend identification. To this aim Tend measures automatically identified from 15-dependent-lead DTWs of 46 control healthy subjects (CHS) and 103 acute myocardial infarction patients (AMIP) were compared with those obtained from 8-independent-lead DTWs. Results indicate that Tend distributions have not statistically different median values (CHS: 340 ms vs. 340 ms, respectively; AMIP: 325 ms vs. 320 ms, respectively), besides being strongly correlated (CHS: ρ=0.97, AMIP: 0.88; Plead DTWs is statistically equivalent to measuring Tend from the 8-independent-lead DTWs. In conclusion, for the clinical purpose of automatic Tend identification from DTW, the 8 independent leads can be used without a statistically significant loss of accuracy but with a significant decrement of computational effort. The lead dependence of 7 out of 15 leads does not introduce a significant bias in the Tend determination from 15 dependent lead DTWs.

  3. Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, G.


    We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.

  4. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server


    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  5. On the natural small vibrations of dislocation in an isotropic medium (United States)

    Bataronov, I. L.; Dezhin, V. V.


    The equation for the natural bending vibrations of an infinite dislocation is written. The long-wavelength limit is considered. The orientation dependence of the vibrational spectrum has been studied. Solutions for two cases (the bending wave velocity along the dislocation line is not equal to the speed of sound waves and the bending wave velocity along the dislocation line is close to the speed of sound waves) are obtained. Local and quasilocal branches of edge and screw dislocations vibrations are found.

  6. Communication: creation of molecular vibrational motions via the rotation-vibration coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels Engholm


    whereas a fast rotational excitation leads to a non-stationary vibrational motion. As a result, under field-free postpulse conditions, either a stretched stationary bond or a vibrating bond can be created due to the coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The latter corresponds......Building on recent advances in the rotational excitation of molecules, we show how the effect of rotation-vibration coupling can be switched on in a controlled manner and how this coupling unfolds in real time after a pure rotational excitation. We present the first examination of the vibrational...... motions which can be induced via the rotation-vibration coupling after a pulsed rotational excitation. A time-dependent quantum wave packet calculation for the HF molecule shows how a slow (compared to the vibrational period) rotational excitation leads to a smooth increase in the average bond length...

  7. Ultrasound source using a rectangular vibrating plate combined with rigid walls (United States)

    Sato, Ryo; Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru


    Ultrasound sources that use a stripe-mode rectangular vibrating plate radiate strong ultrasound waves in the air. In this study, we investigated the design strategy for combining the vibrating plate with rigid walls and evaluated the intense ultrasound waves radiated by the sound source. First, we examined the design method for a rectangular transverse vibrating plate with both ends fixed and the vibration amplitude distribution of the vibrating plate. Second, we measured the sound pressure distribution in the formation of the standing wave field. Finally, we clarified the relationship between the input power and sound pressure of the standing wave field antinodes.

  8. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    Introduction of trenches, barriers and wave impeding blocks on the transmission path between a source and receiver can be used for mitigation of ground vibration. However, to be effective a barrier must have a depth of about one wavelength of the waves to be mitigated. Hence, while great reductions...

  9. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  10. Blade Vibration Measurement System (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.


    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aydın


    Full Text Available Vibration damping and sound insulation are essential for all vehicles. Because moving parts and external factors such as wind, tracks, etc. can cause vibration and noise. Wave which is a dynamic force, drive system and HVAC systems are the main vibration and noise generators in a vessel. These all can affect comfort level on board yachts. Different types of isolators and absorbers such as sylomer®, cork panels, etc. are used to reduce these effects. Comfort level on board yachts can be increased using these types of materials. Otherwise, discomfort of passenger and crew may increase. These materials not only reduce structure-borne and air-borne noise and vibrations from waves, air, engines, pumps, generators and HVAC systems but also protect vibration sensitive interior or fittings. Noise and vibration evaluation is an important issue for this reason. And, measurement tools must be used not only to minimize this problem but also fulfill the regulations such as “comfort class”. Besides, providing quiet and low vibration increases the costs too. From this point of view, this study aims to explain clearly how noise and vibration damping can be done in a yacht.

  12. Sound power and vibration levels for two different piano soundboards (United States)

    Squicciarini, Giacomo; Valiente, Pablo Miranda; Thompson, David J.


    This paper compares the sound power and vibration levels for two different soundboards for upright pianos. One of them is made of laminated spruce and the other of solid spruce (tone-wood). These differ also in the number of ribs and manufacturing procedure. The methodology used is defined in two major steps: (i) acoustic power due to a unit force is obtained reciprocally by measuring the acceleration response of the piano soundboards when excited by acoustic waves in reverberant field; (ii) impact tests are adopted to measure driving point and spatially-averaged mean-square transfer mobility. The results show that, in the midhigh frequency range, the soundboard made of solid spruce has a greater vibrational and acoustic response than the laminated soundboard. The effect of string tension is also addressed, showing that is only relevant at low frequencies.

  13. Analysis of three-component ambient vibration array measurements (United States)

    Fäh, Donat; Stamm, Gabriela; Havenith, Hans-Balder


    Both synthetic and observed ambient vibration array data are analysed using high-resolution beam-forming. In addition to a classical analysis of the vertical component, this paper presents results derived from processing horizontal components. We analyse phase velocities of fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh and Love waves, and particle motions (ellipticity) retrieved from H/V spectral ratios. A combined inversion with a genetic algorithm and a strategy for selecting possible model parameters allow us to define structural models explaining the data. The results from synthetic data for simple models with one or two layers of sediments suggest that, in most cases, the number of layers has to be reduced to a few sediment strata to find the original structure. Generally, reducing the number of soft-sediment layers in the inversion process with genetic algorithms leads to a class of models that are less smooth. They have a stronger impedance contrast between sediments and bedrock. Combining Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves with the ellipticity of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves has some advantages. Scatter is reduced when compared to using structural models obtained only from Rayleigh wave phase velocity curves. By adding information from Love waves some structures can be excluded. Another possibility for constraining inversion results is to include supplementary geological or borehole information. Analysing radial components also can provide segments of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves for modes not seen on the vertical component. Finally, using ellipticity information allows us to confine the total depth of the soft sediments. For real sites, considerable variability in the measured phase velocity curves is observed. This comes from lateral changes in the structure or seismic sources within the array. Constraining the inversion by combining Love and Rayleigh wave information can help reduce such problems. Frequency bands in which the Rayleigh wave

  14. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  15. Vibration Control in Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    Within the framework of periodic structures, the calibration of RL shunted piezoelectric inclusions is investigated with respect to maximum damping of a particular wave form. A finite element setting is assumed, with local shunted inclusions inside the unit cell. The effect of the shunts is repre....... The presentation contains dispersion diagrams and vibration amplitude curves for the optimally calibrated RL shunt system in a 1-D periodic structure with local piezoelectric inclusions....

  16. Gravity-dependent changes in bioconvection of Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas during parabolic flight: increases in wave number induced by pre- and post-parabola hypergravity. (United States)

    Kage, Azusa; Asato, Eriko; Chiba, Yoko; Wada, Yuuko; Katsu-Kimura, Yumiko; Kubota, Ayami; Sawai, Satoe; Niihori, Maki; Baba, Shoji A; Mogami, Yoshihiro


    Bioconvection emerges in a dense suspension of swimming protists as a consequence of their negative-gravitactic upward migration and later settling as a blob of density greater than that of water. Thus, gravity is an important parameter governing bioconvective pattern formation. However, inconsistencies are found in previous studies dealing with the response of bioconvection patterns to increased gravity acceleration (hypergravity); the wave number of the patterns has been reported to decrease during the hypergravity phases of parabolic aircraft flight, while it increases in centrifugal hypergravity. In this paper, we reassess the responses of bioconvection to altered gravity during parabolic flight on the basis of vertical and horizontal observations of the patterns formed by Tetrahymena thermophila and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Spatiotemporal analyses of the horizontal patterns revealed an increase in the pattern wave number in both pre- and post-parabola hypergravity. Vertical pattern analysis was generally in line with the horizontal pattern analysis, and further revealed that hypergravity-induced changes preceded at the top layer of the suspensions while microgravity-induced changes appeared to occur from the bottom part of the settling blobs. The responses to altered gravity were rather different between the two sample species: T. thermophila tended to drastically modify its bioconvection patterns in response to changes in gravity level, while the patterns of C. reinhardtii responded to a much lesser extent. This difference can be attributed to the distinct physical and physiological properties of the individual organisms, suggesting a significant contribution of the gyrotactic property to the swimming behavior of some protists.

  17. Brain palpation from physiological vibrations using MRI


    Zorgani, Ali; Souchon, Rémi; Dinh, Au-Hoang; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Ménager, Jean-Michel; Lounis, Samir; Rouvière, Olivier; Catheline, Stefan


    It is commonly supposed that noise obscures but does not contain useful information. However, in wave physics and especially, seismology, scientists developed some tools known as “noise correlation” to extract useful information and construct images from the random vibrations of a medium. Living tissues are full of unexploited vibrations as well. In this manuscript, we show that noise correlation techniques in the brain using MRI can conduct to a tomography related to the stiffness that physi...

  18. Asymmetric Vibrations of a Circular Elastic Plate on an Elastic Half Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, H.; Krenk, Steen


    The asymmetric problem of a vibrating circular elastic plate in frictionless contact with an elastic half space is solved by an integral equation method, where the contact stress appears as the unknown function. By a trigonometric expansion, the problem is reduced to a number of uncoupled two......-dimensional problems. The radial variations of contact stresses and surface displacements are represented by polynomials, the coefficients of which are directly related by an infinite matrix that is a function of the vibration frequency. The results include a parametric study of the power input as a function...... of the vibration frequency of various plate stiffnesses and the normal component of the surface displacement field for simple excitation of the plate and passage of a plane Rayleigh wave....

  19. Ab initio and DFT studies of the structure and vibrational spectra of anhydrous caffeine (United States)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.; Singh, Vipin B.


    Vibrational spectra and molecular structure of anhydrous caffeine have been systematically investigated by second order Moller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Vibrational assignments have been made and many previous ambiguous assignments in IR and Raman spectra are amended. The calculated DFT frequencies and intensities at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level, were found to be in better agreement with the experimental values. It was found that DFT with B3LYP functional predicts harmonic vibrational wave numbers more close to experimentally observed value when it was performed on MP2 optimized geometry rather than DFT geometry. The calculated TD-DFT vertical excitation electronic energies of the valence excited states of anhydrous caffeine are found to be in consonance to the experimental absorption peaks.

  20. Vibrational studies of Thyroxine hormone: Comparative study with quantum chemical calculations (United States)

    Borah, Mukunda Madhab; Devi, Th. Gomti


    The FTIR and Raman techniques have been used to record spectra of Thyroxine. The stable geometrical parameters and vibrational wave numbers were calculated based on potential energy distribution (PED) using vibrational energy distribution analysis (VEDA) program. The vibrational energies are assigned to monomer, chain dimer and cyclic dimers of this molecule using the basis set B3LYP/LANL2DZ. The computational scaled frequencies are in good agreements with the experimental results. The study is extended to calculate the HOMO-LUMO energy gap, Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) surface, hardness (η), chemical potential (μ), Global electrophilicity index (ω) and different thermo dynamical properties of Thyroxine in different states. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energies show the charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The calculated Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis confirms the presence of intra-molecular charge transfer as well as the hydrogen bonding interaction.

  1. Production, Delivery and Application of Vibration Energy in Healthcare (United States)

    Abundo, Paolo; Trombetta, Chiara; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola


    In Rehabilitation Medicine therapeutic application of vibration energy in specific clinical treatments and in sport rehabilitation is being affirmed more and more.Vibration exposure can have positive or negative effects on the human body depending on the features and time of the characterizing wave. The human body is constantly subjected to different kinds of vibrations, inducing bones and muscles to actively modify their structure and metabolism in order to fulfill the required functions. Like every other machine, the body supports only certain vibration energy levels over which long term impairments can be recognized. As shown in literature anyway, short periods of vibration exposure and specific frequency values can determine positive adjustments.

  2. Broadband Vibration Attenuation Using Hybrid Periodic Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri


    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of a broadband vibration isolator. It is a table-like system formed by four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a system, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. This concept can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  3. The diffraction signatures of individual vibrational modes in polyatomic molecules (United States)

    Ryu, Seol; Weber, Peter M.; Stratt, Richard M.


    Though one normally thinks of single-molecule diffraction studies as tools for eliciting molecular geometry, molecular diffraction patterns are really the Fourier transforms of complete molecular wave functions. There is thus at least the possibility of imaging the vibrational wave functions of polyatomic molecules by means of a pump-probe diffraction experiment: the pump laser could prepare a specific vibrational state and an electron or x-ray could then be diffracted off the molecule some short time later. The present paper develops the general theory of diffraction signatures for individual vibrational wave functions in polyatomic molecules and investigates the feasibility of seeing such signatures experimentally using the example of a linear triatomic molecule modeled after CS2. Although aligned molecules in specific vibrational quantum states turn out to exhibit very characteristic diffraction signatures, the signatures of the vibrational wave functions are partially washed out for the complete isotropy expected from gas phase molecules. Nonetheless, it is possible to design a diffraction experiment using a pump-dump sequence with a polarized laser beam which will select a nonisotropic sample of vibrationally excited molecules. We show that the resulting level of anisotropy should enhance the diffraction signature, helping to distinguish different vibrational components. These model calculations therefore suggest the possibility of observing the dynamics of vibrational wave packets using experimentally realizable diffraction techniques.

  4. Longitudinal aerodynamic performance of a series of power-law and minimum wave drag bodies at Mach 6 and several Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.


    Experimental data have been obtained for two series of bodies at Mach 6 and Reynolds numbers, based on model length, from 1.4 million to 9.5 million. One series consisted of axisymmetric power-law bodies geometrically constrained for constant length and base diameter with values of the exponent n of 0.25, 0.5, 0.6, 0.667, 0.75, and 1.0. The other series consisted of positively and negatively cambered bodies of polygonal cross section, each having a constant longitudinal area distribution conforming to that required for minimizing zero-lift wave drag at hypersonic speeds under the geometric constraints of given length and volume. At the highest Reynolds number, the power-law body for minimum drag is blunter (exponent n lower) than predicted by inviscid theory (n approximately 0.6 instead of n = 0.667); however, the peak value of lift-drag ratio occurs at n = 0.667. Viscous effects were present on the bodies of polygonal cross section but were less pronounced than those on the power-law bodies. The trapezoidal bodies with maximum width at the bottom were found to have the highest maximum lift-drag ratio and the lowest mimimum drag.

  5. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A


    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  6. Free vibrations of circular cylindrical shells

    CERN Document Server

    Armenàkas, Anthony E; Herrmann, George


    Free Vibrations of Circular Cylindrical Shells deals with thin-walled structures that undergo dynamic loads application, thereby resulting in some vibrations. Part I discusses the treatment of problems associated with the propagation of plane harmonic waves in a hollow circular cylinder. In such search for solutions, the text employs the framework of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The text explains the use of tables of natural frequencies and graphs of representative mode shapes of harmonic elastic waves bounding in an infinitely long isotropic hollow cylinder. The tables are

  7. Vibrational dynamics of crystalline L-alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordallo, H.N.; Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barthes, M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)


    The authors report a new, complete vibrational analysis of L-alanine and L-alanine-d{sub 4} which utilizes IINS intensities in addition to frequency information. The use of both isotopomers resulted in a self-consistent force field for and assignment of the molecular vibrations in L-alanine. Some details of the calculation as well as a comparison of calculated and observed IINS spectra are presented. The study clarifies a number of important issues on the vibrational dynamics of this molecule and presents a self-consistent force field for the molecular vibrations in crystalline L-alanine.

  8. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F


    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  9. Analysis of radial vibrations of poroelastic circular cylindrical shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waves propagating in radial direction of a poroelastic circular cylinder are termed as radial vibrations. Radial vibrations of poroelastic circular cylindrical shell of infinite extent immersed in an inviscid elastic fluid are examined employing Biot's theory. Biot's model consists of an elastic matrix permeated by a network of ...

  10. selective excitation of vibrational modes of polyatomic molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Mode-selective dynamics of triatomic molecule in the electronic ground state under continuous wave laser pulse is investigated for the discrete vibrational bound states. A non-perturbative approach has been used to analyse the vibrational couplings and dynamics of the molecule. Keywords. Polyatomic molecule ...

  11. Simulation of the interaction between a bubble and an ultrasound wave by implementing a two-phase compressible solver adapted to low Mach number regime (United States)

    Huber, Grégory; Tanguy, Sébastien; Béra, Jean-Christophe; Gilles, Bruno


    This paper is focused on the numerical simulation of the interaction of an ultrasound wave and an air bubble surrounded by water. Our interest is to develop a fully compressible solver in the two phases and to account for surface tension effects. As the volume oscillation of the bubble occurs in a low Mach number regime, a specific attention must be paid to the effectiveness of the numerical method chosen to solve the compressible Euler equations. Several numerical methods are implemented and confronted on a benchmarck. This preliminary test highlights that the projection method is the most accurate one. Then a basic implementation of the surface tension leads to strong spurious currents and numerical instabilities. A specific velocity/pressure time splitting is thus proposed to overcome this issue. Numerical evidences of the efficiency of this new numerical scheme are provided with the numerical simulation of the interaction between a bubble and a wavefront. Indeed, both the accuracy and the stability of the overall algorithm are enhanced using this new numerical method.

  12. Toward black-box-type full- and reduced-dimensional variational (ro)vibrational computations (United States)

    Mátyus, Edit; Czakó, Gábor; Császár, Attila G.


    A black-box-type algorithm is presented for the variational computation of energy levels and wave functions using a (ro)vibrational Hamiltonian expressed in an arbitrarily chosen body-fixed frame and in any set of internal coordinates of full or reduced vibrational dimensionality. To make the required numerical work feasible, matrix representation of the operators is constructed using a discrete variable representation (DVR). The favorable properties of DVR are exploited in the straightforward and numerically exact inclusion of any representation of the potential and the kinetic energy including the G matrix and the extrapotential term. In this algorithm there is no need for an a priori analytic derivation of the kinetic energy operator, as all of its matrix elements at each grid point are computed numerically either in a full- or a reduced-dimensional model. Due to the simple and straightforward definition of reduced-dimensional models within this approach, a fully anharmonic variational treatment of large, otherwise intractable molecular systems becomes available. In the computer code based on the above algorithm, there is no inherent limitation for the maximally coupled number of vibrational degrees of freedom. However, in practice current personal computers allow the treatment of about nine fully coupled vibrational dimensions. Computation of vibrational band origins of full and reduced dimensions showing the advantages and limitations of the algorithm and the related computer code are presented for the water, ammonia, and methane molecules.

  13. Ambient Vibration Test on Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Nurul Shazwin


    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine dynamic characteristic of reinforced concrete (RC bridges by using ambient vibration test (AVT. The ambient vibration sources on bridges may come from traffic, wind, wave motion and seismic events. AVT describes the dynamic characteristics of the bridge and ground by measuring the natural frequencies using highly sensitive seismometer sensor. This test is beneficial due to light weight equipment and smaller number of operator required, cheap and easy to be handled. It is able to give a true picture of the bridge dynamic behavior without any artificial force excitation when vibration data is recorded. A three-span reinforced concrete bridge located in Sri Medan, Batu Pahat, Johor was measured by using microtremor equipment consist of three units of 1 Hz eigenfrequency passive sensors used in this test was performed in normal operating condition without excitation required from any active sources or short period noise perturbations. Ten measurements were conducted on the bridge deck and ten measurements on the ground surface in order to identify the natural frequencies of the bridge. Several peak frequencies were identified from three components of Fourier Amplitude Spectra (FAS in transverse (North-South, longitudinal (East-West and vertical (Up-Down direction as well as squared average Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR of ground response, computed by using Geopsy software. From the result, it was expected the bridge have five vibration modes frequencies in the range of 1.0 Hz and 7.0 Hz with the first two modes in the transverse and longitudinal direction having a frequency 1.0 Hz, the third mode is 2.2 Hz in transverse direction, fourth and fifth mode is 5.8 Hz and 7.0 Hz. For ground natural frequencies are in range 1.0 Hz to 1.3 Hz for North-South direction and 1.0 Hz to 1.6 Hz for East-West direction. Finally the results are compared with several empirical formulas for simple

  14. The influence of state-to-state kinetics on diffusion and heat transfer behind shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunova, O.; Kustova, E.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Nagnibeda, E. [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Universitetskiy pr., 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    In the paper, the influence of vibrational and chemical kinetics on heat transfer and diffusion in hypersonic flows of N{sub 2}/N mixture in the relaxation zone behind shock waves is studied on the basis of the state-to-state kinetic theory approach. The results of calculations of vibrational level populations ni, gas temperature T, total energy flux q, diffusion velocities of molecules at different vibrational states V{sub i} and atoms V{sub a} in the relaxation zone behind a shock front are presented for the free stream Mach number M = 10, 15. The contribution of different dissipative processes to the total energy flux is estimated for various flow conditions. The impact of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions in the free stream on molecular level populations and transport properties in the relaxation zone is shown.

  15. Surface vibrational modes in disk-shaped resonators. (United States)

    Dmitriev, A V; Gritsenko, D S; Mitrofanov, V P


    The natural frequencies and distributions of displacement components for the surface vibrational modes in thin isotropic elastic disks are calculated. In particular, the research is focused on even solutions for low-lying resonant vibrations with large angular wave numbers. Several families of modes are found which are interpreted as modified surface modes of an infinitely long cylinder and Lamb modes of a plate. The results of calculation are compared with the results of the experimental measurements of vibrational modes generated by means of resonant excitation in duraluminum disk with radius of ≈90 mm and thickness of 16 mm in the frequency range of 130-200 kHz. An excellent agreement between the calculated and measured frequencies is found. Measurements of the structure of the resonant peaks show splitting of some modes. About a half of the measured modes has splitting Δfsplit/fmode at the level of the order of 10(-5). The Q-factors of all modes measured in vacuum lie in the interval (2…3)×10(5). This value is typical for duraluminum mechanical resonators in the ultrasonic frequency range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl J. Cochrane


    Full Text Available There is strong evidence to suggest that acute indirect vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception suggesting neural enhancement. Nevertheless, the neural mechanism(s of vibration and its potentiating effect have received little attention. One proposal suggests that spinal reflexes enhance muscle contraction through a reflex activity known as tonic vibration stretch reflex (TVR, which increases muscle activation. However, TVR is based on direct, brief, and high frequency vibration (>100 Hz which differs to indirect vibration, which is applied to the whole body or body parts at lower vibration frequency (5-45 Hz. Likewise, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are other candidate mechanisms used to explain the vibration phenomenon. But there is much debate in terms of identifying which neural mechanism(s are responsible for acute vibration; due to a number of studies using various vibration testing protocols. These protocols include: different methods of application, vibration variables, training duration, exercise types and a range of population groups. Therefore, the neural mechanism of acute vibration remain equivocal, but spinal reflexes, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are all viable factors that may contribute in different ways to increasing muscular performance. Additional research is encouraged to determine which neural mechanism(s and their contributions are responsible for acute vibration. Testing variables and vibration applications need to be standardised before reaching a consensus on which neural mechanism(s occur during and post-vibration

  17. Flexural vibrations of finite composite poroelastic cylinders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper deals with the flexural vibrations of composite poroelastic solid cylinder consisting of two cylinders that are bonded end to end. Poroelastic materials of the two cylinders are different. The frequency equations for pervious and impervious surfaces are obtained in the framework of Biot's theory of wave.

  18. Longitudinal shear vibrations of composite poroelastic cylinders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing Biot's theory of wave propagation in liquid saturated porous media, longitudinal shear vibrations of composite poroelastic cylinders of infinite extent are investigated. The composite poroelastic cylinder is made of two different poroelastic materials. The dilatations of liquid and solid media are zero, hence liquid ...

  19. The Development of Vibration System for Applying Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) to the Supraspinatus Muscle. (United States)

    Ito, Daiki; Numano, Tomokazu; Mizuhara, Kazuyuki; Takamoto, Kouichi; Onishi, Takaaki; Nishijo, Hisao


    Palpation is a standard clinical tool to diagnose abnormal stiffness changes in soft tissues. However, it is difficult to palpate the supraspinatus muscle because it locates under the trapezius muscle. The magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) uses harmonic mechanical excitation to quantitatively measure the stiffness (shear modulus) of both the superficial and deep tissues. The purpose of this study was to build a vibration system for applying the MRE to the supraspinatus muscle. In this study, a power amplifier and a pneumatic pressure generator were used to supply vibrations to a vibration pad. Six healthy volunteers underwent MRE. We investigated the effects of position (the head of the humerus and the trapezius muscle) of the vibration pad on the patterns of wave propagation (wave image). When the vibration pad was placed in the trapezius muscle, the wave images represented clear wave propagation. On the other hand, when the vibration pad was placed in the head of the humerus, the wave images represented unclear wave propagation. This result might be caused by wave interferences resulting from the vibrations from bones and an intramuscular tendon of the supraspinatus muscle. The mean shear modulus also was 8.12 ± 1.83 (mean ± SD) kPa, when the vibration pad was placed in the trapezius muscle. Our results demonstrated that the vibration pad should be placed in the trapezius muscle in the MRE of the supraspinatus muscle.

  20. Three-Dimensional Exact Free Vibration Analysis of Spherical, Cylindrical, and Flat One-Layered Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Brischetto


    equilibrium written in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates for the free vibrations of simply supported structures. These equations consider an exact geometry for shells without simplifications. The main novelty is the possibility of a general formulation for different geometries. The equations written in general orthogonal curvilinear coordinates allow the analysis of spherical shell panels and they automatically degenerate into cylindrical shell panel, cylindrical closed shell, and plate cases. Results are proposed for isotropic and orthotropic structures. An exhaustive overview is given of the vibration modes for a number of thickness ratios, imposed wave numbers, geometries, embedded materials, and angles of orthotropy. These results can also be used as reference solutions to validate two-dimensional models for plates and shells in both analytical and numerical form (e.g., closed solutions, finite element method, differential quadrature method, and global collocation method.

  1. The Astrophysical Weeds: Rotational Transitions in Excited Vibrational States (United States)

    Alonso, José L.; Kolesniková, Lucie; Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago


    The number of unidentified lines in the millimeter and submillimeter wave surveys of the interstellar medium has grown rapidly. The major contributions are due to rotational transitions in excited vibrational states of a relatively few molecules that are called the astrophysical weeds. necessary data to deal with spectral lines from astrophysical weeds species can be obtained from detailed laboratory rotational measurements in the microwave and millimeter wave region. A general procedure is being used at Valladolid combining different time and/or frequency domain spectroscopic tools of varying importance for providing the precise set of spectroscopic constants that could be used to search for this species in the ISM. This is illustrated in the present contribution through its application to several significant examples. Fortman, S. M., Medvedev, I. R., Neese, C.F., & De Lucia, F.C. 2010, ApJ,725, 1682 Rotational Spectra in 29 Vibrationally Excited States of Interstellar Aminoacetonitrile, L. Kolesniková, E. R. Alonso, S. Mata, and J. L. Alonso, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 2017, (in press).

  2. Mitigating ground vibration by periodic inclusions and surface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius; Persson, Peter


    Ground vibration from traffic is a source of nuisance in urbanized areas. Trenches and wave barriers can provide mitigation of vibrations, but single barriers need to have a large depth to be effective-especially in the low-frequency range relevant to traffic-induced vibration. Alternatively......-dimensional finite-element model. The laboratory model employs soaked mattress foam placed within a box to mimic a finite volume of soil. The dynamic properties of the soaked foam ensure wavelengths representative of ground vibration in small scale. Comparison of the results from the two models leads...

  3. Self-excited and subharmonic vibrations in a pilot rotor (United States)

    Kumenko, A. I.; Kostyukov, V. N.; Kuzminykh, N. Yu.; Timin, A. V.


    The paper reviews the publications on low-frequency vibration in power plants. It is noted that the regulatory literature poorly defines the issues of rating and diagnosing self-excited and subharmonic vibrations. Analysis of the literature and ISO standards shows that despite the considerable experience gained by specialists in low-frequency vibration control, a number of issues, such as subharmonic resonances and nonlinear properties of complicated multi-seated rotor systems supported by journal bearings, are still understudied and require further calculations and experiments. The paper presents some results obtained in experiments of low-frequency vibrations for a rotor supported by journal bearings and having a residual deflection. The experimental results confirmed the classical hysteresis of self-excited vibrations - the difference in the boundaries of self-excited vibrations during ascent and descent is about 4 Hz. The arears of appearance and disappearance of subharmonic vibrations are shown using the spectral characteristics of vibrations and cascade spectra.

  4. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  5. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  6. Waves and vibrations in inhomogeneous structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Denne afhandling omhandler bølger og vibrationer i inhomogene strukturer med speciel fokus på undersøgelse af båndgabsfænomenet og optimering af båndgabsstrukturer. Afhandlingen består af 21 artikler, hvoraf 17 er publiceret i internationale tidsskrifter og 4 er publiceret i konferenceproceedings...

  7. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing (United States)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.


    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  8. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui


    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  9. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  10. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong


    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  11. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy (United States)

    Karhu, J.; Nauta, J.; Vainio, M.; Metsälä, M.; Hoekstra, S.; Halonen, L.


    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν 1 + ν 2 + ν 3 + ν4 1 + ν5 - 1 in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm-1, the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm-1, and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10-6 cm-1, where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits.

  12. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy. (United States)

    Karhu, J; Nauta, J; Vainio, M; Metsälä, M; Hoekstra, S; Halonen, L


    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν1+ν2+ν3+ν4 (1)+ν5 (-1) in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm(-1), the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm(-1), and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10(-6) cm(-1), where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits.

  13. Vibration mode shape control by prestressing (United States)

    Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Haftka, Raphael T.


    A procedure is described for reducing vibration at sensitive locations on a structure, by induced distortions. The emphasis is placed on the excitation in a narrow frequency band, so that only a small number of vibration modes contribute to the intensity of the forced response. The procedure is demonstrated on an antenna truss example, showing that, with repeated frequencies, it is very easy to move nodal lines of one of the modes.

  14. Phase behaviour of transfer functions in vibrating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jianyuan; Ohlrich, Mogens


    This paper investigates the applicabilities of pole-zero models and wave propagation theory in estimating the phase characteristics of vibrating systems. The measured phase spectra are compared with the estimated reverberant phase limit and wave propagation phase. The relations between transfer...... on frequency in this band, but from the transition frequency and onwards the phase increases only with the square root of frequency. This behaviour is characteristic for free propagating waves....

  15. Vibrot, a simple device for the conversion of vibration into rotation mediated by friction: preliminary evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Altshuler

    Full Text Available While "vibrational noise" induced by rotating components of machinery is a common problem constantly faced by engineers, the controlled conversion of translational into rotational motion or vice-versa is a desirable goal in many scenarios ranging from internal combustion engines to ultrasonic motors. In this work, we describe the underlying physics after isolating a single degree of freedom, focusing on devices that convert a vibration along the vertical axis into a rotation around this axis. A typical Vibrot (as we label these devices consists of a rigid body with three or more cantilevered elastic legs attached to its bottom at an angle. We show that these legs are capable of transforming vibration into rotation by a "ratchet effect", which is caused by the anisotropic stick-slip-flight motion of the leg tips against the ground. Drawing an analogy with the Froude number used to classify the locomotion dynamics of legged animals, we discuss the walking regime of these robots. We are able to control the rotation frequency of the Vibrot by manipulating the shaking amplitude, frequency or waveform. Furthermore, we have been able to excite Vibrots with acoustic waves, which allows speculating about the possibility of reducing the size of the devices so they can perform tasks into the human body, excited by ultrasound waves from the outside.

  16. Molecular structure, vibrational spectral analysis, NBO, HOMO-LUMO and conformational studies of ninhydrin (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M.; Anitha Rexalin, D.


    The FT-IR and FT-Raman vibrational spectra of ninhydrin have been recorded in the range 4000-400 cm-1and 3600-50 cm-1, respectively. A detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, atomic charges, dipole moment, rotational constants and several thermodynamic parameters in the ground state are calculated using ab initio HF and density functional B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set combination. In order to find the most optimized geometry, the energy calculations are carried out for various possible conformers. Keto and enol forms of ninhydrin are also studied. The condensed summary of the principal NBOs shows the occupancy, orbital energy and the qualitative pattern of delocalization interactions of ninhydrin. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energies reveal that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The predicted first hyperpolarizability also shows that the ninhydrin molecule have good optical quality and nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior. With the help of specific scaling procedures, the observed vibrational wave numbers in FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are analyzed and assigned to different normal modes of the molecule.

  17. The effect of vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka


    As the motor system relies heavily on deep sensory stimulation, recent studies have investigated the effect of vibration stimuli. Although research suggests a positive influence of vibration on motor performance in individuals with neurological disorders, there are very limited numbers of studies in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sound wave vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with CP. In this 3-month trial, 89 children with spastic CP were randomized to either continue their physiotherapy treatment (PT) or to receive vibration therapy twice a week in addition to their PT program. The randomization was stratified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level to ensure similar functional ability. Children were assessed at baseline and after the 12-week intervention period. The outcomes measured were spasticity level as assessed by Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) and gross motor function as assessed by Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM-88). Subgroup analysis was performed for the GMFCS. Significant differences between groups were detected for changes in spasticity level and gross motor function after the three months intervention. In conclusion, vibration therapy may decrease spasticity and improve motor performance in children with CP. The results of the present trial serve as valuable input for evidence-based treatments in paediatric neurorehabilitation.

  18. [Measurement and analysis of hand-transmitted vibration of vibration tools in workplace for automobile casting and assembly]. (United States)

    Xie, X S; Qi, C; Du, X Y; Shi, W W; Zhang, M


    To investigate the features of hand-transmitted vibration of common vibration tools in the workplace for automobile casting and assembly. From September to October, 2014, measurement and spectral analysis were performed for 16 typical hand tools(including percussion drill, pneumatic wrench, grinding machine, internal grinder, and arc welding machine) in 6 workplaces for automobile casting and assembly according to ISO 5349-1-2001 Mechanical vibration-Measurement and evaluation of human exposure to hand-transmitted vibration-part 1: General requirements and ISO 5349-2-2001 Mechanical vibration-Measurement and evaluation of human exposure to hand-transmitted vibration-Part 2: Practical guidance for measurement in the workplace. The vibration acceleration waveforms of shearing machine, arc welding machine, and pneumatic wrench were mainly impact wave and random wave, while those of internal grinder, angle grinder, percussion drill, and grinding machine were mainly long-and short-period waves. The daily exposure duration to vibration of electric wrench, pneumatic wrench, shearing machine, percussion drill, and internal grinder was about 150 minutes, while that of plasma cutting machine, angle grinder, grinding machine, bench grinder, and arc welding machine was about 400 minutes. The range of vibration total value(ahv) was as follows: pneumatic wrench 0.30~11.04 m/s(2), grinding wheel 1.61~8.97 m/s(2), internal grinder 1.46~8.70 m/s(2), percussion drill 11.10~14.50 m/s(2), and arc welding machine 0.21~2.18 m/s(2). The workers engaged in cleaning had the longest daily exposure duration to vibration, and the effective value of 8-hour energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration for them[A(8)] was 8.03 m/s(2), while this value for workers engaged in assembly was 4.78 m/s(2). The frequency spectrogram with an 1/3-time frequency interval showed that grinding machine, angle grinder, and percussion drill had a high vibration acceleration, and the vibration limit curve

  19. Effect of Slot Combination and Skewed Slot on Electromagnetic Vibration of Capacitor Motor under Load (United States)

    Hirotsuka, Isao; Tsuboi, Kazuo

    The capacitor motor (CRM) is widely used to drive industrial equipments and electric home appliances. Recently, the reduction in the vibration and noise of the CRM has become increasingly important from the standpoint of environmental improvement. However, the electromagnetic vibration of the CRM under load has not been analyzed sufficiently. Therefore, we have studied the electromagnetic vibration of CRM for the purpose of reducing it. In a previous paper, the relationships for a backward magnetic field, the equivalent circuit current, and the vibration of the CRM were clarified. The present paper theoretically and experimentally discusses the effect of the slot combination and skewed slot on the electromagnetic vibration of CRM under load. The primary conclusions are as follows: (1) In the case of 4-pole and 6-pole CRMs, the dominant electromagnetic vibration of CRMs was theoretically attributed to three types of electromagnetic force waves. Two types of electromagnetic force waves are generated: one wave is generated by the interaction of two forward magnetic fluxes, such as those of a three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor, and the other wave is generated under the influence of a backward magnetic flux. (2) The characteristics of dominant electromagnetic vibration depending on load and running capacitor were classified theoretically and experimentally into three types based on the characteristics of the electromagnetic force wave and equivalent circuit current. (3) The influences of magnetic saturation in dominant electromagnetic vibration were verified experimentally and their causes were clarified theoretically in relation to electromagnetic force waves.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Yu.V.


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the harmonic axisymmetric wave propagation in poroelastic media. The computational formulas for the study of displacements and stresses that occur during vibrations in a wide frequency range are proposed.

  1. Simulation studies for multichannel active vibration control (United States)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Balasubramaniam, R.; Praseetha, K. K.


    Traditional approach to vibration control uses passive techniques, which are relatively large, costly and ineffective at low frequencies. Active Vibration Control (AVC) is used to overcome these problems & in AVC additional sources (secondary) are used to cancel vibration from primary source based on the principle of superposition theorem Since the characteristics of the vibration source and environment are time varying, the AVC system must be adaptive. Adaptive systems have the ability to track time varying disturbances and provide optimal control over a much broader range of conditions than conventional fixed control systems. In multi channel AVC vibration fields in large dimensions are controlled & is more complicated. Therefore to actively control low frequency vibrations on large structures, multi channel AVC requires a control system that uses multiple secondary sources to control the vibration field simultaneously at multiple error sensor locations. The error criterion that can be directly measured is the sum of squares of outputs of number of sensors. The adaptive algorithm is designed to minimize this & the algorithm implemented is the "Multiple error LMS algorithm." The best known applications of multiple channel FXLMS algorithm is in real time AVC and system identification. More wider applications are in the control of propeller induced noise in flight cabin interiors. In the present paper the results of simulation studies carried out in MATLAB as well as on TMS320C32 DSP processor will be brought out for a two-channel case.

  2. The Investigations of Friction under Die Surface Vibration in Cold Forging Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinming, Sha

    The objective of this thesis is to fundamentally study the influence of die surface vibration on friction under low frequency in metal forging processes. The research includes vibrating tool system design for metal forming, theoretical and experimental investigations, and finite element simulations...... on die surface vibration in forging process. After a general introduction to friction mechanisms and friction test techniques in metal forming, the application of ultrasonic vibration in metal forming, the influence of sliding velocity on friction is described. Some earlier investigations...... is undergoing vibration. In the experiments, die surface orientation, frequency and amplitude of vibration, vibrating wave form and the direction of vibration has been taken into account as the parameters which influence friction behaviour in forging process. The results reveal that friction could be reduced up...

  3. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  4. Basin boundaries in asymmetric vibrations of a circular plate (United States)

    Park, H. D.; Lee, W. K.


    In order to investigate further nonlinear asymmetric vibrations of a clamped circular plate under a harmonic excitation, we reexamine a primary resonance, studied by Yeo and Lee [Corrected solvability conditions for non-linear asymmetric vibrations of a circular plate, Journal of Sound and Vibration 257 (2002) 653-665] in which at most three stable steady-state responses (one standing wave and two traveling waves) are observed to exist. Further examination, however, tells that there exist at most five stable steady-state responses: one standing wave and four traveling waves. Two of the traveling waves lose their stability by Hopf bifurcation and have a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos. When the system has five attractors: three equilibrium solutions (one standing wave and two traveling waves) and two chaotic attractors (two modulated traveling waves), the basin boundaries of the attractors on the principal plane are obtained. Also examined is how basin boundaries of the modulated motions (quasi-periodic and chaotic motions) evolve as a system parameter varies. The basin boundaries of the modulated motions turn out to have the fractal nature.

  5. Model Indepedent Vibration Control


    Yuan, Jing


    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  6. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  7. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  8. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer (United States)


    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  9. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian


    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  10. Transient vibration analytical modeling and suppressing for vibration absorber system under impulse excitation (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; Yu, Hu; Gao, Yulong


    The impulse excitation of mechanism causes transient vibration. In order to achieve adaptive transient vibration control, a method which can exactly model the response need to be proposed. This paper presents an analytical model to obtain the response of the primary system attached with dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) under impulse excitation. The impulse excitation which can be divided into single-impulse excitation and multi-impulse excitation is simplified as sinusoidal wave to establish the analytical model. To decouple the differential governing equations, a transform matrix is applied to convert the response from the physical coordinate to model coordinate. Therefore, the analytical response in the physical coordinate can be obtained by inverse transformation. The numerical Runge-Kutta method and experimental tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of the analytical model proposed. The wavelet of the response indicates that the transient vibration consists of components with multiple frequencies, and it shows that the modeling results coincide with the experiments. The optimizing simulations based on genetic algorithm and experimental tests demonstrate that the transient vibration of the primary system can be decreased by changing the stiffness of the DVA. The results presented in this paper are the foundations for us to develop the adaptive transient vibration absorber in the future.

  11. Dissociative ionization of liquid water induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzle, W.C.


    Photochemistry of vibrationally activated ground electronic state liquid water to produce H/sup +/ and OH/sup -/ ions has been initiated by pulsed, single-photon excitation of overtone and combination transitions. Transient conductivity measurements were used to determine quantum yields as a function of photon energy, isotopic composition, and temperature. The equilibrium relaxation rate following perturbation by the vibrationally activated reaction was also measured as a function of temperature reaction and isotopic composition. In H/sub 2/O, the quantum yield at 283 +- 1 K varies from 2 x 10/sup -9/ to 4 x 10/sup -5/ for wave numbers between 7605 and 18140 cm/sup -1/. In D/sub 2/O, the dependence of quantum yield on wavelength has the same qualitative shape as for H/sub 2/O, but is shifted to lower quantum yields. The position of a minimum in the quantum yield versus hydrogen mole fraction curve is consistent with a lower quantum yield for excitation of HOD in D/sub 2/O than for excitation of D/sub 2/O. The ionic recombination distance of 5.8 +- 0.5 A is constant within experimental error with temperature in H/sub 2/O and with isotopic composition at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C.

  12. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick


    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  13. Remote identification of the vibration amplitude of ship hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pinchuk


    Full Text Available The aim is to develop the methodological support to determine vibration amplitude of the ship hull remotely using a coherent radar centimeter range based on the variation of the Doppler signal spectrum reflected from a vibrating surface.The paper presents a synthesized mathematical model of the radio signal reflected from the vibrating surface. It is the signal of coherent radar of continuous radiation with a known carrier frequency and the amplitude of the radiated signal. In the synthesis it was believed that the displacement in the radial direction with respect to the vibrating surface radar was sinusoidal.The dependences of the vibration amplitude on the value of the normalized Doppler radio signal spectrum at the second harmonic frequency are obtained. Cycle results of field experiments to study the variability of the sea surface, determining the level of its roughness, allows us to establish that the energy of surface waves of gravitational-capillary range has a high correlation with the wind speed. It is proved that the ratio of the spectral density levels at vibration frequency and its multiple frequencies is specified by the index of phase modulation linearly related to the amplitude of vibration of the ship hull.The results are significant for radar (radar detection of water targets using the coherent radar of centimeter range, ensuring the correct records of noise generated by the scattering of radio waves from the water surface.

  14. Ground wave emergency network final operational capability: Environmental assessment for northwestern Nebraska relay node, site number RN 8C930NE (United States)


    The Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN) is a radio communication system designed to relay emergency messages between strategic military areas in the continental United States. The system is immune to the effects of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) energy surges caused by nuclear bursts in the ionosphere that would disrupt conventional communications equipment such as telephones and shortwave radios. A failure of such equipment would prevent timely communications among top military and civilian leaders and strategic Air Force locations and prevent U.S. assessment and retaliation during an attack. GWEN is an essential part of a defense modernization program to upgrade and improve our nation's communications system, thereby strengthening deterrence. The GWEN system consists of a network of relay nodes, receive-only stations, and input/output stations. Each relay node, such as the one proposed in northwestern Nebraska, consists of a guyed radio tower facility similar to those used by commercial AM broadcast transmitters.

  15. Ground wave emergency network final operational capability: Environmental assessment for southern Nevada relay node site number RN 8W918NV (United States)


    The Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN) is a radio communication system designed to relay emergency messages between strategic military areas in the continental United States. The system is immune to the effects of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) energy surges caused by nuclear bursts in the ionosphere that would disrupt conventional communications equipment such as telephones and shortwave radios. A failure of such equipment would prevent timely communications among top military and civilian leaders and strategic Air Force locations and prevent U.S. assessment and retaliation during an attack. GWEN is an essential part of a defense modernization program to upgrade and improve our nation's communications system, thereby strengthening deterrence. The GWEN system consists of a network of relay nodes, receive-only stations, and input/output stations. Each relay node, such as the one proposed in southern Nevada consists of a guyed radio tower facility similar to those used by commercial AM broadcast transmitters.

  16. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena


    Springing is a two-node high frequency resonant vibration of the hull induced by unsteady wave pressure field on the hull. The excitation force may be rather complex - any wave activity (or their combination) in the Ocean matching the two-node natural hull vibration frequency. With some ship...... designs the hull natural frequency may get low enough that the corresponding level of excitation energy becomes large. Springing vibration negatively influences the fatigue life of the ship but, paradoxically, it still doesn't get much attention of the technical society. Usually, non-linear hydroelastic...... theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...

  17. Surface instabilities and reorientation induced by vibration in microgravity conditions (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier; Ezquerro Navarro, Jose Miguel


    The behavior of vibrated fluids and, in particular, the surface or interfacial instabilities that commonly arise in these systems have been the subject of continued experimental and theoretical attention since Faraday's seminal experiments in 1831. Both orientation and frequency are critical in determining the response of the fluid to excitation. Low frequencies are associated with sloshing while higher frequencies may generate Faraday waves or cross-waves, depending on whether the axis of vibration is perpendicular or parallel to the interface. In addition, high frequency vibrations are known to produce large scale reorientation of the fluid (vibroequilibria), an effect that becomes especially pronounced in the absence of gravity. We describe the results of investigations conducted at the ESA affiliated Spanish User Support and Operations Centre (E-USOC) on the effect of vibrations on fluid interfaces, particularly the interaction between Faraday waves, which arise in vertically vibrated systems, cross-waves, which are found in horizontally forced systems, and large scale reorientation (vibroequilibria). Ongoing ground experiments utilizing a dual-axis shaker configuration are described, including the effect on pattern formation of varying the two independent forcing frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. Theoretical results, based on the analysis of reduced models, and on numerical simulations, are then described and compared to experiment. Finally, the interest of a corresponding microgravity experiment is discussed and implications for fluid management strategies considered.

  18. AASERT Supplement to Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates (United States)


    Invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...VIBRATIONAL SENSING IN MARINE INVERTEBRATES Peter A. Jumars School of Oceanography University of Washington Box 357940 Seattle, WA 98195-7940 (206) 543

  19. Lateral vibration behavior analysis and TLD vibration absorption design of the soft yoke single-point mooring system (United States)

    Lyu, Bai-cheng; Wu, Wen-hua; Yao, Wei-an; Du, Yu


    Mooring system is the key equipment of FPSO safe operation. The soft yoke mooring system is regarded as one of the best shallow water mooring strategies and widely applied to the oil exploitation in the Bohai Bay in China and the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the analysis of numerous monitoring data obtained by the prototype monitoring system of one FPSO in the Bohai Bay, the on-site lateral vibration behaviors found on the site of the soft yoke subject to wave load were analyzed. ADAMS simulation and model experiment were utilized to analyze the soft yoke lateral vibration and it was determined that lateral vibration was resonance behaviors caused by wave excitation. On the basis of the soft yoke longitudinal restoring force being guaranteed, a TLD-based vibration damper system was constructed and the vibration reduction experiments with multi-tank space and multi-load conditions were developed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed TLD vibration reduction system can effectively reduce lateral vibration of soft yoke structures.

  20. Fractional calculus with applications in mechanics wave propagation, impact and variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Atanackovic, Teodor M; Stankovic, Bogoljub; Zorica, Du?an


    The books Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Vibrations and Diffusion Processes and Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Wave Propagation, Impact and Variational Principles contain various applications of fractional calculus to the fields of classical mechanics. Namely, the books study problems in fields such as viscoelasticity of fractional order, lateral vibrations of a rod of fractional order type, lateral vibrations of a rod positioned on fractional order viscoelastic foundations, diffusion-wave phenomena, heat conduction, wave propagation, forced oscillati

  1. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  2. A seismic vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors : Developing a prototype vibrator, investigating the vibrator-ground contact and exploring robust signal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.


    The seismic method is an important indirect method to investigate the subsurface of the earth. By analyzing how the earth affects the propagation of mechanical waves, the structure of the earth and its seismic properties can be inferred. The seismic vibrator is the most commonly used land source in

  3. Catalytic synthesis of ammonia using vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Billing, Gert D.


    are vibrationally excited to states with quantum numbers 3-10. The rate and equilibrium constants for the process using vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules are calculated and expressions for the reaction rates are derived. A comparison with the ordinary process, where the nitrogen molecules...

  4. Spectroscopy of Vibrational States in Diatomic Iodine Molecules (United States)

    Mulholland, Mary; Harrill, Charles H.; Smith, R. Seth


    This project is focused on understanding the vibrational structure of iodine, which is a homonuclear diatomic molecule. A 20 mW, 532 nm cw diode laser was used to selectively excite neutral iodine molecules to a higher energy electronic state. By performing spectroscopy on the transitions from this state to a lower energy electronic state, the data only showed those vibrational bands which connect the two electronic states. Since a number of vibrational levels are populated in the higher energy electronic state, the transitions to all of the allowed vibrational levels in the lower energy electronic state provided sufficient data to determine the vibrational structures of both states. Emission spectra were collected with an Ocean Optics USB4000 Compact CCD Spectrometer. The spectrometer had a range of 500 - 770 nm with a resolution of approximately 0.5 nm and was sensitive enough to resolve the vibrational states in diatomic iodine molecules. The results were compared to a simple harmonic oscillator model.

  5. Thermal vibrational convection in a two-phase stratified liquid (United States)

    Chang, Qingming; Alexander, J. Iwan D.


    The response of a two-phase stratified liquid system subject to a vibration parallel to an imposed temperature gradient is analyzed using a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann method (HTLB). The vibrations considered correspond to sinusoidal translations of a rigid cavity at a fixed frequency. The layers are thermally and mechanically coupled. Interaction between gravity-induced and vibration-induced thermal convection is studied. The ability of the applied vibration to enhance the flow, heat transfer and interface distortion is investigated. For the range of conditions investigated, the results reveal that the effect of the vibrational Rayleigh number and vibrational frequency on a two-phase stratified fluid system is much different from that for a single-phase fluid system. Comparisons of the response of a two-phase stratified fluid system with a single-phase fluid system are discussed. To cite this article: Q. Chang, J.I.D. Alexander, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  6. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer (United States)

    Hammer, Paul


    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  7. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  8. Surface Vibration Reconstruction using Inverse Numerical Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martinus


    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of inverse numerical acoustics to reconstruct the surface vibration of a noise source. Inverse numerical acoustics is mainly used for source identification. This approach uses the measured sound pressure at a set of field points and the Helmholtz integral equation to reconstruct the normal surface velocity. The number of sound pressure measurements is considerably less than the number of surface vibration nodes. An overview of inverse numerical acoustics is presented and compared with other holography techniques such as nearfield acoustical holography and the Helmholtz equation least squares method. In order to obtain an acceptable reproduction of the surface vibration, several critical factors such as the field point selection and the effect of experimental errors have to be handled properly. Other practical considerations such as the use of few measured velocities and regularization techniques will also be presented. Examples will include a diesel engine, a transmission housing and an engine cover.

  9. "Slowing" Mechanical Waves with a Consumer-Type High-Speed Digital Camera (United States)

    Ng, Pun-hon; Chan, Kin-lok


    In most secondary physics textbooks, waves are first introduced with examples of mechanical waves because they can be illustrated by drawings and photographs. However, these illustrations are static and cannot reflect the dynamic nature of waves. Although many mechanical waves (e.g. water waves and vibrating strings) can be easily shown using…

  10. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  11. Distributed vibration sensing on optical fibre: field testing in borehole seismic applications (United States)

    Frignet, B.; Hartog, A. H.; Mackie, D.; Kotov, O. I.; Liokumovich, L. B.


    We describe the measurement of seismic waves in a borehole using distributed vibration sensing conveyed on wireline cable. The optical measurement is compared directly with the results of a multi-level borehole seismic survey with conventional electrical accelerometers.

  12. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karhu, J.; Nauta, J.; Vainio, M.; Metsala, M.; Hoekstra, S.; Halonen, L.


    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to

  13. Students dance longitudinal standing waves (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.


    A demonstration is presented that involves students dancing longitudinal standing waves. The resulting kinaesthetic experience and visualization both contribute towards an understanding of the natural modes of vibrations in open and closed pipes. A video of this fun classroom activity is provided (

  14. Research on a Composite Power-Superimposed Ultrasonic Vibrator for Wire Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Liu


    Full Text Available Vibration power and amplitude are essential factors in ultrasonic drawing processes, especially for difficult-to-draw materials like titanium and its alloys. This paper presents a new composite power-superimposed ultrasonic vibrator for wire drawing which was driven by three separate ultrasonic transducers. The transducers were uniformly distributed around the circular cross section of the vibrator, with their axes along the radial direction and pointing to the center. The vibrator can concentrate the vibrational energy of multiple transducers and transform the radial vibration into a longitudinal vibrator because of the Poisson effect and therefore output larger vibration power and amplitude. In the paper, the four-terminal network method was used to establish the vibration equations of the vibrator. The FE model was established in ANSYS to investigate its characteristics under various excitation conditions. A prototype was manufactured and measurements were performed to verify the validation of FEA results. The results matched well with the theoretical results. It was found that the composite vibrator achieved an amplitude of about 40 μm when driven by square wave signals with 120° in phase difference, which implies a potential way of applying ultrasonic vibration to the processing of difficult-to-draw materials.

  15. Molecular geometry, vibrational spectra, atomic charges, frontier molecular orbital and Fukui function analysis of antiviral drug zidovudine (United States)

    Ramkumaar, G. R.; Srinivasan, S.; Bhoopathy, T. J.; Gunasekaran, S.


    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of zidovudine (AZT) were recorded in the regions 4000-400 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of zidovudine were obtained by the Restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) density functional theory (DFT) with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies for zidovudine were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental values of FTIR and FT-Raman spectra. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The harmonic vibrational wave numbers and intensities of vibrational bands of zidovudine with its cation and anion were calculated and compared with the neutral AZT. The DFT calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in AZT.

  16. Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, Peter


    Features aspects and solutions of problems of linear vibrating systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Starts with development of necessary tools in matrix theory, followed by numerical procedures for relevant matrix formulations and relevant theory of differential equations. Minimum of mathematical abstraction; assumes a familiarity with matrix theory, elementary calculus. 1966 edition.

  17. Vibrational energy flow in substituted benzenes (United States)

    Pein, Brandt C.

    Using ultrafast infrared (IR) Raman spectroscopy, vibrational energy flow was monitored in several liquid-state substituted benzenes at ambient temperature. In a series of mono-halogenated benzenes, X-C6H 5 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), a similar CH-stretch at 3068 cm-1 was excited using picosecond IR pulses and the resulting vibrational relaxation and overall vibrational cooling processes were monitored with anti-Stokes spectroscopy. In the molecules with a heavier halide substituent the CH-stretch decayed slower while midrange vibrations decayed faster. This result was logical if the density of states (DOS) in the first few tiers, which is the DOS composed of vibrations with smaller quantum number, is what primarily determines energy flow. For tiers 1-4, the DOS was nearly identical in the CH-stretch region while it increased in the midrange region for heavier halide mass. Excitation spectroscopy, an extension of 3D IR-Raman spectroscopy, was developed and used to selectively pump vibrations localized to the substituent or the phenyl group in nitrobenzene (NB), o-fluoronitrobenzene (OFNB) and o-nitrotoluene (ONT) and in the alkylbenzene series toluene, isopropylbenzene (IPB), and t-butylbenzene (TBB). Using quantum chemical calculations, each Raman active vibration was sorted, according to their atomic displacements, into three classifications: substituent, phenyl, or global. Using IR pump wavenumbers that initially excited substituent or phenyl vibrations, IR-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor energy flowing from the substituent to phenyl vibrations and vice versa. In NB nitro-to-phenyl and nitro-to-global energy flow was almost nonexistent while phenyl-to-nitro and phenyl-to-global was weak. When ortho substituents (-CH3, -F) were introduced, energy flow from nitro-to-phenyl and nitro-to-global was activated. In ONT, phenyl-to-nitro energy flow ceased possibly due to the added methyl group diverting energy from entering the nitro vibrations. Energy flow is therefore

  18. Free Vibration of Sandwich Plates and Shells by Using Zig-Zag Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brischetto


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the free vibration response of sandwich curved and flat panels by introducing the zig-zag function (—1kζk (ZZF in the displacement models of classical and higher order two-dimensional shell theories. The main advantage of ZZF is the introduction of a discontinuity in the first derivative, zig-zag effect, of the displacements distribution with correspondence to the core/faces interfaces. Results including and discarding ZZF are compared. Several values of face-to-core stiffness ratio (FCSR and geometrical plate/shell parameters have been analyzed. Both fundamental vibration modes and those corresponding to high wave numbers are considered in the analysis. It is concluded that: (1 ZZF is highly recommended in the free vibration analysis of sandwich plates and shells; (2 the use of ZZF makes the error almost independent by FCSR parameter; (3 ZZF is easy to implement and its use should be preferred with respect to other `more cumbersome' refined theories.

  19. The CFVib Experiment: Control of Fluids in Microgravity with Vibrations (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Sánchez, P. Salgado; Tinao, I.; Porter, J.; Ezquerro, J. M.


    The Control of Fluids in Microgravity with Vibrations (CFVib) experiment was selected for the 2016 Fly Your Thesis! programme as part of the 65th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign. The aim of the project is to observe the potentially complex behaviour of vibrated liquids in weightless environments and to investigate the extent to which small-amplitude vibrations can be used to influence and control this behaviour. Piezoelectric materials are used to generate high-frequency vibrations to drive surface waves and large-scale reorientation of the interface. The theory of vibroequilibria, which treats the quasi-stationary surface configurations achieved by this reorientation, was used to predict interesting parameter regimes and interpret fluid behaviour. Here we describe the scientific motivation, objectives, and design of the experiment.

  20. Efficiency of Nearly Periodic Structures for Mitigation of Ground Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Peplow, Andrew; Bucinskas, Paulius


    be introduced by periodic inclusions or changes to the ground surface geometry. However, for vibration mitigation in the context of real civil-engineering problems related to ground-borne noise from railways, for example, the excitation is not strictly harmonic and a steady state of the response is usually......Periodic structures are known to produce passbands and stopbands for propagation of vibration energy within the frequency domain. Sources vibrating harmonically at a frequency within a passband can lead to propagation of energy through propagating modes over long distances. However, sources...... vibrating at a frequency within a stopband excite only nearfields in the form of attenuating and evanescent modes, and the energy decays with distance. The decay phenomena are due to destructive interference of waves reflected and scattered by interfaces or obstacles placed periodically within or between...

  1. Train-induced ground vibrations : Modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzel, A.


    Ground vibrations generated by high-speed trains are of great concern because of the possible damage they can cause to buildings or other structures near the track, and the annoyance to the public living in the vicinity of the track. Particularly in soft-soil regions, where the wave speed is

  2. Calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 5. Calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant electron-molecule scattering using the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach with application to the 2 CO- shape resonance. Raman Kumar Singh Manabendra Sarma Ankit Jain ...

  3. Analysis of radial vibrations of poroelastic circular cylindrical shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Gazis (1959) discussed the propagation of free harmonic waves along a hollow elastic circular cylinder of infinite extent and solved the frequency equation ... The coefficient Q represents the coupling between the volume change of the ... can readily be evaluated for steady state harmonic vibrations from equations (1) are.

  4. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances (United States)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien


    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  5. Wave Height Distribution for Nonlinear Swell Waves in Deep an Depth Limited Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Knudsen, Jannie Elkær


    This paper presents initial results from an on-going study on the influence from wave nonlinearity on the wave height distribution in deep- and depth-limited nonlinear wave conditions. A fully nonlinear VOF model, IH-2VOF, is applied to model the propagation of irregular waves on a sloping sea bed...... from deep to shallow water, including the effects of wave breaking. Different wave nonlinearities are evaluated in the model and the effects of the wave nonlinearity, described by the so-called Ursell-number, on the wave height distributions along the sloping sea bed are evaluated. The widely used...

  6. Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliano, Nick [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm-1 intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d4. Each of the VRT subbands originate from Ka''=0 and terminate in either Ka'=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A' rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the Ka' quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a' symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the v12 acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D2

  7. Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliano, N.


    The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm[sup [minus]1] intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d[sub 4]. Each of the VRT subbands originate from K[sub a][double prime]=0 and terminate in either K[sub a][prime]=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A[prime] rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the K[sub a][prime] quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a[prime] symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the [nu][sub 12] acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D[sub 2]O-DOH isotopomer.

  8. A Novel Wireless and Temperature-Compensated SAW Vibration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang


    Full Text Available A novel wireless and passive surface acoustic wave (SAW based temperature-compensated vibration sensor utilizing a flexible Y-cut quartz cantilever beam with a relatively substantial proof mass and two one-port resonators is developed. One resonator acts as the sensing device adjacent to the clamped end for maximum strain sensitivity, and the other one is used as the reference located on clamped end for temperature compensation for vibration sensor through the differential approach. Vibration directed to the proof mass flex the cantilever, inducing relative changes in the acoustic propagation characteristics of the SAW travelling along the sensing device, and generated output signal varies in frequency as a function of vibration.  A theoretical mode using the Rayleigh method was established to determine the optimal dimensions of the cantilever beam. Coupling of Modes (COM model was used to extract the optimal design parameters of the SAW devices prior to fabrication. The performance of the developed SAW sensor attached to an antenna towards applied vibration was evaluated wirelessly by using the precise vibration table, programmable incubator chamber, and reader unit.  High vibration sensitivity of ~10.4 kHz/g, good temperature stability, and excellent linearity were observed in the wireless measurements.

  9. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William


    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  10. Vibration exposure and prevention in Japan. (United States)

    Futatsuka, M; Ueno, T; Yamada, S


    Working conditions of vibration exposure have generally improved, but many difficult problems must be solved such as (1) hygienic improvements in a variety of vibrating tools; (2) improving working conditions, for example, by limiting the time of operation in spite of economic difficulties such as those faced by those who work on a piece rate basis; (3) gathering more complete information about the risk population because of the large number of self-employed in informal employment sectors; and (4) finding work places after rehabilitation for patients, particularly in mountainous rural areas or in small scale industries. Historical observation of vibration and preventive measures in Japanese national forests was presented on the basis of the results of a retrospective cohort study in Kyushu, Japan. Prevalence rate of VWF remarkably changed from 58.4% in the groups that began to operate chain saws in 1960 to only a few cases in the groups who started the operation after 1971. When we compare the relationships between the results of long term cohort study and the consequences of preventive measures of vibration syndrome, the most important factor is the decrease of vibration exposure (improvement in chain saws plus the time restriction system). The comprehensive prevention system used in Japanese national forests consists of the following: (1) Health care system; (2) Work regulation system; (3) System for improving mechanized tools; (4) Warming system to protect against cold conditions; and (5) Education and training system.

  11. Reproductive number and serial interval of the first wave of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett N Archer

    Full Text Available Describing transmissibility parameters of past pandemics from diverse geographic sites remains critical to planning responses to future outbreaks. We characterize the transmissibility of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (hereafter pH1N1 in South Africa during 2009 by estimating the serial interval (SI, the initial effective reproductive number (initial R(t and the temporal variation of R(t.We make use of data from a central registry of all pH1N1 laboratory-confirmed cases detected throughout South Africa. Whenever date of symptom onset is missing, we estimate it from the date of specimen collection using a multiple imputation approach repeated 100 times for each missing value. We apply a likelihood-based method (method 1 for simultaneous estimation of initial R(t and the SI; estimate initial R(t from SI distributions established from prior field studies (method 2; and the Wallinga and Teunis method (method 3 to model the temporal variation of R(t.12,360 confirmed pH1N1 cases were reported in the central registry. During the period of exponential growth of the epidemic (June 21 to August 3, 2009, we simultaneously estimate a mean R(t of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.30-1.72 and mean SI of 2.78 days (95% CI: 1.80-3.75 (method 1. Field studies found a mean SI of 2.3 days between primary cases and laboratory-confirmed secondary cases, and 2.7 days when considering both suspected and confirmed secondary cases. Incorporating the SI estimate from field studies using laboratory-confirmed cases, we found an initial R(t of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.38-1.49 (method 2. The mean R(t peaked at 2.91 (95% CI: 0.85-2.91 on June 21, as the epidemic commenced, and R(t>1 was sustained until August 22 (method 3.Transmissibility characteristics of pH1N1 in South Africa are similar to estimates reported by countries outside of Africa. Estimations using the likelihood-based method are in agreement with field findings.

  12. Prediction of vibration level in tunnel blasting; Tonneru kusshin happa ni yotte reiki sareru shindo no reberu yosoku ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, A. [Kumamoto Industries Univ, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, M. [Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, C. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, K. [Hokkaido Univ (Japan)


    For avoiding the generation of public hazard due to ground vibration causes by blasting in tunneling, it is important to devise a blasting method for ensuring the level of the ground vibration caused thereby under a limit, and an exact predication of ground vibration before blasting is desirable. In this study, the characteristics of the ground vibration caused by tunnel blasting are analyzed, and a summary of amplitude spectra calculating method is described. A theoretical analysis method for predicting the vibration level is proposed based on spectrum-multiplicative method. Vibration caused by multistage blasting in tunneling is most strong and deemed as important. When observing the process of elastic wave motion caused by multistage blasting being measured, the process can be divided into three element processes in frequency area as vibration source spectrum, transmission attenuation spectrum and frequency response function vibrating test, and, with the multiplication of them, the amplitude spectra at an observation portion can be estimated. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Structure-borne sound structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, L; Petersson, Björn AT


    Structure-Borne Sound"" is a thorough introduction to structural vibrations with emphasis on audio frequencies and the associated radiation of sound. The book presents in-depth discussions of fundamental principles and basic problems, in order to enable the reader to understand and solve his own problems. It includes chapters dealing with measurement and generation of vibrations and sound, various types of structural wave motion, structural damping and its effects, impedances and vibration responses of the important types of structures, as well as with attenuation of vibrations, and sound radi

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő


    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  15. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging


    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien


    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  16. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard


    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  17. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E


    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  18. Modal simulation of gearbox vibration with experimental correlation (United States)

    Choy, Fred K.; Ruan, Yeefeng F.; Zakrajsek, James J.; Oswald, Fred B.


    A newly developed global dynamic model was used to simulate the dynamics of a gear noise rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Experimental results from the test rig were used to verify the analytical model. In this global dynamic model, the number of degrees of freedom of the system are reduced by transforming the system equations of motion into modal coordinates. The vibration of the individual gear-shaft system are coupled through the gear mesh forces. A three-dimensional, axial-lateral coupled, bearing model was used to couple the casing structural vibration to the gear-rotor dynamics. The coupled system of modal equations is solved to predict the resulting vibration at several locations on the test rig. Experimental vibration data was compared to the predicitions of the global dynamic model. There is excellent agreement between the vibration results from analysis and experiment.

  19. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.


    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  20. Ship Vibration Design Guide (United States)


    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  1. Compact Vibration Damper (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)


    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  2. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  3. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.


    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  4. Analysis of flexural wave propagation in poroelastic composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    and Tajuddin (2010) studied axially symmetric vibrations of composite poroelastic cylinders. Sharma and Sharma (2010) analyzed free vibration in a homogeneous transradially isotropic thermoelastic sphere. Flexural wave propagation in coated poroelastic cylinders is presented by Ahmed shah (2011). Tajuddin (2011) et ...

  5. The Next Wave. Volume 19, Number 2 (United States)


    Malware, short for "malicious software," includes computer viruses , worms, and Trojan horses , and can spread using various methods, including worms sent...through email and instant messages, Trojan horses dropped from websites, and virus -infected files downloaded from peer-to-peer connections.8 This...accidental bugs, faults, and leaks to maliciously induced Trojan horses . The problem is aggravated by growing system complexity and by increasingly

  6. Acoustic vibration can enhance bacterial biofilm formation. (United States)

    Murphy, Mark F; Edwards, Thomas; Hobbs, Glyn; Shepherd, Joanna; Bezombes, Frederic


    This paper explores the use of low-frequency-low-amplitude acoustic vibration on biofilm formation. Biofilm development is thought to be governed by a diverse range of environmental signals and much effort has gone into researching the effects of environmental factors including; nutrient availability, pH and temperature on the growth of biofilms. Many biofilm-forming organisms have evolved to thrive in mechanically challenging environments, for example soil yet, the effects of the physical environment on biofilm formation has been largely ignored. Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to vibration at 100, 800 and 1600 Hz for 48 h, resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation compared with the control, with the greatest growth seen at 800 Hz vibration. The results also show that this increase in biofilm formation is accompanied with an increase in P. aeruginosa cell number. Acoustic vibration was also found to regulate the spatial distribution of biofilm formation in a frequency-dependent manner. Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to acoustic vibration also resulted in enhanced biofilm formation with the greatest level of biofilm being formed following 48 h exposure at 1600 Hz. These results show that acoustic vibration can be used to control biofilm formation and therefore presents a novel and potentially cost effective means to manipulate the development and yield of biofilms in a range of important industrial and medical processes. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strength and Dislocation Structure Evolution of Small Metals under Vibrations (United States)

    Ngan, Alfonso


    It is well-known that ultrasonic vibration can soften metals, and this phenomenon has been widely exploited in industrial applications concerning metal forming and bonding. In this work, we explore the effects of a superimposed small oscillatory load on metal plasticity, from the nano- to macro-size range, and from audible to ultrasonic frequency ranges. Macroscopic and nano-indentation were performed on aluminum, copper and molybdenum, and the results show that the simultaneous application of oscillatory stresses can lower the hardness of these samples. More interestingly, EBSD and TEM observations show that subgrain formation and reduction in dislocation density generally occurred when stress oscillations were applied. These findings point to an important knowledge gap in metal plasticity - the existing understanding of ultrasound softening in terms of the vibrations either imposing additional stress waves to augment the quasi-static applied load, or heating up the metal, whereas the metal's intrinsic deformation resistance or dislocation interactive processes are assumed unaltered by the ultrasound, is proven wrong by the present results. Furthermore, in the case of nanoindentation, the Continuous Stiffness Measurement technique for contact stiffness measurement assumes that the imposed signal-carrier oscillations do not intrinsically alter the material properties of the specimen, and again, the present results prove that this can be wrong. To understand the enhanced subgrain formation and dislocation annihilation, Discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DDD) simulations were carried out and these show that when an oscillatory stress is superimposed on a quasi-static applied stress, reversals of motion of dislocations may occur, and these allow the dislocations to revisit repeatedly suitable configurations for annihilation. DDD, however, was unable to predict the observed subgrain formation presumably because the number of dislocations that can be handled is not large

  8. Droplets bouncing on a standing wave field (United States)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Tambasco, Lucas; Harris, Daniel; Bush, John


    A liquid bath subject to a vertical vibration becomes unstable to standing surface waves at a critical vibrational acceleration known as the Faraday threshold. We examine the behavior of a millimetric droplet bouncing on the surface of a quasi-one-dimensional fluid channel above the Faraday threshold. We identify a sequence of bifurcations that occurs as the vibrational acceleration is increased progressively, ultimately leading to the erratic, diffusive motion of the droplet along the length of the channel. A simple theoretical model is presented. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  9. Relaxation Behind Strong Shock Waves in Air (United States)


    GENERALOV, LOSEV , and OSIPOV (1964) showed that the major effects of vibrational energy transfer occur for moderate Mach numbers corresponding upper limit for needing to include vibrational energy exchange. However, Turchak (as do Generalov, Losev , and Osipov) neglects dissociation and...P.C.T., Physics of Fluids, Suppl. I 12_, 1-54, 1969 GENERALOV, N. A., LOSEV , S. A., and OSIPOV, A. I., "Relaxation of the Vibrational Energy of Air

  10. Simulations of vibrational relaxation in dense molecular fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holian, B.L.


    In the understanding of high-temperatre and -pressure chemistry in explosives, first step is the study of the transfer of energy from translational degrees of freedom into internal vibrations of the molecules. We present new methods using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) for measuring vibrational relaxation in a diatomic fluid, where we expect a classical treatment of many-body collisions to be relevant because of the high densities (2 to 3 times compressed compared to the normal fluid) and high temperatures (2000 to 4000 K) involved behind detonation waves. NEMD techniques are discussed, including their limitations, and qualitative results presented.

  11. Passive and Active Vibration Control of Renewable Energy Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili

    The present thesis deals with fundamental researches on passive and active vibration control of renewable energy structures, and provides useful models for practical applications. Effective and robust vibration control methods have been explored for mitigating the lightly damped edgewise blade...... solutions for wave energy point absorbers, in order to maximize the mean absorbed power and to deliver more smooth power to the grid. A novel suboptimal causal control law has been established for controlling the motion of the point absorber, and a new type of point absorber has also been proposed...

  12. Melde's Experiment on a Vibrating Liquid Foam Microchannel (United States)

    Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Raufaste, Christophe


    We subject a single Plateau border channel to a transverse harmonic excitation, in an experiment reminiscent of the historical one by Melde on vibrating strings, to study foam stability and wave properties. At low driving amplitudes, the liquid string exhibits regular oscillations. At large ones, a nonlinear regime appears and the acoustic radiation splits the channel into two zones of different cross section area, vibration amplitude, and phase difference with the neighboring soap films. The channel experiences an inertial dilatancy that is accounted for by a new Bernoulli-like relation.

  13. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  14. Effect of vibration on visual display terminal work performance. (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Hung; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Ching


    Today electronic visual displays have dramatic use in daily life. Reading these visual displays is subject to their vibration. Using a software-simulation of a vibrated environment, the study investigated the effect of vibration on visual performance and fatigue for several numerical display design characteristics including the font size and the number of digits displayed. Both the frequency and magnitude of vibration had significant effects on the reaction time, accuracy, and visual fatigue. 10 graduate students (23-30 years old; M = 25.6), randomly tested in this experiment, were offered about 25 U.S. dollars for their participation. Numbers in vertical presentation were affected more in vertical vibration than those in horizontal presentation. Analysis showed whenever the display is used in vibration environment, an increased font size may be an effective way to compensate the adverse effect of vibration. The software design of displayed materials must be designed to take the motion effect into consideration to increase the quality of the screen display.

  15. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin


    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  16. Dual Waves


    Kallosh, Renata


    We study the gravitational waves in the 10-dimensional target space of the superstring theory. Some of these waves have unbroken supersymmetries. They consist of Brinkmann metric and of a 2-form field. Sigma-model duality is applied to such waves. The corresponding solutions we call dual partners of gravitational waves, or dual waves. Some of these dual waves upon Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction to 4 dimensions become equivalent to the conformo-stationary solutions of axion-dilaton gravity...

  17. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei


    The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions. For instance, fluorescence microscopy faces a ‘colour barrier’, owing to the intrinsically broad (about 1,500 inverse centimetres) and featureless nature of fluorescence spectra that limits the number of resolvable colours to two to five (or seven to nine if using complicated instrumentation and analysis). Spontaneous Raman microscopy probes vibrational transitions with much narrower resonances (peak width of about 10 inverse centimetres) and so does not suffer from this problem, but weak signals make many bio-imaging applications impossible. Although surface-enhanced Raman scattering offers high sensitivity and multiplicity, it cannot be readily used to image specific molecular targets quantitatively inside live cells. Here we use stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions to image target molecules inside living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity (down to 250 nanomolar with a time constant of 1 millisecond). We create a palette of triple-bond-conjugated near-infrared dyes that each displays a single peak in the cell-silent Raman spectral window; when combined with available fluorescent probes, this palette provides 24 resolvable colours, with the potential for further expansion. Proof-of-principle experiments on neuronal co-cultures and brain tissues reveal cell-type-dependent heterogeneities in DNA and protein metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions, underscoring the

  18. Equilibrium structure and atomic vibrations of Nin clusters (United States)

    Borisova, Svetlana D.; Rusina, Galina G.


    The equilibrium bond lengths and binding energy, second differences in energy and vibrational frequencies of free clusters Nin (2 ≤ n ≤ 20) were calculated with the use of the interaction potential obtained in the tight-binding approximation (TBA). The results show that the minimum vibration frequency plays a significant role in the evaluation of the dynamic stability of the clusters. A nonmonotonic dependence of the minimum vibration frequency of clusters on their size and the extreme values for the number of atoms in a cluster n = 4, 6, 13, and 19 are demonstrated. This result agrees with the theoretical and experimental data on stable structures of small metallic clusters.

  19. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.


    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  20. Non-axisymmetric vibrations of a transversely isotropic piezoelectric cylinder with different types of electric boundary conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY


    Full Text Available . The dispersion curves are plotted for propagating waves for non-axisymmetric vibrations of the cylinder. It is shown that the dispersion curves are sensitive to the form of electric boundary conditions...

  1. The optimization of single mode basis functions for polyatomic vibrational problems with application to the water molecule (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.


    The optimization of the wave functions is considered for coupled vibrations represented by linear combinations of products of functions depending only on a single vibrational coordinate. The functions themselves are optimized as well as configuration list. For the H2O molecule highly accurate results are obtained for the lowest 15 levels using significantly shorter expansions than would otherwise be possible.

  2. Analytical predictions for vibration phase shifts along fluid-conveying pipes due to Coriolis forces and imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Dahl, Jonas


    Resonant vibrations of a fluid-conveying pipe are investigated, with special consideration to axial shifts in vibration phase accompanying fluid flow and various imperfections. This is relevant for understanding elastic wave propagation in general, and for the design and trouble-shooting of phase...

  3. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu


    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  4. On the Vibrations of AN N - (United States)



    We study the small-amplitude transverse oscillations of a planar network of N sections of string which are all attached at one common extremity. This network is called an N -string. When the N sections of string are of finite length, we find Fourier series expressions describing the vibrations perpendicular to the plane containing the N -string at rest. The standing perpendicular wave energies of a plucked symmetric N -string are analyzed. It is found that higher harmonics can be excited to an energy level above that of the first harmonic simply by plucking at an appropriate location along one of the strings. This result is in contrast to an ordinary plucked string and may lead to interesting applications; most notably the construction of new musical instruments. We also describe the movements of one travelling perpendicular wave in an N -string as well as the interaction of such waves. A method for increasing or reducing the amplitude of travelling perpendicular waves is outlined.

  5. Proposed method of reducing ground vibration from delay blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursen, D.L. [Dynatec Explosives Consultants, Inc., Espanola, NM (United States)


    In the proposed method, the charges are elongated and arranged in one or more arrays. The orientation of each charge in an array, its velocity of propagation of explosion, and the velocity of propagation of vibration in the formation are such that, at an outlying location where vibration is to be reduced, the onset of vibration from the explosion of the first negligibly small increment of each charge arrives a finite time before that from the explosion of the last negligibly small increment of that charge. The charges of each array are fired in accurately-timed sequence, with the times between initiations chosen so that, at the outlying location, the onset of vibration from the explosion of the last small increment of each charge, except the last charge, arrives a negligibly small increment of time before the onset of vibration from the explosion of the first negligibly small increment of the succeeding charge. With such timing, vibration may be reduced at the widest range of locations by tilting the boreholes so that the terminal end of each charge is directly above or below the terminal end of the succeeding charge. With the proposed method, vibration can be expected to decrease with increasing charge length, decreasing velocity of propagation of explosion, increasing number of charges per array, decreasing reverberation time, increasing precision of initiation timing, and increasing homogeneity of the rock. Computer modeling of the resulting vibration from single arrays having a total duration of explosion longer than the reverberation time shows a starting transient and an ending transient with little or no vibration between them. For patterns containing more than one array, the modeling indicates that the recommended timing between arrays can largely eliminate the vibration from the starting and ending transients as well when they are dominated by a single frequency.

  6. Calculated rotational and vibrational g factors of LiH X 1S+ and evaluation of parameters in radial functions from rotational and vibration-rotational spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana; Oddershede, Jens


    The vibrational g factor, that is, the nonadiabatic correction to the vibrational reduced mass, of LiH has been calculated for internuclear distances over a wide range. Based on multiconfigurational wave functions with a large complete active space and an extended set of gaussian type basis...... functions, these calculations yielded also the rotational g factor, the electric dipolar moment, and its gradient with internuclear distance for LiH in its electronic ground state X (1)Sigma(+). The vibrational g factor g(v) exhibits a pronounced minimum near internuclear distance R = 3.65 x 10(-10) m...

  7. Vortex Flows in the Liquid Layer and Droplets on a Vibrating Flexible Plate (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Vladimir; Kopysov, Sergey; Tonkov, Leonid


    In certain conditions, in the layers and droplets of a liquid on a vibrating rectangular flexible plate, vortex flows are formed simultaneously with the excitation of capillary oscillations on the free surface of the liquid layers and droplets. Capillary oscillations in the form of two-dimensional standing waves form Faraday ripples on the free surface of the liquid layer. On the surface of the vibrating droplets, at the excitation of capillary oscillations a light spot reflected from a spotlight source moves along a trajectory in the form of a Lissajous figure observed with a microscope. When vortex flows visualized with graphite microparticles appear in the layer and droplets of a transparent liquid, the trajectory of the light spot on the layer and droplet surface is a two-dimensional trajectory in the form of an ellipse or a saddle. This indicates that the generation of the vortex flows in a liquid at vibrations is due to capillary oscillations in the orthogonally related directions. In the liquid layer and droplets on the surface of the flexible plate, the vibrations of which are generated by bending vibrations, the vortex flows appear due to the plate vibrations and the capillary oscillations of the surface of a layer or a droplet of the liquid. On the free surface of the liquid, the capillary waves, which are parametrically excited by the plate bending vibrations, are additionally modulated by the same bending vibrations in the transverse direction.

  8. Experimental investigation of localized disturbances in the straight wing boundary layer, generated by finite surface vibrations (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Katasonov, M. M.; Pavlenko, A. M.


    Downstream development of artificial disturbances were investigated experimentally using hot-wire constant temperature anemometry. It is shown that vibrations with high-amplitude of a three-dimensional surface lead to formation of two types of perturbations in the straight wing boundary layer: streamwise oriented localized structures and wave packets. The amplitude of streamwise structure is decay downstream. The wave packets amplitude grows in adverse pressure gradient area. The flow separation is exponentially intensified of the wave packet amplitude.

  9. Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing (United States)

    Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig


    Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high

  10. Radial Shock Wave Devices Generate Cavitation. (United States)

    Császár, Nikolaus B M; Angstman, Nicholas B; Milz, Stefan; Sprecher, Christoph M; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed; Furia, John P; Schmitz, Christoph


    Conflicting reports in the literature have raised the question whether radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) devices and vibrating massage devices have similar energy signatures and, hence, cause similar bioeffects in treated tissues. We used laser fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) measurements, high-speed imaging and x-ray film analysis to compare fundamental elements of the energy signatures of two rESWT devices (Swiss DolorClast; Electro Medical Systems, Nyon, Switzerland; D-Actor 200; Storz Medical, Tägerwillen, Switzerland) and a vibrating massage device (Vibracare; G5/General Physiotherapy, Inc., Earth City, MO, USA). To assert potential bioeffects of these treatment modalities we investigated the influence of rESWT and vibrating massage devices on locomotion ability of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) worms. FOPH measurements demonstrated that both rESWT devices generated acoustic waves with comparable pressure and energy flux density. Furthermore, both rESWT devices generated cavitation as evidenced by high-speed imaging and caused mechanical damage on the surface of x-ray film. The vibrating massage device did not show any of these characteristics. Moreover, locomotion ability of C. elegans was statistically significantly impaired after exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves but was unaffected after exposure of worms to the vibrating massage device. The results of the present study indicate that both energy signature and bioeffects of rESWT devices are fundamentally different from those of vibrating massage devices. Prior ESWT studies have shown that tissues treated with sufficient quantities of acoustic sound waves undergo cavitation build-up, mechanotransduction, and ultimately, a biological alteration that "kick-starts" the healing response. Due to their different treatment indications and contra-indications rESWT devices cannot be equated to vibrating massage devices and should be used with due caution in clinical practice.

  11. Radial Shock Wave Devices Generate Cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus B M Császár

    Full Text Available Conflicting reports in the literature have raised the question whether radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT devices and vibrating massage devices have similar energy signatures and, hence, cause similar bioeffects in treated tissues.We used laser fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH measurements, high-speed imaging and x-ray film analysis to compare fundamental elements of the energy signatures of two rESWT devices (Swiss DolorClast; Electro Medical Systems, Nyon, Switzerland; D-Actor 200; Storz Medical, Tägerwillen, Switzerland and a vibrating massage device (Vibracare; G5/General Physiotherapy, Inc., Earth City, MO, USA. To assert potential bioeffects of these treatment modalities we investigated the influence of rESWT and vibrating massage devices on locomotion ability of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans worms.FOPH measurements demonstrated that both rESWT devices generated acoustic waves with comparable pressure and energy flux density. Furthermore, both rESWT devices generated cavitation as evidenced by high-speed imaging and caused mechanical damage on the surface of x-ray film. The vibrating massage device did not show any of these characteristics. Moreover, locomotion ability of C. elegans was statistically significantly impaired after exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves but was unaffected after exposure of worms to the vibrating massage device.The results of the present study indicate that both energy signature and bioeffects of rESWT devices are fundamentally different from those of vibrating massage devices.Prior ESWT studies have shown that tissues treated with sufficient quantities of acoustic sound waves undergo cavitation build-up, mechanotransduction, and ultimately, a biological alteration that "kick-starts" the healing response. Due to their different treatment indications and contra-indications rESWT devices cannot be equated to vibrating massage devices and should be used with due caution in clinical

  12. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13. Number 8 (United States)


    collocation and others) • Computer implementation of the above techniques for the analysis of general structural components • Adaptation of the above...Salewski and U. Marzok Ernst- Moritz -Arndt-Universität Greifswald, Sektion Physik/Elektronik, Maschinenbautechnik, 30 (2), pp 88-90 (Feb 1981

  13. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17. Number 5 (United States)


    34vwwvTrrrnrxrw vwrn^rv i ^ t T» i ^i-^ i ^.^ -r- ^^ "^^ ".- free from shear stress . A double integral transform technique is used. Asymptotic...Section 50 wm trim bate 97.5 «i froa baec 25 ■■ froa bale 12.5 mt tram base Figure 6. Temperature Readings in Soft Rubber Cylinder for...Tensioning either permanently alters or actively controls saw membrane stresses to increase the lowest critical speed of a saw. Active control of

  14. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 9 (United States)


    Investigaciones en Matem6ticas, Apli- Acoustic Resonance Scattering by a Penetrable cadas y en Sistemas , Universidad Nacional Autonoma Cylinder de Mexico...held at the Huntington Sheraton Hotel in Pasadena, California on October 18-20. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be the host serving on behalf of the...Offset Circular Conf., Cambridge, pp 359-366 (1980). Whirl Orbits," J. Mech. Des ., Trans. ASME, 26. Parkins, D.W. and Stanley, W.T., "Characteris- "-100

  15. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 11 (United States)


    empirical near a boundary. The concepts of reflection coeffi- data is presented from several different auditoria . cient, wall impedance, and energy...dale, OH, Intl. J. Nonlin. Mechanics, 16 (2), pp 105- 81-2413 116 (1981) 6 figs, 9 refs Dynianica of Arrays of Cylinders with Internal and Externa

  16. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14, Number 7 (United States)


    Application of Honeycomb and Abradable Seals • Grouting of Machinery and Structures • Trip and Throttle Valves for Steam Turbines: Design and...the Braking and Handling of Heavy Trucks. Volume 5 C.C. MacAdam and P.S. Fancher Highway Safety Res. Inst., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ml, sulted optimum confinement reinforcement was then used in the reaction corr.ars of partially grouted masonry concrete block cantilever walls

  17. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 5 (United States)


    rigidity ratio of the beams are discussed. S. Kaneko and S. Hayama Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Bull. JSME, 26 (221), pp 1993-2001...Dynamic buckling of columns under axial step loading which Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, produces plastic behavior is investigated...Interaction: Y. Mohri and S. Hayama structure-fluid, Finite element technique Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, A finite element method

  18. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 6 (United States)


    841200 Monotonie and Cyclic Crack Tip Plasticity L. Guerra -Rosa, CM. Branco.and J.C. Radon Centro de MecSnica c Materials da...Good, M.R 1115 Goodwin, M.J 1108 Goorjian, P.M 1081 Goraj,2.J 1282 Gross, D.W 1258 Gudmundson,P 1273 Guerra -Rosa, L 1200 Gunter, E.J 1035 Gupta...865-2897) 12-16 International Computers in Engineering Confer- ence and Exhibit [ASME] Las Vegas , NV (ASME HqeJ 19-25 XVIth International

  19. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 9 (United States)


    Cervical Spine Injury Mechanisms G.S. Nusholtz, D.E. Huelke, P. Lux, N.M. Alem, and 84-1965 F. Montalvo The Influence of Impact Energy and Direction on... cervical spine A test series using unembalmed cadavers was conducted to damage from impact to the crown of the head. The crown investigate thoracic...PA 1509 ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers SEE: Society of Environmental Erigineers 0_ United Engineering Center Owles Hall. Buntingf ord

  20. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 12 (United States)


    with the Relaps/MODI code to celaa- leaethe respo of a PWR pressrizer safety valve duringsa sturated steamcdischarg transient and a water wel discarg...Sons Ltd. LU3 3BL, UK Baff ins Lane Chichester, Sussex P019 IUD, England BROWN BOVERI REVIEW ( Brown Bavel Rev.) ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS Brown Boveri and Co...85 Brown , D ............ 288,399 Bhattacharya, S.K ......... 2453 Boresi, A.P ... .......... 590 Brown , D.L.. . . 1315, 1427, 1428, Bhatti, M

  1. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 6 (United States)


    vibra- tions over a wide range of strains. 83-1115 Rodiing of Slender Rigid Bodies Allowed to Uplift I.N. Psycharisand P.C. Jennings Div. of...Approach to Seianic Soil-Stnictuie Interaction Analysis Jen -Hwa Chen Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 161 pp (1982) DA8300453 Key Words...sample is demon- strated. The calculation method presented is based on mean slope of sequential Wohler curvet. This assures that the real fatigue

  2. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 18, Number 2 (United States)


    Performance Robert A. Mercer, assistant vice-president, Network Compatibility Characteristics of Hearing Aids under Simu- Plnning Center, Bell...Communications Research, Inc. lated In-Situ Working Conditions Robert H. Preuser, assistant vice-president, Brooklyn Union Gas Co. ANSI S3.36-1985 Methods...1), pp 15 1-153 (May 8, 1985) J. Sound Vib., =iZ (4), pp 588-594 (Oct 22, . - 2 figs, 2 refs 1985) 4 figs, 7 refs S.H. Tank and M.H. Kuok F.A.A

  3. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15. Number 1 (United States)


    Christensen, R.E. Dafoe , O.M. 83-27 Hanner, and M.E. Wells Automoble Impact Fores on Concrete Wall Panels EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID, Rept. No...Bertrand, M ........ 129 Dafoe , R.E ............... 29 Gridley, D ............... 233 Bezine, G ........ 112 Datko, J.T ............... 132 Griffin, ONM

  4. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 17, Number 9 (United States)


    results of research work on cylinders Lehrstuhl f. Konstruktive Gestaltung, Mies - excited to oscillate by flow within unbaffled van-der- Rohe Str. 1, 51...Nondeformable Mis - Implications for Man, Texas Tech Univ., siles," Nucl. Engrg. Des., 71, pp 79-88 Lubbock (June 1976). (1982). 19. Chang, W.S., "Impact of...the rotor-bearing process. interactions are discussed. Some of the operational difficulties associated with mis - alignments are described and the

  5. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 12 (United States)


    Technik Berlin, German Dem. Rep. PEINWERKTECHNIK UND HESSTECHNIK (Peinwerktech. u. Messtech.) Carl Hanser Verlag Kolbergerstr. 22 D-8000 München...Friedmann, P 1228 Friedrich , G 1402 Friesel , M.A 506 Fritzen, C.-P 1691 Frohrib, D.A 521 Froriep, R 2413 Fu, Chung C 1200 Fu, Hao-Jen...Galloping 677, 1093 Green function 48, 259, 1422, 1425 Grids (beam grids) 617, 2208 Gas i- ir ig i 1397 Grids (beams) 1417 Gauss

  6. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 1 (United States)


    transfer matrix methods, and an matrices; the elements are assembled into the integral evaluation of the Gauss -Lagrange scheme complete FE. Frequencies...measurements. simnierung and Auswahl vn Abgasschalldampferu fur gromere Dieselmotoren) -.F. Fleischer Friedrich -Ebert-Strasse 38, D-6945 Hirschberg 1 86-60 MTZ...Feinwerktech. u. Messtech.) INGENIEUR-ARGHIV Carl Hanser Verlag (Ing.-Arch.) Postfach 860420 Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. D-8000 Munchen 86 44 Hartz

  7. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 11, (United States)


    pulc Dht~buUioO Unliited EDITORS RATTLE SPACE PRODUCTIVITY IN ENGINEERING In these times of inflation engineers are increasingly called upon to...comment on. Everyone -- engineers included -- suffers from the "I’ll do it myself" syndrome . Perhaps this trait arises from previous failures in...also studied by rate in representing these modes, partly because of Walker [15] using quadrilateral , finite shell elements; the warping of cross

  8. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 12 (United States)


    34small." The extending the analysis from simple laboratory test specimens familiar reed vibrometer exemplifies a small resonant sub- to treat more...mltd qualifications, a specially designed test fixture was founddetermining the capacitance of the hydrophone. Amplitude transmission ratios greater

  9. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14. Number 6 (United States)


    Interface T. Akiyoshi Dept. of Civil Engrg., Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto 860, Japan, Earthquake Engrg. Struc. Dyn., 1£ (1), pp 135-148 (Jan-Feb 1982) 13...and J.R. Baumgarten Mech. Engrg. Dept., Stevens Inst. of Tech., Castle Point Station, Hoboken, NJ 07030, J. Appl. Me- chanics, Trans. ASME, 48 (4

  10. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 12 (United States)


    discrete data, and applications. The next chapter covers autore - including spectral estimation and the effects of -- gressive moving average models (ARMA...603 Elsentraut, O.K ............ 1629 Derecho , A.T ................ 134 Dowdell, J.K ............... 1217 Elshima, K

  11. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 10, Number 12 (United States)


    W.D. PilkeyR.L. Bort A. Semmelink EDITORS J.D.C. Crisp E. SevinC.L. Dym J.G. Showalter D.J. Johns R.A. Skop G.H. Klein C.B. Smith A publication of K.E... Ishiyama , H ............. 1445 Jones, D.I.G ............. 974 1696 Ito, H ............. 1289,1337 Jones, N ............... 1124 Howes, H.E...EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING Earthquake ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND DESIGN Engr. Matl. AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Engr. Struc. IPC Industrial Press Ltd. Des. John

  12. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15. Number 2 (United States)


    i mg^wmmmmmt ■■„••",-»- BOOK REVIEWS STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS-AN INTRO- DUCTION TO COMPUTER METHODS R.R. Craig.Jr. John Wiley & Sons, New...Schenectady, NY 12345 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS-AN INTRO- DUCTION TO COMPUTER METHODS R.R. Craig,Jr. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY 1981, 527 pages...Bodies and Criteria for Overturning by Earthquake Excitations Y. Ishiyama 83-251 Reliability Procedure for Fixed Offshore Platfoims W.D. Anderson

  13. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 4. (United States)


    Chairman for this meeting which I expect to be an out- standing forum on environmental technology. Thanks to Hank Caruso , the tech- nical program where neutron Irradiation effects are signifi- 21 cant. One of the problems discussed is irradiation- of noise sources in machinery, and noise...program, planned by Mr. Henry TAILORING FOR ELECTRONIC HARDWARE Caruso of Westinghouse Electric Co., is scheduled as a series of interdisciplinary

  14. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 3 (United States)


    sessions. ROTORDYNAMIC INSTABILITY PROBLEMS IN HIGH.PERFORMANCETURBOMACHINERY Contact: Michael L. Drake, Jessee Philips Center Dates: May 28-30, 1984...noise, Noise measurement and H. Knoche Army Aeromedical Res. Lab., Fort Rucker, AL, A noise measurement survey of helicopter operations was Rept. No...435 Gay, D ................. 507 Knabe, W ............... 482 Chamis, C.C .............. 493 Ghosh, P.K ............... 432 Knoche , H

  15. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 11 (United States)


    Computer Programs ..... 98 Human ..............58 Circuit Breakers) .... 77 Generators ........... 78 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS. 58 GENERAL TOPICS... evoutional approaches to the solution of suspen- sion bridge dynamic problems, the latter was studied in more detail and It was concluded t" ,t both...bleed orifice, isentropic compression process, single degree of freedom piston-cylinder dynamics, and the energy-equive- HUMAN lent linear damping

  16. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 5 (United States)


    analysis of rubber- Palmer [43, 44] considered the properties of mate- textile structures and a large body of experimental rials used in flat belt drives...Random Centre of Mechanics and Materials of the Technical Excitation at a Point Univ. of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Tecnico , Av. C.V.R. Reddy, N

  17. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17, Number 4 (United States)


    element technique Tokyo Univ., Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan The objective of the study is to assess the Bull. JSME, Z (232), pp 2249-2257 (Oct...are exam- STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS pies of such systems. The analysis is re- stricted to systems of straight linearly elastic bars of constant sections

  18. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 7 (United States)


    modes. FIAT Auto S.p.A. - Direzione Tecnica - Sviluppo This paper presents the details of a modal test and analysis and the results of Univ. of California, Irvine, CA, Intl. J. Earthquake"""Ungrv. oftCalifrna, Irvine, CA, pnl 179-206 E ar e This paper describes the causes of...Equipment response, Signal processing tech- J.G. Gimenez and L.1. Carrascosa niques, Modal tests, Finite element technique, Seismic Escuela Tecnica Superior

  19. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 6 (United States)


    Proposal M. Filippi and R. Pompoli Istituto di Fisica Tecnica e Impianti Nucleari, Poli- tecnico, Corso Duca degli Abru/zi No. 24, Turin, Italy...annoyance due to high level low frequency noise, the use of the Per- ceived Noise Level ( PNL ) in PNdB was considered. It was found that the PNL include lower frequencies down to the 26 Hij octave band was superior to the standard PNL . 81-1232 Relationihip between Track Ride Quality and

  20. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14, Number 8 (United States)


    Basic Concepts: a two- 41 ■(M*M».-.Tf.:v-- day heuristic overview of the fundamentall of under- water acoustics, including general acoustics, sonar...process ere examined. 82-1622 Coupled WaBa in EuHupiike-Retistant Buildiap: Parametric Investigation and Deagn Procedure M. Saatcioglu, A.T. Derecho ...Stracturai Wals. De- velopment of Design Procedure • Design Force Levels A.T. Derecho , M. Iqbal, S.K. Ghosh, M. Fintel, and W.G. Corley Construction

  1. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17. Number 6 (United States)


    the of the New Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank- Environment, Garston, Watford WD2 7JR, ing Corporation Headquarters, Hong Kong UK M.R. Willford Engrg...and Dynamic Bvalua- tionas for a Maglev Vehicle with a Com- bined Lift and Guidance Suspension System W. Kortuim, A. Utzt 85-1111 DFVLR, Inst. for...Solo Sommario, Na- ( MAGLEV ) control law design based on ples, pp 25-28 (Oct 1983), N84-27732 (In design models and dynamic simulations with Italian

  2. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 8, (United States)


    55 refs Key Words: Helicopter rotors, Rotor (machine elements), A. Numazawa , S. Kubo, Y. Shindo, and S. Moroto Noise reduction, Noise generation Toyota...Ioi, T ................. 1898 Leftheris, B.P ............ 1836 Numazawa , A ........... 1759 Irie, T ................. 1858 Legendre, P.J

  3. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 12, (United States)


    611 Nozick, H.J.............. 939 Oskard, M .S .. ..... ... 2437 Nettleton, R.H ........... 2650 Numazawa , A ........... 1759 Osman, M.M...H.J .............. 939 Oskard, M.S ............. 2437 Nettleton, R.H ........... 2650 Numazawa , A ........... 1759 Osman, M.M ............ 2688

  4. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14, Number 12 (United States)


    Recommendations for Field Meamranents of Air- Exterior Noise Fields. Phase 2: Models for Sidewall craft Noise Trim, Stiffened Structures and Cabin Acoustics with...engine structures and cabin acoustics with floor partition are devel- parameters and atmospheric conditions. Recommendations oped. Validation studies

  5. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 1 (United States)


    Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivabil- ity. 8444 At . * Interior Noise Models: Sidewall Trim, Stiff- en. ’ ’ auctures, and Cabin Acoustics with Floor...considered for inclusion of sidewall trim, stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition. For validation purposes, predictions of the noise

  6. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 5. (United States)


    squeeze - film damper bearings of various configurations. The analysts in this report is...Japan, Bull. form design. JSME, 22 (173), pp 1678-1684 (Nov 1979) 13 figs, 3 refs Key Words: Squeeze film bearings , Squeeze film dampers , iterativeMECHANICAL SYSTEMS process using amplitude dependent linearized squeeze film damper parameters. ROTATING MACHINES (Also see Nos.

  7. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 16, Number 10 (United States)


    bearing technology in including turbogenerator rotors, bow behavior, the design, development and diagnostics of industrial squeeze - film dampers for... Squeeze film bearings , Flu,d .nduced ARO-17064.7-EG, 28 pp (Jan 1984) excitation AD-A138 054 Direct measurements of damper forces are presented fur the...of Uncentralized Squeeze Film This results in bearing raceways that are low in structural Dampers stiffness. They can conform to the structural

  8. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 7 (United States)


    Degrees-of-Freedon filled annulli of squeeze film and journal bearings so as to K. Matsuura model the transient response of rotor- bearing -stator...An Adaptive Squeeze - Film Bearing C.R. Burrows, M.N. Sahinkaya, and O.S. Turkay 84-1420 Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, J. Tribology, Theory and...and R.C. Murphy Ingersoll-Rand Co., Phillipsburg, NJ 08865, J. Vib., Key Words: Berings, Squeeze film dampers , Squeeze film Acoust., Stress, Rel. Des

  9. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 7, (United States)


    initial Analytical and experimental investigation with the operation of large Deriaz pumps have been studied squeeze - film damper [15, 16] showed the...existence (251; a procedure for satisfactory operation is de- of an intershaft viscous damper instability. The scribed. squeeze - film damper was explored...analytically and experimentally at an intershaft bearing location. It was shown that the rotating squeeze - film generates Compressors. The increasing use

  10. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 11 (United States)


    including turbogenerator rotors, bow behavior, AZ 85018 - (602) 945-4603/946-7333. squeeze - film dampers for turbomachinery, advanced concepts in... squeeze - film J.P. Bandstra dampers . Div. of Engrg. Tech., Univ. of Pittsburgh at Johns- town, Johnstown, PA 15904, J. Vib. Acoust. Stress 4 Rel. Des...analysis; and machinery characteristics. The include gears, bearings (fluid film and antifriction), techniques will be illustrated with case histories

  11. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14, Number 11 (United States)


    Squeez Film Damper Bearing 82-2294 J.A. Palladino and T.W. Gray Understand Criticd Speed of Pumps to... Bearings , Squeeze film dampers Key Words: Pumps, Critical speeds This pop demonstrates that the use of a plain, uncentral- lried, squeOre film dumper to... film ref s damper with linear centering spring. The damper fluid fore figs, are determined from the short bearing , cavitated solution of (In

  12. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 4 (United States)


    Lambert Mr. Donald Bettge. P.E. Mr. Larry D. Mardis Mr. Robert L. Bort Mr. James M. McAvoy v , Mr. Arthur D. Carlson Mr. David McCalley Mr. Thomas G. Came...33 Underground Structures ........ 35 DYNAMIC ENVIi CIUNT .............. 5" Harbors and Dams .............. 35 Acoustic Excitation...WORDS: Dams , Hydrodynamic excitation, ism Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA Finite Element technique Nucl. Engrg. Des., 8l (1), pp 65-69 (Feb 1985

  13. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 17, Number 11 (United States)


    Blahs Gwen M. Wassilak BOARD OF EDITORS R.L. Bort W.D. Pilkey J.D.C. Crisp H.C. Pusey D.J. Johns E. Sevin B.N. Leis R.A. Skop K.E. McKee R.H. Volin...effectively stiffen the plate. Nonlinear dynamic analy- Increased attention to the impact- dam - sea of thin orthotropic plates are summa- age problem rized in...35 Ducts.......................... 66 Harbors and Dams .............. 37 Building Components........... 67 Power Plants.................. 37

  14. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 8 (United States)


    Subject to an Axial Force and Carrying Con- centrated Masses P.A.A, Laura, P. Verniere de Irassar, andG.M. Ficca- denti Inst. of Appl. Mech., Puerto...principle and measures continuously the vertical displacement with a 10 micrometer precision. In addition, the oil pressure in a significant bearing

  15. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 17, Number 8 (United States)


    Experimental modal analysis, A wood frame test house, built in the path Cooling towers , Wind -induced excitation of an advancing surface coal mine, was...Deflection of Partially Prestressed Concrete S.A. Kaba, S.A. Mahin Beams Under Sustained and Cyclic Fatigue Univ. of California, Richmond, CA Loadings Rept...DA8420408 KEY WORDS: Columns, Reinforced con- crete, Seismic analysis KEY WORDS: Beams, Prestressed concrete , Cyclic loading, Fatigue life The report

  16. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14. Number 3 (United States)


    problems. By far the most impor- tant part of this report is Chapter 5, which contains some recommended changes in MIL -STD-810 and related specifications... Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Bull. JSME,2d (195), pp 1626-1633 (Sept 1981) 20 figs, 5 refs PIPES AND TUBES 82-673 Experiments on Fluid Elastic

  17. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 4 (United States)


    concern are telephone switching centres, electrical «witchgeer stations, hospitals and similar utilities and public services. This peper examines the...Analysis Y.W. Lukand L.D.Mitchell Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacks - burg, VA, ASME Paper No. 79-DE-E-4 Key Words: Computer

  18. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 11 (United States)


    Transverse Variation U.S. Stevens, H.F. Tietsten Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy , NY J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 21 (6), pp 1811...X.S 2286 Garne , T.G 2228 Castagna, ) 2258 Gathers, B 2272 Chalhoub, B.G 2184 Chan, R.K 2195 Chang, I.C 2355 Chang, I.-J 2252, 2266

  19. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17, Number 2 (United States)


    34 Bull. (261) Yamaguchi, R ., "Changes in Water Seismol. Soc. Amer., 1 (1), pp 211-222 Level at Funabara and Kakigi before the * (1981). Izu-Hanto-Toho-Oki...been considered, as has the seis- mutual gravitation of its own parts. Let . ’ mic analysis of a structure subjected to Ur U( r ) be the symmetrical radial...technique has been used to compute the nonlinear behav- (1) err= U/ r , e,0= U/ r , e U/ r ior of reinforced concrete planar structures during earthquakes

  20. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 17, Number 12 (United States)


    stationary variable in most situa- central limit theorem guarantees the nor- tions, it can be treated by a Fourier trans- mality of the distribution. The...KEY WORDS: Automobiles, Design tech- of Autobuses niques, Computer aided techniques P. Michelberger, A. Keresztes, S. Horvath The Technical Univ. of...turbulent lubrication equation with inertia effects to the centrally pivoted 2-pads journal beatings, the dynamic oil film 85-2524 forces are obtained

  1. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 8 (United States)


    by this Acoustic Ranging Techniqe with Application to analysis. Asseemnent of Low-Frequency Acoustic Noise of ,. I Wind Turbines R. Hemphill Solar ...Energy Res. Inst., Golden, CO, (Pres. at the Wind/ Solar Energy Conf., Kansas City, MO, Apr 25, 41570 1983), Rept. No. SERI/TP-215-1954, CONF-830432...adequacy of data and methods available for the Key Words: Safety restraint systems, Wheelchairs , Testing exploration of solutions, techniques

  2. Force limited vibration testing: an evaluation of the computation of C2 for real load and probabilistic source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijker, Jacob J; de Boer, Andries; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria


    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the load (test item), is a

  3. Vibrational Scattering Anisotropy Generated by Multichannel Quantum Interference (United States)

    Miron, Catalin; Kimberg, Victor; Morin, Paul; Nicolas, Christophe; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Gavrilyuk, Sergey; Gel'Mukhanov, Faris


    Based on angularly and vibrationally resolved electron spectroscopy measurements in acetylene, we report the first observation of anomalously strong vibrational anisotropy of resonant Auger scattering through the C 1s→π* excited state. We provide a theoretical model explaining the new phenomenon by three coexisting interference effects: (i) interference between resonant and direct photoionization channels, (ii) interference of the scattering channels through the core-excited bending states with orthogonal orientation of the molecular orbitals, (iii) scattering through two wells of the double-well bending mode potential. The interplay of nuclear and electronic motions offers in this case a new type of nuclear wave packet interferometry sensitive to the anisotropy of nuclear dynamics: whether which-path information is available or not depends on the final vibrational state serving for path selection.

  4. Vibration Properties of a Steel-PMMA Composite Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang He


    Full Text Available A steel-polymethyl methacrylate (steel-PMMA beam was fabricated to investigate the vibration properties of a one-dimensional phononic crystal structure. The experimental system included an excitation system, a signal acquisition system, and a data analysis and processing system. When an excitation signal was exerted on one end of the beam, the signals of six response points were collected with acceleration sensors. Subsequent signal analysis showed that the beam was attenuated in certain frequency ranges. The lumped mass method was then used to calculate the bandgap of the phononic crystal beam to analyze the vibration properties of a beam made of two different materials. The finite element method was also employed to simulate the vibration of the phononic crystal beam, and the simulation results were consistent with theoretical calculations. The existence of the bandgap was confirmed experimentally and theoretically, which allows for the potential applications of phononic crystals, including wave guiding and filtering, in integrated structures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Аliavdin


    Full Text Available The paper contains investigations on element vibration of a real residential 9-storeyed reinforced-concrete frame building induced by train movement in the shallow subway. A design model for a problem on propagation of bending waves within the limits of the typical fragment of a skeleton is presented in the paper. The steady state vibrations of a column and reinforced-concrete slab induced by an excited force which is equivalent to the impact of the subway trains have been investigated in the paper. The problem has been solved numerically on the basis of the ANSYS FEA program. Numerical results have been compared with an approximate analytical solution and data on full-scale experiment. A prediction technique for vibration propagation in the designed buildings is offered in the paper. 

  6. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik


    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. During the last months, extensive testing has started...

  7. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik


    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. In the period May 2003 to January 2005 an extensive...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  9. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Fano-Like Resonance between Optical Phonon and Excitons in CdSe Quantum Dots: Dependence of Coherent Vibrational Wave-Packet Dynamics on Pump Fluence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Nadtochenko


    Full Text Available The main goal of the present work is to study the coherent phonon in strongly confined CdSe quantum dots (QDs under varied pump fluences. The main characteristics of coherent phonons (amplitude, frequency, phase, spectrogram of CdSe QDs under the red-edge pump of the excitonic band [1S(e-1S3/2(h] are reported. We demonstrate for the first time that the amplitude of the coherent optical longitudinal-optical (LO phonon at 6.16 THz excited in CdSe nanoparticles by a femtosecond unchirped pulse shows a non-monotone dependence on the pump fluence. This dependence exhibits the maximum at pump fluence ~0.8 mJ/cm2. At the same time, the amplitudes of the longitudinal acoustic (LA phonon mode at 0.55 THz and of the coherent wave packet of toluene at 15.6, 23.6 THz show a monotonic rise with the increase of pump fluence. The time frequency representation of an oscillating signal corresponding to LO phonons revealed by continuous wavelet transform (CWT shows a profound destructive quantum interference close to the origin of distinct (optical phonon and continuum-like (exciton quasiparticles. The CWT spectrogram demonstrates a nonlinear chirp at short time delays, where the chirp sign depends on the pump pulse fluence. The CWT spectrogram reveals an anharmonic coupling between optical and acoustic phonons.

  10. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Fano-Like Resonance between Optical Phonon and Excitons in CdSe Quantum Dots: Dependence of Coherent Vibrational Wave-Packet Dynamics on Pump Fluence. (United States)

    Nadtochenko, Victor; Denisov, Nikolay; Aybush, Arseniy; Gostev, Fedor; Shelaev, Ivan; Titov, Andrey; Umanskiy, Stanislav; Cherepanov, And Dmitry


    The main goal of the present work is to study the coherent phonon in strongly confined CdSe quantum dots (QDs) under varied pump fluences. The main characteristics of coherent phonons (amplitude, frequency, phase, spectrogram) of CdSe QDs under the red-edge pump of the excitonic band [1S(e)-1S 3/2 (h)] are reported. We demonstrate for the first time that the amplitude of the coherent optical longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon at 6.16 THz excited in CdSe nanoparticles by a femtosecond unchirped pulse shows a non-monotone dependence on the pump fluence. This dependence exhibits the maximum at pump fluence ~0.8 mJ/cm². At the same time, the amplitudes of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon mode at 0.55 THz and of the coherent wave packet of toluene at 15.6, 23.6 THz show a monotonic rise with the increase of pump fluence. The time frequency representation of an oscillating signal corresponding to LO phonons revealed by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) shows a profound destructive quantum interference close to the origin of distinct (optical phonon) and continuum-like (exciton) quasiparticles. The CWT spectrogram demonstrates a nonlinear chirp at short time delays, where the chirp sign depends on the pump pulse fluence. The CWT spectrogram reveals an anharmonic coupling between optical and acoustic phonons.

  11. Vibrational study, first hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO analyses on the structure of 2-hydroxy-6-nitro toluene (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M.; Thilagavathi, G.


    Vibrational spectral measurements, namely, FT-infrared (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (3500-50 cm-1) spectra have been made for 2-hydroxy-6-nitrotoluene (HNT) and assigned to different normal modes of the molecule. Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies intensities and vibrational wavenumbers of HNT were carried out by ab initio HF and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The differences between the observed and scaled wave number values of most of the fundamentals are very small. The values of the total dipole moment (μ) and first hyperpolarizability (β) of the investigated molecule were computed by using ab initio HF and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results also show that the HNT molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of HNT is also reported based on total energy distribution (TED). The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The results of the calculations were applied to simulated infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which showed excellent agreement with the observed spectra.

  12. Wireless Module for Sensing Superficial Vibrations of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon R. Fulla


    Full Text Available In the present work, the feasibility of implementing the XBee technology in wireless accelerometric sensors (WAS development for sensing of elastic waves on soils surface is analyzed. The incidence of distance and obstacles between a coordinator and end-device pair in their radio link by examining the number of packets received successfully was verified. Additionally, it was investigated the influence of the transmission rate over the sampling frequency of signals associated to mechanical vibrations from a testing ground by measuring the effective sampling periods of the "A / D Conversion - Transmission" process. The data reception errors introduced by the channel attenuation and the presence of obstacles, impose severe restrictions on the maximum allowable distance between the communication modules. The transmission rate features provided by XBee technology in association with the A / D time sampling of the microcontroller, allow to carry out recordings to a maximum sampling frequency of 1 kHz , useful for real-time applications where seismic signals are into the spectral range 0 to 500 Hz. In order to increase the sampling frequency of the sensor for prospection applications with signals with bandwidths greater than 500 Hz , it was successfully tested a prototype that uses a fast external memory for storing data, which significantly improves the sampling signal allowing to retake XBee technology due to its excellent low consumption features.

  13. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino


    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  14. A Detailed Level Kinetics Model of NO Vibrational Energy Distributions (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Gilmore, John; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)


    Several contemporary problems have pointed to the desirability of a detailed level kinetics approach to modeling the distribution of vibrational energy in NO. Such a model is necessary when vibrational redistribution reactions are insufficient to maintain a Boltzmann distribution over the vibrational energy states. Recent calculations of the rate constant for the first reaction of the Zeldovich mechanism (N2 + O (goes to) NO + N) have suggested that the product NO is formed in high vibrational states. In shock layer flowfields, the product NO molecules may experience an insufficient number of collisions to establish a Boltzmann distribution over vibrational states, thus necessitating a level kinetics model. In other flows, such as expansions of high temperature air, fast, near-resonance vibrational energy exchanges with N2 and O2 may also require a level specific model for NO because of the relative rates of vibrational exchange and redistribution. The proposed report will integrate computational and experimental components to construct such a model for the NO molecule.

  15. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten


    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...

  16. Analysis of vibrational-translational energy transfer using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (United States)

    Boyd, Iain D.


    A new model is proposed for energy transfer between the vibrational and translational modes for use in the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The model modifies the Landau-Teller theory for a harmonic oscillator and the rate transition is related to an experimental correlation for the vibrational relaxation time. Assessment of the model is made with respect to three different computations: relaxation in a heat bath, a one-dimensional shock wave, and hypersonic flow over a two-dimensional wedge. These studies verify that the model achieves detailed balance, and excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained in the shock wave calculation. The wedge flow computation reveals that the usual phenomenological method for simulating vibrational nonequilibrium in the DSMC technique predicts much higher vibrational temperatures in the wake region.

  17. Thickness vibrations of a piezoelectric plate with dissipation. (United States)

    Lee, Peter C Y; Liu, Ninghui; Ballato, Arthur


    The three-dimensional (3-D) equations of linear piezoelectricity with quasi-electrostatic approximation are extended to include losses attributed to the acoustic viscosity and electrical conductivity. These equations are used to investigate effects of dissipation on the propagation of plane waves in an infinite solid and forced thickness vibrations in an infinite piezoelectric plate with general symmetry. For a harmonic plane wave propagating in an arbitrary direction in an unbounded solid, the complex eigenvalue problem is solved from which the effective elastic stiffness, viscosity, and conductivity are computed. For the forced thickness vibrations of an infinite plate, the complex coupling factor K*, input admittance Y are derived and an explicit, approximate expression for K* is obtained in terms of material properties. Effects of the viscosity and conductivity on the resonance frequency, modes, admittance, attenuation coefficient, dynamic time constant, coupling factor, and quality factor are calculated and examined for quartz and ceramic barium titanate plates.

  18. Worm-like instability of a vibrated sessile drop

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmerle, Arnaud; Bergeron, Vance; Charitat, Thierry; Farago, Jean


    We study the effects of vertical sinusoidal vibrations on a liquid droplet with a low surface tension (ethanol) deposited on a solid substrate. In a precise range of amplitudes and frequencies, the drop exhibits a dramatic worm-like shape instability with a strong symmetry breaking, comparable to the one observed by Pucci et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 024503) on a vibrated floating lens. However, the geometry of our system is much simpler since it does not involve the oscillation and deformation of a liquid-liquid-air contact line. We show that the Faraday waves appearing on the surface of the droplet control its shape and we draw a systematic phase diagram of the instability. A simple theoretical model allows us to derive a relation between the elongation of the droplet and the amplitude of the Faraday wave, in good agreement with measurements of both quantities.

  19. MR Detection of Mechanical Vibrations Using a Radiofrequency Field Gradient (United States)

    Baril, Nathalie; Lewa, Czeslaw Jozef; de Certaines, Jacques Donald; Canioni, Paul; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Thiaudière, Eric


    A new method for NMR characterization of mechanical waves, based upon radiofrequency field gradient for motion encoding, is proposed. A binomial B1 gradient excitation scheme was used to visualize the mobile spins undergoing a periodic transverse mechanical excitation. A simple model was designed to simulate the NMR signal as a function of the wave frequency excitation and the periodicity of the NMR pulse sequence. The preliminary results were obtained on a gel phantom at low vibration frequencies (0-200 Hz) by using a ladder-shaped coil generating a nearly constant RF field gradient along a specific known direction. For very small displacements and/or B1 gradients, the NMR signal measured on a gel phantom was proportional to the vibration amplitude and the pulse sequence was shown to be selective with respect to the vibration frequency. A good estimation of the direction of vibrations was obtained by varying the angle between the motion direction and the B1 gradient. The method and its use in parallel to more conventional MR elastography techniques are discussed. The presented approach might be of interest for noninvasive investigation of elastic properties of soft tissues and other materials.

  20. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J. [Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leontini, J. S. [Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Lo Jacono, D. [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS, UPS and Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)


    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  1. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.


    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  2. Going Wave as a Model of Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Goryunov, A V


    The concept of going wave is introduced from classical positions (including the special relativity theory). One- and three-dimensional going waves considered with their wave equations and dispersion equations. It is shown that wave characteristics (de Broglie's and Compton's wavelengths) and corpuscular characteristics (energy-momentum vector and the rest mass) of particle may be expressed through parameters of going wave. By that the new view on a number concepts of physic related with particle-wave dualism is suggested.

  3. Love waves excited by a moving source (United States)

    Zaslavskii, Yu. M.


    The study analyzes the characteristics of surface Love waves excited by the moment of an oscillating torsional force with a point of action that moves uniformly and rectilinearly along the free flat boundary of a medium having the structure of a "layer on a half-space." The azimuthal-angular distribution of the amplitude and Doppler shift in frequency of the wave modes is studied as a function of the motion velocity of a vibrating source and the parameters of the medium.

  4. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge transfer processes in H+ + O2 collisions at collision energy 23 eV ... The Fritz Haber Research Centre and The Department of Physical Chemisry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 91904; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  5. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph


    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  6. Occupant traffic estimation through structural vibration sensing (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young


    The number of people passing through different indoor areas is useful in various smart structure applications, including occupancy-based building energy/space management, marketing research, security, etc. Existing approaches to estimate occupant traffic include vision-, sound-, and radio-based (mobile) sensing methods, which have placement limitations (e.g., requirement of line-of-sight, quiet environment, carrying a device all the time). Such limitations make these direct sensing approaches difficult to deploy and maintain. An indirect approach using geophones to measure floor vibration induced by footsteps can be utilized. However, the main challenge lies in distinguishing multiple simultaneous walkers by developing features that can effectively represent the number of mixed signals and characterize the selected features under different traffic conditions. This paper presents a method to monitor multiple persons. Once the vibration signals are obtained, features are extracted to describe the overlapping vibration signals induced by multiple footsteps, which are used for occupancy traffic estimation. In particular, we focus on analysis of the efficiency and limitations of the four selected key features when used for estimating various traffic conditions. We characterize these features with signals collected from controlled impulse load tests as well as from multiple people walking through a real-world sensing area. In our experiments, the system achieves the mean estimation error of +/-0.2 people for different occupant traffic conditions (from one to four) using k-nearest neighbor classifier.

  7. Vibrating soap films An analog for quantum chaos on billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Arcos, E; Cuatlayol, P A; Prian, M L H; Méndez-Sánchez, R A; Hernández-Saldaña, H


    We present an experimental setup based on the normal modes of vibrating soap films which shows quantum features of integrable and chaotic billiards. In particular, we obtain the so-called scars -narrow linear regions with high probability along classical periodic orbits- for the classically chaotic billiards. We show that these scars are also visible at low frequencies. Finally, we suggest some applications of our experimental setup in other related two-dimensional wave phenomena.

  8. Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich


    Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher

  9. Sagan numbers


    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.


    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  10. Algebraic Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watase Yasushige


    Full Text Available This article provides definitions and examples upon an integral element of unital commutative rings. An algebraic number is also treated as consequence of a concept of “integral”. Definitions for an integral closure, an algebraic integer and a transcendental numbers [14], [1], [10] and [7] are included as well. As an application of an algebraic number, this article includes a formal proof of a ring extension of rational number field ℚ induced by substitution of an algebraic number to the polynomial ring of ℚ[x] turns to be a field.

  11. Active Vibration Control of a Monopile Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Thesbjerg, L.


    of the fluid velocity relative to the platform, and only this quantity need to be measured, which is easily performed by a flow meter fixed to the platform. The efficiency of the described closed loop control system has been verified by model tests in a wave flume in both regular and irregular wave conditions......In the Danish part of the North Sea monopile platforms with a cylindrical shaft have been used at the exploitation of marginal fields. In the paper a new principle for active vibration control of such structures is suggested. The principle is based on a control of the boundary layer flow around...

  12. Free vibrations of multilayered composite plates. (United States)

    Noor, A. K.


    Summary of some of the results of a recent study of the reliability and range of validity of two-dimensional plate theories in application to low-frequency free vibration analysis of simply supported, bidirectional, multilayered plates consisting of a large number of layers. These results show that for composite plates the error in the predictions of the classical plate theory is strongly dependent on the number and stacking of the layers, in addition to the degree of orthotropy of the individual layers and the thickness ratio of the plate.

  13. A Novel Ropes-DrivenWideband Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH in which a high-frequency generating beam (HFGB is driven by an array of low-frequency driving beams (LFDBs using ropes. Two mechanisms based on frequency upconversion and multimodal harvesting work together to broaden the frequency bandwidth of the proposed vibration energy harvester (VEH. The experimental results show that the output power of generating beam (GB remains unchanged with the increasing number of driving beams (DBs, compared with the traditional arrays of beams vibration energy harvester (AB-VEH, and the output power and bandwidth behavior can be adjusted by parameters such as acceleration, rope margin, and stiffness of LFDBs, which shows the potential to achieve unlimited wideband vibration energy-harvesting for a variable environment.

  14. Literature survey on anti-vibration gloves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sampson, E


    Full Text Available ............................................................................................................... 1 2. HAND ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME (HAVS).......................................................... 2 2.1 Hand-arm vibration................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 2.2 Human Response to vibration...

  15. Magnetic circuit modifications in resonant vibration harvesters (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fiala, Pavel; Dohnal, Premysl


    The paper discusses the conclusions obtained from a research centered on a vibration-powered milli- or micro generator (MG) operating as a harvester to yield the maximum amount of energy transferred by the vibration of an independent system. The investigation expands on the results proposed within papers that theoretically define the properties characterizing the basic configurations of a generator based on applied Faraday's law of induction. We compared two basic principles of circuit closing in a magnetic circuit that, fully or partially, utilizes a ferromagnetic material, and a large number of generator design solutions were examined and tested. In the given context, the article brings a compact survey of the rules facilitating energy transformation and the designing of harvesters.

  16. Active isolation of vibrations with adaptive structures (United States)

    Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.; Wagstaff, P. R.


    Vibration transmission in structures is controlled by means of a technique which employs distributed arrays of piezoelectric transducers bonded to the supporting structure. Distributed PVDF piezoelectric strips are employed as error sensors, and a two-channel feedforward adaptive LMS algorithm is used for minimizing error signals and thereby controlling the structure. A harmonic force input excites a thick plate, and a receiving plate is configured with three pairs of piezoelectric actuators. Modal analyses are performed to determine the resonant frequencies of the system, and a scanning laser vibrometer is used to study the shape of the response of the receiving plate during excitation with and without the control algorithm. Efficient active isolation of the vibrations is achieved with modal suppression, and good control is noted in the on-resonance cases in which increased numbers of PVDF sensors and piezoelectric actuators are employed.

  17. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG


    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  18. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  19. Identification and modeling of internal waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M.M.M.; SujithKumar, S.; Maneesha, K.; Sandhya, K.S.; Prakash, S.S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    ,21pp823834. [6]MurthyP.G.KandG.R.KMurthy,1986:,?Acasestudyontheinfluenceof internal waves on sound propagation in the sea ?, Journal of Sound and Vibration,108(3),447 [7] Robinson. Allan.R. and Lee D., 1994 : ?Oceanography and Acoustics? AIP press...

  20. Short-term effects of vibration therapy on motor impairments in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    King, Lauren K; Almeida, Quincy J; Ahonen, Heidi


    Recent studies have suggested that vibration therapy may have a positive influence on motor symptoms in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, quantitative evidence of these benefits is scarce, and the concept of "whole-body" vibration in these studies is vague. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the influence of vibration on motor symptoms and functional measures in PD by delivering sound waves to the entire body. We delivered whole body sound wave vibration to 40 individuals with PD using a Physioacoustic Chair, a piece of equipment with speakers spaced throughout the chair permitting a series of programmed low frequency sound waves through the body. Using a parallel cross-over design we utilized the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), quantitative gait assessments, and a grooved pegboard for upper limb control. Improvements were seen in all symptom, motor control and functional outcome measures at the time of assessment. Specifically, a significant decrease in rigidity, and tremor were shown, as well as a significant increase in step length and improved speed on the grooved pegboard task. Results of this initial investigation provide support for vibration therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment alternative. Long-term benefits of vibration therapy will require further research.

  1. Off-resonant vibrational excitation: Orientational dependence and spatial control of photofragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machholm, Mette; Henriksen, Niels Engholm


    -dependent response to the IR fields is due to the anharmonicity of the potential. A subsequent ultraviolet laser pulse in resonance at the outer turning point of the vibrational motion can then dissociate the oscillating molecules, all with the same orientation, leading to spatial control of the photofragment......Off-resonant and resonant vibrational excitation with short intense infrared (IR) laser pulses creates localized oscillating wave packets, but differs by the efficiency of the excitation and surprisingly by the orientational dependence. Orientational selectivity of the vibrational excitation...

  2. Magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation of tunable three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Tong, Jie; Wu, Fugen


    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are used as cladding in three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial (LRAM) cores. The metamaterial units are combined into a vibration isolator. Two types of LRAMs, namely, cubic and spherical kernels, are constructed. The finite element method is used to analyze the elastic band structures, transmittances, and vibration modes of the incident elastic waves. Results show that the central position and width of the LRAM elastic bandgap can be controlled by the application of an external magnetic field; furthermore, they can be adjusted by changing the MRE cladding thickness. These methods contribute to the design of metamaterial MRE vibration isolators.

  3. Influence of dynamic soil-structure interaction on building response to ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    must be used. In this regard it is often assumed that a no significant back coupling from the building to the ground exists. Thus, a model with free-field vibrations from the ground provides input at the base of the building model. The aim of the present paper is to examine whether—and to which extent......Vibration from traffic and pile driving are an increasing problem in densely populated areas. To assess vibration levels in new or existing buildings near construction sites, roads or railways in the design phase, valid models for prediction of wave transmission via the ground and into a building...

  4. Wind-Induced Vibration Control of Dalian International Trade Mansion by Tuned Liquid Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Nan Li


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the wind-induced vibration control of the Dalian international trade mansion (DITM by using the tuned liquid dampers (TLDs. To avoid the intensive computationally demanding problem caused by tens of thousand of degrees of freedom (DOF of the structure in the numerical analysis, the three-dimension finite element model of the DITM is first simplified to the equivalent series multi-DOF system. The wind loading is subsequently simulated by the Davenport model according to the structural environmental condition where the actual samples of wind speed are measured. Following that, the shallow- and deep-water wave theories are applied to model the liquid sloshing inside TLDs, the tank sizing, and required water depth, and numbers of TLDs are given according to the numerical results of different cases. Comparisons between uncontrolled and controlled displacement and acceleration responses of the DITM under wind forces show that the designed shallow tank has higher efficiency than the deep one, which can effectively reduce the structural response amplitudes and enhance the comfortableness of the mansion. The preliminary TLD design procedure presented in this paper could be applied as a reference to the analysis and design of the wind-induced vibration for high-rise buildings using the TLD.

  5. A Framework for Occupancy Tracking in a Building via Structural Dynamics Sensing of Footstep Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Poston


    Full Text Available Counting the number of occupants in building areas over time—occupancy tracking—provides valuable information for responding to emergencies, optimizing thermal conditions or managing personnel. This capability is distinct from tracking individual building occupants as they move within a building, has lower complexity than conventional tracking algorithms require, and avoids privacy concerns that tracking individuals may pose. The approach proposed here is a novel combination of data analytics applied to measurements from a building’s structural dynamics sensors (e.g., accelerometers or geophones. Specifically, measurements of footstep-generated structural waves provide evidence of occupancy in a building area. These footstep vibrations can be distinguished from other vibrations, and, once identified, the footsteps can be located. These locations, in turn, form the starting point of estimating occupancy in an area. In order to provide a meaningful occupancy count, however, it is first necessary to associate discrete footsteps with individuals. The proposed framework incorporates a tractable algorithm for this association task. The proposed algorithms operate online, updating occupancy count over time as new footsteps are detected. Experiments with measurements from a public building illustrate the operation of the proposed framework. This approach offers an advantage over others based on conventional technologies by avoiding the cost of a separate sensor system devoted to occupancy tracking.

  6. Observation of the low frequency vibrational modes of bacteriophage M13 in water by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen Shaw-Wei D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a technique which departs radically from conventional approaches has been proposed. This novel technique utilizes biological objects such as viruses as nano-templates for the fabrication of nanostructure elements. For example, rod-shaped viruses such as the M13 phage and tobacco mosaic virus have been successfully used as biological templates for the synthesis of semiconductor and metallic nanowires. Results and discussion Low wave number (≤ 20 cm-1 acoustic vibrations of the M13 phage have been studied using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations based on an elastic continuum model and appropriate Raman selection rules derived from a bond polarizability model. The observed Raman mode has been shown to belong to one of the Raman-active axial torsion modes of the M13 phage protein coat. Conclusion It is expected that the detection and characterization of this low frequency vibrational mode can be used for applications in nanotechnology such as for monitoring the process of virus functionalization and self-assembly. For example, the differences in Raman spectra can be used to monitor the coating of virus with some other materials and nano-assembly process, such as attaching a carbon nanotube or quantum dots.

  7. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle


    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  8. The origins of vibration theory (United States)

    Dimarogonas, A. D.


    The Ionian School of natural philosophy introduced the scientific method of dealing with natural phenomena and the rigorous proofs for abstract propositions. Vibration theory was initiated by the Pythagoreans in the fifth century BC, in association with the theory of music and the theory of acoustics. They observed the natural frequency of vibrating systems and proved that it is a system property and that it does not depend on the excitation. Pythagoreans determined the fundamental natural frequencies of several simple systems, such as vibrating strings, pipes, vessels and circular plates. Aristoteles and the Peripatetic School founded mechanics and developed a fundamental understanding of statics and dynamics. In Alexandrian times there were substantial engineering developments in the field of vibration. The pendulum as a vibration, and probably time, measuring device was known in antiquity, and was further developed by the end of the first millennium AD.

  9. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing


    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  10. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  11. Heat Waves (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  12. Caustics of atmospheric waves (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A.


    Much like light and sound, acoustic-gravity waves in inhomogeneous atmosphere often have a caustic or caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Increase of the wave magnitude in the vicinity of a caustic makes such vicinities of primary interest in a number of problems, where a signal needs to be separated from a background noise. The value of wave focusing near caustics should be carefully quantified in order to evaluate possible nonlinearities promoted by the focusing. Physical understanding of the wave field in the vicinity of a caustic is also important for understanding of the wave reflection from and transmission (tunneling) through the caustic. To our knowledge, in contrast to caustics of acoustic, electromagnetic, and seismic waves as well as gravity waves in incompressible fluids, asymptotics of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of a caustic have never been studied systematically. In this paper, we fill this gap. Atmospheric waves are considered as linear acoustic-gravity waves in a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Air temperature and wind velocity are assumed to be gradually varying functions of height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. The scale height of the atmosphere can be large or small compared to the vertical wavelength. It is found that the uniform asymptotics of the wave field in the presence of a simple caustic can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. As for the acoustic waves, the argument of the Airy function is expressed in terms of the eikonal calculated in the ray, or WKB, approximation. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the uniform asymptotics, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by cosine

  13. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.


    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  14. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  15. Wave propagation and impact in composite materials (United States)

    Moon, F. C.


    Anisotropic waves in composites are considered, taking into account wave speeds, wave surfaces, flexural waves in orthotropic plates, surface waves, edge waves in plates, and waves in coupled composite plates. Aspects of dispersion in composites are discussed, giving attention to pulse propagation and dispersion, dispersion in rods and plates, dispersion in a layered composite, combined material and structural dispersion, continuum theories for composites, and variational methods for periodic composites. The characteristics of attenuation and scattering processes are examined and a description is given of shock waves and impact problems in composites. A number of experiments are also reported.

  16. Granular Media-Based Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor (United States)

    Dillon, Robert P.; Davis, Gregory L.; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Borgonia, John Paul C.; Kahn, Daniel L.; Boechler, Nicholas; Boechler,, Chiara


    and vibration suppression device is composed of statically compressed chains of spherical particles. The device superimposes a combination of dissipative damping and dispersive effects. The dissipative damping resulting from the elastic wave attenuation properties of the bulk material selected for the granular media is independent of particle geometry and periodicity, and can be accordingly designed based on the dissipative (or viscoelastic) properties of the material. For instance, a viscoelastic polymer might be selected where broadband damping is desired. In contrast, the dispersive effects result from the periodic arrangement and geometry of particles composing a linear granular chain. A uniform (monatomic) chain of statically compressed spherical particles will have a low-pass filter effect, with a cutoff frequency tunable as a function of particle mass, elastic modulus, Poisson fs ratio, radius, and static compression. Elastic waves with frequency content above this cutoff frequency will exhibit an exponential decay in amplitude as a function of propagation distance. System design targeting a specific application is conducted using a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to appropriately select the particle radii, material (and thus elastic modulus and Poisson fs ratio), and static compression to satisfy estimated requirements derived for shock and/or vibration protection needs under particular operational conditions. The selection of a chain of polymer spheres with an elastic modulus .3 provided the appropriate dispersive filtering effect for that exercise; however, different operational scenarios may require the use of other polymers, metals, ceramics, or a combination thereof, configured as an array of spherical particles. The device is a linear array of spherical particles compressed in a container with a mechanism for attachment to the shock and/or vibration source, and a mechanism for attachment to the article requiring

  17. Electromagnetic Waves


    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.


    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  18. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.


    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...

  19. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H


    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  20. Direct observation of nonlinear coupling in wave turbulence at the surface of water and relevance of approximate resonances (United States)

    Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas


    The theoretical framework of Weak Turbulence describes the statistical properties of a large collection of nonlinear waves. For a weakly nonlinear wave field, energy is assumed to be transferred only trough resonant interaction. This enables the computation of analytical solutions of the stationary statistical states (Zakhaorv spectrum). Some similarities with hydrodynamical turbulence appear : an energy cascade is present from the injection scale to the dissipation at small scales. The theory has been applied to numerous systems many of them being of geophysical or astrophysical nature (water surface waves, internal waves, inertial waves, solar winds) as well as superfluid turbulence, lasers, nonlinear optics in fibers or vibrated elastic plates. For water surface waves, experimental laboratory measurements often fail to reproduce quantitatively theoretical predictions. Gravity waves and capillary waves are often treated separately because of their different nature. For capillary waves, energy is supposed to be transferred trough 3-waves interactions, whereas for gravity waves the coupling involves 4 waves (because of the curvature of the dispersion relation which does not allow triadic solutions). In the laboratory, the range of exited wavelength are usually not strongly separated from the crossover between capillary and gravity waves (which occur near 13 Hz) due to size or measurement limitations. Near this crossover, the dispersion relation is significantly affected and this impacts most likely the theoretical predictions. To investigate how this special point may act on the phenomenology, we report laboratory experiments on gravity-capillary waves focused on the crossover (Aubourg,Mordant-PRL,2015). The setup consists in a 70 ∗ 40 cm2 vessel where waves are generated by horizontal vibration. A Fourier Transform Profilometry technique is used that is fully resolved in time and space and thus permits to compute the full space-time spectrum. The presence of an

  1. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian


    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  2. Generation of localized disturbances by surface vibrations behind the ledge in the laminar flow (United States)

    Pavlenko, A. M.; Katasonov, M. M.; Kozlov, V. V.; Dovgal, A. V.


    The occurrence and development of hydrodynamic perturbations generated by low-frequency vibrations of a local section of a streamlined surface in a separated flow behind a rectangular ledge on a flat plate are investigated in the wind tunnel. The results were obtained by the hot-wire anemometry method at a low subsonic flow velocity. It is established that vibrations of the wall generate perturbations of the separation zone, which are streaky structures, and accompanying wave packets of oscillations. The separation of the laminar boundary layer promotes the growth of wave packets with subsequent turbulence of the wall flow.

  3. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E


    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  4. Vibration response of misaligned rotors (United States)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.


    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  5. Tissue vibration in prolonged running. (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Stirling, Lisa M; Federolf, Peter; Nigg, Benno M


    The impact force in heel-toe running initiates vibrations of soft-tissue compartments of the leg that are heavily dampened by muscle activity. This study investigated if the damping and frequency of these soft-tissue vibrations are affected by fatigue, which was categorized by the time into an exhaustive exercise. The hypotheses were tested that (H1) the vibration intensity of the triceps surae increases with increasing fatigue and (H2) the vibration frequency of the triceps surae decreases with increasing fatigue. Tissue vibrations of the triceps surae were measured with tri-axial accelerometers in 10 subjects during a run towards exhaustion. The frequency content was quantified with power spectra and wavelet analysis. Maxima of local vibration intensities were compared between the non-fatigued and fatigued states of all subjects. In axial (i.e. parallel to the tibia) and medio-lateral direction, most local maxima increased with fatigue (supporting the first hypothesis). In anterior-posterior direction no systematic changes were found. Vibration frequency was minimally affected by fatigue and frequency changes did not occur systematically, which requires the rejection of the second hypothesis. Relative to heel-strike, the maximum vibration intensity occurred significantly later in the fatigued condition in all three directions. With fatigue, the soft tissue of the triceps surae oscillated for an extended duration at increased vibration magnitudes, possibly due to the effects of fatigue on type II muscle fibers. Thus, the protective mechanism of muscle tuning seems to be reduced in a fatigued muscle and the risk of potential harm to the tissue may increase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated cable vibration control system using wireless sensors (United States)

    Jeong, Seunghoo; Cho, Soojin; Sim, Sung-Han


    As the number of long-span bridges is increasing worldwide, maintaining their structural integrity and safety become an important issue. Because the stay cable is a critical member in most long-span bridges and vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations, vibration mitigation has been of interest both in academia and practice. While active and semi-active control schemes are known to be quite effective in vibration reduction compared to the passive control, requirements for equipment including data acquisition, control devices, and power supply prevent a widespread adoption in real-world applications. This study develops an integrated system for vibration control of stay-cables using wireless sensors implementing a semi-active control. Arduino, a low-cost single board system, is employed with a MEMS digital accelerometer and a Zigbee wireless communication module to build the wireless sensor. The magneto-rheological (MR) damper is selected as a damping device, controlled by an optimal control algorithm implemented on the Arduino sensing system. The developed integrated system is tested in a laboratory environment using a cable to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system on vibration reduction. The proposed system is shown to reduce the vibration of stay-cables with low operating power effectively.

  7. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Domino, L; Patinet, Sylvain; Eddi, A


    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying sub-wavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  8. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial. (United States)

    Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A


    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  9. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John


    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  10. Avoid heat transfer equipment vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.


    Tube bundles in heat exchangers, boilers, superheaters and heaters are often subject to vibration and noise problems. Vibration can lead to tube thinning and wear, resulting in tube failures. Excessive noise can be a problem to plant operating personnel. Large gas pressure drop across the equipment is also a side effect, which results in large operating costs. With the design checks presented in this paper, one can predict during design if problems associated with noise and vibration are likely to occur in petroleum refineries.

  11. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server


    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  12. Vibration properties of and power harvested by a system of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters that have electrical dynamics (United States)

    Cooley, Christopher G.


    This study investigates the vibration and dynamic response of a system of coupled electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting devices that each consist of a proof mass, elastic structure, electromagnetic generator, and energy harvesting circuit with inductance, resistance, and capacitance. The governing equations for the coupled electromechanical system are derived using Newtonian mechanics and Kirchhoff circuit laws for an arbitrary number of these subsystems. The equations are cast in matrix operator form to expose the device's vibration properties. The device's complex-valued eigenvalues and eigenvectors are related to physical characteristics of its vibration. Because the electrical circuit has dynamics, these devices have more natural frequencies than typical electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters that have purely resistive circuits. Closed-form expressions for the steady state dynamic response and average power harvested are derived for devices with a single subsystem. Example numerical results for single and double subsystem devices show that the natural frequencies and vibration modes obtained from the eigenvalue problem agree with the resonance locations and response amplitudes obtained independently from forced response calculations. This agreement demonstrates the usefulness of solving eigenvalue problems for these devices. The average power harvested by the device differs substantially at each resonance. Devices with multiple subsystems have multiple modes where large amounts of power are harvested.

  13. 14 CFR 33.63 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.63 Section 33.63 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.63 Vibration. Each engine... because of vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  14. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components that...

  15. 14 CFR 33.33 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.33 Section 33.33 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.33 Vibration. The... vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  16. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics...

  17. 49 CFR 178.819 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.819 Section 178.819... Testing of IBCs § 178.819 Vibration test. (a) General. The vibration test must be conducted for the... vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample IBC, selected at random, must be filled and closed as for...

  18. Rectangular Parallelepiped Vibration in Plane Strain State


    Hanckowiak, Jerzy


    In this paper we present a vibration spectrum of a homogenous parallelepiped (HP) under the action of volume and surface forces resulting from the exponent displacements entering the Fourier transforms. Vibration under the action of axial surface tractions and the free vibration are described separately. A relationship between the high frequency vibration and boundary conditions (BC) is also considered.

  19. Rotational spectra of vibrationally excited CCH and CCD. (United States)

    Killian, T C; Gottlieb, C A; Thaddeus, P


    The millimeter-wave rotational spectra of the lowest bending and stretching vibrational levels of CCH and CCD were observed in a low pressure discharge through acetylene and helium. The rotational, centrifugal distortion, and fine structure constants were determined for the (02(0)0) and (02(2)0) bending states, the (100) and (001) stretching levels, and the (011) combination level of CCH. The same pure bending and stretching levels, and the (110) combination level were observed in CCD. Apparent anomalies in the spectroscopic constants in the bending states were shown to be due to l-type resonances. Hyperfine constants, which in CCH are sensitive to the degree of admixture of the A 2Pi excited electronic state, were determined in the excited vibrational levels of both isotopic species. Theoretical Fermi contact and dipole-dipole hyperfine constants calculated by Peric et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 70 (1991)] were found to be in excellent agreement with the measured constants. In CCD, new rotational lines tentatively assigned to the (100) level largely on the basis of the observed hyperfine structure support the assignment of the C-H stretching fundamental (nu1) by Stephens et al. [J. Mol. Struct. 190, 41 (1988)]. Rotational lines in the excited vibrational levels of CCH are fairly intense in our discharge source because the vibrational excitation temperatures of the bending vibrational levels and the (110) and (011) combination levels are only about 100 K higher than the gas kinetic temperature, unlike the higher frequency stretching vibrations, where the excitation temperatures are five to ten times higher.

  20. Influence of vibrational relaxation on perturbations in a shock layer on a plate (United States)

    Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Maslov, A. A.; Poplavskaya, T. V.; Tsyryul'nikov, I. S.


    The influence of excitation of molecular vibrational degrees of freedom on the mean flow and perturbation development in a hypersonic (M = 6-14) viscous shock layer is studied. The layer originates on a plate placed in a flow of air, carbon dioxide, or their mixture at high stagnation temperatures (2000-3000 K). The mean flow and pressure pulsation on the surface of the plate are measured in an IT-302M pulsed wind tunnel (Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences). Numerical simulation is carried out in terms of a model of a thermally perfect gas using the ANSYS Fluent program package based on solving nonstationary two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. External flow perturbations are introduced into the computational domain in the form of plane monochromatic acoustic waves using UDF modules built in the computational code. It is shown that the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom in carbon dioxide molecules considerably influences the position of the head wave and intensifies perturbations in contrast to air in which the fraction of vibrationally excited molecules is low at the same parameters of the oncoming low. The influence of the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom is studied both for equilibrium gas and for a vibrationally nonequilibrium gas. Nonequilibrium vibrational degrees of freedom are simulated using a two-temperature model of relaxation flows in which the time variation of the vibrational energy is described by the Landau-Teller equation with regard to a finite time of energy exchange between vibrational and translational-rotational degrees of freedom of molecules. It is found that the vibrational nonequilibrium has a damping effect on perturbations.

  1. Asymptotic theory of neutral stability of the Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.


    An asymptotic theory of the neutral stability curve for a supersonic plane Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas is developed. The initial mathematical model consists of equations of two-temperature viscous gas dynamics, which are used to derive a spectral problem for a linear system of eighth-order ordinary differential equations within the framework of the classical linear stability theory. Unified transformations of the system for all shear flows are performed in accordance with the classical Lin scheme. The problem is reduced to an algebraic secular equation with separation into the "inviscid" and "viscous" parts, which is solved numerically. It is shown that the thus-calculated neutral stability curves agree well with the previously obtained results of the direct numerical solution of the original spectral problem. In particular, the critical Reynolds number increases with excitation enhancement, and the neutral stability curve is shifted toward the domain of higher wave numbers. This is also confirmed by means of solving an asymptotic equation for the critical Reynolds number at the Mach number M ≤ 4.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat


    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  3. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter


    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  4. Study of parametric instability in gravitational wave detectors with silicon test masses (United States)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David


    Parametric instability is an intrinsic risk in high power laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, in which the optical cavity modes interact with the acoustic modes of the mirrors, leading to exponential growth of the acoustic vibration. In this paper, we investigate the potential parametric instability for a proposed next generation gravitational wave detector, the LIGO Voyager blue design, with cooled silicon test masses of size 45 cm in diameter and 55 cm in thickness. It is shown that there would be about two unstable modes per test mass at an arm cavity power of 3 MW, with the highest parametric gain of  ∼76. While this is less than the predicted number of unstable modes for Advanced LIGO (∼40 modes with max gain of  ∼32 at the designed operating power of 830 kW), the importance of developing suitable instability suppression schemes is emphasized.

  5. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials


    Biggerstaff, Janet M.


    The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss facto...

  6. Vibration Theory, Vol. 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present collection of MATLAB exercises has been published as a supplement to the textbook, Svingningsteori, Bind 1 and the collection of exercises in Vibration theory, Vol. 1A, Solved Problems. Throughout the exercise references are made to these books. The purpose of the MATLAB exercises...... is to give a better understanding of the physical problems in linear vibration theory and to surpress the mathematical analysis used to solve the problems. For this purpose the MATLAB environment is excellent....

  7. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes


    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  8. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)


    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  9. Stress analysis of vibrating pipelines (United States)

    Zachwieja, Janusz


    The pipelines are subject to various constraints variable in time. Those vibrations, if not monitored for amplitude and frequency, may result in both the fatigue damage in the pipeline profile at high stress concentration and the damage to the pipeline supports. If the constraint forces are known, the system response may be determined with high accuracy using analytical or numerical methods. In most cases, it may be difficult to determine the constraint parameters, since the industrial pipeline vibrations occur due to the dynamic effects of the medium in the pipeline. In that case, a vibration analysis is a suitable alternative method to determine the stress strain state in the pipeline profile. Monitoring the pipeline vibration levels involves a comparison between the measured vibration parameters and the permissible values as depicted in the graphs for a specific pipeline type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the studies relate to the petrochemical industry and thus large diameter, long and straight pipelines. For a pipeline section supported on both ends, the response in any profile at the entire section length can be determined by measuring the vibration parameters at two different profiles between the pipeline supports. For a straight pipeline section, the bending moments, variable in time, at the ends of the analysed section are a source of the pipe excitation. If a straight pipe section supported on both ends is excited by the bending moments in the support profile, the starting point for the stress analysis are the strains, determined from the Euler-Bernoulli equation. In practice, it is easier to determine the displacement using the experimental methods, since the factors causing vibrations are unknown. The industrial system pipelines, unlike the transfer pipelines, are straight sections at some points only, which makes it more difficult to formulate the equation of motion. In those cases, numerical methods can be used to determine stresses using the

  10. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    How many points are there on a line? Which is more in number- points on a line or lines in a plane? These are some natural questions that have occurred to us sometime or the other. It is interesting to note the difference between the two questions. Do we have to know how many points and lines there are to answer.

  11. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory. Besides mathematics, she is interested in (singing) indian classical music and yoga. Right: Shailesh Shirali is. Director of Sahyadri School.

  12. Vibrational modes of nanolines (United States)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.


    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  13. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the elastic wave-equation; Dansei hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Algorithm is constructed and a program developed for a full-wave inversion (FWI) method utilizing the elastic wave equation in seismic exploration. The FWI method is a method for obtaining a physical property distribution using the whole observed waveforms as the data. It is capable of high resolution which is several times smaller than the wavelength since it can handle such phenomena as wave reflection and dispersion. The method for determining the P-wave velocity structure by use of the acoustic wave equation does not provide information about the S-wave velocity since it does not consider S-waves or converted waves. In an analysis using the elastic wave equation, on the other hand, not only P-wave data but also S-wave data can be utilized. In this report, under such circumstances, an inverse analysis algorithm is constructed on the basis of the elastic wave equation, and a basic program is developed. On the basis of the methods of Mora and of Luo and Schuster, the correction factors for P-wave and S-wave velocities are formulated directly from the elastic wave equation. Computations are performed and the effects of the hypocenter frequency and vibration transmission direction are examined. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Wave-turbulence theory of four-wave nonlinear interactions (United States)

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Dematteis, Giovanni; Josserand, Christophe; Rondoni, Lamberto


    The Sagdeev-Zaslavski (SZ) equation for wave turbulence is analytically derived, both in terms of a generating function and of a multipoint probability density function (PDF), for weakly interacting waves with initial random phases. When the initial amplitudes are also random, a one-point PDF equation is derived. Such analytical calculations remarkably agree with results obtained in totally different fashions. Numerical investigations of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and of a vibrating plate prove the following: (i) Generic Hamiltonian four-wave systems rapidly attain a random distribution of phases independently of the slower dynamics of the amplitudes, vindicating the hypothesis of initially random phases. (ii) Relaxation of the Fourier amplitudes to the predicted stationary distribution (exponential) happens on a faster time scale than relaxation of the spectrum (Rayleigh-Jeans distribution). (iii) The PDF equation correctly describes dynamics under different forcings: The NLSE has an exponential PDF corresponding to a quasi-Gaussian solution, as the vibrating plates, that also shows some intermittency at very strong forcings.

  15. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  16. High Frequency Longitudinal Damped Vibrations of a Cylindrical Ultrasonic Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Valentin Predoi


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers used in classical nondestructive testing are producing in general longitudinal vibrations in the MHz range. A simple mechanical model of these transducers would be very useful for wave propagation numerical simulations, avoiding the existing complicated models in which the real components of the transducer are modeled by finite elements. The classical model for longitudinal vibrations is not adequate because the generated longitudinal wave is not dispersive, the velocity being the same at any frequency. We have adopted the Rayleigh-Bishop model, which avoids these limitations, even if it is not converging to the first but to the second exact longitudinal mode in an elastic rod, as obtained from the complicated Pochhammer-Chree equations. Since real transducers have significant vibrations damping, we have introduced a damping term in the Rayleigh-Bishop model, increasing the imaginary part and keeping almost identical real part of the wavenumber. Common transducers produce amplitude modulated signals, completely attenuated after several periods. This can be modeled by two close frequencies, producing a “beat” phenomenon, superposed on the high damping. For this reason, we introduce a two-rod Rayleigh-Bishop model with damping. Agreement with measured normal velocity on the transducer free surface is encouraging for continuation of the research.

  17. Vibrational Power Flow Analysis of Rods and Beams (United States)

    Wohlever, James Christopher; Bernhard, R. J.


    A new method to model vibrational power flow and predict the resulting energy density levels in uniform rods and beams is investigated. This method models the flow of vibrational power in a manner analogous to the flow of thermal power in a heat conduction problem. The classical displacement solutions for harmonically excited, hysteretically damped rods and beams are used to derive expressions for the vibrational power flow and energy density in the rod and beam. Under certain conditions, the power flow in these two structural elements will be shown to be proportional to the energy density gradient. Using the relationship between power flow and energy density, an energy balance on differential control volumes in the rod and beam leads to a Poisson's equation which models the energy density distribution in the rod and beam. Coupling the energy density and power flow solutions for rods and beams is also discussed. It is shown that the resonant behavior of finite structures complicates the coupling of solutions, especially when the excitations are single frequency inputs. Two coupling formulations are discussed, the first based on the receptance method, and the second on the travelling wave approach used in Statistical Energy Analysis. The receptance method is the more computationally intensive but is capable of analyzing single frequency excitation cases. The traveling wave approach gives a good approximation of the frequency average of energy density and power flow in coupled systems, and thus, is an efficient technique for use with broadband frequency excitation.

  18. Janus Waves


    Papazoglou, Dimitris G.; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Tzortzakis, Stelios


    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens...

  19. Four-wave mixing with femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skenderovic, H [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka cesta 46, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail:


    The recent development of noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs) has equipped many laboratories with widely tunable, spectrally broad ultrashort laser pulses with a duration of 15-30 fs. The present work deals with sub-20 fs pulsed degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) on high-frequency vibrational levels in all-trans-{beta}-carotene. The observed wavepacket motion on the electronic ground state revealed fast oscillating vibrational modes whose frequencies and time development were measured. The coherent control in an open loop is demonstrated by appropriate phase shaping of the pulses.

  20. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...... wave height. Recommendations are made as to how to assess liquefaction potential in standing waves. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  1. SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter


    The SSG (Sea Slot-cone Generator) is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level, in which the water of incoming waves is stored temporary. In each reservoir, expressively designed low...... head hydroturbines are converting the potential energy of the stored water into power. A key to success for the SSG will be the low cost of the structure and its robustness. The construction of the pilot plant is scheduled and this paper aims to describe the concept of the SSG wave energy converter...... and the studies behind the process that leads to its construction. The pilot plant is an on-shore full scale module in 3 levels with an expected power production of 320 MWh/y in the North Sea. Location, wave climate and laboratory tests results will be used here to describe the pilot plant and its characteristics....

  2. Computer simulation of mucosal waves on vibrating human vocal folds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vampola, T.; Horáček, Jaromír; Klepáček, I.


    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2016), s. 451-465 ISSN 0208-5216 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-01246S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : biomechanics of human voice * 3D FE model of human larynx * finite element method * proper orthogonal decomposition analysis Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016

  3. On the correlation between phase-locking modes and Vibrational Resonance in a neuronal model (United States)

    Morfu, S.; Bordet, M.


    We numerically and experimentally investigate the underlying mechanism leading to multiple resonances in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model driven by a bichromatic excitation. Using a FitzHugh-Nagumo circuit, we first analyze the number of spikes triggered by the system in response to a single sinusoidal wave forcing. We build an encoding diagram where different phase-locking modes are identified according to the amplitude and frequency of the sinusoidal excitation. Next, we consider the bichromatic driving which consists in a low frequency sinusoidal wave perturbed by an additive high frequency signal. Beside the classical Vibrational Resonance phenomenon, we show in real experiments that multiple resonances can be reached by an appropriate setting of the perturbation parameters. We clearly establish a correlation between these resonances and the encoding diagram of the low frequency signal free FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We show with realistic parameters that sharp transitions of the encoding diagram allow to predict the main resonances. Our experiments are confirmed by numerical simulations of the system response.

  4. Force limited random vibration testing: the computation of the semi-empirical constant C2 for a real test article and unknown supporting structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijker, Jacob J; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria; de Boer, Andries


    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load),

  5. Understanding of bridge cable vibrations and the associate flow-field through the full-scale monitoring of vibrations and Wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio

    bridges continuously becoming longer and lighter have resulted in a high number of observations of cable vibrations. A theoretical background for the tool used in this work is presented in terms of cables vibrations mechanisms, aerodynamic damping and system identification techniques. A detailed......-scale monitoring events. Special thanks to Rune Brincker to grant permission to use the material of his newly published book about system identification to form the chapter of this thesis. A special thanks also to Anela Bajeric for granting the permission to use her material about system identification review...... vibrations. The research starts from data collection of cables vibrations of the Øresund Bridge. A dedicated monitoring system was installed to record full-scale data together with wind field measurements and meteorological data, during cables vibrations. Results from the monitoring system are reported...

  6. Influence of mass imperfections on the evolution of standing waves in slowly rotating spherical bodies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY


    Full Text Available Standing waves can exist as stable vibrating patterns in perfect structures such as spherical bodies, and inertial rotation of the body causes precession (Bryan’seffect). However, an imperfection such as light mass anisotropy destroys the standing...

  7. Body-wave seismic interferometry applied to earthquake- and storm-induced wavefield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, E.N.


    Seismology is the study of the vibration of the Earth. Seismologists pay much attention to the main source of Earth vibration: earthquakes. But also other seismic sources, like mining blasts, ocean storms and windmills, are studied. All these sources induce seismic waves, which can eventually be

  8. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten


    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...

  9. Statistical simulation of the flow of vibrationally preexcited hydrogen in a shock tube and the possibility of physical detonation (United States)

    Kulikov, S. V.; Chervonnaya, N. A.; Ternovaya, O. N.


    The direct simulation Monte Carlo method is used to numerically simulate the problem of the shock wave front in vibrationally excited hydrogen flowing in the low-pressure channel of a shock tube. It is assumed that the vibrational temperature of the hydrogen equals 3000 K. The cases of partially and completely excited hydrogen are considered. Equilibrium hydrogen is applied as a pusher gas, but its concentration is 50 times higher than the hydrogen concentration in the low-pressure channel. In addition, the strength of the shock wave is varied by heating the pusher gas. It has been shown that, if the prestored vibrational energy is weakly converted to translational energy, the shock wave slows down over time. If the energy conversion is sufficiently intense, when the pusher gas is warm and only completely vibrationally excited hydrogen is in the low-pressure channel, the wave gains speed over time (its velocity increases roughly by a factor of 1.5). This causes physical detonation, in which case the parameters of the wave become dependent on the vibrational-to-thermal energy conversion and independent of the way of its initiation.

  10. Evaluation of hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove


    樹野, 淳也; 前田, 節雄; 横田, 和樹; 平, 雄一郎


    Many kinds of the anti-vibration glove have been developed for reducing hand-arm vibration during the operation with vibration tools. International standard ISO 10819 evaluates the physical effect of gloves' vibration transmissibility but not evaluates the physiological effect of human hands. Thus, in this paper, we proposed the evaluation using the temporary threshold shift of vibrotactile perception threshold to evaluate the hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove. We per...

  11. Entropy for Mechanically Vibrating Systems (United States)

    Tufano, Dante

    The research contained within this thesis deals with the subject of entropy as defined for and applied to mechanically vibrating systems. This work begins with an overview of entropy as it is understood in the fields of classical thermodynamics, information theory, statistical mechanics, and statistical vibroacoustics. Khinchin's definition of entropy, which is the primary definition used for the work contained in this thesis, is introduced in the context of vibroacoustic systems. The main goal of this research is to to establish a mathematical framework for the application of Khinchin's entropy in the field of statistical vibroacoustics by examining the entropy context of mechanically vibrating systems. The introduction of this thesis provides an overview of statistical energy analysis (SEA), a modeling approach to vibroacoustics that motivates this work on entropy. The objective of this thesis is given, and followed by a discussion of the intellectual merit of this work as well as a literature review of relevant material. Following the introduction, an entropy analysis of systems of coupled oscillators is performed utilizing Khinchin's definition of entropy. This analysis develops upon the mathematical theory relating to mixing entropy, which is generated by the coupling of vibroacoustic systems. The mixing entropy is shown to provide insight into the qualitative behavior of such systems. Additionally, it is shown that the entropy inequality property of Khinchin's entropy can be reduced to an equality using the mixing entropy concept. This equality can be interpreted as a facet of the second law of thermodynamics for vibroacoustic systems. Following this analysis, an investigation of continuous systems is performed using Khinchin's entropy. It is shown that entropy analyses using Khinchin's entropy are valid for continuous systems that can be decomposed into a finite number of modes. The results are shown to be analogous to those obtained for simple oscillators

  12. Vibrationally coupled electron transport through single-molecule junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertle, Rainer


    Single-molecule junctions are among the smallest electric circuits. They consist of a molecule that is bound to a left and a right electrode. With such a molecular nanocontact, the flow of electrical currents through a single molecule can be studied and controlled. Experiments on single-molecule junctions show that a single molecule carries electrical currents that can even be in the microampere regime. Thereby, a number of transport phenomena have been observed, such as, for example, diode- or transistor-like behavior, negative differential resistance and conductance switching. An objective of this field, which is commonly referred to as molecular electronics, is to relate these transport phenomena to the properties of the molecule in the contact. To this end, theoretical model calculations are employed, which facilitate an understanding of the underlying transport processes and mechanisms. Thereby, one has to take into account that molecules are flexible structures, which respond to a change of their charge state by a profound reorganization of their geometrical structure or may even dissociate. It is thus important to understand the interrelation between the vibrational degrees of freedom of a singlemolecule junction and the electrical current flowing through the contact. In this thesis, we investigate vibrational effects in electron transport through singlemolecule junctions. For these studies, we calculate and analyze transport characteristics of both generic and first-principles based model systems of a molecular contact. To this end, we employ a master equation and a nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Both methods are suitable to describe this nonequilibrium transport problem and treat the interactions of the tunneling electrons on the molecular bridge non-perturbatively. This is particularly important with respect to the vibrational degrees of freedom, which may strongly interact with the tunneling electrons. We show in detail that the resulting

  13. Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between dielectric and ...

  14. Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between ...

  15. Characteristics of 1.9-μm laser emission from hydrogen-filled hollow-core fiber by vibrational stimulated Raman scattering (United States)

    Gu, Bo; Chen, Yubin; Wang, Zefeng


    We report here the characteristics of 1.9-μm laser emission from a gas-filled hollow-core fiber by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). A 6.5-m hydrogen-filled ice-cream negative curvature hollow-core fiber is pumped with a high peak-power, narrow linewidth, linearly polarized subnanosecond pulsed 1064-nm microchip laser, generating a pulsed vibrational Stokes wave at 1908.5 nm. The maximum quantum efficiency of about 48% is obtained, which is mainly limited by the mode mismatch between the pump laser beam and the Stokes wave in the hollow-core fiber. The linewidths of the pump laser and the first-order vibrational Stokes wave are measured to be about 1 and 2 GHz, respectively, by a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. The pressure selection phenomenon of the vibrational anti-Stokes waves is also investigated. The pulse duration of the vibrational Stokes wave is recorded to be narrower than that of the pump laser. The polarization properties of the hollow-core fiber and the polarization dependence of the vibrational and the rotational SRS are also studied. The beam profile of the vibrational Stokes wave shows good quality.

  16. Jittering wave-packet models for subsonic jet noise (United States)

    Cavalieri, André V. G.; Jordan, Peter; Agarwal, Anurag; Gervais, Yves


    Three simplified wave-packet models of the coherent structures in subsonic jets are presented. The models comprise convected wave-packets with time-dependent amplitudes and spatial extents. The dependence of the radiated sound on the temporal variations of the amplitude and spatial extent of the modulations are studied separately in the first two model problems, being considered together in the third. Analytical expressions for the radiated sound pressure are obtained for the first and third models. Results show that temporally localised changes in the wave-packet can lead to radiation patterns which are directional and which comprise high-amplitude bursts; such intermittency is observed in subsonic jets at the end of the potential core, and so the models may help explain the higher noise levels and intermittent character of the sound radiated to low emission angles for subsonic jets. By means of an efficiency metric, relating the radiated acoustic power to the fluctuation energy of the source, we show that the source becomes more powerful as its temporal localisation is increased. This result extends that of Sandham et al. (Journal of Sound and Vibration 294(1) (2006) 355-361) who found similar behaviour for an infinitely extended wavy-wall. The pertinence of the model is assessed using two sets of data for a Mach 0.9 jet. One corresponds to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a Reynolds number 3600 turbulent jet and the other to a large eddy simulation (LES) of a Reynolds number 4×10 5 jet. Both time-averaged and time-dependent amplitudes and spatial extents are extracted from the velocity field of the numerical data. Computing the sound field generated by the wave-packet models we find for both simulations that while the wave-packet with a time-averaged envelope shows discrepancies of more than an order of magnitude with the sound field, when the wave-packet 'jitters' in a way similar to the intermittency displayed by the simulations, we obtain agreement to

  17. Understanding acoustics an experimentalist’s view of acoustics and vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Steven L


    This textbook provides a unified approach to acoustics and vibration suitable for use in advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate courses on vibration and fluids. The book includes thorough treatment of vibration of harmonic oscillators, coupled oscillators, isotropic elasticity, and waves in solids including the use of resonance techniques for determination of elastic moduli. Drawing on 35 years of experience teaching introductory graduate acoustics at the Naval Postgraduate School and Penn State, the author presents a hydrodynamic approach to the acoustics of sound in fluids that provides a uniform methodology for analysis of lumped-element systems and wave propagation that can incorporate attenuation mechanisms and complex media. This view provides a consistent and reliable approach that can be extended with confidence to more complex fluids and future applications. Understanding Acoustics opens with a mathematical introduction that includes graphing and statistical uncertainty, followed by five chap...

  18. Rossby Waves



    tut quiz Tutorial Quiz Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews the mechanisms of Rossby waves. Rossby waves in both the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The interactions involve answering simple fill-in-the-blank questions. Diagrams are used to illustrate some of the concepts reviewed. MR4322 Dynamic Meteorology

  19. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik


    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....