Vibrational energy flow in substituted benzenes
Pein, Brandt C.
Using ultrafast infrared (IR) Raman spectroscopy, vibrational energy flow was monitored in several liquid-state substituted benzenes at ambient temperature. In a series of mono-halogenated benzenes, X-C6H 5 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), a similar CH-stretch at 3068 cm-1 was excited using picosecond IR pulses and the resulting vibrational relaxation and overall vibrational cooling processes were monitored with anti-Stokes spectroscopy. In the molecules with a heavier halide substituent the CH-stretch decayed slower while midrange vibrations decayed faster. This result was logical if the density of states (DOS) in the first few tiers, which is the DOS composed of vibrations with smaller quantum number, is what primarily determines energy flow. For tiers 1-4, the DOS was nearly identical in the CH-stretch region while it increased in the midrange region for heavier halide mass. Excitation spectroscopy, an extension of 3D IR-Raman spectroscopy, was developed and used to selectively pump vibrations localized to the substituent or the phenyl group in nitrobenzene (NB), o-fluoronitrobenzene (OFNB) and o-nitrotoluene (ONT) and in the alkylbenzene series toluene, isopropylbenzene (IPB), and t-butylbenzene (TBB). Using quantum chemical calculations, each Raman active vibration was sorted, according to their atomic displacements, into three classifications: substituent, phenyl, or global. Using IR pump wavenumbers that initially excited substituent or phenyl vibrations, IR-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor energy flowing from the substituent to phenyl vibrations and vice versa. In NB nitro-to-phenyl and nitro-to-global energy flow was almost nonexistent while phenyl-to-nitro and phenyl-to-global was weak. When ortho substituents (-CH3, -F) were introduced, energy flow from nitro-to-phenyl and nitro-to-global was activated. In ONT, phenyl-to-nitro energy flow ceased possibly due to the added methyl group diverting energy from entering the nitro vibrations. Energy flow is therefore
Development of Non-Conservative Joints in Beam Networks for Vibration Energy Flow Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jee-Hun Song
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Our work aims to find a general solution for the vibrational energy flow through a plane network of beams on the basis of an energy flow analysis. A joint between two semi-infinite beams are modeled by three sets of springs and dashpots. Thus, the results can incorporate the case of complaint and non-conservative in all the three degrees of freedom. In the cases of finite coupled structures connected at a certain angle, the derived non-conservative joints and developed wave energy equation were applied. The joint properties, the frequency, the coupling angle, and the internal loss factor were changed to evaluate the proposed methods for predicting medium-to-high frequency vibrational energy and intensity distributions.
Experimental energy harvesting from fluid flow by using two vibrating masses
Nishi, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Kengo; Shinohara, Wataru
2017-04-01
In this study, an experiment was performed to determine how the addition of a second degree of freedom to a vibratory system affects its energy extraction from a surrounding fluid flow. A circular cylinder was submerged underwater and subjected to flow, and another cylinder mounted on springs was inserted between the submerged cylinder and a generator. The experiment results demonstrated that vortex-induced vibration occurred at frequencies that were locked-in to the first and second natural modes for reduced velocity ranges of 5.0-9.0 and greater than 12.0, respectively. The output voltages were particularly high when the vibration frequency was locked-in to that of the second natural mode. It was found that application of energy extraction using a system with two degrees of freedom can widen the range of reduced velocity within which power extraction is effective.
Yao, Gang; Wang, Hai; Yang, Chunlai; Wen, Li
2017-03-01
With the increasing development of wireless sensor network (WSN), power supply for WSN nodes had attracted increasing attention, and the energy harvesting system based on Karman vortex street has been widely used in underwater WSN. But the research of the influences of affecting factors towards the energy harvesting system is yet to be completed. So, in this paper, an underwater flow-induced vibration energy harvesting system based on Karman vortex street was proposed and tested. The influence of bluff body geometry and flow velocity towards the performance of the energy harvesting has been researched. The results showed that the output voltage increased as the diameter of bluff body and the water velocity increase. The power generation efficiency was the best when the shape of bluff body was circular.
Kinetic model for the vibrational energy exchange in flowing molecular gas mixtures. Ph.D. Thesis
Offenhaeuser, F.
1987-01-01
The present study is concerned with the development of a computational model for the description of the vibrational energy exchange in flowing gas mixtures, taking into account a given number of energy levels for each vibrational degree of freedom. It is possible to select an arbitrary number of energy levels. The presented model uses values in the range from 10 to approximately 40. The distribution of energy with respect to these levels can differ from the equilibrium distribution. The kinetic model developed can be employed for arbitrary gaseous mixtures with an arbitrary number of vibrational degrees of freedom for each type of gas. The application of the model to CO2-H2ON2-O2-He mixtures is discussed. The obtained relations can be utilized in a study of the suitability of radiation-related transitional processes, involving the CO2 molecule, for laser applications. It is found that the computational results provided by the model agree very well with experimental data obtained for a CO2 laser. Possibilities for the activation of a 16-micron and 14-micron laser are considered.
Vibration energy harvesting in a small channel fluid flow using piezoelectric transducer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, Md. Mehedi, E-mail: buetmehedi10@gmail.com; Hossain, Md. Yeam, E-mail: yeamhossain@gmail.com; Mazumder, Rakib, E-mail: rakibmazumder46075@gmail.com; Rahman, Roussel, E-mail: roussel.rahman@gmail.com; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur, E-mail: ashiqurrahman@me.buet.ac.bd [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)
2016-07-12
This work is aimed at developing a way to harvest energy from a fluid stream with the application of piezoelectric transducers in a small channel. In this COMSOL Multiphysics based simulation study, it is attempted to harvest energy from the abundant renewable source of energy available in the form of kinetic energy of naturally occurring flow of fluids. The strategy involves harnessing energy from a fluid-actuator through generation of couples, eddies and vortices, resulting from the stagnation and separation of flow around a semi-circular bluff-body attached to a cantilever beam containing a piezoceramic layer. Fluctuation of fluidic pressure impulse on the beam due to vortex shedding and varying lift forces causes the flexible cantilever beam to oscillate in the direction normal to the fluid flow in a periodic manner. The periodic application and release of a mechanical strain upon the beam effected a generation of electric potential within the piezoelectric layer, thus enabling extraction of electrical energy from the kinetic energy of the fluid. The piezoelectric material properties and transducer design are kept unchanged throughout the study, whereas the configuration is tested with different fluids and varying flow characteristics. The size and geometry of the obstructing entity are systematically varied to closely inspect the output from different iterations and for finding the optimum design parameters. The intermittent changes in the generated forces and subsequent variation in the strain on the beam are also monitored to find definitive relationship with the electrical energy output.
Energy flow analysis of out-of-plane vibration in coplanar coupled finite Mindlin plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young-Ho Park
2015-01-01
Full Text Available : In this paper, an Energy Flow Analysis (EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was performed to estimate their dynamic responses at high frequencies. Mindlin plate theory can consider the effects of shear distortion and rotatory inertia, which are very important at high frequencies. For EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates, the wave transmission and reflection relationship for progressing out-of-plane waves (out-of-plane shear wave, bending dominant flexural wave, and shear dominant flexural wave in coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was newly derived. To verify the validity of the EFA results, numerical analyses were performed for various cases where coplanar coupled Mindlin plates are excited by a harmonic point force, and the energy flow solutions for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates were compared with the classical solutions in the various conditions.
Weidinger, D; Engel, M F; Gruebele, M
2009-04-23
We develop a fitness functional for freezing molecular energy flow that relies only on experimental observables. The functional allows us to implement a modular control algorithm where simulation data and experimental data can be used interchangeably. This interchangeability could be useful as a spectroscopic tool and for reactive control because the controllability of the experimental system and its model can be compared directly. The fitness functional performs as well as functionals based on complete knowledge of the wave function. We compare our simulation results with an analytical theory of control, and find good agreement between the simulated and predicted times over which the system can be controlled.
2017-04-04
fitted with a series of perforated plates, honeycomb and screens to provide flow conditioning. Translation of the entire assembly is provided by a...pulse duration is ~160 ns, M 2 is 25, the beam width is 5 mm and the beam divergence is 5 Screens Honeycomb Perforated Plate Jet gas supply Heated...Systems, Inc. The signal is recorded using an ICCD camera with an 18 mm wide HBF Gen III intensifier . The intensifier’s quantum efficiency is 44% at
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdessattar Abdelkefi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate experimentally the concept of energy harvesting from galloping oscillations with a focus on wake and turbulence effects. The harvester is composed of a unimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam with a square cross-section tip mass. In one case, the harvester is placed in the wake of another galloping harvester with the objective of determining the wake effects on the response of the harvester. In the second case, meshes were placed upstream of the harvester with the objective of investigating the effects of upstream turbulence on the response of the harvester. The results show that both wake effects and upstream turbulence significantly affect the response of the harvester. Depending on the spacing between the two squares and the opening size of the mesh, wake and upstream turbulence can positively enhance the level of the harvested power.
Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
2014-01-01
This work presents a small-scale wideband piezomagnetoelastic vibration energy harvester (VEH) aimed for operation at frequencies of a few hundred Hz. The VEH consists of a tape-casted PZT cantilever with thin sheets of iron foil attached on each side of the free tip. The wideband operation...
Vibrational Power Flow Analysis of Rods and Beams
Wohlever, James Christopher; Bernhard, R. J.
1988-01-01
A new method to model vibrational power flow and predict the resulting energy density levels in uniform rods and beams is investigated. This method models the flow of vibrational power in a manner analogous to the flow of thermal power in a heat conduction problem. The classical displacement solutions for harmonically excited, hysteretically damped rods and beams are used to derive expressions for the vibrational power flow and energy density in the rod and beam. Under certain conditions, the power flow in these two structural elements will be shown to be proportional to the energy density gradient. Using the relationship between power flow and energy density, an energy balance on differential control volumes in the rod and beam leads to a Poisson's equation which models the energy density distribution in the rod and beam. Coupling the energy density and power flow solutions for rods and beams is also discussed. It is shown that the resonant behavior of finite structures complicates the coupling of solutions, especially when the excitations are single frequency inputs. Two coupling formulations are discussed, the first based on the receptance method, and the second on the travelling wave approach used in Statistical Energy Analysis. The receptance method is the more computationally intensive but is capable of analyzing single frequency excitation cases. The traveling wave approach gives a good approximation of the frequency average of energy density and power flow in coupled systems, and thus, is an efficient technique for use with broadband frequency excitation.
Time Resolved Energy Transfer and Photodissociation of Vibrationally Excited Molecules
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Crim, F. F
2007-01-01
...) in solution and in the gas phase. This second experiment is one of the few direct comparisons of intramolecular vibrational energy flow in a solvated molecule with that in the same molecule isolated in a gas...
Low-energy isovector quadrupole vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faessler, A.; Nojarov, R.
1986-01-23
The low-lying isovector quadrupole vibrations are described by an extension of the vibrational model allowing independent proton and neutron vibrations coupled by the symmetry energy. The recently detected low-lying isovector states in nearly spherical nuclei with N=84 are described well concerning their energies and E2/M1 mixing ratios. (orig.).
Nonlinear spring-less electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting system
Hadas, Z.; Ondrusek, C.
2015-11-01
This paper deals with a description and modelling of a spring-less electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting system. The presented unique electromagnetic vibration energy harvester consists of a nonlinear resonance mechanism, magnetic circuit with a coil and an electronic load. The mechanical vibrations excite the nonlinear resonance mechanism and the relative movement of the magnetic circuit against fixed coil induces voltage due to Faraday's Law. When the electronics is connected the current flows through the load and output power is harvested. There are several nonlinearities which affects operations of the presented electromagnetic energy harvesting system. The significant nonlinearity of the system is stiffness of the resonance mechanism and it causes extending of an operation bandwidth. The harvesting of electrical energy from mechanical vibrations provides electromagnetic damping feedbacks of the coil to moving magnetic circuit. The feedback depends on the current flow through the electronic load and coil. The using of modern power management circuit with optimal power point provides other nonlinear operation.
Nozzle Flow with Vibrational Nonequilibrium. Ph.D. Thesis
Landry, John Gary
1995-01-01
Flow of nitrogen gas through a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations that have been modified for vibrational nonequilibrium. The energy equation is replaced by two equations. One equation accounts for energy effects due to the translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and the other accounts for the affects due to the vibrational degree of freedom. The energy equations are coupled by a relaxation time which measures the time required for the vibrational energy component to equilibrate with the translational and rotational energy components. An improved relaxation time is used in this thesis. The equations are solved numerically using the Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method and the Implicit MacCormack method. The results show that uniform flow is produced outside of the boundary layer. Nonequilibrium exists in both the converging and diverging nozzle sections. The boundary layer region is characterized by a marked increase in translational-rotational temperature. The vibrational temperature remains frozen downstream of the nozzle, except in the boundary layer.
Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves.
Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis
2017-09-01
This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.
Review of magnetostrictive vibration energy harvesters
Deng, Zhangxian; Dapino, Marcelo J.
2017-10-01
The field of energy harvesting has grown concurrently with the rapid development of portable and wireless electronics in which reliable and long-lasting power sources are required. Electrochemical batteries have a limited lifespan and require periodic recharging. In contrast, vibration energy harvesters can supply uninterrupted power by scavenging useful electrical energy from ambient structural vibrations. This article reviews the current state of vibration energy harvesters based on magnetostrictive materials, especially Terfenol-D and Galfenol. Existing magnetostrictive harvester designs are compared in terms of various performance metrics. Advanced techniques that can reduce device size and improve performance are presented. Models for magnetostrictive devices are summarized to guide future harvester designs.
Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow
Lythgo, Noel; Eser, Prisca; de Groot, Patricia; Galea, Mary
The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used
Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farid Ullah Khan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.
High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping
Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang
2017-07-01
In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.
A Detailed Level Kinetics Model of NO Vibrational Energy Distributions
Sharma, Surendra P.; Gilmore, John; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
Several contemporary problems have pointed to the desirability of a detailed level kinetics approach to modeling the distribution of vibrational energy in NO. Such a model is necessary when vibrational redistribution reactions are insufficient to maintain a Boltzmann distribution over the vibrational energy states. Recent calculations of the rate constant for the first reaction of the Zeldovich mechanism (N2 + O (goes to) NO + N) have suggested that the product NO is formed in high vibrational states. In shock layer flowfields, the product NO molecules may experience an insufficient number of collisions to establish a Boltzmann distribution over vibrational states, thus necessitating a level kinetics model. In other flows, such as expansions of high temperature air, fast, near-resonance vibrational energy exchanges with N2 and O2 may also require a level specific model for NO because of the relative rates of vibrational exchange and redistribution. The proposed report will integrate computational and experimental components to construct such a model for the NO molecule.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations
Adhikari, S.; Friswell, M. I.; Inman, D. J.
2009-11-01
Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples.
On Kinetics Modeling of Vibrational Energy Transfer
Gilmore, John O.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
Two models of vibrational energy exchange are compared at equilibrium to the elementary vibrational exchange reaction for a binary mixture. The first model, non-linear in the species vibrational energies, was derived by Schwartz, Slawsky, and Herzfeld (SSH) by considering the detailed kinetics of vibrational energy levels. This model recovers the result demanded at equilibrium by the elementary reaction. The second model is more recent, and is gaining use in certain areas of computational fluid dynamics. This model, linear in the species vibrational energies, is shown not to recover the required equilibrium result. Further, this more recent model is inconsistent with its suggested rate constants in that those rate constants were inferred from measurements by using the SSH model to reduce the data. The non-linear versus linear nature of these two models can lead to significant differences in vibrational energy coupling. Use of the contemporary model may lead to significant misconceptions, especially when integrated in computer codes considering multiple energy coupling mechanisms.
Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Jakob
Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... the intramolecular dynamics during photodissociation is investigated. The apparent agreement with quantum mechanical calculations is shown to be in contrast to the applicability of the individual approximations used in deriving the model from a quantum mechanical treatment. In the spirit of the Bersohn-Zewail model...
A hybrid nonlinear vibration energy harvester
Yang, Wei; Towfighian, Shahrzad
2017-06-01
Vibration energy harvesting converts mechanical energy from ambient sources to electricity to power remote sensors. Compared to linear resonators that have poor performance away from their natural frequency, nonlinear vibration energy harvesters perform better because they use vibration energy over a broader spectrum. We present a hybrid nonlinear energy harvester that combines bi-stability with internal resonance to increase the frequency bandwidth. A two-fold increase in the frequency bandwidth can be obtained compared to a bi-stable system with fixed magnets. The harvester consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam carrying a movable magnet facing a fixed magnet. A spring allows the magnet to move along the beam and it provides an extra stored energy to further increase the amplitude of vibration acting as a mechanical amplifier. An electromechanically coupled mathematical model of the system is presented to obtain the dynamic response of the cantilever beam, the movable magnet and the output voltage. The perturbation method of multiple scales is applied to solve these equations and obtain approximate analytical solutions. The effects of various system parameters on the frequency responses are investigated. The numerical approaches of the long time integration (Runge-Kutta method) and the shooting technique are used to verify the analytical results. The results of this study can be used to improve efficiency in converting wasted mechanical vibration to useful electrical energy by broadening the frequency bandwidth.
Flow-induced vibration of component cooling water heat exchangers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, Y.S.; Chen, S.S. (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))
1990-01-01
This paper presents an evaluation of flow-induced vibration problems of component cooling water heat exchangers in one of Taipower's nuclear power stations. Specifically, it describes flow-induced vibration phenomena, tests to identify the excitation mechanisms, measurement of response characteristics, analyses to predict tube response and wear, various design alterations, and modifications of the original design. Several unique features associated with the heat exchangers are demonstrated, including energy-trapping modes, existence of tube-support-plate (TSP)-inactive modes, and fluidelastic instability of TSP-active and -inactive modes. On the basis of this evaluation, the difficulties and future research needs for the evaluation of heat exchangers are identified. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.
Flow-induced vibrations an engineering guide
Naudascher, Eduard
2012-01-01
Despite their variety, the vibration phenomena from many different engineering fields can be classified into a relatively few basic excitation mechanisms. The classification enables engineers to identify all possible sources of excitation in a given system and to assess potential dangers. This graduate-level text presents a synthesis of research results and practical experience from disparate fields in the form of engineering guidelines. It is particularly geared toward assessing the possible sources of excitation in a flow system, in identifying the actual danger spots, and in finding appropr
Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design
Foruzande, Hamid Reza; Hajnayeb, Ali; Yaghootian, Amin
2017-09-01
Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.
Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid Reza Foruzande
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton’s principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.
Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter
Kellogg, Rick Allen [Tijeras, NM; Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Albuquerque, NM
2009-03-03
Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.
Vibrational energy relaxation in liquids
Chesnoy, J.; Gale, G. M.
The de-excitation of the vibrational population of small molecules in the liquid state is considered. Experimental techniques applicable to the measurement of relaxation times in dense phases are first described. Theoretical approaches are subsequently developed with special emphasis on the relationship between ab-initio quantum methods and binary interaction models. Finally, a selection of experimental results is analysed in the light of these theories. Special attention is given to the dependence of the relaxation time on experimental parameters such as density, temperature or the concentration of a mixture. The behaviour of the relaxation time across the liquid/solid phase transition is also treated. La désexcitation vibrationnelle de petites molécules est étudiée en phase liquide. Les techniques expérimentales utilisables pour mesurer les temps de relaxation en phase dense sont d'abord décrites. Les approches théoriques sont ensuite développées en montrant en particulier les liens entre les deux principales : l'approche quantique ab-initio et les modèles d'interaction binaire. Un choix de résultats expérimentaux est finalement analysé à la lumière de ces théories. Les dépendances des temps de relaxation envers les paramètres expérimentaux, comme la densité, la température ou la concentration d'un mélange, sont spécialement étudiées. Le comportement de la relaxation à la transition liquide/solide est aussi abordé.
Surface morphology effects in a vibration based triboelectric energy harvester
Nafari, A.; Sodano, H. A.
2018-01-01
Despite the abundance of ambient mechanical energy in our environment, it is often neglected and left unused. However, recent studies have demonstrated that mechanical vibrations can be harvested and used to power small wireless electronic devices, such as micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) and actuators. Most commonly, these energy harvesters convert vibration into electrical energy by utilizing piezoelectric, electromagnetic or electrostatic effects. Recently, triboelectric based energy harvesters have shown to be among the simplest and most cost-effective techniques for scavenging mechanical energy. The basis of triboelectric energy harvesters is the periodic contact and separation of two surfaces with opposite triboelectric properties which results in induced charge flow through an external load. Here, a vibration driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is fabricated and the effect of micro/nano scale surface modification is studied. The TENG produces electrical energy on the basis of periodic out-of-plane charge separation between gold and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with opposite triboelectric charge polarities. By introducing micro/nano scale surface modifications to the PDMS and gold, the TENG’s power output is further enhanced. This work demonstrates that the morphology of the surfaces in a TENG device is important and by increasing the effective surface area through micro/nano scale modification, the power output of the device can increase by 118%. Moreover, it is shown that unlike many TENGs proposed in the literature, the fabricated device has a high RMS open circuit voltage and short circuit current and can perform for an extended period of time.
Flow-Induced Vibration of Circular Cylindrical Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Shoei-Sheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Components Technology Division
1985-06-01
Flow-induced vibration is a term to denote those phenomena associated with the response of structures placed in or conveying fluid flow. More specifically, the terra covers those cases in which an interaction develops between fluid-dynamic forces and the inertia, damping or elastic forces in the structures. The study of these phenomena draws on three disciplines: (1) structural mechanics, (2) mechanical vibration, and (3) fluid dynamics. The vibration of circular cylinders subject to flow has been known to man since ancient times; the vibration of a wire at its natural frequency in response to vortex shedding was known in ancient Greece as aeolian tones. But systematic studies of the problem were not made until a century ago when Strouhal established the relationship between vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity for a given cylinder diameter. The early research in this area has beer summarized by Zdravkovich (1985) and Goldstein (1965). Flow-induced structural vibration has been experienced in numerous fields, including the aerospace industry, power generation/transmission (turbine blades, heat exchanger tubes, nuclear reactor components), civil engineering (bridges, building, smoke stacks), and undersea technology. The problems have usually been encountered or created accidentally through improper design. In most cases, a structural or mechanical component, designed to meet specific objectives, develops problems when the undesired effects of flow field have not been accounted for in the design. When a flow-induced vibration problem is noted in the design stage, the engineer has different options to eliminate the detrimental vibration. Unfortunately, in many situations, the problems occur after the components are already in operation; the "fix" usually is very costly. Flow-induced vibration comprises complex and diverse phenomena; subcritical vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies, galloping of transmission lines, flutter of pipes conveying fluid, and whirling
Flow distribution and tube vibration in heat exchangers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, H.L.
1985-07-01
A project was initiated to study flow distribution and tube vibration in heat exchangers. An experimental program was carried out on a full-size heat exchanger in four test phases of parametric study. The flow induced vibration data were used to quantify and develop non-intrusive vibration monitoring techniques for online problem evaluation and to study the influence of design features and conditions on the vibration. The in-tube vibration data obtained have shown that the vibroacoustic and microphone monitoring techniques to be reliable and accurate methods for the detection of tube impacting in an operating heat exchanger. Development of work on the use of a two-accelerator vibroacoustic technique for the location of impacting zones in a bundle showed promise and is currently being employed in the field. The in-tube vibration data have demonstrated the effects that changes in the design of a bundle can have on tube vibration in that bundle. These results indicate that an important factor in bundle design is the local flow distribution in areas of high vibration susceptibility. The in-tube data have demonstrated that tubes in zones other than the inlet region can be susceptible to a form of periodic resonant excitation. This observation has implications for cases where flow reduction is implemented to avoid an instability problem. Such a reduction could bring the tube bundle into a flow regime where it is susceptible to the resonant excitation. 10 refs., 55 figs., 4 tabs.
MEMS-Based Waste Vibrational Energy Harvesters
2013-06-01
low spring constant objective to be achieved. A piezoelectric cantilever beam that is very long and very thin would produce the maximum voltage...California, Berkeley, 2002. [11] A. Kasyap, “Development of MEMS-based piezoelectric cantilever arrays for vibrational energy harvesting,” Gainesville, FL...maximum 200 words) The piezoelectric effect is a phenomenon where strain on a piezoelectric crystal structure causes potential difference at its
First international symposium on Flow Induced Noise and Vibration Issues and Aspects
Rosa, Sergio; Franco, Francesco; Guyader, Jean-Louis; Hambric, Stephen; Flinovia - Flow Induced Noise and Vibration Issues and Aspects
2015-01-01
Flow induced vibration and noise (FIVN) remains a critical research topic. Even after over 50 years of intensive research, accurate and cost-effective FIVN simulation and measurement techniques remain elusive. This book gathers the latest research from some of the most prominent experts in the field. It describes methods for characterizing wall pressure fluctuations, including subsonic and supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows over smooth and rough surfaces using computational methods like Large Eddy Simulation; for inferring wall pressure fluctuations using inverse techniques based on panel vibrations or holographic pressure sensor arrays; for calculating the resulting structural vibrations and radiated sound using traditional finite element methods, as well as advanced methods like Energy Finite Elements; for using scaling approaches to universally collapse flow-excited vibration and noise spectra; and for computing time histories of structural response, including alternating stresses. This book p...
Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester
Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.
Report of workshop on vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field. 7
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-12-31
Because of the nonlinearity of the equation that governs flow, sometimes vibration occurs in an unexpected system, and it causes trouble. This 7th workshop on vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field was held at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory of University of Tokyo on August 25 and 26, 1997. Two themes were ``Vibration of liquid surface by flow`` and ``Numerical analysis of coupled vibration of fluid-structures``. The former is related to the problem in the development of a demonstration FBR, and the latter is related to the numerical analysis technology such as the handling of boundary conditions and the method of taking position, moving velocity and acceleration into account. This workshop aims at thoroughly discussing a small number of themes, and deepening the understanding. In this report, the summaries of 17 papers are collected, of which the titles are as follows. Liquid surface self-exciting vibration by flow, vibration of upper plenum liquid surface of fast reactor, stability analysis of multiple liquid surfaces, flow instability phenomena of multi-loop system, sloshing in a vessel in which fluid flows, the mechanism of occurrence of self-exciting sloshing in a vessel elucidated by numerical analysis, numerical analysis of manometer vibration excited by flow, numerical analysis of flutter phenomena of aircraft, numerical analysis of aerodynamic elastic problem, mechanism of in-line excitation, numerical analysis of hydrodynamic elastic vibration of tube nest and so on. (K.I.)
Modelling flow-induced vibrations of gates in hydraulic structures
Erdbrink, C.D.
2014-01-01
The dynamic behaviour of gates in hydraulic structures caused by passing flow poses a potential threat to flood protection. Complex interactions between the turbulent flow and the suspended gate body may induce undesired vibrations. This thesis contributes to a better understanding and prevention of
Production, Delivery and Application of Vibration Energy in Healthcare
Abundo, Paolo; Trombetta, Chiara; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola
2011-02-01
In Rehabilitation Medicine therapeutic application of vibration energy in specific clinical treatments and in sport rehabilitation is being affirmed more and more.Vibration exposure can have positive or negative effects on the human body depending on the features and time of the characterizing wave. The human body is constantly subjected to different kinds of vibrations, inducing bones and muscles to actively modify their structure and metabolism in order to fulfill the required functions. Like every other machine, the body supports only certain vibration energy levels over which long term impairments can be recognized. As shown in literature anyway, short periods of vibration exposure and specific frequency values can determine positive adjustments.
Methods of performing downhole operations using orbital vibrator energy sources
Cole, Jack H.; Weinberg, David M.; Wilson, Dennis R.
2004-02-17
Methods of performing down hole operations in a wellbore. A vibrational source is positioned within a tubular member such that an annulus is formed between the vibrational source and an interior surface of the tubular member. A fluid medium, such as high bulk modulus drilling mud, is disposed within the annulus. The vibrational source forms a fluid coupling with the tubular member through the fluid medium to transfer vibrational energy to the tubular member. The vibrational energy may be used, for example, to free a stuck tubular, consolidate a cement slurry and/or detect voids within a cement slurry prior to the curing thereof.
Vibration-to-electric energy conversion with porous graphene oxide-nickel electrode
Zhang, Chen; Dang, Fei; Chen, Youlong; Yan, Yuan; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi
2017-11-01
In this work, we present a new approach of converting vibration energy to electric energy using porous graphene oxide-nickel (pGO-Ni) electrode and ionic solution. When actuated by vibration, the ionic solution repeatedly flows across the pGO-Ni electrode which changes the electric double layer at the interface between the pGO-Ni electrode and ionic solution. Therefore, a significant potential difference between the working electrode and the reference electrode immersed into the static ionic solution is observed. The output voltage first increases with the vibration frequency and then gradually approaches to a saturated value of 70.12 mV as the vibration frequency increases to 15 Hz. By connecting a 3 kΩ resistance to the energy conversion system, the discharging behaviors of the energy conversion system are studied, which shows an exponential decay of the output voltage and current. The proposed energy conversion system is analogous to a supercapacitor, whose effective capacitance, internal resistance and energy conversion efficiency are deduced based on the discharging experiments. The work provides a new vibration-to-electric energy conversion mechanism, which may inspire potential applications in flow sensor and harvesting waste mechanical or vibration energy.
Response of a flexible filament in a flowing soap film subject to a forced vibration
Jia, Laibing; Xiao, Qing; Wu, Haijun; Wu, Yanfeng; Yin, Xiezhen
2015-01-01
The interactions between flexible plates and fluids are important physical phenomena. A flag in wind is one of the most simplified and classical models for studying the problem. In this paper, we investigated the response of a flag in flow with an externally forced vibration by using flexible filaments and soap film. Experiments show that for a filament that is either in oscillation or stationary, the external forced vibration leads to its oscillation. A synchronization phenomenon occurs in the experiments. A small perturbation leads to a large response of flapping amplitude in response. The insight provided here is helpful to the applications in the flow control, energy harvesting, and bionic propulsion areas.
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
My talk will be covering my work as a whole over the course of the semester. The focus will be on using energy flow calibration in ECAL to check the precision of the corrections made by the light monitoring system used to account for transparency loss within ECAL crystals due to radiation damage over time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lyashenko Mikhail
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes mechanism and control algorithm for pneumatic relaxation system of suspension with vibration energy recuperation applied to standard vehicle operator seat (“Sibeko” company. Mathematical model of the seat pneumatic relaxation suspension with two additional air volumes was created. Pneumatic motor – recuperator activated by means of air flow from the one additional volume to another is installed in air piping between additional volumes. Computational research was made in Matlab/Simulink. Amplitude-frequency characteristics of transmission coefficient for standard and proposed suspensions were plotted for preliminary evaluation of vibration protection properties of seat suspension. Performed comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency characteristics shows that noticeable improvement of vibration protection properties of pneumatic relaxation suspension system with vibration energy recuperation in comparison with standard system both in region of resonance disturbances and in above-resonance region. Main ways for further improvement of vibration protection properties of proposed system were marked out.
Modelling of micro vibration energy harvester considering size effect
Li, Chuangye; Huo, Rui; Wang, Weike
2017-09-01
Considering increase of stiffness caused by size effect, equivalent Young's modulus was introduced for futher analysis. Experimental platform was established to test vibration characteristics. Dynamic equation for micro piezoelectric cantilever beam considering size effect was studied with finite element analysis and experiment. Results shows it is accurate. Based on that, dynamic model for micro vibration energy harvester was improved, a T-type micro vibration energy harvester was designed and fabricated. Resonant frequency, tip displacement and output voltage of the harvester were obtained. Comparing with macroscopic model for vibration harvester, improved one reduces errors by 13%, 35% and 22%.
Influence study of flow separation on the nozzle vibration response
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geng Li
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the vibration response difference of the upper stage nozzle with higher expansion ratio between ground and altitude simulation hot-firing test is analyzed. It indicates that the acceleration response of the nozzle under ground hot-firing test is much higher than that of the altitude condition. In order to find the essential reason, the experimental and numerical simulation studies of the flow separation are developed by using the test engine nozzle. The experimental data show that the nozzle internal flow occurred flow separation and the divergence cone internal wall pressure pulsation increased significantly downstream from the separation location. The numerical simulation and experimental results indicate that the increase of internal wall pressure and turbulence pulsating pressure are the substantial reason of vibration response increasing aggravatingly during the ground firing test.
A MEMS vibration energy harvester for automotive applications
van Schaijk, R.; Elfrink, R.; Oudenhoven, J.; Pop, V.; Wang, Z.; Renaud, M.
2013-05-01
The objective of this work is to develop MEMS vibration energy harvesters for tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS), they can be located on the rim or on the inner-liner of the car tire. Nowadays TPMS modules are powered by batteries with a limited lifetime. A large effort is ongoing to replace batteries with small and long lasting power sources like energy harvesters [1]. The operation principle of vibration harvesters is mechanical resonance of a seismic mass, where mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. In general, vibration energy harvesters are of specific interest for machine environments where random noise or repetitive shock vibrations are present. In this work we present the results for MEMS based vibration energy harvesting for applying on the rim or inner-liner. The vibrations on the rim correspond to random noise. A vibration energy harvester can be described as an under damped mass-spring system acting like a mechanical band-pass filter, and will resonate at its natural frequency [2]. At 0.01 g2/Hz noise amplitude the average power can reach the level that is required to power a simple wireless sensor node, approximately 10 μW [3]. The dominant vibrations on the inner-liner consist mainly of repetitive high amplitude shocks. With a shock, the seismic mass is displaced, after which the mass will "ring-down" at its natural resonance frequency. During the ring-down period, part of the mechanical energy is harvested. On the inner-liner of the tire repetitive (one per rotation) high amplitude (few hundred g) shocks occur. The harvester enables an average power of a few tens of μW [4], sufficient to power a more sophisticated wireless sensor node that can measure additional tire-parameters besides pressure. In this work we characterized MEMS vibration energy harvesters for noise and shock excitation. We validated their potential for TPMS modules by measurements and simulation.
Broadband vibration energy harvester utilizing three out-of-plane modes of one vibrating body
Park, Shi-Baek; Jang, Seon-Jun; Kim, In-Ho; Choi, Yong Je
2017-10-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept, design equation, and realization of a broadband electromagnetic vibrational energy harvester. The spatial vibrating system in the proposed harvester is arranged to have three out-of-plane vibration modes. We devise the design method for its three natural frequencies and accompanying modes and apply it to the broadband energy harvesting by locating three frequencies close to each other. The numerical simulation and the experimental results show that it satisfies the designated frequencies as well as the enhanced bandwidth for power generation.
Numerical investigation on vibration and noise induced by unsteady flow in an axial-flow pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Eryun; Ma, Zui Ling; Yang, Ai Ling; Nan, Guo Fang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Gai Ping [School of Medical Instruments and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Guo Ping [Shanghai Marine Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai (China)
2016-12-15
Full-scale structural vibration and noise induced by flow in an axial-flow pump was simulated by a hybrid numerical method. An unsteady flow field was solved by a large eddy simulation-based computational fluid dynamics commercial code, Fluent. An experimental validation on pressure fluctuations was performed to impose an appropriate vibration exciting source. The consistency between the computed results and experimental tests were interesting. The modes of the axial-flow pump were computed by the finite element method. After that, the pump vibration and sound field were solved using a coupled vibro-acoustic model. The numerical results indicated that the the blade-passing frequency was the dominant frequency of the vibration acceleration of the pump. This result was consistent with frequency spectral characteristics of unsteady pressure fluctuation. Finally, comparisons of the vibration acceleration between the computed results and the experimental test were conducted. These comparisons validated the computed results. This study shows that using the hybrid numerical method to evaluate the flow-induced vibration and noise generated in an axial-flow pump is feasible.
Analysis of vibrational-translational energy transfer using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method
Boyd, Iain D.
1991-01-01
A new model is proposed for energy transfer between the vibrational and translational modes for use in the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The model modifies the Landau-Teller theory for a harmonic oscillator and the rate transition is related to an experimental correlation for the vibrational relaxation time. Assessment of the model is made with respect to three different computations: relaxation in a heat bath, a one-dimensional shock wave, and hypersonic flow over a two-dimensional wedge. These studies verify that the model achieves detailed balance, and excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained in the shock wave calculation. The wedge flow computation reveals that the usual phenomenological method for simulating vibrational nonequilibrium in the DSMC technique predicts much higher vibrational temperatures in the wake region.
Development of flow separation control system to reduce the vibration of wind turbine blades
Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Han, Jong-Seob; Han, Jae-Hung
2017-04-01
The size of wind turbine blade has been continuously increased. Large-scale wind turbine blades induce loud noise, vibration; and maintenance difficulty is also increased. It causes the eventual increases of the cost of energy. The vibration of wind turbine blade is caused by several reasons such as a blade rotation, tower shadow, wind shear, and flow separation of a wind turbine blade. This wind speed variation changes in local angle of attack of the blades and create the vibration. The variation of local angle of attack influences the lift coefficient and causes the large change of the lift. In this study, we focus on the lift coefficient control using a flow control device to reduce the vibration. DU35-A15 airfoil was employed as baseline model. A plasma actuator was installed to generate the upwind jet in order to control the lift coefficient. Wind tunnel experiment was performed to demonstrate of the performance of the plasma actuator. The results show the plasma actuator can induce the flow separation compared with the baseline model. In addition, the actuator can delay the flow separation depending on the input AC frequency with the same actuator configuration.
A Novel Ropes-DrivenWideband Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinhui Zhang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH in which a high-frequency generating beam (HFGB is driven by an array of low-frequency driving beams (LFDBs using ropes. Two mechanisms based on frequency upconversion and multimodal harvesting work together to broaden the frequency bandwidth of the proposed vibration energy harvester (VEH. The experimental results show that the output power of generating beam (GB remains unchanged with the increasing number of driving beams (DBs, compared with the traditional arrays of beams vibration energy harvester (AB-VEH, and the output power and bandwidth behavior can be adjusted by parameters such as acceleration, rope margin, and stiffness of LFDBs, which shows the potential to achieve unlimited wideband vibration energy-harvesting for a variable environment.
Vibrational Energy Relaxation in Water-Acetonitrile Mixtures
Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A.; Okada, Tadashi; Silvestri, Sandro De
2004-01-01
IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.
Vibrational energy relaxation in water-acetonitrile mixtures
Cringus, D; Yeremenko, S; Pshenichnikov, MS; Wiersma, DA; Kobayashi, T; Okada, T; Kobayashi, T; Nelson, KA; DeSilvestri, S
2005-01-01
IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.
Vibrational energy relaxation in water-acetonitrile mixtures
Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.
2004-01-01
IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.
Extension of vibrational power flow techniques to two-dimensional structures
Cuschieri, Joseph M.
1988-01-01
In the analysis of the vibration response and structure-borne vibration transmission between elements of a complex structure, statistical energy analysis (SEA) or finite element analysis (FEA) are generally used. However, an alternative method is using vibrational power flow techniques which can be especially useful in the mid frequencies between the optimum frequency regimes for SEA and FEA. Power flow analysis has in general been used on 1-D beam-like structures or between structures with point joints. In this paper, the power flow technique is extended to 2-D plate-like structures joined along a common edge without frequency or spatial averaging the results, such that the resonant response of the structure is determined. The power flow results are compared to results obtained using FEA results at low frequencies and SEA at high frequencies. The agreement with FEA results is good but the power flow technique has an improved computational efficiency. Compared to the SEA results the power flow results show a closer representation of the actual response of the structure.
CFD simulation of flow-induced vibration of an elastically supported airfoil
Šidlof Petr
2016-01-01
Flow-induced vibration of lifting or control surfaces in aircraft may lead to catastrophic consequences. Under certain circumstances, the interaction between the airflow and the elastic structure may lead to instability with energy transferred from the airflow to the structure and with exponentially increasing amplitudes of the structure. In the current work, a CFD simulation of an elastically supported NACA0015 airfoil with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge) coupled with 2D incompress...
Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
1993-12-01
This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.
Granular flows down inclined and vibrated planes: influence of basal friction
Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine
2017-06-01
We present an experimental study about granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. The results of the flow properties highlight the existence of two distinct regimes: (i) a gravity-driven regime at large angles where scaling laws are in agreement with those reported in the literature for non-vibrating granular flows and (ii) a vibration-driven regime at small angles where no flow occurs without applied vibrations. The flow in this regime is well described by a vibrationinduced activated process. We also propose an empirical law to capture the evolution of the thickness of the deposits as a function of the vibration intensity and the inclination angle.
A MEMS Energy Harvesting Device for Vibration with Low Acceleration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Triches, Marco; Wang, Fei; Crovetto, Andrea
2012-01-01
We propose a polymer electret based energy harvesting device in order to extract energy from vibration sources with low acceleration. With MEMS technology, a silicon structure is fabricated which can resonate in 2D directions. Thanks to the excellent mechanical properties of the silicon material...
2007 Estimated International Energy Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J
2011-03-10
An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.
Vibrating cantilever beam in a flowing soap film
Sajjanapu, Veera; Ward, Thomas
2016-11-01
We present an experimental study of the interaction between a flexible cantilever beam and a flowing fluid medium using a soap film. The vertically falling soap film is capable of attaining speeds ranging from 1.5 - 3 m/s with an operating test section width of 7.5 cm. Experiments were conducted for flexible cantilever beams of length L <= 10 mm yielding Reynolds number 5000 < Re < 10000 and of cantilever beam thickness ranging from 0.03 - 0.08 mm were placed at angles of attack ranging from 10° - 50°. We visualize the beam displacements and wake with a high-speed camera. Assuming small vibrational amplitudes, we consider the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to understand the dynamics. From the analysis we find that the normalized average displacement is linear with respect to the square of the free-stream velocity. The vibrational amplitude is also discussed using a similar scaling. Finally, visualization of the downstream vortex structure is related to a beams displacement and vibrational frequency using dimensional analysis.
A Galloping Energy Harvester with Attached Flow
Denissenko, Petr; Khovanov, Igor; Tucker-Harvey, Sam
2017-11-01
Aeroelastic energy harvesters are a promising technology for the operation of wireless sensors and microelectromechanical systems, as well as providing the possibility of harvesting wind energy in applications were conventional wind turbines are ineffective, such as in highly turbulent flows, or unreliable, such as in harsh environmental conditions. The development of aeroelastic energy harvesters to date has focused on the flutter of airfoils, the galloping of prismatic structures, and the vortex induced vibrations. We present a novel type of galloping energy harvester with the flow becoming attached when the oscillation amplitude is high enough. With the flow attached, the harvester blade acts closer to an aerofoil than a bluff body, which results in a higher efficiency. The dynamics of a prototype device has been characterised experimentally with the use of a motion tracking system. The flow structure in the vicinity of the device has been studied using smoke visualisation and PIV measurements. A lumped parameter mathematical model has been developed and related to the experimental results.
Bi-axial Vibration Energy Harvesting
2012-07-01
impedance measurement are presented in Section 4, however it is noted that the measured capacitance of ME transducer (i.e. the bonded PZT element...two wire ligaments), connected to a 75 N vibration shaker (TIRA S 511 75 N). Host accelerations were measured using an accelerometer (PCB 333B40... capacitance of the ME transducer was 1.86 nF (see above), resulting in a capacitive reactance at 10 Hz of, XC = 1/(2 f C) ~ 8.6 MΩ . (6
Low Head, Vortex Induced Vibrations River Energy Converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernitsas, Michael B.; Dritz, Tad
2006-06-30
Vortex Induced Vibrations Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) is a novel, demonstrated approach to extracting energy from water currents. This invention is based on a phenomenon called Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV), which was first observed by Leonardo da Vinci in 1504AD. He called it ‘Aeolian Tones.’ For decades, engineers have attempted to prevent this type of vibration from damaging structures, such as offshore platforms, nuclear fuel rods, cables, buildings, and bridges. The underlying concept of the VIVACE Converter is the following: Strengthen rather than spoil vortex shedding; enhance rather than suppress VIV; harness rather than mitigate VIV energy. By maximizing and utilizing this unique phenomenon, VIVACE takes this “problem” and successfully transforms it into a valuable resource for mankind.
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyeong Jae Lee
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow
Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim
2015-01-01
We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well. PMID:26473879
Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.
Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim
2015-10-14
We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.
Passive and Active Vibration Control of Renewable Energy Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zili
The present thesis deals with fundamental researches on passive and active vibration control of renewable energy structures, and provides useful models for practical applications. Effective and robust vibration control methods have been explored for mitigating the lightly damped edgewise blade...... solutions for wave energy point absorbers, in order to maximize the mean absorbed power and to deliver more smooth power to the grid. A novel suboptimal causal control law has been established for controlling the motion of the point absorber, and a new type of point absorber has also been proposed...
Combined Euler column vibration isolation and energy harvesting
Davis, R. B.; McDowell, M. D.
2017-05-01
A new device that combines vibration isolation and energy harvesting is modeled, simulated, and tested. The vibration isolating portion of the device uses post-buckled beams as its spring elements. Piezoelectric film is applied to the beams to harvest energy from their dynamic flexure. The entire device operates passively on applied base excitation and requires no external power or control system. The structural system is modeled using the elastica, and the structural response is applied as forcing on the electric circuit equation to predict the output voltage and the corresponding harvested power. The vibration isolation and energy harvesting performance is simulated across a large parameter space and the modeling approach is validated with experimental results. Experimental transmissibilities of 2% and harvested power levels of 0.36 μW are simultaneously demonstrated. Both theoretical and experimental data suggest that there is not necessarily a trade-off between vibration isolation and harvested power. That is, within the practical operational range of the device, improved vibration isolation will be accompanied by an increase in the harvested power as the forcing frequency is increased.
Damping and energy dissipation in soft tissue vibrations during running.
Khassetarash, Arash; Hassannejad, Reza; Enders, Hendrik; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad
2015-01-21
It has been well accepted that the vibrations of soft tissue cannot be simulated by a single sinusoidal function. In fact, these vibrations are a combination of several vibration modes. In this study, these modes are extracted applying a recently developed method namely, partly ensemble empirical mode decomposition (PEEMD). Then, a methodology for estimating the damping properties and energy dissipation caused by damping for each mode is used. Applying this methodology on simulated signals demonstrates high accuracy. This methodology is applied to the acceleration signals of the gastrocnemius muscle during sprinting and the differences between the damping properties of different vibration modes were identified. The results were 1) the damping property of high-frequency mode was higher than that for low-frequency modes. 2) All identified modes were in under damped condition, therefore, the vibrations had an oscillatory nature. 3) The damping ratios of lower modes are about 100% increased compared to higher modes. 4) The energy dissipation occurred in lower modes were much more than that for higher mode; According to the power spectrum of the ground reaction force (GRF), which is the input force into the body, the recent finding supports the muscle tuning paradigm. It is suggested that the damping properties and energy dissipation can be used to distinguish between different running conditions (surface, fatigue, etc.). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heavy atom vibrational modes and low-energy vibrational autodetachment in nitromethane anions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, Michael C.; Weber, J. Mathias, E-mail: weberjm@jila.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado at Boulder, 440 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, 215UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Baraban, Joshua H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, 215UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Matthews, Devin A. [Institute for Computational Engineering and Science, University of Texas at Austin, 201 E. 24th St., Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station A5300, Austin, Texas 78712-0165 (United States)
2015-06-21
We report infrared spectra of nitromethane anion, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}{sup −}, in the region 700–2150 cm{sup −1}, obtained by Ar predissociation spectroscopy and electron detachment spectroscopy. The data are interpreted in the framework of second-order vibrational perturbation theory based on coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The modes in the spectroscopic region studied here are mainly based on vibrations involving the heavier atoms; this work complements earlier studies on nitromethane anion that focused on the CH stretching region of the spectrum. Electron detachment begins at photon energies far below the adiabatic electron affinity due to thermal population of excited vibrational states.
Yoon, Heonjun; Kim, Miso; Park, Choon-Su; Youn, Byeng D.
2018-01-01
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) has received much attention as a potential solution that could ultimately realize self-powered wireless sensor networks. Since most ambient vibrations in nature are inherently random and nonstationary, the output performances of PVEH devices also randomly change with time. However, little attention has been paid to investigating the randomly time-varying electroelastic behaviors of PVEH systems both analytically and experimentally. The objective of this study is thus to make a step forward towards a deep understanding of the time-varying performances of PVEH devices under nonstationary random vibrations. Two typical cases of nonstationary random vibration signals are considered: (1) randomly-varying amplitude (amplitude modulation; AM) and (2) randomly-varying amplitude with randomly-varying instantaneous frequency (amplitude and frequency modulation; AM-FM). In both cases, this study pursues well-balanced correlations of analytical predictions and experimental observations to deduce the relationships between the time-varying output performances of the PVEH device and two primary input parameters, such as a central frequency and an external electrical resistance. We introduce three correlation metrics to quantitatively compare analytical prediction and experimental observation, including the normalized root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the weighted integrated factor. Analytical predictions are in an excellent agreement with experimental observations both mechanically and electrically. This study provides insightful guidelines for designing PVEH devices to reliably generate electric power under nonstationary random vibrations.
Low energy electron impact vibrational excitation of acetylene
Patra, Sigma; Hargreaves, Leigh; Khakoo, Murtadha
2016-05-01
Experimental differential cross sections for the vibration excitation of the four fundamental modes of acetylene at low incident electron energies from 1 eV to 20 eV and scattering angles of 10o to 130o will be presented. The results will be compared to results available in the literature. Funded by NSF-AMOP-RUI Grant.
Energy harvesting from wood floor vibration using a piezoelectric generator
Jiangming Kan; Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang; Wenbin Li
2017-01-01
Vibration can occur in wood floor systems as a consequence of a variety of human activities, ranging from common daily movements associated with individuals living in homes to high-intensity activities associated with sporting events that are held in large sports arenas. For example, the potential for harvesting energy from a wooden floor system in public buildings...
Wang, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Lou, Yanchun; Chen, Rui; Song, Zhaowei; Li, Baokuan
2016-01-01
A transient three-dimensional (3D) coupled mathematical model has been developed to understand the effect of a vibrating electrode on the electromagnetic, two-phase flow and temperature fields as well as the solidification in the electroslag remelting (ESR) process. With the magnetohydrodynamic model, the Joule heating and Lorentz force, which are the source terms in the energy and momentum equations, are recalculated at each iteration as a function of the phase distribution. The influence of the vibrating electrode on the formation of the metal droplet is demonstrated by the volume of fluid approach. Additionally, the solidification of the metal is modeled by an enthalpy-based technique, in which the mushy zone is treated as a porous medium with porosity equal to the liquid fraction. The present work is the first attempt to investigate the innovative technology of the ESR process with a vibrating electrode by a transient 3D comprehensive model. A reasonable agreement between the experiment and simulation is obtained. The results indicate that the whole process is presented as a periodic activity. When the metal droplets fall from the tip of the electrode, the horizontal component of velocity will generate electrode vibration. This will lead to the distribution variation of the flow field in the slag layer. The variation of temperature distribution occurs regularly and is periodically accompanied by the behavior of the falling metal droplets. With the decreasing vibrating frequency and amplitude, the relative velocity of the electrode and molten slag increase accordingly. The diameter of the molten droplets, the maximum temperature and the depth of the molten pool gradually become smaller, lower and shallower.
FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATION IN PIPES: CHALLENGESS AND SOLUTIONS - A REVIEW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. SIBA
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The Flow-induced vibration has recently been the topic of experimental, numerical, and theoretical studies. It was intended to implement better applications for controlling the flow using orifice technique. Having the flow under control, the orifice becomes an instrument for measuring the flow. The flow of all fluid such as water, oil, gas and vapours through an orifice was tested and mathematical models were developed adequately. The basic theme for these enormous studies was the need for the very accurate flow measurements through orifices. All experimental, theoretical, numerical, and analytical studies have agreed that there is more than one avenue to develop, modify, and enhance such measurements. However, one factor that affects the flow measurements is the vibration which was not treated as required until the mid-20th century due to enormous discoveries that damages could be rooted to vibration. Researchers have studied vibration and then proposed mathematical models in conjunction with the pressure and velocity measurements of the flowing fluids and then the effect of the vibration, induced or not induced, has been under continuous investigation. This paper is an attempt to review the previous studies regarding understanding the nature of the vibration and the possible effects of vibration on the flow and on the piping structure in order to limit the damage caused by the vibration. This study shows that the need for more experimental studies and more comprehensive analytical approaches are, in particular, very essential to develop better results.
An implantable fluidic vibrational energy harvester
Inoue, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kumemura, M.; Fujita, H.; Toshiyoshi, H.
2016-11-01
Targeting implantable medical devices such as respiratory pace-maker, we have developed a proof-of-concept level energy harvester device that could earn electric power of 44 μW/cm2 by the fluidic motion in a PDMS microchannel placed on a silicon substrate with built-in permanent electrical charges or so-called electrets. The motion of the working fluid will be operated by the heart beat or breathing as a final shape of the energy harvesting system.
Lyashenko Mikhail; Potapov Pavel; Iskaliev Azamat
2017-01-01
This paper proposes mechanism and control algorithm for pneumatic relaxation system of suspension with vibration energy recuperation applied to standard vehicle operator seat (“Sibeko” company). Mathematical model of the seat pneumatic relaxation suspension with two additional air volumes was created. Pneumatic motor – recuperator activated by means of air flow from the one additional volume to another is installed in air piping between additional volumes. Computational research was made in M...
Modelling of a Bi-axial Vibration Energy Harvester
2013-05-01
effect of the electrical load on the transduction, and on the mechanical dynamics. It was demonstrated that the back EMF from current flow in the...created with a permanent-magnet/ball-bearing arrangement. The mechanical oscillations of the ball-bearing in response to bi-axial vibrations in a host...system on an aircraft platform. Modelling of the mechanical dynamics and the electromechanical transduction of the harvester is undertaken by: means of
Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nan Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.
Alexander, B. X. S.
Flywheel energy storage has distinct advantages over conventional energy storage methods such as electrochemical batteries. Because the energy density of a flywheel rotor increases quadratically with its speed, the foremost goal in flywheel design is to achieve sustainable high speeds of the rotor. Many issues exist with the flywheel rotor operation at high and varying speeds. A prominent problem is synchronous rotor vibration, which can drastically limit the sustainable rotor speed. In a set of projects, the novel Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) is applied to various problems of flywheel rotor operation. These applications include rotor levitation, steady state rotation at high speeds and accelerating operation. Several models such as the lumped mass model and distributed three-mass models have been analyzed. In each of these applications, the ADRC has been extended to cope with disturbance, noise, and control effort optimization; it also has been compared to various industry-standard controllers such as PID and PD/observer, and is proven to be superior. The control performance of the PID controller and the PD/observer currently used at NASA Glenn has been improved by as much as an order of magnitude. Due to the universality of the second order system, the results obtained in the rotor vibration problem can be straightforwardly extended to other vibrational systems, particularly, the MEMS gyroscope. Potential uses of a new nonlinear controller, which inherits the ease of use of the traditional PID, are also discussed.
Electrostatic MEMS vibration energy harvester for HVAC applications
Oxaal, J.; Hella, M.; Borca-Tasciuc, D.-A.
2015-12-01
This paper reports on an electrostatic MEMS vibration energy harvester with gapclosing interdigitated electrodes, designed for and tested on HVAC air ducts. The device is fabricated on SOI wafers using a custom microfabrication process. A dual-level physical stopper system is implemented in order to control the minimum gap between the electrodes and maximize the power output. It utilizes cantilever beams to absorb a portion of the impact energy as the electrodes approach the impact point, and a film of parylene with nanometer thickness deposited on the electrode sidewalls, which defines the absolute minimum gap and provides electrical insulation. The fabricated device was first tested on a vibration shaker to characterize its resonant behavior. The device exhibits spring hardening behavior due to impacts with the stoppers and spring softening behavior with increasing voltage bias. Testing was carried out on HVAC air duct vibrating with an RMS acceleration of 155 mgRMS and a primary frequency of 60 Hz with a PSD of 7.15·10-2 g2/Hz. The peak power measured is 12nW (0.6 nW RMS) with a PSD of 6.9·10-11 W/Hz at 240 Hz (four times of the primary frequency of 60 Hz), which is the highest output reported for similar vibration conditions and biasing voltages.
Energy Harvesting from Mechanical Shocks Using a Sensitive Vibration Energy Harvester
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zdenek Hadas
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a unique principle of energy harvesting technologies. An energy harvesting device generates electric energy from its surroundings using some kind of energy conversion method. Therefore, the considered energy harvesting device does not consume any fuel or substance. The presented energy harvesting system is used forenergy harvesting of electrical energy from mechanical shocks. The presented energy harvesting system uses a very sensitive vibration energy harvester, which was developed for an aeronautic application at Brno University of Technology. This energy harvesting system is a complex mechatronic device, which consists of a precise mechanical part, an electromagnetic converter, power electronics (power management and a load (e.g., wireless sensor. The very sensitive vibration energy harvester is capable of usingthe mechanical energy of mechanical shocks and it can harvest useful energy. This energy harvesting system is used with a wireless temperature sensor and measured results are presented in this paper.
Multistable chain for ocean wave vibration energy harvesting
Harne, R. L.; Schoemaker, M. E.; Wang, K. W.
2014-03-01
The heaving of ocean waves is a largely untapped, renewable kinetic energy resource. Conversion of this energy into electrical power could integrate with solar technologies to provide for round-the-clock, portable, and mobile energy supplies usable in a wide variety of marine environments. However, the direct drive conversion methodology of gridintegrated wave energy converters does not efficiently scale down to smaller, portable architectures. This research develops an alternative power conversion approach to harness the extraordinarily large heaving displacements and long oscillation periods as an excitation source for an extendible vibration energy harvesting chain. Building upon related research findings and engineering insights, the proposed system joins together a series of dynamic cells through bistable interfaces. Individual impulse events are generated as the inertial mass of each cell is pulled across a region of negative stiffness to induce local snap through dynamics; the oscillating magnetic inertial mass then generates current in a coil which is connected to energy harvesting circuitry. It is shown that linking the cells into a chain transmits impulses through the system leading to cascades of vibration and enhancement of electrical energy conversion from each impulse event. This paper describes the development of the multistable chain and ways in which realistic design challenges were addressed. Numerical modeling and corresponding experiments demonstrate the response of the chain due to slow and large amplitude input motion. Lastly, experimental studies give evidence that energy conversion efficiency of the chain for wave energy conversion is much higher than using an equal number of cells without connections.
Energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole body vibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravena Santos Raulino
2015-04-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of vibration during interval training would raise oxygen consumption VO2 to the extent necessary for weight management and to evaluate the influence of the intensity of the vibratory stimulus for prescribing the exercise program in question. METHODS: VO2, measured breath by breath, was evaluated at rest and during the four experimental conditions to determine energy expenditure, metabolic equivalent MET, respiratory exchange ratio RER, % Kcal from fat, and rate of fat oxidation. Eight young sedentary females age 22±1 years, height 163.88± 7.62 cm, body mass 58.35±10.96 kg, and VO2 max 32.75±3.55 mLO2.Kg-1.min-1 performed interval training duration = 13.3 min to the upper and lower limbs both with vibration 35 Hz and 2 mm, 40 Hz and 2 mm, 45 Hz and 2 mm and without vibration. The experimental conditions were randomized and balanced at an interval of 48 hours. RESULTS: the addition of vibration to exercise at 45 Hz and 2 mm resulted in an additional increase of 17.77±12.38% of VO2 compared with exercise without vibration. However, this increase did not change the fat oxidation rate p=0.42 because intensity of exercise 29.1±3.3 %VO2max, 2.7 MET was classified as mild to young subjects. CONCLUSION: despite the influence of vibration on VO2 during exercise, the increase was insufficient to reduce body weight and did not reach the minimum recommendation of exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population.
Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Owens, Alec, E-mail: owens@mpi-muelheim.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Thiel, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)
2015-06-28
Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH{sub 3}{sup 35}Cl and CH{sub 3}{sup 37}Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35{sup HL}, and CBS-37{sup HL}, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY {sub 3}Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35{sup HL} and CBS-37{sup HL} PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm{sup −1}, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH{sub 3}Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.
Magnetostrictive Vibration Damper and Energy Harvester for Rotating Machinery
Deng, Zhangxian; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.
2015-01-01
Vibrations generated by machine driveline components can cause excessive noise and structural damage. Magnetostrictive materials, including Galfenol (iron-gallium alloys) and Terfenol-D (terbium-iron-dysprosium alloys), are able to convert mechanical energy to magnetic energy. A magnetostrictive vibration ring is proposed, which generates electrical energy and dampens vibration, when installed in a machine driveline. A 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model incorporating magnetic, mechanical, and electrical dynamics is constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on the model, a parametric study considering magnetostrictive material geometry, pickup coil size, bias magnet strength, flux path design, and electrical load is conducted to maximize loss factor and average electrical output power. By connecting various resistive loads to the pickup coil, the maximum loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D due to electrical energy loss are identified as 0.14 and 0.34, respectively. The maximum average electrical output power for Galfenol and Terfenol-D is 0.21 W and 0.58 W, respectively. The loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D are increased to 0.59 and 1.83, respectively, by using an L-C resonant circuit.
An Electromagnetic MEMS Energy Harvester Array with Multiple Vibration Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huicong Liu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the design, micromachining and characterization of an array of electromagnetic energy harvesters (EHs with multiple frequency peaks. The authors present the combination of three multi-modal spring-mass structures so as to realize at least nine resonant peaks within a single microelectromechanical systems (MEMS chip. It is assembled with permanent magnet to show an electromagnetic-based energy harvesting capability. This is the first demonstration of multi-frequency MEMS EH existing with more than three resonant peaks within a limited frequency range of 189 to 662 Hz. It provides a more effective approach to harvest energy from the vibration sources of multiple frequency peaks.
Harvesting Energy from Vibrations of the Underlying Structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Bo; Vssilaras, S; Papadias, C.B.
2013-01-01
The use of wireless sensors for structural health monitoring offers several advantages such as small size, easy installation and minimal intervention on existing structures. However the most significant concern about such wireless sensors is the lifetime of the system, which depends heavily on th...... an improved Maximum Power Point Tracking technique on the conversion circuit, the proposed method is shown to maximize the conversion coefficient from kinetic energy to applicable electrical energy....... emerges as a technique that can harvest energy from the surrounding environment. Among all possible energy harvesting solutions, kinetic energy harvesting seems to be the most convenient, especially for sensors placed on structures that experience regular vibrations. Such micro-vibrations can be harmful...... on the type of power supply. No matter how energy efficient the operation of a battery operated sensor is, the energy of the battery will be exhausted at some point. In order to achieve a virtually unlimited lifetime, the sensor node should be able to recharge its battery in an easy way. Energy harvesting...
Inoue, Katsumi; Krantz, Timothy L.
1995-01-01
While the vibration analysis of gear systems has been developed, a systematic approach to the reduction of gearbox vibration has been lacking. The technique of reducing vibration by shifting natural frequencies is proposed here for gearboxes and other thin-plate structures using the theories of finite elements, modal analysis, and optimization. A triangular shell element with 18 degrees of freedom is developed for structural and dynamic analysis. To optimize, the overall vibration energy is adopted as the objective function to be minimized at the excitation frequency by varying the design variable (element thickness) under the constraint of overall constant weight. Modal analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the vibration energy as a function of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum design is found by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure. By applying the computer code to design problems for beams and plates, it was verified that the proposed method is effective in reducing vibration energy. The computer code is also applied to redesign the NASA Lewis gear noise rig test gearbox housing. As one example, only the shape of the top plate is varied, and the vibration energy levels of all the surfaces are reduced, yielding an overall reduction of 1/5 compared to the initial design. As a second example, the shapes of the top and two side plates are varied to yield an overall reduction in vibration energy of 1/30.
Analysis of flow-induced vibrations in turbomachinery by mapping of complex fluid pressures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N Wirth
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a mapping procedure which facilitates the simulation of flow-induced vibrations in turbomachinery. The transient steady state pressure fluctuations in the flow field (which excite vibrations are computed in the frequency domain by what are generally referred to as “harmonic CFD” methods where the pressure oscillations are expressed by complex amplitudes. They are mapped using the Fraunhofer software FSIMapper to a structural vibration analysis. A main focus lies in the provision of mapping methods for cyclic symmetric models. The process provides a fast numerical assessment of flow-induced vibrations where the resulting vibration amplitudes can be used for realistic fatigue estimations of flow-excited turbine components. The procedure is applied to a ceramic impeller of a micro gas turbine.
Kulikov, S. V.; Chervonnaya, N. A.; Ternovaya, O. N.
2016-08-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo method is used to numerically simulate the problem of the shock wave front in vibrationally excited hydrogen flowing in the low-pressure channel of a shock tube. It is assumed that the vibrational temperature of the hydrogen equals 3000 K. The cases of partially and completely excited hydrogen are considered. Equilibrium hydrogen is applied as a pusher gas, but its concentration is 50 times higher than the hydrogen concentration in the low-pressure channel. In addition, the strength of the shock wave is varied by heating the pusher gas. It has been shown that, if the prestored vibrational energy is weakly converted to translational energy, the shock wave slows down over time. If the energy conversion is sufficiently intense, when the pusher gas is warm and only completely vibrationally excited hydrogen is in the low-pressure channel, the wave gains speed over time (its velocity increases roughly by a factor of 1.5). This causes physical detonation, in which case the parameters of the wave become dependent on the vibrational-to-thermal energy conversion and independent of the way of its initiation.
A review of vibration-based MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saadon, Salem; Sidek, Othman [Collaborative Microelectronic Design Excellence Center (CEDEC), School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)
2011-01-15
The simplicity associated with the piezoelectric micro-generators makes it very attractive for MEMS applications, especially for remote systems. In this paper we reviewed the work carried out by researchers during the last three years. The improvements in experimental results obtained in the vibration-based MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters show very good scope for MEMS piezoelectric harvesters in the field of power MEMS in the near future. (author)
Liao, Wei-Hsin
2017-04-01
Most of the ambient energy, which was regarded useless in the past, now is under the spotlight. With the rapid developments on low power electronics, future personal mobile devices and remote sensing systems might become self-powered by scavenging energy in different forms from their surroundings. Kinetic energy is one of the promising energy forms in our living environment, e.g., human motions and vibrations. We have proposed an energy flow to clarify the functions of piezoelectric energy harvesting, dissipation, and their effects on the structural damping of vibrating structures. Impedance modeling and analysis were performed. We have designed an improved self-powered switching interface for piezoelectric energy harvesting circuits. With electromagnetic transduction, we also proposed a knee-mounted energy harvester that could convert the mechanical power from knee joints into electricity during walking. On the other hand, we have developed magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices with multiple functions, including rotary actuators and linear dampers. Multifunctional rotary actuator was designed to integrate motor/generator part and MR fluids into a single device. The actuator could function as motor, generator, clutch and brake, with compact size and good energy efficiency. In addition, novel self-sensing MR dampers with power generation, so as to integrate the dynamic sensing, controllable damping and power generation functions, were developed and investigated. Prototypes were fabricated and tested. The developed actuators were promising for various applications. In this paper, related research in energy harvesting done at The Chinese University of Hong Kong and key results will be presented.
Internal resonance and low frequency vibration energy harvesting
Yang, Wei; Towfighian, Shahrzad
2017-09-01
A nonlinear vibration energy harvester with internal resonance is presented. The proposed harvester consists of two cantilevers, each with a permanent magnet on its tip. One cantilever has a piezoelectric layer at its base. When magnetic force is applied this two degrees-of-freedom nonlinear vibration system shows the internal resonance phenomenon that broadens the frequency bandwidth compared to a linear system. Three coupled partial differential equations are obtained to predict the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear energy harvester. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve equations. Results from experiments done at different vibration levels with varying distances between the magnets validate the mathematical model. Experiments and simulations show the design outperforms the linear system by doubling the frequency bandwidth. Output voltage for frequency response is studied for different system parameters. The optimal load resistance is obtained for the maximum power in the internal resonance case. The results demonstrate that a design combining internal resonance and magnetic nonlinearity improves the efficiency of energy harvesting.
On the Energy Conversion Efficiency of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jae Eun [Catholic University of Daegu, Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
To properly design and assess a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester, it is necessary to consider the application of an efficiency measure of energy conversion. The energy conversion efficiency is defined in this work as the ratio of the electrical output power to the mechanical input power for a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with an impedance-matched load resistor. While previous research works employed the electrical output power for approximate impedance-matched load resistance, this work derives an efficiency measure considering optimally matched resistance. The modified efficiency measure is validated by comparing it with finite element analysis results for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with three different values of the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient. New findings on the characteristics of energy conversion and conversion efficiency are also provided for the two different impedance matching methods.
MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders
2011-01-01
We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....
Active Control of Panel Vibrations Induced by a Boundary Layer Flow
Chow, Pao-Liu
1998-01-01
In recent years, active and passive control of sound and vibration in aeroelastic structures have received a great deal of attention due to many potential applications to aerospace and other industries. There exists a great deal of research work done in this area. Recent advances in the control of sound and vibration can be found in the several conference proceedings. In this report we will summarize our research findings supported by the NASA grant NAG-1-1175. The problems of active and passive control of sound and vibration has been investigated by many researchers for a number of years. However, few of the articles are concerned with the sound and vibration with flow-structure interaction. Experimental and numerical studies on the coupling between panel vibration and acoustic radiation due to flow excitation have been done by Maestrello and his associates at NASA/Langley Research Center. Since the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations is formidable, an analytical solution to the full problem seems impossible. For this reason, we have to simplify the problem to that of the nonlinear panel vibration induced by a uniform flow or a boundary-layer flow with a given wall pressure distribution. Based on this simplified model, we have been able to study the control and stabilization of the nonlinear panel vibration, which have not been treated satisfactorily by other authors. The vibration suppression will clearly reduce the sound radiation power from the panel. The major research findings will be presented in the next three sections. In Section II we shall describe our results on the boundary control of nonlinear panel vibration, with or without flow excitation. Section III is concerned with active control of the vibration and sound radiation from a nonlinear elastic panel. A detailed description of our work on the parametric vibrational control of nonlinear elastic panel will be presented in Section IV. This paper will be submitted to the Journal
Energy harvesting from structural vibrations of magnetic shape memory alloys
Farsangi, Mohammad Amin Askari; Cottone, Francesco; Sayyaadi, Hassan; Zakerzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Orfei, Francesco; Gammaitoni, Luca
2017-03-01
This letter presents the idea of scavenging energy from vibrating structures through magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA). To this end, a MSMA specimen made of Ni50Mn28Ga22 is coupled to a cantilever beam through a step. Two permanent magnets installed at the top and bottom of the beam create a bias field perpendicular to the magnetization axis of the specimen. When vibrating the device, a longitudinal axial load applies on the MSMA, which in turn changes the magnetization, due to the martensitic variant reorientation mechanism. A pick-up coil wounded around the MSMA converts this variation into voltage according to the Faraday's law. Experimental test confirms the possibility of generating voltage in a vibrating MSMA. In particular, 15 μW power is harvested for acceleration of 0.3 g RMS at a frequency of 19.1 Hz, which is comparable with piezoelectric energy harvesters. It is also found that the optimum bias magnetic field for maximum voltage is lower than the starting field of pseudo elastic behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Denghao; Ren, Yun; Mou, Jiegang; Gu, Yunqing [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)
2017-05-15
Circulator pumps have wide engineering applications but the acoustics, vibration and unsteady flow structures of the circulator pump are still not fully understood. We investigated the noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow structures in a circulator pump at different flow rates. Three-dimensional, unsteady RANS equations were solved on high-quality structured meshes with SST k-ω turbulence model numerically. Measurements were made in a semi-anechoic chamber to get an overview of noise and vibration level of a pump at different flow rates. The 1/3 octave-band filter technique was applied to obtain the explicit frequency spectra of sound, pressure fluctuations and vibration signals and their principal frequencies were identified successfully. The air-borne noise level of the designed condition is lower than that of the off-design conditions, and the highest sound pressure level is found at part-load condition. The acoustic emission from the pump is mainly caused by unsteady flow structures and pressure fluctuations. In addition, both the link between air- borne noise and pressure fluctuation, and the correlation between vibration and unsteady hydrodynamic forces, were quantitatively examined and verified. This work offers good data to understand noise and vibration characteristics of circulator pumps and the relationships among the noise, vibration and unsteady flow structures.
Analyses of electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems for efficient vibration energy harvesting
Hadas, Z.; Smilek, J.; Rubes, O.
2017-05-01
The paper deals with analyses and evaluation of vibration energy harvesting systems which are based on electromagnetic and piezoelectric physical principles off electro-mechanical conversion. Energy harvesting systems are associated with wireless sensors and a monitoring of engineering objects. The most of engineering objects operate with unwanted mechanical vibrations. However, vibrations could provide an ambient source of energy which is converted into useful electricity. The use of electromagnetic and piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters is analyzed in this paper. Thee evaluated output power is used for a choice of the efficient system with respect to the character of vibrations and thee required power output.
Vortex Flows in the Liquid Layer and Droplets on a Vibrating Flexible Plate
Aleksandrov, Vladimir; Kopysov, Sergey; Tonkov, Leonid
2017-12-01
In certain conditions, in the layers and droplets of a liquid on a vibrating rectangular flexible plate, vortex flows are formed simultaneously with the excitation of capillary oscillations on the free surface of the liquid layers and droplets. Capillary oscillations in the form of two-dimensional standing waves form Faraday ripples on the free surface of the liquid layer. On the surface of the vibrating droplets, at the excitation of capillary oscillations a light spot reflected from a spotlight source moves along a trajectory in the form of a Lissajous figure observed with a microscope. When vortex flows visualized with graphite microparticles appear in the layer and droplets of a transparent liquid, the trajectory of the light spot on the layer and droplet surface is a two-dimensional trajectory in the form of an ellipse or a saddle. This indicates that the generation of the vortex flows in a liquid at vibrations is due to capillary oscillations in the orthogonally related directions. In the liquid layer and droplets on the surface of the flexible plate, the vibrations of which are generated by bending vibrations, the vortex flows appear due to the plate vibrations and the capillary oscillations of the surface of a layer or a droplet of the liquid. On the free surface of the liquid, the capillary waves, which are parametrically excited by the plate bending vibrations, are additionally modulated by the same bending vibrations in the transverse direction.
Fatigue failure in metal bellows due to flow-induced vibrations
Daniels, C. M.; Fargo, C. G.
1969-01-01
To prevent fatigue due to flow-induced vibrations in metal bellows connected to ducts carrying liquid hydrogen, a study was made which shows that the flexure lines are in general a function of the vibration coupling between the fluid and bellows structure, and the nature of the external environment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Till Heinemann
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In thermal power plants equipped with air-cooled condensers (ACCs, axial cooling fans operate under the influence of ambient flow fields. Under inlet cross-flow conditions, the resultant asymmetric flow field is known to introduce additional harmonic forces to the fan blades. This effect has previously only been studied numerically or by using blade-mounted strain gauges. For this study, laser scanning vibrometry (LSV was used to assess fan blade vibration under inlet cross-flow conditions in an adapted fan test rig inside a wind tunnel test section. Two co-rotating laser beams scanned a low-pressure axial fan, resulting in spectral, phase-resolved surface vibration patterns of the fan blades. Two distinct operating points with flow coefficients of 0.17 and 0.28 were examined, with and without inlet cross-flow influence. While almost identical fan vibration patterns were found for both reference operating points, the overall blade vibration increased by 100% at the low fan flow rate as a result of cross-flow, and by 20% at the high fan flow rate. While numerically predicted natural frequency modes could be confirmed from experimental data as minor peaks in the vibration amplitude spectrum, they were not excited significantly by cross-flow. Instead, primarily higher rotation-rate harmonics were amplified; that is, a synchronous blade-tip flapping was strongly excited at the blade-pass frequency.
Efficiency Enhancement of a Cantilever-Based Vibration Energy Harvester
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali E. Kubba
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries’ stiffness (K, output open-circuit voltage (Vave, and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (εave that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm3, has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 μJ/cycle.
Efficiency enhancement of a cantilever-based vibration energy harvester.
Kubba, Ali E; Jiang, Kyle
2013-12-23
Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries' stiffness (K), output open-circuit voltage (V(ave)), and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (ε(ave)) that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm3), has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 μJ/cycle).
Transient flow in a compressor blade row for a periodic vibration motion
Idres, Moumen; Labanie, Mohamed; Okasha, Mohamed
2018-01-01
The goal of this work is to conduct a transient compressor blade row flow simulation as part of blade flutter modeling. An integral step of blade flutter modeling is the calculation of the aerodynamic damping factor as a function of the possible vibration mode shapes. Using Fourier method, the number of blade passages required for transient flow analysis is kept to a minimum of two for all vibration modes. In this work, a compressor rotor blade row is considered. The vibration modes are obtained using ANSYS mechanical, then, unsteady flow is obtained for vibrating blades with a harmonic motion. Work of the flow on the blade is calculated and hence the aerodynamic damping is obtained.
Fundamental issues in nonlinear wideband-vibration energy harvesting.
Halvorsen, Einar
2013-04-01
Mechanically nonlinear energy harvesters driven by broadband vibrations modeled as white noise are investigated. We derive an upper bound on output power versus load resistance and show that, subject to mild restrictions that we make precise, the upper-bound performance can be obtained by a linear harvester with appropriate stiffness. Despite this, nonlinear harvesters can have implementation-related advantages. Based on the Kramers equation, we numerically obtain the output power at weak coupling for a selection of phenomenological elastic potentials and discuss their merits.
Pirnia, Alireza; Hu, JiaCheng; Peterson, Sean D.; Erath, Byron D.
2017-10-01
The extraction of energy from vortical structures advecting through an ambient environment is a topic of interest due to the potential to power miniature in situ sensors and monitors. This work investigates the vortex dynamics and flow-induced vibrations of a flexible plate arising from a vortex ring passing tangentially over it. Experimental measurements of the flow field and plate dynamics are performed in tandem with a coupled potential flow/Kirchhoff-Love plate model in order to (i) elucidate the physics of the vortex-plate interactions in the specified orientation and relate the energy exchange between the ring and the plate to the attendant vortex dynamics; (ii) validate the potential flow model and provide any needed corrections to account for the simplifying assumptions; and (iii) provide empirical data for estimating energy harvesting capabilities in the specified orientation. The plate loading arises as a result of an initial down-wash, followed quickly by a region of reduced pressure as the vortex core passes over the plate. The fundamental physics of the interaction is discussed, identifying three regimes. When the centerline of the vortex ring is positioned greater than approximately 2 vortex ring radii away from the plate it can be considered to be in the far-field, and the resulting vibrations are well predicted through potential flow, once the plate dynamics are corrected for edge effects arising from a finite plate width. As the offset distance of the vortex ring is decreased, diffusion of induced vorticity on the plate into the flow field significantly alters the fluid dynamics, pressure loading, and the resultant plate dynamics, and dramatically increases the strain energy in comparison with the potential flow model predictions. A first-order correction to the potential flow model is proposed to account for the finite plate width, while empirical correlations are presented for the plate strain energy in cases where ring/induced vorticity
Experimental Study on Interfacial Area Transport of Two-Phase Flow under Vibration Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiu Xiao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental study on air-water two-phase flow under vibration condition has been conducted using double-sensor conductivity probe. The test section is an annular geometry with hydraulic diameter of 19.1 mm. The vibration frequency ranges from 0.47 Hz to 2.47 Hz. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC, and Sauter mean diameter have been performed along one radius in the vibration direction. The result shows that local parameters fluctuate continuously around the base values in the vibration cycle. Additional bubble force due to inertia is used to explain lateral bubble motions. The fluctuation amplitudes of local void fraction and IAC increase significantly with vibration frequency. The radial distribution of local parameters at the maximum vibration displacement is specifically analyzed. In the void fraction and IAC profiles, the peak near the inner wall is weakened or even disappearing and a strong peak skewed to outer wall is gradually observed with the increase of vibration frequency. The nondimensional peak void fraction can reach a maximum of 49% and the mean relative variation of local void fraction can increase to more than 29% as the vibration frequency increases to 2.47 Hz. But the increase of vibration frequency does not bring significant change to bubble diameter.
Flow patterns generated by vibrations in weightlessness in binary mixture with Soret effect.
Shevtsova, Valentina; Melnikov, Denis; Gaponenko, Yuri; Lyubimova, Tatyana; Mialdun, Aliaksandr; Sechenyh, Vitaliy
2012-07-01
Vibrational convection refers to the specific flows that appear when a fluid with density gradient is subjected to external vibration. The density gradient may result from the inhomogeneity of temperature or composition. The study of vibrational impact on fluids has fundamental and applied importance. In weightlessness, vibrational convection is an additional way of transporting heat and matter similar to thermo- and solutocapillary convection. The response of the fluid to external forcing depends on the frequency of vibration. The case of small amplitude and high frequency vibration (when the period is much smaller than the characteristic viscous and heat (mass) diffusion times) is of special interest. In this case, the mean flow can be observed in the system, which describes the non-linear response of the fluid to a periodic excitation. The mean flow is most pronounced in the absence of other external forces (in particular, absence of static gravity). The experiment IVIDIL (Influence of Vibration on Diffusion in Liquids) has been conducted on the ISS during more than 3 months in 2009-2010. In the experimental liquids the density changes due to both the temperature and composition. 55 experimental runs of IVIDIL provided rich variety of valuable information about behavior of the liquid in weightlessness which is released with time, [1-3]. The current results provide experimental and numerical evidence of richness of flow patterns and their classification. References: 1. Shevtsova V., Mialdun A., Melnikov D., Ryzhkov I., Gaponenko Y., Saghir Z., Lyubimova T., Legros J.C., IVIDIL experiment onboard ISS: thermodiffusion in presence of controlled vibrations, Comptes Rendus Mecanique, 2011, 339, 310-317 2. Shevtsova V., Lyubimova T., Saghir Z. , Melnikov D., Gaponenko Y. , Sechenyh V. , Legros J.C. , Mialdun A., IVIDIL: on-board g-jitters and diffusion controlled phenomena; Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2011, 327, 012031 3. Mazzoni S., Shevtsova V., Mialdun A
Mems-based pzt/pzt bimorph thick film vibration energy harvester
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian
2011-01-01
We describe fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The main advantage of bimorph vibration energy harvesters is that strain energy is not lost in mechanical...
Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim
2000-01-01
Theoretical and numerical investigations of energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides made of line defects and branching points are presented. It is shown that vortices of energy flow may occur, and the net energy flow along: the line defect is described via the effective propagation velocity...
CFD simulation of flow-induced vibration of an elastically supported airfoil
Šidlof, Petr
2016-03-01
Flow-induced vibration of lifting or control surfaces in aircraft may lead to catastrophic consequences. Under certain circumstances, the interaction between the airflow and the elastic structure may lead to instability with energy transferred from the airflow to the structure and with exponentially increasing amplitudes of the structure. In the current work, a CFD simulation of an elastically supported NACA0015 airfoil with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge) coupled with 2D incompressible airflow is presented. The geometry of the airfoil, mass, moment of inertia, location of the centroid, linear and torsional stiffness was matched to properties of a physical airfoil model used for wind-tunnel measurements. The simulations were run within the OpenFOAM computational package. The results of the CFD simulations were compared with the experimental data.
CFD simulation of flow-induced vibration of an elastically supported airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šidlof Petr
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Flow-induced vibration of lifting or control surfaces in aircraft may lead to catastrophic consequences. Under certain circumstances, the interaction between the airflow and the elastic structure may lead to instability with energy transferred from the airflow to the structure and with exponentially increasing amplitudes of the structure. In the current work, a CFD simulation of an elastically supported NACA0015 airfoil with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge coupled with 2D incompressible airflow is presented. The geometry of the airfoil, mass, moment of inertia, location of the centroid, linear and torsional stiffness was matched to properties of a physical airfoil model used for wind-tunnel measurements. The simulations were run within the OpenFOAM computational package. The results of the CFD simulations were compared with the experimental data.
Cooley, Christopher G.
2017-09-01
This study investigates the vibration and dynamic response of a system of coupled electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting devices that each consist of a proof mass, elastic structure, electromagnetic generator, and energy harvesting circuit with inductance, resistance, and capacitance. The governing equations for the coupled electromechanical system are derived using Newtonian mechanics and Kirchhoff circuit laws for an arbitrary number of these subsystems. The equations are cast in matrix operator form to expose the device's vibration properties. The device's complex-valued eigenvalues and eigenvectors are related to physical characteristics of its vibration. Because the electrical circuit has dynamics, these devices have more natural frequencies than typical electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters that have purely resistive circuits. Closed-form expressions for the steady state dynamic response and average power harvested are derived for devices with a single subsystem. Example numerical results for single and double subsystem devices show that the natural frequencies and vibration modes obtained from the eigenvalue problem agree with the resonance locations and response amplitudes obtained independently from forced response calculations. This agreement demonstrates the usefulness of solving eigenvalue problems for these devices. The average power harvested by the device differs substantially at each resonance. Devices with multiple subsystems have multiple modes where large amounts of power are harvested.
Harvesting vibrational energy due to intermodal systems via nano coated piezo electric devices.
2015-12-01
Vibrational energy resulting from intermodal transport systems can be recovered through the use of energy harvesting system consisting of PZT piezo electric material as the primary energy harvesting component. The ability of traditional PZT piezo ele...
Effect of angle on flow-induced vibrations of pinniped vibrissae.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christin T Murphy
Full Text Available Two types of vibrissal surface structures, undulated and smooth, exist among pinnipeds. Most Phocidae have vibrissae with undulated surfaces, while Otariidae, Odobenidae, and a few phocid species possess vibrissae with smooth surfaces. Variations in cross-sectional profile and orientation of the vibrissae also exist between pinniped species. These factors may influence the way that the vibrissae behave when exposed to water flow. This study investigated the effect that vibrissal surface structure and orientation have on flow-induced vibrations of pinniped vibrissae. Laser vibrometry was used to record vibrations along the whisker shaft from the undulated vibrissae of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris and the smooth vibrissae of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus. Vibrations along the whisker shaft were measured in a flume tank, at three orientations (0°, 45°, 90° to the water flow. The results show that vibration frequency and velocity ranges were similar for both undulated and smooth vibrissae. Angle of orientation, rather than surface structure, had the greatest effect on flow-induced vibrations. Vibration velocity was up to 60 times higher when the wide, flat aspect of the whisker faced into the flow (90°, compared to when the thin edge faced into the flow (0°. Vibration frequency was also dependent on angle of orientation. Peak frequencies were measured up to 270 Hz and were highest at the 0° orientation for all whiskers. Furthermore, CT scanning was used to quantify the three-dimensional structure of pinniped vibrissae that may influence flow interactions. The CT data provide evidence that all vibrissae are flattened in cross-section to some extent and that differences exist in the orientation of this profile with respect to the major curvature of the hair shaft. These data support the hypothesis that a compressed cross-sectional profile may play a key role in reducing self
Smart nanocoated structure for energy harvesting at low frequency vibration
Sharma, Sudhanshu
Increasing demands of energy which is cleaner and has an unlimited supply has led development in the field of energy harvesting. Piezoelectric materials can be used as a means of transforming ambient vibrations into electrical energy that can be stored and used to power other devices. With the recent surge of micro scale devices, piezoelectric power generation can provide a convenient alternative to traditional power sources. In this research, a piezoelectric power generator composite prototype was developed to maximize the power output of the system. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) composite structure was formed and mounted on a cantilever bar and was studied to convert vibration energy of the low range vibrations at 30 Hz--1000 Hz. To improve the performance of the PZT, different coatings were made using different percentage of Ferrofluid (FNP) and Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) and binder resin. The optimal coating mixture constituent percentage was based on the performance of the composite structure formed by applying the coating on the PZT. The fabricated PZT power generator composite with an effective volume of 0.062 cm3 produced a maximum of 44.5 μW, or 0.717mW/cm3 at its resonant frequency of 90 Hz. The optimal coating mixture had the composition of 59.9%FNP + 40% ZnO + 1% Resin Binder. The coating utilizes the opto-magneto-electrical properties of ZnO and Magnetic properties of FNP. To further enhance the output, the magneto-electric (ME) effect was increased by subjecting the composite to magnetic field where coating acts as a magnetostrictive material. For the effective volume of 0.0062 cm 3, the composite produced a maximum of 68.5 μW, or 1.11mW/cm 3 at its resonant frequency of 90 Hz at 160 gauss. The optimal coating mixture had the composition of 59.9% FNP + 40% ZnO + 1% Resin Binder. This research also focused on improving the efficiency of solar cells by utilizing the magnetic effect along with gas plasma etching to improve the internal reflection
Whole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis
Games, Kenneth E.; Sefton, JoEllen M.; Wilson, Alan E.
2015-01-01
Context: The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. Objective: To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Study Selection: Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Data Extraction: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. Data Synthesis: We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation
Whole-body vibration and blood flow and muscle oxygenation: a meta-analysis.
Games, Kenneth E; Sefton, JoEllen M; Wilson, Alan E
2015-05-01
The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation; however, when the measurement site was considered, muscle oxygenation increased or
Generation of localized disturbances by surface vibrations behind the ledge in the laminar flow
Pavlenko, A. M.; Katasonov, M. M.; Kozlov, V. V.; Dovgal, A. V.
2017-10-01
The occurrence and development of hydrodynamic perturbations generated by low-frequency vibrations of a local section of a streamlined surface in a separated flow behind a rectangular ledge on a flat plate are investigated in the wind tunnel. The results were obtained by the hot-wire anemometry method at a low subsonic flow velocity. It is established that vibrations of the wall generate perturbations of the separation zone, which are streaky structures, and accompanying wave packets of oscillations. The separation of the laminar boundary layer promotes the growth of wave packets with subsequent turbulence of the wall flow.
Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production systems caused by choke valves
Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.
2012-01-01
In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design
Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production system caused by choke valves
Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.
2012-01-01
In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design
A modal approach to modeling spatially distributed vibration energy dissipation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Segalman, Daniel Joseph
2010-08-01
The nonlinear behavior of mechanical joints is a confounding element in modeling the dynamic response of structures. Though there has been some progress in recent years in modeling individual joints, modeling the full structure with myriad frictional interfaces has remained an obstinate challenge. A strategy is suggested for structural dynamics modeling that can account for the combined effect of interface friction distributed spatially about the structure. This approach accommodates the following observations: (1) At small to modest amplitudes, the nonlinearity of jointed structures is manifest primarily in the energy dissipation - visible as vibration damping; (2) Correspondingly, measured vibration modes do not change significantly with amplitude; and (3) Significant coupling among the modes does not appear to result at modest amplitudes. The mathematical approach presented here postulates the preservation of linear modes and invests all the nonlinearity in the evolution of the modal coordinates. The constitutive form selected is one that works well in modeling spatially discrete joints. When compared against a mathematical truth model, the distributed dissipation approximation performs well.
A Vibration-Based MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester and Power Conditioning Circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua Yu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS piezoelectric power generator array for vibration energy harvesting. A complete design flow of the vibration-based energy harvester using the finite element method (FEM is proposed. The modal analysis is selected to calculate the resonant frequency of the harvester, and harmonic analysis is performed to investigate the influence of the geometric parameters on the output voltage. Based on simulation results, a MEMS Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT cantilever array with an integrated large Si proof mass is designed and fabricated to improve output voltage and power. Test results show that the fabricated generator, with five cantilever beams (with unit dimensions of about 3 × 2.4 × 0.05 mm3 and an individual integrated Si mass dimension of about 8 × 12.4 × 0.5 mm3, produces a output power of 66.75 μW, or a power density of 5.19 μW∙mm−3∙g−2 with an optimal resistive load of 220 kΩ from 5 m/s2 vibration acceleration at its resonant frequency of 234.5 Hz. In view of high internal impedance characteristic of the PZT generator, an efficient autonomous power conditioning circuit, with the function of impedance matching, energy storage and voltage regulation, is then presented, finding that the efficiency of the energy storage is greatly improved and up to 64.95%. The proposed self-supplied energy generator with power conditioning circuit could provide a very promising complete power supply solution for wireless sensor node loads.
Experimental study on cross-flow induced vibrations in heat exchanger tube bundle
Khushnood, Shahab; Nizam, Luqman Ahmad
2017-03-01
Vibration in heat exchangers is one of the main problems that the industry has faced over last few decades. Vibration phenomenon in heat exchangers is of major concern for designers and process engineers since it can lead to the tube damage, tube leakage, baffle damage, tube collision damage, fatigue, creep etc. In the present study, vibration response is analyzed on single tube located in the centre of the tube bundle having parallel triangular arrangement (60°) with P/ D ratio of 1.44. The experiment is performed for two different flow conditions. This kind of experiment has not been reported in the literature. Under the first condition, the tube vibration response is analyzed when there is no internal flow in the tube and under the second condition, the response is analyzed when the internal tube flow is maintained at a constant value of 0.1 m/s. The free stream shell side velocity ranges from 0.8 m/s to 1.3 m/s, the reduced gap velocity varies from 1.80 to 2.66 and the Reynolds number varies from 44500 to 66000. It is observed that the internal tube flow results in larger vibration amplitudes for the tube than that without internal tube flow. It is also established that over the current range of shell side flow velocity, the turbulence is the dominant excitation mechanism for producing vibration in the tube since the amplitude varies directly with the increase in the shell side velocity. Damping has no significant effect on the vibration behavior of the tube for the current velocity range.
van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes; Lötters, Joost Conrad; de Boer, Andries
2014-01-01
In this paper the influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM) for low flows is investigated and quantified. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how external vibrations affect the mass-flow measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ye-Wei Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear targeted energy transfer (TET is applied to suppress the excessive vibration of an axially moving string with transverse wind loads. The coupling dynamic equations used are modeled by a nonlinear energy sink (NES attached to the string to absorb vibrational energy. By a two-term Galerkin procedure, the equations are discretized, and the effects of vibration suppression by numerical methods are demonstrated. Results show that the NES can effectively suppress the vibration of the axially moving string with transverse wind loadings, thereby protecting the string from excessive movement.
Homotopy analysis approach for nonlinear piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahlaei-Far Shahram
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectric energy harvesting from a vertical geometrically nonlinear cantilever beam with a tip mass subject to transverse harmonic base excitations is analyzed. One piezoelectric patch is placed on the slender beam to convert the tension and compression into electrical voltage. Applying the homotopy analysis method to the coupled electromechanical governing equations, we derive analytical solutions for the horizontal displacement of the tip mass and consequently the output voltage from the piezoelectric patch. Analytical approximation for the frequency response and phase of the geometrically forced nonlinear vibration system are also obtained. The research aims at a rigorous analytical perspective on a nonlinear problem which has previously been solely investigated by numerical and experimental methods.
Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xiaoqing [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Wu, Liming [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sessler, Gerhard M., E-mail: g.sessler@nt.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)
2015-07-15
Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP), followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d{sub 33} coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d{sub 33} ⋅ g{sub 33}) for a more typical d{sub 33} value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa{sup −1}. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm{sup 2} and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.
Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqing Zhang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP, followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d33 ⋅ g33 for a more typical d33 value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa−1. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm2 and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.
Wang, Zhao; Yan, Hong; Li, Qibing; Xu, Kun
2017-12-01
The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. In the previous study, the UGKS was developed for diatomic molecular simulations with translation and rotational motions. In this paper, a UGKS with non-equilibrium translational, rotational, and vibrational degrees of freedom, will be developed. The new scheme is based on the phenomenological gas dynamics model, where the translational, rotational, and vibrational modes get to the equilibrium with different time scales with the introduction of rotational and vibrational collision numbers. This new scheme is tested in a few cases, such as the homogeneous flow relaxation, shock structure, shock tube problem, and flow passing through a circular and semi-circular cylinders. The analytical and DSMC solutions are used for the validation of the UGKS, and reasonable agreements have been achieved.
Untoro, T.; Viridi, S.; Suprijanto; Ekawati, E.
2017-07-01
In our previous work, we have developed a mechanical coupling for energy harvester from vibration source. This energy harvester uses piezoelectric with additional cantilever beam and permanent magnets. Our work proposed alternative scheme of mechanical coupling for tune the vibration input into resonant frequency of piezoelectric. Based on the experiment, correlation between the length of cantilever beam and the output power also evaluated. In this paper, we try to modelling our work into mathematical model and apply it to some case study. For example application, we apply our energy harvester system to generate electrical energy to enlighten the street. The human footsteps can be used as vibration source to generate electrical energy.
Pradhan, Ekadashi; Carreón-Macedo, José-Luis; Cuervo, Javier E; Schröder, Markus; Brown, Alex
2013-08-15
The ground state potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for CS2 have been determined at the CASPT2/C:cc-pVTZ,S:aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z level of theory. The potential energy surface has been fit to a sum-of-products form using the neural network method with exponential neurons. A generic interface between neural network potential energy surface fitting and the Heidelberg MCTDH software package is demonstrated. The potential energy surface has also been fit using the potfit procedure in MCTDH. For fits to the low-energy regions of the potential, the neural network method requires fewer parameters than potfit to achieve high accuracy; global fits are comparable between the two methods. Using these potential energy surfaces, the vibrational energies have been computed for the four most abundant CS2 isotopomers. These results are compared to experimental and previous theoretical data. The current potential energy surfaces are shown to accurately reproduce the low-lying vibrational energies within a few wavenumbers. Hence, the potential energy and dipole moments surfaces will be useful for future study on the control of quantum dynamics in CS2.
Metastable states and energy flow pathway in square graphene resonators
Wang, Yisen; Zhu, Zhigang; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Liang
2018-01-01
Nonlinear interaction between flexural modes is critical to heat conductivity and mechanical vibration of two-dimensional materials such as graphene. Much effort has been devoted to understand the underlying mechanism. In this paper, we examine solely the out-of-plane flexural modes and identify their energy flow pathway during thermalization process. The key is the development of a universal scheme that numerically characterizes the strength of nonlinear interactions between normal modes. In particular, for our square graphene system, the modes are grouped into four classes by their distinct symmetries. The couplings are significantly larger within a class than between classes. As a result, the equations for the normal modes in the same class as the initially excited one can be approximated by driven harmonic oscillators, therefore, they get energy almost instantaneously. Because of the hierarchical organization of the mode coupling, the energy distribution among the modes will arrive at a stable profile, where most of the energy is localized on a few modes, leading to the formation of "natural package" and metastable states. The dynamics for modes in other symmetry classes follows a Mathieu type of equation, thus, interclass energy flow, when the initial excitation energy is small, starts typically when there is a mode that lies in the unstable region in the parameter space of Mathieu equation. Due to strong coupling of the modes inside the class, the whole class will get energy and be lifted up by the unstable mode. This characterizes the energy flow pathway of the system. These results bring fundamental understandings to the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem in two-dimensional systems with complex potentials, and reveal clearly the physical picture of dynamical interactions between the flexural modes, which will be crucial to the understanding of their abnormal contribution to heat conduction and nonlinear mechanical vibrations.
1974-12-10
A cabhle in tOw second mode We will use the approach developed by Murthy and Ramakrishna 181 to determine tie stretching contril )ution for the...resonantly vibrating wire. From that paper, the damping quality factor, Q = 27/T , of the first four modes of a piano wire yields essentially the same value...when divided by the corresponding resonant frequency. Both the quality factor Q and the quotient Q/f 21/6f are listed in Table 3 for comparison
Yamada, Yuji; Mikami, Naohiko; Ebata, Takayuki
2004-01-01
A picosecond time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopic study was carried out for the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution of the OH/OD stretching vibration of isolated phenol and its isotopomers in supersonic beams. The time evolution due to IVR showed a significant isotope effect; the OH stretch vibration showed a single exponential decay and its lifetime is greatly lengthened upon the deuterium substitution of the CH group. The OD stretch vibration exhibited prominent quantum...
Zhang, Z.; Piatkowski, L.; Bakker, H.J.; Bonn, M.
2011-01-01
Water is very different from liquids of similar molecular weight, and one of its unique properties is the very efficient transfer of vibrational energy between molecules, which arises as a result of strong dipole-dipole interactions between the O-H oscillators. Although we have a sound understanding
Importance of Added Mass and Damping in Flow-Induced Vibration Analysis of Tubes Bundle: An Overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faisal Karim Shami
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Flow-induced vibration is of prime concern to the designers of heat exchangers subjected to high flows of gases or liquids. Excessive vibration may cause tube failure due to fatigue or fretting-wear. Tube failure results in, expensive plant upholding and suffers loss of production. Therefore, tube failure due to unwarranted vibration must be avoided in process heat exchangers and nuclear steam generators, preferably at design stage. Such vibration problems may be avoided through a comprehensive flowinduced vibration analysis before fabrication of heat exchangers. However, it requires an understanding of vibration mechanism and parameters related to flow-induced vibration. For an accurate vibration analysis, it is of prime importance to have good estimates of structural and flow related dynamic parameters. Thus dynamic parameters such as added mass and damping are of significant concern in a flow regime. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of our state of knowledge and role of dynamic parameters in flow-induced vibration on tube bundles due to current trend of larger heat exchangers. The present paper provides published data, analysis, evaluation, formulation, and experimental studies related to hydrodynamic mass and damping by a large number of researchers. Guidelines for experimental research and heat exchangers design related to added mass and damping mechanisms subjected to both single and two-phase flow are outlined in this paper.
Vibration piezoelectric energy harvester with multi-beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, Yan, E-mail: yanc@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang, Qunying, E-mail: zhangqunying89@126.com; Yao, Minglei, E-mail: yaomingleiok@126.com [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of the Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, 116024, Dalian, Liaoning Province (China); Dong, Weijie, E-mail: dongwj@dlut.edu.cn [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024, Dalian, Liaoning Province (China); Gao, Shiqiao, E-mail: gaoshq@bit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing Province (China)
2015-04-15
This work presents a novel vibration piezoelectric energy harvester, which is a micro piezoelectric cantilever with multi-beam. The characteristics of the PZT (Pb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3}) thin film were measured; XRD (X-ray diffraction) pattern and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) image of the PZT thin film were measured, and show that the PZT (Pb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3}) thin film is highly (110) crystal oriented; the leakage current is maintained in nA magnitude, the residual polarisation Pr is 37.037 μC/cm{sup 2}, the coercive field voltage Ec is 27.083 kV/cm, and the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is 28 pC/N. In order to test the dynamic performance of the energy harvester, a new measuring system was set up. The maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam can achieve 80.78 mV under an acceleration of 1 g at 260 Hz of frequency; the maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam is almost 20 mV at 1400 Hz frequency. .
Vibration piezoelectric energy harvester with multi-beam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Cui
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This work presents a novel vibration piezoelectric energy harvester, which is a micro piezoelectric cantilever with multi-beam. The characteristics of the PZT (Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 thin film were measured; XRD (X-ray diffraction pattern and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope image of the PZT thin film were measured, and show that the PZT (Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 thin film is highly (110 crystal oriented; the leakage current is maintained in nA magnitude, the residual polarisation Pr is 37.037 μC/cm2, the coercive field voltage Ec is 27.083 kV/cm, and the piezoelectric constant d33 is 28 pC/N. In order to test the dynamic performance of the energy harvester, a new measuring system was set up. The maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam can achieve 80.78 mV under an acceleration of 1 g at 260 Hz of frequency; the maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam is almost 20 mV at 1400 Hz frequency.
Reviving Vibration Energy Harvesting and Self-Powered Sensing by a Triboelectric Nanogenerator
Chen, Jun
2017-10-10
Vibration energy harvesting and sensing is a traditional and growing research field in which various working mechanisms and designs have been developed for an improved performance. Relying on a coupling effect of contact electrification and electrostatic induction, in the past 5 years, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been applied as a fundamentally new technology to revive the field of vibration energy harvesting and self-powered sensing, especially for low-frequency vibrations such as human motion, automobile, machine, and bridge vibrations. The demonstrated instantaneous energy conversion efficiency of ∼70% and a total efficiency up to 85% distinguished TENG from traditional techniques. In this article, both TENG-enabled vibration energy harvesting and self-powered active sensing are comprehensively reviewed. Moving toward future development, problems pressing for solutions and onward research directions are also posed to deliver a coherent picture.
Application of Vibrational Power Flow to a Passenger Car for Reduction of Interior Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.K. Lee
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Reduction of structure-borne noise in the compartment of a car is an important task in automotive engineering. Transfer path analysis using the vibroacoustic reciprocity technique or multiple path decomposition method has generally been used for structure-borne noise path analysis. These methods are useful for solving a particular problem, but they do not quantify the effectiveness of vibration isolation of each isolator of a vehicle. To quantify the effectiveness of vibration isolation, vibrational power flow has been used for a simple isolation system or a laboratory-based isolation system. It is often difficult to apply the vibrational power flow technique to a complex isolation system like a car. In this paper, a simple equation is derived for calculation of the vibrational power flow of an isolation system with multiple isolators such as a car. It is successfully applied not only to quantifying the relative contributions of eighteen isolators, but also to reducing the structure-borne noise of a passenger car. According to the results, the main contributor of the eighteen isolators is the rear roll mount of an engine. The reduced structure-borne noise level is about 5dBA.
Secondary flows enhance mixing in a model of vibration-assisted dialysis
Pitre, John; Mueller, Bruce; Lewis, Susan; Bull, Joseph
2014-11-01
Hemodialysis is an integral part of treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. While hemodialysis has traditionally been described as a diffusion-dominated process, recent in vitro work has shown that vibration of the dialyzer can enhance the clearance of certain solutes during treatment. We hypothesize that the addition of vibration generates secondary flows in the dialysate compartment. These flows, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the dialysis fibers, advect solute away from the fiber walls, thus maintaining a larger concentration gradient and enhancing diffusion. Using the finite element method, we simulated the flow of dialysate through a hexagonally-packed array of cylinders and the transport of solute away from the cylinder walls. The addition of vibration was modeled using sinusoidal body forces of various frequencies and amplitudes. Using the variance of the concentration field as a metric, we found that vibration improves mixing according to a power law dependency on frequency. We will discuss the implications of these computational results on our understanding of the in vitro experiments and propose optimal vibration patterns for improving clearance in dialysis treatments. This work was supported by the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research and NIH Grant UL1TR000433.
Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters
van de Ridder, Bert
2015-01-01
A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A
Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of beryllium monohydroxide.
Koput, Jacek
2017-01-05
The accurate potential energy surface of beryllium monohydroxide, BeOH, in its ground electronic state X 2A' has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach in conjunction with the correlation-consistent core-valence basis sets up to septuple-zeta quality. The higher-order electron correlation, scalar relativistic, and adiabatic effects were taken into account. The BeOH molecule was confirmed to be bent at equilibrium, with the BeOH angle of 141.2° and the barrier to linearity of 129 cm-1 . The vibration-rotation energy levels of the BeOH and BeOD isotopologues were predicted using a variational approach and compared with recent experimental data. The results can be useful in a further analysis of high-resolution vibration-rotation spectra of these interesting species. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Granular temperature measured experimentally in a shear flow by acoustic energy
Taylor, Stephanie; Brodsky, Emily E.
2017-09-01
Granular temperature may control high-speed granular flows, yet it is difficult to measure in laboratory experiments. Here we utilize acoustic energy to measure granular temperature in dense shear flows. We show that acoustic energy captures the anticipated behavior of granular temperature as a function of grain size in quartz sand shear flows. We also find that granular temperature (through its proxy acoustic energy) is nearly linearly proportional to inertial number, and dilation is proportional to acoustic energy raised to the power 0.6 ±0.2 . This demonstrates the existence of a relationship between granular temperature and dilation. It is also consistent with previous results on dilation due to externally imposed vibration, thus showing that internally and externally induced vibrations have identical results on granular shear flows.
van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes; Lötters, Joost Conrad; de Boer, Andries; Dimitrovova, Z.; de Almeida, J.R.
2013-01-01
In this paper the quantitative influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter for low flows is investigated, with the eventual goal to reduce the influence of vibrations. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how
Fatigue behavior of flexhoses and bellows due to flow-induced vibrations
Desai, P. V.; Thornhill, L.
1986-01-01
The analysis and results developed in a fresh approach to calculate flow induced vibration response of a flexible flow passage are summarized. The vibration results are further examined in the frequency domain to obtain dominant frequency information. A cumulative damage analysis due to cyclic strains is performed to obtain the number of cycles to failure for a metallic bellows of particular specifications under a variety of operational conditions. Sample plots of time and frequency domain responses are included. The complex listing of a computer program is provided. The program successively executes each of the analyses needed to calculate the vibration response, the frequency response, the cyclic strains and the number of cycles to failure. The program prompts the user for necessary input information. Sample data from the program is provided. The fatigue life results obtained by the computer model lie within an acceptable range of previously measured available data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.
Ahmed, Md. Tusher; Hossain, Md. Tanver; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur
2017-06-01
Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. Wind energy can be converted into electricity via a piezoelectric transducer during the air flow over a cylinder. The vortex-induced vibration over the cylinder causes the piezoelectric beam to vibrate. Thus useful electric energy at the range 0.2-0.3V is found which can be useful for self-powering small electronic devices. In the present study, prototypes of micro-energy harvester with a shape of 65 mm × 37 mm × 0.4 mm are developed and tested for airflow over D-shaped bluff body for diameters of 15, 20 and 28mm in an experimental setup consisting of a long wind tunnel of 57cm × 57cm with variable speeds of the motor for different flow velocities and the experimental setup is connected at the downstream where flow velocity is the maximum. Experimental results show that the velocity and induced voltage follows a regular linear pattern. A maximum electrical potential of 140 mV for velocity of 1.1 ms-1 at a bluff body diameter of 15 mm is observed in the energy harvester that can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices. The simulation of this energy harvesting phenomena is then simulated using COMSOLE multi-physics. Diameter of the bluff bodies as well as flow velocity and size of cantilever beam are varied and the experimental findings are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones. The simulations along with the experimental data show the possibility of generating electricity from vortex induced vibration and can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices.
Khatir, Z.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Cooper, R.K.; Watterson, J.W.; Oñate, E.; Papadrakakis, M.; Schrefler, B.
2007-01-01
Numerical investigations of fluid structure interaction between unsteady flow and vibrating liner in a combustion chamber are undertaken. The computational study consist of two approaches. Firstly, a partioned procedure consists of coupling the LES code AVBP for combustion modelling with the FEM
Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: The ability to control skin blood flow decreases with advancing age and some clinical disorders, as in diabetes and in rheumatologic diseases. Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to ...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.
2014-01-01
Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-014-6497-9#page-1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong [Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.
FIVPET Flow-Induced Vibration Test Report (1) - Candidate Spacer Grid Type I (Optimized H Type)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Jae Yong
2006-03-15
The flow-induced vibration (FIV) test using a 5x5 partial fuel assembly was performed to evaluate mechanical/structural performance of the candidate spacer grid type I (Optimized H shape). From the measured vibration response of the test bundle and the flow parameters, design features of the spacer strap can be analyzed in the point of vibration and hydraulic aspect, and also compared with other spacer strap in simple comparative manner. Furthermore, the FIV test will contributes to understand behaviors of nuclear fuel in operating reactor. The FIV test results will be used to verify the theoretical model of fuel rod and assembly vibration. The aim of this report is to present the results of the FIV test of partial fuel assembly and to introduce the detailed test methodology and analysis procedure. In chapter 2, the overall configuration of test bundle and instrumented tube is remarked and chapter 3 will introduce the test facility (FIVPET) and test section. Chapter 4 deals with overall test condition and procedure, measurement and data acquisition devices, instrumentation equipment and calibration, and error analysis. Finally, test result of vibration and pressure fluctuation is presented and discussed in chapter 5.
Vibrational energy relaxation of a diatomic molecule in a room-temperature ionic liquid.
Shim, Youngseon; Kim, Hyung J
2006-07-14
Vibrational energy relaxation (VER) dynamics of a diatomic solute in ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (EMI(+)PF(6) (-)) are studied via equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The time scale for VER is found to decrease markedly with the increasing solute dipole moment, consonant with many previous studies in polar solvents. A detailed analysis of nonequilibrium results shows that for a dipolar solute, dissipation of an excess solute vibrational energy occurs almost exclusively via the Lennard-Jones interactions between the solute and solvent, while an oscillatory energy exchange between the two is mainly controlled by their electrostatic interactions. Regardless of the anharmonicity of the solute vibrational potential, VER becomes accelerated as the initial vibrational energy increases. This is attributed primarily to the enhancement in variations of the solvent force on the solute bond, induced by large-amplitude solute vibrations. One interesting finding is that if a time variable scaled with the initial excitation energy is employed, dissipation dynamics of the excess vibrational energy of the dipolar solute tend to show a universal behavior irrespective of its initial vibrational state. Comparison with water and acetonitrile shows that overall characteristics of VER in EMI(+)PF(6) (-) are similar to those in acetonitrile, while relaxation in water is much faster than the two. It is also found that the Landau-Teller theory predictions for VER time scale obtained via equilibrium simulations of the solvent force autocorrelation function are in reasonable agreement with the nonequilibrium results.
Chen, Shao-Tuan; Du, Sijun; Arroyo, Emmanuelle; Jia, Yu; Seshia, Ashwin
2017-10-01
This paper presents a novel application of utilising nonlinear air damping as a soft mechanical stopper to increase the shock reliability for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) vibration energy harvesters. The theoretical framework for nonlinear air damping is constructed for MEMS vibration energy harvesters operating in different air pressure levels, and characterisation experiments are conducted to establish the relationship between air pressure and nonlinear air damping coefficient for rectangular cantilever MEMS micro cantilevers with different proof masses. Design guidelines on choosing the optimal air pressure level for different MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on the trade-off between harvestable energy and the device robustness are presented, and random excitation experiments are performed to verify the robustness of MEMS vibration energy harvesters with nonlinear air damping as soft stoppers to limit the maximum deflection distance and increase the shock reliability of the device.
Study of flow induce vibration inside 3.5 inch hard disk drives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wichitpon Seepangmon
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This study focused on flow induced vibration of head stack assembly (HSA in a 3.5 inch hard disk drive with 5 disks and 10 read/write heads. We studied the effects of air flow on gimbal flex and resonance on arm. The comparison of vibrations on slider between the normal model and the experiment has been done for verifying the model. The peaks of frequency in experiment match the normal model at 1,040 1,320 and 1,400 Hz respectively. After that, the RNG K-ε turbulence model was used to determine the turbulent air flow of 7,200 rpm hard disk drive. The comparison between the normal model and the model with spoiler was investigated by using, computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS and FLUENT. The results shown velocity magnitudes at the arm were decreased by 0.725 - 57.689 % and pressure dropped by 74.028 - 87.222 %. The velocity magnitudes at the gimbal flex were decreased by 5.522 - 14.291 % and pressure dropped by 48.440 - 82.947 %. The peak of vibrations on arm and gimbal flex was occurred at the frequency 1200 Hz. The model with spoiler could reduce vibration at arm by 2.56 - 95.601 % and reduce vibration at gimbal flex by 4.065 - 95.503 %. In the conclusion, the model with a spoiler could decrease the vibration at all surface of the arm and gimbal flex due to the velocity and pressure reduction[1][4].
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Wang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The vibrating electrode method was proposed in the electro-slag remelting (ESR process in this paper, and the effect of vibrating electrode on the solidification structure of ingot was studied. A transient three-dimensional (3D coupled mathematical model was established to simulate the electromagnetic phenomenon, fluid flow as well as pool shape in the ESR process with the vibrating electrode. The finite element volume method is developed to solve the electromagnetic field using ANSYS mechanical APDL software. Moreover, the electromagnetic force and Joule heating are interpolated as the source term of the momentum and energy equations. The multi-physical fields have been investigated and compared between the traditional electrode and the vibrating electrode in the ESR process. The results show that the drop process of metal droplets with the traditional electrode is scattered randomly. However, the drop process of metal droplets with the vibrating electrode is periodic. The highest temperature of slag layer with the vibrating electrode is higher than that with the traditional electrode, which can increase the melting rate due to the enhanced heat transfer in the vicinity of the electrode tip. The results also show that when the amplitude and frequency of the vibrating electrode increase, the cycle of drop process of metal droplets decreases significantly.
Li, Lei; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Hengxuan; Li, Jing
2018-01-01
In the pilot stage of nozzle-flapper servo valve, the flow force on the flapper is the key reason that leads to forced vibration of the armature assembly, which may result in the fatigue of the flexure tube in torque motor. To master the principles and features of the flow force and the source of the forced vibration of the armature assembly, mathematical models of flow force and the forced vibration are deduced in this paper. For validating the model, a three-dimensional model is built and a finite element analysis of the flow force with different inlet pressure and deflections is presented and an innovative and experimental rig for measuring the steady and dynamic frequency of flow force is also designed. The characteristic of the main flow force, minor flow force and total flow force are analyzed contrastively, and the experimental results agree well with the CFD results and mathematical model analysis. To find the source of forced vibration of the armature assembly, a knocking method is proposed to measure the natural frequency of armature assembly. By comparing the spectrum of the pressure and vibration movement through experiments, a conclusion can be drawn that the inlet pressure fluctuation near the natural frequency of armature assembly and the asymmetric structure of pilot stage are the necessary and sufficient conditions to make the armature assembly yield forced vibration. In the end, some suggestions have been made to decrease the intensity of forced vibration of the pilot stage according to the findings.
Validation of vibration-dissociation coupling models in hypersonic non-equilibrium separated flows
Shoev, G.; Oblapenko, G.; Kunova, O.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Kustova, E.
2018-03-01
The validation of recently developed models of vibration-dissociation coupling is discussed in application to numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in a two-temperature approximation for a binary N2/N flow. Vibrational-translational relaxation rates are computed using the Landau-Teller formula generalized for strongly non-equilibrium flows obtained in the framework of the Chapman-Enskog method. Dissociation rates are calculated using the modified Treanor-Marrone model taking into account the dependence of the model parameter on the vibrational state. The solutions are compared to those obtained using traditional Landau-Teller and Treanor-Marrone models, and it is shown that for high-enthalpy flows, the traditional and recently developed models can give significantly different results. The computed heat flux and pressure on the surface of a double cone are in a good agreement with experimental data available in the literature on low-enthalpy flow with strong thermal non-equilibrium. The computed heat flux on a double wedge qualitatively agrees with available data for high-enthalpy non-equilibrium flows. Different contributions to the heat flux calculated using rigorous kinetic theory methods are evaluated. Quantitative discrepancy of numerical and experimental data is discussed.
Effect of Induced Vibration on the Blood Flow Properties in a Mechanical Aortic Valve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kadhim Saleem Khalefa
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The effect of induced vibration on velocity distribution for the blood flow in the bileaflet mechanical heart valves conveying blood was investigated in this study. The bileaflet valve was simulated as an orifice. The induced vibration is due to the pulsed blood flow in the artery. Results presented in this study were performed using CFD FLUENT software. This analysis is based on the non-linear numerical solution by using a finite-element method, for the system of governing partial differential equations (continuity, momentum of Navier - Stokes equation of blood flow through the orifice. It has been found that as the flow through the orifice increased, the vibration at the orifice inlet increased. For steady state conditions, at Reynolds number 50 the recorded frequency was 20Hz. When the Reynolds number increased to 100 due to the increase in the blood flow the recorded frequency increased to 30Hz. The increase in frequency may result in damaging the blood red cells and platelets which subsequently results in increasing the blood clogging downstream of the orifice.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Zhongsheng, E-mail: czs_study@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, College of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Yang Yongmin; Lu Zhimiao; Luo Yanting [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, College of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)
2013-02-01
Nowadays broadband vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric effect has become a research hotspot. The innovation in this paper is the widening of the resonant bandwidth of a piezoelectric harvester based on phononic band gaps, which is called one-dimensional phononic piezoelectric cantilever beams (PPCBs). Broadband characteristics of one-dimensional PPCBs are analyzed deeply and the vibration band gap can be calculated. The effects of different parameters on the vibration band gap are presented by both numerical and finite element simulations. Finally experimental tests are conducted to validate the proposed method. It can be concluded that it is feasible to use the PPCB for broadband vibration energy harvesting and there should be a compromise among related parameters for low-frequency vibrations.
The Effect of Flowing Water on Turbine Rotor Vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansson, Ida
2010-07-01
There is a lack of standardized rules on how the fluid in the turbine should be included in rotor models of hydraulic machinery. This thesis is an attempt to shed some light on this issue. We approach the problem from two viewpoints, situated at place at a hydropower plant and by mathematical analysis. One goal of the thesis is to develop a measurement system that monitors the instantaneous pressure at several locations of a runner blade on a 10 MW Kaplan prototype in Porjus along Lule river. Paper A outlines the development of the measurement system and the instrumentation of the runner blade. Miniature piezo-resistive pressure transducers were mounted flush to the surface. If instrumentation is successful, the pressure field of the runner blade could be measured simultaneously as the loads and displacements of the guide bearings and the generator. The second objective is concerned with how the motion-induced fluid force affects the dynamic behaviour of the rotor. Inertia and angular momentum of the fluid and shrouding are expected to influence the dynamic behaviour of the turbine. Paper B scrutinizes this assumption by presenting a simple fluid-rotor model that captures the effects of inertia and angular momentum of the fluid on the motion of a confined cylinder. The simplicity of the model allows for powerful analytical solution methods. The results show that fluid inertia, angular momentum and shrouding of hydraulic turbines could have substantial effects on lateral rotor vibrations. This calls for further investigation with a more complex fluid-rotor model that accounts for flexural bending modes.
A dimensionless analysis of a 2DOF piezoelectric vibration energy harvester
Xiao, Han; Wang, Xu; John, Sabu
2015-06-01
In this study, a dimensionless analysis method is proposed to predict the output voltage and harvested power for a 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system. This method allows us to compare the harvesting power and efficiency of the 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system and to evaluate the harvesting system performance regardless the sizes or scales. The analysis method is a hybrid of time domain simulation and frequency response analysis approaches, which would be a useful tool for parametric study, design and optimisation of a 2DOF piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. In a case study, a quarter car suspension model with a piezoelectric material insert is chosen to be studied. The 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system could potentially be applied in a vehicle to convert waste or harmful ambient vibration energy into electrical energy for charging the battery. Especially for its application in a hybrid vehicle or an electrical vehicle, the 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system could improve charge mileage, comfort and reliability.
Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface.
Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang
2015-06-04
The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.
Stick-slip instabilities in sheared granular flow: The role of friction and acoustic vibrations.
Lieou, Charles K C; Elbanna, Ahmed E; Langer, J S; Carlson, J M
2015-08-01
We propose a theory of shear flow in dense granular materials. A key ingredient of the theory is an effective temperature that determines how the material responds to external driving forces such as shear stresses and vibrations. We show that, within our model, friction between grains produces stick-slip behavior at intermediate shear rates, even if the material is rate strengthening at larger rates. In addition, externally generated acoustic vibrations alter the stick-slip amplitude, or suppress stick-slip altogether, depending on the pressure and shear rate. We construct a phase diagram that indicates the parameter regimes for which stick-slip occurs in the presence and absence of acoustic vibrations of a fixed amplitude and frequency. These results connect the microscopic physics to macroscopic dynamics and thus produce useful information about a variety of granular phenomena, including rupture and slip along earthquake faults, the remote triggering of instabilities, and the control of friction in material processing.
ESTIMATING REGIONAL ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCE FLOWS
Booker, James F.
2004-01-01
Estimates of direct and indirect material and energy usage for New York State are derived from existing input-output and natural resource and energy databases. The work provides both a generally applicable methodology and an empirical example for estimating energy and material flow impacts at the regional level.
Reshetova, A. I.; Poplavskaya, T. V.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Tsyrulnikov, I. S.
2017-10-01
The flow around a solid plate and a plate with a sound-absorbing coating at a non-zero angle of attack in a hypersonic flow (M∞=8.44) of a mixture of vibrationally excited carbon dioxide and nitrogen is considered. Numerical simulations are performed by solving two-dimensional unsteady Navier–Stokes equations with a two-temperature model of relaxing flows. The vibrational energy as a function of time is defined by the Landau–Teller equation. A skeleton model, which is a set of square elements arranged in a staggered order, is used for simulating the porous coating made of foamed nickel with a porosity coefficient of 95%. The distance between the elements is equal to the pore diameter of the real sound-absorbing material. Data on the evolution of disturbances on the solid plate and on the plate with the sound-absorbing coating are presented for various angles of attack and CO2 concentrations in the mixture. The experimental and calculated data on pressure fluctuations on the plate surfaces are found to be in good agreement. The effects of various parameters of the sound-absorbing coating (depth, length, and location at the flat plate) are considered. It is shown that the sound-absorbing coating significantly reduces the intensity of pressure fluctuations on the plate surface as compared to the solid surface (up to 50% depending on the length and location of the sound-absorbing coating).
Rantz, Robert; Roundy, Shad
2016-04-01
A tremendous amount of research has been performed on the design and analysis of vibration energy harvester architectures with the goal of optimizing power output; most studies assume idealized input vibrations without paying much attention to whether such idealizations are broadly representative of real sources. These "idealized input signals" are typically derived from the expected nature of the vibrations produced from a given source. Little work has been done on corroborating these expectations by virtue of compiling a comprehensive list of vibration signals organized by detailed classifications. Vibration data representing 333 signals were collected from the NiPS Laboratory "Real Vibration" database, processed, and categorized according to the source of the signal (e.g. animal, machine, etc.), the number of dominant frequencies, the nature of the dominant frequencies (e.g. stationary, band-limited noise, etc.), and other metrics. By categorizing signals in this way, the set of idealized vibration inputs commonly assumed for harvester input can be corroborated and refined, and heretofore overlooked vibration input types have motivation for investigation. An initial qualitative analysis of vibration signals has been undertaken with the goal of determining how often a standard linear oscillator based harvester is likely the optimal architecture, and how often a nonlinear harvester with a cubic stiffness function might provide improvement. Although preliminary, the analysis indicates that in at least 23% of cases, a linear harvester is likely optimal and in no more than 53% of cases would a nonlinear cubic stiffness based harvester provide improvement.
Supersonic Flow Control Using Combined Energy Deposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. A. Azarova
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Drag force control via energy deposition in an oncoming flow is a wide area of interest in aerospace sciences. Recently, investigations on the effect of combining energy sources have been conducted. The possibility of coupling microwave (MW discharges or MW and laser energy deposition is discussed. In the present work, the flow details accompanying the interaction of a combined energy release and an aerodynamic body in a supersonic flow are considered numerically on the base of the Euler equations. Comparison with non-combined energy deposition is analyzed. The effect of introducing the internal part to the energy release on the drag force reduction is examined. The flows for blunt cylinder, hemisphere-cylinder and pointed body are considered for a wide class of the combined energy source characteristics. Freestream Mach number is varied from 1.89 to 3.45. Complicated unsteady vortex structures caused by the Richtmyer–Meshkov instabilities are shown to be the reason for the reduction in drag. The unsteady double vortex mechanism of the frontal drag force reduction and mechanism of the constantly acting vortices at the steady flow are described. Suppression of shear layer instability and large scaled flow pulsations as the result of the combined energy release effect is established. Complex conservative difference schemes are used in the simulations.
Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moiseev V.A.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.
Piezoelectric Cylindrical Design for Harvesting Energy in Multi-Directional Vibration Source
Nguyen, M. S.; Ng, S. H.; Kim, P.; Yoon, Y. J.
2017-08-01
Vibration Energy Harvester (VEH) has attracted a great attention recently both in academia and industry. One of the most challenging issues in VEH is the possibility to harvest vibration energy in multiple directions. In fact, Conventional VEH (CVEH) using cantilever beam’s structure may possibly become inefficient for the application under multi-directional vibration sources. To overcome this shortcoming of CVEH, this paper proposes a novel design of piezoelectric cylindrical energy harvester (PCEH) which is using patches of piezoelectric material attached to the surface of a cylindrical structure. The Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis using COMSOL Multiphysics software package showed that PCEH has a great potential for the applicability of VEH in the multi-directional vibrating applications such as wearable devices and biomedical devices.
Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Lu, R. [Hudson Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)
1996-12-31
The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.
Application of nonlinear magnetic vibro-impact vibration suppressor and energy harvester
Afsharfard, Aref
2018-01-01
In the present study, application of a single unit vibro-impact system is improved. For this reason, in the so-called ;magnetic impact damper; the impact mass is replaced by a permanent magnet, which moves in coil of gap enclosure. In the magnetic impact damper, wasting energy during inelastic contacts of masses and converting energy into electrical energy during the mass movement inside the coil, leads to suppress undesired vibrations. In this study it is shown that the magnetic impact dampers are not only good vibration suppressors but also they can harvest electrical energy. Effect of changing the main parameters of this system including gap size, load resistance and electromagnetic coupling coefficient is studied on the vibratory and energy behavior of the magnetic impact dampers. Finally using several user oriented charts, it is shown that energy-based and vibration-based design considerations can effectively improve application of the discussed vibro-impact system.
Designing, modelling and testing of vibration energy harvester with nonlinear stiffness
Rubes, Ondrej; Hadas, Zdenek
2017-05-01
This paper is focused on a design of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with an additional nonlinear stiffness. Common piezoelectric energy harvesters consist of a cantilever with piezoceramic layers and a tip mass for tuning up the operation frequency. This system is excited by mechanical vibrations and it provides an autonomous source of electrical energy. A linear stiffness of the cantilever has very narrow resonance frequency bandwidth which makes the piezoelectric cantilever sensitive to tuning up of the resonance frequency. It could be tuned only for one narrow vibration frequency bandwidth. The piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with nonlinear stiffness could provide the resonance frequency bandwidth wider and it allows energy harvesting from the wider bandwidth of excitation vibrations. The additional nonlinear stiffness is implemented by using a set of permanent magnets. A simulation and an experiment were performed and the results show a wider resonance bandwidth. However, it depended on direction of vibration frequency sweeping. The frequency bandwidth is more than three times wider but there is only a half resonance amplitude of oscillations. That means that the maximal harvested power is lower but the average harvested power around resonance frequency was higher which was the goal of this research.
Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Yagi, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Takami, Toshiya; Stock, Gerhard
2017-01-01
Performing comprehensive quantum-chemical calculations, a vibrational Hamiltonian of acetylbenzonitrile is constructed, on the basis of which a quantum-mechanical "tier model" is developed that describes the vibrational dynamics following excitation of the CN stretch mode. Taking into account 36 vibrational modes and cubic and quartic anharmonic couplings between up to three different modes, the tier model calculations are shown to qualitatively reproduce the main findings of the experiments of Rubtsov and coworkers (2011), including the energy relaxation of the initially excited CN mode and the structure-dependent vibrational transport. Moreover, the calculations suggest that the experimentally measured cross-peak among the CN and CO modes does not correspond to direct excitation of the CO normal mode but rather reflects excited low-frequency vibrations that anharmonically couple to the CO mode. Complementary quasiclassical trajectory calculations are found to be in good overall agreement with the quantum calculations.
Reducing cross-flow vibrations of underflow gates: experiments and numerical studies
Erdbrink, C D; Sloot, P M A
2013-01-01
An experimental study is combined with numerical modelling to investigate new ways to reduce cross-flow vibrations of hydraulic gates with underflow. A rectangular gate section placed in a flume was given freedom to vibrate in the vertical direction. Holes in the gate bottom enabled leakage flow through the gate to enter the area directly under the gate which is known to play a key role in most excitation mechanisms. For submerged discharge conditions with small gate openings the vertical dynamic support force was measured in the reduced velocity range 1.5 < Vr < 10.5 for a gate with and without holes. The leakage flow through the holes significantly reduced vibrations. This attenuation was most profound in the high stiffness region at 2 < Vr < 3.5. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with the Finite Element Method to assess local velocities and pressures for both gate types. A moving mesh covering both solid and fluid domain allowed free gate movement and two-way fluid-structure ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.
2008-07-08
Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xihai Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been expected to improve the capability of capturing mechanical vibration dynamic behaviors and evaluating the current health status of equipment. While the expectation for mechanical vibration monitoring using WSNs has been high, one of the key limitations is the limited lifetime of batteries for sensor node. The energy harvesting technologies have been recently proposed. One of them shares the same main idea, that is, energy harvesting from ambient vibration can be converted into electric power. Employing the vibration energy harvesting, a novel self-powered wireless sensor node has been developed to measure mechanical vibration in this paper. The overall architecture of node is proposed. The wireless sensor node is described into four main components: the energy harvesting unit, the microprocessor unit, the radio transceiver unit, and accelerometer. Moreover, the software used to control the operation of wireless node is also suggested. At last, in order to achieve continuous self-powered for nodes, two operation modes including the charging mode and discharging mode are proposed. This design can effectively solve the problem of continuous supply power of sensor node for mechanical vibration monitoring.
He, Xuemei; Yu, Pengyun; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jianping
2017-10-12
Ultrafast vibrational relaxation and structural dynamics of indigo carmine in dimethyl sulfoxide were examined using femtosecond pump-probe infrared and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopies. Using the intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded C═O and delocalized C═C stretching modes as infrared probes, local structural and dynamical variations of this blue dye molecule were observed. Energy relaxation of the vibrationally excited C═O stretching mode was found to occur through covalent bond to the delocalized aromatic vibrational modes on the time scale of a few picoseconds or less. Vibrational quantum beating was observed in magic-angle pump-probe, anisotropy, and 2D IR cross-peak dynamics, showing an oscillation period of ca. 1010 fs, which corresponds to the energy difference between the C═O and C═C transition frequency (33 cm-1). This confirms a resonant vibrational energy transfer happened between the two vibrators. However, a more efficient energy-accepting mode of the excited C═O stretching was believed to be a nearby combination and/or overtone mode that is more tightly connected to the C═O species. On the structural aspect, dynamical-time-dependent 2D IR spectra reveal an insignificant inhomogeneous contribution to time-correlation relaxation for both the C═O and C═C stretching modes, which is in agreement with the generally believed structural rigidity of such conjugated molecules.
A velocity-amplified electromagnetic energy harvester for small amplitude vibration
Klein, J.; Zuo, L.
2017-09-01
Dedicated, self-powered wireless sensors are widely being studied for use throughout many industries to monitor everyday operations, maintain safety, and report performance characteristics. To enable sensors to power themselves, harvesting energy from machine vibration has been studied, however, its overall effectiveness can be hampered due to small vibration amplitudes and thus limited harvestable energy density. This paper addresses the issue by proposing a novel vibration energy harvester architecture in which a compliant mechanism and proof mass system is used to amplify the vibrational velocity of machine vibration for a linear electromagnetic generator. A prototype has been fabricated and experimentally characterized to verify its effectiveness. When operating at its natural frequency in a low base amplitude, 0.001 inch (25.4 μm) at 19.4 Hz, during lab tests, the harvester has been shown to produce up to 0.91 V AC open voltage, and a maximum power of 2 mW, amplifying the relative proof mass velocity by approximately 5.4 times. This method of locally increasing the machine vibrational velocity has been shown to be a viable option for increasing the potential power output of an energy harvester. In addition, a mathematical model is created based on pseudo-rigid-body dynamics and the analysis matches closely with experiments.
Gharabaghi, Masumeh; Shahbazian, Shant
2017-04-21
The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is based on the clamped nucleus paradigm and solely working with the electronic wavefunctions, so does not include nuclear vibrations in the AIM analysis. On the other hand, the recently extended version of the QTAIM, called the multi-component QTAIM (MC-QTAIM), incorporates both electrons and quantum nuclei, i.e., those nuclei treated as quantum waves instead of clamped point charges, into the AIM analysis using non-adiabatic wavefunctions. Thus, the MC-QTAIM is the natural framework to incorporate the role of nuclear vibrations into the AIM analysis. In this study, within the context of the MC-QTAIM, the formalism of including nuclear vibrational energy in the atomic basin energy is developed in detail and its contribution is derived analytically using the recently proposed non-adiabatic Hartree product nuclear wavefunction. It is demonstrated that within the context of this wavefunction, the quantum nuclei may be conceived pseudo-adiabatically as quantum oscillators and both isotropic harmonic and anisotropic anharmonic oscillator models are used to compute the zero-point nuclear vibrational energy contribution to the basin energies explicitly. Inspired by the results gained within the context of the MC-QTAIM analysis, a heuristic approach is proposed within the context of the QTAIM to include nuclear vibrational energy in the basin energy from the vibrational wavefunction derived adiabatically. The explicit calculation of the basin contribution of the zero-point vibrational energy using the uncoupled harmonic oscillator model leads to results consistent with those derived from the MC-QTAIM.
Local orientational order in liquids revealed by resonant vibrational energy transfer.
Panman, M R; Shaw, D J; Ensing, B; Woutersen, S
2014-11-14
We demonstrate that local orientational ordering in a liquid can be observed in the decay of the vibrational anisotropy caused by resonant transfer of vibrational excitations between its constituent molecules. We show that the functional form of this decay is determined by the (distribution of) angles between the vibrating bonds of the molecules between which energy transfer occurs, and that the initial drop in the decay reflects the average angle between nearest neighbors. We use this effect to observe the difference in local orientational ordering in the two hydrogen-bonded liquids ethanol and N-methylacetamide.
Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of sulfur dioxide.
Koput, Jacek
2017-05-05
An accurate potential energy surface of sulfur dioxide, SO2 , in its ground electronic state X∼ 1A1 has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach in conjunction with the correlation-consistent basis sets up to septuple-zeta quality. The results obtained with the conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods are compared. The role of the core-electron correlation, higher-order valence-electron correlation, scalar relativistic, and adiabatic effects in determining the structure and dynamics of the SO2 molecule is discussed. The vibration-rotation energy levels of the 32 SO2 and 34 SO2 isotopologues were predicted using a variational approach. It was shown that the inclusion of the aforementioned effects was mandatory to attain the "spectroscopic" accuracy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vytautas Ostasevicius
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on several aspects extending the dynamical efficiency of a cantilever beam vibrating in the third mode. A few ways of producing this mode stimulation, namely vibro-impact or forced excitation, as well as its application for energy harvesting devices are proposed. The paper presents numerical and experimental analyses of novel structural dynamics effects along with an optimal configuration of the cantilever beam. The peculiarities of a cantilever beam vibrating in the third mode are related to the significant increase of the level of deformations capable of extracting significant additional amounts of energy compared to the conventional harvester vibrating in the first mode. Two types of a piezoelectric vibrating energy harvester (PVEH prototype are analysed in this paper: the first one without electrode segmentation, while the second is segmented using electrode segmentation at the strain nodes of the third vibration mode to achieve effective operation at the third resonant frequency. The results of this research revealed that the voltage generated by any segment of the segmented PVEH prototype excited at the third resonant frequency demonstrated a 3.4–4.8-fold increase in comparison with the non-segmented prototype. Simultaneously, the efficiency of the energy harvester prototype also increased at lower resonant frequencies from 16% to 90%. The insights presented in the paper may serve for the development and fabrication of advanced piezoelectric energy harvesters which would be able to generate a considerably increased amount of electrical energy independently of the frequency of kinematical excitation.
Vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder in planar shear flow
Gsell, Simon; Bourguet, Remi; Braza, Marianna
2017-11-01
Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of bluff bodies are common in nature and in engineering applications where flexible or flexibly mounted structures are exposed to wind and ocean currents. VIV have been thoroughly studied through the canonical problem of an elastically mounted, rigid cylinder immersed in uniform flow. However, in the real physical systems where VIV develop, the oncoming flows are usually non-uniform. The present work investigates the impact of a shear of the oncoming current in the cross-flow direction. As a first preliminary step, focus is placed on the fixed cylinder case; the analysis is based on a series of numerical simulations over a wide range of shear rates, at Reynolds number 100. It is found that the shear leads to the cancellation of wake unsteadiness beyond a critical value of the shear rate. Once the rigid cylinder is elastically mounted, free vibrations arise over the entire range of shear rates under study, including beyond the above mentioned critical value. Different flow-structure interaction regimes are uncovered. Some of them exhibit a major deviation from the uniform-flow case, with a profound reconfiguration of the wake patterns and a dramatic amplification of the structural response amplitudes.
Cui, Zhihua; Ai, Chi; Feng, Fuping
2017-01-01
When shear swirling flow vibration cementing, the casing is revolving periodically and eccentrically, which leads to the annulus fluid in turbulent swirling flow state. The wall shear stress is more than that in laminar flow field when conventional cementing. The paper mainly studied the wall shear stress distribution on the borehole wall when shear swirling flow vibration cementing based on the finite volume method. At the same time, the wall roughness affected and changed the turbulent flow near the borehole wall and the wall shear stress. Based on the wall function method, the paper established boundary conditions considering the wall roughness and derived the formula of the wall shear stress. The results showed that the wall roughness significantly increases the wall shear stress. However, the larger the wall roughness, the greater the thickness of mud cake, which weakening the cementing strength. Considering the effects in a comprehensive way, it is discovered that the particle size of solid phase in drilling fluid is about 0.1 mm to get better cementing quality.
Analysis of wind energy potential and vibrations caused by wind turbine on its basement
Kaláb, Zdeněk; Hanslian, David; Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav
2014-01-01
This paper deals with study of wind energy potential and experimental measurement of vibrations caused by wind turbine. Study area was wind park Horní Loděnice – Lipina. To obtain frequency distribution of wind speed, two models were used for calculation. Experimental seismological measurement was performed in near surroundings of the wind turbine. At low wind speed without significant wind gust, only negligible vibrations were measured. Web of Science 19 3 159 151
Sparta, Manuel; Hansen, Mikkel B; Matito, Eduard; Toffoli, Daniele; Christiansen, Ove
2010-10-12
The availability of an accurate representation of the potential energy surface (PES) is an essential prerequisite in an anharmonic vibrational calculation. At the same time, the high dimensionality of the fully coupled PES and the adverse scaling properties with respect to the molecular size make the construction of an accurate PES a computationally demanding task. In the past few years, our group tested and developed a series of tools and techniques aimed at defining computationally efficient, black-box protocols for the construction of PESs for use in vibrational calculations. This includes the definition of an adaptive density-guided approach (ADGA) for the construction of PESs from an automatically generated set of evaluation points. Another separate aspect has been the exploration of the use of derivative information through modified Shepard (MS) interpolation/extrapolation procedures. With this article, we present an assembled machinery where these methods are embedded in an efficient way to provide both a general machinery as well as concrete computational protocols. In this framework we introduce and discuss the accuracy and computational efficiency of two methods, called ADGA[2gx3M] and ADGA[2hx3M], where the ADGA recipe is used (with MS interpolation) to automatically define modest sized grids for up to two-mode couplings, while MS extrapolation based on, respectively, gradients only and gradients and Hessians from the ADGA determined points provides access to sufficiently accurate three-mode couplings. The performance of the resulting potentials is investigated in vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) calculations. Three molecular systems serve as benchmarks: a trisubstituted methane (CHFClBr), methanimine (CH2NH), and oxazole (C3H3NO). Furthermore, methanimine and oxazole are addressed in accurate calculations aiming to reproduce experimental results.
Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei
2016-12-01
In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.
Huo, Winifred M.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
At high altitudes and velocities equal to or greater than the geosynchronous return velocity (10 kilometers per second), the shock layer of a hypersonic flight will be in thermochemical nonequilibrium and partially ionized. The amount of ionization is determined by the velocity. For a trans atmospheric flight of 10 kilometers per second and at an altitude of 80 kilometers, a maximum of 1% ionization is expected. At a velocity of 12 - 17 kilometer per second, such as a Mars return mission, up to 30% of the atoms and molecules in the flow field will be ionized. Under those circumstances, electrons play an important role in determining the internal states of atoms and molecules in the flow field and hence the amount of radiative heat load and the distance it takes for the flow field to re-establish equilibrium. Electron collisions provide an effective means of transferring energy even when the electron number density is as low as 1%. Because the mass of an electron is 12,760 times smaller than the reduced mass of N2, its average speed, and hence its average collision frequency, is more than 100 times larger. Even in the slightly ionized regime with only 1% electrons, the frequency of electron-molecule collisions is equal to or larger than that of molecule-molecule collisions, an important consideration in the low density part of the atmosphere. Three electron-molecule collision processes relevant to hypersonic flows will be considered: (1) vibrational excitation/de-excitation of a diatomic molecule by electron impact, (2) electronic excitation/de-excitation, and (3) dissociative recombination in electron-diatomic ion collisions. A review of available data, both theory and experiment, will be given. Particular attention will be paid to tailoring the molecular physics to the condition of hypersonic flows. For example, the high rotational temperatures in a hypersonic flow field means that most experimental data carried out under room temperatures are not applicable. Also
Design and experimental study of a velocity amplified electromagnetic vibration energy harvester
Klein, Jackson A.; Zuo, Lei
2017-04-01
Dedicated sensors are widely used throughout many industries to monitor everyday operations, maintain safety and report performance characteristics. In order to adopt a more sustainable solution, intensive research is being conducted for self-powered sensing. To enable sensors to power themselves, harvesting energy from environmental vibration has been widely studied, however, its overall effectiveness remains questionable due to small vibration amplitudes and thus limited harvestable energy density. This paper addresses the issue by proposing a novel vibration energy harvester in which a metal compliant mechanism frame is used to house both a linear electromagnetic generator and proof mass. Due to the compliant mechanism, the proposed energy harvester is capable of amplifying machine vibration velocity for a dedicated electromagnetic generator, largely increasing the energy density. The harvester prototype is also fabricated and experimentally characterized to verify its effectiveness. When operating at its natural frequency in a low base amplitude, 0.001 in (25.4μm) at 19.4 Hz, during lab tests, the harvester has been shown to produce up to 0.91 V AC open voltage, and a maximum power of 2 mW, amplifying the relative proof mass velocity by approximately 5.4 times. In addition, a mathematical model is created based on the pseudo-rigid-body dynamics and the analysis matches closely with experiments. The proposed harvester was designed using vibration data from nuclear power plants. Further steps for improving such a design are given for broader applications.
Ahmed, Riaz; Mir, Fariha; Banerjee, Sourav
2017-08-01
The principal objective of this article is to categorically review and compare the state of the art vibration based energy harvesting approaches. To evaluate the contemporary methodologies with respect to their physics, average power output and operational frequencies, systematically divided and easy readable tables are presented followed by the description of the energy harvesting methods. Energy harvesting is the process of obtaining electrical energy from the surrounding vibratory mechanical systems through an energy conversion method using smart structures, like, piezoelectric, electrostatic materials. Recent advancements in low power electronic gadgets, micro electro mechanical systems, and wireless sensors have significantly increased local power demand. In order to circumvent the energy demand; to allow limitless power supply, and to avoid chemical waste from conventional batteries, low power local energy harvesters are proposed for harvesting energy from different ambient energy sources. Piezoelectric materials have received tremendous interest in energy harvesting technology due to its unique ability to capitalize the ambient vibrations to generate electric potential. Their crystalline configuration allows the material to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical potential, and vice versa. This article discusses the various approaches in vibration based energy scavenging where piezoelectric materials are employed as the energy conversion medium.
Elfrink, R.; Renaud, M.; Kamel, T.M.; Nooijer, C. de; Jambunathan, M.; Goedbloed, M.; Hohlfeld, D.; Matova, S.; Pop, V.; Caballero, L.; Schaijk, R. van
2010-01-01
This paper describes the characterization of thin-film MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on aluminum nitride as piezoelectric material. A record output power of 85 μW is measured. The parasitic-damping and the energy-harvesting performances of unpackaged and packaged devices are investigated.
Energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based maintenance of machinery
Wang, Z.; Bouwens, F.; Vullers, R.; Petré, F.; Devos, S.
2011-01-01
This paper addresses the development of an energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based monitoring of machinery. Such technology plays an increasingly important role in modern manufacturing industry. In this work, energy harvesting is realized by resorting to a custom designed
Jeong, M K; Hwang, C; Nam, H; Cho, Y S; Kang, B Y; Cho, E C
2017-02-01
The purpose of this study was to determine how the energies supplied from a cosmetic vibrator are deeply or far transferred into organs and tissues, and how these depths or distances are influenced by tissue elasticity. External vibration energy was applied to model skin surfaces through a facial cleansing vibrator, and we measured a distance- and depth-dependent energy that was transferred to model skin matrices. As model skin matrices, we synthesized hard and soft poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) gels, as well as hydrogels with a modulus of 2.63 MPa, 0.33 MPa and 21 kPa, respectively, mostly representing those of skin and other organs. The transfer of vibration energy was measured either by increasing the separation distances or by increasing the depth from the vibrator. The energies were transmitted deeper into the hard PDMS than into the soft PDMS and hydrogel matrices. This finding implies that the vibration forces influence a larger area of the gel matrices when the gels are more elastic (or rigid). There were no appreciable differences between the soft PDMS and hydrogel matrices. However, the absorbed energies were more concentrated in the area closest to the vibrator with decreasing elasticity of the matrix. Softer materials absorbed most of the supplied energy around the point of the vibrator. In contrast, harder materials scattered the external energy over a broad area. The current results are the first report in estimating how the external energy is deeply or distantly transferred into a model skins depending on the elastic moduli of the models skins. In doing so, the results would be potentially useful in predicting the health of cells, tissues and organs exposed to various stimuli. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.
Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José
2012-01-01
Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.
Mass and energy flow in prominences
Poland, Arthur I.
1990-01-01
Mass and energy flow in quiescent prominences is considered based on the hypothesis that active region prominences have a different structure and thus different mass and energy flow characteristics. Several important physical parameters have been plotted using the computational model, representing the evolutionary process after the prominence formation. The temperature, velocity, conductive flux, and enthalpy flux are plotted against distance from the highest point in the loop to the coolest part of the prominence. It is shown that the maximum velocity is only about 5 km/s. The model calculations indicate that the transition region of prominences is dominated by complex processes. It is necessary to take into account mass flow at temperatures below 200,000 K, and both mass flow and optical depth effects in hydrogen at temperatures below 30,000 K. Both of these effects lead to a less steep temperature gradient through the prominence corona interface than can be obtained from the conduction alone.
High energy density redox flow device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, Craig W.; Ho, Bryan Y.; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa
2017-10-10
Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shit, G.C., E-mail: gopal_iitkgp@yahoo.co.in; Majee, Sreeparna
2015-08-15
Unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer characteristics in the neighborhood of an overlapping constricted artery have been investigated in the presence of magnetic field and whole body vibration. The laminar flow of blood is taken to be incompressible and Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity depending upon temperature with an aim to provide resemblance to the real situation in the physiological system. The unsteady flow mechanism in the constricted artery is subjected to a pulsatile pressure gradient arising from systematic functioning of the heart and from the periodic body acceleration. The numerical computation has been performed using finite difference method by developing Crank–Nicolson scheme. The results show that the volumetric flow rate, skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are significantly altered in the downstream of the constricted region. The axial velocity profile, temperature and flow rate increases with increase in temperature dependent viscosity, while the opposite trend is observed in the case of skin-friction and flow impedance. - Highlights: • We have investigated the pulsatile MHD flow of blood and heat transfer in arteries. • The influence of periodic body acceleration has been taken into account. • The temperature dependent viscosity of blood is considered. • The variable viscosity has an increasing effect on blood flow and heat transfer. • The overall temperature distribution enhances in the presence of magnetic field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Yao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available There have been civil disputes and complaints regarding the negative effects of blasting vibration on buildings around the blasting site. By considering the effect of blasting vibration on a human body as a process of energy transfer and conversion, the human body absorbed blasting vibration energy (ABVE index has been developed for comfort evaluation. Using dynamic monitoring and theoretical analysis, the elevation amplification effect and selective amplification effect on different frequency components of the ABVE have been investigated. The elevation amplification factor and selective amplification coefficients on different frequency components of the ABVE index for a typical 4-storey brick and concrete building have been determined. Based on the results, the magnitude and frequency components of the ABVE index in different parts especially in different storeys for the typical building have been determined. According to the characteristics of human body’s response to vibrations of different frequencies, the frequency-based weighting method of ABVE index has been simplified. By calculating the combined effect of vibrations from all directions, the total human body ABVE and its frequency components at different floors of the building can be determined accurately. This can be used to evaluate the human body comfort against blasting vibration at different floors.
A Hybrid Indoor Ambient Light and Vibration Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua Yu
2014-05-01
Full Text Available To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar panel applying in low light illumination is presented. The output voltage is increased by using the MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays architecture. It overcomes the disadvantage of traditional MEMS vibration energy harvester with low voltage output. The implementation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT for indoor ambient light is implemented using analog discrete components, which improves the whole harvester efficiency significantly compared to the digital signal processor. The output power of the vibration energy harvester is improved by using the impedance matching technique. An efficient mechanism of energy accumulation and bleed-off is also discussed. Experiment results obtained from an amorphous-silicon (a-Si solar panel of 4.8 × 2.0 cm2 and a fabricated piezoelectric MEMS generator of 11 × 12.4 mm2 show that the hybrid energy harvester achieves a maximum efficiency around 76.7%.
Research on vibration signal of engine based on subband energy method
Wu, Chunmei; Cui, Feng; Zhao, Yong; Fu, Baohong; Ma, Junchi; Yang, Guihua
2017-04-01
Based on the research of DA462 type engine cylinder and cylinder head vibration signal of the surface, the signal measured in the time domain and frequency domain are analyzed in detail, draw the following conclusions: the analysis of vibration signal of the subband energy method is applied to the engine, the concentration response of each of the motivation band can clearly be seen. Through the analysis we can see that the combustion excitation frequency response from 0k to 1K, the vibration influence on the body piston lateral impact force is mainly concentrated in 2K˜5K frequency range of Hz, valve opening and closing the excitation response frequency is mainly concentrated in the 3K˜4K range of Hz, and thus locating the valve clearance fault. This method is simple, accurate and practical for the post processing and analysis of vibration signals.
Use of wavelet energy for spinal cord vibration analysis during spinal surgery.
Dai, Yu; Zhang, Jianxun; Xue, Yuan
2013-12-01
An online non-contact measurement system using a laser displacement sensor was developed for obtaining the vibration amplitude of spinal cord and hard tissue. The discrete wavelet transform was used to extract the distinctive features of tissue vibration signals. The spinal cord and spinal cancellous bone can be discriminated by the comparison of wavelet energy over a characteristic scale. We also derived the integro-differential equation of motion to describe the spinal cord vibration excited by the motion of bone. Experimental results show that the method works well in identifying spinal cord and bone. However, available viscoelastic constants cannot describe the high-frequency features of spinal cord. The examined issue of tissue vibration due to the operation power device is a significant problem. The proposed method can be used by a surgery robot, and then spinal surgery may greatly benefit from the enhanced safety of robotics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vibration-based Energy Harvesting Systems Characterization Using Automated Electronic Equipment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioannis KOSMADAKIS
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A measurement bench has been developed to fully automate the procedure for the characterization of a vibration-based energy scavenging system. The measurement system is capable of monitoring all important characteristics of a vibration harvesting system (input and output voltage, current, and other parameters, frequency and acceleration values, etc.. It is composed of a PC, typical digital measuring instruments (oscilloscope, waveform generator, etc., certain sensors and actuators, along with a microcontroller based automation module. The automation of the procedure and the manipulation of the acquired data are performed by LabVIEW software. Typical measurements of a system consisting of a vibrating source, a vibration transducer and an active rectifier are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2014-09-15
This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.
Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer
Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei
2017-08-01
In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.
Accelerated Vibration Test of coolant channel components under simulated flow induced excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meher, K.K., E-mail: kkmeher@barc.gov.in; Pandey, J.K., E-mail: jkpandey@barc.gov.in; RamaRao, A., E-mail: arr@barc.gov.in
2016-04-15
Highlights: • The present study deals with the issue of loosening of the nut in the Grayloc joint due to flow induced vibration and fret in the feeder pipes in contact due to differential creep in the neighbouring channels. • Accelerated test has been done on the Grayloc joint on simulated flow induced vibration to study the effect of loosening of the nut. • In the present accelerated test, the component has not been led to failure (loosening) and an estimation of its service life has been approached based on the severity of test. • The inverse square law approach based on PSD comparison for severity of test have been used to correlate the actual operational hours and the Laboratory test hours to verify the loosening of the Grayloc nut for the present study. • By inverse power law approach, the minimum number of reactor-hours equivalent to 80 h of testing is 46,080 h (5.26 full power years). - Abstract: The present study outlines the accelerated testing procedure of a Grayloc joint assembly for possible loosening of its nut due to flow induced vibration. The concern of the Grayloc nut getting loosened in the absence of a lock nut due to flow induced vibration and the resulting fretting in the feeder pipes in contact due to differential creep in the neighbouring channels has been addressed here. The severity of the test was decided based on actual site measurement under different operating flow conditions and comparison of power spectral density (PSD). The laboratory test results were extrapolated for estimation of life of the component under operating condition using inverse power law approach. The uniqueness of the accelerated test is that the component under test has not been led to failure for assessing its operating life unlike conventional accelerated testing. From the tests and analysis, it was deduced that 80 h of accelerated laboratory testing was equivalent to 5.26 full power years (46,080 h) of the reactor operating life. The test duration was
Simpkins, Blake S.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Spann, Bryan T.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.
2016-09-01
Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we demonstrate both static and dynamic results for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. We experimentally and numerically describe strong coupling between a Fabry-Pérot cavity and carbonyl stretch ( 1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate and provide evidence that the mixed-states are immune to inhomogeneous broadening. We investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of a urethane monomer. Rabi splittings are in excellent agreement with an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band, as well as drastically modified relaxation rates. We speculate these modified kinetics are a consequence of the energy proximity between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions and that polaritons offer an alternative relaxation path for vibrational excitations. Varying the polariton energies by angle-tuning yields transient results consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, Rabi oscillations, or quantum beats, are observed at early times and we see evidence that these coherent vibration-cavity polariton excitations impact excited state population through cavity losses. Together, these results indicate that cavity coupling may be used to influence both excitation and relaxation rates of vibrations. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied in steady state and dynamically.
Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Device Combined with Damper
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hung-I Lu
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectricity is a type of material that enables mechanical energy and electrical energy to be interchangeable, which can be divided into positive piezoelectric effect and inverse piezoelectric effect. The positive piezoelectric effect is that the electric dipole moment of material generates changes when the piezoelectric material is subjected to pressure, resulting in electrical energy. Conversely, the inverse piezoelectric effect is the process of electrical energy converted into mechanical energy.
Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing
2017-01-01
The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC) technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1) the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2) the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design. PMID:29145408
Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhihua Cui
Full Text Available The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1 the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2 the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design.
Li, Jiebo; Bian, Hongtao; Chen, Hailong; Wen, Xiewen; Hoang, Bryan T; Zheng, Junrong
2013-04-25
KSCN and NH4SCN aqueous solutions were investigated with intermolecular vibrational energy transfer methods. In a KSCN/H2O (1/10 molar ratio) solution, 90% of the initial excitation of the CN stretch (~2066 cm(-1)) of the SCN(-) anion is transferred to the HOH bending mode (~1636 cm(-1)) of water molecules with an energy transfer time constant 3.1 ps. In a NH4SCN/H2O (1/10 molar ratio) solution, only 49% of the CN excitation flows to the water HOH bending mode with a time constant 6.3 ps. Most of the remaining CN excitation goes to the NH bending mode (~1460 cm(-1)) of the NH(+) cation with a time constant of 7.0 ps. The results indicate that about 50% of the energy transfer channel from the CN stretch to the HOH bending observed in the KSCN solution is overpowered by the NH4(+) cations in the NH4SCN/H2O solution. Ion concentration dependent measurements support this argument. According to the dipole/dipole approximation, the CN/OH energy transfer occurs most efficiently between SCN(-) anions and the water molecules closest to them. The experimental results therefore suggest that more than 50% of the water molecules closest to the SCN(-) anions are replaced by the NH4(+) cations in the NH4SCN/H2O (1/10 molar ratio) solution. The percentage is much larger than the NH4(+)/water ratio of 10%, indicating that the ion association between NH4(+) and SCN(-) is caused by the chemical nature of the solution rather than the statistical "forced contact" because of the high ion concentration.
Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanshan Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.
El Aroudi, Abdelali
2014-05-01
Recently, nonlinearities have been shown to play an important role in increasing the extracted energy of vibration-based energy harvesting systems. In this paper, we study the dynamical behavior of a piecewise linear (PWL) spring-mass-damper system for vibration-based energy harvesting applications. First, we present a continuous time single degree of freedom PWL dynamical model of the system. Different configurations of the PWL model and their corresponding state-space regions are derived. Then, from this PWL model, extensive numerical simulations are carried out by computing time-domain waveforms, state-space trajectories and frequency responses under a deterministic harmonic excitation for different sets of system parameter values. Stability analysis is performed using Floquet theory combined with Filippov method, Poincaré map modeling and finite difference method (FDM). The Floquet multipliers are calculated using these three approaches and a good concordance is obtained among them. The performance of the system in terms of the harvested energy is studied by considering both purely harmonic excitation and a noisy vibrational source. A frequency-domain analysis shows that the harvested energy could be larger at low frequencies as compared to an equivalent linear system, in particular, for relatively low excitation intensities. This could be an advantage for potential use of this system in low frequency ambient vibrational-based energy harvesting applications. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Grabham, N. J.; Harden, C.; Vincent, D.; Beeby, S. P.
2016-11-01
A wirelessly powered remote sensor node is presented along with its design process. The purpose of the node is the further expansion of the sensing capabilities of the commercial Perpetuum system used for condition monitoring on trains and rolling stock which operates using vibration energy harvesting. Surplus harvested vibration energy is transferred wirelessly to a remote satellite sensor to allow measurements over a wider area to be made. This additional data is to be used for long term condition monitoring. Performance measurements made on the prototype remote sensor node are reported and advantages and disadvantages of using the same RF frequency for power and data transfer are identified.
Han, Jiande; Freel, Keith; Heaven, Michael C.
2011-06-01
We have examined state-to-state rotational and vibrational energy transfers for the vibrational levels (1010000) and (0112000) of C2H2 in the ground electronic state at ambient temperature. Measurements were made using a pulsed IR - UV double resonance technique. Total removal rate constants and state-to-state rotational energy transfer rate constants have been characterized for certain even-numbered rotational levels from J = 0 to 12 within the two vibrational modes. The measured state-to-state rotational energy transfer rate constants were fit to some energy-based empirical scaling and fitting laws, and the rate constants were found to be best reproduced by the statistical power-exponential gap law (PEGL). The measured rate constants were then further evaluated by a kinetic model which simulated the experimental spectra by solving simultaneous first order differential rate equations. Some rotationally-resolved vibrational energy transfer channels were also observed following excitation of (1010000). The vibrational relaxation channels were found to contribute less than 30% to the total removal rate constants of the measured rotational levels for both of the studied vibrational states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Seon Woog [Silla Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)
2002-02-01
It is shown that one-electron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitroxyl anion (NO{sup -}) can be accelerated by vibrational energy. Potential energy surfaces of NO and NO{sup -} reveal that the vertical transition between them has favorable energetics for vibrationally excited molecule. Also, Franck-Condon factors between NO and NO{sup -} vibrational wave functions are calculated. It shows that the number of open channels increases with increased vibrational energy. These results mean that we can control the rate of reduction of NO to NO{sup -} by radiating an appropriate light.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yufei Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic of a flexible robotic manipulator (FRM which consists of rigid driving base, flexible links, and flexible joints. With considering the motion fluctuations caused by the coupling effect, such as the motor parameters and mechanism inertias, as harmonic disturbances, the system investigated in this paper remains a parametrically excited system. An elastic restraint model of the FRM with elastic joints (FRMEJ is proposed, which considers the elastic properties of the connecting joints between the flexible arm and the driving base, as well as the harmonic disturbances aroused by the electromechanical coupling effect. As a consequence, the FRMEJ accordingly remains a flexible multibody system which conveys the effects of rigid-flexible couple and electromechanical couple. The Lagrangian function and Hamilton’s principle are used to establish the dynamic model of the FRMEJ. Based on the dynamic model proposed, the vibration power flow is introduced to show the vibration energy distribution. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the joint elasticities and the disturbance excitations, and the influences of the structure parameters and motion parameters on the vibration power flow are studied. The results obtained in this paper contribute to the structure design, motion optimization, and vibration control of FRMs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2016-01-15
This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol [Department of System Dynamics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Eun, E-mail: jekim@cu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13 Hayang-Ro, Hayang-Eup, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyung Ho Sun
2014-10-01
Full Text Available While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm3, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.
Shit, G. C.; Majee, Sreeparna
2015-08-01
Unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer characteristics in the neighborhood of an overlapping constricted artery have been investigated in the presence of magnetic field and whole body vibration. The laminar flow of blood is taken to be incompressible and Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity depending upon temperature with an aim to provide resemblance to the real situation in the physiological system. The unsteady flow mechanism in the constricted artery is subjected to a pulsatile pressure gradient arising from systematic functioning of the heart and from the periodic body acceleration. The numerical computation has been performed using finite difference method by developing Crank-Nicolson scheme. The results show that the volumetric flow rate, skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are significantly altered in the downstream of the constricted region. The axial velocity profile, temperature and flow rate increases with increase in temperature dependent viscosity, while the opposite trend is observed in the case of skin-friction and flow impedance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhote, Sharvari, E-mail: sharvari.dhote@mail.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean; Zhu, Yang [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S-3G8 (Canada)
2015-04-20
In this paper, a nonlinear wideband multi-mode piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester (PVEH) is proposed based on a compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS), which has an advantage of providing multiple vibration modes at relatively low frequencies. The PVEH is made of a tri-leg COPS flexible structure, where three fixed-guided beams are capable of generating strong nonlinear oscillations under certain base excitation. A prototype harvester was fabricated and investigated through both finite-element analysis and experiments. The frequency response shows multiple resonance which corresponds to a hardening type of nonlinear resonance. By adding masses at different locations on the COPS structure, the first three vibration modes are brought close to each other, where the three hardening nonlinear resonances provide a wide bandwidth for the PVEH. The proposed PVEH has enhanced performance of the energy harvester in terms of a wide frequency bandwidth and a high-voltage output under base excitations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Wang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This article conceptually proposes a new method to tune the resonance frequency of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters, in which the supporting position of the vibrator can be adjusted for frequency tuning. The corresponding analytical model is established to predict the performances of the harvester based on the principles of energy. First, the equivalent stiffness and mass of the vibrator in bending mode are derived explicitly for the different supporting positions. A simple analysis method is then established for the frequency, output voltage, and output power. Finally, some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the presented method. The results are also compared with those by finite element method and good agreement is observed.
A Method to Assess Transverse Vibration Energy of Ship Propeller Shaft for Diagnostic Purposes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korczewski Zbigniew
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The article discusses a key problem of ship propulsion system vibration diagnostics, which concerns assessing this part of mechanical energy transmitted from the main engine to the ship propeller which is dissipated due to propeller shaft vibration. A simplified calculation model is proposed which allows the total energy of the generated torsional vibration to be assessed from the shaft deflection amplitude measured at the mind-span point between the supports. To verify the developed model, pilot tests were performed on the laboratory rotational mechanical system test rig. In those tests, cyclic bending moment was applied to a unified (cylindrical material sample, which modelled, at an appropriate scale, structural and functional properties of a real propeller shaft.
Energy and material flows of megacities.
Kennedy, Christopher A; Stewart, Iain; Facchini, Angelo; Cersosimo, Igor; Mele, Renata; Chen, Bin; Uda, Mariko; Kansal, Arun; Chiu, Anthony; Kim, Kwi-Gon; Dubeux, Carolina; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Cunha, Bruno; Pincetl, Stephanie; Keirstead, James; Barles, Sabine; Pusaka, Semerdanta; Gunawan, Juniati; Adegbile, Michael; Nazariha, Mehrdad; Hoque, Shamsul; Marcotullio, Peter J; González Otharán, Florencia; Genena, Tarek; Ibrahim, Nadine; Farooqui, Rizwan; Cervantes, Gemma; Sahin, Ahmet Duran
2015-05-12
Understanding the drivers of energy and material flows of cities is important for addressing global environmental challenges. Accessing, sharing, and managing energy and material resources is particularly critical for megacities, which face enormous social stresses because of their sheer size and complexity. Here we quantify the energy and material flows through the world's 27 megacities with populations greater than 10 million people as of 2010. Collectively the resource flows through megacities are largely consistent with scaling laws established in the emerging science of cities. Correlations are established for electricity consumption, heating and industrial fuel use, ground transportation energy use, water consumption, waste generation, and steel production in terms of heating-degree-days, urban form, economic activity, and population growth. The results help identify megacities exhibiting high and low levels of consumption and those making efficient use of resources. The correlation between per capita electricity use and urbanized area per capita is shown to be a consequence of gross building floor area per capita, which is found to increase for lower-density cities. Many of the megacities are growing rapidly in population but are growing even faster in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and energy use. In the decade from 2001-2011, electricity use and ground transportation fuel use in megacities grew at approximately half the rate of GDP growth.
Energy and material flows of megacities
Kennedy, Christopher A.; Stewart, Iain; Facchini, Angelo; Cersosimo, Igor; Mele, Renata; Chen, Bin; Uda, Mariko; Kansal, Arun; Chiu, Anthony; Kim, Kwi-gon; Dubeux, Carolina; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Cunha, Bruno; Pincetl, Stephanie; Keirstead, James; Barles, Sabine; Pusaka, Semerdanta; Gunawan, Juniati; Adegbile, Michael; Nazariha, Mehrdad; Hoque, Shamsul; Marcotullio, Peter J.; González Otharán, Florencia; Genena, Tarek; Ibrahim, Nadine; Farooqui, Rizwan; Cervantes, Gemma; Sahin, Ahmet Duran
2015-01-01
Understanding the drivers of energy and material flows of cities is important for addressing global environmental challenges. Accessing, sharing, and managing energy and material resources is particularly critical for megacities, which face enormous social stresses because of their sheer size and complexity. Here we quantify the energy and material flows through the world’s 27 megacities with populations greater than 10 million people as of 2010. Collectively the resource flows through megacities are largely consistent with scaling laws established in the emerging science of cities. Correlations are established for electricity consumption, heating and industrial fuel use, ground transportation energy use, water consumption, waste generation, and steel production in terms of heating-degree-days, urban form, economic activity, and population growth. The results help identify megacities exhibiting high and low levels of consumption and those making efficient use of resources. The correlation between per capita electricity use and urbanized area per capita is shown to be a consequence of gross building floor area per capita, which is found to increase for lower-density cities. Many of the megacities are growing rapidly in population but are growing even faster in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and energy use. In the decade from 2001–2011, electricity use and ground transportation fuel use in megacities grew at approximately half the rate of GDP growth. PMID:25918371
Design of mechanical metamaterials for simultaneous vibration isolation and energy harvesting
Li, Ying; Baker, Evan; Reissman, Timothy; Sun, Cheng; Liu, Wing Kam
2017-12-01
Through finite element analysis and a 3D printing assisted experimental study, we demonstrate a design of mechanical metamaterials for simultaneous mechanical wave filtering and energy harvesting. The mechanical metamaterials compromise a square array of free-standing cantilevers featuring piezoelectric properties being attached to a primary structural frame. A complete bandgap has thus been created via the strong coupling of the bulk elastic wave propagating along the structural frame and the distributed local resonance associated with the square array of piezoelectrically active cantilevers. Operating within the stop-band, external vibration energy has been trapped and transferred into the kinetic energy of the cantilevers, which is further converted into electric energy through mechano-electrical conversion of its integrated piezoelectric elements. Therefore, two distinct functions, vibration isolation and energy harvesting, are achieved simultaneously through the designed mechanical metamaterials.
Stochastic Response of Energy Balanced Model for Vortex-Induced Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Krenk, S.
of lightly damped structures are found on two branches, with the highest amplification branch on the low-frequency branch. The effect free wind turbulence is to destabilize the vibrations on the high amplification branch, thereby reducing the oscillation amplitude. The effect is most pronounced for very......A double oscillator model for vortex-induced oscillations of structural elements based on exact power exchange between fluid and structure, recently proposed by authors, is extended to include the effect of the turbulent component of the wind. In non-turbulent flow vortex-induced vibrations...... lightly damped structures. The character of the structural vibrations changes with increasing turbulence and damping from nearly regular harmonic oscillation to typical narrow-banded stochastic response, closely resembling observed behaviour in experiments and full-scale structures....
Hobeck, Jared D.; Inman, Daniel J.
2017-04-01
The research presented in this paper focuses on a unique multifunctional structural design that not only absorbs vibration at desired frequency bands, but also extracts significant amounts of electrical energy. This is accomplished by first designing an array of low-frequency resonators to be integrated into a larger host structure. This array of resonators can contribute not only to static requirements, e.g., stiffness, strength, mass, etc., of the host structure but the array also functions as a distributed system of passive vibration absorbers. Structures having these distributed vibration absorber systems are known as metastructures. Here, the authors present a unique absorber design referred to as a zigzag beam, which can have a natural frequency an order of magnitude lower than that of a basic cantilever beam of the same scale. It will be shown that the zigzag beams can be designed with an added layer of piezoelectric material, which allows them to harvest significant amounts of electrical power as they suppress vibration of the host structure. This paper includes details of the fully-coupled electromechanical analytical and numerical models for energy harvesting metastructures. Experimental results used to validate the proposed modeling methods will be discussed. Lastly, results of a multi-objective design optimization will be presented and discussed. Results of the optimization study were able to show that allowing only an 82 % increase in the host structure vibration could yield more than a 1500 % increase in total power output. Other results show that the power output (or absorber motion) could be increased 241% without increasing host structure vibrations due to multiple design solutions existing at fixed host structure vibration levels.
Dekterev, D.; Maslennikova, A.; Abramov, A.
2017-09-01
The operation modes of the hydraulic power plant water turbine with the formation of a precessing vortex core were studied on the hydrodynamic set-up with the model of hydraulic unit. The dependence of low-frequency vibrations on flow pressure pulsations in the hydraulic unit was established. The results of the air injection effect on the vibrational parameters of the hydrodynamic set-up were presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongsheng Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear magnetic forces are always used to enlarge resonant bandwidth of vibration energy harvesting systems with piezoelectric cantilever beams. However, how to determine properly the distance between two magnets is one of the key engineering problems. In this paper, the Melnikov theory is introduced to overcome it. Firstly, the Melnikov state-space model of the nonlinear piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH system is built. Based on it, chaotic dynamics mechanisms of achieving broadband PVEH by nonlinearity are exposed by potential function of the unperturbed nonlinear PVEH system. Then the corresponding Melnikov function of the nonlinear PVEH system is defined, based on which two Melnikov necessary conditions of determining the distance are obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are done to testify the theoretic results. The results demonstrate that the distance is closely related to the excitation amplitude and frequency once geometric and material parameters are fixed. Under a single-frequency excitation, the nonlinear PVEH system can generate a periodic vibration around a stable point, a large-amplitude vibration around two stable points, or a chaotic vibration. The proposed method is very valuable for optimally designing and utilizing nonlinear broadband PVEH devices in engineering applications.
Zero-point energy, tunnelling, and vibrational adiabaticity in the Mu + H2 reaction
Mielke, Steven L.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Fleming, Donald G.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2015-01-01
Isotopic substitution of muonium for hydrogen provides an unparalleled opportunity to deepen our understanding of quantum mass effects on chemical reactions. A recent topical review in this journal of the thermal and vibrationally state-selected reaction of Mu with H2 raises a number of issues that are addressed here. We show that some earlier quantum mechanical calculations of the Mu + H2 reaction, which are highlighted in this review, and which have been used to benchmark approximate methods, are in error by as much as 19% in the low-temperature limit. We demonstrate that an approximate treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction that was used in some recent studies is not valid for treating the vibrationally state-selected reaction. We also discuss why vibrationally adiabatic potentials that neglect bend zero-point energy are not a useful analytical tool for understanding reaction rates, and why vibrationally non-adiabatic transitions cannot be understood by considering tunnelling through vibrationally adiabatic potentials. Finally, we present calculations on a hierarchical family of potential energy surfaces to assess the sensitivity of rate constants to the quality of the potential surface.
Vibrational energy transfer in gas phase water and ammonia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hovis, F.E. Jr.
1979-09-01
The V ..-->.. T, R relaxation rate for NH/sub 3/ (..nu../sub 2/) was studied from 198/sup 0/K to 398/sup 0/K by the method of laser-excited vibrational fluorescence. The self-deactivation rate constant decreases from 2.4 ..mu..sec torr/sup -1/ at 198/sup 0/K to 0.65 ..mu..sec/sup -1/ torr/sup -1/ at 398/sup 0/K. The rate constants for deactivation by He, Ar, N/sub 2/, and O/sub 2/ are much smaller and show a weak temperature dependence in the opposite direction. The vibrational relaxation rates of the coupled ..nu../sub 1/, ..nu../sub 3/ stretching level manifold and of the 2..nu../sub 2/ bending level in H/sub 2//sup 18/O was studied from 250/sup 0/K to 400/sup 0/K using th same method as for NH/sub 3/. The ..nu../sub 1/, ..nu../sub 3/ self-deactivation rate goes from 1.4 ..mu..sec/sup -1/ torr/sup -1/ at 250/sup 0/K to 0.48 ..mu..sec-/sup 1/ torr-/sup 1/ at 400/sup 0/K. For 2..nu../sub 2/ it goes from 4.5 ..mu..sec-/sup 1/ torr to 1.9 ..mu..sec/sup -1/ torr/sup -1/. The temperature dependence of the deactivation of both levels by He and Ar is much weaker and the rates are several hundred times slower. Deactivation of ..nu../sub 1/, ..nu../sub 3/ by N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ is measured only at 293/sup 0/K. N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ deactivate ..nu../sub 1/, ..nu../sub 3/ about 5 and CO/sub 2/ about 50 times faster than He or Ar.
Mass and energy flow near sunspots
Nye, Alan; Bruning, David; Labonte, Barry J.
1988-01-01
Sunspots block the flow of energy to the solar surface. The blocked energy heats the volume beneath the spot, producing a pressure excess which drives an outflow of mass. Linear numerical models of the mass and energy flow around spots were constructed to estimate the predictions of this physical picture against the observed properties of sunspot bright rings and moat flows. The width of the bright ring and moat are predicted to be proportional to the depth of the spot penumbra, in conflict with the observed proportionality of the moat width to the spot diameter. Postulating that spot depths are proportional to spot diameters would bury the moat flow too deeply to be observed, because the radial velocity at the surface is found to be inversely proportional to the depth of the spot penumbra. The radial velocity at the surface is of order a few hundred meters per second after 1 day, in agreement with the observed excess of moat velocities over supergranule velocities.
Arib Rejab, M. N.; Shukor, S. A. Abdul; Sofian, M. R. Mohd; Inayat-Hussain, J. I.; Nazirah, A.; Asyraf, I.
2017-10-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental work to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of elastomeric mounts. It also presents the results of theoretical analysis to determine the transmissibility and vibration power flow of these mounts, which are associated with their contribution to structure-borne noise. Four types of elastomeric mounts were considered, where three of them were made from green natural rubber material (SMR CV60, Ekoprena and Pureprena) and one made from petroleum based synthetic rubber (EPDM). In order to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these elastomeric mounts, dynamic tests were conducted using MTS 830 Elastomer Test System. Dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these mounts were measured for a range of frequency between 5 Hz and 150 Hz, and with a dynamic amplitude of 0.2 mm (p-p). The transmissibility and vibration power flow were determined based on a simple 2-Degree-of-Freedom model representing a vibration isolation system with a flexible receiver. This model reprsents the three main parts of a vehicle, which are the powertrain and engine mounting, the flexible structure and the floor of the vehicle. The results revealed that synthetic rubber (EPDM) was only effective at high frequency region. Natural rubber (Ekoprena), on the other hand, was found to be effective at both low and high frequency regions due to its low transmissibility at resonant frequency and its ability to damp the resonance. The estimated structure-borne noise emission showed that Ekoprena has a lower contribution to structure-borne noise as compared to the other types of elastomeric mounts.
Kang, Ling; Ge, Fei; Wu, Xiaodong; Hong, Youshi
2017-02-01
The effects of tension on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) responses for a tension-dominated long cylinder with an aspect ratio of 550 in uniform flows are experimentally investigated in this paper. The results show that elevated tension suppresses fluctuations of maximum displacement with respect to flow velocity and makes chaotic VIV more likely to appear. With respect to periodic VIV, if elevated tension is applied, the dominant vibration frequency in the in-line (IL) direction will switch from a fundamental vibration frequency to twice the value of the fundamental vibration frequency, which results in a ratio of the dominant vibration frequency in the IL direction to that in the cross-flow direction of 2.0. The suppression of the elevated tension in the fluctuation of the maximum displacement causes the axial tension to become an active control parameter for the VIV maximum displacement of a tension-dominated long riser or tether of an engineering structure in deep oceans. However, the axial tension must be optimized before being used since the high dominant vibration frequency due to the elevated tension may unfavorably affect the fatigue life of the riser or tether.
A resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for intelligent wireless sensor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Jing, E-mail: jingqiu@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Hengjia; Yang, Jin [Sensors and Instruments Research Center, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2015-05-07
Vibration energy harvesting is now receiving more interest as a means for powering intelligent wireless sensor systems. In this paper, a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) employing double cantilever to convert low-frequency vibration energy into electrical energy is presented. The VEH is made up of two cantilever beams, a coil, and magnetic circuits. The electric output performances of the proposed electromagnetic VEH have been investigated. With the enhancement of turns number N, the optimum peak power of electromagnetic VEH increases sharply and the resonance frequency deceases gradually. When the vibration acceleration is 0.5 g, we obtain the optimum output voltage and power of 9.04 V and 50.8 mW at frequency of 14.9 Hz, respectively. In a word, the prototype device was successfully developed and the experimental results exhibit a great enhancement in the output power and bandwidth compared with other traditional electromagnetic VEHs. Remarkably, the proposed resonant electromagnetic VEH have great potential for applying in intelligent wireless sensor systems.
Density of low-energy vibrational states in a protein solution
Brill, A. S.; Fiamingo, F. G.; Hampton, D. A.; Levin, P. D.; Thorkildsen, R.
1985-04-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the aquo complex of sperm whale skeletal myoglobin in solution at T<4 K show that, at phonon energies around 20 cm-1, the density of vibrational states is that of a three-dimensional system.
A smart and self-sufficient frequency tunable vibration energy harvester
Eichhorn, C.; Tchagsim, R.; Wilhelm, N.; Woias, P.
2011-10-01
We present a piezoelectric energy-harvesting system, which is able to self-tune its resonance frequency in an energy-autonomous way, in order to extend its efficient operation over a large frequency range. The system consists of a resonant and frequency-tunable piezoelectric generator and a control unit. In predefined temporal intervals, the control unit analyzes the ambient vibration frequency, decides whether an adjustment of the generator's resonance frequency is necessary or not and delivers the appropriate voltage to a piezoelectric actuator which alters the generator's mechanical stiffness to tune its resonance frequency. The control unit has been optimized to an ultralow power consumption which means that up to 90% of the harvested energy can be fed to the powered electrical load, which could be an embedded system. With frequency-tunable generators, the application range of vibration energy harvesters can be extended to environments with a non-constant vibration frequency, like e.g. the surface of an engine with a varying number of revolutions per minute. Furthermore, the presented system opens the door to off-the-shelf solutions for environments with constant but uncommon vibration frequencies. With the smart tuning algorithm presented in this work, our system is even able to compensate typical weak points of piezoelectrically tunable harvesters, like e.g. hysteresis effects, the temperature dependence of the mechanical stiffness and aging effects.
Colin, M.; Mortier, Q.; Basrour, S.; Bencheikh, N.
2013-12-01
This paper introduces an innovative architecture of a piezoelectric harvester, which enables harvesting vibration energy at low frequency using the {33}-transduction mode of a piezoelectric element. Unlike cantilevers integrating ferroelectric material combined with interdigitated electrodes, the concept that we propose is based on the elongation/compression excitation of a piezoelectric bar.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhay Khalatkar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectric elements can be used as sensors and actuators in flexible structures. In this paper, using the most basic concepts of piezoelectric micropower generators, all useful mathematical equations for getting analytical output are discussed and derived for different piezo positions on cantilever beam and then 3D finite element modeling and simulation of generalized piezoelectric laminated beam problem with proper specifications and properties are done in ANSYS12.0. Experimental analysis is also done on the very practical problem to harvest energy (to get electric energy by applying some deflection (mechanical energy on piezo-bonded aluminum beam, that is, to harvest energy (at microlevel at least by using vibrations of 4-stroke car diesel engine with mounting of piezo cantilever beam. Here piezoelectric beam is used to measure the charge generated from the engine vibrations. The vibration amplitudes are measured with a Laser Vibrometer with considerations of maximum number of power cycles is to be covered for analysis. The vibration response data of displacement of the cantilever at free end measured from Vibrometer are considered for harmonic and analytical analyses as mean displacement amplitude of 3.98 mm at free end. The study further carried out for effect of different piezo positions and various engine speeds also. Then comparison is also done among obtained results from these three analyses to get validation of all derived mathematical equations.
Loendersloot, Richard; Ooijevaar, T.H.; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; de Boer, Andries; Meguid, S.A.; Gomes, J.F.S.
2009-01-01
The feasibility of a vibration based damage identification method is investigated. The Modal Strain Energy method is applied to a T–beam structure. The dynamic response of an intact structure and a damaged, delaminated structure is analysed employing a commercially available Finite Element package.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun Yi-Hang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In order to detect a mechanical type of structural failure of the circuit breaker, the characteristics of the circuit breaker mechanical vibration signal is analyzed in this paper. A combination of medium voltage circuit breaker based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD amount of energy and support vector machine (SVM theory vibration signal feature vector extraction and analysis of fault classification method is proposed. First, the vibration signal of the circuit breaker is decomposed by EMD, then intrinsic mode function (IMF is obtain. The major fault feature information intrinsic mode functions the amount of energy of the component is obtained by discrete sampling points and the amount of energy. Using the amount of energy of IMF component as a feature vector, the failure of the test sample signal as input feature vector into trained “BT-SVM” support vector machine classification mechanism for fault classification. The differences and fault type of vibration signals can be identified by this method through the experimental analysis.
Hydrogen bonding and vibrational energy relaxation in water-acetonitrile mixtures
Cringus, D; Yeremenko, S; Pshenichnikov, MS; Wiersma, DA; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.
2004-01-01
We present a study of the effect of hydrogen bonding on vibrational energy relaxation of the OH-stretching mode in pure water and in water-acetonitrile mixtures. The extent of hydrogen bonding is controlled by dissolving water at various concentrations in acetonitrile. Infrared frequency-resolved
Simulation of Free Airfoil Vibrations in Incompressible Viscous Flow — Comparison of FEM and FVM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Sváček
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a numerical solution of the interaction of two-dimensional (2-D incompressible viscous flow and a vibrating profile NACA 0012 with large amplitudes. The laminar flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian form. The profile with two degrees of freedom (2-DOF can rotate around its elastic axis and oscillate in the vertical direction. Its motion is described by a nonlinear system of two ordinary differential equations. Deformations of the computational domain due to the profile motion are treated by the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerianmethod. The finite volume method and the finite element method are applied, and the numerical results are compared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O Guerri
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The present paper is Part 2 of a two parts paper on flow around vibratingwind turbine airfoils. The first part of the paper dealt with a forced oscillatingairfoil. Part 2 focuses on free vibrating airfoils. The flow induced vibrationson two airfoils used for wind turbine blades are investigated by applying afluid structure interaction approach. A commercial Computational FluidDynamics (CFD code is coupled to a computational structural programthat solves the dynamic equations of the airfoil oscillations. The fluidgoverning equations are described in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Euleriancoordinates and solved with a moving mesh. A straightforward meshingtechnique is implemented in a subroutine called by the CFD code at eachtime step for updating the grid. The method is applied to a free pitchoscillating airfoil and to combined pitch and vertical oscillations known asthe flutter instability.
Study of Low Flow Rate Ladle Bottom Gas Stirring Using Triaxial Vibration Signals
Yenus, Jaefer; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dunn, Michelle; Li, Zushu; Goodwin, Tim
2018-02-01
Secondary steelmaking plays a great role in enhancing the quality of the final steel product. The metal quality is a function of metal bath stirring in ladles. The metal bath is often stirred by an inert gas to achieve maximum compositional and thermal uniformity throughout the melt. Ladle operators often observe the top surface phenomena, such as level of meniscus disturbance, to evaluate the status of stirring. However, this type of monitoring has significant limitations in assessing the process accurately especially at low gas flow rate bubbling. The present study investigates stirring phenomena using ladle wall triaxial vibration at a low flow rate on a steel-made laboratory model and plant scale for the case of the vacuum tank degasser. Cold model and plant data were successfully modeled by partial least-squares regression to predict the amount of stirring. In the cold model, it was found that the combined vibration signal could predict the stirring power and recirculation speed effectively in specific frequency ranges. Plant trials also revealed that there is a high structure in each data set and in the same frequency ranges at the water model. In the case of industrial data, the degree of linear relationship was strong for data taken from a single heat.
Anisotropic flow from AGS to LHC energies
Kolb, P F; Heinz, Ulrich W
1999-01-01
Within hydrodynamics we study the effects of the initial spatial anisotropy in non-central heavy-ion collisions on the momentum distributions of the emitted hadrons. We show that the elliptic flow measured at midrapidity in 158 A GeV/c Pb+Pb collisions can be quantitatively reproduced by hydrodynamic expansion, indicating early thermalization in the collision. We predict the excitation functions of the 2nd and 4th harmonic flow coefficients from AGS to LHC energies and discuss their sensitivity to the quark-hadron phase transition. (36 refs).
Collective flow measurements at RHIC energies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esumi Shinichi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Recent experimental results on collective flow measurements from relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC are presented and discussed to study high-temperature and high-density quark-nuclear matter, Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP especially focusing on bulk properties, such as freeze-out parameters, temperature, chemical potential, collective expansion, azimuthal event anisotropy measurements. Their relations to the various correlation and fluctuation studies are also discussed, including initial geometrical and E- and B-field conditions as well as possible collective flow evolution that could even be developed in small systems. Current results and understandings from the beam energy scan program (BES and future plans are discussed and reviewed.
Interaction dynamics of gap flow with vortex-induced vibration in side-by-side cylinder arrangement
Liu, Bin; Jaiman, Rajeev K.
2016-12-01
A numerical investigation of the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in a side-by-side circular cylinder arrangement has been performed in a two-dimensional laminar flow environment. One of the cylinders is elastically mounted and only vibrates in the transverse direction, while its counterpart remains stationary in a uniform flow stream. When the gap ratio is sufficiently small, the flip-flopping phenomenon of the gap flow can be an additional time-dependent interference to the flow field. This phenomenon was reported in the experimental work of Bearman and Wadcock ["The interaction between a pair of circular cylinders normal to a stream," J. Fluid Mech. 61(3), 499-511 (1973)] in a side-by-side circular cylinder arrangement, in which the gap flow deflects toward one of the cylinders and switched its sides intermittently. Albeit one of the two cylinders is free to vibrate, the flip-flop of a gap flow during VIV dynamics can still be observed outside the lock-in region. The exact moments of the flip-flop phenomenon due to spontaneous symmetry breaking are observed in this numerical study. The significant characteristic vortex modes in the near-wake region are extracted via dynamic modal analysis and the interference between the gap flow and VIV is found to be mutual. In a vibrating side-by-side arrangement, the lock-in region with respect to reduced velocity becomes narrower due to the interference from its stationary counterpart. The frequency lock-in occurs and ends earlier than that of an isolated vibrating circular cylinder subjected to an identical flow environment. Similar to a tandem cylinder arrangement, in the post-lock-in region, the maximum vibration amplitudes are escalated compared with those of an isolated circular cylinder configuration. On the other hand, subjected to the influence from VIV, the biased gap flow deflects toward the vibrating cylinder quasi-stably during the frequency lock-in process. This behavior is different from the reported bi
Lecoq, D.; Pézerat, C.; Thomas, J.-H.; Bi, W. P.
2014-06-01
An improvement of the Force Analysis Technique (FAT), an inverse method of vibration, is proposed to identify the low wavenumbers including the acoustic component of a turbulent flow that excites a plate. This method is a significant progress since the usual techniques of measurements with flush-mounted sensors are not able to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic energies of the excitation because the aerodynamic component is too high. Moreover, the main cause of vibration or acoustic radiation of the structure might be due to the acoustic part by a phenomenon of spatial coincidence between the acoustic wavelengths and those of the plate. This underlines the need to extract the acoustic part. In this work, numerical experiments are performed to solve both the direct and inverse problems of vibration. The excitation is a turbulent boundary layer and combines the pressure field of the Corcos model and a diffuse acoustic field. These pressures are obtained by a synthesis method based on the Cholesky decomposition of the cross-spectra matrices and are used to excite a plate. Thus, the application of the inverse problem FAT that requires only the vibration data shows that the method is able to identify and to isolate the acoustic part of the excitation. Indeed, the discretization of the inverse operator (motion equation of the plate) acts as a low-pass wavenumber filter. In addition, this method is simple to implement because it can be applied locally (no need to know the boundary conditions), and measurements can be carried out on the opposite side of the plate without affecting the flow. Finally, an improvement of FAT is proposed. It regularizes optimally and automatically the inverse problem by analyzing the mean quadratic pressure of the reconstructed force distribution. This optimized FAT, in the case of the turbulent flow, has the advantage of measuring the acoustic component up to higher frequencies even in the presence of noise. the aerodynamic component
Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi; Li, Jiangyu
2007-03-01
Energy trapping has important applications in the design of thickness-shear resonators. Considerable efforts have been made for the effective utilization and improvement of energy trapping with variations of plate configurations, such as adding electrodes and contouring. As a new approach in seeking improved energy trapping feature, we analyze thickness-shear vibrations in an elastic plate with functionally graded material (FGM) of in-plane variation of mechanical properties, such as elastic constants and density. A simple and general equation governing the thickness-shear modes is derived from a variational analysis. A plate with piecewise constant material properties is analyzed as an example. It is shown that such a plate can support thickness-shear vibration modes with obvious energy trapping. Bechmann's number for the existence of only one trapped mode also can be determined accordingly.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian
2012-01-01
We describe the fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a microelectromechanical system-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass; the harvester is fabricated in a fully monolithic process. The main advantage...... of bimorph vibration energy harvesters is that strain energy is not lost in mechanical support materials since only Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) is strained; as a result, the effective system coupling coefficient is increased, and thus a potential for significantly higher output power is released. In addition, when...... the two layers are connected in series, the output voltage is increased, and as a result the relative power loss in the necessary rectifying circuit is reduced. We describe an improved process scheme for the energy harvester, which resulted in a robust fabrication process with a record high fabrication...
Surface energy effect on free vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures
Fang, Xue-Qian; Zhu, Chang-Song; Liu, Jin-Xi; Liu, Xiang-Lin
2018-01-01
Combining Goldenveizer-Novozhilov shell theory, thin plate theory and electro-elastic surface theory, the size-dependent vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures under simply supported boundary condition is presented, and the surface energy effect on the natural frequencies is discussed. The displacement components of the cylindrical nano-shells and annular nano-plates are expanded as the superposition of standard Fourier series based on Hamilton's principle. The total stresses with consideration of surface energy effect are derived, and the total energy function is obtained by using Rayleigh-Ritz energy method. The free vibration equation is solved, and the natural frequency is analyzed. In numerical examples, it is found that the surface elastic constant, piezoelectric constant and surface residual stress show different effects on the natural frequencies. The effect of surface piezoelectric constant is the maximum. The effect of dimensions of the double-shell under different surface material properties is also examined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viera Miklúšová
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The rock disintegration process involves the action of disintegrating tool, resulting in the formation of forced mechanicaloscillations of all components, i.e. the disintegration device, tool and the rock. The vibration signal scanned during the process dependson all of the presented components, on their properties and on the regime parameters. The paper presents relations of the vibrationsignal characteristics, effective values of the acceleration of vibration oscillations and dominant frequencies, and the energyconsumption needed for the rock disintegration, which is characterized by a specific disintegration energy. Presented results wereacquired as a part of laboratory experimental research on the rotary drilling of rocks.
Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y
2010-12-06
We have examined a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever (PUC) with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths for vibration energy harvesting theoretically by extending the analysis of a PUC with equal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths. The theoretical approach was validated by experiments. A case study showed that for a fixed vibration frequency, the maximum open-circuit induced voltage which was important for charge storage for later use occurred with a PUC that had a nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio greater than unity, whereas the maximum power when the PUC was connected to a resistor for immediate power consumption occurred at a unity nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio.
Vibrational Energy Relaxation: A Benchmark for Mixed Quantum-Classical Methods.
Jain, Amber; Subotnik, Joseph E
2018-01-11
We investigate the ability of mixed quantum-classical methods to capture the dynamics of vibrational energy relaxation. Several methods, including surface hopping, and Ehrenfest and symmetrical quasiclassical (SQC) dynamics, are benchmarked for the exactly solvable model problem of a harmonic oscillator bilinearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. Results show that, very often, one can recover accurate vibrational relaxation rates and detailed balance using simple mixed quantum-classical approaches. A few anomalous results do appear, however, especially regarding Ehrenfest and SQC dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seligmann, D.
1996-11-01
This paper is a presentation of the code CIRCUS version 2. CIRCUS deals with the hydraulic, acoustic and vibratory behaviour of piping systems under acoustic loads. CIRCUS first computes permanent mean-flow, and associated acoustic loads. It then determines the acoustic and vibration response along the piping system. The CIRCUS software is used at EDF to check the design of piping system and to investigate solutions in case of damage or troubleshooting. (author). 10 refs.
Solar-pumped electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer lasers
Harries, W. L.; Wilson, J. W.
1981-01-01
The possibility of using solar-pumped lasers as solar energy converters is examined. The absorbing media considered are halogens or halogen compounds, which are dissociated to yield excited atoms, which then hand over energy to a molecular lasing medium. Estimates of the temperature effects for a Br2-CO2-He system with He as the cooling gas are given. High temperatures can cause the lower energy levels of the CO2 laser transition to be filled. The inverted populations are calculated and lasing should be possible. However, the efficiency is less than 0.001. Examination of other halogen-molecular lasant combinations (where the rate coefficients are known) indicate efficiencies in all cases of less than 0.005.
Vibration energy harvesting in railway tunnels with a wireless sensor node application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wischke, Martin
2012-07-01
Vibration harvesting is a promising concept to prolong the lifetime of batterypowered stand-alone systems, or even to enable their energy-autonomy. This thesis focuses on ambient vibrations converted by electromechanical transducers into electricity. The final goal is energy scavenging from train-induced vibrations in railway tunnels. This is achieved via the development of a suitable harvester for this environment and the practical demonstration of a vibrationpowered wireless sensor node (WSN). At the beginning of this thesis, extensive vibration measurements were performed in several traffic tunnels. The obtained unique data set formed the basis for the design and test of several harvesters. The railway sleeper was chosen as usable harvester location. A shock-resistant double-side suspended piezoelectric cantilever was developed. Several cantilevers with different eigenfrequencies are combined in an array, creating a robust harvester with a broad bandwidth. A field test of 7 days in the Loetschbergbasis-tunnel verified that, on average the sufficient energy for powering a virtual wireless sensor node was scavenged. For application in a real WSN, the harvester array was scaled up to 10 cantilevers. The power management for the sensor node was developed concurrently. The central component is a power switch that monitors the energy level in the system's storage capacitor and only triggers the wireless interface when sufficient energy is available. Combined with a train detection circuit, the presented energy-autonomous WSN reliably reports every passing vehicle. In addition to the development of an energy-autonomous fully integrated WSN, this work investigates nonlinear properties of PZT ceramics. Consideration of the elastostriction and the electrostriction enables a more precises prediction of the tip displacement of a piezoelectric cantilever actuator. Further, the elastostriction is exploited to modify the resonance frequency of a bimorph cantilever. Basing
Roles of the Excitation in Harvesting Energy from Vibrations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Zhang
Full Text Available The study investigated the role of excitation in energy harvesting applications. While the energy ultimately comes from the excitation, it was shown that the excitation may not always behave as a source. When the device characteristics do not perfectly match the excitation, the excitation alternately behaves as a source and a sink. The extent to which the excitation behaves as a sink determines the energy harvesting efficiency. Such contradictory roles were shown to be dictated by a generalized phase defined as the instantaneous phase angle between the velocity of the device and the excitation. An inductive prototype device with a diamagnetically levitated seismic mass was proposed to take advantage of the well established phase changing mechanism of vibro-impact to achieve a broader device bandwidth. Results suggest that the vibro-impact can generate an instantaneous, significant phase shift in response velocity that switches the role of the excitation. If introduced properly outside the resonance zone it could dramatically increase the energy harvesting efficiency.
Detection of directional energy damping in vibrating systems - Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The transmission efficiency, frequency and amplitude alteration have been measured by a simple technique of coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and in a system of non-Newtonian fluid in the form of corn-flour slime. The system of coupled oscillators was found to exhibit preferential energy transfer ...
Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy- dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional. Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface exci- tations of the fusing nuclei are found to ...
Development of Vibration-Based Piezoelectric Raindrop Energy Harvesting System
Wong, Chin Hong; Dahari, Zuraini
2017-03-01
The trend of finding new means to harvest energy has triggered numerous researches to explore the potential of raindrop energy harvesting. This paper presents an investigation on raindrop energy harvesting which compares the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) cantilever and bridge structure transducers and the development of a raindrop energy harvesting system. The parameters which contribute to the output voltage such as droplet size, droplets released at specific heights and dimensions of PVDF transducers are analyzed. Based on the experimental results, the outcomes have shown that the bridge structure transducer generated a higher voltage than the cantilever. Several dimensions have been tested and it was found that the 30 mm × 4 mm × 25 μm bridge structure transducer generated a relatively high AC open-circuit voltage, which is 4.22 V. The power generated by the bridge transducer is 18 μW across a load of 330 kΩ. The transducer is able to drive up a standard alternative current (AC) to direct current (DC) converter (full-wave bridge rectifier). It generated a DC voltage, V DC of 8.7 mV and 229 pW across a 330 kΩ resistor per drop. It is also capable to generate 9.3 nJ in 20 s from an actual rain event.
Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface excitations of the fusing nuclei are found to be ...
Detection of directional energy damping in vibrating systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The transmission efficiency, frequency and amplitude alteration have been measured by a simple technique of coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and in a system of non-Newtonian fluid in the form of corn-flour slime. The system of coupled oscillators was found to exhibit preferential energy transfer towards the ...
A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric transducer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Yue, Xihai; Yu, Qiangmo; Bai, Xiaoling [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2013-12-09
In this study, a magnetoelectric vibration energy harvester was demonstrated, which aims at addressing the limitations of the existing approaches in single dimensional operation with narrow working bandwidth. A circular cross-section cantilever rod, not a conventional thin cantilever beam, was adopted to extract vibration energy in arbitrary in-plane motion directions. The magnetic interaction not only resulted in a nonlinear motion of the rod with increased frequency bandwidth, but also contributed to a multi-mode motion to exhibit double power peaks. In energy harvesting with in-plane directions, it showed a maximum bandwidth of 4.4 Hz and power of 0.59 mW, with acceleration of 0.6 g (with g = 9.8 m s{sup −2})
Frequency Up-Converted Low Frequency Vibration Energy Harvester Using Trampoline Effect
Ju, S.; Chae, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Jun, S.; Park, S. M.; Lee, S.; Lee, H. W.; Ji, C.-H.
2013-12-01
This paper presents a non-resonant vibration energy harvester based on magnetoelectric transduction mechanism and mechanical frequency up-conversion using trampoline effect. The harvester utilizes a freely movable spherical permanent magnet which bounces off the aluminum springs integrated at both ends of the cavity, achieving frequency up-conversion from low frequency input vibration. Moreover, bonding method of magnetoelectric laminate composite has been optimized to provide higher strain to piezoelectric material and thus obtain a higher output voltage. A proof-of-concept energy harvesting device has been fabricated and tested. Maximum open-circuit voltage of 11.2V has been obtained and output power of 0.57μW has been achieved for a 50kΩ load, when the fabricated energy harvester was hand-shaken.
Computing vibrational energy levels of CH4 with a Smolyak collocation method
Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker
2017-10-01
In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to apply collocation to compute vibrational energy levels of a five-atom molecule using an exact kinetic energy operator (with cross terms and coordinate-dependent coefficients). This is made possible by using (1) a pruned basis of products of univariate functions; (2) a Smolyak grid made from nested sequences of grids for each coordinate; (3) a collocation method that obviates the need to solve a generalized eigenvalue problem; (4) an efficient sequential transformation between the (nondirect product) grid and the (nondirect product) basis representations; and (5) hierarchical univariate functions that make it possible to avoid storing large intermediate vectors. The accuracy of the method is confirmed by computing 500 vibrational energy levels of methane.
Evaluation of kinetic energy in flowing rivers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faure, T. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Hydraulics Centre
2008-07-01
New methods of evaluating the kinetic energy in rivers were discussed. Developed by the National Research Council's Canadian Hydraulics Centre, the numerical models were designed to generate hydrographs of river flow from dams; accommodate power density anomalies caused by the presence of islands in a river; and assess mean kinetic power rates. This presentation provided details of a simulation of 6 turbines located in close proximity to each other. The model was used to calculate velocity fields downstream of the turbines as well as changes in water surface elevation due to power production by the 6 75 kW turbines. Turbine power extraction and kinetic power in the upstream cross-section was assessed. The model showed that the turbines extracted 9 per cent of the river's 17,000 kW of estimated energy potential. The turbines were modelled by considering the porosity of the numerical elements at the location of the turbine and extracting known quantities of energy from the flow. The model was also used to calculate new hydrodynamics of the whole region with the turbines in place by assuming that energy was extracted over the entire depth of the location. The presentation included detailed charts of rivers modelled during the study. tabs., figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenlong Xu
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel impact-based frequency up-converting hybrid energy harvester (FUCHEH was proposed. It consisted of a piezoelectric cantilever beam and a driving beam with a magnetic tip mass. A solenoid coil was attached at the end of the piezoelectric beam. This innovative configuration amplified the relative motion velocity between magnet and coil, resulting in an enhancement of the induced electromotive force in the coil. An electromechanical coupling model was developed and a numerical simulation was performed to study the principle of impact-based frequency up-converting. A prototype was fabricated and experimentally tested. The time-domain and frequency-domain analyses were performed. Fast Fourier transform (FFT analysis verified that fundamental frequencies and coupled vibration frequency contributes most of the output voltage. The measured maximum output power was 769.13 µW at a frequency of 13 Hz and an acceleration amplitude of 1 m/s2, which was 3249.4%- and 100.6%-times larger than that of the frequency up-converting piezoelectric energy harvesters (FUCPEH and frequency up-converting electromagnetic energy harvester (FUCEMEH, respectively. The root mean square (RMS voltage of the piezoelectric energy harvester subsystem (0.919 V was more than 16 times of that of the stand-alone PEH (0.055 V. This paper provided a new scheme to improve generating performance of the vibration energy harvester with high resonant frequency working in the low-frequency vibration environment.
Optimization of constrained layer damping for strain energy minimization of vibrating pads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supachai Lakkam1
2012-04-01
Full Text Available An optimization study for brake squeals aims to minimize the strain energy of vibrating pads with constrained layerdamping. To achieve this, using finite element method and experiments were operated and assumed-coupling mode methodwas used to solve it. The integrated global strain energy of the pad over a frequency range of interesting mode was calculated.Parametric studies were then performed to identify those dominant parameters on the vibration response of the damped pad.Moreover, the proposed methodology was employed to search for the optimum of the position/geometry of the constrainedlayer damping patch. Optimal solutions are given and discussed for different cases where the strain energy of the pad over afrequency range is covering the first bending mode and with the inclusion of the restriction of minimum damping materialutilization. As a result, the integrated strain energy is then performed to identify and optimize the position and geometry of thedamping shim. The optimization of the constrained layer damping for strain energy minimization of vibrating pads depend onthe position of the shape of the damping patch. These data can guide to specify the position of the constrained layer dampingpatch under pressure conditions.
Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of silicon dicarbide, SiC2.
Koput, Jacek
2016-10-05
The accurate ground-state potential energy surface of silicon dicarbide, SiC2 , has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach. Results obtained with the conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods were compared. The core-electron correlation, higher-order valence-electron correlation, and scalar relativistic effects were taken into account. The potential energy barrier to the linear SiCC configuration was predicted to be 1782 cm(-1) . The vibration-rotation energy levels of the SiC2 , (29) SiC2 , (30) SiC2 , and SiC(13) C isotopologues were calculated using a variational method. The experimental vibration-rotation energy levels of the main isotopologue were reproduced to high accuracy. In particular, the experimental energy levels of the highly anharmonic vibrational ν3 mode of SiC2 were reproduced to within 6.7 cm(-1) , up to as high as the v3 = 16 state. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Investigation of an energy harvesting MR damper in a vibration control system
Sapiński, Bogdan; Rosół, Maciej; Węgrzynowski, Marcin
2016-12-01
In this paper the authors investigate the performance of an energy harvesting MR damper (EH-MRD) employed in a semi-active vibration control system (SVCS) and used in a single DOF mechanical structure configuration. Main components of the newly proposed SCVS include the MR damper and an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester based on the Faraday’s law (EVEH) that converts vibration energy into electrical energy and delivers electrical power supplying the MR damper. The main objective of the study is to indicate that the SVCS, controlled by the specially designed embedded system, is feasible and presents good performance at the present stage of the research. The work describes investigation the unique features of the EH-MRD, i.e. its self-powering and self-sensing capabilities. Two cases were considered and the testing was done accordingly. In the case 1, only the self-powered capability was investigated. It was found out that harvested energy is sufficient to power the EH-MRD damper and to adjust it to structural vibration. The results confirmed the adequacy of the SVCS and demonstrated a significant reduction of the resonance peak. In the case 2, both the self-powering and self-sensing capabilities were investigated. Due to the self-sensing capability, the SCVS does not require any sensor. It appeared that thus harvested energy is sufficient to power the EH-MRD and enables self-sensing action since the signal of voltage induced by EVEH agrees with the relative velocity signal across the device. Similar to case 1, the resonance peak is significantly reduced.
Triboelectric-based harvesting of gas flow energy and powerless sensing applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taghavi, Majid, E-mail: majid.taghavi@iit.it [Micro-BioRobotics Center, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy); Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pontedera, Pisa (Italy); Sadeghi, Ali; Mazzolai, Barbara [Micro-BioRobotics Center, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy); Beccai, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.beccai@iit.it [Micro-BioRobotics Center, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy); Mattoli, Virgilio, E-mail: virgilio.mattoli@iit.it [Micro-BioRobotics Center, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy)
2014-12-30
Highlights: • The mechanical energy of both pure and impure gases can be harvested by the introduced system. • The blown gas vibrates a non conductive sheet between two surfaces, generating the triboelectric charges. • The system is able to measure the flow rate of the blown gas. • The existence of dust in the blown air can be detected without external powering. • A self powered smoke detector is introduced. - Abstract: In this work, we propose an approach that can convert gas flow energy to electric energy by using the triboelectric effect, in a structure integrating at least two conductive parts (i.e. electrodes) and one non-conductive sheet. The gas flow induces vibration of the cited parts. Therefore, the frequent attaching and releasing between a non-conductive layer with at least one electrode generates electrostatic charges on the surfaces, and then an electron flow between the two electrodes. The effect of blown gas on the output signals is studied to evaluate the gas flow sensing. We also illustrate that the introduced system has an ability to detect micro particles driven by air into the system. Finally we show how we can use this approach for a self sustainable system demonstrating smoke detection and LED lightening.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan Debayle
2011-05-01
Full Text Available An image analysis method has been developed in order to compute the velocity field of a granular medium (sand grains, mean diameter 600 μm submitted to different kinds of mechanical stresses. The differential method based on optical flow conservation consists in describing a dense motion field with vectors associated to each pixel. A multiscale, coarse-to-fine, analytical approach through tailor sized windows yields the best compromise between accuracy and robustness of the results, while enabling an acceptable computation time. The corresponding algorithmis presented and its validation discussed through different tests. The results of the validation tests of the proposed approach show that the method is satisfactory when attributing specific values to parameters in association with the size of the image analysis window. An application in the case of vibrated sand has been studied. An instrumented laboratory device provides sinusoidal vibrations and enables external optical observations of sand motion in 3D transparent boxes. At 50 Hz, by increasing the relative acceleration G, the onset and development of two convective rolls can be observed. An ultra fast camera records the grain avalanches, and several pairs of images are analysed by the proposed method. The vertical velocity profiles are deduced and allow to precisely quantify the dimensions of the fluidized region as a function of G.
Multi-directional electromagnetic vibration energy harvester using circular Halbach array
Qiu, Jing; Liu, Xin; Hu, Zhenwen; Chang, Qijie; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Jin; Wen, Jing; Tang, Xiaosheng; Hu, Wei
2017-05-01
In this paper, a multi-directional electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (EVEH) using the circular Halbach array (HA) is presented based on the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The circular HA is a specific arrangement of permanent magnets which could concentrate the magnetic field inside the circular array by a certain rule, while reduce the magnetic field outside the circular array to almost zero at the same time. The HA could break through the limitation of the related published vibration energy harvesters that could work in only one single direction. Thus, it could optimize the collecting efficiency. The experimental results show that the presented harvester could generate considerable electric output power in all vibrating directions. An optimal output power is 9.32 mW at a resonant frequency of 15.40 Hz with an acceleration of 0.5 g (with g=9.8 m/s2) across a 700-turn coil in the vibrating direction of 90°, which is 1.53 times than the minimum optimal one in the direction of 45°. The EVEH using the circular HA could work in all directions and generate considerable electric output power, which validates the feasibility of the EVEH that works in all directions and is beneficial for improving the practical application.
Coupled analysis of multi-impact energy harvesting from low-frequency wind induced vibrations
Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei
2015-04-01
Energy need from off-grid locations has been critical for effective real-time monitoring and control to ensure structural safety and reliability. To harvest energy from ambient environments, the piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system has been proven very efficient to convert high frequency vibrations into usable electrical energy. However, due to the low frequency nature of the vibrations of civil infrastructures, such as those induced from vehicle impacts, wind, and waves, the application of a traditional piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system is greatly restrained since the output power drops dramatically with the reduction of vibration frequencies. This paper focuses on the coupled analysis of a proposed piezoelectric multi-impact wind-energy-harvesting device that can effectively up-convert low frequency wind-induced vibrations into high frequency ones. The device consists of an H-shape beam and four bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams. The H-shape beam, which can be easily triggered to vibrate at a low wind speed, is originated from the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed at wind speeds of 18.8 m s-1 in 1940. The multi-impact mechanism between the H-shape beam and the bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams is incorporated to improve the harvesting performance at lower frequencies. During the multi-impact process, a series of sequential impacts between the H-shape beam and the cantilever beams can trigger high frequency vibrations of the cantilever beams and result in high output power with a considerably high efficiency. In the coupled analysis, the coupled structural, aerodynamic, and electrical equations are solved to obtain the dynamic response and the power output of the proposed harvesting device. A parametric study for several parameters in the coupled analysis framework is carried out including the external resistance, wind speed, and the configuration of the H-shape beam. The average harvested power for the piezoelectric cantilever
Li, Peng; Zhang, Chongxiao; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei
2014-04-01
Regenerative semi-active suspensions can capture the previously dissipated vibration energy and convert it to usable electrical energy for powering on-board electronic devices, while achieve both the better ride comfort and improved road handling performance at the same time when certain control is applied. To achieve this objective, the power electronics interface circuit connecting the energy harvester and the electrical loads, which can perform simultaneous vibration control and energy harvesting function is in need. This paper utilized a buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting with electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber, which utilizes a rotational generator to converter the vibration energy to electricity. It has been found that when the circuit works in discontinuous current mode (DCM), the ratio between the input voltage and current is only related to the duty cycle of the switch pulse width modulation signal. Using this property, the buck-boost converter can be used to perform semi-active vibration control by controlling the load connected between the terminals of the generator in the electromagnetic shock absorber. While performing the vibration control, the circuit always draw current from the shock absorber and the suspension remain dissipative, and the shock absorber takes no additional energy to perform the vibration control. The working principle and dynamics of the circuit has been analyzed and simulations were performed to validate the concept.
Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics
Plunk, Gabriel G.
2014-10-01
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.
Energy flow for electric power system deregulation
Lin, Chia-Hung
Over the past few years, the electric power utility industry in North America and other countries has experienced a strong drive towards deregulation. People have considered the necessity of deregulation of electric utilities for higher energy efficiency and energy saving. The vertically integrated monopolistic industry is being transferred into a horizontally integrated competitive structure in some countries. Wheeling charges are a current high priority problem throughout the power industry, for independent power producers, as well as regulators. Nevertheless the present transmission pricing mechanism fails to be adjusted by a customer loading condition. Customer loading is dynamic, but the present wheeling charge method is fixed, not real-time. A real-time wheeling charge method is developed in this dissertation. This dissertation introduces a concept of a power flow network which can be used for the calculation of power contribution factors in a network. The contribution factor is defined as the ratio of the power contributed by a particular source to a line flow or bus load to the total output of the source. Generation, transmission, and distribution companies can employ contribution factors for the calculation of energy cost, wheeling charges, and loss compensation. Based on the concept of contribution factors, a proposed loss allocation method is developed in this dissertation. Besides, counterflow condition will be given a credit in the proposed loss allocation method. A simple 22-bus example was used for evaluating the contribution factors, proposed wheeling charge method, and loss allocation method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng
2016-01-01
and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity...
Janssen, Mathijs; Werkhoven, Ben; Van Roij, René
2016-01-01
We theoretically study a vibrating pair of parallel electrodes bridged by a (deformed) liquid droplet, which is a recently developed microfluidic device to harvest vibrational energy. The device can operate with various liquids, including liquid metals, electrolytes, as well as ionic liquids. We
Tube bundle vibrations due to cross flow under the influence of turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popp, K.; Romberg, O. [Institute of Mechanics, University of Hannover (Germany)
1998-10-01
Tube bundles are often used in heat exchangers and chemical reactors. Besides of large heat transfer capacities and small pressure drops in the apparatus a safe design against vibration damages is demanded. For many years extensive investigations concerning the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles subjected to cross-flow have been carried out in the wind tunnel of the Institute of Mechanics at the University of Hannover. In the last years the investigations were concentrated on the experimental investigations of different flow excitation mechanisms in a fully flexible bundle as well as in a bundle with one single flexibly mounted tube in an otherwise fixed array with variable geometry and changing equilibrium position. The aim of the studies was the determination of the stability boundaries, i.e. the critical reduced fluid velocity depending on the reduced damping coefficient in a wide parameter region. Theoretical investigations of the stability behaviour on the basis of an one dimensional flow model as well as experimental investigations of the influence of turbulence on the stability boundaries have been carried out. Here, for certain tube bundle configurations an increased turbulence has a stabilizing effect and leads to a shift of the stability boundaries to higher velocities. The change of the turbulence was realised by using turbulence grids at the inlet of the bundles or thin Prandtl-tripwires at the tube surfaces. Flow visualization studies at the original experimental set-up under relevant Reynolds numbers give an impression of the flow pattern. At this time an investigation of the exciting fluid forces is carried out using a flexibly mounted pressure test tube. A survey about some recent investigations is given. (orig.)
Exploring the vibrational fingerprint of the electronic excitation energy via molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deyne, Andy Van Yperen-De; Pauwels, Ewald; Ghysels, An; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Hemelsoet, Karen, E-mail: karen.hemelsoet@ugent.be [Center for Molecular Modeling (CMM), Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); De Meyer, Thierry [Center for Molecular Modeling (CMM), Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Department of Textiles, Ghent University, Technologiepark 907, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); De Clerck, Karen [Department of Textiles, Ghent University, Technologiepark 907, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)
2014-04-07
A Fourier-based method is presented to relate changes of the molecular structure during a molecular dynamics simulation with fluctuations in the electronic excitation energy. The method implies sampling of the ground state potential energy surface. Subsequently, the power spectrum of the velocities is compared with the power spectrum of the excitation energy computed using time-dependent density functional theory. Peaks in both spectra are compared, and motions exhibiting a linear or quadratic behavior can be distinguished. The quadratically active motions are mainly responsible for the changes in the excitation energy and hence cause shifts between the dynamic and static values of the spectral property. Moreover, information about the potential energy surface of various excited states can be obtained. The procedure is illustrated with three case studies. The first electronic excitation is explored in detail and dominant vibrational motions responsible for changes in the excitation energy are identified for ethylene, biphenyl, and hexamethylbenzene. The proposed method is also extended to other low-energy excitations. Finally, the vibrational fingerprint of the excitation energy of a more complex molecule, in particular the azo dye ethyl orange in a water environment, is analyzed.
Bastrukov, S. I.; Yu, J. W.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Xu, R. X.
2011-01-01
We revisit the well-known Hoyle-Narlikar-Wheeler proposition that neutron star emerging in the magnetic-flux-conserving process of core-collapse supernova can convert the stored energy of Alfven vibrations into power of magneto-dipole radiation. We show that the necessary requirement for the energy conversion is the decay of internal magnetic field. In this case the loss of vibration energy of the star causes its vibration period, equal to period of pulsating emission, to lengthen at a rate p...
Kajihara, Tadao; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Tsujiura, Yuichi; Koshiba, Yasuko; Morimoto, Masahiro; Kanno, Isaku; Ishida, Kenji
2017-04-01
We investigated piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with poly(vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene) films and the improved power generation from using multistacked and stretched ferroelectric films on the cantilevers. The energy harvesters generated electric power with a resonant frequency of approximately 25 Hz, which corresponded to the ambient vibration. The power density of four-layered harvesters was estimated to be 2.5 µW/m3, which was larger than the power density of previous harvesters. The output power of stretched-film harvesters was 3.6 times the output obtained from unstretched films. In addition, because organic ferroelectric films are flexible, the resonant frequency of each harvester was practically constant even when using the techniques of multistacking and stretching.
Shoe-mounted vibration energy harvester of PZT piezoelectric thin films on metal foils
Nishi, T.; Ito, T.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.
2016-11-01
This paper describes shoe-mounted piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs). The PVEHs were fabricated from Pb(ZrTi)O3 (PZT) thin films which were directly deposited onto Pt/Ti-coated stainless steel foil by rf-magnetron sputtering. We experimentally and theoretically evaluated impulse responses of the PVEHs by applying a simple impulse input on the energy harvesters, typical damped free vibration behaviour was clearly observed, and the output signal was in good agreement with the theoretical value. We measured the output power by applying the impulse input with an optimal load resistance of 33.9 kΩ. The maximum output power was approximately 20 μW, which correspond with the calculated value based on theoretical equation. From these results, the theoretical equation we derived might be helpful for design purposes of the shoe-mounted PVEHs.
Vázquez, Juana; Harding, Michael E; Stanton, John F; Gauss, Jürgen
2011-05-10
A variational method for the calculation of low-lying vibrational energy levels of molecules with small amplitude vibrations is presented. The approach is based on the Watson Hamiltonian in rectilinear normal coordinates and characterized by a quasi-analytic integration over the kinetic energy operator (KEO). The KEO beyond the harmonic approximation is represented by a Taylor series in terms of the rectilinear normal coordinates around the equilibrium configuration. This formulation of the KEO enables its extension to arbitrary order until numerical convergence is reached for those states describing small amplitude motions and suitably represented with a rectilinear system of coordinates. A Gauss-Hermite quadrature grid representation of the anharmonic potential is used for all the benchmark examples presented. Results for a set of molecules with linear and nonlinear configurations, i.e., CO2, H2O, and formyl fluoride (HFCO), illustrate the performance of the method and the versatility of our implementation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinhua Xie
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the transmission and equilibrium relationship of vibration energy in beam-like structures, the Galerkin weighted residual method was applied to equation discretization. An equivalent transformation of feedback element was suggested to develop the Energy Finite Element model of a composite piezoelectric cantilever beam driven by harmonic excitation on lateral direction, with both systems with and without time delay being studied and the power input estimation of harmonic excitation was discussed for the resolution of Energy Finite Element function. Then the energy density solutions of the piezoelectric coupling beam through Energy Finite Element Method (EFEM and classical wave theory were compared to verify the EFEM model, which presented a good accordance. Further investigation was undertaken about the influence of control parameters including the feedback gain and arrangement of piezoelectric patches on characteristics of system energy density distribution.
Prosumers strategy for DHC energy flow optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasek Lubomir
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article introduces the proposal of discrete model of district heating and cooling system (DHC for energy flow optimization. The aim is to achieve the best solution of the objective function, usually determined by minimizing the production and distribution costs and providing meets the needs of energy consumers. The model also introduces the idea of general prosumers strategy, where all active elements within the modern DHC system are representing by prosumers object. The prosumers are perceived as objects able to actively participate in the planning of production and consumption of energy. It is assumed that the general behaviour of the object in DHC is the same, no matter how they differ in sizes and designs. Thus, all the objects are defined by two characteristics - the ability to produce and consume. The model based on this basic principle, of course, with the most accurate information about the particular values at a time, object properties and other, should provide tools for simulation and control of modern DHC, possibly superior units as Smart Energy Grids - understood as a system integrating Smart Grids (electricity and Smart Thermal Grids (heat a cool.
Brekke, Stewart
2017-09-01
Einstein calculated the total energy at low speeds in the Special Theory of Relativity to be Etotal =m0c2 + 1 / 2m0v2 . However, the total energy must include the rotational and vibrational kinetic energies as well as the linear kinetic energies. If 1 / 2 Iω2 is the expression for the rotational kinetic energy of mass and 1 / 2 kx02 is the vibrational kinetic energy expression of a typical mass, the expression for the total energy of a mass at low speeds must be Etotal =m0c2 + 1 / 2m0v2 + 1 / 2 Iω2 + 1 / 2 kx02 . If this expression is correct, the relativistic kinetic energy of a mass. at low speeds must include the rotational and vibrational kinetic energies as well as the linear kinetic energies since according to Einstein K = (m -m0) c2 and therefore, K = 1 / 2m0v2 + 1 / 2 Iω2 + 1 / 2 kx02 .
Dark Energy Domination In The Virgocentric Flow
Byrd, Gene; Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.
2011-04-01
Dark energy (DE) was first observationally detected at large Gpc distances. If it is a vacuum energy formulated as Einstein's cosmological constant, Λ, DE should also have dynamical effects at much smaller scales. Previously, we found its effects on much smaller Mpc scales in our Local Group (LG) as well as in other nearby groups. We used new HST observations of member 3D distances from the group centers and Doppler shifts. We find each group's gravity dominates a bound central system of galaxies but DE antigravity results in a radial recession increasing with distance from the group center of the outer members. Here we focus on the much larger (but still cosmologically local) Virgo Cluster and systems around it using new observations of velocities and distances. We propose an analytic model whose key parameter is the zero-gravity radius (ZGR) from the cluster center where gravity and DE antigravity balance. DE brings regularity to the Virgocentric flow. Beyond Virgo's 10 Mpc ZGR, the flow curves to approach a linear global Hubble law at larger distances. The Virgo cluster and its outer flow are similar to the Local Group and its local outflow with a scaling factor of about 10; the ZGR for Virgo is 10 times larger than that of the LG. The similarity of the two systems on the scales of 1 to 30 Mpc suggests that a quasi-stationary bound central component and an expanding outflow applies to a wide range of groups and clusters due to small scale action of DE as well as gravity. Chernin, et al 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics 507, 1271 http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0066 http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0555
Asymptotic theory of neutral stability of the Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas
Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.
2017-01-01
An asymptotic theory of the neutral stability curve for a supersonic plane Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas is developed. The initial mathematical model consists of equations of two-temperature viscous gas dynamics, which are used to derive a spectral problem for a linear system of eighth-order ordinary differential equations within the framework of the classical linear stability theory. Unified transformations of the system for all shear flows are performed in accordance with the classical Lin scheme. The problem is reduced to an algebraic secular equation with separation into the "inviscid" and "viscous" parts, which is solved numerically. It is shown that the thus-calculated neutral stability curves agree well with the previously obtained results of the direct numerical solution of the original spectral problem. In particular, the critical Reynolds number increases with excitation enhancement, and the neutral stability curve is shifted toward the domain of higher wave numbers. This is also confirmed by means of solving an asymptotic equation for the critical Reynolds number at the Mach number M ≤ 4.
Signal analysis of acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR main steam line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Prieto-Guerrero, A. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Núñez-Carrera, A. [Comisión Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Doctor Barragán 779, Col. Narvarte, México, D.F. 03020 (Mexico); Vázquez-Rodríguez, A. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Centeno-Pérez, J. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas Unidad Profesional “Adolfo López Mateos”, Av. IPN, s/n, México, D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Espinosa-Martínez, E.-G. [Departamento de Sistemas Energéticos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); and others
2016-05-15
Highlights: • Acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR are analyzed. • BWR performance after extended power uprate is considered. • Effect of acoustic side branches (ASB) is analyzed. • The ASB represents a reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer. • Methodology developed for simultaneous analyzing the signals in the MSL. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the signal analysis of acoustic waves due to phenomenon known as singing in Safety Relief Valves (SRV) of the main steam lines (MSL) in a typical BWR5. The acoustic resonance in SRV standpipes and fluctuating pressure is propagated from SRV to the dryer through the MSL. The signals are analyzed with a novel method based on the Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (M-EMD). The M-EMD algorithm has the potential to find common oscillatory modes (IMF) within multivariate data. Based on this fact, we implement the M-EMD technique to find the oscillatory mode in BWR considering the measurements obtained collected by the strain gauges located around the MSL. These IMF, analyzed simultaneously in time, allow obtaining an estimation of the effects of the multiple-SRV in the MSL. Two scenarios are analyzed: the first is the signal obtained before the installation of the acoustic dampers (ASB), and the second, the signal obtained after installation. The results show the effectiveness of the ASB to damp the strong resonances when the steam flow increases, which represents an important reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer.
He, Huijing; Yang, Jiashi; Kosinski, John A
2012-08-01
We study shear-horizontal free vibrations of an elastic cylinder with an oblate elliptical cross section and a traction-free surface. Exact vibration modes and frequencies are obtained. The results show the existence of thickness-shear and thickness-twist modes. The energy-trapping behavior of these modes is examined. Trapped modes are found wherein the vibration energy is largely confined to the central portion of the cross section and little vibration energy is found at the edges. It is also shown that face-shear modes are not allowed in such a cylinder. The results are useful for the understanding of the energy trapping phenomenon in contoured acoustic wave resonators.
Power flow as a complement to statistical energy analysis and finite element analysis
Cuschieri, J. M.
1987-01-01
Present methods of analysis of the structural response and the structure-borne transmission of vibrational energy use either finite element (FE) techniques or statistical energy analysis (SEA) methods. The FE methods are a very useful tool at low frequencies where the number of resonances involved in the analysis is rather small. On the other hand SEA methods can predict with acceptable accuracy the response and energy transmission between coupled structures at relatively high frequencies where the structural modal density is high and a statistical approach is the appropriate solution. In the mid-frequency range, a relatively large number of resonances exist which make finite element method too costly. On the other hand SEA methods can only predict an average level form. In this mid-frequency range a possible alternative is to use power flow techniques, where the input and flow of vibrational energy to excited and coupled structural components can be expressed in terms of input and transfer mobilities. This power flow technique can be extended from low to high frequencies and this can be integrated with established FE models at low frequencies and SEA models at high frequencies to form a verification of the method. This method of structural analysis using power flo and mobility methods, and its integration with SEA and FE analysis is applied to the case of two thin beams joined together at right angles.
Menéndez, Héctor; Martín-Hernández, Juan; Ferrero, Cristina; Figueroa, Arturo; Herrero, Azael J; Marín, Pedro J
2015-08-01
The aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of isolated or simultaneously applied whole-body vibration (WBV) and electromyostimulation (ES) on the popliteal arterial blood velocity and skin temperature (ST) of the calf. Thirteen healthy males were assessed in five different sessions. After a familiarization session, four interventions were applied in random order; WBV, ES, simultaneous WBV and ES (WBV+ES), and 30 s of WBV followed by 30 s of ES (WBV30/ES30). Each intervention consisted of 10 sets × 1 min ON + 1 min OFF. The subject was standing on the vibration platform (squat position, 30° knee flexion, 26 Hz, 5 mm peak-to-peak), and ES was applied on the gastrocnemius of both the legs (8 Hz, 400 µs). The WBV+ES intervention was the only one that maintained the mean blood velocity (MBV) elevated above baseline during the 10 sets, from set-1 (134.6 % p < 0.01) to set-10 (112.6 % p < 0.05). The combined interventions were the only ones that maintained the peak blood velocity (PBV) elevated above baseline during all the sets, from set-1 (113.5 % p < 0.001) to set-10 (88.8 % p < 0.01) and from set-1 (58.4 % p < 0.01) to set-10 (49.1 % p < 0.05) for WBV+ES and WBV30/ES30, respectively. The simultaneous application of WBV and ES produced a general greater increase in MBV and PBV than the application of each method alone or consecutive. This novel methodological proposal could be interesting in different fields such as sports or the rehabilitation process of different pathologies, to achieve an enhanced peripheral blood flow.
First-Principles Vibrational Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of β -Guanine
Radtke, G.; Taverna, D.; Lazzeri, M.; Balan, E.
2017-07-01
A general approach to model vibrational electron energy loss spectra obtained using an electron beam positioned away from the specimen is presented. The energy-loss probability of the fast electron is evaluated using first-principles quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory) of the dielectric response of the specimen. The validity of the method is assessed using recently measured anhydrous β -guanine, an important molecular solid used by animals to produce structural colors. The good agreement between theory and experiments lays the basis for a quantitative interpretation of this spectroscopy in complex systems.
Zilletti, Michele; Elliott, Stephen J.; Rustighi, Emiliano
2012-01-01
The tuning of a dynamic vibration absorber is considered such that either the kinetic energy of the host structure is minimised or the power dissipation within the absorber is maximised. If the host structure is approximated as a damped single degree of freedom, the optimal values for the ratio of the absorber's natural frequency to the host structure and the optimal damping ratio of the absorber are shown to be the same whether the kinetic energy of the host structure is minimised or the pow...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elie-Jacques Fares
Full Text Available There is increasing recognition about the importance of enhancing energy expenditure (EE for weight control through increases in low-intensity physical activities comparable with daily life (1.5-4 METS. Whole-body vibration (WBV increases EE modestly and could present both a useful adjuvant for obesity management and tool for metabolic phenotyping. However, it is unclear whether a "dose-response" exists between commonly-used vibration frequencies (VF and EE, nor if WBV influences respiratory quotient (RQ, and hence substrate oxidation. We aimed to investigate the EE-VF and RQ-VF relationships across three different frequencies (30, 40, and 50Hz.EE and RQ were measured in 8 healthy young adults by indirect calorimetry at rest, and subsequently during side-alternating WBV at one of 3 VFs (30, 40, and 50 Hz. Each frequency was assessed over 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest, separated by 5 min seated rest. During the WBV participants stood on the platform with knees flexed sufficiently to maintain comfort, prevent transmission of vibration to the upper body, and minimise voluntary physical exertion. Repeatability was assessed across 3 separate days in a subset of 4 individuals. In order to assess any sequence/habituation effect, an additional group of 6 men underwent 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest at 40 Hz, separated by 5 min seated rest.Side-alternating WBV increased EE relative to standing, non-vibration levels (+36%, p<0.001. However, no differences in EE were observed across VFs. Similarly, no effect of VF on RQ was found, nor did WBV alter RQ relative to standing without vibration.No relationship could be demonstrated between EE and VF in the range of 30-50Hz, and substrate oxidation did not change in response to WBV. Furthermore, the thermogenic effect of intermittent WBV, whilst robust, was quantitatively small (<2 METS.
Chun, Inwoo; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho
2014-12-01
Limited energy sources of ubiquitous sensor networks (USNs) such as fuel cells and batteries have grave drawbacks such as the need for replacements and re-charging owing to their short durability and environmental pollution. Energy harvesting which is converting environmental mechanical vibration into electrical energy has been researched with some piezoelectric materials and various cantilever designs to increase the efficiency of energy-harvesting devices. In this study, we focused on an energy-harvesting cantilever with a broadband vibration frequency. We fabricated a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) cantilever array with various Si proof masses on small beams (5.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm). We obtained broadband resonant frequencies ranging between 127 Hz and 136 Hz using a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process. In order to obtain broadband resonant characteristics, the cantilever array was comprised of six cantilevers with different resonant frequencies. We obtained an output power of about 2.461 μW at an acceleration of 0.23 g and a resistance of 4 kΩ. The measured bandwidth of the resonant frequency was approximately 9 Hz (127-136 Hz), which is about six times wider than the bandwidth of a single cantilever.
Dynamics of Transition Regime in Bi-stable Vibration Energy Harvesters
Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah
2017-04-20
Vibration energy harvesting can be an effective method for scavenging wasted mechanical energy for use by wireless sensors that have limited battery life. Two major goals in designing energy harvesters are enhancing the power scavenged at low frequency and improving efficiency by increasing the frequency bandwidth. To achieve these goals, we derived a magneto-elastic beam operated at the transition between mono- and bi-stable regions. By improving the mathematical model of the interaction of magnetic force and beam dynamics, we obtained a precise prediction of natural frequencies as the distance of magnets varies. Using the shooting technique for the improved model, we present a fundamental understanding of interesting combined softening and hardening responses that happen at the transition between the two regimes. The transition regime is proposed as the optimal region for energy conversion in terms of frequency bandwidth and output voltage. Using this technique, low frequency vibration energy harvesting at around 17 Hz was possible. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The target application is to power wildlife bio-logging devices from bird flights that have consistent high power density around 16 Hz [1].
Bab, Saeed; Khadem, S. E.; Shahgholi, Majid; Abbasi, Amirhassan
2017-02-01
The current paper investigates the effects of a number of smooth nonlinear energy sinks (NESs) located on the disk and bearings on the vibration attenuation of a rotor-blisk-journal bearing system under excitation of a mass eccentricity force. The blade and rotor are modeled using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The nonlinear energy sinks on the bearing have a linear damping and an essentially nonlinear stiffness. The nonlinear energy sinks on the disk have a linear damping, linear stiffness, and an essentially nonlinear stiffness. It can be seen that the linear stiffness of the NESs on the disk is eliminated by the negative stiffness induced by the centrifugal force, and the collection of the NESs can be tuned to a required rotational speed of the rotor by varying the linear stiffness of the NESs. Furthermore, the remained stiffness of the NESs on the disk after elimination of their linear stiffness, would be essentially a nonlinear (nonlinearizable) one. Two nonlinear energy sinks in the vertical axes are positioned on the bearing housing and nnd NESs are located on the perimeter of the disk. The equations of motion are extracted using the extended Hamilton principle. The modal coordinates and complex transformations are employed to decrease the number of equations of motion. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the nonlinear energy sinks and its objective function is considered as minimizing the vibration of the rotating system within an operating speed range. In order to examine the periodic and non-periodic solutions of the system, time history, bifurcation diagram, Poincaré map, phase portrait, Lyapunov exponent, and power spectra analyses are performed. System shows periodic and quasi-periodic motions for different values of the system parameters. It is shown that the NESs on the disk and bearings have almost local effects on vibration reduction of rotating system. In addition, the optimum NESs remove the instability region from the
Vibration mitigation of a bridge cable using a nonlinear energy sink: design and experiment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weiss Mathieu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work deals with the design and experiment of a cubic nonlinear energy sink (NES for horizontal vibration mitigation of a bridge cable. Modal analysis of horizontal linear modes of the cable is experimentally performed using accelerometers and displacement sensors. A theoretical simplified 2-dof model of the coupled cable-NES system is used to analytically design the NES by mean of multi-time scale systems behaviours and detection its invariant manifold, equilibrium and singular points which stand for periodic and strongly modulated regimes, respectively. Numerical integration is used to confirm the efficiency of the designed NES for the system under step release excitation. Then, the prototype system is built using geometrical cubic nonlinearity as the potential of the NES. Efficiency of the prototype system for mitigation of horizontal vibrations of the cable under for step release and forced excitations is experimentally demonstrated.
Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, 09210-580 São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); and others
2015-12-14
We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montanini, Roberto, E-mail: rmontanini@unime.it; Quattrocchi, Antonino, E-mail: aquattrocchi@unime.it [University of Messina, Dept. of Engineering, Contrada di Dio, Messina (Italy)
2016-06-28
A cantilever-type resonant piezoelectric generator (RPG) has been designed by gluing a PZT patch working in d{sub 31} mode onto a glass fibre reinforced composite cantilever beam with a discrete mass applied on its free end. The electrical and dynamic behaviour of the RPG prototype has been investigated by carrying out laboratory tests aimed to assess the effect of definite design parameters, specifically the electric resistance load and the excitation frequency. Results showed that an optimum resistance load exists, at which power generation is maximized. Moreover, it has been showed that power generation is strongly influenced by the vibration frequency highlighting that, at resonance, output power can be increased by more than one order of magnitude. Possible applications include inertial resonant harvester for energy recovery from vibrating machines, sea waves or wind flux and self-powering of wireless sensor nodes.
Miller, Lindsay Margaret
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the potential to transform engineering infrastructure, manufacturing, and building controls by allowing condition monitoring, asset tracking, demand response, and other intelligent feedback systems. A wireless sensor node consists of a power supply, sensor(s), power conditioning circuitry, radio transmitter and/or receiver, and a micro controller. Such sensor nodes are used for collecting and communicating data regarding the state of a machine, system, or process. The increasing demand for better ways to power wireless devices and increase operation time on a single battery charge drives an interest in energy harvesting research. Today, wireless sensor nodes are typically powered by a standard single-charge battery, which becomes depleted within a relatively short timeframe depending on the application. This introduces tremendous labor costs associated with battery replacement, especially when there are thousands of nodes in a network, the nodes are remotely located, or widely-distributed. Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting presents a potential solution to the problems associated with too-short battery life and high maintenance requirements, especially in industrial environments where vibrations are ubiquitous. Energy harvester designs typically use the harvester to trickle charge a rechargeable energy storage device rather than directly powering the electronics with the harvested energy. This allows a buffer between the energy harvester supply and the load where energy can be stored in a "tank". Therefore, the harvester does not need to produce the full required power at every instant to successfully power the node. In general, there are tens of microwatts of power available to be harvested from ambient vibrations using micro scale devices and tens of milliwatts available from ambient vibrations using meso scale devices. Given that the power requirements of wireless sensor nodes range from several microwatts to about one
An Early Warning System from debris flows based on ground vibration monitoring data
Arattano, Massimo; Coviello, Velio
2015-04-01
-2014. The algorithm is based on the real time processing of ground vibration data detected by three vertical geophones. During the testing period, two debris flow events occurred that were both correctly detected by the algorithm with a relatively limited number of false alarms.
Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin
2015-04-02
Recently, the quantum nature in the energy transport in solar cells and light-harvesting complexes has attracted much attention as being triggered by the experimental observations. We model the light-harvesting complex (i.e., PEB50 dimer) as a quantum heat engine (QHE) and study the effect of the undamped intramolecule vibrational modes on the coherent energy-transfer process and quantum transport. We find that the exciton-vibration interaction has nontrivial contribution to the promotion of quantum yield as well as transport properties of the QHE at steady state by enhancing the quantum coherence quantified by entanglement entropy. The perfect quantum yield over 90% has been obtained, with the exciton-vibration coupling. We attribute these improvements to the renormalization of the electronic couplings effectively induced by exciton-vibration interaction and the subsequent delocalization of excitons. Finally, we demonstrate that the thermal relaxation and dephasing can help the excitation energy transfer in the PEB50 dimer.
Estimating the vibration level of an L-shaped beam using power flow techniques
Cuschieri, J. M.; Mccollum, M.; Rassineux, J. L.; Gilbert, T.
1986-01-01
The response of one component of an L-shaped beam, with point force excitation on the other component, is estimated using the power flow method. The transmitted power from the source component to the receiver component is expressed in terms of the transfer and input mobilities at the excitation point and the joint. The response is estimated both in narrow frequency bands, using the exact geometry of the beams, and as a frequency averaged response using infinite beam models. The results using this power flow technique are compared to the results obtained using finite element analysis (FEA) of the L-shaped beam for the low frequency response and to results obtained using statistical energy analysis (SEA) for the high frequencies. The agreement between the FEA results and the power flow method results at low frequencies is very good. SEA results are in terms of frequency averaged levels and these are in perfect agreement with the results obtained using the infinite beam models in the power flow method. The narrow frequency band results from the power flow method also converge to the SEA results at high frequencies. The advantage of the power flow method is that detail of the response can be retained while reducing computation time, which will allow the narrow frequency band analysis of the response to be extended to higher frequencies.
Dynamic Response of an Energy Harvesting Device Under Realistic Flow Conditions
O'Connor, Joseph; Revell, Alistair
2017-11-01
The need for reliable, cost-efficient, green energy alternatives has led to increased research in the area of energy harvesting. One approach to energy harvesting is to take advantage of self-sustaining flow-induced vibrations. Through the use of a piezoelectric flag, the mechanical strain from the flapping motion can be converted into electrical energy. While such devices show a lot of promise, the fluid-structure-electrical interactions are highly nonlinear and their response to off-design variations in flow conditions, such as those likely to be encountered upon deployment, is relatively unexplored. The purpose of the present work is to examine how a representative energy harvesting device performs in realistic atmospheric flow conditions involving wind gusts with spatial and temporal variations. A recently developed lattice-Boltzmann-immersed boundary-finite element model is used to perform fully-coupled 3D simulations of the fluid-structure system. For a range of unsteady flow conditions the resulting flow features and structural motion are examined and key behaviour modes are mapped out. The findings of this work will be particularly relevant for self-powered remote sensing networks, which often require deployment in unpredictable and varied environments.
Vibration Energy Harvesting on Vehicle Suspension Using Rotary and Linear Electromagnetic Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arif Indro Sultoni
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss comparation of vehicle vibration energy harvesting between rotary and linear electromagnetic generator. We construct the two model of energy harvester mechanism and then analyze both of energy absorbtion and vehicle comfortability. Furthermore, we analyze both of energy absorbtion and vehicle comfortability. Vehicle is modeled as quarter car. Rotarty generator harvests 2.5 x 10-4 Watt. The other hand, linear generator has viscous characteristic and capable to generates 90 Watts with 12 Volt power supply for 0.03 m amplitude of bumpy road input. Linear generator reduces oscillation with 1.2 sec settling time. It is more comfort than the angular which has 3 sec in settling time. With unnevenees road input, mean power of this generator is 64 Watt.
Non-adiabatic corrections to the energies of the pure vibrational states of H2
Bubin, Sergiy; Leonarski, Filip; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2009-07-01
Nonrelativistic energies of all fifteen pure vibrational states of the H molecule have been recalculated with much higher accuracy than before. In the calculations we employed explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and an approach where the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation is not assumed. The wave function of each state was expanded in terms of 10 000 Gaussians whose nonlinear parameters were optimized using a procedure involving the analytical energy gradient. The obtained non-BO energies combined with the recent BO adiabatic energies of Pachucki and Komasa [K. Pachucki, J. Komasa, J. Chem. Phys. 129 (2008) 034102] allowed us to determine new improved values of the non-adiabatic corrections for the considered states.
Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng
2010-01-01
To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator.
Microstereolithography of Three-Dimensional Polymeric Springs for Vibration Energy Harvesting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evan Baker
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The inefficiency in converting low frequency vibration (6~240 Hz to electrical energy remains a key issue for miniaturized vibration energy harvesting devices. To address this subject, this paper reports on the novel, three-dimensional micro-fabrication of spring elements within such devices, in order to achieve resonances and maximum energy conversion within these common frequencies. The process, known as projection microstereolithography, is exploited to fabricate polymer-based springs direct from computer-aided designs using digital masks and ultraviolet-curable resins. Using this process, a micro-spring structure is fabricated consisting of a two-by-two array of three-dimensional, constant-pitch helical coils made from 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate. Integrating the spring structure into an electromagnetic device, with a magnetic load mass of 1.236 grams, the resonance is measured at 61 Hz, which is within 2% of the theoretical model. The device provides a maximum normalized power output of 9.14 μW/G (G=9.81 ms−2 and an open circuit normalized voltage output of 621 mV/G. To the best of the authors knowledge, notable features of this work include the lowest Young’s modulus (530 MPa, density (1.011 g/cm3, and “largest feature size” (3.4 mm for a spring element in a vibration energy harvesting device with sub-100 Hz resonance.
Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.
2018-01-01
The vibrations of mechanical systems and structures are often a combination of periodic and random motions. Emerging interest to exploit nonlinearities in vibration energy harvesting systems for charging microelectronics may be challenged by such reality due to the potential to transition between favorable and unfavorable dynamic regimes for DC power delivery. Therefore, a need exists to devise an optimization method whereby charging power from nonlinear energy harvesters remains maximized when excitation conditions are neither purely harmonic nor purely random, which have been the attention of past research. This study meets the need by building from an analytical approach that characterizes the dynamic response of nonlinear energy harvesting platforms subjected to combined harmonic and stochastic base accelerations. Here, analytical expressions are formulated and validated to optimize charging power while the influences of the relative proportions of excitation types are concurrently assessed. It is found that about a 2 times deviation in optimal resistive loads can reduce the charging power by 20% when the system is more prominently driven by harmonic base accelerations, whereas a greater proportion of stochastic excitation results in a 11% reduction in power for the same resistance deviation. In addition, the results reveal that when the frequency of a predominantly harmonic excitation deviates by 50% from optimal conditions the charging power reduces by 70%, whereas the same frequency deviation for a more stochastically dominated excitation reduce total DC power by only 20%. These results underscore the need for maximizing direct current power delivery for nonlinear energy harvesting systems in practical operating environments.
Comparative structural and vibrational study of the four lowest energy conformers of serotonin
Jha, Omkant; Yadav, T. K.; Yadav, R. A.
2017-02-01
A computational investigation of all possible lowest energy conformers of serotonin was carried out at the B3LYP/6-311 ++G** level. Out of the 14 possible lowest energy conformers, the first 4 conformers were investigated thoroughly for the optimized geometries, fundamental frequencies, the potential energy distributions, APT and natural charges, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, MEP, Contour map, total density array, HOMO, LUMO energies. The second third and fourth conformers are energetically at higher temperatures of 78, 94 and 312 K respectively with respect to the first one. Bond angles and bond lengths do not show significant variations while the dihedral angles vary significantly in going from one conformer to the other. Some of the vibrational modes of the indole moiety are conformation dependent to some extent whereas most of the normal modes of vibration of amino-ethyl side chain vary significantly in going from one conformer to conformer. The MEP for the four conformers suggested that the sites of the maximum positive and negative ESP change on changing the conformation. The charges at some atomic sites also change significantly from conformer to conformer.
Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life.
Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.
2007-01-01
This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in
Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life
Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.
2007-01-01
This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in
Flow Cells for Scalable Energy Conversion and Storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-10-26
This project is a response to current flow systems that are V-aqueous and not cost effective. It will hopefully enable high energy/ power density flow cells through rational materials and system design.
Kim, Kilyoung; Johnson, Alan M; Powell, Amber L; Mitchell, Deborah G; Sevy, Eric T
2014-12-21
Collisional energy transfer between vibrational ground state CO2 and highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene (MFB) was studied using narrow bandwidth (0.0003 cm(-1)) IR diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Highly vibrationally excited MFB with E' = ∼41,000 cm(-1) was prepared by 248 nm UV excitation followed by rapid radiationless internal conversion to the electronic ground state (S1→S0*). The amount of vibrational energy transferred from hot MFB into rotations and translations of CO2 via collisions was measured by probing the scattered CO2 using the IR diode laser. The absolute state specific energy transfer rate constants and scattering probabilities for single collisions between hot MFB and CO2 were measured and used to determine the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E'), in the large ΔE region. P(E,E') was then fit to a bi-exponential function and extrapolated to the low ΔE region. P(E,E') and the biexponential fit data were used to determine the partitioning between weak and strong collisions as well as investigate molecular properties responsible for large collisional energy transfer events. Fermi's Golden rule was used to model the shape of P(E,E') and identify which donor vibrational motions are primarily responsible for energy transfer. In general, the results suggest that low-frequency MFB vibrational modes are primarily responsible for strong collisions, and govern the shape and magnitude of P(E,E'). Where deviations from this general trend occur, vibrational modes with large negative anharmonicity constants are more efficient energy gateways than modes with similar frequency, while vibrational modes with large positive anharmonicity constants are less efficient at energy transfer than modes of similar frequency.
Vibration transmission through periodic structures using a mobility power flow approach
Cuschieri, J. M.
1990-01-01
The transmission of vibrational power (time averaged) through multiple coupled (periodic) structures is examined. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain and the coupling between the sub-elements of the periodic structure is expressed in terms of structural mobility functions for the junction points and between the junction points of the sub-elements. Equal length spans between stiffeners or supports of the periodic structure are considered. Through the use of the mobility power flow approach, the influence of sub-element and junction parameters, including damping at the joints, can be investigated. The results from the analysis can be in the form of either structural intensity or alternatively structural power content for each of the sub-elements. The examples discussed are for a thin, perfectly periodic beam with a finite number of spans with different types of stiffeners and/or supports between the spans. The excitation of the structure is by a point load located midway along the first span.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Song Hee Chae
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We present an electromagnetic linear vibration energy harvester with an array of rectangular permanent magnets as a springless proof mass. Instead of supporting the magnet assembly with spring element, ferrofluid has been used as a lubricating material. When external vibration is applied laterally to the harvester, magnet assembly slides back and forth on the channel with reduced friction and wear due to ferrofluid, which significantly improves the long-term reliability of the device. Electric power is generated across an array of copper windings formed at the bottom of the aluminum housing. A proof-of-concept harvester has been fabricated and tested with a vibration exciter at various input frequencies and accelerations. For the device where 5 μL of ferrofluid was used for lubrication, maximum output power of 493 μW has been generated, which was 4.37% higher than that without ferrofluid. Long-term reliability improvement due to ferrofluid lubrication has also been verified. For the device with ferrofluid, 1.02% decrease of output power has been observed, in contrast to 59.73% decrease of output power without ferrofluid after 93,600 cycles.
A piezoelectric brace for passive suppression of structural vibration and energy harvesting
Yang, Chuang-Sheng Walter; Lai, Yong-An; Kim, Jin-Yeon
2017-08-01
Power outage after an earthquake would cause an additional chaos to the existing aftermath, greatly aggravating the situation if the outage lasts for an extended period. This research aims at developing an innovative piezoelectric brace, which provides both passive energy-dissipating and energy-harvesting capabilities—a passive suppression of structural vibrations and conversion of vibration energy into reusable electricity. The piezoelectric brace has compression modules that exert compressive loads on the piezoelectric material regardless if the brace is in compression or in tension. The compression module consists of a piezoelectric stack and rubber pads. The rubber pads are used to limit the maximum strain in the piezoelectric material below the allowable operational strain. The electro-mechanical equations of motion are derived for a 1-story and a 3-story frame model with the piezoelectric braces. To evaluate the structural behavior and the energy harvesting performance, numerical simulations are executed for the two model buildings (in downtown Los Angeles) that are equipped with the piezoelectric braces. The effects of design parameters including the geometry of the piezoelectric stack and rubber pads and the electric resistance in the electro-mechanical conversion circuit on the performance are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the piezoelectric braces passively dissipate energy through inclined oval-shaped hysteretic loops. The harvested energy is up to approximately 40% of the input energy. The structural displacements are significantly reduced, as compared to the original frames without the piezoelectric braces. Finally, a design procedure for a frame with the proposed passive piezoelectric braces is also presented.
Energy considerations in accelerating rapid shear granular flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. P. Pudasaini
2009-05-01
Full Text Available We present a complete expression for the total energy associated with a rapid frictional granular shear flow down an inclined surface. This expression reduces to the often used energy for a non-accelerating flow of an isotropic, ideal fluid in a horizontal channel, or to the energy for a vertically falling mass. We utilize thickness-averaged mass and momentum conservation laws written in a slope-defined coordinate system. Both the enhanced gravity and friction are taken into account in addition to the bulk motion and deformation. The total energy of the flow at a given spatial position and time is defined as the sum of four energy components: the kinetic energy, gravity, pressure and the friction energy. Total energy is conserved for stationary flow, but for non-stationary flow the non-conservative force induced by the free-surface gradient means that energy is not conserved. Simulations and experimental results are used to sketch the total energy of non-stationary flows. Comparison between the total energy and the sum of the kinetic and pressure energy shows that the contribution due to gravity acceleration and frictional resistance can be of the same order of magnitude, and that the geometric deformation plays an important role in the total energy budget of the cascading mass. Relative importance of the different constituents in the total energy expression is explored. We also introduce an extended Froude number that takes into account the apparent potential energy induced by gravity and pressure.
Benoit, David M.
2008-12-01
We introduce a new reduced-coupling technique to accelerate direct calculations of a selected number of vibrational frequencies in large molecular systems. Our method combines the advantages of the single-to-all correlation-corrected vibrational self-consistent field (STA-CC-VSCF) approach [D. M. Benoit, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 244110 (2006)] with those of the fast-CC-VSCF technique [D. M. Benoit, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 562 (2004)] and allows the ab initio calculation of only the relevant parts of the required potential energy surface (PES). We demonstrate, using a set of five aliphatic alcohol molecules, that the new fast-STA-CC-VSCF method is accurate and leads to very substantial time gains for the computations of the PES. We then use the fast-STA-CC-VSCF method to accelerate the computation of the OH-stretch and NH-stretch frequencies of the two lowest-energy conformers of noradrenaline, namely, AG1a and GG1a. Our new approach enables us to run the calculation 89 times faster than the standard CC-VSCF technique and makes it possible to use a high-level MP2/TZP description of the PES. We demonstrate that the influence of the strong mode-mode couplings is crucial for a realistic description of the particular OH-stretch vibrational signature of each conformer. Finally, of the two possible low-energy conformers, we identify AG1a as the one most likely to have been observed in the experiments of Snoek et al. [Mol. Phys. 101, 1239 (2003)].
Ye, Zhitong; Duan, Zhiyong; Takahata, Kenichi; Su, Yufeng
2015-01-01
In this paper, the force analysis and output performance of the micro-vibration energy harvester are elaborated. The force of the floating magnet in the magnetic field of the lifting magnet is firstly analyzed. Using COMSOL™, the change of magnetic force exerted on the floating magnet versus the vertical distance and the horizontal eccentric distance is obtained for different lifting magnets of a cylinder, a ring and an inner cylinder plus an outer ring, respectively. When the distance between the lifting and floating magnets ranges from 7.3 to 8.1 mm, the change rate of the magnetic force versus the vertical distance for the inner cylinder plus outer ring structure is the smallest, whose value is 619 µN/mm. In other words, if the inner cylinder plus outer ring structure is used as the lifting magnet, the vibration space of the floating magnet is the largest, which is 8 and 7.6 % larger than the cylinder and ring lifting magnets, respectively. The horizontal restoring forces of the three structures are substantially equal to each other at the horizontal eccentric distance of 4 mm, which is around 860 µN. Then the equilibrium position change of the floating magnet is discussed when the energy harvester is in an inclined position. Finally, by the analysis of the vibration model, the output performances of the energy harvester are comparatively calculated under the vertical and inclined positions. At the natural frequency of 6.93 Hz, the maximum power of 66.7 µW is generated.
Dörfler, Peter; Coutu, André
2013-01-01
Since the 1970’s, an increasing amount of specialized research has focused on the problems created by instability of internal flow in hydroelectric power plants. However, progress in this field is hampered by the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, between fluid mechanics, structural mechanics and hydraulic transients. Flow-induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery provides a compact guidebook explaining the many different underlying physical mechanisms and their possible effects. Typical phenomena are described to assist in the proper diagnosis of problems and various key strategies for solution are compared and considered with support from practical experience and real-life examples. The link between state-of the-art CFD computation and notorious practical problems is discussed and quantitative data is provided on normal levels of vibration and pulsation so realistic limits can be set for future projects. Current projects are also addressed as the possibilities and limitatio...
Oxaal, J.; Hella, M.; Borca-Tasciuc, D.-A.
2016-12-01
This paper reports on electrostatic MEMS vibration energy harvesters with gap-closing interdigitated electrodes, designed for and tested on HVAC air ducts. The harvesters were fabricated on SOI wafers with 200 µm device layer using a custom microfabrication process. Designs with aspects ratio (electrodes’ gap versus depth) of 10 and 20 were implemented, while the overall footprint was approximately 1 cm × 1 cm in both cases. In order to enhance the power output, a dual-level physical stopper system was designed to control the minimum gap between the electrodes, which is a key parameter in the conversion process. The dual-level stopper utilizes cantilever beams to absorb a portion of the impact energy as the electrodes approach the impact point, and a film of parylene with nanometer thickness deposited on the electrode sidewalls. The parylene layer defines the absolute minimum gap and provides electrical insulation. The fabricated devices were first tested on a vibration shaker to characterize the resonant behavior. Devices with aspect ratio 10 were found to exhibit frequency up-conversion, which enhances the amount of converted power. Devices with both aspect ratios were found to exhibits spring hardening due to impact with the stoppers and spring softening behavior at increasing voltage bias. The highest power measured on shaker table for sinusoidal vibrations was 3.13 µW (includes enhancement due to frequency up-conversion driven by impact) for aspect ratio 10, and 0.166 µW for aspect ratio 20. The corresponding dimensional figure-of-merit, defined as the power output normalized to vibration acceleration and frequency, squared voltage and device mass, was in the range of 10 · 10-8 m V-2 for both devices, about an order of magnitude higher than state-of-the-art. Testing was carried out on HVAC air duct vibrating with an RMS acceleration of 155 mg RMS, a primary frequency of 60 Hz and a PSD of 7.15 · 10-2 g2 Hz-1. The peak power measured was
Fares, Elie-Jacques; Charrière, Nathalie; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L
2016-01-01
There is increasing recognition about the importance of enhancing energy expenditure (EE) for weight control through increases in low-intensity physical activities comparable with daily life (1.5-4 METS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) increases EE modestly and could present both a useful adjuvant for obesity management and tool for metabolic phenotyping. However, it is unclear whether a "dose-response" exists between commonly-used vibration frequencies (VF) and EE, nor if WBV influences respiratory quotient (RQ), and hence substrate oxidation. We aimed to investigate the EE-VF and RQ-VF relationships across three different frequencies (30, 40, and 50Hz). EE and RQ were measured in 8 healthy young adults by indirect calorimetry at rest, and subsequently during side-alternating WBV at one of 3 VFs (30, 40, and 50 Hz). Each frequency was assessed over 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest), separated by 5 min seated rest. During the WBV participants stood on the platform with knees flexed sufficiently to maintain comfort, prevent transmission of vibration to the upper body, and minimise voluntary physical exertion. Repeatability was assessed across 3 separate days in a subset of 4 individuals. In order to assess any sequence/habituation effect, an additional group of 6 men underwent 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest) at 40 Hz, separated by 5 min seated rest. Side-alternating WBV increased EE relative to standing, non-vibration levels (+36%, pvibration. No relationship could be demonstrated between EE and VF in the range of 30-50Hz, and substrate oxidation did not change in response to WBV. Furthermore, the thermogenic effect of intermittent WBV, whilst robust, was quantitatively small (<2 METS).
1984-12-14
goes back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci , and even to the first mention in anticuity of the wind-induced vibration and sound of the Aeolian harp...Cylinder material Investigator( s ) A Flexible Water PVC King (1977T - *cantilever PVC Aluminum Stainle3s steel 0 Pivoted Water Brass Vickery and rigid...case of flexible, cylindrical marine structures by Griffin (41 in a study of OTEC cold water pipe vibra- tions. Measurements of the drag coefficient
Bokhorst, E. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.
2008-01-01
The aim of the work described in this paper was to trace and eliminate vibration sources in a low pressure system with high flow velocities. Considerable vibration on the pipe system between a flashing vessel (6.5 m diameter) and heat-exchangers resulted in fatigue failure, leakage and subsequent
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Chang-Seok; Lim, Hee-Chang [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-01-15
Thermal Marangoni flow has been observed inside droplets on heated surfaces, finally resulting in a coffee stain effect. This study aims to visualize and control the thermal Marangoni flow by employing periodic vertical vibration. The variations in the contact angle and internal volume of the droplet as it evaporates is observed by using a combination of continuous light and a still camera. With regard to the internal velocity, the particle image velocimetry system is applied to visualize the internal thermal Marangoni flow. In order to estimate the internal temperature gradient and surface tension on the surface of a droplet, the theoretical model based on the conduction and convection theory of heat transfer is applied. Thus, the internal velocity increases with an increase in plate temperature. The flow directions of the Marangoni and gravitational flows are opposite, and hence, it may be possible to control the coffee stain effect.
Instantaneous pair theory for high-frequency vibrational energy relaxation in fluids
Larsen, Ross E.; Stratt, Richard M.
1999-01-01
Notwithstanding the long and distinguished history of studies of vibrational energy relaxation, exactly how it is that high frequency vibrations manage to relax in a liquid remains somewhat of a mystery. Both experimental and theoretical approaches seem to say that there is a natural frequency range associated with intermolecular motion in liquids, typically spanning no more than a few hundred cm-1. Landau-Teller-type theories explain rather easily how a solvent can absorb any vibrational energy within this "band," but how is it that molecules can rid themselves of superfluous vibrational energies significantly in excess of these values? In this paper we develop a theory for such processes based on the idea that the crucial liquid motions are those that most rapidly modulate the force on the vibrating coordinate — and that by far the most important of these motions are those involving what we have called the mutual nearest neighbors of the vibrating solute. Specifically, we suggest that whenever there is a single solvent molecule sufficiently close to the solute that the solvent and solute are each other's nearest neighbors, then the instantaneous scattering dynamics of the solute-solvent pair alone suffices to explain the high-frequency relaxation. This highly reduced version of the dynamics has implications for some of the previous theoretical formulations of this problem. Previous instantaneous-normal-mode theories allowed us to understand the origin of a band of liquid frequencies, and even had some success in predicting relaxation within this band, but lacking a sensible picture of the effects of liquid anharmonicity on dynamics, were completely unable to treat higher frequency relaxation. When instantaneous-normal-mode dynamics is used to evaluate the instantaneous pair theory, though, we end up with a multiphonon picture of the relaxation which is in excellent agreement with the exact high-frequency dynamics — suggesting that the critical anharmonicity
Vibration absorption in systems with a nonlinear energy sink: Nonlinear damping
Starosvetsky, Y.; Gendelman, O. V.
2009-07-01
In this work, response regimes are investigated in a system comprising of a linear oscillator (subject to harmonic excitation) and a nonlinear energy sink (NES) with nonlinear damping characteristics. An analytical technique for the treatment of certain class of nonlinear damping functions is developed. Special attention is paid to the case of piecewise-quadratic damping, motivated by possible applications. It is demonstrated that the NES with a properly tuned piecewise-quadratic damping element allows complete elimination of undesirable periodic regimes. In this way, an efficient system of vibration absorption is obtained, and its performance can overcome that of a tuned mass damper (TMD). Numerical results agree satisfactorily with the analytical predictions.
Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo
2017-02-01
This study presents an investigation on the measurement of flexoelectric response in β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films attached on cantilever beam-based flexible piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs). The flexoelectric response associated with negative strain gradients was simulated through harmonic response analysis by using the finite element method (FEM). The polarization frequency response functions (FRFs) modified by direct flexoelectric effect of PVDF films was experimentally validated by multi-mode FRFs. From quantitative comparisons between experimental observations and simulated estimation of FRFs, it is demonstrated that the direct flexoelectric response can be observed in PVDF films attached on PVEHs.
Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.
2018-01-01
Vortex induced vibration based energy harvesting systems have gained interests in these recent years due to its potential as a low water current energy source. However, the effectiveness of the system is limited only at a certain water current due to the resonance principle that governs the concept. In order to extend the working range, a bistable spring to support the structure is introduced on the system. The improvement on the performance is essentially dependent on the bistable gap as one of the main parameters of the nonlinear spring. A sufficiently large bistable gap will result in a significant performance improvement. Unfortunately, a large bistable gap might also increase a chance of chaotic responses, which in turn will result in diminutive harvested power. To mitigate the problem, an appropriate control structure is required to stabilize the chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter with the bistable supporting structure. Based on the nature of the double-well potential energy in a bistable spring, the ideal control structure will attempt to drive the responses to inter-well periodic vibrations in order to maximize the harvested power. In this paper, the OGY control algorithm is designed and implemented to the system. The control strategy is selected since it requires only a small perturbation in a structural parameter to execute the control effort, thus, minimum power is needed to drive the control input. Facilitated by a wake oscillator model, the bistable VIV system is modelled as a 4-dimensional autonomous continuous-time dynamical system. To implement the controller strategy, the system is discretized at a period estimated from the subspace hyperplane intersecting to the chaotic trajectory, whereas the fixed points that correspond to the desired periodic orbits are estimated by the recurrence method. Simultaneously, the Jacobian and sensitivity matrices are estimated by the least square regression method. Based on the defined fixed point and the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)
2016-07-18
Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.
Zhang, Zhedong
2015-01-01
Recently the quantum nature in the energy transport in solar cell and light-harvesting complexes have attracted much attention, as being triggered by the experimental observations. We model the light-harvesting complex (i.e., PEB50 dimer) as a quantum heat engine (QHE) and study the effect of the undamped intra-molecule vibrational modes on the coherent energy transfer process and quantum transport. We find that the exciton-vibration interaction has non-trivial contribution to the promotion of quantum yield as well as transport properties of the quantum heat engine at steady state, by enhancing the quantum coherence quantified by entanglement entropy. The perfect quantum yield over 90% has been obtained, with theexciton-vibration coupling. We attribute these improvements to the renormalization of the electronic couplings effectively induced by exciton-vibration interaction and the subsequent delocalization of excitons. Finally we demonstrate that the thermal relaxation and dephasing can help the excitation en...
On the Nonlinear Behavior of the Piezoelectric Coupling on Vibration-Based Energy Harvesters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciana L. Silva
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Vibration-based energy harvesting with piezoelectric elements has an increasing importance nowadays being related to numerous potential applications. A wide range of nonlinear effects is observed in energy harvesting devices and the analysis of the power generated suggests that they have considerable influence on the results. Linear constitutive models for piezoelectric materials can provide inconsistencies on the prediction of the power output of the energy harvester, mainly close to resonant conditions. This paper investigates the effect of the nonlinear behavior of the piezoelectric coupling. A one-degree of freedom mechanical system is coupled to an electrical circuit by a piezoelectric element and different coupling models are investigated. Experimental tests available in the literature are employed as a reference establishing the best matches of the models. Subsequently, numerical simulations are carried out showing different responses of the system indicating that nonlinear piezoelectric couplings can strongly modify the system dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lutao Yan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new vibration based electromagnetic power generator to transfer energy from stationary to rotating equipment, which can be a new attempt to substitute slip ring in rotational systems. The natural frequencies and modes are simulated in order to have a maximum and steady power output from the device. Parameters such as piezoelectric disk location and relative motion direction of the magnet are theoretically and experimentally analyzed. The results show that the position that is close to the fixed end of the cantilever and the relative motion along the long side gives higher power output. Moreover, the capability of the energy harvester to extract power from lower energy environment is experimentally validated. The voltage and power output are measured at different excitation frequencies.
Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, H. L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Abdelkefi, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Yang, Y., E-mail: cywyang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2016-02-01
The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Pettifer, Z. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); White, R. D. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2014-06-07
Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20–50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results.
Flow induced vibrations of the CLIC X-Band accelerating structures
Charles, Tessa; Boland, Mark; Riddone, Germana; Samoshkin, Alexandre
2011-01-01
Turbulent cooling water in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerating structures will inevitably induce some vibrations. The maximum acceptable amplitude of vibrations is small, as vibrations in the accelerating structure could lead to beam jitter and alignment difficulties. A Finite Element Analysis model is needed to identify the conditions under which turbulent instabilities and significant vibrations are induced. Due to the orders of magnitude difference between the fluid motion and the structure’s motion, small vibrations of the structure will not contribute to the turbulence of the cooling fluid. Therefore the resonant conditions of the cooling channels presented in this paper, directly identify the natural frequencies of the accelerating structures to be avoided under normal operating conditions. In this paper a 2D model of the cooling channel is presented finding spots of turbulence being formed from a shear layer instability. This effect is observed through direct visualization and wavelet ana...
Global Nonlinear Analysis of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Ambient and Aeroelastic Vibrations
Abdelkefi, Abdessattar
Converting vibrations to a usable form of energy has been the topic of many recent investigations. The ultimate goal is to convert ambient or aeroelastic vibrations to operate low-power consumption devices, such as microelectromechanical systems, heath monitoring sensors, wireless sensors or replacing small batteries that have a finite life span or would require hard and expensive maintenance. The transduction mechanisms used for transforming vibrations to electric power include: electromagnetic, electrostatic, and piezoelectric mechanisms. Because it can be used to harvest energy over a wide range of frequencies and because of its ease of application, the piezoelectric option has attracted significant interest. In this work, we investigate the performance of different types of piezoelectric energy harvesters. The objective is to design and enhance the performance of these harvesters. To this end, distributed-parameter and phenomenological models of these harvesters are developed. Global analysis of these models is then performed using modern methods of nonlinear dynamics. In the first part of this Dissertation, global nonlinear distributed-parameter models for piezoelectric energy harvesters under direct and parametric excitations are developed. The method of multiple scales is then used to derive nonlinear forms of the governing equations and associated boundary conditions, which are used to evaluate their performance and determine the effects of the nonlinear piezoelectric coefficients on their behavior in terms of softening or hardening. In the second part, we assess the influence of the linear and nonlinear parameters on the dynamic behavior of a wing-based piezoaeroelastic energy harvester. The system is composed of a rigid airfoil that is constrained to pitch and plunge and supported by linear and nonlinear torsional and flexural springs with a piezoelectric coupling attached to the plunge degree of freedom. Linear analysis is performed to determine the
Excitonic, vibrational, and van der Waals interactions in electron energy loss spectroscopy.
Mizoguchi, T; Miyata, T; Olovsson, W
2017-09-01
The pioneer, Ondrej L. Krivanek, and his collaborators have opened up many frontiers for the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and they have demonstrated new potentials of the EELS method for investigating materials. Here, inspired by those achievements, we show further potentials of EELS based on the results of theoretical calculations, that is excitonic and van der Waals (vdW) interactions, as well as vibrational information of materials. Concerning the excitonic interactions, we highlight the importance of the two-particle calculation to reproduce the low energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES), the Na-L 2,3 edge of NaI and the Li-K edge of LiCl and LiFePO 4 . Furthermore, an unusually strong excitonic interaction at the O-K edge of perovskite oxides, SrTiO 3 and LaAlO 3 , is shown. The effect of the vdW interaction in the ELNES is also investigated, and we observe that the magnitude of the vdW effect is approximately 0.1eV in the case of the ELNES from a solid and liquid, whereas its effect is almost negligible in the case of the ELNES from the gaseous phase owing to the long inter-molecular distance. In addition to the "static" information, the influence of the "dynamic" behavior of atoms in materials to EELS is also investigated. We show that measurements of the infrared spectrum are possible by using a modern monochromator system. Furthermore, an estimation of the atomic vibration in core-loss ELNES is also presented. We show the acquisition of vibrational information using the ELNES of liquid methanol and acetic acid, solid Al 2 O 3 , and oxygen gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dasch, C.J.
1978-09-01
Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.
Harne, R. L.; Zhang, Chunlin; Li, Bing; Wang, K. W.
2016-07-01
Impulsive energies are abundant throughout the natural and built environments, for instance as stimulated by wind gusts, foot-steps, or vehicle-road interactions. In the interest of maximizing the sustainability of society's technological developments, one idea is to capture these high-amplitude and abrupt energies and convert them into usable electrical power such as for sensors which otherwise rely on less sustainable power supplies. In this spirit, the considerable sensitivity to impulse-type events previously uncovered for bistable oscillators has motivated recent experimental and numerical studies on the power generation performance of bistable vibration energy harvesters. To lead to an effective and efficient predictive tool and design guide, this research develops a new analytical approach to estimate the electroelastic response and power generation of a bistable energy harvester when excited by an impulse. Comparison with values determined by direct simulation of the governing equations shows that the analytically predicted net converted energies are very accurate for a wide range of impulse strengths. Extensive experimental investigations are undertaken to validate the analytical approach and it is seen that the predicted estimates of the impulsive energy conversion are in excellent agreement with the measurements, and the detailed structural dynamics are correctly reproduced. As a result, the analytical approach represents a significant leap forward in the understanding of how to effectively leverage bistable structures as energy harvesting devices and introduces new means to elucidate the transient and far-from-equilibrium dynamics of nonlinear systems more generally.
Vibration Control of Structures using Vibro-Impact Nonlinear Energy Sinks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ahmadi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Using Vibro-Impact Nonlinear Energy Sinks (VI NESs is one of the novel strategies to control structural vibrations and mitigate their seismic response. In this system, a mass is tuned on the structure floor, so that it has a specific distance from an inelastic constraint connected to the floor mass. In case of structure stimulation, the displaced VI NES mass collides with the inelastic constraint and upon impacts, energy is dissipated. In the present work, VI NES is studied when its parameters, including clearance and stiffness ratio, are simultaneously optimized. Harmony search as a recent meta-heuristic algorithm is efficiently specialized and utilized for the aforementioned continuous optimization problem. The optimized attached VI NES is thus shown to be capable of interacting with the primary structure over a wide range of frequencies. The resulting controlled response is then investigated, in a variety of low and medium rise steel moment frames, via nonlinear dynamic time history analyses. Capability of the VI NES to dissipate siesmic input energy of earthquakes and their capabilitiy in reducing response of srtructures effectively, through vibro-impacts between the energy sink’s mass and the floor mass, is discussed by extracting several performance indices and the corresponding Fourier spectra. Results of the numerical simulations done on some structural model examples reveal that the optimized VI NES has caused successive redistribution of energy from low-frequency high-amplitude vibration modes to high-frequency low-amplitude modes, bringing about the desired attenuation of the structural responses.
Monitoring Industrial Energy and Carbon flows
Neelis, M.L.
2008-01-01
For a proper assessment of the impact of global energy use on the climate system, consistent and reliable monitoring of energy use, energy related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy efficiency developments is of vital importance. This thesis aims to improve the monitoring of energy use,
Vibration mitigation in partially liquid-filled vessel using passive energy absorbers
Farid, M.; Levy, N.; Gendelman, O. V.
2017-10-01
We consider possible solutions for vibration mitigation in reduced-order model (ROM) of partially filled liquid tank under impulsive forcing. Such excitations may lead to strong hydraulic impacts applied to the tank inner walls. Finite stiffness of the tank walls is taken into account. In order to mitigate the dangerous internal stresses in the tank walls, we explore both linear (Tuned Mass Damper) and nonlinear (Nonlinear Energy Sink) passive vibration absorbers; mitigation performance in both cases is examined numerically. The liquid sloshing mass is modeled by equivalent mass-spring-dashpot system, which can both perform small-amplitude linear oscillations and hit the vessel walls. We use parameters of the equivalent mass-spring-dashpot system for a well-explored case of cylindrical tanks. The hydraulic impacts are modeled by high-power potential and dissipation functions. Critical location in the tank structure is determined and expression of the corresponding local mechanical stress is derived. We use finite element approach to assess the natural frequencies for specific system parameters. Numerical evaluation criteria are suggested to determine the energy absorption performance.
Ab Initio Potential Energy Surfaces and the Calculation of Accurate Vibrational Frequencies
Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Martin, Jan M. L.; Taylor, Peter R.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Due to advances in quantum mechanical methods over the last few years, it is now possible to determine ab initio potential energy surfaces in which fundamental vibrational frequencies are accurate to within plus or minus 8 cm(exp -1) on average, and molecular bond distances are accurate to within plus or minus 0.001-0.003 Angstroms, depending on the nature of the bond. That is, the potential energy surfaces have not been scaled or empirically adjusted in any way, showing that theoretical methods have progressed to the point of being useful in analyzing spectra that are not from a tightly controlled laboratory environment, such as vibrational spectra from the interstellar medium. Some recent examples demonstrating this accuracy will be presented and discussed. These include the HNO, CH4, C2H4, and ClCN molecules. The HNO molecule is interesting due to the very large H-N anharmonicity, while ClCN has a very large Fermi resonance. The ab initio studies for the CH4 and C2H4 molecules present the first accurate full quartic force fields of any kind (i.e., whether theoretical or empirical) for a five-atom and six-atom system, respectively.
Enhancement of wind energy harvesting by interaction between vortex-induced vibration and galloping
He, Xuefeng; Yang, Xiaokang; Jiang, Senlin
2018-01-01
Most wind energy harvesters (WEHs) that have been reported in the literature collect wind energy using only one type of wind-induced vibration, such as vortex-induced vibration (VIV), galloping, and flutter or wake galloping. In this letter, the interaction between VIV and galloping is used to improve the performance of WEHs. For a WEH constructed by attaching a bluff body with a rectangular cross-section to the free end of a piezoelectric cantilever, the measures to realize the interaction are theoretically discussed. Experiments verified the theoretical prediction that the WEHs with the same piezoelectric beam may demonstrate either separate or interactive VIV and galloping, depending on the geometries of the bluff bodies. For the WEHs with the interaction, the wind speed region of the VIV merges with that of the galloping to form a single region with high electrical outputs, which greatly increases the electrical outputs at low wind speeds. The interaction can be realized even when the predicted galloping critical speed is much higher than the predicted VIV critical speed. The proposed interaction is thus an effective approach to improve the scavenging efficiencies of WEHs operating at low wind speeds.
Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W., E-mail: forsytdr@westinghouse.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91680 Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)
2015-09-15
Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure
Menéndez, H; Ferrero, C; Martín-Hernández, J; Figueroa, A; Marín, P J; Herrero, A J
2016-12-01
Randomized two-group parallel. The objective of this study was to analyze the adaptations on the popliteal artery (mean blood velocity (MBV), peak blood velocity (PBV), arterial resting diameter (RD) and blood flow (BF)) induced by 12 weeks of simultaneous application of whole-body vibration and electromyostimulation (WBV+ES) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily, the musculoskeletal effects of this therapy on the gastrocnemius muscle thickness (MT) and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were analyzed. Valladolid, Spain. Seventeen SCI patients (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A or B) were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG=9) or the control group (CG=8). Each subject was assessed in four different occasions: at baseline, after 6 weeks (Post-6) and 12 weeks of the treatment (Post-12) and 8 weeks after the end of the treatment (Post-20). Subjects in the EG performed 30 10-min sessions of WBV+ES during 12 weeks. In the EG, RD increased compared with the baseline value at Post-6 (9.5%, P<0.01), Post-12 (19.0%, P<0.001) and Post-20 (16.7%, P<0.001). Similarly, in the EG, BF increased compared with the baseline value and with CG only at Post-12 ((33.9%, P<0.01) and (72.5%, P<0.05), respectively). Similarly, WBV+ES increased the MT of the gastrocnemius. BMD of both hips remained invariable during the study. CG showed no change at any point. WBV+ES improved popliteal artery BF, RD and MT after 12 weeks in SCI patients. This increase in RD remained above baseline after 8 weeks. The combination of WBV and ES could be considered a promising alternative to reverse the musculoskeletal atrophy and improve peripheral vascular properties in SCI patients.
Experimental study on flow-induced vibration of propeller blades under non-uniform inflow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Jing
2017-12-01
Full Text Available [Objectives] This article presents an experimental study of the flow-induced vibration of propeller blades under periodic inflow, and the dependence of the response on its modes.[Methods] Two seven-bladed highly skewed model propellers of identical proportions but different material are operated in four-cycle and six-cycle inflows to produce a blade vibratory strain response. Two kinds of wire mesh wake screens located 400 mm upstream of the propeller plane are used to generate the four-cycle and six-cycle inflows. A laser Doppler velocimetry system located 100 mm downstream of the wake screen plane is used to measure the axial velocity distributions produced by the wake screens. Strain gauges are attached to the propeller blades at different positions. The data from the strain gauges quantifies the excitation frequencies induced by the wake screens. It is shown that the response will reach peak axial propeller frequency, four times axial propeller frequency and six times axial propeller frequency under uniform inflow, four-cycle inflow and six-cycle inflow respectively.[Results] The effect of resonance on the vibratory strain response is revealed. When six times axial propeller frequency induced by six-cycle inflow coincides with the natural frequency of a flexible propeller, the response of the propeller is at its greatest.[Conclusions] This research reveals that when designing a propeller, it is not sufficient to only focus on its hydrodynamic properties; the effects of the modes of the propeller should also be considered.
Feasibility of Self Powered Actuation for Flow, Separation and Vibration Control
Shyam, Vikram; Bak, Dillon; Izadnegahdar, Alain
2015-01-01
A gas turbine engine is anywhere from 40-50% efficient. A large amount of energy is wasted as heat. Some of this heat is recoverable through the use of energy harvesting and can be used for powering on-board systems or for storing energy in batteries to replace auxiliary power units (APUs). As hybrid electric aircraft become more common, the use of energy harvesting will see increasingly more benefit and become commonplace in gas turbine engines. For electric aircraft with motors, TEGs would be beneficial for reclaiming waste heat from electric motors. The primary focus of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of harvesting energy from the hot section of a gas turbine engine (for a single aisle Boeing 737 thrust class) using thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The resulting heat could be used to power on-board actuation mechanisms such as plasma actuators and piezoelectric actuators. The work is a result of a two year NASA Center Innovation Fund from 2009 to 2011. The trade-off between thermoelectric harvesting and blade surface temperature were studied to ensure that blade durability is not adversely impacted by embedding a low thermal conductivity TEG. Calculations show that.5-10 Watts can be harvested per blade depending on flow conditions and on the thermoelectric material chosen. BiTe and SiGe were used for this analysis and future thermoelectric generators or multiferroic alloys could considerably improve power output.
Modeling of dissociation and energy transfer in shock-heated nitrogen flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munafò, A., E-mail: munafo@illinois.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Talbot Laboratory, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Liu, Y., E-mail: yen.liu@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Panesi, M., E-mail: mpanesi@illinois.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Talbot Laboratory, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2015-12-15
This work addresses the modeling of dissociation and energy transfer processes in shock heated nitrogen flows by means of the maximum entropy linear model and a newly proposed hybrid bin vibrational collisional model. Both models aim at overcoming two of the main limitations of the state of the art non-equilibrium models: (i) the assumption of equilibrium between rotational and translational energy modes of the molecules and (ii) the reliance on the quasi-steady-state distribution for the description of the population of the internal levels. The formulation of the coarse-grained models is based on grouping the energy levels into bins, where the population is assumed to follow a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at its own temperature. Different grouping strategies are investigated. Following the maximum entropy principle, the governing equations are obtained by taking the zeroth and first-order moments of the rovibrational master equations. The accuracy of the proposed models is tested against the rovibrational master equation solution for both flow quantities and population distributions. Calculations performed for free-stream velocities ranging from 5 km/s to 10 km/s demonstrate that dissociation can be accurately predicted by using only 2-3 bins. It is also shown that a multi-temperature approach leads to an under-prediction of dissociation, due to the inability of the former to account for the faster excitation of high-lying vibrational states.
Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Pengwei, E-mail: lipengwei@tyut.edu.cn; Wang, Yanfen; Luo, Cuixian; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Wendong [MicroNano System Research Center of College of Information Engineering and Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of the Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Liu, Ying [MicroNano System Research Center of College of Information Engineering and Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of the Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Baicheng Ordnance Test Center of China, Baicheng 137000, Jilin (China); Liu, Wei [Baicheng Ordnance Test Center of China, Baicheng 137000, Jilin (China)
2015-04-15
As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams) show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.
Kim, Moonkeun; Lee, Sang-Kyun; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Yang, Yil Suk; Kwon, Jong-Kee; Kwon, Kwang-Ho
2012-08-01
We designed and fabricated a bimorph cantilever array for sustainable power with an integrated Cu proof mass to obtain additional power and current. We fabricated a cantilever system using single-crystal piezoelectric material and compared the calculations for single and arrayed cantilevers to those obtained experimentally. The vibration energy harvester had resonant frequencies of 60.4 and 63.2 Hz for short and open circuits, respectively. The damping ratio and quality factor of the cantilever device were 0.012 and 41.66, respectively. The resonant frequency at maximum average power was 60.8 Hz. The current and highest average power of the harvester array were found to be 0.728 mA and 1.61 mW, respectively. The sustainable maximum power was obtained after slightly shifting the short-circuit frequency. In order to improve the current and power using an array of cantilevers, we also performed energy conversion experiments.
Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengwei Li
2015-04-01
Full Text Available As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.
Electrostatic vibration energy harvester with 2.4-GHz Cockcroft-Walton rectenna start-up
Takhedmit, Hakim; Saddi, Zied; Karami, Armine; Basset, Philippe; Cirio, Laurent
2017-02-01
In this paper, we propose the design, fabrication and experiments of a macro-scale electrostatic vibration energy harvester (e-VEH), pre-charged wirelessly for the first time with a 2.4-GHz Cockcroft-Walton rectenna. The rectenna is designed and optimized to operate at low power densities and provide high voltage levels: 0.5 V at 0.76 μW/cm2 and 1 V at 1.53 μW/cm2. The e-VEH uses a Bennet doubler as a conditioning circuit. Experiments show a 23-V voltage across the transducer terminal, when the harvester is excited at 25 Hz by 1.5 g of external acceleration. An accumulated energy of 275 μJ and a maximum available power of 0.4 μW are achieved. xml:lang="fr"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao-Yun Feng
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A conductive direct-write process of multilayered coils for micro electromagnetic generators is proposed. This novel approach of using silver ink to form the conductive structures largely reduces the fabrication complexity, and it provides a faster alternative to the conventional semiconductor methods. Multi-layered coils with insulation were accurately layered on a micromachined cantilevered diaphragm by a dispenser. Coils several layers thick could be used to increase the power output and double coils were separated by a layer of insulation. Six prototypes, all capable of efficient conversion of vibrational energy into electrical energy, were fabricated. The experimental results, which include measurements of the electromotive force and power output, are presented. Prototypes with two coils and thicker conducting layers had less resistance and the power output was much more than that of a single-coil unit. This generator can produce 82 nW of power at a resonance frequency of 275 Hz under 5 g excitation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Sauer, Stephan P.A.; Sølling, Theis I.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we discern two basic mechanisms of internal conversion processes; one direct, where immediate activation of coupling modes leads to fast population transfer and one indirect, where internal vibrational energy redistribution leads to equidistribution of energy, i.e., ergodicity......, and slower population transfer follows. Using model vibronic coupling Hamiltonians parameterized on the basis of coupled-cluster calculations, we investigate the nature of the Rydberg to valence excited-state internal conversion in two cycloketones, cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. The two basic mechanisms...... can amply explain the significantly different time scales for this process in the two molecules, a difference which has also been reported in recent experimental findings [T. S. Kuhlman, T. I. Sølling, and K. B. Møller, ChemPhysChem. 13, 820 (2012)]...
System modeling of waste flow in energy planning | Njoku | Journal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The problem of waste flow in energy system planning was investigated by adopting integrated systems enginee-ring approach. The system model was considered at multiple levels of hierarchy. Waste flow in energy plann-ing process was viewed as a system arranged or organized that plans and policies as controlled ...
Energy transfer process of anisothermal wall-bounded flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aulery, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.aulery@gmail.com [PROMES CNRS – UPR 8521, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, Perpignan (France); Toutant, Adrien [PROMES CNRS – UPR 8521, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, Perpignan (France); Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan Cedex 9 (France); Bataille, Françoise [PROMES CNRS – UPR 8521, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Tecnosud, Perpignan (France); Florida State University, Department of Mathematics, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Zhou, Ye, E-mail: zhou3@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-07-31
Strong temperature gradients introduce a major external agency into the wall-bounded turbulent flows. In these flows, the temperature field and the turbulent velocity field are highly correlated. In fact, standard RANS turbulent models are not able to accurately reproduce these flows. In order to improve the performance of the models, we need to understand how the energy is produced, transferred, and dissipated in a strong anisothermal wall-bounded flow. This letter presents a first detailed investigation on the roles played by each contributor in the energy transfer equation. - Highlights: • Turbulent flows subject to high temperature gradients are considered. • The influence of the “temperature gradients” on the energy transfer process is determined. • Inverse energy cascade in an anisotropic flow is observed.
Silva, T.; Grofulović, M.; Klarenaar, B. L. M.; Morillo-Candas, A. S.; Guaitella, O.; Engeln, R.; Pintassilgo, C. D.; Guerra, V.
2018-01-01
A kinetic model describing the time evolution of ∼70 individual CO2(X1Σ+) vibrational levels during the afterglow of a pulsed DC glow discharge is developed in order to contribute to the understanding of vibrational energy transfer in CO2 plasmas. The results of the simulations are compared against in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data obtained in a pulsed DC glow discharge and its afterglow at pressures of a few Torr and discharge currents of around 50 mA. The very good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results validates the kinetic scheme considered here and the corresponding vibration–vibration and vibration–translation rate coefficients. In this sense, it establishes a reaction mechanism for the vibrational kinetics of these CO2 energy levels and offers a firm basis to understand the vibrational relaxation in CO2 plasmas. It is shown that first-order perturbation theories, namely, the Schwartz–Slawsky–Herzfeld and Sharma–Brau methods, provide a good description of CO2 vibrations under low excitation regimes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Ken Chin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Inspired by vortex induced vibration energy harvesting development as a new source of renewable energy, a T-shaped design vibration energy harvester is introduced with the aim of enhancing its performance through vortex induced vibration at near resonance conditions. The T-shaped structural model designed consists of a fixed boundary aluminum bluff splitter body coupled with a cantilever piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEH plate model which is a piezoelectric bimorph plate made of a brass plate sandwiched between 2 lead zirconate titanate (PZT plates. A 3-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation analysis is carried out with Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model under wind speed of 7, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22.5, and 25 m/s. The results showed that with 19 m/s wind speed, the model generates 75.758 Hz of vortex frequency near to the structural model’s natural frequency of 76.9 Hz. Resonance lock-in therefore occurred, generating a maximum displacement amplitude of 2.09 mm or a 49.76% increment relatively in vibrational amplitude. Under the effect of resonance at the PVEH plate’s fundamental natural frequency, it is able to generate the largest normalized power of 13.44 mW/cm3g2.
Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications
Xing, Jing Tang
2015-01-01
This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ailing Yang
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A hybrid numerical method was used to calculate the flow-induced noise and vibration of the centrifugal pump in the paper. The unsteady flows inside the centrifugal pumps with different blade outlet angles were simulated firstly. The unsteady pressure on the inner surface of the volute and the unsteady force applied on the impeller were analyzed. Then the vibration of the volute and sound field were calculated based on an acoustic-vibro-coupling method. The results show that the pump head has increased 7% while the hydraulic efficiency decreased 11.75% as blade outlet angles increased from 18° to 39°. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation at the first blade passing frequency has decreased but increased at the second-order blade passing frequency as the angle growing. The total fluctuation power near volute tongue goes up about 12% every 3° increment of blade outlet angle. The results also show that vibrating-velocity of the volute at second-order blade passing frequency is much higher than at other frequencies, and the velocity increases rapidly as blade outlet angle varies from 18° to 39°. At the same time, the sound pressure level outside the pump has increased about 8.6 dB when the angle increased from 18° to 39°.
Zhang, Hongjiang; Jiang, Senlin; He, Xuefeng
2017-05-01
This letter proposes an impact-based piezoelectric energy harvester that uses a rolling bead contained in a bracket that is supported by a spring. Under either translational or rotational base excitation, the bead moves within the bracket and collides with piezoelectric cantilevers that are located around the bracket; these collisions cause the piezoelectric beams to vibrate and thus produce electrical outputs. The low rolling friction and the motion amplification effect of the spring make the resulting device suitable for collection of low-level vibration energy. Experiments show that the proposed harvester is promising for use in scavenging of energy from the multidimensional, low-level, broadband, and low-frequency vibrations that occur in natural environments.
Mass and energy flow in the solar chromosphere and corona
Withbroe, G. L.; Noyes, R. W.
1977-01-01
The work reviews some investigations into the mass and energy flow in the solar chromosphere and corona; the objective of these investigations is the development of a physical model that will not only account for the physical conditions in the outer atmosphere of the sun, but can also be applied to the study of the outer atmospheres of other stars. Particular attention is given to mass and energy flow in regions with weak and strong magnetic fields, to observational evidence for wave heating and systematic mass flows, and to heating mechanisms. Consideration is given throughout to mechanisms of energy input and energy loss.
Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D
2013-09-01
The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-(57)Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4](=) and 10%-(57)Fe and 90%-(54)Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4](=) has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3-4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements.
An Improved Lumped Parameter Model for a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester in Transverse Vibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guang-qing Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An improved lumped parameter model (ILPM is proposed which predicts the output characteristics of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH. A correction factor is derived for improving the precisions of lumped parameter models for transverse vibration, by considering the dynamic mode shape and the strain distribution of the PVEH. For a tip mass, variations of the correction factor with PVEH length are presented with curve fitting from numerical solutions. The improved governing motion equations and exact analytical solution of the PVEH excited by persistent base motions are developed. Steady-state electrical and mechanical response expressions are derived for arbitrary frequency excitations. Effects of the structural parameters on the electromechanical outputs of the PVEH and important characteristics of the PVEH, such as short-circuit and open-circuit behaviors, are analyzed numerically in detail. Accuracy of the output performances of the ILPM is identified from the available lumped parameter models and the coupled distributed parameter model. Good agreement is found between the analytical results of the ILPM and the coupled distributed parameter model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the ILPM as a simple and effective means for enhancing the predictions of the PVEH.
High-efficiency MOSFET bridge rectifier for AlN MEMS cantilever vibration energy harvester
Takei, Ryohei; Okada, Hironao; Noda, Daiji; Ohta, Ryo; Takeshita, Toshihiro; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeishi
2017-04-01
We developed a high-efficiency MOSFET bridge rectifier for use in an aluminum nitride (AlN) piezoelectric MEMS cantilever vibration energy harvester (VEH). The bridge rectifier consists of four MOSFETs with a circuit configuration similar to that of a typical diode bridge rectifier. The output voltage of the full-wave rectification via the MOSFET bridge was simulated with an equivalent circuit model of the AlN VEH, which is extracted from an experimental result. The channel width of the MOSFET was designed to be adopted for use with a high-voltage and low-current AlN VEH. The designed rectifier was fabricated using the 0.18 µm high voltage technology of a commercially available CMOS foundry. The AlN VEH with our bridge rectifier generated a DC power of 0.514 µW at 2.49 V under an applied vibration with an acceleration amplitude of 0.5 m/s2 at a frequency of 46.6 Hz. The DC power is 1.4 times higher than that generated by the same AlN VEH with a MOSFET bridge consisting of commercially available discrete MOSFETs.
Zhao, Liuxian; Conlon, Stephen C.; Semperlotti, Fabio
2015-06-01
In this paper, we present an experimental investigation on the energy harvesting performance of dynamically tailored structures based on the concept of embedded acoustic black holes (ABHs). Embedded ABHs allow tailoring the wave propagation characteristics of the host structure creating structural areas with extreme levels of energy density. Experiments are conducted on a tapered plate-like aluminum structure with multiple embedded ABH features. The dynamic response of the structure is tested via laser vibrometry in order to confirm the vibration localization and the passive wavelength sweep characteristic of ABH embedded tapers. Vibrational energy is extracted from the host structure and converted into electrical energy by using ceramic piezoelectric discs bonded on the ABHs and shunted on an external electric circuit. The energy harvesting performance is investigated both under steady state and transient excitation. The experimental results confirm that the dynamic tailoring produces a drastic increase in the harvested energy independently from the nature of the excitation input.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uranga-Piña, L. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Tremblay, J. C., E-mail: jean.c.tremblay@gmail.com [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)
2014-08-21
We investigate the effect of inter-mode coupling on the vibrational relaxation dynamics of molecules in weak dissipative environments. The simulations are performed within the reduced density matrix formalism in the Markovian regime, assuming a Lindblad form for the system-bath interaction. The prototypical two-dimensional model system representing two CO molecules approaching a Cu(100) surface is adapted from an ab initio potential, while the diatom-diatom vibrational coupling strength is systematically varied. In the weak system-bath coupling limit and at low temperatures, only first order non-adiabatic uni-modal coupling terms contribute to surface-mediated vibrational relaxation. Since dissipative dynamics is non-unitary, the choice of representation will affect the evolution of the reduced density matrix. Two alternative representations for computing the relaxation rates and the associated operators are thus compared: the fully coupled spectral basis, and a factorizable ansatz. The former is well-established and serves as a benchmark for the solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation. In the latter, a contracted grid basis of potential-optimized discrete variable representation is tailored to incorporate most of the inter-mode coupling, while the Lindblad operators are represented as tensor products of one-dimensional operators, for consistency. This procedure results in a marked reduction of the grid size and in a much more advantageous scaling of the computational cost with respect to the increase of the dimensionality of the system. The factorizable method is found to provide an accurate description of the dissipative quantum dynamics of the model system, specifically of the time evolution of the state populations and of the probability density distribution of the molecular wave packet. The influence of intra-molecular vibrational energy redistribution appears to be properly taken into account by the new model on the whole range of coupling strengths. It
Hung, Chiao-Fang; Yeh, Po-Chen; Chung, Tien-Kan
2017-02-08
In this paper, we demonstrate a miniature magnetic-force-based, three-axis, AC magnetic sensor with piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. For magnetic sensing, the sensor employs a magnetic-mechanical-piezoelectric configuration (which uses magnetic force and torque, a compact, single, mechanical mechanism, and the piezoelectric effect) to convert x-axis and y-axis in-plane and z-axis magnetic fields into piezoelectric voltage outputs. Under the x-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 0.2-3.2 gauss) and the z-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 0.2-3.2 gauss), the voltage output with the sensitivity of the sensor are 1.13-26.15 mV with 8.79 mV/gauss and 1.31-8.92 mV with 2.63 mV/gauss, respectively. In addition, through this configuration, the sensor can harness ambient vibrational energy, i.e., possessing piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. Under x-axis vibration (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 3.5 g) and z-axis vibration (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 3.8 g), the root-mean-square voltage output with power output of the sensor is 439 mV with 0.333 μW and 138 mV with 0.051 μW, respectively. These results show that the sensor, using this configuration, successfully achieves three-axis magnetic field sensing and three-axis vibration energy-harvesting. Due to these features, the three-axis AC magnetic sensor could be an important design reference in order to develop future three-axis AC magnetic sensors, which possess energy-harvesting functions, for practical industrial applications, such as intelligent vehicle/traffic monitoring, processes monitoring, security systems, and so on.
M. A. Zahari; S. S. Dol
2014-01-01
The global demand for continuous and eco-friendly renewable energy as alternative to fossils fuels is large and ever growing in nowadays. This paper will focus on capability of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) phenomenon in generating alternative energy for offshore platform application. In order to maximize the potential of energy generation, the effects of lock in phenomenon and different geometries of cylinder were studied in this project. VIV is the motion induced on bl...
Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Hulin; Wang, Jie; Xie, Yuhang; Khan, Saeed Ahmed; Jin, Long; Yan, Zhuocheng; Huang, Long; Pan, Taisong; Yang, Weiqing; Lin, Yuan
2018-01-01
Hybrid energy harvesters based on different physical effects is fascinating, but a rational design for multiple energy harvesting is challenging. In this work, a spring-magnet oscillator-based triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (EMG) with a solar cell cap is proposed. A power was produced by a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an EMG independently or simultaneously by using a shared spring-magnet oscillator. The oscillator configuration enables versatile energy harvesting with the excellent size scalability and self-packaged structure which can perform well at low frequency ranging from 3.5 to 5 Hz. The solar cell cap mounted above the oscillator can harvest solar energy. Under vibrations at the frequency of 4 Hz, the TENG and the EMG produced maximum output power of 5.46 nW cm‑3 and 378.79 μW cm‑3, respectively. The generated electricity by the hybrid nanogenerator can be stored in a capacitor or Li-ion battery, which is capable of powering a wireless locator for real-time locating data reporting to a personal cell phone. The light-weight and handy hybrid nanogenerator can directly light a caution light or play as a portable flashlight by shaking hands at night.
Spin Dynamics and Low Energy Vibrations: Insights from Vanadyl-Based Potential Molecular Qubits.
Atzori, Matteo; Tesi, Lorenzo; Benci, Stefano; Lunghi, Alessandro; Righini, Roberto; Taschin, Andrea; Torre, Renato; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sessoli, Roberta
2017-03-29
Here we report the investigation of the magnetization dynamics of a vanadyl complex with diethyldithiocarbamate (Et2dtc(-)) ligands, namely [VO(Et2dtc)2] (1), in both solid-state and frozen solution. This showed an anomalous and unprecedentedly observed field dependence of the relaxation time, which was modeled with three contributions to the relaxation mechanism. The temperature dependence of the weight of the two processes dominating at low fields was found to well correlate with the low energy vibrations as determined by THz spectroscopy. This detailed experimental comparative study represents a fundamental step to understand the spin dynamics of potential molecular quantum bits, and enriches the guidelines to design molecule-based systems with enhanced quantum coherence.
Optimal linear generator with Halbach array for harvesting of vibration energy during human walking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joonsoo Jun
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In IT business, the capacity of the battery in smartphone was drastically improved to digest various functions such as communication, Internet, e-banking, and entertainment. Although the capacity of the battery is improved, it still needs to be upgraded due to customer’s demands. In this article, we optimize the design of the linear generator with the Halbach array to improve the efficiency of harvesting vibration energy during human walking for the battery capacitance. We propose the optimal design of the tubular permanent magnet with the linear generator that uses a Halbach array. The approximate model is established using generic algorithm. Furthermore, we performed electromagnetic finite element analysis to predict the induced voltage.
Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester Pre-charged Wirelessly at 2.45 GHz
Saddi, Z.; Takhedmit, H.; Karami, A.; Basset, P.; Cirio, L.
2016-11-01
This paper reports the design, fabrication and experiments of an electrostatic vibration harvester (e-VEH), pre-charged wirelessly for the first time by using an electromagnetic waves harvester at 2.4 GHz. The rectenna uses the Cockcroft-Walton voltage doubler rectifier. It is designed and optimized to operate at low power densities and provides high voltage levels: 0.5 V at 0.5 μW/cm2 and 0.8 V at 1 μW/cm2 The e-VEH uses the Bennet doubler as conditioning circuit. Experiments show 23 V voltage across the transducer terminal when the harvester is excited at 25 Hz by 1.5 g of external acceleration. An accumulated energy of 275 μJ and a maximum power of 0.4 μW are available for the load.
Wang, Chen; Zhang, Qichang; Wang, Wei
2017-07-01
This work presents models and experiments of an impact-driven and frequency up-converted wideband piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester with a quintuple-well potential induced by the combination effect of magnetic nonlinearity and mechanical piecewise-linearity. Analysis shows that the interwell motions during coupled vibration period enable to increase electrical power output in comparison to conventional frequency up-conversion technology. Besides, the quintuple-well potential with shallower potential wells could extend the harvester's operating bandwidth to lower frequencies. Experiments demonstrate our proposed approach can dramatically boost the measured power of the energy harvester as much as 35 times while its lower cut-off frequency is two times lower than that of a conventional counterpart. These results reveal our proposed approach shows promise for powering portable wireless smart devices from low-intensity, low-frequency vibration sources.
Optimal design of a vibration-based energy harvester using magnetostrictive material (MsM)
Hu, J.; Xu, F.; Huang, A. Q.; Yuan, F. G.
2011-01-01
In this study, an optimal vibration-based energy harvesting system using magnetostrictive material (MsM) was designed and tested to enable the powering of a wireless sensor. In particular, the conversion efficiency, converting from magnetic to electric energy, is approximately modeled from the magnetic field induced by the beam vibration. A number of factors that affect the output power such as the number of MsM layers, coil design and load matching are analyzed and explored in the design optimization. From the measurements, the open-circuit voltage can reach 1.5 V when the MsM cantilever beam operates at the second natural frequency 324 Hz. The AC output power is 970 µW, giving a power density of 279 µW cm - 3. The attempt to use electrical reactive components (either inductors or capacitors) to resonate the system at any frequency has also been analyzed and tested experimentally. The results showed that this approach is not feasible to optimize the power. Since the MsM device has low output voltage characteristics, a full-wave quadrupler has been designed to boost the rectified output voltage. To deliver the maximum output power to the load, a complex conjugate impedance matching between the load and the MsM device is implemented using a discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) buck-boost converter. The DC output power after the voltage quadrupler reaches 705 µW and the corresponding power density is 202 µW cm - 3. The output power delivered to a lithium rechargeable battery is around 630 µW, independent of the load resistance.
Vibrational Surface Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Probes Confined Surface-Phonon Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Lourenço-Martins
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Recently, two reports [Krivanek et al. Nature (London 514, 209 (2014NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature13870, Lagos et al. Nature (London 543, 529 (2017NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21699] have demonstrated the amazing possibility to probe vibrational excitations from nanoparticles with a spatial resolution much smaller than the corresponding free-space phonon wavelength using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS. While Lagos et al. evidenced a strong spatial and spectral modulation of the EELS signal over a nanoparticle, Krivanek et al. did not. Here, we show that discrepancies among different EELS experiments as well as their relation to optical near- and far-field optical experiments [Dai et al. Science 343, 1125 (2014SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1246833] can be understood by introducing the concept of confined bright and dark surface phonon modes, whose density of states is probed by EELS. Such a concise formalism is the vibrational counterpart of the broadly used formalism for localized surface plasmons [Ouyang and Isaacson Philos. Mag. B 60, 481 (1989PMABDJ1364-281210.1080/13642818908205921, García de Abajo and Aizpurua Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.56.15873, García de Abajo and Kociak Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106804 (2008PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.106804, Boudarham and Kociak Phys. Rev. B 85, 245447 (2012PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.245447]; it makes it straightforward to predict or interpret phenomena already known for localized surface plasmons such as environment-related energy shifts or the possibility of 3D mapping of the related surface charge densities [Collins et al. ACS Photonics 2, 1628 (2015APCHD52330-402210.1021/acsphotonics.5b00421].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering
1996-12-31
It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
Investigation of the performances of PZT vs rare earth (BaLaTiO3 vibration based energy harvester
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pak Nehemiah
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study proposes the investigation of two piezoelectric material namely PZT and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate (BaLaTiO3 performance as a vibration based energy harvester. The piezoelectric material when applied mechanical stress or strain produces electricity through the piezoelectric effect. The vibration energy would exude mechanical energy and thus apply mechanical force on the energy harvester. The energy harvester would be designed and simulated using the piezoelectric material individually. The studied outputs are divided to frequency response, the load dependence, and the acceleration dependence whereby measurement are observed and taken at maximum power output. The simulation is done using the cantilevers design which employs d31 type of constants. Three different simulations to study the dependence of output power on the resonant frequency response, load and acceleration have found that material that exhibit highest power generation was the BaLaTiO3.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joana Rocha
2014-01-01
structures, in parts where aluminum panels were traditionally being used. An original mathematical framework is presented for the prediction of noise and vibration for composite panels. Results show the effect of panel size, thickness of core, and thickness of face layers on the predictions. Smaller composite panels generally produced lower levels of sound and vibration than longer and wider composite panels. Compared with isotropic panels, the composite panels analyzed generated lower noise levels, although it was observed that noise level was amplified at certain frequencies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.R.F. Arruda
1998-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method especially adapted for the computation of structural power flow using spatially dense vibration data measured with scanning laser Doppler vibrometers. In the proposed method, the operational deflection shapes measured over the surface of the structure are curve-fitted using a two-dimensional discrete Fourier series approximation that minimizes the effects of spatial leakage. From the wavenumber-frequency domain data thus obtained, the spatial derivatives that are necessary to determine the structural power flow are easily computed. Divergence plots are then obtained from the computed intensity fields. An example consisting of a rectangular aluminum plate supported by rubber mounts and excited by a point force is used to appraise the proposed method. The proposed method is compared with more traditional finite difference methods. The proposed method was the only to allow the localization of the energy source and sinks from the experimental divergence plots.
Bonness, William K.; Capone, Dean E.; Hambric, Stephen A.
2010-09-01
The response of a structure to turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excitation has been an area of research for roughly 50 years, although uncertainties persist surrounding the low-wavenumber levels of the TBL surface pressure spectrum. In this experimental investigation, a cylindrical shell with a smooth internal surface is subjected to TBL excitation from water in fully developed pipe flow. The cylinder's vibration response to this excitation is used to determine low-wavenumber TBL surface pressure levels at lower streamwise wavenumbers than previously reported ( k1/ k cJournal of Sound and Vibration 112(1) (1987) 125-147] and is roughly 23 dB lower than an early TBL model by Corcos [ Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 35(2) (1963) 192-198]. The current data is a few decibels below the lower bound of related measurements in air by Farabee and Geib [ ICIASF '75 Record, 1975, pp. 311-319] and Martin and Leehey [ Journal of Sound and Vibration 52(1) (1977) 95-120]. A simple wavenumber white form for the TBL surface pressure spectrum at low-wavenumber is suggested.
Two-dimensional concentrated-stress low-frequency piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters
Sharpes, Nathan; Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Priya, Shashank
2015-08-01
Vibration-based energy harvesters using piezoelectric materials have long made use of the cantilever beam structure. Surmounting the deficiencies in one-dimensional cantilever-based energy harvesters has been a major focus in the literature. In this work, we demonstrate a strategy of using two-dimensional beam shapes to harvest energy from low frequency excitations. A characteristic Zigzag-shaped beam is created to compare against the two proposed two-dimensional beam shapes, all of which occupy a 25.4 × 25.4 mm2 area. In addition to maintaining the low-resonance bending frequency, the proposed beam shapes are designed with the goal of realizing a concentrated stress structure, whereby stress in the beam is concentrated in a single area where a piezoelectric layer may be placed, rather than being distributed throughout the beam. It is shown analytically, numerically, and experimentally that one of the proposed harvesters is able to provide significant increase in power production, when the base acceleration is set equal to 0.1 g, with only a minimal change in the resonant frequency compared to the current state-of-the-art Zigzag shape. This is accomplished by eliminating torsional effects, producing a more pure bending motion that is necessary for high electromechanical coupling. In addition, the proposed harvesters have a large effective beam tip whereby large tip mass may be placed while retaining a low-profile, resulting in a low volume harvester and subsequently large power density.
Yang, Yangyiwei; Li, Yuanbo; Guo, Yaqian; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Yang, Tongqing
2018-03-01
Vibration-based energy harvesting using piezoelectric circular diaphragms (PCDs) with a structure featuring the central mass (C-mass) configuration has drawn much attention in recent decades. In this work, we propose a new configuration with the annular proof mass (A-mass) where an improved energy harvesting is promised. The numerical analysis was employed using the circuit-coupled piezoelectric simulation, and the experimental validation was implemented using PCDs with the even-width annular electrodes. Samples with the different mass configurations as well as structural parameters ϖ 1 and ϖ 2, which indicate the ratio between the inner boundary radius and piezoelectric ceramic radius as well as the ratio between outer boundary radius and the substrate radius, respectively, were prepared and tested. The impedance-matched output power of full-electrode PCDs was also collected, and some distinct improvement was measured on samples with the certain structural parameters. The power increases from 14.1 mW to 19.0 mW after changing the configuration from C-mass to A-mass with the same parameters (ϖ 1, ϖ 2) = (0.16, 0.9), showing the considerable improvement in energy harvesting by using A-mass configuration.
Rectifying the output of vibrational piezoelectric energy harvester using quantum dots.
Li, Lijie
2017-03-20
Piezoelectric energy harvester scavenges mechanical vibrations and generates electricity. Researchers have strived to optimize the electromechanical structures and to design necessary external power management circuits, aiming to deliver high power and rectified outputs ready for serving as batteries. Complex deformation of the mechanical structure results in charges with opposite polarities appearing on same surface, leading to current loss in the attached metal electrode. External power management circuits such as rectifiers comprise diodes that consume power and have undesirable forward bias. To address the above issues, we devise a novel integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting device that is structured by stacking a layer of quantum dots (QDs) and a layer of piezoelectric material. We find that the QD can rectify electrical charges generated from the piezoelectric material because of its adaptable conductance to the electrochemical potentials of both sides of the QDs layer, so that electrical current causing energy loss on the same surface of the piezoelectric material can be minimized. The QDs layer has the potential to replace external rectification circuits providing a much more compact and less power-consumption solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darius Zizys
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines.
Zizys, Darius; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Dauksevicius, Rolanas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Daniulaitis, Vytautas
2015-12-23
The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines.
Wang, Yimin; Carter, Stuart; Braams, Bastiaan J.; Bowman, Joel M.
2008-02-01
We report vibrational configuration interaction calculations of the monomer fundamentals of (H2O)2, (D2O)2, (H2O)3, and (D2O)3 using the code MULTIMODE and full dimensional ab initio-based global potential energies surfaces (PESs). For the dimer the HBB PES [Huang et al., J. Chem. Phys 128, 034312 (2008)] is used and for the trimer a new PES, reported here, is used. The salient properties of the new trimer PES are presented and compared to previous single-point calculations and the vibrational energies are compared with experiments.
Optimal secondary energy growth in a plane channel flow
Cossu, Carlo; Chevalier, M.; Henningson, D.S.
2007-01-01
International audience; The optimal growth of perturbations to transiently growing streaks is studied in Poiseuille flow. Basic flows are generated by direct numerical simulation giving "primary" optimal spanwise periodic vortices of finite amplitude as the initial condition. They evolve into finite amplitude primary transiently growing streaks. Linear "secondary" optimal energy growth supported by these primary flows are computed using an adjoint technique which takes into full account the u...
Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Le Dreau, Jerome
insulated buildings (R > 5 m2.K/W). In case of single-storey building with a low level of insulation, the effectiveness of radiant terminals is lower due to the larger back losses, and an air-based terminal might be more energy-efficient than a radiant terminal (in terms of delivered energy). Regarding...... is based on both radiation and convection. Radiant terminals have the advantage of making use of low grade sources (i.e. low temperature heating and high temperature cooling), thus decreasing the primary energy consumption of buildings. But there is a lack of knowledge on the heat transfer from...... beam. The higher the air change rate and the warmer the outdoor air, the larger the savings achieved with a radiant cooling terminals. Therefore radiant terminals have a large potential of energy savings for buildings with high ventilation rates (e.g. shop, train station, industrial storage). Among...
Eight energy and material flow characteristics of urban ecosystems
Bai, Xuemei
2016-01-01
Recent decades have seen an expanding literature exploring urban energy and material flows, loosely branded as urban metabolism analysis. However, this has occurred largely in parallel to the mainstream studies of cities as ecosystems. This paper aims to conceptually bridge these two distinctive fields of research, by (a) identifying the common aspects between them; (b) identifying key characteristics of urban ecosystems that can be derived from energy and material flow analysis, namely energ...
Estimation of Oil Production Rates in Reservoirs Exposed to Focused Vibrational Energy
Jeong, Chanseok
2014-01-01
Elastic wave-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being investigated as a possible EOR method, since strong wave motions within an oil reservoir - induced by earthquakes or artificially generated vibrations - have been reported to improve the production rate of remaining oil from existing oil fields. To date, there are few theoretical studies on estimating how much bypassed oil within an oil reservoir could be mobilized by such vibrational stimulation. To fill this gap, this paper presents a numerical method to estimate the extent to which the bypassed oil is mobilized from low to high permeability reservoir areas, within a heterogeneous reservoir, via wave-induced cross-flow oscillation at the interface between the two reservoir permeability areas. This work uses the finite element method to numerically obtain the pore fluid wave motion within a one-dimensional fluid-saturated porous permeable elastic solid medium embedded in a non-permeable elastic semi-infinite solid. To estimate the net volume of mobilized oil from the low to the high permeability area, a fluid flow hysteresis hypothesis is adopted to describe the behavior at the interface between the two areas. Accordingly, the fluid that is moving from the low to the high permeability areas is assumed to transport a larger volume of oil than the fluid moving in the opposite direction. The numerical experiments were conducted by using a prototype heterogeneous oil reservoir model, subjected to ground surface dynamic loading operating at low frequencies (1 to 50 Hz). The numerical results show that a sizeable amount of oil could be mobilized via the elastic wave stimulation. It is observed that certain wave frequencies are more effective than others in mobilizing the remaining oil. We remark that these amplification frequencies depend on the formation’s elastic properties. This numerical work shows that the wave-based mobilization of the bypassed oil in a heterogeneous oil reservoir is feasible, especially
Low energy consumption vortex wave flow membrane bioreactor.
Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Weilong; Hu, Xiaohong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Youshan
2017-11-01
In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state. The MBR system was used to treat domestic wastewater under the condition of vortex wave flow state for 30 days. The results showed that the removal efficiency for CODcr and NH3-N was 82% and 98% respectively, and the permeate quality met the requirement of 'Water quality standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption (GB/T 18920-2002)'. Analysis of the energy consumption of the MBR showed that the average energy consumption was 1.90 ± 0.55 kWh/m3 (permeate), which was only two thirds of conventional MBR energy consumption.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih Chiang Hong
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A model is presented for functionally-graded material (FGM, thick, circular cylindrical shells under an unsteady supersonic flow, following first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT with varied shear correction coefficients. Some interesting vibration results of the dynamics are calculated by using the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ method. The varied shear correction coefficients are usually functions of FGM total thickness, power law index, and environment temperature. Two parametric effects of the environmental temperature and FGM power law index on the thermal stress and center deflection are also presented. The novelty of the paper is that the maximum flutter value of the center deflection amplitude can be predicted and occurs at a high frequency of applied heat flux for a supersonic air flow.
Billes, Ferenc; Móricz, Ágnes M.; Tyihák, Ernő; Mikosch, Hans
2006-06-01
The structure of four natural mycotoxins, the aflatoxin B 1, B 2, G 1 and G 2 and their demethylated products were optimized with quantum chemical method. The energies and the thermodynamic functions of the molecules were calculated and applied to calculation of the reaction energies of the demethylations. Further results of the calculations are the vibrational force constants, the infrared spectra of the molecules and the assignments of the spectral bands.
Rahimi, Masoud; Movahedirad, Salman; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh
2017-03-01
Recently, great attention has been paid to predict the acoustic streaming field distribution inside the sonoreactors, induced by high-power ultrasonic wave generator. The focus of this paper is to model an ultrasonic vibrating horn and study the induced flow pattern with a newly developed moving boundary condition. The numerical simulation utilizes the modified cavitation model along with the "mixture" model for turbulent flow (RNG, k-ε), and a moving boundary condition with an oscillating parabolic-logarithmic profile, applied to the horn tip. This moving-boundary provides the situation in which the center of the horn tip vibrates stronger than that of the peripheral regions. The velocity field obtained by computational fluid dynamic was in a reasonably good agreement with the PIV results. The moving boundary model is more accurate since it better approximates the movement of the horn tip in the ultrasonic assisted process. From an optimizing point of view, the model with the new moving boundary is more suitable than the conventional models for design purposes because the displacement magnitude of the horn tip is the only fitting parameter. After developing and validating the numerical model, the model was utilized to predict various quantities such as cavitation zone, pressure field and stream function that are not experimentally feasible to measure. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Micromachined cantilevers-on-membrane topology for broadband vibration energy harvesting
Jia, Yu; Du, Sijun; Seshia, Ashwin A.
2016-12-01
The overwhelming majority of microelectromechanical piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting topologies have been based on cantilevers, doubly-clamped beams or basic membranes. While these conventional designs offer simplicity, their broadband responses have been limited thus far. This paper investigates the feasibility of a new integrated cantilevers-on-membrane design that explores the optimisation of piezoelectric strain distribution and improvement of the broadband power output. While a classic membrane has the potential to offer a broader resonant peak than its cantilever counterpart, the inclusion of a centred proof mass compromises its otherwise high strain energy regions. The proposed topology addresses this issue by relocating the proof mass onto subsidiary cantilevers and combines the merits of both the membrane and the cantilever designs. Numerical simulations, constructed using fitted values based on finite element models, were used to investigate the broadband response of the proposed design in contrast to a classic plain membrane. Experimentally, when subjected to a band-limited white noise excitation, the new cantilevers-on-membrane harvester exhibited nearly two fold power output enhancement when compared to a classic plain membrane harvester of a comparable size.
Comparison of Five Topologies of Cantilever-based MEMS Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters
Jia, Y.; Seshia, A. A.
2014-11-01
In the realm of MEMS piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters, cantilever-based designs are by far the most popular. Despite being deceptively simple, the active piezoelectric area near the clamped end is able to accumulate maximum strain-generated-electrical-charge, while the free end is able to accommodate a proof mass without compromising the effective area of the piezoelectric generator since it experiences minimal strain anyway. While other contending designs do exist, this paper investigates five micro-cantilever (MC) topologies, namely: a plain MC, a tapered MC, a lined MC, a holed MC and a coupled MC, in order to assess their relative performance as an energy harvester. Although a classical straight and plain MC offers the largest active piezoelectric area, alternative MC designs can potentially offer higher average mechanical strain distribution for a given mechanical loading. Numerical simulation and experimental comparison of these 5 MCs (0.5 μ AlN on 10 μm Si) with the same practical dimensions of 500 μm and 2000 μm, suggest a cantilever with a coupled subsidiary cantilever yield the best power performance, closely followed by the classical plain topology.
Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J
2013-06-01
This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of submerged microfiltration to harvest both a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and a Chlorella vulgaris in a recently developed magnetically induced membrane vibrating (MMV) system. We assess the filtration performance by conducting the improved flux step method (IFM), fed-batch concentration filtrations and membrane fouling autopsy using two lab-made membranes with different porosity. The full-scale energy consumption was also estimated. Overall results suggest that the MMV offers a good fouling control and the process was proven to be economically attractive. By combining the membrane filtration (15× concentration) with centrifugation to reach a final concentration of 25% w/v, the energy consumption to harvest P. tricornutum and C. vulgaris was, respectively, as low as 0.84 and 0.77kWh/m(3), corresponding to 1.46 and 1.39 kWh/kg of the harvested biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yu; Mu, Xiaojing; Wang, Tao; Ren, Weiwei; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Alex Yuandong
2016-10-14
Here, we report a stable and predictable aero-elastic motion in the flow-driven energy harvester, which is different from flapping and vortex-induced-vibration (VIV). A unified theoretical frame work that describes the flutter phenomenon observed in both "stiff" and "flexible" materials for flow driven energy harvester was presented in this work. We prove flutter in both types of materials is the results of the coupled effects of torsional and bending modes. Compared to "stiff" materials, which has a flow velocity-independent flutter frequency, flexible material presents a flutter frequency that almost linearly scales with the flow velocity. Specific to "flexible" materials, pre-stress modulates the frequency range in which flutter occurs. It is experimentally observed that a double-clamped "flexible" piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) thin belt, when driven into the flutter state, yields a 1,000 times increase in the output voltage compared to that of the non-fluttered state. At a fixed flow velocity, increase in pre-stress level of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin belt up-shifts the flutter frequency. In addition, this work allows the rational design of flexible piezoelectric devices, including flow-driven energy harvester, triboelectric energy harvester, and self-powered wireless flow speed sensor.
Molchanov, A. M.; Bykov, L. V.; Yanyshev, D. S.
2017-05-01
The method has been developed to calculate infrared radiation of vibrational nonequilibrium gas based on k-distribution. A comparison of the data on the calculated nonequilibrium radiation with results of other authors and with experimental data has shown satisfactory agreement. It is shown that the results of calculation of radiation intensity using nonequilibrium and equilibrium methods significantly differ from each other. The discrepancy increases with increasing height (decreasing pressure) and can exceed an order of magnitude.
Energy fluxes and spectra for turbulent and laminar flows
Verma, Mahendra K.
2017-05-14
Two well-known turbulence models to describe the inertial and dissipative ranges simultaneously are by Pao~[Phys. Fluids {\\\\bf 8}, 1063 (1965)] and Pope~[{\\\\em Turbulent Flows.} Cambridge University Press, 2000]. In this paper, we compute energy spectrum $E(k)$ and energy flux $\\\\Pi(k)$ using spectral simulations on grids up to $4096^3$, and show consistency between the numerical results and predictions by the aforementioned models. We also construct a model for laminar flows that predicts $E(k)$ and $\\\\Pi(k)$ to be of the form $\\\\exp(-k)$, and verify the model predictions using numerical simulations. The shell-to-shell energy transfers for the turbulent flows are {\\\\em forward and local} for both inertial and dissipative range, but those for the laminar flows are {\\\\em forward and nonlocal}.
High efficiency energy conversion from liquid jet flow
Xie, Yanbo; de Vreede, Lennart; Nguyen, Trieu; de Boer, Hans L.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.
2012-01-01
We investigate the performance of a microfluidic energy conversion system using jetting flow. Preliminary results indicate that a voltage can be generated of several kilo-Volts and energy efficiencies can reach 15%. Such values are by far the highest obtained for electrokinetic conversion systems
Suppression of chaos via control of energy flow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shengli Guo
2018-02-19
Feb 19, 2018 ... https://doi.org/10.1007/s12043-018-1534-0. Suppression of chaos via control of energy flow ... tem is controlled by using the scheme of energy feedback. It is found that chaos can be suppressed even ... the control cost such as power consumption [18,31] and transient period approaching the target orbits.
Radial, sideward and elliptic flow at AGS energies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
energies for Au+Au collisions in a relativistic dynamical simulation model that includes all baryon resonances up to a mass of 2 ... of matter moving past each other since its motion is out-of reaction plane. In recent years, .... repulsive force caused by the vector mean field decreases at high beam energies. The elliptic flow for ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Acampora, Antonio
bridges continuously becoming longer and lighter have resulted in a high number of observations of cable vibrations. A theoretical background for the tool used in this work is presented in terms of cables vibrations mechanisms, aerodynamic damping and system identification techniques. A detailed......-scale monitoring events. Special thanks to Rune Brincker to grant permission to use the material of his newly published book about system identification to form the chapter of this thesis. A special thanks also to Anela Bajeric for granting the permission to use her material about system identification review...... vibrations. The research starts from data collection of cables vibrations of the Øresund Bridge. A dedicated monitoring system was installed to record full-scale data together with wind field measurements and meteorological data, during cables vibrations. Results from the monitoring system are reported...
INDRA-GSI: Collective flow from Fermi to relativistic energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lukasik, J.; Trautmann, W.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bittiger, R.; Gourio, D.; Le Fevre, A.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Orth, H.; Sfienti, C.; Schwarz, C.; Turzo, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Auger, G.; Bouriquet, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.; Hudan, S.; Lopez, O. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Borderie, B.; Galichet, E.; Lavaud, F.; Plagnol, E. [Paris-11 Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Hurst, B.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC (IN2P3-CNRS/ENSI), 14 - Caen (France); Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M. [INFN, Univ. Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione, Napoli (Italy); Saija, A. [Universita and INFN I, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' , Catania (Italy); Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [A. Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lukasik, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France)
2003-07-01
Directed flow for the {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au reactions at incident energies between 40 and 150 A*MeV has been measured using the 4{pi} multi-detector INDRA at the GSI facility. In particular, the bombarding energy at which the elliptic flow switches from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement has been determined to be around 100 A*MeV in good agreement with the result obtained by the FOPI Collaboration. The new data allows also to extend the experimental excitation function of v{sub 2} to lower energies. (authors)
Forward jets and energy flow in hadronic collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deak, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). IFT-UAM/CSIC; Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Fisica de Particulas; Hautmann, F. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Jung, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Elementaire Deeltjes Fysica; Kutak, K. [Instytut Fizyki Jadrowei, Krakow (Poland)
2011-12-15
We observe that at the Large Hadron Collider, using forward+central detectors, it becomes possible for the first time to carry out calorimetric measurements of the transverse energy flow due to ''minijets'' accompanying production of two jets separated by a large rapidity interval. We present parton-shower calculations of energy flow observables in a high-energy factorized Monte Carlo framework, designed to take into account QCD logarithmic corrections both in the large rapidity interval and in the hard transverse momentum. Considering events with a forward and a central jet, we examine the energy flow in the interjet region and in the region away from the jets. We discuss the role of these observables to analyze multiple parton collision effects.
Sleep Management on Multiple Machines for Energy and Flow Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei
2011-01-01
In large data centers, determining the right number of operating machines is often non-trivial, especially when the workload is unpredictable. Using too many machines would waste energy, while using too few would affect the performance. This paper extends the traditional study of online flow-time...... is to minimize the sum of flow time and energy, and obtain O(1)-competitive algorithms for two settings: one assumes machines running at a fixed speed, and the other allows dynamic speed scaling to further optimize energy usage. Like the previous work on the tradeoff between flow time and energy, the analysis...... of our algorithms is based on potential functions. What is new here is that the online and offline algorithms would use different subsets of machines at different times, and we need a more general potential analysis that can consider different match-up of machines....
High energy density redox flow device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, W. Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa
2017-04-04
Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.
Two-dimensional concentrated-stress low-frequency piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharpes, Nathan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)
2015-08-31
Vibration-based energy harvesters using piezoelectric materials have long made use of the cantilever beam structure. Surmounting the deficiencies in one-dimensional cantilever-based energy harvesters has been a major focus in the literature. In this work, we demonstrate a strategy of using two-dimensional beam shapes to harvest energy from low frequency excitations. A characteristic Zigzag-shaped beam is created to compare against the two proposed two-dimensional beam shapes, all of which occupy a 25.4 × 25.4 mm{sup 2} area. In addition to maintaining the low-resonance bending frequency, the proposed beam shapes are designed with the goal of realizing a concentrated stress structure, whereby stress in the beam is concentrated in a single area where a piezoelectric layer may be placed, rather than being distributed throughout the beam. It is shown analytically, numerically, and experimentally that one of the proposed harvesters is able to provide significant increase in power production, when the base acceleration is set equal to 0.1 g, with only a minimal change in the resonant frequency compared to the current state-of-the-art Zigzag shape. This is accomplished by eliminating torsional effects, producing a more pure bending motion that is necessary for high electromechanical coupling. In addition, the proposed harvesters have a large effective beam tip whereby large tip mass may be placed while retaining a low-profile, resulting in a low volume harvester and subsequently large power density.
Kitamura, Norihiko; Masuda, Arata
2017-04-01
This paper presents a resonance-type vibration energy harvester using a nonlinear oscillator with self-excitation circuit. The bandwidth of the resonance peak and the performance of the power generation at the resonance frequency are trade- offs for the conventional linear vibration energy harvester. A nonlinear oscillator can expand the resonance frequency band to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, it is difficult for the harmonically excited nonlinear vibration energy harvester to maintain the highest-energy response under the presence of disturbances since the nonlinear oscillator can have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band. In order to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution, we introduce a self-excitation circuit which can destabilize other unexpected lower-energy solutions and entrain the oscillator only in the highest-energy solution. Numerical and experimental studies show that the proposed self-excitation control can provide the global stability to the highest-solution and maintain the high performance of the power generation in the widened resonance frequency band.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mao Liangjie
Full Text Available A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.
Local orientational order in liquids revealed by resonant vibrational energy transfer
Panman, M.R.; Shaw, D.J.; Ensing, B.; Woutersen, S.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate that local orientational ordering in a liquid can be observed in the decay of the vibrational anisotropy caused by resonant transfer of vibrational excitations between its constituent molecules. We show that the functional form of this decay is determined by the (distribution of)
Kaposi, A D; Vanderkooi, J. M.
1992-01-01
The vibrational frequencies of the singlet excited state of Mg-substituted myoglobin and relative absorption probabilities were determined by fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy. These spectra contain information on the structure of the excited state species, and the availability of vibrationally resolved spectra from excited state biomolecules should aid in elucidating their structure and reactivity.
Study of energy flows in Pantanal - Brazil
Santanna, F. B.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.
2014-12-01
The main goal of this work was to estimate fluxes using the eddy covariance method in a wetland area, basically with herb-shrub physiognomy, sparse woody vegetation and approximately 4m height. The geographical position of the Pantanal, altitude, latitude, longitude, climate and weather conditions are determined by the dynamics of the atmosphere that affects the whole South America and consequently influence the ecological framework of ecosystems. The results shown by the components considered in the energy balance were more significant during the day, which the atmospheric boundary layer extends from the ground to about 50 or 100 meters height, showing greater instability and turbulence (u* > 0.2 m / s), and this turbulence is what justifies the use of the eddy covariance method to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Pantanal presents seasonal difference between the densities estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux. During the rainy season the sensible heat flux (H) was 30% and the latent heat flux (LE) 58%. During the dry season the sensible heat flux (H) was 46% and the latent heat flux (LE) 40% of the energy budget.
Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures
Vlahopoulos, Nickolas; Schiller, Noah H.
2011-01-01
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations. The global system of EFEA equations is solved numerically and the vibration levels within the entire system can be computed. The new EFEA formulation for modeling composite laminate structures is validated through comparison to test data collected from a representative composite aircraft fuselage that is made out of a composite outer shell and composite frames and stiffeners. NASA Langley constructed the composite cylinder and conducted the test measurements utilized in this work.
Equivalent-circuit models for electret-based vibration energy harvesters
Phu Le, Cuong; Halvorsen, Einar
2017-08-01
This paper presents a complete analysis to build a tool for modelling electret-based vibration energy harvesters. The calculational approach includes all possible effects of fringing fields that may have significant impact on output power. The transducer configuration consists of two sets of metal strip electrodes on a top substrate that faces electret strips deposited on a bottom movable substrate functioning as a proof mass. Charge distribution on each metal strip is expressed by series expansion using Chebyshev polynomials multiplied by a reciprocal square-root form. The Galerkin method is then applied to extract all charge induction coefficients. The approach is validated by finite element calculations. From the analytic tool, a variety of connection schemes for power extraction in slot-effect and cross-wafer configurations can be lumped to a standard equivalent circuit with inclusion of parasitic capacitance. Fast calculation of the coefficients is also obtained by a proposed closed-form solution based on leading terms of the series expansions. The achieved analytical result is an important step for further optimisation of the transducer geometry and maximising harvester performance.
Optimal Load and Stiffness for Displacement-Constrained Vibration Energy Harvesters
Halvorsen, Einar
2016-01-01
The power electronic interface to a vibration energy harvester not only provides ac-dc conversion, but can also set the electrical damping to maximize output power under displacement-constrained operation. This is commonly exploited for linear two-port harvesters by synchronous switching to realize a Coulomb-damped resonant generator, but has not been fully explored when the harvester is asynchronously switched to emulate a resistive load. In order to understand the potential of such an approach, the optimal values of load resistance and other control parameters need to be known. In this paper we determine analytically the optimal load and stiffness of a harmonically driven two-port harvester with displacement constraints. For weak-coupling devices, we do not find any benefit of load and stiffness adjustment beyond maintaining a saturated power level. For strong coupling we find that the power can be optimized to agree with the velocity damped generator beyond the first critical force for displacement-constra...
Comparison of Vibrational Relaxation Modeling for Strongly Non-Equilibrium Flows
2014-01-01
3 where SVT is a steric factor, ! is the oscillator frequency, m̃ is the collision reduced mass, µ is the oscillator reduced mass, is the oscillator...f !"i+fCOL exp ("COL) nX r=0 (1)r r! (i r)! (f r)! 1 "rCOL 2 (2) "COL = SVT 4⇡3! m̃ 2/µ ↵2h sinh2 ⇣⇡! ↵v̄ ⌘ (3) For diatom...factors, SVT and SVV, and the parameter ↵ determine the rate of vibrational relaxation, while the inherent form of the transition probability
Vibrational Characteristics of AGARD 445.6 Wing in Transonic Flow
Chaitanya, J. S.; Prasad, Arun; Pradeep, B.; Sri Harsha, P. L. N.; Shali, S.; Nagaraja, S. R.
2017-08-01
This paper presents the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Fluid Structure Interaction in ANSYS to do vibrational analysis on an aircraft wing in transonic region. A simulation study is conducted on a wing by modelling it in a solid modelling software. Further CFD analysis is performed at different Mach numbers to identify pressure variations at different locations on the wing. Transient structural analysis is carried out to study the variations in displacement of the wing with time. The post processing is done for determining the structural frequency and thereby to establish the flutter boundary in the transonic range.
Experiments on active control of vibrational power flow using piezoceramic actuators and sensors
Gibbs, Gary P.; Fuller, Chris R.
1990-01-01
The active control of flexural power flow in both semiinfinite and finite elastic beams is experimentally investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that piezoceramic transducers when used in conjunction with an adaptive least mean squares controller, can effectively control flexural power flow in thin beam systems. The piezoceramic transducers offer distinct size and weight advantages over conventional transducers. The experiments also demonstrate the use of an axial scanning laser vibrometer to determine out of plane velocity and power flow.
Elasto-Aerodynamics-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Scavenging Air-Flow Energy.
Wang, Shuhua; Mu, Xiaojing; Wang, Xue; Gu, Alex Yuandong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya
2015-10-27
Efficient scavenging the kinetic energy from air-flow represents a promising approach for obtaining clean, sustainable electricity. Here, we report an elasto-aerodynamics-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification. The reported TENG consists of a Kapton film with two Cu electrodes at each side, fixed on two ends in an acrylic fluid channel. The relationship between the TENG output power density and its fluid channel dimensions is systematically studied. TENG with a fluid channel size of 125 × 10 × 1.6 mm(3) delivers the maximum output power density of about 9 kW/m(3) under a loading resistance of 2.3 MΩ. Aero-elastic flutter effect explains the air-flow induced vibration of Kapton film well. The output power scales nearly linearly with parallel wiring of multiple TENGs. Connecting 10 TENGs in parallel gives an output power of 25 mW, which allows direct powering of a globe light. The TENG is also utilized to scavenge human breath induced air-flow energy to sustainably power a human body temperature sensor.
Energy Based Clutter Filtering for Vector Flow Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Jensen, Jonas; Ewertsen, Caroline
2017-01-01
To obtain accurate blood flow velocity estimates it is important to remove the clutter signal originating from tissue. Conventionally, the clutter signal has been separated from the blood signal based on the difference of their spectral frequencies. However, this approach is not enough for obtain......To obtain accurate blood flow velocity estimates it is important to remove the clutter signal originating from tissue. Conventionally, the clutter signal has been separated from the blood signal based on the difference of their spectral frequencies. However, this approach is not enough...... for obtaining vector flow measurements, since the spectra overlaps at high beam-to-flow angles. In this work a distinct approach is proposed, where the energy of the velocity spectrum is used to differentiate among the two signals. The energy based method is applied by limiting the amplitude of the velocity...
Evans, Neal D.; Capone, Dean E.; Bonness, William K.
2013-07-01
The vibration response of a thin cylindrical shell excited by fully developed turbulent pipe flow is measured and used to extract the fluctuating pressure levels generated by the boundary layer. Parameters used to extract the turbulent fluctuating pressure levels are determined via experimental modal analyses of the water-filled pipe and measured vibration levels from flow through the pipe at 5.8 m/s. Measurements are reported for hydraulically smooth and fully rough surface conditions. Smooth wall-pressure levels are compared to the turbulent boundary layer pressure model of Chase [The character of the turbulent wall pressure at subconvective wavenumbers and a suggested comprehensive model. Journal of Sound and Vibration112 (1) (1987) 125-147] and the measurements of Bonness et al. [Low-wavenumber turbulent boundary layer wall-pressure measurements from vibration data on a cylinder in pipe flow. Journal of Sound and Vibration329 (2010) 4166-4180]. Results for the smooth pipe match the predicted smooth wall-pressure spectrum and correspond to a normalized low wavenumber-white level which is -41 dB below the maximum level at the convective peak. Pressure levels from the fully rough condition display a low-wavenumber-white level which is 28 dB below the convective peak level. This suggests an increase of 13 dB in low-wavenumber wall pressure for the uniformly distributed roughness elements in this study over a hydraulically smooth surface.
Koven, Robert; Mills, Matthew; Gale, Richard; Aksak, Burak
2017-11-01
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters often consist of a cantilevered beam composed of a support layer and one or two piezoelectric layers with a tip mass. While this configuration is advantageous for maximizing electromechanical coupling, the mechanical properties of the piezoelectric material can place limitations on harvester size and resonant frequency. Here, we present numerical and experimental results from a new type of piezoelectric energy harvester in which the mechanical properties and the resonant frequency of the cantilever beam resonator are effectively decoupled from the piezoelectric component. Referred to as a base-mounted piezoelectric (BMP) harvester in this paper, this new design features a piezoelectric transducer mounted beneath the base of the cantilevered beam resonator. The flexibility in the material choice for the cantilever beam resonator means that the resonant frequency and the beam dimensions are essentially free parameters. A prototype made with a 1.6 mm mm mm polyurethane beam, a PZT-5H piezoelectric transducer, and an 8.36-g tip mass is shown to produce an average power of 8.75 and at 45 Hz across a 13.0- load under harmonic base excitations of constant peak acceleration at 0.25 and 1.0-g, respectively. We also show an increase in full-width half-maximum bandwidth approximately from 1.5 to 5.6 Hz using an array of four individual BMP harvesters of similar dimensions with peak power generation of at 37.6 Hz across a 1.934- load at 0.25-g peak base excitation. Finite elements-based numerical simulations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results, indicating that the harvester behaves like a damped mass-spring system as proposed in this paper. Fabricated using casting and laser machining techniques, this harvester shows potential as a low-cost option for powering small, low-power wireless sensor nodes and other low-power devices.
Majumder, Moumita; Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Manzhos, Sergei
2014-06-01
New potential energy surfaces for methane were constructed, represented as analytic fits to about 100,000 individual high-level ab initio data. Explicitly-correlated multireference data (MRCI-F12(AE)/CVQZ-F12) were computed using Molpro [1] and fit using multiple strategies. Fits with small to negligible errors were obtained using adaptations of the permutation-invariant-polynomials (PIP) approach [2,3] based on neural-networks (PIP-NN) [4,5] and the interpolative moving least squares (IMLS) fitting method [6] (PIP-IMLS). The PESs were used in full-dimensional vibrational calculations with an exact kinetic energy operator by representing the Hamiltonian in a basis of products of contracted bend and stretch functions and using a symmetry adapted Lanczos method to obtain eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Very close agreement with experiment was produced from the purely ab initio PESs. References 1- H.-J. Werner, P. J. Knowles, G. Knizia, 2012.1 ed. 2012, MOLPRO, a package of ab initio programs. see http://www.molpro.net. 2- Z. Xie and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Theory Comput 6, 26, 2010. 3- B. J. Braams and J. M. Bowman, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 28, 577, 2009. 4- J. Li, B. Jiang and Hua Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 204103 (2013). 5- S Manzhos, X Wang, R Dawes and T Carrington, JPC A 110, 5295 (2006). 6- R. Dawes, X-G Wang, A.W. Jasper and T. Carrington Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 134304 (2010).
Energy transformation and flow topology in an elbow draft tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Štefan D.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Paper presents a computational study of energy transformation in two geometrical configurations of Kaplan turbine elbow draft tube. Pressure recovery, hydraulic efficiency and loss coefficient are evaluated for a series of flow rates and swirl numbers corresponding to operating regimes of the turbine. These integral characteristics are then correlated with local flow field properties identified by extraction of topological features. Main focus is to find the reasons for hydraulic efficiency drop of the elbow draft tube.
Beam Flutter and Energy Harvesting in Internal Flow
Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim; Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae
2017-11-01
Aeroelastic flutter, largely studied for causing engineering failures, has more recently been used as a means of extracting energy from the flow. Particularly, flutter of a cantilever or an elastically mounted plate in a converging-diverging flow passage has shown promise as an energy harvesting concept for internal flow applications. The instability onset is observed as a function of throat velocity, internal wall geometry, fluid and structure material properties. To enable these devices, our work explores features of the fluid-structure coupled dynamics as a function of relevant nondimensional parameters. The flutter boundary is examined through stability analysis of a reduced order model, and corroborated with numerical simulations at low Reynolds number. Experiments for an energy harvester design are qualitatively compared to results from analytical and numerical work, suggesting a robust limit cycle ensues due to a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Bosch Corporation.
Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun
2015-07-01
Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based vibration energy harvesters with two different designs are presented. These harvesters consist of a silicon cantilever, a silicon proof mass, and a ZnO piezoelectric layer. Design I has a large ZnO piezoelectric element and Design II has two smaller and equally sized ZnO piezoelectric elements; however, the total area of ZnO thin film in two designs is equal. The ZnO thin film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and is characterized by means of XRD and SEM techniques. These ZnO energy harvesters are fabricated by using MEMS micromachining. The natural frequencies of the fabricated ZnO energy harvesters are simulated and tested. The test results show that these two energy harvesters with different designs have almost the same natural frequency. Then, the output performance of different ZnO energy harvesters is tested in detail. The effects of series connection and parallel connection of two ZnO elements on the load voltage and power are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the energy harvester with two ZnO piezoelectric elements in parallel connection in Design II has higher load voltage and higher load power than the fabricated energy harvesters with other designs. Its load voltage is 2.06 V under load resistance of 1 MΩ and its maximal load power is 1.25 μW under load resistance of 0.6 MΩ, when it is excited by an external vibration with frequency of 1300.1 Hz and acceleration of 10 m/s(2). By contrast, the load voltage of the energy harvester of Design I is 1.77 V under 1 MΩ resistance and its maximal load power is 0.98 μW under 0.38 MΩ load resistance when it is excited by the same vibration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.
2011-01-01
This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....
Calculated low-energy electron-impact vibrational excitation cross sections for CO2 molecule
Laporta, V; Celiberto, R
2016-01-01
Vibrational-excitation cross sections of ground electronic state of carbon dioxide molecule by electron-impact through the CO2-(2\\Pi) shape resonance is considered in the separation of the normal modes approximation. Resonance curves and widths are computed for each vibrational mode. The calculations assume decoupling between normal modes and employ the local complex potential model for the treatment of the nuclear dynamics, usually adopted for the electron-scattering involving diatomic molecules. Results are presented for excitation up to 10 vibrational levels in each mode and comparison with data present in the literature is discussed.
Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schiller, Frank [The Open University, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)
2009-04-15
The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)
Identification of energy dissipation in structural joints by means of the energy flow analysis
Gómez, S.S.; Metrikine, A.; Carboni, B.; Lacarbonara, W.
2018-01-01
In this paper, identification of energy dissipation in the joints of a lab-scale structure is accomplished. The identification is carried out by means of an energy flow analysis and experimental data. The devised procedure enables to formulate an energy balance in the vicinity of the joints to
On the effect of boundary vibration on poiseuille flow of an elastico-viscous liquid
Siginer, A.
1992-11-01
The longitudinal and orthogonal superposition of boundary driven, small strain, oscillatory shear flow and steady Poiseuille flow is investigated. Boundary oscillations are of different frequencies and amplitudes and are represented by sinusoidal waveforms. A regular perturbation in terms of the amplitude of the oscillations is used. The flow field is determined up to and including third order for a simple fluid of multiple integral type with fading memory. Flow enhancement effects dependent on material parameters, mean pressure gradient, and amplitude and frequency of the boundary waves are predicted and closed form formulas derived for the mass transport rate. Enhancement is determined both by the elastic and shear thinning or thickening properties of the liquid. Resonance effects are shown to take place and, in particular, mean secondary and longitudinal flows, independent of the mean pressure gradient, are shown to exist for certain frequency relationships.
The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage
Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.
1976-01-01
The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.
Vibration-rotation energy pattern in acetylene: (13)CH(12)CH up to 10 120 cm(-1).
Robert, S; Amyay, B; Fayt, A; Di Lonardo, G; Fusina, L; Tamassia, F; Herman, M
2009-11-26
All 18,219 vibration-rotation absorption lines of (13)CH(12)CH published in the literature, accessing substates up to 9400 cm(-1) and including some newly assigned, were simultaneously fitted to J-dependent Hamiltonian matrices exploiting the well-known vibrational polyad or cluster block-diagonalization, in terms of the pseudo quantum numbers N(s) = v(1) + v(2) + v(3) and N(r) = 5v(1) + 3v(2) + 5v(3) + v(4) + v(5), also accounting for k = l(4) + l(5) parity and e/f symmetry properties. Some 1761 of these lines were excluded from the fit, corresponding either to blended lines, for about 30% of them, or probably to lines perturbed by Coriolis for the remaining ones. The dimensionless standard deviation of the fit is 1.10, and 317 vibration-rotation parameters are determined. These results significantly extend those of a previous report considering levels below only 6750 cm(-1) [Fayt, A.; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 114303]. Unexpected problems are reported when inserting in the global fit the information available on higher-energy polyads, extending from 9300 to 10 120 cm(-1). They are tentatively interpreted as resulting from a combination of the relative evolution of the two effective bending frequencies and long-range interpolyad low-order anharmonic resonances. The complete database, made of 18,865 vibration-rotation lines accessing levels up to 10 120 cm(-1), is made available as Supporting Information.
Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow
Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James
2017-11-01
Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.
Flow dynamics and energy efficiency of flow in the left ventricle during myocardial infarction.
Vasudevan, Vivek; Low, Adriel Jia Jun; Annamalai, Sarayu Parimal; Sampath, Smita; Poh, Kian Keong; Totman, Teresa; Mazlan, Muhammad; Croft, Grace; Richards, A Mark; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Chin, Chih-Liang; Yap, Choon Hwai
2017-10-01
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, where myocardial infarction (MI) is a major category. After infarction, the heart has difficulty providing sufficient energy for circulation, and thus, understanding the heart's energy efficiency is important. We induced MI in a porcine animal model via circumflex ligation and acquired multiple-slice cine magnetic resonance (MR) images in a longitudinal manner-before infarction, and 1 week (acute) and 4 weeks (chronic) after infarction. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed based on MR images to obtain detailed fluid dynamics and energy dynamics of the left ventricles. Results showed that energy efficiency flow through the heart decreased at the acute time point. Since the heart was observed to experience changes in heart rate, stroke volume and chamber size over the two post-infarction time points, simulations were performed to test the effect of each of the three parameters. Increasing heart rate and stroke volume were found to significantly decrease flow energy efficiency, but the effect of chamber size was inconsistent. Strong complex interplay was observed between the three parameters, necessitating the use of non-dimensional parameterization to characterize flow energy efficiency. The ratio of Reynolds to Strouhal number, which is a form of Womersley number, was found to be the most effective non-dimensional parameter to represent energy efficiency of flow in the heart. We believe that this non-dimensional number can be computed for clinical cases via ultrasound and hypothesize that it can serve as a biomarker for clinical evaluations.
Energy Dissipation from Vibrating Floor Slabs due to Human-Structure Interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James M.W. Brownjohn
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Lightweight pre-cast flooring systems using post-tensioning to increase strength but not stiffness are increasingly popular, and vibration serviceability problems tend to govern design of such floors where human occupants are increasingly concerned with vibrations. At the same time as inducing response, stationary human observers can also participate in the response as mitigating influence and it is clear that a human behaves as a highly effective damper, even when seated.
1977-07-01
Behavior of Spherical Particles at Low Reynolds Numbers in a Fluctuating Translational Flow, PhD Thesis , California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA...bearing track system. Tests were performed by towing the models through a channel filled with glycerine -water mixtures. Forces and moments on the models
Menéndez, H; Ferrero, C; Martín-Hernández, J; Figueroa, A; Marín, P J; Herrero, A J
2016-05-01
Randomized crossover. To analyze the acute effects of isolated and simultaneous application of whole-body vibration (WBV) and electromyostimulation (ES) on popliteal artery blood velocity (BV) and skin temperature (ST) of the calf in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). Valladolid, Spain. Ten subjects with SCI were assessed in five different sessions. After a familiarization session, four interventions were applied in random order; WBV, ES, simultaneous WBV and ES (WBV+ES), and 30 s of WBV followed by 30 s of ES (WBV30/ES30). Each intervention consisted of 10 sets × 1 min ON+1 min OFF. Subjects were seated on their own wheelchairs with their feet on the vibration platform (10 Hz, 5 mm peak-to-peak), and ES was applied on the gastrocnemius muscle of both legs (8 Hz, 400 μs). The simultaneous application (WBV+ES) produced the greatest increase in mean BV (MBV; 36% and 42%, respectively) and peak BV (PBV; 30% and 36%, respectively) during the intervention. This intervention produced the greatest mean increases in MBV (21%) and PBV (19%) during the recovery period. Last, this intervention produced the highest increase in ST during the intervention (2.1 °C). The simultaneous application of WBV+ES seems to produce a greater increase in MBV and PBV of the popliteal artery and ST of the calf than the isolated (WBV or ES) or consecutive application of both stimuli (WBV30/ES30). This study provides an efficient therapeutic methodology to improve peripheral arterial properties, which is pivotal in SCI patient's rehabilitation.
Vibration-rotation energy pattern in acetylene: 13CH12CH up to 6750 cm-1.
Fayt, A; Robert, S; Di Lonardo, G; Fusina, L; Tamassia, F; Herman, M
2007-03-21
All known vibration-rotation absorption lines of 13CH12CH accessing levels up to 6750 cm-1 were gathered from the literature. They were fitted simultaneously to J-dependent Hamiltonian matrices exploiting the well known vibrational polyad or cluster block diagonalization, in terms of the pseudo-quantum-numbers Ns=v1+v2+v3 and Nr=5v1+3v2+5v3+v4+v5, and accounting also for l parity and ef symmetry properties. The anharmonic interaction coupling terms known to occur from a pure vibrational fit in this acetylene isotopologue [Robert et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 174302 (2005)] were included in the model. A total of 12 703 transitions accessing 158 different (v1v2v3v4v5,l4l5) vibrational states was fitted with a dimensionless standard deviation of 0.99, leading to the determination of 216 vibration-rotation parameters. The experimental data included very weak vibration-rotation transitions accessing 18 previously unreported states, some of them forming Q branches with very irregular patterns.
Dechant, Eduard; Fedulov, Feodor; Chashin, Dmitrii V.; Fetisov, Leonid Y.; Fetisov, Yuri K.; Shamonin, Mikhail
2017-06-01
The frequencies of ambient vibrations are often low (below 30 Hz). A broadband (3 dB bandwidth is larger than 10 Hz at an acceleration amplitude of 9.81 m s-2) vibration based energy harvester is proposed for transducing mechanical energy at such low frequencies into electrical energy. The mechanical setup converts low frequency mechanical vibrations into high frequency resonance oscillations of the transducer. This conversion is done by mechanical impacts on two mechanical stoppers. The originality of the presented design is that both low-frequency and high-frequency oscillators are permanently mechanically coupled. In the equivalent mechanical circuit, this coupling is achieved by connecting the ends of the stiff spring to both seismic masses, whereas one seismic mass (collison member) is also attached to the soft spring used as the constitutive element of a low-frequency oscillator. Further, both mechanical oscillators are not realized as conventional cantilever beams. In particular, the high frequency oscillator with the natural frequency of 340 Hz is a disc-shaped diaphragm with attached piezoelectric elements and a seismic mass. It is shown that it is possible to convert mechanical vibrations with acceleration amplitude of 9.81 m s-2 in the region between approximately 7 and 25 Hz into electrical power larger than 0.1 mW with the maximum value of 0.8 mW. A simplified mathematical model based on piecewise linear coupled oscillators shows good agreement with experimental results. The ways to enhance the performance of the harvester and improve agreement with experiments are discussed.
Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval
2013-01-01
, these works assume flat, highly simplified network models, which overlook the physical connectivity. This work proposes an optimal power flow solution that considers the entire system: the storage device limits, voltages limits, currents limits, and power limits. The power network may be arbitrarily complex......Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However...
Design of serial linkage-type vibration energy harvester with three resonant frequencies
Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jun Woo; Park, Shi-Baek; Choi, Yong Je
2017-11-01
This paper presents a new design method of a planar 3 degrees-of-freedom(DOF) serial linkage-type vibration energy harvester with a single proof mass. The harvester is designed to generate electrical power at equally spaced three target resonant frequencies which can be chosen arbitrarily. For given target frequencies and a proof mass, the design method involves (1) the determination of the stiffness matrix, (2) the synthesis of the stiffness by means of a parallel connection of three line springs and (3) its conversion into a 3DOF device connected serially by torsional springs. The torsional springs are realized by the flexible hinge joints and the polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) films are attached on the joints. Upon determination of the desired stiffness matrix, the SQP algorithm is utilized to find the optimum locations and spring constants of the serial hinge joints for the minimum difference among three electrical power peaks. The FEM analysis and experiments are conducted to verify the proposed design method. Three measured resonant power peaks occur at 24.7, 30.4 and 33.6 Hz comparing to the target frequencies of 25, 30 and 35 Hz. The normalized maximum power of 14.5 {{uW}}/{({{{ms}}}-2)}2 is generated at 24.7 Hz. The experimental results also demonstrate that the harvester can generate at least 18.6% of the peak power throughout the frequency range from 23.1 to 36.5 Hz, which ensures consistently acquirable power within the operating frequency range by virtue of the coupled effect of a serial linkage-type structure.
1984-12-14
Calculation conditions N 5, P = 20). 10 tog( -) I I I 10. 0. -10. -20. -30. I I I I 2. 4. 6. S. U, (m/s) Fij. 4. Infuence of the flow velocity...finite plates in heavy and light fluid media ", Journal of sound and Vibration, Vol. 40, n* 4, 1975, pp. 441-495. 7. Robert, G., "Moddlisation et simulation
Laminar Flow Processes of Fluid Energy Carries in Pipe Lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. I. Еsman
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology for analysis and calculation of laminar fluid flows in pipes and channels. Various regimes of fluid motion in pipelines of heat-power units and equipment are considered in the paper.The presented dependencies can be used for practical calculations while transporting energy carriers for various application.
Neutron radigoraphy of fluid flow for geothermal energy research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Jacobson, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
2015-01-01
Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the “particles” and imaging with 10 ms exposures.
Control of energy flow in residential buildings; Energieflussregelung in Wohngebaeuden
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiss, Martin
2011-07-01
Energy systems in residential buildings are changing from monovalent, combustion based systems to multivalent systems containing technologies such as solar collectors, pellet boilers, heat pumps, CHP and multiple storages. Multivalent heat and electricity generation and additional storages raise the number of possible control signals in the system. This creates additional degrees of freedom regarding the choice of the energy converter and the instant of time for energy conversion. New functionality of controllers such as prioritisation of energy producers, optimization of electric self consumption and control of storages and energy feed-in are required. Within the scope of this thesis, new approaches for demand-driven optimal control of energy flows in multivalent building energy systems are developed and evaluated. The approaches are evaluated by means of system energy costs and operating emissions. For parametrisation of the controllers an easily understandable operating concept is developed. The energy flow controllers are implemented as a multi agent system (MAS) and a nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC). Proper functionality and stability are demonstrated in simulations of two example energy systems. In both example systems the MPC controller achieves less energy costs and operating emissions due to system wide global optimization and the more detailed system model within the controller. The multi agent approach turns out to perform better for systems with a huge number of components, e.g. in home automation and energy management systems. Due to the good performance of the reference control strategies, a significant reduction of energy costs and operating emissions is only possible with limitations. Systems for heat generation show only an especially low potential for optimization because of marginal variation ins heat production costs. The adaptation of the operation mode to user priorities, changing utilization characteristics and dynamic energy
Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bengtsson Hans-Uno
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.
Nematomorph parasites drive energy flow through a riparian ecosystem.
Sato, Takuya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Harada, Yasushi; Lafferty, Kevin D
2011-01-01
Parasites are ubiquitous in natural systems and ecosystem-level effects should be proportional to the amount of biomass or energy flow altered by the parasites. Here we quantified the extent to which a manipulative parasite altered the flow of energy through a forest-stream ecosystem. In a Japanese headwater stream, camel crickets and grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were 20 times more likely to enter a stream if infected by a nematomorph parasite (Gordionus spp.), corroborating evidence that nematomorphs manipulate their hosts to seek water where the parasites emerge as free-living adults. Endangered Japanese trout (Salvelinus leucomaenis japonicus) readily ate these infected orthopterans, which due to their abundance, accounted for 60% of the annual energy intake of the trout population. Trout grew fastest in the fall, when nematomorphs were driving energy-rich orthopterans into the stream. When infected orthopterans were available, trout did not eat benthic invertebrates in proportion to their abundance, leading to the potential for cascading, indirect effects through the forest-stream ecosystem. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that a manipulative parasite can dramatically alter the flow of energy through and across ecosystems.
Tyuterev, Vladimir G; Kochanov, Roman V; Tashkun, Sergey A; Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G
2013-10-07
An accurate description of the complicated shape of the potential energy surface (PES) and that of the highly excited vibration states is of crucial importance for various unsolved issues in the spectroscopy and dynamics of ozone and remains a challenge for the theory. In this work a new analytical representation is proposed for the PES of the ground electronic state of the ozone molecule in the range covering the main potential well and the transition state towards the dissociation. This model accounts for particular features specific to the ozone PES for large variations of nuclear displacements along the minimum energy path. The impact of the shape of the PES near the transition state (existence of the "reef structure") on vibration energy levels was studied for the first time. The major purpose of this work was to provide accurate theoretical predictions for ozone vibrational band centres at the energy range near the dissociation threshold, which would be helpful for understanding the very complicated high-resolution spectra and its analyses currently in progress. Extended ab initio electronic structure calculations were carried out enabling the determination of the parameters of a minimum energy path PES model resulting in a new set of theoretical vibrational levels of ozone. A comparison with recent high-resolution spectroscopic data on the vibrational levels gives the root-mean-square deviations below 1 cm(-1) for ozone band centres up to 90% of the dissociation energy. New ab initio vibrational predictions represent a significant improvement with respect to all previously available calculations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Taking the underground powerhouse of a pumped storage power station as the engineering background, this study established a 3D finite element model of the main and auxiliary powerhouse and performed the dynamic harmonica calculation for its fluctuating pressure. Based on the power flow theory, the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL procedure was completed to calculate the power transmission in the powerhouse. The law of dominant path recognition was first proposed to assess the structure’s dominant transmission using a numerical solution on nodes in the model. The conductivity of the closed-cell foam that filled the structure’s joints was examined, as were the dynamic transmission features of the rock around and beneath the powerhouse. The results indicated that, as a structural joint filler, closed-cell foam could actively restrict vibration transmission, and the directions of dynamic transmission were mainly perpendicular to and along the river in the foundation rock. Approximately 20 percent of the foundation rock beneath the auxiliary powerhouse was disturbed by the concrete around the spiral case and induced vibrations in the powerhouse’s lower floors. Vibration in the higher floors was derived from downstream rock, and the dynamic transmission effect had a clear advantage along the horizontal direction.
Prediction of flow induced sound and vibration of periodically stiffened plates.
Maxit, Laurent; Denis, Vivien
2013-01-01
Stiffened structures excited by the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) occur very frequently in engineering applications; for instance, in the wings of airplanes or the pressure hulls of submarines. To improve knowledge of the interaction between stiffened structures and TBL, this paper deals with the modeling of infinite periodically stiffened plates excited by TBL. The mathematical formulation of the problem is well-established in the literature. The originality of the present work relies on the use of a wavenumber-point reciprocity technique for evaluating the response of the plate to convected harmonic pressure waves. It follows a methodology for estimating the vibro-acoustic response of the plate excited by the TBL from the wall pressure spectrum and its displacements in the wavenumber space due to point excitations located at the receiving positions. The computing process can be reduced to the numerical integration of an analytical expression in the case of a periodically stiffened plate. An application to a naval test case highlights the effect of Bloch-Floquet waves on the vibrations of the plate and its radiated pressure in the fluid.
Iannacci, J.; Sordo, G.; Serra, E.; Kucera, M.; Schmid, U.
2015-05-01
In this work, we discuss the verification and preliminary experimental characterization of a MEMS-based vibration Energy Harvester (EH) design. The device, named Four-Leaf Clover (FLC), is based on a circular-shaped mechanical resonator with four petal-like mass-spring cascaded systems. This solution introduces several mechanical Degrees of Freedom (DOFs), and therefore enables multiple resonant modes and deformation shapes in the vibrations frequency range of interest. The target is to realize a wideband multi-modal EH-MEMS device, that overcomes the typical narrowband working characteristics of standard cantilevered EHs, by ensuring flexible and adaptable power source to ultra-low power electronics for integrated remote sensing nodes (e.g. Wireless Sensor Networks - WSNs) in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario, aiming to self-powered and energy autonomous smart systems. Finite Element Method simulations of the FLC EH-MEMS show the presence of several resonant modes for vibrations up to 4-5 kHz, and level of converted power up to a few μW at resonance and in closed-loop conditions (i.e. with resistive load). On the other hand, the first experimental tests of FLC fabricated samples, conducted with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), proved the presence of several resonant modes, and allowed to validate the accuracy of the FEM modeling method. Such a good accordance holds validity for what concerns the coupled field behavior of the FLC EH-MEMS, as well. Both measurements and simulations performed at 190 Hz (i.e. out of resonance) showed the generation of power in the range of nW (Root Mean Square - RMS values). Further steps of this work will include the experimental characterization in a full range of vibrations, aiming to prove the whole functionality of the FLC EH-MEMS proposed design concept.
Internal Temperature Control For Vibration Testers
Dean, Richard J.
1996-01-01
Vibration test fixtures with internal thermal-transfer capabilities developed. Made of aluminum for rapid thermal transfer. Small size gives rapid response to changing temperatures, with better thermal control. Setup quicker and internal ducting facilitates access to parts being tested. In addition, internal flows smaller, so less energy consumed in maintaining desired temperature settings.
Atomic packing and low energy vibrations in B2O3 glasses, compacted under GPa pressures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Carini Jr.
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Vibrational properties of crystals are well described by Debye's theory. This doesn't hold for vitreous systems, where an excess density of low frequency vibrational states, called Boson peak, appears. In this work we study glassy boron trioxide (B2O3, a prototype system widely used as basic element of multi component glasses. Our aim is to get some insight into the dependence of mechanical and vibrational properties on the structure of glasses, i.e., on the atomic packing. For this reason, samples were compacted by using a multi anvil press up to pressures of 10 GPa. A comparative analysis of light Raman scattering and mechanical characteristics have been performed on densified samples. The results show that either Raman spectra and elastic constants are affected by the densification process owing to the hardening of the elastic continuum.
Energy harvesting through flow-induced oscillations of a foil
Peng, Zhangli; Zhu, Qiang
2009-12-01
By using a Navier-Stokes model, we examine a novel flow energy harvesting device consisting of a flapping foil mounted on a damper (representing the power generator) and a rotational spring. Self-induced and self-sustained flapping motions, including a heaving motion h(t ) and a pitching motion α(t ), are excited by an incoming flow and power extraction is achieved from the heaving response. Depending upon the configuration of the system and the mechanical parameters (e.g., the location of the pitching axis and the stiffness of the rotational spring), four different responses are recorded: (i) the foil remains stable in its initial position (α =0 and h =0); (ii) periodic pitching (around α =0) and heaving motions are excited; (iii) the foil undergoes irregular motions characterized by switching between oscillations around two pitching angles; and (iv) the foil rotates to a position with an angle to the incoming flow and oscillates around it. The existence of response (ii) suggests the feasibility of controllable and stable flow energy extraction by this device. Through numerical simulations with a Navier-Stokes model we have determined combinations of geometric and mechanical parameters to achieve this response. The corresponding energy harvesting capacity and efficiency are predicted.
Soap film flow visualization investigations of oscillating wing energy harvesters
Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Bryant, Matthew
2015-03-01
With increasing population and proliferation of wireless electronics, significant research attention has turned to harvesting energy from ambient sources such as wind and water flows at scales ranging from micro-watt to mega-watt levels. One technique that has recently attracted attention is the application of bio-inspired flapping wings for energy harvesting. This type of system uses a heaving and pitching airfoil to extract flow energy and generate electricity. Such a device can be realized using passive devices excited by aeroelastic flutter phenomena, kinematic mechanisms driven by mechanical linkages, or semi-active devices that are actively controlled in one degree of freedom and passively driven in another. For these types of systems, numerical simulations have showed strong dependence on efficiency and vortex interaction. In this paper we propose a new apparatus for reproducing arbitrary pitch-heave waveforms to perform flow visualization experiments in a soap film tunnel. The vertically falling, gravity driven soap film tunnel is used to replicate flows with a chord Reynolds number on the order of 4x104. The soap film tunnel is used to investigate leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) interactions for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal waveforms. From a qualitative analysis of the fluid structure interaction, we have been able to demonstrate that the LEVs for non-sinusoidal motion convect faster over the airfoil compared with sinusoidal motion. Signifying that optimal flapping frequency is dependent on the motion profile.
Energy Flows in Low-Entropy Complex Systems
Chaisson, Eric J
2015-01-01
Nature's many complex systems--physical, biological, and cultural--are islands of low-entropy order within increasingly disordered seas of surrounding, high-entropy chaos. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of all such systems in the expanding Universe, including galaxies, stars, planets, life, society, and machines. A large amount of empirical evidence--relating neither entropy nor information, rather energy--suggests that an underlying simplicity guides the emergence and growth of complexity among many known, highly varied systems in the 14-billion-year-old Universe, from big bang to humankind. Energy flows are as centrally important to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, the quantity energy rate density--the rate of energy flow per unit mass--can be used to explicate in a consistent, uniform, and unifying way a huge collection of diverse complex systems observed throughout Nature. Operationally, those systems able to utilize optimal amounts of energy t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gay, N. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Baratte, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Flesch, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)
1997-12-31
Flow induced tube vibration damage is a major concern for designers and operators of nuclear power plant steam generators (SG). The operating flow-induced vibrational behaviour has to be estimated accurately to allow a precise evaluation of the new safety margins in order to optimize the maintenance policy. For this purpose, an industrial `Tube Wear and Fatigue Workstation`, called `GEVIBUS Workstation` and based on an advanced methodology for predictive analysis of flow-induced vibration of tube bundles subject to cross-flow has been developed at Electricite de France. The GEVIBUS Workstation is an interactive processor linking modules as: thermalhydraulic computation, parametric finite element builder, interface between finite element model, thermalhydraulic code and vibratory response computations, refining modelling of fluid-elastic and random forces, linear and non-linear dynamic response and the coupled fluid-structure system, evaluation of tube damage due to fatigue and wear, graphical outputs. Two practical applications are also presented in the paper; the first simulation refers to an experimental set-up consisting of a straight tube bundle subject to water cross-flow, while the second one deals with an industrial configuration which has been observed in some operating steam generators i.e., top tube support plate degradation. In the first case the GEVIBUS predictions in terms of tube displacement time histories and phase planes have been found in very good agreement with experiment. In the second application the GEVIBUS computation showed that a tube with localized degradation is much more stable than a tube located in an extended degradation zone. Important conclusions are also drawn concerning maintenance. (author). 28 refs.
Eight energy and material flow characteristics of urban ecosystems.
Bai, Xuemei
2016-11-01
Recent decades have seen an expanding literature exploring urban energy and material flows, loosely branded as urban metabolism analysis. However, this has occurred largely in parallel to the mainstream studies of cities as ecosystems. This paper aims to conceptually bridge these two distinctive fields of research, by (a) identifying the common aspects between them; (b) identifying key characteristics of urban ecosystems that can be derived from energy and material flow analysis, namely energy and material budget and pathways; flow intensity; energy and material efficiency; rate of resource depletion, accumulation and transformation; self-sufficiency or external dependency; intra-system heterogeneity; intersystem and temporal variation; and regulating mechanism and governing capacity. I argue that significant ecological insight can be, or has the potential to be, drawn from the rich and rapidly growing empirical findings of urban metabolism studies to understand the behaviour of cities as human-dominated, complex systems. A closer intellectual linkage and cross pollination between urban metabolism and urban ecosystem studies will advance our scientific understanding and better inform urban policy and management practices.
Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints
Cassidy, Ian L.
Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová-Pořízková, P.; Kozel, K.; Horáček, Jaromír
2011-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 404-410 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number * viscous compressible fluid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793010003439
Modelling the energy dependence of black hole binary flows
Mahmoud, Ra'ad D.; Done, Chris
2018-01-01
We build a full spectral-timing model for the low/hard state of black hole binaries assuming that the spectrum of the X-ray hot flow can be produced by two Comptonization zones. Slow fluctuations generated at the largest radii/softest spectral region of the flow propagate down to modulate the faster fluctuations produced in the spectrally harder region close to the black hole. The observed spectrum and variability are produced by summing over all regions in the flow, including its emission reflected from the truncated disc. This produces energy-dependent Fourier lags qualitatively similar to those in the data. Given a viscous frequency prescription, the model predicts Fourier power spectral densities and lags for any energy bands. We apply this model to archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data from Cyg X-1, using the time-averaged energy spectrum together with an assumed emissivity to set the radial bounds of the soft and hard Comptonization regions. We find that the power spectra cannot be described by any smooth model of generating fluctuations, instead requiring that there are specific radii in the flow where noise is preferentially produced. We also find fluctuation damping between spectrally distinct regions is required to prevent all the variability power generated at large radii being propagated into the inner regions. Even with these additions, we can fit either the power spectra at each energy or the lags between energy bands, but not both. We conclude that either the spectra are more complex than two zone models, or that other processes are important in forming the variability.
Ma, Xingchen; Zhang, Xiaoqing
2017-08-01
Low cost electrostatic vibration energy harvesters based on negatively-charged polypropylene cellular films with a folded structure were designed in this study. Strips of such energy harvesters were excited by applying mechanical stress in length direction. A current in a terminating resistor was generated due to the capacitance variation of the samples. For a typical double-periodic folded-structure electrostatic vibration energy harvester sample whose effective length and width were 30 mm and 10 mm, respectively, the generated power across a matching resistor at a resonance frequency of 36 Hz amounts to 641 μW for a seismic mass of 4 g and an acceleration of 1 g (g is the gravity of the Earth). Similar structures which were designed and fabricated in this study were also tested for energy harvesting and high output power in the order of a few hundred microwatt was gained. Following the presentation of a theoretical model allowing for the calculation of the power generated in a load resistance at the resonance frequency of the harvesters, experimental results are shown and compared to theoretical prediction. It turns out that the experiment results accord well with the theoretical predictions.
High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)
2014-12-15
The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and
Fang, Min; Xu, Ke-Jun; Zhu, Wen-Jiao; Shen, Zi-Wen
2016-01-01
Most of the ultrasonic gas flow-meters measure the gas flow rate by calculating the ultrasonic transmission time difference between the downstream and upstream. Ultrasonic energy attenuation occurs in the processes of the ultrasonic generation, conversion, transmission, and reception. Additionally, at the same time, the gas flow will also affect the ultrasonic propagation during the measurement, which results in the ultrasonic energy attenuation and the offset of ultrasonic propagation path. Thus, the ultrasonic energy received by the transducer is weaker. When the gas flow rate increases, this effect becomes more apparent. It leads to the measurement accuracy reduced, and the measurement range narrowed. An energy transfer model, where the ultrasonic gas flow-meter under without/with the gas flow, is established by adopting the statistical analysis and curve fitting based on a large amount of experimental data. The static sub model without the gas flow expresses the energy conversion efficiency of ultrasonic gas transducers, and the dynamic sub model with the gas flow reflects the energy attenuation pattern following the flow rate variations. The mathematical model can be used to determine the minimum energy of the excitation signal for meeting the requirement of specific measurement range, and predict the maximum measurable flow rate in the case of fixed energy of excitation signal. Based on the above studies, a method to enhance the excitation signal energy is proposed under the output power of the transmitting circuit being a finite value so as to extend the measurement rage of ultrasonic gas flow-meter.
Energy-efficient on-node signal processing for vibration monitoring
Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja Karuppiah; Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.
In recent years, the use of wireless sensor networks for vibration monitoring is emphasized, because of its capability to continuously monitor at hard-to-reach locations of complex machines. Low power consumption is one of the main requirements for the sensor nodes in continuous and long-term
Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian
2012-01-01
materials; it provides mechanical support but it also reduces the power output. In our device we replace the support material with another layer of the piezoelectric material. With the absence of an inactive mechanical support all stresses induced by vibrations will be harvested by the active piezoelectric...
Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, R.; Lei, A.; Christiansen, T. L.
2011-01-01
. It provides mechanical support but it also reduces the power output. Our device replaces the support with another layer of the piezoelectric material, and with the absence of an inactive mechanical support all of the stresses induced by the vibrations will be harvested by the active piezoelectric elements....
Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems
Xu, Ben
The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae
Halim, M. A.; Cho, H. O.; Park, J. Y.
2014-11-01
We have presented a frequency up-converted hybrid type (Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic) vibration energy harvester that can be used in powering portable and wearable smart devices by handy motion. A transverse impact mechanism has been employed for frequency up-conversion. Use of two transduction mechanisms increases the output power as well as power density. The proposed device consists of a non-magnetic spherical ball (freely movable at handy motion frequency) to impact periodically on the parabolic top of a piezoelectric (PZT) cantilevered mass by sliding over it, allowing it to vibrate at its higher resonant frequency and generates voltage by virtue of piezoelectric effect. A magnet attached to the cantilever vibrates along with it at the same frequency and a relative motion between the magnet and a coil placed below it, induces emf voltage across the coil terminals as well. A macro-scale prototype of the harvester has been fabricated and tested by handy motion. With an optimum magnet-coil overlap, a maximum 0.98mW and 0.64mW peak powers have been obtained from the piezoelectric and the electromagnetic transducers of the proposed device while shaken, respectively. It offers 84.4μWcm-3 peak power density.
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak
Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number......This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite...... volume method. The study is followed by a detailed investigation of the Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) modeling. New SGS models are implemented into the computing code, and the effect of SGS models are examined for different applications. Fully developed boundary layer flows are investigated at low and high...
Turbulent kinetic energy spectrum in very anisothermal flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serra, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain_serra@bbox.fr [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Toutant, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.toutant@univ-Perp.fr [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Bataille, Françoise, E-mail: francoise.bataille@promes.cnrs.fr [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Zhou, Ye, E-mail: yezhou@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2012-10-01
In this Letter, we find that the Kolmogorov scaling law is no longer valid when the flow is submitted to strong dilatational effects caused by high temperature gradients. As a result, in addition to the nonlinear time scale, there is a much shorter “temperature gradients” time scale. We propose a model that estimates the time scale of the triple decorrelation incorporating the influences of the temperature gradient. The model agrees with the results from the thermal large-eddy simulations of different Reynolds numbers and temperature gradients. This Letter provides a better understanding of the very anisothermal turbulent flow. -- Highlights: ► Turbulent flows subject to high temperature gradients are considered. ► The new “temperature gradients” time scale is determined. ► A generalized energy spectrum is developed to incorporate the effects of temperature gradient.
ENERGY COMPONENTS OF GAS-LIQUID FLOW IN AEROTANK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frolova Anna Olegovna
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In the article the main processes of hydrodynamic regime of aeration tank are observed: the formation and ascent of air bubbles during aeration and motion of the water-sludge mixture. The formulas for determining the potential speed of an air bubble during aeration and energy of the water-sludge stream motion are presented. The investigation of interaction mechanism of purified waste water and air bubbles in the process of aeration in relation to the flow dynamics is poorly explored and challenging. Interaction of energetic components of the bubbles flow during aeration and uniform stream motion in the aerotank is the part of mass transfer and diffusion. The increase in total energy of the system by means of summing and raising potentials of the stream and bubbles speed can lead to increasing the purification effect, that means speeding up the diffusion processes.
Redistribution of energy flow in a material due to damping.
Li, Xin; Pierce, Donna M; Arnoldus, Henk F
2011-02-01
The field lines of energy flow of the radiation emitted by a linear dipole in free space are straight lines, running radially outward from the source. When the dipole is embedded in a medium, the field lines are curves when the imaginary part of the relative permittivity is finite. It is shown that due to the damping in the material all radiation is emitted in directions perpendicular to the dipole axis, whereas for a dipole in free space the radiation is emitted in all directions except along the dipole axis. It is also shown that some field lines in the near field form semiloops. Energy flowing along these semiloops is absorbed by the material and does not contribute to the radiative power in the far field.
Energy flow of tulips and hyacinths; Energiestroom tulp en hyacint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands); Kok, M.; Bisschop, B. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)
2006-07-15
The project objectives are: (1) to update and to create an improved map of energy flows for cultivation (natural gas and electricity) and forcing (electricity) of tulips; (2) To update and improve the map of energy flows (natural gas and electricity) for cultivation and forcing of hyacinths; and (3) Deriving the most optimal drying and storage method from an analysis of the distribution in natural gas use/ha in the cultivation of tulips [Dutch] De projectdoelstellingen zijn (1) Het actualiseren en beter in kaart brengen van de energiestromen voor teelt (aardgas en elektriciteit) en broei (elektriciteit) van tulpen; (2) Het actualiseren en beter in kaart brengen van de energiestromen (aardgas en elektriciteit) voor teelt en broei van hyacint; en (3) Het afleiden van de meest optimale droog- en bewaarmethode uit een analyse van de spreiding in aardgasverbruik/ha bij de teelt van tulpen.
Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries
Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.
Truncated gradient flows of the van der Waals free energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Grinfeld
2006-12-01
Full Text Available We employ the Pade approximation to derive a set of new partial differential equations, which can be put forward as possible models for phase transitions in solids. We start from a nonlocal free energy functional, we expand in Taylor series the interface part of this energy, and then consider gradient flows for truncations of the resulting expression. We shall discuss here issues related to the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the newly obtained equations, as well as the convergence of the solutions of these equations to the solution of a nonlocal version of the Allen-Cahn equation.